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Sample records for high anthocyanin content

  1. Change of anthocyanins content during raspberry extraction

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    Vukosavljević Predrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Change in anthocyanins content under different conditions of extraction enzymatic maceration and heat treatment of two raspberry cultivars (Villamette and Meeker was determined. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory hydraulic extractor. During extraction commercial operating conditions were emulated using a "Bucher" extractor (pressure 180-200 bar 1-3 pulp shakings. A pectin preparation Klerzyme®120, manufactured by DSM France, was used for maceration and depectinization, because it is specific for "sour fruits" with pH below 3.2. At a single-stage maceration, it was applied in the amount of 200-400 g/t, for 1-2 hours at 50oC. In a two-stage maceration and depectinization, the enzyme was added as follows: in the first stage 100-200 g/t for 0.5 - 1 hour at 20oC and in the second stage 4-8 g/hl for 1-2 hours at 200C. Thermal breaks of raspberry pulp were performed at raised temperatures for 2 and 5 min in order to examine the effects of raised temperatures on anthocyanins extraction. The application of heat-enzymatic treatments of the pulp prior to extraction proved to be suitable in both raspberry cultivars. Apart from well-known degrading effects of heat on anthocyanins, the juice obtained by extraction, after enzymatic maceration, has higher anthocyanins content by 30% than the juice obtained without enzymatic maceration. Juice pasteurization, in each stage of processing, produced markedly negative effect on anthocyanins content therefore their content decreases considerably. The forms of anthocyanins that are lost most are those uncolored. In batches subjected to a two -stage enzymatic maceration, despite initial high anthocyanins content, the content of total anthocyanins is reduced after the second pasteurization to the approximate value as that in batches subjected to a single-stage enzymatic maceration.

  2. Rapid quantitative analysis of individual anthocyanin content based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection with the pH differential method.

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    Wang, Huayin

    2014-09-01

    A new quantitative technique for the simultaneous quantification of the individual anthocyanins based on the pH differential method and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed in this paper. The six individual anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-rutinoside, and malvidin 3-rutinoside) from mulberry (Morus rubra) and Liriope platyphylla were used for demonstration and validation. The elution of anthocyanins was performed using a C18 column with stepwise gradient elution and individual anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the pH differential method, the high-performance liquid chromatography peak areas of maximum and reference absorption wavelengths of anthocyanin extracts were conducted to quantify individual anthocyanins. The calibration curves for these anthocyanins were linear within the range of 10-5500 mg/L. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) all exceeded 0.9972, and the limits of detection were in the range of 1-4 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 for these anthocyanins. The proposed quantitative analysis was reproducible with good accuracy of all individual anthocyanins ranging from 96.3 to 104.2% and relative recoveries were in the range 98.4-103.2%. The proposed technique is performed without anthocyanin standards and is a simple, rapid, accurate, and economical method to determine individual anthocyanin contents.

  3. Foliar anthocyanin content - Sensitivity of vegetation indices using green reflectance

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    Vina, A.; Gitelson, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The amount and composition of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic foliar pigments varies primarily as a function of species, developmental and phenological stages, and environmental stresses. Information on the absolute and relative amounts of these pigments thus provides insights onto the physiological conditions of plants and their responses to stress, and has the potential to be used for evaluating plant species composition and diversity across broad geographic regions. Anthocyanins in particular, are non-photosynthetic pigments associated with the resistance of plants to environmental stresses (e.g., drought, low soil nutrients, high radiation, herbivores, and pathogens). As they absorb radiation primarily in the green region of the electromagnetic spectrum (around 540-560 nm), broad-band vegetation indices that use this region in their formulation will respond to their presence. We evaluated the sensitivity of three vegetation indices using reflectance in the green spectral region (the green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, gNDVI, the green Chlorophyll Index, CIg, and the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index, VARI) to foliar anthocyanins in five different species. For comparison purposes the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI was also evaluated. Among the four indices tested, the VARI, which uses only spectral bands in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, was found to be inversely and linearly related to the relative amount of foliar anthocyanins. While this result was obtained at leaf level, it opens new possibilities for analyzing anthocyanin content across multiple scales, by means of currently operational aircraft- and spacecraft-mounted broad-band sensor systems. Further studies that evaluate the sensitivity of the VARI to the relative content of anthocyanins across space (e.g., at canopy and regional scales) and time, and its relationship with plant biodiversity and vegetation stresses, are

  4. Organic Acids, Sugars, and Anthocyanins Contents in Juices of Tunisian Pomegranate Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnaoui, Nejib; Jbir, Rania; Mars, Messaoud; TRIFI, Mokhtar; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Melgarejo, Pablo; Hernandez, Francisca

    2011-01-01

    Juices made from fruits of 30 Tunisian accessions of pomegranate were studied for their organic acids, sugars, and anthocyanin contents, using high performance liquid chromatography. Among the detected organic acids, malic acid was the major one (>50%) followed by citric acid (>22%), while among sugars, fructose and glucose were most present in pomegranate juice contributing 53.9 and 43.4% of the total sugar content, respectively. The total anthocyanin content ranged from 9-115 mg per litre o...

  5. Hyperoside and anthocyanin content of ten different pomegranate cultivars.

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    Khanavi, M; Moghaddam, G; Oveisi, M R; Sadeghi, N; Jannat, B; Rostami, M; Saadat, M A; Hajimahmoodi, M

    2013-07-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is native to the Mediterranean region and has been used extensively as a medicine in many counties. Hyperoside is known as an important flavonoid with antioxidant activity and anti hypertension effect. Anthocyanins are the active component in several herbal medicines, thus accurate measurement of hyperoside and anthocyanins, along with their degradation indices, is very useful to food technologists and horticulturists. The aim of the current study was to determine the antioxidant capacity as hyperoside and anthocyanin content of ten different Iranian pomegranate cultivars. Spectroscopic analyses of the pomegranate showed Black peel cultivar had the highest hyperoside content (25.93 +/- 2.87, 620.41 +/- 30.32 mg/100 g) in its pulp and peel, respectively. Based on this study, the amounts of anthocyanin in pulp ranged between 1.56 +/- 0.05 and 3.89 +/- 0.07 mg g(-1) which related to Sweet white peel and Sweet alac cultivars, respectively. More over the highest and also the lowest peel anthocyanin contents related to these cultivars. The results revealed that the hyperoside and also anthocyanin peel content of each variety is higher than its pulp content. In addition the potency of black peel (Medicinal pomegranate) and Sweet alac cultivars for prevention of coronary heart disease and hypertension were presented.

  6. Total Monomeric Anthocyanin and Total Flavonoid Content of Processed Purple

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    Potato Florentina Damşa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that processing change physical and chemical composition of foods, thus affecting the content in bioactive substances. Potatoes are almost always consumed after processing (baked, fried or boiled making it critical to understand the effect of such processing techniques on the containing in bioactive compounds. In order to determine the influence of processing on the content of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids was achieved the extraction of these compounds from boiled and baked purple potato tuber (Albastru-Violet de Galanesti variety. Also, in order to obtain the maximum amount of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids from processed potatoes was applied ultrasonic extraction (20 kHz and was performed the mathematical modeling (central composite design using SigmaXL software. The total anthocyanins content were determined spectrophotometrically by the pH differential method and the total flavonoids content were determine colorimetric by AlCl3 method. This study proves that the potato processing decreases the content of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids.

  7. Determining Total Phenolics, Anthocyanin Content and Ascorbic Acid Content in Some Plum Genotypes Grown in Ardahan Ecological Conditions

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    Z. T. ABACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenol content, total anthocyanin content, brix, pH, titrable acidity and total ascorbic acid content in the five plum genotypes cultivated in Ardahan City are determined and sustenance of the plums are revealed. Total phenol content was determined with folin-ciocalteu’s method, total anthocyanin content was determined with pH differential method and total ascorbic acid was determined with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol method.It is detected that the genotype with the highest brix content (%13.9 and lowest acidity (%0.98 is cancur, the genotype with the lowest brix content (%11 and highest acidity (%2.06 is wild plum, the genotype with the highest content of total anthocyanin, total phenolic substance and ascorbic acid is the wild plum and the genotype with the least content of these is the water plum. As a result of the study, it is revealed that the plum fruit has high levels of phenolic substance, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, so it has a high sustenance.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of the Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents of Rose Petals

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    Schulz, Dietmar F.; Schott, Rena T.; Voorrips, Roeland E.; Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Linde, Marcus; Debener, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Petal color is one of the key characteristics determining the attractiveness and therefore the commercial value of an ornamental crop. Here, we present the first genome-wide association study for the important ornamental crop rose, focusing on the anthocyanin and carotenoid contents in petals of 96 diverse tetraploid garden rose genotypes. Cultivated roses display a vast phenotypic and genetic diversity and are therefore ideal targets for association genetics. For marker analysis, we used a recently designed Axiom SNP chip comprising 68,000 SNPs with additionally 281 SSRs, 400 AFLPs and 246 markers from candidate genes. An analysis of the structure of the rose population revealed three subpopulations with most of the genetic variation between individual genotypes rather than between clusters and with a high average proportion of heterozygous loci. The mapping of markers significantly associated with anthocyanin and carotenoid content to the related Fragaria and Prunus genomes revealed clusters of associated markers indicating five genomic regions associated with the total anthocyanin content and two large clusters associated with the carotenoid content. Among the marker clusters associated with the phenotypes, we found several candidate genes with known functions in either the anthocyanin or the carotenoid biosynthesis pathways. Among others, we identified a glutathione-S-transferase, 4CL, an auxin response factor and F3'H as candidate genes affecting anthocyanin concentration, and CCD4 and Zeaxanthine epoxidase as candidates affecting the concentration of carotenoids. These markers are starting points for future validation experiments in independent populations as well as for functional genomic studies to identify the causal factors for the observed color phenotypes. Furthermore, validated markers may be interesting tools for marker-assisted selection in commercial breeding programmes in that they provide the tools to identify superior parental combinations that

  9. Total phenolic, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant capacity of selected elderberry (Sambucus canadensis L. accessions

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    Mustafa Ozgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen purple-black American elderberry accessions (Sambucus canadensis L. obtained from various sites in midwestern USA and then grown at a single Ohio production site in USA were analyzed for their total phenolic (TP and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA contents and for their antioxidant capacity by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging assays. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the pH differential methods, respectively. Overall, the phytonutrient contents and antioxidant capacity of our elderberry accessions were similar to those typically reported for black raspberries, blackberries and other dark-fleshed small fruits. Variability among accessions was greatest for TMA content (CV 37.5%; individuals ranged nearly threefold from 1308 to 4004 μg cy3-GE/g on a fresh weight basis. Variation among accessions was also evident for TP, FRAP and DPPH values (CV 14.4, 21.7 and 26.8%, respectively. TP and TMA values were very highly correlated (r = 0.93, although individuals differed in the estimated proportion of total phenolics attributable to anthocyanins. Both TP and TMA also highly correlated to antioxidant capacity values (r = 0.70-0.85. Within this limited study of 14 accessions, variability for phytonutrient content and antioxidant capacity suggested the employment of wild germplasm within an elderberry improvement program to incorporate an array of superior horticultural, post-harvest or processing traits into new or existing cultivars with superior phytonutrient profiles.

  10. Antioxidation of Anthocyanins in Photosynthesis Under High Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Shao; Zhan Shu; Shu-Lan Sun; Chang-Lian Peng; Xiao-Jing Wang; Zhi-Fang Lin

    2007-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidative capability in detached leaves of the wild type Arabidopsis thaliana L. ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler) and three mutants deficient in anthocyanins biosynthesis (tt3, tt4, and tt3tt4) were investigated during treatment with temperatures ranging 25-45 ℃. In comparison with the wild type, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, ΦPSⅡ, electron transport rate (ETR), Fv/Fo and qP in three anthocyanin-deficient mutants showed a more rapidly decreasing rate when the temperature was over 35 ℃. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in these mutants was almost completely lost at 44 ℃, whereas the content of heat stable protein dropped and the rate of the membrane leakage increased.Fo-temperature curves were obtained by monitoring Fo levels with gradually elevated temperatures from 22 ℃ to 72 ℃ at 0.5℃/min. The inflexion temperatures of Fo were 45.8 ℃ in Ler, 45.1 ℃ in tt3, 44.1 ℃ in tt4 and 42.3 ℃ in tt3tt4, respectively.The temperatures of maximal Fo in three mutants were 1.9-3.8 ℃ lower than the wild type plants. Meanwhile, three mutants had lower activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and an inferior scavenging capability to DPPH (1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhy.drazyl) radical under heat stress, and in particular tt3tt4 had the lowest antioxidative potential. The results of the diaminobenzidine-H2O2 histochemical staining showed that H2O2 was accumulated in the leaf vein and mesophyll cells of mutants under treatment at 40 ℃, and it was significantly presented in leaf cells of tt3tt4.The sensitivity of Arabidopsis anthocyanins-deficient mutants to high temperatures has revealed that anthocyanins in normal plants might provide protection from high temperature injury, by enhancing its antioxidative capability under high temperature stress.

  11. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

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    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  12. Quality assessment of 178 cultivars of plum regarding phenolic, anthocyanin and sugar content.

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    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Moehring, Jens; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In this study assessment of total phenolic, individual anthocyanin and total sugar content (TSC) of wide range of plum cultivars was done in order to select cultivars with high health benefiting compounds for potential breeding purposes. Total phenolics varied between 38.45 and 841.50mg GAE 100g(-1) FW. Cyaniding-3-rutinoside, cyaniding-3- glucoside and its equivalents were identified in anthocyanin measurement by HPLC with different ranges. TSC differed between 9.63 and 29.47%. Besides, evaluation of the effect of cultivar and year on phenolic content of 23 randomly selected cultivars over two following years (2013 & 2014) showed significant effect of both factors on phenolic content of plum cultivars. Overall, cultivars "Cacaks Spaete" which had high amount of total phenolics with stability over time, as well as "Hohenheim breed 4894" as a cultivar which contained high amounts of total phenolics, anthocyanins and TSC were selected for further breeding purposes to provide high nutritional quality plum to consumers.

  13. Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. Flower

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    Chang Ha Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of twenty-three cultivars of Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. were investigated to determine anthocyanin and carotenoid levels and to confirm the effects of the pigments on the flower colors using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. The cultivars contained the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3g and cyanidin 3-(3ʺ-malonoyl glucoside (C3mg and the following carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene. The cultivar “Magic” showed the greatest accumulation of total and individual anthocyanins, including C3g and C3gm. On the other hand, the highest level of lutein and zeaxanthin was noted in the cultivar “Il Weol”. The cultivar “Anastasia” contained the highest amount of carotenoids such as trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. The highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene was noted in the cultivar “Anastasia” and “Il Weol”. Our results suggested that ‘Magic”, “Angel” and “Relance’ had high amounts of anthocyanins and showed a wide range of red and purple colors in their petals, whereas “Il Weol’, “Popcorn Ball’ and “Anastasia” produced higher carotenoid contents and displayed yellow or green petal colors. Interestingly, “Green Pang Pang”, which contained a high level of anthocyanins and a medium level of carotenoids, showed the deep green colored petals. “Kastelli”, had high level of carotenoids as well as a medium level of anthocyanins and showed orange and red colored petals. It was concluded that each pigment is responsible for the petal’s colors and the compositions of the pigments affect their flower colors and that the cultivars could be a good source for pharmaceutical, floriculture, and pigment industries.

  14. Antioxidations and Their Correlations with Total Flavones and Anthocyanin Contents in Different Black Rice Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidations and their correlations with total flavones and anthocyanin contents in different black rice varieties were studied. The results indicated that the great differences in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), scavenging free radical capacity (SFRC), total flavones and anthocyanin contents existed among 242 black rice varieties. Comparisons of TAC,SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of different black rice types showed that the differences between black rice and white rice, indica one and japonica one, and nonglutinous one and glutinous one were significant at 0.01 levels,respectively. This showed that the TAC, SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of japonica type were higher than those of indica one, and nonglutinous type were higher than glutinous one. According to the fast clustering procedure, 242 black rice varieties could be clustered into 10 clusters, 184 indica rice varieties into 10 clusters, and 58japonica rice varieties into 6 clusters. Most significant (P<0.01) correlations existed between TAC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents, and between SFRC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents of black rice, respectively. This showed that the antioxidation of black rice was closely correlated with its active compositions of flavones and anthocyanin.

  15. Impact of Frozen Storage on the Anthocyanin and Polyphenol Contents of American Elderberry Fruit Juice.

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    Johnson, Mitch C; Thomas, Andrew L; Greenlief, C Michael

    2015-06-17

    The effects of frozen storage on the anthocyanin and polyphenol content of elderberry fruit juice are investigated. Juice from three genotypes of American elderberry (Adams II, Bob Gordon, and Wyldewood) was screened for total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents with spectrophotometric methods. The individual anthocyanin content (IAC) of the juice was tested by coupling solid phase extraction with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Juice samples were tested initially upon harvest and then again after 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage. Juice from the three different genotypes had significantly different TP, TMA, and IAC profiles initially (p juice from different genotypes were significantly affected (p fruit juice.

  16. Acidulant and oven type affect total anthocyanin content of blue corn cookies.

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    Li, Jian; Walker, Chuck E; Faubion, Jon M

    2011-01-15

    Anthocyanins, pink to purple water-soluble flavonoids, are naturally occurring pigments with claimed health benefits. However, they are sensitive to degradation by high pH, light and temperature. Blue corn (maize) contains high levels of anthocyanins. Cookies are popular snacks and might serve as a vehicle to deliver antioxidants. A cookie formula with a high level of blue corn was developed with added acidulents and baked in ovens with different heat transfer coefficients. The best whole-grain blue corn flour/wheat pastry flour ratio (80:20 w/w), guar gum level (10 g kg(-1), flour weight basis) and water level (215 g kg(-1), flour weight basis) were determined based on response surface methodology analysis. The interactions of citric and lactic acids and glucono-δ-lactone with three oven types having different heat transfer coefficients (impingement oven 179 °C/4 min, reel oven 204 °C/10 min and convection oven 182 °C/4 min) influenced the total anthocyanin content (TAC) remaining in blue corn-containing cookies after baking. Cookies baked with citric acid in the convection oven retained the maximum TAC (227 ± 3 mg kg(-1)). By baking rapidly at lower temperatures and adding acidulents, it may be possible to increase residual natural source antioxidants in baked foods. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Low-temperature conditioning of "seed" cloves enhances the expression of phenolic metabolism related genes and anthocyanin content in 'Coreano' garlic (Allium sativum) during plant development.

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    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Zavala-Gutiérrez, Karla G; Cao, Cong-Mei; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Vázquez-Barrios, M Estela; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2013-11-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves accelerated the development of the crop cycle, decreased plant growth, and increased the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in the outer scale leaves of the bulbs at harvest time, leading to 3-fold content increase compared with those conditioned at room temperature. Cold conditioning of "seed" cloves also altered the anthocyanin profile during bulb development and at harvest. Two new anthocyanins are reported for the first time in garlic. The high phenolics and anthocyanin contents in bulbs of plants generated from "seed" cloves conditioned at 5 °C for 5 weeks were preceded by overexpression of some putative genes of the phenolic metabolism [6-fold for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)] and anthocyanin synthesis [1-fold for UDP-sugar:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT)] compared with those conditioned at room temperature.

  18. Content and Color Stability of Anthocyanins Isolated from Schisandra chinensis Fruit

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a multivariate study based on Box-Behnken Design was used to evaluate the influence of three major variables affecting the performance of the extraction process of Schisandra chinensis anthocyanins. The optimum parameters were 5.5 h extraction time; 1:19 solid-liquid ratio and 260 r/min stirring rate, respectively. The extraction yield of anthocyanins was 29.06 mg/g under the optimum conditions. Moreover, many factors on the impact of heating, ultrasound, microwave treatment and ultraviolet irradiation on content and color stability of anthocyanins from Schisandra chinensis fruit were investigated. The results show that thermal degradation reaction of anthocyanins complies with the first order reaction kinetics, and the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.9950 at 40–80 °C. Ultrasound and microwave treatment has little effect on the stability of anthocyanins, and the extraction time of ultrasound and microwave should be no more than 60 min and 5 min, respectively. The anthocyanins degradation effect of UVC ultraviolet radiation is greater than UVA and UVB; after 9 h ultraviolet radiation, the anthocyanins content degradation of UVC is 23.9 ± 0.7%, and the ΔE* was changed from 62.81 to 76.52 ± 2.3. Through LC-MS analysis, the major composition of Schisandra chinensis anthocyanins was cyanidin-3-O-xylosylrutinoside.

  19. The effects of enhanced methionine synthesis on amino acid and anthocyanin content of potato tubers

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    Bánfalvi Zsófia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a staple food in the diet of the world's population and also being used as animal feed. Compared to other crops, however, potato tubers are relatively poor in the essential amino acid, methionine. Our aim was to increase the methionine content of tubers by co-expressing a gene involved in methionine synthesis with a gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein in potato plants. Results In higher plants, cystathionine γ-synthase (CgS is the first enzyme specific to methionine biosynthesis. We attempted to increase the methionine content of tubers by expressing the deleted form of the Arabidopsis CgS (CgSΔ90, which is not regulated by methionine, in potato plants. To increase the incorporation of free methionine into a storage protein the CgSΔ90 was co-transformed with the methionine-rich 15-kD β-zein. Results demonstrated a 2- to 6-fold increase in the free methionine content and in the methionine content of the zein-containing protein fraction of the transgenic tubers. In addition, in line with higher methionine content, the amounts of soluble isoleucine and serine were also increased. However, all of the lines with high level of CgSΔ90 expression were phenotypically abnormal showing severe growth retardation, changes in leaf architecture and 40- to 60% reduction in tuber yield. Furthermore, the colour of the transgenic tubers was altered due to the reduced amounts of anthocyanin pigments. The mRNA levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, the enzyme catalysing the first step of anthocyanin synthesis, were decreased. Conclusion Ectopic expression of CgSΔ90 increases the methionine content of tubers, however, results in phenotypic aberrations in potato. Co-expression of the 15-kD β-zein with CgSΔ90 results in elevation of protein-bound methionine content of tubers, but can not overcome the phenotypical changes caused by CgSΔ90 and can not significantly improve the nutritional value of tubers. The level

  20. Correlation Between Antioxidation and the Content of Total Phenolics and Anthocyanin in Black Soybean Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jin-rui; ZHANG Ming-wei; LIU Xing-hua; LIU Zhang-xiong; ZHANG Rui-fen; SUN Ling; QIU Li-juan

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlations between antioxidations and the contents of the total phenolics and anthocyanin in 127 accessions of black soybean. A T-test, a fast clustering procedure, and a correlation coefficient analysis were used for experimentation. The variation ranges of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the total phenolics, and anthocyanin contents in 127 black soybean accessions were 0.44-3.56, 7.05-74.82, and 0.22-1.87mg g-1, respectively, displaying significant genotype differences. The major differences in TAC, the total phenolics,and the anthocyanin contents existed among various types of accessions from geographical regions. The differences between the accessions from black and yellow soybeans, spring and autumn, summer and autumn, Dongbeichun and Nanfangchun, Dongbeichun and Nanfangxia, Beifangchun and Nanfangchun, and Beifangchun and Nanfangxia were significant at 0.01 or 0.05 levels, respectively. The general tendency was that the TAC, the total phenolics, and the anthocyanin contents of Beifangchun accessions were higher than that of Dongbeichun ones, while that of Nanfangchun accessions were the worst. 127 black soybean accessions could be clustered into 6 clusters, which consisted of 3, 24,20, 31, 37, and 12 accessions, respectively. The most significant (P < 0.01) correlations existed respectively between the TAC and the total phenolics content, and the TAC and the anthocyanin content of black soybean. The results showed that the total phenolics and anthocyanin in black soybean seed coat were the important antioxidation substances.

  1. Identification, content and distribution of anthocyanins and low molecular weight anthocyanin-derived pigments in Spanish commercial red wines.

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    Blanco-Vega, Dora; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2014-09-01

    The content and distribution of low molecular weight red wine pigments (anthocyanins, flavanol-anthocyanins adducts and pyranoanthocyanins) has been analysed in 283 wine samples. A total of 90 red wine pigments were identified and up to 68 of them quantified in most of the wine samples. The content of the different pigments classes accounted for wide ranges of values, because of the diversity of the commercial wines regarding grape cultivar and age. Garnacha young wines were prone to contain higher hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanin concentrations. The aging had an effect of making uniform the concentrations and molar percentages of every type of pigments, and only slight differences among wine groups were found for B-type vitisins (highest values for Syrah wines) and 10-hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins (highest values for Merlot wines). Among Tempranillo wines, the ethylidene-bridged flavanol-anthocyanin adducts were the most affected by disappearance during aging, whereas hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins increased their contribution in most of those aged wines.

  2. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea.

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    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.

  3. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Gook KIM; Hong Lim KIM; Su Jin KIM; Kyo-Sun PARK

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon,Korea were analyzed for fruit size,soluble solids content,titratable acidity,total anthocyanin content,total phenolic content,and antioxidant activity.Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars.Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g,soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3°Brix,and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%.Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars.Among the 45 blueberry cultivars,high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols,and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’,‘Rubel’,‘Rancocas’,and ‘Friendship’.

  4. A candidate-gene association study for berry colour and anthocyanin content in Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cardoso

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST. Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, MYC(A, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHS(A. Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYC(B, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies.

  5. Anthocyanin contents in the seed coat of black soya bean and their anti-human tyrosinase activity and antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhan, J-K; Chung, Y-C; Chen, G-H; Chang, C-H; Lu, Y-C; Hsu, C-K

    2016-06-01

    The seed coat of black soya bean (SCBS) contains high amount of anthocyanins and shows antioxidant and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. The objectives of this study were to analyse the anthocyanins in SCBS with different solvents and to find the relationship between anthocyanin profile with anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. SCBS was extracted with hot water, 50 and 80% ethanol, 50 and 80% acetone and 50 and 80% acidified acetone. Total phenol and total flavonoid contents in the extracts were determined. Anthocyanins in the extracts were analysed using HPLC and LC/MS/MS. A genetically engineered human tyrosinase was used to evaluate the anti-tyrosinase potential of the extracts from SCBS. 80% acetone extract from SCBS obtained the highest total phenol, total flavonoid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) contents among all the extracts, whereas the hot water extract showed the lowest antioxidant contents. Three anthocyanin compounds were found in all the extracts from SCBS, and the analysis of HPLC and LC/MS/MS indicated that they were C3G, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (D3G) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (P3G). The ratios of C3G (2.84 mg g(-1) ), D3G (0.34 mg g(-1) ) and P3G (0.35 mg g(-1) ) in 80% acidified acetone extract were 76.6, 9.1 and 9.3%, respectively. All the extracts from SCBS possessed anti-human tyrosinase activity. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the anti-human tyrosinase activities and C3G contents in the extracts. Antioxidants in SCBS also possess anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Influences of organically and conventionally grown strawberry cultivars on anthocyanins content and color in purees and low-sugar jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Putnik, Predrag; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Vahčić, Nada; Babojelić, Martina Skendrović; Levaj, Branka

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this study was to detect influences of cultivar, cultivation and processing on anthocyanin content and color in purees and low-sugar jams produced from strawberry cultivars (Elsanta, Maya, Marmolada, Queen Elisa), grown under conventional and organic cultivation. Color was determined by CIELab values while anthocyanins were quantified by HPLC-UV/VIS-PDA. Queen Elisa was the best cultivar for processing as it had highest total anthocyanin content (TAC) that was well preserved in processing. On average, processing purees to jams decreased TAC for 28% where pelargonidin-3-glucoside revealed most noticeable loss (53%) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside was best preserved in processing. Obtained results indicated that measurement of colorimetric parameters are strongly correlated with content of anthocyanins. In other words, loss of anthocyanins during processing was accompanied by noticeable decrease in lightness, red/yellow color and total color change. Results showed that change of color is useful predictor for estimating anthocyanins in strawberry purees and jams.

  7. The Effect of High Pressure Techniques on the Stability of Anthocyanins in Fruit and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Marszałek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are a group of phenolic compounds responsible for red, blue and violet colouration of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The high content of these pigments is important as it influences directly their health promoting properties as well as the sensory quality of the product; however they are prone to degradation by, inter alia, elevated temperature and tissue enzymes. The traditional thermal methods of food preservation cause significant losses of these pigments. Thus, novel non-thermal techniques such as high pressure processing, high pressure carbon dioxide and high pressure homogenization are under consideration. In this review, the authors attempted to summarize the current knowledge of the impact of high pressure techniques on the stability of anthocyanins during processing and storage of fruit and vegetable products. Furthermore, the effect of the activity of enzymes involved in the degradation of these compounds has been described. The conclusions including comparisons of pressure-based methods with high temperature preservation techniques were presented.

  8. The Effect of High Pressure Techniques on the Stability of Anthocyanins in Fruit and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszałek, Krystian; Woźniak, Łukasz; Kruszewski, Bartosz; Skąpska, Sylwia

    2017-01-27

    Anthocyanins are a group of phenolic compounds responsible for red, blue and violet colouration of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The high content of these pigments is important as it influences directly their health promoting properties as well as the sensory quality of the product; however they are prone to degradation by, inter alia, elevated temperature and tissue enzymes. The traditional thermal methods of food preservation cause significant losses of these pigments. Thus, novel non-thermal techniques such as high pressure processing, high pressure carbon dioxide and high pressure homogenization are under consideration. In this review, the authors attempted to summarize the current knowledge of the impact of high pressure techniques on the stability of anthocyanins during processing and storage of fruit and vegetable products. Furthermore, the effect of the activity of enzymes involved in the degradation of these compounds has been described. The conclusions including comparisons of pressure-based methods with high temperature preservation techniques were presented.

  9. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.

  10. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  11. Identification of anthocyanins in berries by narrow-bore high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugo, P; Mondello, L; Errante, G; Zappia, G; Dugo, G

    2001-08-01

    Qualitative determination of anthocyanins in extracts of red fruits by narrow-bore HPLC/ESI-MS was carried out. This method was used to investigate anthocyanin contents of black bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), blackberry (Rubus sp.), and mulberry (Morus nigra). An ultraviolet diode array and a mass spectrometer with ESI source were used for detection. Anthocyanin identifications were made by using retention time data and UV-vis and mass spectra and comparing them with those of commercially available standard compounds. The method allowed the identification of fourteen anthocyanins in black bilberry extract, six anthocyanins in blackberry extract, and five anthocyanins in mulberry extract.

  12. Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mmpa

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... properties of the methanol extracts of R. kurdica Boiss for flowers and .... Total phenolic contents of the extract and the oil were determined using the .... Antioxidants and antiradicals in almond hull and shell. (Amygdalus ...

  13. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols.

  14. KANDUNGAN ANTOSIANIN DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN UBI JALAR UNGU SEGAR DAN PRODUK OLAHANNYA (Anthocyanins Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Purple Fleshed Sweet Potato and Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida El Husna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purple fleshed sweet potato is a potential source of anthocyanins which is as an antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic. Anthocyanins can be damaged by high temperatures. However, traditionally a number of processed sweet potato products involve heat treatment. This study aimed to assess the reduction of anthocyanins content in processed sweet potato products (flour, chips, sweet potato, steamed, boiled, and fried pieces from two types of local purple fleshed sweet potato (light purple and dark purple, therefore it might provide useful information stages in order to maintain the content of anthocyanins. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD of factorial arrangement treatments (two types of purple fleshed sweet potato, and five types of purple fleshed sweet potato processed products. The main analysis parameter are anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The anthocyanins content of dark purple fleshed sweet potato was 61.85 mg/100g, 17 times higher than light purple fleshed sweet potatoes 3.51 mg/100g. Dark purple fleshed sweet potatoes have antioxidant activity approximately 59.25%, greater than light purple fleshed sweet potatoes 56.64%. Decrease in anthocyanins content for processed products from both types of purple sweet potatoes showed the same trend. Purple sweet potato processed products that able to maintain fairly high the content of anthocyanins (the lowest rate of decline in anthocyanin levels were obtained on a steamed sweet potato (34.14% for dark purple and 42.16% for light purple, while the highest reduction obtained on the product chips (95.21% for dark purple and 88.47% for light purple. Reduction of antioxidant activity showed a directly proportion of the decrease in anthocyanins content of processed products, with the exception of processed products chips. Keywords: Purple fleshed sweet potato, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity   ABSTRAK Ubi jalar ungu potensial

  15. Isolation of high-purity anthocyanin mixtures and monomers from blueberries using combined chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erlei; Yin, Yongguang; Xu, Caina; Liu, Jingbo

    2014-01-31

    Research on the isolation and preparation of anthocyanins has intensified in recent years because of the requirements of quantitative and bioactive analyses. However, simple and effective methods for the scale purification of pure anthocyanins from natural products are rarely reported. In this study, high-purity anthocyanin mixtures and monomers were successfully isolated from wild blueberries using a combination of column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. We established an effective elution system to separate high-purity anthocyanin mixtures with aqueous ethanol containing 0.01% HCl first in an Amberlite XAD-7HP column (ethanol/H2O=35:65) and then in a Sephadex LH-20 column (ethanol/H2O=25:75). Crude anthocyanin extracts were isolated using the Amberlite column, and a purity of 32% was obtained based on UV-vis analysis. Three fractions of anthocyanin mixtures were isolated from the crude extracts using the Sephadex column with purities ranging from 59% to 68%. Three pure monomeric anthocyanins of malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-O-glucoside were also isolated by semi-preparative HPLC and identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The purities of these anthocyanins were determined by analytical HPLC and estimated to be 97.7%, 99.3%, and 95.4%, respectively. The results of this study may help promote the purification of anthocyanins from most blueberry varieties as well as from other plant materials.

  16. Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qixing; Feng, Lei; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Chen, Haihong; Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xiong, Tao; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-03-01

    Blueberry products have various health benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on total anthocyanin content, composition and some quality attributes of blueberry puree. The blueberry puree used here was fermented for 40 h at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. The method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids and viscosity were measured. A total of 21 anthocyanins and five anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanin content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanins compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanin content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized-fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influencing viscosity. The loss of total anthocyanin content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Anthocyanin content in dried berry skins and wine produced from dried grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEÇULI ANISA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin, are the substances which are biosynthesized in the grape skin, extracted during the maceration and vinification and which contribute in wine color. During the aging of wines these substances are converted in their derivates, contributing in wine quality. For this reasons in nowadays there is a big attention of studies in these components. Wines from two grapes variety, a French variety, Cabernet Sauvignon and the other an autochthonous variety of Albania Kallmet were observed. The role of drying in concentration of anthocyanin in skins berry and if this technique is reflected in wine produced from this dried grape, was studied. The results shown that the quantity of anthocyanins from dried skins varied from 136 mg/100gr fresh product to 468 mg/100gr. The dried skins had the higher quantity, but this result was more significant for Cabernet Sauvignon wine than Kallmet wine. Measurement of phenolic content showed no significant changes between wines from dried and non-dried grapes.

  18. COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase complexes repress anthocyanin accumulation under low light and high light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Hoecker, Ute

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and many other plant species, anthocyanin pigments accumulate only after light exposure and not in darkness. Excess light of very high fluence rates leads to a further, very strong increase in anthocyanin levels. How excess light is sensed is not well understood. Here, we show that mutations in the key repressor of light signaling, the COP1/SPA complex, cause a strong hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins not only under normal light but also under excess, high light conditions. Hence, normal light signaling via COP1/SPA is required to prevent hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins under these high light conditions. However, since cop1 and spa mutants show a similar high-light responsiveness of anthocyanin accumulation as the wild type it remains to be resolved whether COP1/SPA is directly involved in the high-light response itself.

  19. Colored light-quality selective plastic films affect anthocyanin content, enzyme activities, and the expression of flavonoid genes in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lixiang; Zhang, Yuchao; Yang, Xiaofang; Xiao, Jinping; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhang, Zuofa; Wang, Yuezhi; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-09-15

    The influence of colored light-quality selective plastic films (red, yellow, green, blue, and white) on the content of anthocyanin, the activities of the related enzymes and the transcripts of the flavonoid gene was studied in developing strawberry fruit. The results indicated that colored films had highly significant effects on the total anthocyanin content (TAC) and proportions of individual anthocyanins. Compared with the white control film, the red and yellow films led to the significant increase of TAC, while the green and blue films caused a decrease of TAC. Colored film treatments also significantly affected the related enzyme activity and the expression of structural genes and transcription factor genes, which suggested that the enhancement of TAC by the red and yellow films might have resulted from the activation of related enzymes and transcription factor genes in the flavonoid pathway. Treatment with red and yellow light-quality selective plastic films might be useful as a supplemental cultivation practice for enhancing the anthocyanin content in developing strawberry fruit.

  20. Content and vacuole extravacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids, and anthocyanin in protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.

    1979-07-01

    Neutral sugar, free amino acid, and anthocyanin levels and vacuole/extravacuole distribution were determined for Hippeastrum and Tulipa petal and Tulipa leaf protoplasts. Glucose and fructose, the predominant neutral monosaccharides observed, were primarily vacuolar in location. Glutamine, the predominant free amino acid found, was primarily extravacuolar. ..gamma..-methyleneglutamate was identified as a major constituent of Tulipa protoplasts. Qualitative characterization of Hippeastrum petal and vacuole organic acids indicated the presence of oxalic, malic, citric, and isocitric acids. Data are presented which indicate that vacuoles obtained by gentle osmotic shock of protoplasts in dibasic phosphate have good purity and retain their contents.

  1. Stabilization of anthocyanins in blackberry juice by glutathione fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Nathan B; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L; Brownmiller, Cindi; Mauromoustakos, Andy

    2017-09-06

    Blackberry anthocyanins provide attractive color and antioxidant activity. However, anthocyanins degrade during juice processing and storage, so maintaining high anthocyanin concentrations in berry juices may lead to greater antioxidant and health benefits for the consumer. This study evaluated potential additives to stabilize anthocyanins during blackberry juice storage. The anthocyanin stabilizing agents used were: glutathione, galacturonic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and tannic acid, which were added at a level of 500 mg L(-1). Juice anthocyanin, flavonol, and ellagitannin content and percent polymeric color were measured over five weeks of accelerated storage at 30 °C. Glutathione had the greatest protective effect on total anthocyanins and polymeric color. Therefore a second study was performed with glutathione in combination with lipoic and ascorbic acids in an effort to use antioxidant recycling to achieve a synergistic effect. However, the antioxidant recycling system had no protective effect relative to glutathione alone. Glutathione appears to be a promising blackberry juice additive to protect against anthocyanin degradation during storage.

  2. Effects of pretreatments on anthocyanin composition, phenolics contents and antioxidant capacities during fermentation of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suwen; Chang, Xuedong; Liu, Xiufeng; Shen, Zhanwei

    2016-12-01

    The effect of microwave and heat pretreatment on the content and composition of anthocyanins, phenolics, and the antioxidant capacity of hawthorn drink were studied. Nine anthocyanins were isolated by chromatographic separation from the Zirou hawthorn source and their structure identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis. Heat and microwave pretreatments had a significant impact on the relative contents of hawthorn anthocyanins, such as cyanidin-3-galactoside (82.9% and 76.9%, respectively) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (9.2% and 11.5%, respectively). Pretreatment had no significant effect on pH, total soluble solid or total acid. More anthocyanins remained after heat treatment than after microwaving (0.745mg/100mL), and were 52.4% higher than the control group after storage for 7days. The colour density of the heat treated group was higher than the control group (24.5%) after 12days of fermentation. The main antioxidant capacities of the hawthorn drinks came from total polyphenolics rather than total anthocyanins or total flavonoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Purification of anthocyanins from species of Banksia and Acacia using high-voltage paper electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenstorfer, Robert E; Morgan, Anne L; Hayasaka, Yoji; Sedgley, Margaret; Jones, Graham P

    2003-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the isolation and rapid identification of anthocyanins from two floricultural crops based on the use of high-voltage paper electrophoresis with bisulphite buffer. Using this method, anthocyanin pigments were successfully purified as their negatively charged bisulphite-addition compounds from crude extracts of plant tissue. In conjunction with liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry, the method enabled the anthocyanins from the flowers of two Banksia species and the leaves of two Acacia species to be identified. The Banksia flowers contained both cyanidin and peonidin-based pigments, while the Acacia leaves contained cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives.

  4. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in transgenic purple tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Rhodes, Davina; Shen, Yanting; Song, Weixing; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Most tomatoes produce little anthocyanins, but the transgenic purple tomato biosynthesizes a high level of anthocyanins due to expression of two transcription factors (Del and Ros1). This study was to identify and quantify anthocyanins in this transgenic tomato line. Seven anthocyanins, including two new anthocyanins [malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(feruloyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside], were identified by LC-MS/MS. Petunidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and delphinidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins, making up 86% of the total anthocyanins. Compared to undetectable anthocyanins in the wild type, the contents of anthocyanins in the whole fruit, peel, and flesh of the Del/Ros1-transgenic tomato were 5.2±0.5, 5.1±0.5, and 5.8±0.3g/kg dry matter, respectively. Anthocyanins were undetectable in the seeds of both wide-type and transgenic tomato lines. Such novel and high levels of anthocyanins obtained in this transgenic tomato may provide unique functional products with potential health benefits.

  5. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of cis-trans anthocyanin isomers from wild Lycium ruthenicum Murr. employing a mixed-mode reversed-phase/strong anion-exchange stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongli; Liu, Yanfang; Guo, Zhimou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jixia; Li, Xiaolong; Peng, Xiaojun; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-01-21

    The cis-trans isomerism is a common phenomenon for acylated anthocyanins. Nevertheless, few studies reported effective methods for the preparation of isomeric anthocyanins from natural products. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to efficiently purify anthocyanin isomers from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. based on a mixed-mode reversed-phase/strong anion-exchange column (named XCharge C8SAX). Four commercially available columns were evaluated with a pair of isomeric anthocyanins, and the results demonstrated that the XCharge C8SAX column exhibited improved selectivity and column efficiency for the isomers. The chromatographic parameters, including pH, organic content, and ionic strength, were investigated. Optimal separation quality for the anthocyanin isomers was achieved on the XCharge C8SAX column. Six pure anthocyanins, including two pairs of cis-trans isomeric anthocyanins with one new anthocyanin, were purified from L. ruthenicum and identified. All of the results indicated that this method is an effective way to separate anthocyanins, especially for cis-trans isomers.

  6. 不同品种紫玉米产量、花青素含量及生理指标研究%Yield, Anthocyanin Content and Physiology Indexes of Different Purple Corn Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史振声; 关博; 朱敏

    2012-01-01

    以7个紫玉米杂交组合为试材,对子粒产量、产量构成因素、花青素含量、花青素产量、生理指标等进行研究.结果表明,紫玉米不同品种间产量差异较大,影响产量的主要因子是果穗大小和出籽率;不同品种间花青素 含量差异较大,花青素含量与子粒产量共同决定单位面积花青素产量;子粒花青素含量与子粒产量呈极显著负相关关系,子粒花青素含量与花青素产量呈极显著正相关关系;叶片花青素含量与光合速率呈负相关关系,叶片花青素含量与叶绿素含量呈负相关关系,开花期和灌浆期叶片花青素含量与叶片可溶性糖含量相关性不显著.%Using 7 different hybridized combinations, the grain yield, yield components, anthocyanin content, anthocyanin yield, physiology indexes, etc. of purple corn were studied. The results showed as following. The yield was highly associated with the size of ear and rate of kernel production, and there were significant differences between the different varieties of the purple corn. There were strongly different anthocyanin yields among the different varieties. Anthocyanin yields of per unit area were composed of anthocyanin content and grain yields. Anthocyanin content was significantly negatively related with the grain yield and significantly positively related with anthocyanin yield. Anthocyanin content was negatively related with photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content in the leaf. The correlation between leaf anthocyanin content and soluble sugar content was unmarked during flowering and grain filling stages.

  7. Comparison of Yield and Content of Anthocyanin of Purple Corn of Different Combining Types%紫玉米不同组配方式的花青素含量及产量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史振声; 贾森

    2012-01-01

    anthocyanin were highly significant positive correlation; content of tassel and bract anthocyanin were also highly significant positive correlation. 4. Anthocyanin total yield of purple corn ( grain, cob, husk, tassel) was Deep Purple corn × Deep Purple corn > Deep Purple corn × Shallow Purple corn > non-purple corn × Deep Purple corn > Shallow Purple corn × non-purple corn;yield of grain anthocyanin made the greatest contributions to total yield of anthocyanin.

  8. Effects of Cerium on Accumulation of Anthocyanins and Expression of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes in Potato Cell Tissue Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of Ce (Ⅳ) on callus growth, anthocyanin content, and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in callus suspension cultures of Solanum tuberosum cv. Chieftain were studied by the measurement of fresh weight, spectrophotometric assays, and semiquantitative RT-PCR. The results indicate that 0.1 mmol·L-1 Ce (Ⅳ) can promote callus growth, increase the accumulation of anthocyanins, and enhance the expression of five anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (CHS, F3H, F3′5′H, DFR, and 3GT) most efficiently. At high concentrations of 1 mmol·L-1, Ce (Ⅳ) partially inhibits callus growth and at 2 mmol·L-1 eventually lends to cell death. The results show that Ce(Ⅳ) can induce the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes to produce and accumulate anthocyanins and increase the yield of anthocyanins.

  9. New Challenges for the Design of High Value Plant Products: Stabilization of Anthocyanins in Plant Vacuoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passeri, V.; Koes, R.; Quattrocchio, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade plant biotechnologists and breeders have made several attempt to improve the antioxidant content of plant-derived food. Most efforts concentrated on increasing the synthesis of antioxidants, in particular anthocyanins, by inducing the transcription of genes encoding the synthesizi

  10. New challenges for the design of high value plant products: stabilization of anthocyanins in plant vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina ePasseri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade plant biotechnologists and breeders have made several attempt to improve the antioxidant content of plant-derived food. Most efforts concentrated on increasing the synthesis of antioxidants, in particular anthocyanins, by inducing the transcription of genes encoding the synthesizing enzymes. We present here an overview of economically interesting plant species, both food crops and ornamentals, in which anthocyanin content was improved by traditional breeding or transgenesis. Old genetic studies in petunia and more recent biochemical work in brunfelsia, have shown that after synthesis and compartmentalization in the vacuole, anthocyanins need to be stabilized to preserve the color of the plant tissue over time. The final yield of antioxidant molecules is the result of the balance between synthesis and degradation. Therefore the understanding of the mechanism that determine molecule stabilization in the vacuolar lumen is the next step that needs to be taken to further improve the anthocyanin content in food.In several species a phenomenon known as fading is responsible for the disappearance of pigmentation which in some case can be nearly complete. We discuss the present knowledge about the genetic and biochemical factors involved in pigment preservation/destabilization in plant cells.The improvement of our understanding of the fading process will supply new tools for both biotechnological approaches and marker-assisted breeding.

  11. New Challenges for the Design of High Value Plant Products: Stabilization of Anthocyanins in Plant Vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Valentina; Koes, Ronald; Quattrocchio, Francesca M

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade plant biotechnologists and breeders have made several attempt to improve the antioxidant content of plant-derived food. Most efforts concentrated on increasing the synthesis of antioxidants, in particular anthocyanins, by inducing the transcription of genes encoding the synthesizing enzymes. We present here an overview of economically interesting plant species, both food crops and ornamentals, in which anthocyanin content was improved by traditional breeding or transgenesis. Old genetic studies in petunia and more recent biochemical work in brunfelsia, have shown that after synthesis and compartmentalization in the vacuole, anthocyanins need to be stabilized to preserve the color of the plant tissue over time. The final yield of antioxidant molecules is the result of the balance between synthesis and degradation. Therefore the understanding of the mechanism that determine molecule stabilization in the vacuolar lumen is the next step that needs to be taken to further improve the anthocyanin content in food. In several species a phenomenon known as fading is responsible for the disappearance of pigmentation which in some case can be nearly complete. We discuss the present knowledge about the genetic and biochemical factors involved in pigment preservation/destabilization in plant cells. The improvement of our understanding of the fading process will supply new tools for both biotechnological approaches and marker-assisted breeding.

  12. Brix, pH and anthocyanin content determination in whole Port wine grape berries by hyperspectral imaging and neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Armando M.; Franco, Camilo; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of measuring pH, sugars, and anthocyanin content of whole grape berries. The spectrum of each sample, composed of six whole grape berries, was collected using hyperspectral imaging in reflectance mode from 380 to 1028 nm. The spectra were converted to enological...... parameters by multilayer perceptrons created using 240 samples that were split for 7-fold cross-validation and test. The test set with 30 samples revealed R2 values of 0.73, 0.92 and 0.95 and RMSE of 0.18, 0.95 °Brix and 14 mg/l for pH, sugars and anthocyanin content, respectively. This is the only work, up...

  13. Variation Laws of Anthocyanin Content in Roots and Their Relationships with Major Economic Traits in Purple-Fleshed Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Variation laws of anthocyanin content in root during the development and among the varieties, and their relationships with major economic traits in purple-fleshed sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were studied in the present article. The dynamics of 20 economic traits in 13 purple-fleshed sweetpotato varieties at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 d after their transplanting were investigated, and these traits included anthocyanin content in root, length of the longest vine, number of base branches, root number, dry matter contents in stem, foliage and root, fresh/dry weight of root, fresh/dry weight of stem, fresh/dry weight of foliage, fresh/dry weight of stem and foliage, fresh/dry weight of whole plant, and rations of photosynthate to root, stem, and foliage. The correlations between the variations of anthocyanin content and the other 19 economic traits among varieties and during the whole developing stages, and the correlations of daily increase of anthocyanin content with other 10 kinds of yields were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) During the whole development, the anthocyanin content had three variation types, I.e. A slow-increase type, a fluctuating-change type, and a devious- rising type, and had different responses to the growth of length of the longest vine, number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, and photosynthate allotments. (2) The anthocyanin contents among 13 varieties began to have significant difference after 20 d, and showed completed differentiation during 40-100 d, which had significantly negative correlationships with the number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, photosynthate allotment ratio to root, and had significant positive correlationships with dry matter content of root, length of the longest vine, fresh/dry yield of stem, dry yield of whole plant and photosynthate allotment ratio to foliage. (3) Because of the significantly negative correlation between daily increase of anthocyanin content and dry matter

  14. Anthocyanin kinetics are dependent on anthocyanin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Janet A; Clevidence, Beverly A; Kurilich, Anne C

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of anthocyanin metabolism was investigated in a human feeding trial. Volunteers (n 12) consumed purple carrots containing five anthocyanin forms: cyanidin-3-(xylose-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-feruloyl-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-coumuroyl-glucose-galactoside). The purple carrots were served as three different treatments in a crossover design with a 3-week washout between treatments. Purple carrot treatments were 250 g raw carrots, 250 g cooked carrots and 500 g cooked carrots. Serial blood and urine samples were collected for 8 and 24 h after the dose, respectively, and analysed for anthocyanins. Of the anthocyanin forms ingested, four were detected in plasma and urine: cyanidin-3-(xylose-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-feruloyl-glucose-galactoside). The time courses of plasma and urine anthocyanin contents were evaluated with compartmental modelling. Results showed that absorption, gastrointestinal transit and plasma elimination are dependent on anthocyanin structure. Absorption efficiencies of acylated compounds (cyanidin-3-(xylose-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-feruloyl-glucose-galactoside)) were less than those for non-acylated anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-(xylose-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-galactoside)). The acylated anthocyanins exhibited a shorter half-life for gastrointestinal absorption than the non-acylated anthocyanins. Fractional elimination of non-acylated compounds was slower than that for acylated anthocyanins. These results provide the first information about the kinetics of individual anthocyanins in human beings.

  15. Blueberry estimated harvest from seven new cultivars: fruit and anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Jessica; Stevenson, David; Hedderley, Duncan

    2013-08-15

    This study compares the yields, weights and anthocyanin contents of fruit from a group of seven new cultivars released from the New Zealand blueberry breeding programme and selected for the longest possible combined harvest season. The measured factors were primarily influenced by cultivar, and seasonal variations had relatively minor effects. The late-ripening cultivars 'Velluto Blue' and 'Centra Blue' had the highest fruit yields, anthocyanin contents and estimated total anthocyanin harvestable from a given area. 'Blue Moon' and 'Sky Blue' had the largest fruit sizes. The early-ripening cultivars 'Blue Bayou', 'Blue Moon' and 'Sunset Blue' had the lowest anthocyanin contents. The yield, fruit size and total anthocyanin content results obtained from any single year were highly correlated with the average of the three years, which makes pursuing the evaluation for these traits from a single year and at an early stage of plant development a practical proposition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Anthocyanin Composition and Functional Analysis of an Anthocyanin Activator in Solanum nigrum Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoli Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solanum nigrum fruits have been conventionally used in beverages due to their nutritional substances such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, sugars, polyphenols, and anthocyanins. The characterization of components and regulatory mechanism of anthocyanins in S. nigrum fruits have rarely been reported. In this study, we determined that the peel and flesh of S. nigrum fruits shared similar HPLC profiles but different contents and total antioxidant activities for anthocyanins. After an efficient purification method, mainly including extraction with pH 1.0 distilled water and then desorption with pH 1.0 95% ethanol after a DM-130 resin adsorption step to obtain more pure anthocyanin extracts, the purity of anthocyanins extracted from S. nigrum fruits reached 56.1%. Moreover, eight anthocyanins from S. nigrum fruit were identified with HPLC-MS/MS for the first time. A typical R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, SnMYB, was also cloned for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR from S. nigrum. Moreover, the contents of anthocyanins were shown to correlate well (r = 0.93 with the expression levels of SnMYB gene during the fruit’s developmental stages. Most significantly, SnMYB gene successfully produced high anthocyanin content (1.03 mg/g when SnMYB gene was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves. Taken together, S. nigrum fruits are a promising resource for anthocyanin extraction, and SnMYB gene is an activator that positively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in S. nigrum.

  17. Formation of Anthocyanin in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)and Influence of Anthocyanin Content to Storage%水稻种子花色苷形成及其对稻谷储藏特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 刘斌美; 许学; 章忠贵; 吴跃进

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanin, mainly existing in glume and episperm of colored rice, is a group of compounds formed from anthocyanidin and glucoside. Because of the structure of flavonoid, anthocyanin has the ability of an-tioxidation. The paper reported the changes of rice anthocyanin in growing and ageing processes and the function of rice anthocyanin to extend seed longevity in seed storage. The results indicated that rice anthocyanin had been accumulated in the early stage. With the increase of the seed's size, anthocyanin content gradually decreased in car-yopsis; meanwhile, the anthocyanin content did not change significantly in glume. After artificial ageing, the anthocyanin content notably decreased, contrary to the result in glume. It might indicate that the anthocyanin in glume doesn't get involved in antioxidant response. The analyses of mycotic infection of ageing seeds suggested that, in the three varieties, the anti-mycete ability of the ones with higher content of anthocyanin was better than that with lower content of anthocyanin. Considering the results, anthocyanin was not the crucial factor in seed storage.%花色苷是有色稻种皮和颖壳里呈现颜色的主要物质,属于类黄酮类物质,具有抗氧化性.本研究围绕水稻种子形成过程中花色苷含量的变化以及其对稻谷储藏特性变化的影响,探讨花色苷在稻谷储藏中延长种子寿命的作用.结果显示:选取的3个品种中,水稻种子的花色苷形成主要在发育初期,随着颖果体积的增大,颖果花色苷的含量会逐渐降低,而颖壳的花色苷含量变化不显著,将种子进行人工老化后,仍只有颖果的花色苷含量出现下降的趋势,表明种子在老化过程中颖壳的花色苷不参与抗老化的各项代谢反应.老化种子SOD活性分析显示,花色苷含量低的中籼9311可能是通过SOD酶活性增加,削减高温高湿胁迫对种子衰老的影响;由稻谷感染霉菌情况显示在3个水稻品种中,花色苷

  18. Combining ability of sweetpotato germplasm for yield, dry matter content, and anthocyanin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in the potential of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) for the production of industrial products is increasing. As part of an effort to evaluate the potential of sweetpotatoes for starch and anthocyanin production in the southeastern United States, a 5 x 5 North Carolina mating design II (NCII m...

  19. Variability in anthocyanin content among Abutilon theophrasti, and Urena lobata genetic resources .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants contain bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Sixty-two accessions of Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA. Anthocyanins...

  20. Effects of Temperature on Anthocyanin Content and Anthocyanin Synthase (AdANS) of ‘Hongyang’ Kiwifruit%温度对猕猴桃花青素含量及其合成基因AdANS的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文彬; 刘义飞; 彭明

    2014-01-01

    为明确‘红阳’猕猴桃果肉中花青素含量在季节性温度下的合成变化情况及花青素合成酶基因A dA NS表达的变化,以‘红阳’主产区四川蒲江和湖北武汉的‘红阳’猕猴桃为研究对象,测定其花青素的含量并克隆花青素合成基因A dA NS,并对其转录水平变化进行检测。结果表明,较高的季节性温度对果肉花青素的含量有抑制作用,在温度适宜的蒲江,A dA NS基因的表达水平与花青素积累变化相一致,而在高温的武汉其表达水平受到明显的抑制。%To illustrate the changes of anthocyanin concentration and anthocyanin synthase under seasonal fluctuated temperature, the concentration of anthocyanin of ‘Hongyang’ kiwifruit from Pujiang, Sichuan and Wuhan, Hubei was measured under different seasonal temperatures. Anthocyanin synthase (A dA NS) was cloned. Quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of A dA NS during fruit development. Result showed that seasonal high temperature had negative regulation on anthocyanin concentration in flesh. The expression level of A dA NS was positively cor related with anthocyanin synthesis in Pujiang with suitable temperature and was inhibited greatly in Wuhan with high temperature.

  1. Anthocyanin Accumulation and Molecular Analysis of Correlated Genes in Purple Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Mingku; Zhu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhijin; Tian, Shibing; Chen, Guoping

    2015-04-29

    Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed widely for the round swollen stem. Purple kohlrabi shows abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and swollen stem. Here, different kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from the purple kohlrabi cultivar (Kolibri) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In order to study the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kohlrabi, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulatory genes in purple kohlrabi and a green cultivar (Winner) was examined by quantitative PCR. In comparison with the colorless parts in the two cultivars, most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and two transcription factors were drastically upregulated in the purple tissues. To study the effects of light shed on the anthocyanin accumulation of kohlrabi, total anthocyanin contents and transcripts of associated genes were analyzed in sprouts of both cultivars grown under light and dark conditions.

  2. Effect of cooking on the anthocyanins, phenolic acids, glycoalkaloids, and resistant starch content in two pigmented cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinacci, Nadia; Ieri, Francesca; Giaccherini, Catia; Innocenti, Marzia; Andrenelli, Luisa; Canova, Giulia; Saracchi, Marco; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2008-12-24

    HPLC/DAD/MS analysis of the phenolic acids and anthocyanin content of three cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L. (Vitelotte Noire, Highland Burgundy Red, with pigmented flesh, and Kennebec with white pulp) was performed. The analyses were carried out both on fresh tubers and after cooking treatments (boiling and microwaves). Starch digestibility and the % of resistant starch were also determined on cooked tubers by in vitro methods. For the pigmented potatoes, the heating treatment did not cause any changes in the phenolic acids content, while anthocyanins showed only a small decrement (16-29%). The cv. Highland Burgundy Red showed anthocyanins and phenolic acid concentrations close to 1 g/kg and more than 1.1 g/kg, respectively. Vitellotte Noire showed the highest amounts of resistant starch. Potato starch digestibility and % of resistant starch, considered as a component of dietary fiber, were affected both by cultivar and by heating/cooling treatments.

  3. Effects of bagging and storage temperature on anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL activity in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. fruit pericarp during maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobkiat Saengnil

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of bagging and storage temperature on anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activity of mangosteen fruit pericarp. Six maturity stages (stage 1 to stage 6, defined by the extension of red or purple colouration on the pericarp of attached mangosteen fruits with bagged and unbagging were compared. It was found that sunlight had no significant effect on both anthocyanin content and PAL activity. The effect of storage temperature onanthocyanin content and PAL activity were also studied. Fruits at stage 1 (indicated by scattered of pink spot on pericarp were harvested and allowed to develop red colour to stage 6 at different storage temperatures: 15º, 25º, 30º (room temperature and 35ºC. It was found that temperature had no effect on anthocyanin content in any stage of fruit development. At all temperature levels, the anthocyanin content was increased accordingly and had the highest level at stage 6. Temperature affected on PAL activity at different stages. Levels of PAL activity decreased at the early stages and increased at the final stage of maturity except for fruits held at 25ºC, PAL activity remained at a low level through stage 6, while fruit at 35ºC had the highest level of PAL at stage 5.

  4. Microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanin from Chinese bayberry and its effects on anthocyanin stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkai DUAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAnthocyanins are present in high concentrations in Chinese bayberry, Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc. Herein, a microwave-assisted extraction was used to extract the anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry. The HPLC chromatogram of the extracts showed that the anthocyanin components were slightly hydrolysed during the extraction process. Further experiments confirmed that microwave irradiation slightly hydrolysed cyanidin-3-O-glucoside to cyanidin, but did not significantly influence the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Optimized extraction conditions for total anthocyanin content were a solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time of 1:50, 80 °C, and 15 min, respectively. Under these conditions, the anthocyanin content was 2.95 ± 0.08 mg·g−1, and the antioxidant activity yield was 279.96 ± 0.1 μmol.·g−1 Trolox equivalent on a dry weight basis. These results indicated that microwave-assisted extraction was a highly efficient extraction method with reduced processing time. However, under some extraction conditions it could damage the anthocyanins. These results provide an important guide for the application of microwave extraction.

  5. Varietal blends as a way of optimizing and preserving the anthocyanin content of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Martí, Nuria; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are unstable compounds prone to degradation during storage of pomegranates juices, leading to disadvantageous color changes. Blending varietal pomegranate juices could be useful not only to preserve the genuine characteristics of fresh juices but also to study different factors affecting anthocyanin stability while maintaining to the utmost the matrix studied. The effects of critical factors such as anthocyanin concentration, pH, and endogenous ascorbic acid on pigment integrity were assessed through the study of the degradation kinetics of pomegranate phytochemicals in blended juices made from two distinct cultivars ('Wonderful' and 'Mollar de Elche'). Pigment concentration and pH were the factors affecting anthocyanin stability, whereas ascorbic acid did not alter the degradation of anthocyanins. These results contributed to the definition of the so-called "cultivar effect" and to preserving to a great extent the anthocyanin load and color characteristics of fresh varietal juices, avoiding phytochemical degradation and browning development during storage.

  6. Anthocyanin Accumulation, Antioxidant Ability and Stability, and a Transcriptional Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Zhang, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Lugang

    2016-01-13

    Heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a significant dietary vegetable for its edible heading leaves in Asia countries. The new purple anthocyanin-rich pure line (11S91) was successfully bred, and the anthocyanins were mainly distributed in 2-3 cell layers beneath the leaf epidermis, whereas siliques and stems accumulated only a cell layer of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of 11S91 were more stable at pHs below 3.0 and temperatures below 45 °C. The total antioxidant ability was highly positive correlated with the anthocyanin content in 11S91. Thirty-two anthocyanins were separated and identified, and 70% of them were glycosylated and acylated cyanidins. The four major anthocyanins present were cyanidin-3-sophoroside(p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(sinapyl-p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), and cyanidin-3-sophoroside-(sinapyl-ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl). According to the expression of biosynthetic genes and the component profile of anthocyanins in 11S91 and its parents, regulatory genes BrMYB2 and BrTT8 probably activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis but other factors may govern the primary anthocyanins and the distribution.

  7. Changes in the contents of anthocyanins and other compounds in blackberry fruits due to freezing and long-term frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina; Cunja, Vlasta; Zupan, Anka; Koron, Darinka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2014-07-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fast and slow freezing and frozen storage on the metabolite content of six blackberry cultivars. The content of metabolites determined with HPLC RI/PDA-MS in stored blackberries was compared with the initial content of the fruit. During frozen storage of fruits a loss of vitamin C up to 80% has been recorded along with changes of color values, which shifted to blue and yellow hues. The color changes were accompanied with increased pH levels and content of anthocyanins. Most of the phenolic groups, sugars, and organic acids showed a better extraction after storage, especially in the slow freezing treatment due to a higher degree of tissue damage by freezing. The 'Thornless Evergreen' cultivar was especially rich in sugars, vitamin C, and phenolic compounds, but the highest levels of anthocyanins were determined in 'Loch Ness' cultivar.

  8. The relationship between the anthocyanin and vitamin C contents of red-fleshed sweet cherries and the ability of fruit digests to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David J; Hocquel, Alice; Penberthy, Ari; Oey, Indrawati

    2017-07-15

    The present work investigated the bioprotective capacities of red-fleshed sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium; Lapins, Stella, Sweetheart and Staccato), with distinct differences in anthocyanins and vitamin C contents, on human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. Three assays of cell health, the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide cell viability assay, the lactate dehydrogenase membrane leakage assay and nitric oxide production, were used to determine if these cherry digests differed in their ability to protect Caco-2 cells from H2O2. Cells treated with digests from cherries identified as containing high anthocyanins provided the greatest protection against H2O2. A strong linear correlation (-0.82stress than vitamin C.

  9. High-purity isolation of anthocyanins mixtures from fruits and vegetables--a novel solid-phase extraction method using mixed mode cation-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian; Giusti, M Monica

    2011-11-04

    Research on biological activity of anthocyanins requires the availability of high purity materials. However, current methods to isolate anthocyanins or anthocyanin mixtures are tedious and expensive or insufficient for complete isolation. We applied a novel cation-exchange/reversed-phase combination solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique, and optimized the use of water/organic buffer mobile phases to selectively separate anthocyanins. Crude extracts of various representative anthocyanin sources were purified with this technique and compared to 3 commonly used SPE techniques: C(18), HLB, and LH-20. Purified anthocyanin fractions were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to photodiode array (PDA) and mass spectrometry (MS) detectors and by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The UV-visible chromatograms quantitatively demonstrated that our novel technique achieved significantly higher (Panthocyanin purity than the C(18) cartridge, the next best method, for 11 of the 12 anthocyanin sources tested. Among them, eight were purified to greater than 99% purity (based on UV-visible chromatograms). The new method efficiently removed non-anthocyanin phenolics. MS and FT-IR results semi-quantitatively confirmed extensive reduction of impurities. Due to strong ionic interaction, our sorbent capacity was superior to others, resulting in the highest throughput and least use of organic solvents. This new methodology for isolation of anthocyanin mixtures drastically increased purity and efficiency while maintaining excellent recovery rate and low cost. The availability of high purity anthocyanin mixtures will facilitate anthocyanin studies and promote the application of anthocyanins in the food and nutraceutical industries.

  10. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  11. Issues with fruit dietary supplements in the US - authentication by anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current fruit-based dietary supplements in the US marketplace have no obligation to meet any fruit-component concentration requirement. For example, berry supplements might be promoted for their high anthocyanin content, but they actually have no standard or minimum anthocyanin threshold for legal s...

  12. Effect of calcium on strawberry fruit flavonoid pathway gene expression and anthocyanin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenping; Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Whitaker, Bruce; Huang, Luhong; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2014-09-01

    Two diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines, Ruegen F7-4 (red fruit-bearing) and YW5AF7 (yellow fruit-bearing) were used to study the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit. Ruegen F7-4 fruit had similar total phenolics and anthocyanin contents to commercial octoploid (F. × ananassa) cultivar Seascape, while YW5AF7 exhibited relatively low total phenolics content and no anthocyanin accumulation. Foliar spray of CaCl2 boosted fruit total phenolics content, especially anthocyanins, by more than 20% in both Seascape and RF7-4. Expression levels of almost all the flavonoid pathway genes were comparable in Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 green-stage fruit. However, at the turning and ripe stages, key anthocyanin structural genes, including flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H1), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR2), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS1), and UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT1), were highly expressed in Ruegen F7-4 compared with YW5AF7 fruit. Calcium treatment further stimulated the expression of those genes in Ruegen F7-4 fruit. Anthocyanins isolated from petioles of YW5AF7 and Ruegen F-7 had the same HPLC-DAD profile, which differed from that of Ruegen F-7 fruit anthocyanins. All the anthocyanin structural genes except FvUGT1 were detected in petioles of YW5AF7 and Ruegen F-7. Taken together, these results indicate that the "yellow" gene in YW5AF7 is a fruit specific regulatory gene(s) for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Calcium can enhance accumulation of anthocyanins and total phenolics in fruit possibly via upregulation of anthocyanin structural genes. Our results also suggest that the anthocyanin biosynthesis machinery in petioles is different from that in fruit.

  13. Optimization of the extraction of anthocyanins from the fruit skin of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk and identification of anthocyanins in the extract using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Ling; Guo, Hong-Hui; Sun, Yuan-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenols that impart bright color to fruits, vegetables and plants. In this study, the extraction of anthocyanins from freeze-dried fruit skin of downy rose-myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk var. Gangren) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Using 60% ethanol containing 0.1% (v/v) hydrochloric acid as extraction solvent, the optimal conditions for maximum yields of anthocyanin (4.358 ± 0.045 mg/g) were 15.7:1 (v/w) liquid to solid ratio, 64.38 °C with a 116.88 min extraction time. The results showed good fits with the proposed model for the anthocyanin extraction (R(2) = 0.9944). Furthermore, the results of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis of the anthocyanins extracted from the fruit skin of downy rose-myrtle revealed the presence of five anthocyanin components, which were tentatively identified as delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside.

  14. Anthocyanins from flowers of the orchids Dracula chimaera and D. cordobae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossen, Torgils; Øvstedal, Dag Olav

    2003-08-01

    The main anthocyanins from flowers of the orchids Dracula chimaera and D. cordobae were isolated from a purified methanolic extract by preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined to be cyanidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), cyanidin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside), cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside) and peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside). The structure determinations were mainly based on extensive use of 2D and 1D NMR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and MS. The anthocyanin contents of species belonging to the subtribe Pleurothallidinae including genus Dracula Luer (Orchidaceae) have previously not been determined. The high content of anthocyanin rutinosides found in D. chimaera and D. cordobae (78 and 28% of the total anthocyanin content, respectively) differs from previously analysed orchid species, in which glucose is found as the only anthocyanin sugar moiety.

  15. Manipulating anthocyanin composition in Vitis vinifera suspension cultures by elicitation with jasmonic acid and light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Chris; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2003-07-01

    Jasmonic acid altered the accumulation of major anthocyanins in Vitis vinifera cell culture. Peonidin 3-glucoside content at day three was increased from 0.3 to 1.7 mg g(-1) dry cell wt while other major anthocyanins were increased by smaller increments. By day 14, the content of methylated and acylated anthocyanins (peonidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside and malvidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside) was 6.3 mg g(-1) DCW, in response to treatment with jasmonic acid, and comprising approximately 45% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. In comparison, the untreated control culture contained 1.2 mg g(-1) DCW which made up approximately 32% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. Light further enhanced anthocyanin accumulation induced by jasmonic acid elicitation. The content of peonidin 3-glucoside at day 3 was 6.6 mg g(-1) DCW, 22-fold higher than control cultures while the content in response to light irradiation alone was 0.6 mg g(-1) DCW. When a highly pigmented cell line was elicited with jasmonic acid total anthocyanins increased from 9.2 to 20.7 mg g(-1) DCW, but there was no change in the anthocyanin composition.

  16. Juice, pulp and seeds fractionated from dry climate primocane raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus) have significantly different antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin content and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Shannon M; Low, Richard M; Stocks, Janet C; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2012-12-01

    Raspberries contain flavonoid antioxidants whose relative concentrations may vary between the juice, pulp, and seed fractions. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total anthocyanin content, and berry color were determined for six cultivars of primocane raspberries grown in a dry climate (Utah, USA). Significant ORAC differences were found between juice (18.4 ± 0.39 μmol TE/g), pulp (24.45 ± 0.43), and seeds (273.27 ± 11.15) with all Utah cultivars combined. A significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins was present in Utah raspberry juice (20.86 ± 0.35 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g), compared to pulp (13.96 ± 0.35). Anthocyanin content of juice and pulp were significantly positively correlated with dark color (L*). This is the first report of fractional differences in dry climate raspberries, and has implications for the juice and supplement industries.

  17. Anthocyanin contribution to chlorophyll meter readings and its correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nauš, Jan; Špundová, Martina

    2013-12-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content is an important physiological parameter which can serve as an indicator of nutritional status, plant stress or senescence. Signals proportional to the chlorophyll content can be measured non-destructively with instruments detecting leaf transmittance (e.g., SPAD-502) or reflectance (e.g., showing normalized differential vegetation index, NDVI) in red and near infrared spectral regions. The measurements are based on the assumption that only chlorophylls absorb in the examined red regions. However, there is a question whether accumulation of other pigments (e.g., anthocyanins) could in some cases affect the chlorophyll meter readings. To answer this question, we cultivated tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for a long time under low light conditions and then exposed them for several weeks (4 h a day) to high sunlight containing the UV-A spectral region. The senescent leaves of these plants evolved a high relative content of anthocyanins and visually revealed a distinct blue color. The SPAD and NDVI data were collected and the spectra of diffusive transmittance and reflectance of the leaves were measured using an integration sphere. The content of anthocyanins and chlorophylls was measured analytically. Our results show that SPAD and NDVI measurement can be significantly affected by the accumulated anthocyanins in the leaves with relatively high anthocyanin content. To describe theoretically this effect of anthocyanins, concepts of a specific absorbance and a leaf spectral polarity were developed. Corrective procedures of the chlorophyll meter readings for the anthocyanin contribution are suggested both for the transmittance and reflectance mode.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MERCURY AS WELL AS CADMIUM AND ANTHOCYANIN CONTENTS IN WILD FOREST FRUITS FROM ENVIRONMENTALLY BURDEN REGION OF THE SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Zupka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between total mercury as well as cadmium contents and total anthocyanins content in wild forest fruit berries collected in environemtally burden region of Stredny Spis in the Slovakia was investigated in this study. From the sampling points of different localities of this region small berries were sampled: blackberries (6 localities, blackthorns (5 localities, rosehips (6 localities, hawthorn fruits. Metal determinations were performed in a Varian AA240Z (Varian, Australia atomic absorption spectrometer with Zeeman background correction. Total anthocyanin content (TA in fruits was determined spectrophotometrically using the spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV/VIS – 1240, Japan. With exception of three samples in all other fruit samples the hygienic limit for Cd (30 μg/kg given for foodstuffs by Slovak Republic Food Codex was exceeded. Only in one fruit sample the determined Hg content was higher than hygienic limit (30 μg/kg. Total anthocyanin content expressed as mg cyanidin equivalents/kg of fresh matter (mg CE/kg FM was in range 370 – 830 in blackberries (Rubus Fruticosus, 2500 – 3000 in rosehips (Rosa rubiginosa, 213 in raspberries (Prunus spinosa and 317 mg CE/kg FM in hawthorn berries (Crataegus laevigata. The strong statistical dependences between investigated parameters: Hg – TA in blackthorns, , Cd – TA in raspberries, Hg – TA in raspberries, Cd – TA in hawthorn and Hg – TA in hawthorn were confirmed based on the values of correlation coefficients (R= 0.6958, R= 0.9633, R= 0.9163, R= 0.8587 and R= 0.8938 , respectively.

  19. 加工方法对紫甘薯花色苷含量及组成的影响%Effectsof Processing Technique on Anthocyanin Composition and Content of Purple Sweet Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晰锐; 张超; 马越; 江连洲; 赵晓燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Effects of roasting, frying, and steaming treatments on the anthocyanin composition and content of purple sweet potato were evaluated. Methods: The anthocyanin content and compositions of the purple sweet potato was detected by HPLC-MS. Results: Each treatment decreased the anthocyanin content. The anthocyanin residual rate in purple sweet potato treated by frying, steaming, and roasting were 93.7%, 87.1%, and 60.0%, respectively. Moreover, the diacylated anthocyanin showed a stronger stability than the acylated ones. The stability of the caffeoyl anthocyanin was stronger than that of the phydroxybenzoyl anthocyanin. Conclusion: The frying and steaming were effective to hold the anthocyanin content of the purple sweet potato.%目的:研究烤、炸和蒸3种加工方法对紫甘薯花色苷的影响.方法:采用HPLC-MS法测定3种加工方法对紫甘薯花色苷含量及其组成的变化.结果:3种加工方法均可降低紫甘薯花色苷含量,其花色苷残余率:炸薯93.7%,蒸薯87.1%和烤薯60.0%.紫甘薯中双酰化的花色苷稳定性高于单酰化花色苷,咖啡酸酰化的花色苷组分稳定性高于对羟基苯甲酸酰化花色苷.结论:炸和蒸加工方法可有效维持紫甘薯花色苷含量.

  20. Expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in relation to anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin, and flavonol levels during bilberry fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakola, Laura; Määttä, Kaisu; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Törrönen, Riitta; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Hohtola, Anja

    2002-10-01

    The production of anthocyanins in fruit tissues is highly controlled at the developmental level. We have studied the expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes during the development of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) fruit in relation to the accumulation of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in wild berries and in color mutants of bilberry. The cDNA fragments of five genes from the flavonoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase, were isolated from bilberry using the polymerase chain reaction technique, sequenced, and labeled with a digoxigenin-dUTP label. These homologous probes were used for determining the expression of the flavonoid pathway genes in bilberries. The contents of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in ripening bilberries were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector and were identified using a mass spectrometry interface. Our results demonstrate a correlation between anthocyanin accumulation and expression of the flavonoid pathway genes during the ripening of berries. At the early stages of berry development, procyanidins and quercetin were the major flavonoids, but the levels decreased dramatically during the progress of ripening. During the later stages of ripening, the content of anthocyanins increased strongly and they were the major flavonoids in the ripe berry. The expression of flavonoid pathway genes in the color mutants of bilberry was reduced. A connection between flavonol and anthocyanin synthesis in bilberry was detected in this study and also in previous data collected from flavonol and anthocyanin analyses from other fruits. In accordance with this, models for the connection between flavonol and anthocyanin syntheses in fruit tissues are presented.

  1. Unraveling Anthocyanin Bioavailability for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lila, Mary Ann; Burton-Freeman, Britt; Grace, Mary; Kalt, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    This review considers the bioavailability of health-protective anthocyanin pigments from foods, in light of the multiple molecular structures and complicated traffic patterns taken by anthocyanins both as flavonoid metabolites and as phenolic acid metabolites within the body. Anthocyanins have generally been considered to have notoriously poor bioavailability, based on the very low levels typically detected in routine human blood draws after ingestion. Although some investigations have assessed anthocyanin bioavailability solely based on the measurement of parent anthocyanins or phenolic acid breakdown products, more recent research has increasingly revealed the presence, qualitative diversity, relatively high concentrations, and tenacity of molecular intermediates of anthocyanins that retain the unique flavonoid C6-C3-C6 backbone structure. We argue that the persistence of anthocyanin metabolites suggests enterohepatic recycling, leading to prolonged residence time, and supports the notion that anthocyanins are far more bioavailable than previously suggested.

  2. Mulberry anthocyanin biotransformation by intestinal probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Rong; Liu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Yi; Zhang, You-Sheng; Zhang, Ye-Hui

    2016-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate mulberry anthocyanins bioconversion traits for intestinal probiotics. Five intestinal beneficial bacteria were incubated with mulberry anthocyanins under anaerobic conditions at 37°C, and bacterial β-glucosidase activity and anthocyanin level were determined. Results demonstrated that all strains could convert mulberry anthocyanins to some extent. With high β-glucosidase production capacity, Streptococcus thermophiles GIM 1.321 and Lactobacillus plantarum GIM 1.35 degraded mulberry anthocyanins by 46.17% and 43.62%, respectively. Mulberry anthocyanins were mainly biotransformed to chlorogenic acid, crypto-chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid during the anaerobic process. Non-enzymatic deglycosylation of anthocyanins also occurred and approximately 19.42% of the anthocyanins were degraded within 48h by this method.

  3. LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Biao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes.

  4. Natural variation for anthocyanin accumulation under high-light and low-temperature stress is attributable to the ENHANCER OF AG-4 2 (HUA2) locus in combination with PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP1) and PAP2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilk, Nadine; Ding, Jia; Ihnatowicz, Anna; Koornneef, Maarten; Reymond, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Growing conditions combining high light intensities and low temperatures lead to anthocyanin accumulation in plants. This response was contrasted between two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, which were used to decipher the genetic and molecular bases underlying the variation of this response. Qua

  5. 山葡萄果实发育过程中花色苷含量变化研究%Changes of Anthocyanins Content in Fruit Development of Vitis amurensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵权

    2013-01-01

    Taking Vitis amurensis Rupr. Var. 'Zuohongyi' as test materials and applying HPLC-MS/MS technology, varieties and changes of anthocyanins content in fruit development were studied. The results showed that there was no anthocyanins accumulation in peel before turning color phase. As the fruit matured, anthocyanin content increased gradually and reached the most when fruit picked. 13 kinds of anthocyanins had been detected in fruit development of Vitis amurensis., in which 6 anthocyanins were diglucosides and 7 anthocyanins were monoglucosides.%以山葡萄左红一果实为试材,应用HPLC-MS/MS技术,对山葡萄果实发育过程中花色苷种类及含量变化进行了研究.结果表明,转色期前果皮内没有花色苷积累,随着果实成熟,花色苷含量逐渐增加,成熟期含量最高;在山葡萄果实发育过程中检测出花色苷13种,其中双糖苷6种、单糖苷7种.

  6. Identification of anthocyanin biosynthesis related microRNAs in a distinctive Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuyan; Qiu, Yang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2017-02-01

    Anthocyanins are widely distributed water-soluble phytochemical pigments belonging to the flavonoid group. To date, limited knowledge is available about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. To identify the miRNAs associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish, five small RNA (sRNA) libraries constructed from 'Xinlimei' radish roots at 11, 21, 44, 56 and 73 days (d) were examined using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 102.02 million (M) clean reads were generated, from which 483 known and 1415 novel miRNAs were identified. Combined with target prediction and annotation, 72 differentially expressed miRNAs (52 known and 20 novel miRNAs) were more likely to participate in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Several target genes for these miRNAs encode a few transcription factors, including Myb domain (MYB), basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), WD40 repeat, squamosa promoter binding protein like (SPL), auxin response factor (ARF), ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3), WRKY and MADS-box proteins. Furthermore, the expression patterns of some anthocyanin biosynthesis related miRNAs and their corresponding targets were validated by RT-qPCR. Based on the characterization of anthocyanin biosynthesis related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative miRNA-target module regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis was proposed. This study represents the first genome-wide identification of miRNAs associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish, and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish and other crops.

  7. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  8. Simultaneous analysis of anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin flavonoid in various tissues of different lotus (Nelumbo cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Chen

    Full Text Available A validated HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n method for the analysis of non-anthocyanin flavonoids was applied to nine different tissues of twelve lotus genotypes of Nelumbo nucifera and N. lutea, together with an optimized anthocyanin extraction and separation protocol for lotus petals. A total of five anthocyanins and twenty non-anthocyanin flavonoids was identified and quantified. Flavonoid contents and compositions varied with cultivar and tissue and were used as a basis to divide tissues into three groups characterized by kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. Influences on flower petal coloration were investigated by principal components analyses. High contents of kaempferol glycosides were detected in the petals of N. nucifera while high quercetin glycoside concentrations occurred in N. lutea. Based on these results, biosynthetic pathways leading to specific compounds in lotus tissues are deduced through metabolomic analysis of different genotypes and tissues and correlations among flavonoid compounds.

  9. A multidrug resistance-associated protein involved in anthocyanin transport in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Christopher Dean; Casati, Paula; Walbot, Virginia

    2004-07-01

    Anthocyanin biosynthesis is one of the most thoroughly studied enzymatic pathways in biology, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of its final stage: the transport of the anthocyanin pigment into the vacuole. We have identified a multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), ZmMrp3, that is required for this transport process in maize (Zea mays). ZmMrp3 expression is controlled by the regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis and mirrors the expression of other anthocyanin structural genes. Localization of ZmMRP3 in vivo shows its presence in the tonoplast, the site at which anthocyanin transport occurs. Mutants generated using antisense constructs have a distinct pigmentation phenotype in the adult plant that results from a mislocalization of the pigment as well as significant reduction in anthocyanin content, with no alteration in the anthocyanin species produced. Surprisingly, mutant plants did not show a phenotype in the aleurone. This appears to reflect the presence of a second, highly homologous gene, ZmMrp4, that is also coregulated with the anthocyanin pathway but is expressed exclusively in aleurone tissue. This description of a plant MRP with a role in the transport of a known endogenous substrate provides a new model system for examining the biological and biochemical mechanisms involved in the MRP-mediated transport of plant secondary metabolites.

  10. Foliar-applied ethephon enhances the content of anthocyanin of black carrot roots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Glied, Stephan; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) constitute a valuable source of anthocyanins, which are used as natural red, blue and purple food colourants. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds are specialised metabolites, accumulation of which often requires elicitors...

  11. 越橘果实花青苷含量及其不同发育阶段的变化%Contents and changes of anthocyanin in blueberry during fruit development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春雨; 王晶莹; 郭庆勋; 周连霞; 贾承国

    2012-01-01

    对25个高丛越橘,9个半高丛越橘品种和10个杂交后代的花青苷含量进行分析.结果表明,越橘品种花青苷含量在52.700~233.000 U·g1 FW之间,其中艾木蓝花青苷含量最高.高丛越橘品种平均为103.771 U·g-1FW,品种间的变异系数为29.48%,半高丛越橘品种平均为99.956U·g-1FW,品种间的变异系数为19.64%.杂交后代类型的花青苷平均含量为135.860U ·g-1 FW,高于高丛越橘和半高丛越橘平均值.对果实发育过程中花青苷含量变化进行分析显示,越橘果实花青苷主要存在于果皮中,粉色期是花青苷合成的主要时期,而50%蓝色期是越橘花青苷迅速合成期.%The contents of anthocyanin in 25 highbush blueberry, 9 half-highbush blueberry, and 10 blueberry hybrid progeny fruits were analyzed. The results showed that content of anthocyanin ranged from 52.700 to 233.000 U·g-1 FW, in which the content of Amblue anthocyanin was the highest. Average anthocyanin content of highbush blueberry and half-highbush blueberry was 103.771 and 99.956 U·g-1 FW, respectively. The coefficient of variation of anthocyanin contents was 29.48% between the highbush blueberry cultivars, and 19.64% between the half-highbush blueberry cultivars. Average anthocyanin content of hybrid progeny was 135.860 U·g-1 FW, which was higher than that of highbush blueberry and half-highbush blueberry. The change of anthocyanin content was detected during fruit development. The results showed that anthocyanin primarily lied in the skin for blueberry. Pink stage was the key syntheses stage and 50% blue stage was the rapid syntheses stage for blueberry.

  12. Stability of Anthocyanins from Rubus glaucus and Solanum betaceum as affected by Temperature and Water Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzon Monroy Gloria Astrid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of sprayed-dried microencapsulated anthocyanins from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus and Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum, as affected by storage time, water activity (Aw and temperature was compared. The fruits were osmotically dehydrated with ethanol and the anthocyanin extract was microencapsulated with maltodextrin DE 20 by spray drying. Half life of the anthocyanins; changes in color, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of the powders, were analyzed during storage at two different temperatures (25 °C and 40 °C and two Aw levels (0.20 and 0.35. A decrease in monomeric anthocyanin was observed in both samples. The half life of the Andes berry pigments ranged between 11 and 32 days while the half life of the tamarillo pigments ranged between 9 and 21 days. A darkening effect occurred in both samples as a result of storage time.  The antioxidant activity decreased while the phenolic content increased with time. Antioxidant activity of Andes berry samples was highly correlated with anthocyanin content and total phenolic content while the antioxidant activity of tamarillo samples was highly correlated with total phenolic content. These results would be useful in developing applications for spray-dried anthocyanin as powdered food-grade colorants.

  13. Functional conservation analysis and expression modes of grape anthocyanin synthesis genes responsive to low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Jia, Haifeng; Wu, Weimin; Wang, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui; Wang, Chen

    2015-12-10

    In grape cultivation, low temperature generally increases the expression of genes involved in synthesis of anthocyanin. In this study, multi-type structural analysis of the proteins encoded by five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes VvF3H, VvPAL, VvCHS3, VvCHS2 and VvLDOX, in addition to nine of their homologous genes revealed that proteins in grapevine shared a high similarity with that in kiwi, red orange and some other species in which the biosynthesis of anthocyanin significantly influenced by low temperature as proved by previous studies. Low temperature regulatory elements were also found in the promoter region of the grapevine genes VvCHS2, VvPAL and VvF3H. These findings indicate that the functions of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in grapevine are conservative and might be sensitive to low temperature. In order to identify the specific expression patterns of the five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and the changes of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids under low temperature stress. The transcription analysis of the five genes and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids in grape skins were examined, by using Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Yongyou 1' and 'Juxing' berries as experimental material and treated at 4°C and 25°C for 24h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h. The results showed that low temperature greatly enhanced the expression of the five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Low temperature greatly slowed down the decomposition of polyphenol, anthocyanin, and flavonoid in grape skins. Our study also found that cv. 'Juxing' responded more sensitively to low temperature than cv. 'Yongyou 1'. All the findings would provide a basis for further study on the mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis under environmental stress.

  14. Low medium pH value enhances anthocyanin accumulation in Malus crabapple leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchen Zhang

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin is a critical factor involved in coloration of plant tissues, but the mechanism how medium pH values affect anthocyanin accumulation in woody plants is unknown. We analyzed anthocyanin composition and the expression of elements encoding anthocyanin and flavonols biosynthesis underlying different medium pH values by using three different leave color type cultivars. HPLC analysis demonstrated that high medium pH values treatment induced a dramatic decrease in the concentration of cyaniding in crabapple leaves. Conversely, the high medium pH values induced up-regulation of the content of flavones and flavonols, suggesting that low pH treatment-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Quantitative real time PCR experiment showed the expression level of anthocyanidin synthase (McANS and uridine diphosphate glucose flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (McUFGT was up-regulated by low pH values treatment, and high medium pH value treatment up-regulate the transcription level of flavonol synthase (McFLS. Meanwhile, several MYB TFs have been suggested in the regulation of pH responses. These results strongly indicate that the low pH treatment-induced anthocyanin accumulation is mediated by the variation of mRNA transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes.

  15. Study on the Content Change of Anthocyanins in the Process of Blueberry Vinegar Fermentation%探究蓝莓果醋发酵过程中花青素含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文艳; 蒋予箭

    2015-01-01

    Adopt vanillic aldehyde-sulfuric acid colorimetry to detect the content of anthocyanins during the process of alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of blueberry vinegar.Based on the results,discuss the effects of blueberry vinegar fermentation process on anthocyanins.%采用香草醛-硫酸比色法测定蓝莓果醋发酵过程中酒精发酵和醋酸发酵阶段的花青素含量,根据实验结果分析探究蓝莓果醋发酵过程对花青素的影响。

  16. Heterologous expression of IbMYB1a by different promoters exhibits different patterns of anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chul Han; Lee, Ki-Won; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jeong, Yu Jeong; Woo, Su Gyoung; Chun, Hyokon; Park, Youn-Il; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Kim, Cha Young

    2015-04-01

    We previously reported that the transient and stable expression of IbMYB1a produced anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves and transgenic Arabidopsis plants, respectively. To further determine the effects of different promoters on the expression of IbMYB1a and anthocyanin production, we generated and characterized stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) plants expressing IbMYB1a under the control of three different promoters. We compared the differences in anthocyanin accumulation patterns and phenotypic features of the leaves of these transgenic tobacco plants during growth. Expression of IbMYB1a under the control of these three different promoters led to a remarkable variation in anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves. The anthocyanin contents of the leaves of the SPO-IbMYB1a-OX (SPO-M) line were higher than those of the SWPA2-IbMYB1a-OX (SPA-M) and 35S-IbMYB1a-OX (35S-M) lines. High levels of anthocyanin pigments negatively affected plant growth in the SPO-M lines, resulting delayed growth and, occasionally, a stunted phenotype. Furthermore, HPLC analysis revealed that transcriptional regulation of IbMYB1a led to the production of cyanidin-based anthocyanins in the tobacco plants. In addition, RT-PCR analysis revealed that IbMYB1a expression induced the up-regulation of several structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, including DFR and ANS. Differential expression levels of IbMYB1a under the control of different promoters were highly correlated with the expression levels of the structural genes, thereby affecting anthocyanin production levels. These results indicate that IbMYB1a positively controls the expression of multiple anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and anthocyanin accumulation in heterologous tobacco plants.

  17. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranca, Florina; Oroian, Mircea

    2016-07-01

    The present study describes the extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant peel using ultrasonic treatments and methanol and 2-propanol as extraction solvents. The extraction yields were optimized by varying the solvent concentration, ultrasonic frequency, temperature and time of ultrasonic treatment. Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results showed that for TPC extraction the optimal condition were obtained with a methanol concentration of 76.6%, 33.88 kHz ultrasonic frequency, a temperature of 69.4 °C and 57.5 min extraction time. For TMA the optimal condition were the following: 54.4% methanol concentration, 37 kHz, 55.1 °C and process time of 44.85 min. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins content in Romanian red wines: prediction of antioxidant activities and classification of wines using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosu, Anamaria; Cristea, Vasile-Mircea; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Wine is one of the most consumed beverages over the world containing large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are responsible for quality of red wines, influencing the antioxidant activity, astringency, bitterness and colour, their composition in wine being influenced by the varieties, the vintage and the wineries. The aim of the present work is to build software instruments intended to work as data-mining tools for predicting valuable properties of wine and for revealing different wine classes. The developed ANNs are able to reveal the relationships between the concentration of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins content, associated to the antioxidant activity, and the wine distinctive classes determined by the wine variety, harvesting year or winery. The presented ANNs proved to be reliable software tools for assessment or validation of the wine essential characteristics and authenticity and may be further used to establish a database of analytical characteristics of wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anthocyanins and flavonols are responsible for purple color of Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Baolu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Jingtao; Yin, Wencheng; Feng, Ye; Xie, Qiaoli; Chen, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Lablab pods, as dietary vegetable, have high nutritional values similar to most of edible legumes. Moreover, our studies confirmed that purple lablab pods contain the natural pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols. Compared to green pods, five kinds of anthocyanins (malvidin, delphinidin and petunidin derivatives) were found in purple pods by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major contents were delphinidin derivatives. Besides, nine kinds of polyphenol derivatives (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and apigenin derivatives) were detected by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major components were quercetin and myricetin derivatives. In order to discover their molecular mechanism, expression patterns of biosynthesis and regulatory gens of anthocyanins and flavonols were investigated. Experimental results showed that LpPAL, LpF3H, LpF3'H, LpDFR, LpANS and LpPAP1 expressions were significantly induced in purple pods compared to green ones. Meanwhile, transcripts of LpFLS were more abundant in purple pods than green or yellow ones, suggestind that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols are accumulated in purple pods. Under continuously dark condition, no anthocyanin accumulation was detected in purple pods and transcripts of LpCHS, LpANS, LpFLS and LpPAP1 were remarkably repressed, indicating that anthocyanins and flavonols biosynthesis in purple pods was regulated in light-dependent manner. These results indicate that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols contribute to purple pigmentations of pods.

  20. Contribution of Anthocyanin Composition to Total Antioxidant Capacity of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gil; Vance, Terrence M; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthocyanin composition to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of berries having different anthocyanin composition; blackberry, black currant, and blueberry. Blackberry demonstrated the highest TAC, while it had the lowest total anthocyanin content among the three berries in both of the phenolic extract and anthocyanin fractions. On the other hand, black currant had the highest total anthocyanin content, but the lowest TAC. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (cya-3-glc) accounted for 94% of blackberry anthocyanins, and as one of the strongest antioxidants present in these three berries, it substantially contributed to the TAC of blackberry anthocyanin fraction (96.0%). Delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside in black currant had lower antioxidant capacities compared with delphinin-3-O-glucoside and cya-3-glc, resulting in its lowest TAC among berry anthocyanin fractions examined. Malvidin derivatives, major anthocyanins of blueberry, had considerably lower antioxidant capacity than other anthocyanidin derivatives, such as cyanidin or delphinidin, resulting in lower TAC of blueberry compared with blackberry. Our findings indicate that anthocyanin composition as well as the antioxidant capacity of individual anthocyanins contributes to the TAC of berries rich in distinct anthocyanins.

  1. Composition and antioxidant activity of the anthocyanins of the fruit of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Li; Gao, Wan; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Li, Cheng; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun; Ji, Teng-Fei

    2014-11-19

    In present study, the anthocyanin composition and content of the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk were determined for the first time. The total anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk using 0.5% HCl in 80% methanol and were then purified using an AB-8 macroporous resin column. The purified anthocyanin extract (PAE) was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-high resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-HR-ESI-MS) under the same experimental conditions. The results revealed the presence of seven different anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins purified by preparative HPLC were confirmed to be delphinidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (30.3%), cyanidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (33.5%), petunidin-3-Ο-glucopyranoside (10.5%), peonidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (8.5%) and malvidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (13.8%) using HPLC-HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The total anthocyanin content was 2036.6 ± 2.2 mg/100 g of the fresh weight of B. heteropoda Schrenk fruit. In terms of its total reducing capacity assay, DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS radical cation-scavenging activity assay, the PAE also showed potent antioxidant activity. The results are valuable for illuminating anthocyanins composition of B. heteropoda Schrenk and for further utilising them as a promising anthocyanin pigment source. This research enriched the chemical information of B. heteropoda Schrenk.

  2. Identification of MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes Related to the Accumulation of Anthocyanins in Litchi chinensis by High-Throughput Sequencing and Degradome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Lai, Biao; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yonghua; Hu, Guibing; Zhao, Jietang

    2017-01-01

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is an important subtropical fruit in southern China and the fruit pericarp has attractive red skin at maturity, which is provided by anthocyanins accumulation. To understand the anthocyanin biosynthesis at post-transcriptional level, we investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) during fruit coloring. In the present study, four small RNA libraries and a mixed degradome library from pericarps of ‘Feizixiao’ litchi at different developmental phases were constructed and sequenced by Solexa technology. A total of 78 conserved miRNAs belonging to 35 miRNA families and 41 novel miRNAs were identified via high-throughput sequencing, and 129 genes were identified as their targets by the recently developed degradome sequencing. miR156a and a novel microRNA (NEW41) were found to be differentially expressed during fruit coloring, indicating they might affect anthocyanin biosynthesis through their target genes in litchi. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression changes of miR156a and the novel microRNA (NEW41) were inversely correlated with the expression profiles of their target genes LcSPL1/2 and LcCHI, respectively, suggesting regulatory roles of these miRNAs during anthocyanin biosynthesis. The target genes of miR156a, LcSPL1/2, encode transcription factors, as evidenced by a localization in the nucleus, that might play roles in the regulation of transcription. To further explore the relationship of LcSPL1/2 with the anthocyanin regulatory genes, yeast two-hybrid and BiFC analyses showed that LcSPL1 proteins could interact with LcMYB1, which is the key regulatory gene in anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi. This study represents a comprehensive expression profiling of miRNAs in anthocyanin biosynthesis during litchi fruit maturity and confirmed that the miR156- SPLs module was conserved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi. PMID:28119728

  3. 蓝靛果中花色苷含量的测定及其体外抗氧化性%Determination the Anthocyanin Content in Lonicera edulis by pH-differential Spectrophotometry and the Antioxidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕琳; 王振宇

    2011-01-01

    蓝靛果是具有丰富的花色苷的一种浆果,经常温用60%乙醇提取蓝靛果粉末后,用pH示差法对其干物质中的花色苷含量进行测定,测定得蓝靛果干物质中的花色苷含量为12.232mg/g。并测定其体外抗氧化性,分别对羟自由基、超氧自由基、DPPH自由基和ABTS自由基的清除率进行测定,用VC作为阳性对照,可得蓝靛果花色苷具有极强的抗氧化性,可用于保健食品药品等领域。%Lonicera edulis is the berry which possess rich anthocyanins. After extracted anthocyanin from Lonicera edulis powder in normal temperature by 60 % ethanol, the anthocyanin content in dry matter is determined by pH-differential spectrophotometry. We concluded that the anthocyanin content in Lonicera edulis diy matter is 12. 232mg/g. Determinated the antioxidanee of it by the scavenging effects of it on · OH, 02 -· ,DPPH and ABTS respectively with VC as the control group. We concluded that the Loncera edulis anthocyanins possess strong antioxidance. Application health care food and drug,etc.

  4. 三七块根紫色素的花色苷本质及其含量和总皂苷含量的正相关性%Anthocyanin essence of the purple pigment and positive correlation of the anthocyanin content and the total ginsenoside content of the root tuber of Panax notoginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昶灵; 王颖; 段承俐; 陈中坚; 萧凤回

    2008-01-01

    三七是中国云南省的"第一药材",云南文山三七是三七的道地药材.三七块根的横截面为黄白色至紫色.紫色块根约占研究块根总数的28.21%,其中柱鞘、内皮层、皮层或表皮为紫色.特征颜色反应和紫外--可见光谱表明:三七块根紫色素属于黄酮类化合物,可能含有酚性邻位二羟基,不含类胡萝卜素、查耳酮、噢哢、异黄酮、儿茶素.花色苷和/或其苷元花色素奠定了紫色块根着色的基础,其他的非红色的黄酮类化合物起共色素的作用.块根的平均花色苷含量和平均总皂苷含量均以纯紫色块根的为最高,其次是黄紫混合色块根的,纯黄色的最低.块根的花色苷含量差异达到极显著水平,但总皂苷含量差异却没有达到显著水平.每个块根都含有不同量的花色苷,随花色苷量的增加,块根的紫色一般逐渐明显.块根的花色苷含量与其总皂苷含量之间呈显著正相关,相关系数r=0.355.本文可为三七块根颜色呈现的机理探索及其色素的分子结构鉴定提供参考.%Panax Notoginseng is"the first medinal mateial"in Yunnan of China and P. notoginseng produced in the Wenshan eparchy of Yunnan is the Genuine Medicinal Material of P. Notoginseng. The transverse sections of the root tubers of P. notoginseng range from yelowish white to purple. The root tubers with pure purple occupy about 28.21% of the root tubers researched,and their pericycles, endodermises cortexes or epidermises are purple. Specific color reactions and UV-vis spectra indicated that the purple pigment of the root tuber of P. notoginseng belongs to flavonoids,probably holding phenolic o-dihydroxyls, excluding carotenoids, chalcones, aurones,isoflavones and cate-chins. Anthocyanins and/or their aglycones,namely anthocyanidinsunderlay the pigmentation of the purple root tu-ber and other non-red flavonoids function as co-pigments. The average anthocyanin content and the average total gin

  5. Melatonin improved anthocyanin accumulation by regulating gene expressions and resulted in high reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we found that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase, was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth.

  6. Application of natural deep eutectic solvents to the extraction of anthocyanins from Catharanthus roseus with high extractability and stability replacing conventional organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yuntao; Rozema, Evelien; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2016-02-19

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent times as promising green media. They are generally composed of neutral, acidic or basic compounds that form liquids of high viscosity when mixed in certain molar ratio. Despite their potential, viscosity and acid or basic nature of some ingredients may affect the extraction capacity and stabilizing ability of the target compounds. To investigate these effects, extraction with a series of NADES was employed for the analysis of anthocyanins in flower petals of Catharanthus roseus in combination with HPLC-DAD-based metabolic profiling. Along with the extraction yields of anthocyanins their stability in NADES was also studied. Multivariate data analysis indicates that the lactic acid-glucose (LGH), and 1,2-propanediol-choline chloride (PCH) NADES present a similar extraction power for anthocyanins as conventional organic solvents. Furthermore, among the NADES employed, LGH exhibits an at least three times higher stabilizing capacity for cyanidins than acidified ethanol, which facilitates their extraction and analysis process. Comparing NADES to the conventional organic solvents, in addition to their reduced environmental impact, they proved to provide higher stability for anthocyanins, and therefore have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health related areas such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

  7. Determination of color, pigment, and phenolic stability in yogurt systems colored with nonacylated anthocyanins from Berberis boliviana L. as compared to other natural/synthetic colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, T C; Giusti, M M

    2008-05-01

    Anthocyanins are of interest to the food industry because of their antioxidant power, attractive color, and stability in high acid foods. Powder from the Peruvian berry Berberis boliviana Lechler, rich in nonacylated anthocyanins (7% to 8% dry weight), was incorporated into yogurt samples containing 3 different fat levels. Color (CIE L, a, b, chroma, and hue angle), pigment (monomeric anthocyanin and polymeric color), and total phenolics were monitored over 8 wk of storage and compared to yogurt treatments containing purple carrot acylated anthocyanins, red beet betalaines, or FD&C Red nr 40. Anthocyanin profiles were analyzed by HPLC coupled to photodiode array and mass detectors. Color of yogurt containing B. boliviana anthocyanins at 20 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (cy-3-glu) equivalents/100 g yogurt (L*= 65, chroma = 14, and hue angle = 335 degrees ) was similar to commercial blueberry yogurt (L*= 65, chroma = 10.5, and hue angle = 341 degrees ). High color, pigment, and phenolic stability were observed in yogurts colored with B. boliviana, independent of the fat matrix. Acylated anthocyanins from purple carrot extracts exhibited increased stability with higher fat content. Anthocyanin degradation followed 1st-order kinetics. Pigment half-lives were 125 and 104 d for nonacylated anthocyanins at 10 and 20 mg cy-3-glu equivalents/100 g yogurt and 550.2, 232.6, and 128.9 d for acylated anthocyanins at 20 mg of cy-3-glu equivalents/100 g of 4%, 2%, and 0% fat yogurt. Addition of B. boliviana whole berry powder to yogurt matrices produced an attractive, stable anthocyanin-rich product, eliminating the need for industrial colorant extraction.

  8. An Intracellular Laccase Is Responsible for Epicatechin-Mediated Anthocyanin Degradation in Litchi Fruit Pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xue-lian; Luo, Hong-hui; Zhou, Jia-jian; Gong, Yi-hui; Li, Wen-jun; Shi, Zhao-wan; He, Quan; Wu, Qing; Li, Lu; Jiang, Lin-lin; Cai, Zhi-gao; Oren-Shamir, Michal; Zhang, Zhao-qi; Pang, Xue-qun

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to the detailed molecular knowledge available on anthocyanin synthesis, little is known about its catabolism in plants. Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit lose their attractive red color soon after harvest. The mechanism leading to quick degradation of anthocyanins in the pericarp is not well understood. An anthocyanin degradation enzyme (ADE) was purified to homogeneity by sequential column chromatography, using partially purified anthocyanins from litchi pericarp as a substrate. The purified ADE, of 116 kD by urea SDS-PAGE, was identified as a laccase (ADE/LAC). The full-length complementary DNA encoding ADE/LAC was obtained, and a polyclonal antibody raised against a deduced peptide of the gene recognized the ADE protein. The anthocyanin degradation function of the gene was confirmed by its transient expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves. The highest ADE/LAC transcript abundance was in the pericarp in comparison with other tissues, and was about 1,000-fold higher than the polyphenol oxidase gene in the pericarp. Epicatechin was found to be the favorable substrate for the ADE/LAC. The dependence of anthocyanin degradation by the enzyme on the presence of epicatechin suggests an ADE/LAC epicatechin-coupled oxidation model. This model was supported by a dramatic decrease in epicatechin content in the pericarp parallel to anthocyanin degradation. Immunogold labeling transmission electron microscopy suggested that ADE/LAC is located mainly in the vacuole, with essential phenolic substances. ADE/LAC vacuolar localization, high expression levels in the pericarp, and high epicatechin-dependent anthocyanin degradation support its central role in pigment breakdown during pericarp browning.

  9. Intermolecular binding of blueberry pectin-rich fractions and anthocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Fischer, J; Wicker, L

    2016-03-01

    Pectin was extracted from blueberry powder into three fractions of water soluble (WSF), chelator soluble (CSF) and sodium carbonate soluble (NSF). The fractions were incubated with cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a mixture of five anthocyanidins (cyanidin, pelargonidin, malvidin, petunidin and delphinidin) or blueberry juice at pH 2.0-4.5. Free anthocyanins and bound anthocyanin-pectin mixtures were separated by ultrafiltration. WSF bound the least amount of anthocyanin at all pH values. CSF had stronger anthocyanin binding ability at pH 2.0-3.6, while NSF had stronger anthocyanin binding ability at pH 3.6-4.5. The pectin and anthocyanin binding was lowest at pH 4.5 and higher at pH 2.0-3.6. Nearly doubling C3G pigment content increased bound anthocyanin percentage by 16-23% at pH 3.6, which favored anthocyanin aromatic stacking, compared to 3-9% increase at pH 2.0. Ionic interaction between anthocyanin flavylium cations and free pectic carboxyl groups, and anthocyanin stacking may be two major mechanisms for pectin and anthocyanin binding.

  10. Microencapsulation by spray-drying of anthocyanin pigments from Corozo ( Bactris guineensis) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Coralia; Acevedo, Baudilio; Hillebrand, Silke; Carriazo, José; Winterhalter, Peter; Morales, Alicia Lucía

    2010-06-09

    The anthocyanins of Bactris guineensis fruit were isolated with the aid of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC, and their chemical structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods. Among the identified pigments, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside were characterized as major constituents (87.9%). Peonidin-3-rutinoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6-O-malonyl)glucoside, and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were present in minor amounts. Four anthocyanin ethanolic extracts (AEEs) were obtained by osmotic dehydration and Soxhlet extraction and physicochemically characterized. The composition of anthocyanins was monitored by HPLC-PDA. The extracts with the highest anthocyanin content were subjected to the spray-drying process with maltodextrin. The so-obtained spray-dried powders were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to consist of spherical particles <50 microm in size. The anthocyanin composition was similar to that of the fruit. The microencapsulated powders were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), revealing that they are quite stable until 100 degrees C. Storage stability tests of microcapsules showed that the release of anthocyanin pigments follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and that the process rate is increased by temperature and humidity. The most suitable conditions for storage were below 37 degrees C and <76% relative humidity, respectively.

  11. Optimization of the Extraction of Anthocyanins from the Fruit Skin of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait. Hassk and Identification of Anthocyanins in the Extract Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ming Sun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenols that impart bright color to fruits, vegetables and plants. In this study, the extraction of anthocyanins from freeze-dried fruit skin of downy rose-myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait. Hassk var. Gangren was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. Using 60% ethanol containing 0.1% (v/v hydrochloric acid as extraction solvent, the optimal conditions for maximum yields of anthocyanin (4.358 ± 0.045 mg/g were 15.7:1 (v/w liquid to solid ratio, 64.38 °C with a 116.88 min extraction time. The results showed good fits with the proposed model for the anthocyanin extraction (R2 = 0.9944. Furthermore, the results of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of the anthocyanins extracted from the fruit skin of downy rose-myrtle revealed the presence of five anthocyanin components, which were tentatively identified as delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside.

  12. A putative functional MYB transcription factor induced by low temperature regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Li, Yali; Zhou, Shuang; Chen, Guoping

    2012-02-01

    The purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor) is a mutation in kales, giving the mutant phenotype of brilliant purple color in the interior. Total anthocyanin analysis showed that the amount of anthocyanins in the purple kale was up to 1.73 mg g(-1) while no anthocyanin was detected in the white kale. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple kale, we analyzed the expression of structural genes and some transcription factors associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar "Red Dove" and the white cultivar "White Dove". The result showed that nearly all the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes showed higher expression levels in the purple cultivar than in the white cultivar, especially for DFR and ANS, they were barely detected in the white cultivar. Interestingly, the fact that a R2R3 MYB transcription factor named BoPAP1 was extremely up-regulated in the purple kale and induced by low temperature attracted our attention. Further sequence analysis showed that BoPAP1 shared high similarity with AtPAP1 and BoMYB1. In addition, the anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale is strongly induced by the low temperature stress. The total anthocyanin contents in the purple kale under low temperature were about 50-fold higher than the plants grown in the greenhouse. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes C4H, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFGT were all enhanced under the low temperature. These evidences strongly suggest that BoPAP1 may play an important role in activating the anthocyanin structural genes for the abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale.

  13. Antibacterial Properties and Effects of Fruit Chilling and Extract Storage on Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Anthocyanin Content of Four Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azizan Samad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °C for 8 weeks, extract storage at −20 °C for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone on total phenolic content (TPC, antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Saudi Arabian P. dactylifera cv Mabroom, Safawi and Ajwa, as well as Iranian P. dactylifera cv Mariami. The storage stability of total anthocyanin content (TAC was also evaluated, before and after storing the extracts at −20 °C and 4 °C respectively, for 5 weeks. Mariami had the highest TAC (3.18 ± 1.40 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW while Mabroom had the lowest TAC (0.54 ± 0.15 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW. The TAC of all extracts increased after storage. The chilling of date palm fruits for 8 weeks prior to solvent extraction elevated the TPC of all date fruit extracts, except for methanolic extracts of Mabroom and Mariami. All IC50 values of all cultivars decreased after the fruit chilling treatment. Methanol was a better solvent compared to acetone for the extraction of phenolic compounds in dates. The TPC of all cultivars extracts decreased after 5 weeks of extract storage. IC50 values of all cultivars extracts increased after extract storage except for the methanolic extracts of Safawi and Ajwa. Different cultivars exhibited different antibacterial properties. Only the methanolic extract of Ajwa exhibited antibacterial activity against all four bacteria tested: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli. These results could be useful to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based products.

  14. Antibacterial Properties and Effects of Fruit Chilling and Extract Storage on Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Anthocyanin Content of Four Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Muhammad Azizan; Hashim, Siti Hajar; Simarani, Khanom; Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati

    2016-03-26

    Phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °C for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °C for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Saudi Arabian P. dactylifera cv Mabroom, Safawi and Ajwa, as well as Iranian P. dactylifera cv Mariami. The storage stability of total anthocyanin content (TAC) was also evaluated, before and after storing the extracts at -20 °C and 4 °C respectively, for 5 weeks. Mariami had the highest TAC (3.18 ± 1.40 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW) while Mabroom had the lowest TAC (0.54 ± 0.15 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW). The TAC of all extracts increased after storage. The chilling of date palm fruits for 8 weeks prior to solvent extraction elevated the TPC of all date fruit extracts, except for methanolic extracts of Mabroom and Mariami. All IC50 values of all cultivars decreased after the fruit chilling treatment. Methanol was a better solvent compared to acetone for the extraction of phenolic compounds in dates. The TPC of all cultivars extracts decreased after 5 weeks of extract storage. IC50 values of all cultivars extracts increased after extract storage except for the methanolic extracts of Safawi and Ajwa. Different cultivars exhibited different antibacterial properties. Only the methanolic extract of Ajwa exhibited antibacterial activity against all four bacteria tested: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli. These results could be useful to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based products.

  15. Insight into the role of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes in Medicago truncatula mutants impaired in pigmentation in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, Giorgia; Lucini, Luigi; Busconi, Matteo; Marocco, Adriano; Bernardi, Jamila

    2013-09-01

    Flavonoids are the most common antioxidant compounds produced in plants. In this study, two wild types and two independent mutants of Medicago truncatula with altered anthocyanin content in leaves were characterized at the phenotype, metabolite profile, gene structure and transcript levels. Flavonoid profiles showed conserved levels of dihydroflavonols, leucoanthocyanidins and flavonols, while anthocyanidin, anthocyanin and isoflavone levels were lower in the mutants (up to 90% less) compared with the wild types. Genes encoding key enzymes of the anthocyanin pathway and transcriptional factors were analyzed by RT-PCR. Genes involved in the later steps of the anthocyanin pathway (dihydrokaempferol reductase 2, UDP-glucose:anthocyanin 3-O-glucosyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase) were found under-expressed in both mutants. Dihydrokaempferol reductase 1 was downregulated two-fold in the anthocyanin-less mutant while the UDP-glucose:anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase was strongly repressed only in the mutant with low pigmentation, suggesting a different regulation in the two genotypes. The common feature was that the first enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were not altered in rate of expression. A very high reduction in transcript accumulation was also found for two homologous R2R3 MYB genes, namely MtMYBA and AN2, suggesting that these genes have a role in anthocyanin accumulation in leaves. More evidence was found on analyzing their nucleotide sequence: several SNPs, insertions and deletions in the coding and non-coding regions of both MYB genes were found between mutants and wild types that could influence anthocyanin biosynthesis. Moreover, a subfamily of eight MYB genes with a high homology to MtMYBA was discovered in tandem on chromosome 5 of M. truncatula.

  16. Exogenous application of pectin-derived oligosaccharides to grape berries modifies anthocyanin accumulation, composition and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Daniel; Handford, Michael; Alcalde, José Antonio; Perez-Donoso, Alonso

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites synthesized in grape berry skins via the phenylpropanoid pathway, with functions ranging from skin coloration to protection against pathogens or UV light. Accumulation of these compounds is highly variable depending on genetics, environmental factors and viticultural practices. Besides their biological functions, anthocyanins improve wine quality, as a high anthocyanin content in berries has a positive impact on the color, total phenolic concentration and, ultimately, the price of wine. The present work studies the effect of the pre-veraison application of pectin derived oligosaccharides (PDO) on the synthesis and accumulation of these compounds, and associates the changes observed with the expression of key genes in the phenylpropanoid pathways. To this end, pre-veraison Cabernet Sauvignon bunches were treated with PDO to subsequently determine total anthocyanin content, the anthocyanin profile (by HPLC-DAD) and gene expression (by qRT-PCR), using Ethrel and water treatments for comparison. The results show that PDO were as efficient as Ethrel in generating a significant rise in total anthocyanin content at 30 days after treatment (dat), compared with water treatments (1.32, 1.48 and 1.02 mg e.Mv-3G/g FW respectively) without any undesirable effect on berry size, soluble solids, tartaric acid concentration or pH. In addition, a significant alteration in the anthocyanin profile was observed. Specifically, a significant increase in the relative concentration of malvidin was observed for both PDO and Ethrel treatments, compared with water controls (52.8; 55.0 and 48.3%, respectively), with a significant rise in tri-hydroxylated forms and a fall in di-hydroxylated anthocyanins. The results of gene expression analyses suggest that the increment in total anthocyanin content is related to a short term increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) expression, mediated by a decrease in MYB4A expression. A longer term increase in UDP

  17. Influência do pH da solução extrativa no teor de antocianinas em frutos de morango Influence of the extraction solution pH on the content of anthocyanins in strawberry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Bordignon Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, os estudos sobre a composição química do fruto do morangueiro vêm ganhando destaque devido ao seu elevado consumo e às atividades biológicas atribuídas a ele. Além disso, os principais metabólitos secundários encontrados nesses frutos são as antocianinas, compostos responsáveis pela intensa coloração vermelha e amplamente utilizados como corantes naturais pela indústria alimentícia. Neste trabalho, foram preparados diferentes extratos de frutos de morango com a cultivar Oso Grande, com o intuito de verificar a influência do pH no perfil espectroscópico do extrato e no teor de antocianos. O extrato em pH 1,0 forneceu um perfil clássico para antocianinas na análise por espectroscopia no ultravioleta, assim como um maior teor de antocianinas nos frutos frescos devido a uma extração mais eficiente das substâncias de interesse.Recently, the study on the chemical composition of the strawberry fruit has been recognized in view of its increased consumption and biological activities. Moreover, the main secondary metabolites found in strawberry fruits are anthocyanins, which are the compounds responsible for the intense red color of the fruit and are widely used as natural colorants by the food industry. In this work, were prepared different extracts with strawberry fruits of the cultivar Oso Grande in order to verify the pH influence on the spectroscopic profile of the strawberry extracts and on the content of anthocyanins. The results indicate that at pH 1,0 the extract showed a classic profile to anthocyanins through ultraviolet spectra analysis and a higher content of anthocyanins in fresh fruits.

  18. An efficient method for high-purity anthocyanin isomers isolation from wild blueberries and their radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorfa, Nasima; Savard, Sylvain; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2016-04-15

    An efficient process for the purification of anthocyanin monomeric isomers from wild blueberries of Lake Saint-Jean region (Quebec, Canada) was developed and easy scalable at industrial purpose. The blueberries were soaked in acidified ethanol, filtered, and the filtrate was cleaned by solid phase extraction using silica gel C-18 and DSC-SCX cation-exchange resin. Anthocyanin-enriched elutes (87 wt.%) were successfully fractionated by preparative liquid chromatography. The major anthocyanins mono-galactoside, -glucoside and -arabinoside isomers of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin were isolated with a purity up to 100% according to their LC-MS and (1)H NMR spectra. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the obtained pure anthocyanins was evaluated. Delphinidin-3-galactoside has the highest capacity (13.062 ± 2.729 μmol TE/μmol), and malvidin-3-glucoside the lowest (0.851 ± 0.032 μmol TE/μmol). A mechanistic pathway preview is suggested for the anthocyanins scavenging free radical activity by hydrogen transfer.

  19. Quantification of anthocyanins in commercial black currant juices by simple high-performance liquid chromatography. Investigation of their pH stability and antioxidative potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Inge Lise F.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Magnussen, Eva Loftin

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative determinations of the four black currant anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-beta-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-beta-rutinoside, were achieved in black currant juices by a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic...... for 24 h in aqueous solutions at 13 different pH levels between 0.6 and 5.2, after which the samples were analyzed by HPLC. More than 90% of each anthocyanin remained intact up to pH 3.3. At pH 3.8 a local minimum in stability was detected, and at pH >4.5 the stability rapidly decreased. The antioxidant...

  20. Anti-oxidative analysis, and identification and quantification of anthocyanin pigments in different coloured rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Qiong; Nagao, Norio; Itani, Tomio; Irifune, Kohei

    2012-12-15

    Anthocyanin pigments in coloured rice cultivars were isolated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. Two black rice cultivars (Asamurasaki, Okunomurasaki) contained three major anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and malvidin. Chinakuromai (black) rice additionally contained a fourth anthocyanin, petunidin-3-glucoside. Four red rice cultivars contained only malvidin. The total anthocyanin content varied greatly among black rice cultivars (79.5-473.7 mg/100g), but was lower in red rice (7.9-34.4 mg/100g). Total phenolic content was similar between red (460.32-725.69 mg/100g) and black (417.11-687.24 mg/100g) rice. The oxygen radical absorbing capacity was ranked as follows: red (69.91-130.32 μmol Trolox/g)>black (55.49-64.85 μmol Trolox/g)>green (35.32 μmol Trolox/g)>white (21.81 μmol Trolox/g) rice. The antioxidant capacity resulted mainly from the seed capsule, not the endosperm. The anthocyanin pigments contributed little to the total antioxidant capacity of red (0.03-0.1%) and black (0.5-2.5%) rice cultivars. Hence, the antioxidant capacity is derived mainly from other phenolic compounds.

  1. Analytical standards production for the analysis of pomegranate anthocyanins by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Cristina Pessanha de Araújo Santiago

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. is a fruit with a long medicinal history, especially due to its phenolic compounds content, such as the anthocyanins, which are reported as one of the most important natural antioxidants. The analysis of the anthocyanins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC can be considered as an important tool to evaluate the quality of pomegranate juice. For research laboratories the major challenge in using HPLC for quantitative analyses is the acquisition of high purity analytical standards, since these are expensive and in some cases not even commercially available. The aim of this study was to obtain analytical standards for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the anthocyanins from pomegranate. Five vegetable matrices (pomegranate flower, jambolan, jabuticaba, blackberry and strawberry fruits were used to isolate each of the six anthocyanins present in pomegranate fruit, using an analytical HPLC scale with non-destructive detection, it being possible to subsequently use them as analytical standards. Furthermore, their identities were confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry. The proposed procedure showed that it is possible to obtain analytical standards of anthocyanins with a high purity grade (98.0 to 99.9% from natural sources, which was proved to be an economic strategy for the production of standards by laboratories according to their research requirements.

  2. Anthocyanins: naturally occuring fruit pigments with functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TURTURICĂ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin is a water-soluble pigment existing in plants, and has various health benefits to humans. As far as that goes, the number and location of the hydroxyl groups of the parent nucleus have significant effects on the anthocyanin activities. This review summarizes anthocyanin content in fruits, the importance of anthocyanin in relation to human health, some aspects of anthocyanin biochemistry and their bioavailability, the distribution in some fruits, the biosynthetic pathway, different extraction, separation and purification methods, and also identification methods. Beneficial effects of anthocyanin pigments are reported in the scientific literature and these compounds are nowadays recognized as potentially therapeutic. The lack of antioxidant defense mechanisms in humans is associated with the cardiovascular and coronary artery diseases, cancer and diabetes, besides others.

  3. Anthocyanin determination in blueberry extracts from various cultivars and their antiproliferative and apoptotic properties in B16-F10 metastatic murine melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunea, Andrea; Rugină, Dumitriţa; Sconţa, Zoriţa; Pop, Raluca M; Pintea, Adela; Socaciu, Carmen; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Grootaert, Charlotte; Struijs, Karin; VanCamp, John

    2013-11-01

    Blueberry consumption is associated with health benefits contributing to a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the anthocyanin profile of blueberry extracts and to evaluate their effects on B16-F10 metastatic melanoma murine cells. Seven blueberry cultivars cultivated in Romania were used. The blueberry extracts were purified over an Amberlite XAD-7 resin and a Sephadex LH-20 column, in order to obtain the anthocyanin rich fractions (ARF). The antioxidant activity of the ARF of all cultivars was evaluated by ABTS, CUPRAC and ORAC assays. High performance liquid chromatography followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to identify and quantify individual anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content of tested cultivars ranged from 101.88 to 195.01 mg malvidin-3-glucoside/100g fresh weight. The anthocyanin rich-fraction obtained from cultivar Torro (ARF-T) was shown to have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity, and inhibited B16-F10 melanoma murine cells proliferation at concentrations higher than 500 μg/ml. In addition, ARF-T stimulated apoptosis and increased total LDH activity in metastatic B16-F10 melanoma murine cells. These results indicate that the anthocyanins from blueberry cultivar could be used as a chemopreventive or adjuvant treatment for metastasis control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anthocyanin accumulation and molecular analysis of anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli; Chu, Guihua; Huang, Cheng; Tian, Shibing; Zhao, Zhiping; Chen, Guoping

    2014-04-02

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an edible fruit vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide. The purple eggplant is more eye-catching and popular for the health-promoting anthocyanins contained in the fruit skin. Two kinds of anthocyanin were separated and identified from purple cultivar (Zi Chang) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in eggplant, the transcripts of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in the fruit skin and the flesh of the purple cultivar and the white cultivar (Bai Xue). Compared with the other tissues, SmMYB1 and all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes except PAL were dramatically upregulated in the fruit skin of the purple cultivar. Overexpression of SmMYB1 activated abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the regenerating shoots of eggplant. These results prove that transcriptional activation of SmMYB1 accounts for constitutive upregulation of most anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the onset of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar.

  5. Stabilisation of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) anthocyanins by different pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, M; Speth, M; Kammerer, D R; Carle, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different pectins on strawberry anthocyanins in viscous model solutions at pH 3.0. For this purpose, low esterified amidated, low and high methyl esterified citrus and apple pectins, and a sugar beet pectin (SBP), respectively, were added to strawberry extracts. The latter were predominantly composed of pelargonidin-glycosides, containing either reduced (E-1) or original amounts of non-anthocyanin phenolics (E-2). Model systems were stored for 18 weeks at 20±0.5 °C protected from light, and anthocyanins were quantitated in regular intervals by HPLC-DAD analyses. Half-life (t1/2) and destruction (D) values were calculated based on first-order kinetics. Generally, significant differences in pigment retention could be ascribed to differing pectin sources, while variation in the degree of esterification and amidation, respectively, had negligible effects. Compared to systems without added pectin, apple pectins and SPB enhanced anthocyanin stability moderately, while stabilising effects of citrus pectins were poor or even imperceptible. Generally, the amount of non-anthocyanin phenolics and the addition of citrate did not markedly affect anthocyanin stability. However, pectins had no influence on total phenolic contents (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) and antioxidant capacities (FRAP and TEAC assay) of strawberry phenolics over time. For pelargonidin-3-glucoside and -rutinoside largely consistent stabilities were found in all model systems. In contrast, pelargonidin-3-malonylglucoside was less stable in the blank, and stabilisation by pectins was always negligible. The findings of the present study are contrary to results reported previously for the stabilisation of cyanidin- and delphinidin-glycosides in similar model systems prepared with black currant extracts, indicating a high impact of the number of hydroxyl groups in the anthocyanin B-ring.

  6. The application of response surface methodology in studying the effect of heat and high hydrostatic pressure on anthocyanins, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase of mulberry (Morus nigra) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Felix N; Ma, Yongkun; Zhang, Haining; Yu, Lizhi; Deng, Nana

    2014-08-01

    Mulberry juice is an excellent source of phytochemicals with medicinal properties. The effects of four independent variables (temperature, heating time, pressure, and pressurising time) on three response variables [% anthocyanin retained, and % residual activities of the enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD)] of mulberry juice were studied using response surface methodology. Mathematical models and optimum levels of the response variables were generated. Temperature had the greatest effect on all the response variables. The synergistic effect of temperature and pressure had significant effect (P < 0.05) on anthocyanin retained and residual PPO activity. The prediction of the desirability model, based on 95% confidence in the range of the independent variables, gave optimal treatment conditions of 83.39°C, 2.38 min, 480.00 MPa, and 21.67 min, respectively for temperature, heating time, pressure, and pressurising time. At these levels, the corresponding response variables were 91.68%, 44.69% and 20.17% for the amounts of anthocyanin retained, and residual activities of PPO and POD, respectively. The desirability index obtained was 0.741. The results were desirable and the mathematical models developed could be used to predict the outcome of the response variables to a high degree of accuracy. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Relation between polyphenols content and skin colour in sour cherry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljevac Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit skin colour plays a major role in quality assessment of food, significantly determining consumer`s choice. Colour of sour cherries depends on anthocyanins which are phenolic compounds (flavonoids present in high amounts in fruits. The aim of this study was to determine a possible relation between polyphenols (total phenolics and anthocyanins and colour parameters of fruit skin of sour cherries. The plant material used in this study was twenty two sour cherry genotypes from an orchard of Agricultural Institute Osijek. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents as well as colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, h and C of fruit skin were determined. Variability between sour cherry genotypes in total phenolics and anthocyanins as well as in colour parameters was revealed. Total polyphenols content varied from 462.7 to 1049.0 mg GAE/100 g of fresh weight, while total anthocyanins ranged from 160.1 to 495.6 mg CGE/100 g of fresh weight. A significant positive correlation was found between polyphenols and anthocyanins content. Total phenolics content had a significant negative correlation with colour parameters b* and h, while anthocyanins content negatively correlated with colour parameters L*, b* and h. According to the obtained results, genotypes Maraska, Heimanns Konservenweichsel and Rexelle are the richest genotypes in polyphenols and anthocyanins content.

  8. Research Progress on the Effect of Non-Thermal Processing Technologies on Anthocyanin Content in Fruit Juice%非热加工技术对果汁中花色苷影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢沿钢; 孙金辉; 张莹; 董全

    2012-01-01

    花色苷是存在于新鲜果汁中的一种重要营养素,对果汁的品质与人体的健康都有着重要作用。非热加工技术因其可大量保留果汁中营养物质的独特性,而受到广泛关注。本文综述高静水压、高压脉冲电场、超声波和辐照4种非热加工技术对果汁中花色苷稳定性的影响;并探讨非热加工处理时花色苷的降解机制及其影响因素,以期为果汁中花色苷稳定性的控制提供有利的支持。%Anthocyanins are an important class of nutrients present in fruit juice which has a vital impact on the quality of fruit juice and human health.Non-thermal processing is uniquely characterized by retaining nutrients in fruit juice and therefore has received extensive attention.This paper reviews the effects of four non-thermal processing including high hydrostatic pressure,pulsed electric field,ultrasonic treatment and irradiation on the stability of anthocyanins in fruit juice.In addition,the mechanism underlying the degradation of anthocyanins during non-thermal processing and its influencing factors are explored for the purpose of providing useful supports for stability control of anthocyanins in fruit juice.

  9. Flavonóides em seleções de acerola (Malpighia sp l.. 1- Teor de antocianinas e flavonóis totais Flavonoids in acerola (Malpighia sp L. selections. 1- Anthocyanins and flavonols content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de Lima

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Os flavonóides englobam classes de pigmentos naturais encontrados com freqüência nos vegetais. As antocianinas e os flavonóis são compostos que pertencem ao grupo dos flavonóides e são responsáveis pela coloração que varia de vermelho vivo à violeta e de branco à amarelo claro, respectivamente. A cor vermelha da acerola é decorrente da presença de antocianinas. Entretanto, a propagaç ão da aceloreira por sementes tem gerado frutos com coloração que varia de amarelo a vermelho púrpura. Dessa forma, há o interesse em difundir plantas com produção de frutos com coloração vermelho. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o teor de antocianinas e flavonóis totais nas seleções de acerola - Barbados, Coopama, Flor Branca, Inada, Miró e Okinawa. Os frutos foram colhidos nos meses de março a junho/1999, com coloração vermelha uniforme, e analisados quanto aos teores de antocianinas e flavonóis totais. As seleções Inada e Barbados apresentaram os mais altos teores desses pigmentos, quando comparados aos das demais seleções, tornando-as agronomicamente interessantes.The flavonoids comprise a class of natural pigments that are frequently found in vegetables. The anthocyanins and flavonols are compounds which belong to the flavonoids group and they are responsible for red to violet and white to light-yellow coloration, respectively. The anthocyanins pigments are responsible for the red colour of the acerola fruit. However, the seed propagation of acerola trees has grown fruits which present colour variation from yellow to dark red. So, there is interest to spread acerola trees with red colour fruits. This paper aimed to determine the content of total anthocyanins and flavonols in selections of acerola - Barbados, Coopama, Flor Branca, Inada, Miró e Okinawa. Fruits were harvested based on homogeneous red colour, between the months of March and June/1999, and analysed with regard to the content of total anthocyanins and

  10. HPLC法测定三华李花色苷的成分及含量%Determination of Anthocyanin Component and Content in Sanhua Plum by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄月; 黄苇; 李媛

    2016-01-01

    relative standard deviation of peak area is less than or equal to 1.23%,which showed good repeatability. This method is simple and reliable. It's suitable to de-tect anthocyanins component and content in San hua plum.

  11. Anthocyanins: natural colorants with health-promoting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian; Giusti, M Monica

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoids in fruits and vegetables that render them vivid red to blue. To date, there have been more than 635 anthocyanins identified in nature, featuring six common aglycones and various types of glycosylations and acylations. Dietary consumption of anthocyanins is high compared to other flavonoids, owing to their wide distribution in plant materials. Based upon many cell-line studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, it has been suggested that anthocyanins possess anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activity, cardiovascular disease prevention, obesity control, and diabetes alleviation properties, all of which are more or less associated with their potent antioxidant property. Evidence suggests that absorption of anthocyanins occurs in the stomach and small intestine. Epithelial tissue uptake seems to be highly efficient, yet transportation into circulation, tissue distribution, and urine excretion are very limited. The bioactivity of bioavailable anthocyanins should be a focus of future research regarding their putative health-promoting effects.

  12. Specific Anthocyanin Contents of Whole Blue Maize Second-Generation Snacks: An Evaluation Using Response Surface Methodology and Lime Cooking Extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Lime cooking extrusion (LCE) is a widely applied technology for producing second-generation snacks, as an alternative to traditional nixtamalization (TN). Pigmented maize has been used to produce snacks with similar organoleptic characteristics to TN products and to obtain a product with additional functional benefits due to the anthocyanic compounds contained in those grains. However, during the process, anthocyanins are degraded, and several chemical modifications occur. Response surface me...

  13. Specific Anthocyanin Contents of Whole Blue Maize Second-Generation Snacks: An Evaluation Using Response Surface Methodology and Lime Cooking Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayansi Escalante-Aburto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lime cooking extrusion (LCE is a widely applied technology for producing second-generation snacks, as an alternative to traditional nixtamalization (TN. Pigmented maize has been used to produce snacks with similar organoleptic characteristics to TN products and to obtain a product with additional functional benefits due to the anthocyanic compounds contained in those grains. However, during the process, anthocyanins are degraded, and several chemical modifications occur. Response surface methodology is applied to evaluate extrusion factors and their effects on the response variables of extrudates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in specific anthocyanins after extrusion in second-generation blue maize snacks. Three anthocyanins were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV-DAD: cyanidin 3-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-glucoside, which have been previously reported in blue maize and its products, and cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside. Higher retention values were found in the extrudates making LCE a viable option for producing second-generation blue maize snacks.

  14. In vitro and in vivo biological activities of anthocyanins from Nitraria tangutorun Bobr. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Hu, Na; Ding, Chenxi; Zhang, Qiulong; Li, Wencong; Suo, Yourui; Wang, Honglun; Bai, Bo; Ding, Chenxu

    2016-03-01

    Anthocyanins are the main compounds in Nitraria tangutorun Bobr. The enrichment and purification of anthocyanins on macroporous resins were investigated. Regarding anthocyanin purification, static adsorption and desorption were studied. The optimal experimental conditions were the following: resin type: X-5; static adsorption time: 6h; desorption solution: ethanol-water-HCl (80:19:1, V/V/V; pH 1); desorption time: 40min. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the anthocyanins were evaluated. The anthocyanins showed ideal scavenging effects on free radicals in vitro, especially on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radical (OH). In the animal experiment, blood lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats was regulated by anthocyanin contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hyperlipidemia rats were also improved by anthocyanins. These results showed that anthocyanins from N. tangutorun Bobr. fruits had potential biological activities in vivo as well as in vitro.

  15. Comparison of polyphenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in four varieties of Lonicera caerulea berry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuehua; Zhu, Jinyan; Meng, Xianjun; Liu, Suwen; Mu, Jingjing; Ning, Chong

    2016-04-15

    Four varieties of Lonicera caerulea berries--'Wild', 'Beilei', 'No. 1', and 'No. 2'--were compared with respect to extraction yield, fruit weight, total soluble solids, polyphenol and anthocyanin contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and anthocyanin composition. Sixteen individual anthocyanins were identified in the selected varieties. Acylated anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-acetylhexoside and peonidin 3-acetylhexoside, were identified in L. caerulea berries for the first time. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the most prominent anthocyanin in all four tested varieties. Wild type of L. caerulea fruit ('Wild'), with the highest polyphenol content, contained 14 anthocyanins and the highest ORAC value. Eleven anthocyanins were found in 'Beilei' berries, which had a higher ORAC value than 'No. 1' and 'No. 2'. The highest total soluble solid content and extraction yield were found in 'No. 2' and 'Wild' berries, respectively.

  16. Effects of simultaneous use of methyl jasmonate with other plant hormones on the level of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of auxin (IAA, gibberellin (GA3 and cytokinin (kinetin, used solely and in combination with methyl jasmonate (MJ, on the accumulation of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in hypocotyls and cotyledons of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench seedlings. The obtained results indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in buckwheat seedlings was dependent on the concentration of the phytohormone applied and the tissue studied. The combined use of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin partly reversed the effect of strong inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis by MJ. IAA used solely decreased the level of anthocyanins in de-etiolated buckwheat cotyledons. IAA also caused a reduction of putrescine content, both in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. MJ used alone caused high accumulation of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA in buckwheat cotyledons and hypocotyls. The simultaneous application of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin also stimulated PEA synthesis in buckwheat tissues, however this effect was significantly lower compared to the use of MJ only. A reverse significant correlation between PEA and anthocyanin contents occurred in buckwheat hypocotyls, but not in cotyledons. It was suggested that the deficiency of L-phenylalanine, a substrate for synthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, may be partly responsible for the decline in anthocyanin content in buckwheat hypocotyls under the influence of MJ.

  17. Anthocyanin composition, antioxidant efficiency, and α-amylase inhibitor activity of different Hungarian sour cherry varieties (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoki, Judit R; Nemes, Andrea; Fazekas, Erika; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Balogh, Péter; Gál, Ferenc; Al-Asri, Jamil; Mortier, Jérémie; Wolber, Gerhard; Babinszky, László; Remenyik, Judit

    2016-03-01

    Five Hungarian sour cherry cultivars were studied to determine their anthocyanin contents and their possible inhibitory properties. The water and methanol soluble antioxidant capacities were separately assessed by photoluminescence showing values ranged from 3.4μgmg(-1) to 15.4μgmg(-1), respectively. The "VN1" variety (selected from "Csengődi csokros") showed the highest antioxidant capacity. The anthocyanin content, measured by pH differential method or isolated by solid phase extraction, was the highest also in "VN1". Correlation was found between the anthocyanin content and the high antioxidant capacity. The main anthocyanin components were cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. The presence of malvidin-3,5-O-diglycoside was verified by MALDI-TOF MS. Sour cherry extracts and selected anthocyanins inhibited the human salivary alpha-amylase catalyzed hydrolysis competitively. The lowest IC50 value, 55μgmL(-1) or 80μM, was measured for malvidin-3,5-O-diglycoside, for which possible binding modes within the alpha-amylase active site could be investigated in silico using molecular docking and molecular dynamics.

  18. Anthocyanin accumulation and transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Pan, Yu; Zhao, Zhiping; Tian, Shibing; Hu, Zongli

    2014-12-24

    Bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide for its edible leaves. The purple cultivars rich in health-promoting anthocyanins are usually more eye-catching and valuable. Fifteen kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from a purple bok choy cultivar (Zi He) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in bok choy, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in seedlings and leaves of the purple cultivar and the green cultivar (Su Zhouqing). Compared with the other tissues, BrTT8 and most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in the leaves and light-grown seedlings of Zi He. The results that heterologous expression of BrTT8 promotes the transcription of partial anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in regeneration shoots of tomato indicate that BrTT8 plays an important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  19. Red Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. cultivar as a Potential Source of Antioxidant Anthocyanins for Intestinal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'evoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit- and vegetable-derived foods have become a very significant source of nutraceutical phytochemicals. Among vegetables, red chicory (Cichorium Intybus L. cultivar has gained attention for its content of phenolic compounds, such as the anthocyanins. In this study, we evaluated the nutraceutical effects, in terms of antioxidant, cytoprotective, and antiproliferative activities, of extracts of the whole leaf or only the red part of the leaf of Treviso red chicory (a typical Italian red leafy plant in various intestinal models, such as Caco-2 cells, differentiated in normal intestinal epithelia and undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. The results show that the whole leaf of red chicory can represent a good source of phytochemicals in terms of total phenolics and anthocyanins as well as the ability of these phytochemicals to exert antioxidant and cytoprotective effects in differentiated Caco-2 cells and antiproliferative effects in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, compared to red chicory whole leaf extracts, the red part of leaf extracts had a significantly higher content of both total phenolics and anthocyanins. The same extracts effectively corresponded to an increase of antioxidant, cytoprotective, and antiproliferative activities. Taken together, these findings suggest that the red part of the leaf of Treviso red chicory with a high content of antioxidant anthocyanins could be interesting for development of new food supplements to improve intestinal health.

  20. Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Patrick M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of cultivar on total and individual anthocyanin concentrations and phenolic acid levels in eight purple basil varieties and examined the relationship between anthocyanin content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant properties. Cultivar had a significant influence on total anthocyanin concentrations as well as individual anthocyanin composition. The four major basil anthocyanins (labelled A-D) were quantified and cultivar had a statistically significant effect on anthocyanins B (p<0.01), C (p<0.01), and D (p<0.01), but not on anthocyanin A (p=0.94). Cultivar did not have a significant effect on total phenolic levels, although it did influence the concentration of some individual phenolic acids, including caftaric (p=0.03) and chicoric (p=0.04) acids. Although total phenolic and anthocyanin levels correlated with measured FRAP antioxidant capacities, for some cultivars the individual phenolic acid and anthocyanin composition was also an important factor affecting the antioxidant properties.

  1. Coronatine Induces an Accumulation of Anthocyanin and Starch in Purple-fleshed Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoqing WANG; Beitao XIE; Haiyan ZHANG; Liming ZHANG; Qingmei WANG

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this research was to examine the effects of COR on anthocyanin and starch content in storage roots of two PFS genotypes, and to explore the relationships between anthocyanin synthesis and starch accumula-tion. [Method] A field experiment was carried out to determine the changes in yield components, yield, contents of anthocyanin and starch, activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and adenosine 5-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AG-Pase) in two genotypes of PFS (Ipomoea batatas L., var. ‘Ayamurasaki’ and‘Jishu18’). [Result] The application of COR significantly increased starch and antho-cyanin content in storage roots of Jishu18 across developmental stages by inducing the activities of PAL and AGPase, and final y enhanced yield by promoting fresh weight of storage roots. Ayamurasaki was insensitive to treatment with COR al-though its PAL activity temporal y increased. The starch and anthocyanin content of Aya, and the anthocyanin content of Jishu18 increased progressively across devel-opmental stages with or without COR application, but the starch content of Jishu18 increased initial y, then decreased before increasing again without application of COR. Treatment with COR reduced downward trend of starch accumulation in Jishu18. Thus, the effect of COR on accumulation of anthocyanin and starch in storage roots of PFS differs according to genotypes. [Conclusion] The application of 0.05 μmol/L COR may increase starch and anthocyanin content in PFS genotypes with lower starch and anthocyanin content in storage roots.

  2. Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes Confers Varied Phenotypic and Spatial-Temporal Anthocyanin Accumulation in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everlyne M'mbone Muleke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are natural pigments that have important functions in plant growth and development. Radish taproots are rich in anthocyanins which confer different taproot colors and are potentially beneficial to human health. The crop differentially accumulates anthocyanin during various stages of growth, yet molecular mechanisms underlying this differential anthocyanin accumulation remains unknown. In the present study, transcriptome analysis was used to concisely identify putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish. Spatial-temporal transcript expressions were then profiled in four color variant radish cultivars. From the total transcript sequences obtained through illumina sequencing, 102 assembled unigenes, and 20 candidate genes were identified to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Fifteen genomic sequences were isolated and sequenced from radish taproot. The length of these sequences was between 900 and 1,579 bp, and the unigene coverage to all of the corresponding cloned sequences was more than 93%. Gene structure analysis revealed that RsF3′H is intronless and anthocyanin biosynthesis genes (ABGs bear asymmetrical exons, except RsSAM. Anthocyanin accumulation showed a gradual increase in the leaf of the red radish and the taproot of colored cultivars during development, with a rapid increase at 30 days after sowing (DAS, and the highest content at maturity. Spatial-temporal transcriptional analysis of 14 genes revealed detectable expressions of 12 ABGs in various tissues at different growth levels. The investigation of anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression in four color variant radish cultivars, at different stages of development, indicated that total anthocyanin correlated with transcript levels of ABGs, particularly RsUFGT, RsF3H, RsANS, RsCHS3 and RsF3′H1. Our results suggest that these candidate genes play key roles in phenotypic and spatial-temporal anthocyanin accumulation in radish through

  3. Microencapsulation optimization of natural anthocyanins with maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Mahdavi, Sahar; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Assadpoor, Elham; Dehnad, Danial

    2016-04-01

    The barberry (Berberis vulgaris) extract which is a rich source of anthocyanins was used for spray drying encapsulation with three different wall materials, i.e., combination of maltodextrin and gum Arabic (MD+GA), maltodextrin and gelatin (MD+GE), and maltodextrin (MD). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for optimization of microencapsulation efficiency and physical properties of encapsulated powders considering wall material type as well as different ratios of core to wall materials as independent variables. Physical characteristics of spray-dried powders were investigated by further analyses of moisture content, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, solubility, bulk and absolute density, porosity, flowability and microstructural evaluation of encapsulated powders. Our results indicated that samples produced with MD+GA as wall materials represented the highest process efficiency and best powder quality; the optimum conditions of microencapsulation process for barberry anthocyanins were found to be the wall material content and anthocyanin load of 24.54% and 13.82%, respectively. Under such conditions, the microencapsulation efficiency (ME) of anthocyanins could be as high as 92.83%.

  4. Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography separation of red wine anthocyanins on a mixed-mode ion-exchange reversed-phase and on a reversed-phase column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Carola; Mardones, Claudia; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-09-03

    Anthocyanins, which confer the characteristic color to red wine, can be used as markers to classify wines according to the grape variety. It is a complex separation that requires very high chromatographic efficiency, especially in the case of aged red wines, due to the formation of pyranoanthocyanins. A coelution between these kinds of compounds can affect the R(ac/coum) ratio of aged wines, and might lead to false results when classifying the wine variety. In 2007, the use of a novel mixed-mode ion-exchange reversed-phase column was reported to separate anthocyanins extracted from grapes of Vitis labrusca with different selectivity than C-18 columns. In the present work, the separation of anthocyanins including pyranoanthocyanins in young and aged Cabernet Sauvignon wines and other varieties is evaluated. The most interesting contributions of this research are the different elution order and selectivity obtained for anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins (only formed in wine), compared with those observed in C-18 stationary phases. Also interesting is the separation of the polymeric fraction, which elutes as a clearly separated peak at the chromatogram's end. However, a comparison with a high efficiency C-18 column with the same dimensions and particle size demonstrated that the tested mixed-mode column shows broader peaks with a theoretical plate number below 8000, for malvidin-3-glucoside peak, while it can be up to 10 times higher for a high efficiency C-18 column, depending on the column manufacturer. Under the tested conditions, in mixed-mode phase, the analysis time is almost twice that of a C-18 column with the same dimensions and particle size. A mixed-mode phase with increased efficiency should provide an interesting perspective for separation of anthocyanins in wine, due to its improved selectivity, combined with a useful role in a second-dimension separation in preparative anthocyanin chromatography.

  5. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry dietary supplements and food products (total n = 74 were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples or were adulterated with anthocyanins from unlabeled sources (three samples. Five of 41 food products contained no detectable anthocyanins. In mg per serving, the dietary supplements tested contained 0.02–86.27 (average 10.00, and food products contained 0.48–39.66 (average 7.76. Anthocyanin levels between the dietary supplements and food products were not significantly different in mg per serving. Individual anthocyanin profiles can be used to evaluate quality of Rosaceae food products and dietary supplements. These findings show that increasing anthocyanin content and reducing adulteration could improve the quality of Rosaceae products available in the marketplace.

  6. 植物花青苷液质联用方法的分析鉴定%Golden rules of separation and characterization of plant anthocyanins by high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 李崇晖; 王亮生; 陈峰

    2013-01-01

      花青苷(anthocyanins)是植物中广泛存在的水溶性色素,在食品加工业中具有重要的地位。花青苷与人体健康密切相关,具有较强的抗氧化、抗炎症、抗微生物、抑制血小板凝聚和抗肿瘤等功效,已作为重要的功能因子而受到广泛的关注。花青苷成分的分析鉴定是花青苷生物活性研究的基础。然而,花青苷种类繁多,结构修饰多样,同时易受环境条件的影响,难以分离鉴定。高压液相色谱-二极管阵列检测-质谱联用技术(HPLC-DAD-MS)是花青苷分析最常规的手段。本文综述了如何利用HPLC-DAD-MS快速有效分离花青苷以及结构解析的一般规律及经验,以期为高附加值资源筛选以及花青苷构效关系的进一步揭示提供重要的化学基础。%  Anthocyanins are important water-soluble pigments, which have significant influence in food processing industry. Anthocyanins have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-antimicrobial, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anticancer activity, and have been the focus as important functional ingredients. Separation and identification of anthocyanins are the base for studying their bioactive effects. However, the complexity and va-riety of anthocyanins make it difficult to characterize the composition of anthocyanins. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry has become the standard and most powerful method for routine anthocyanin analysis. This paper reviewed the golden rules for separation and identification of anthocya-nins by high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), which might provide the chemical evidence for clarification of structure-activity relationship and screening for high value-added re-sources.

  7. Metabolomic analysis and differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in white- and red-flowered buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Park, Soo-Yun; Thwe, Aye Aye; Seo, Jeong Min; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2013-11-01

    Red-flowered buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is used in the production of tea, juice, and alcohols after the detoxification of fagopyrin. In order to investigate the metabolomics and regulatory of anthocyanin production in red-flowered (Gan-Chao) and white-flowered (Tanno) buckwheat cultivars, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted. The transcriptions of FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeF3H, FeANS, and FeDFR increased gradually from flowering stage 1 and reached their highest peaks at flowering stage 3 in Gan-Chao flower. In total 44 metabolites, 18 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 7 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine were detected in Gan-Chao flowers. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified in Gan-Chao cultivar. The first component of the partial least-squares to latent structures-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that high amounts of phenolic, shikimic, and pyruvic acids were present in Gan-Chao. We suggest that transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, anthocyanin contents, and metabolites have correlation in the red-flowered buckwheat Gan-Chao flowers. Our results may be helpful to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-flowered buckwheat.

  8. Study on determination of anthocyanin content in pomegranate juice by near infrared spectroscopy%近红外光谱技术检测石榴汁中花色苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵武奇; 乔瑶瑶; 王晓琴; 张清安

    2015-01-01

    以不同产地的石榴汁样品为对象,对其近红外光谱数据进行预处理并通过小波变化处理提取光谱特征,采用遗传算法对支持向量机的三个参数进行优化,建立基于近红外光谱技术与支持向量机的石榴汁中花色苷含量检测模型。结果表明,模型对验证集的均方根误差为0.019766,决定系数为0.9992,模型预测性能良好。近红外光谱技术可用于石榴汁中花色苷含量的定量检测。%Pomegranate juices from different origins were served as the sample.Preprocessing method of near infrared spectroscopy data were determined and the feature were extracted by wavelet analysis.The three parameters of support vector machine (SVM)were optimized by genetic algorithms(GA).The model for determination of anthocyanin content in pomegranate juice by near infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine was established.The result showed that the model had the predication performance,the root mean square error of the validation and the determination coefficients were 0.019 766 and 0.999 2. Near-infrared spectroscopy technology could be used for the quantitative detection of anthocyanin content in pomegranate juice.

  9. Determination of Anthocyanins and Exploration of Relationship between Their Composition and Petal Coloration in Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia hybrid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhang; Liang-Sheng Wang; Jin-Ming Gao; Qing-Yan Shu; Chong-Hui Li; Juan Yao; Qing Hao; Jing-Jing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Petal coloration and pigment components in 12 American crape myrtle cultivars (Lagerstroemla indica x Lagerstroemla fauriei) and five Chinese crape myrtle cultivars (L. indica hybrids) were studied. Color was measured by ClEL'a'b" scale and anthocyanin composition of crape myrtle was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The presence of the previously reported delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-glucoside were confirmed. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was identified in crape myrtle for the first time. We explored the relationship between petal color and anthocyanin contents by multiple linear regression analyses. The results indicated that total flavones and flavonols were important variables and contributed to blue-enhancing in crape myrtle. Based on anthocyanins and co-pigments analysis, flower color breeding in crape myrtle towards true-red and blue were discussed.

  10. Anthocyanins. Plant pigments and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are plant pigments widespread in nature. They play relevant roles in plant propagation and ecophysiology and plant defense mechanisms and are responsible for the color of fruits and vegetables. A large number of novel anthocyanin structures have been identified, including new families such as pyranoanthocyanins or anthocyanin oligomers; their biosynthesis pathways have been elucidated, and new plants with "a la carte" colors have been created by genetic engineering. Furthermore, evidence about their benefits in human health has accumulated, and processes of anthocyanin absorption and biotransformation in the human organism have started to be ascertained. These advances in anthocyanin research were revised in the Seventh International Workshop on Anthocyanins that took place in Porto (Portugal) on September 9-11, 2013. Some selected papers are collected in this special issue, where aspects such as anthocyanin accumulation in plants, relationship with color expression, stability in plants and food, and bioavailability or biological activity are revised.

  11. Determination of Anthocyanin Content in Purple Potato Wine by pH-differential Method%pH 示差法测定紫薯酒中花青素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑戈; 赵力; 谭婷婷; 安宝祯; 王家林

    2015-01-01

    紫薯酒是以紫薯、麦曲和酵母为原料发酵生产的低酒精度酿造酒,富含对人体有保健作用的花青素,使用离心分离法从发酵醪液中获取紫薯酒样品,优化适合紫薯酒的pH示差法测定条件,确定测定波长为526 nm,测定pH值为1和4.5,平衡温度为20℃,平衡时间为110 min,测定紫薯酒中的花青素含量为564.6 mg/L。%Purple potato wine is a kind of low-alcohol brewing wine fermented by purple potato, malt and yeast, and it is rich in anthocyanins which have health-care function on human body. In the experiment, purple potato wine samples were separated from the fermented mash by centrifugation separation method. The measurement conditions of pH-differential method were optimized as follows:detecting wavelength was 526 nm, detecting pH value was 1 and 4.5 respectively, the equilibrium temperature was at 20℃, and the equilibrium time was 110 mins. Un-der above conditions, anthocyanin content in purple potato wine was measured as 564.6 mg/L.

  12. Microencapsulation of saffron petal anthocyanins with cress seed gum compared with Arabic gum through freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Mahdavi-Khazaei, Katayoun; Hemmati-Kakhki, Abbas

    2016-04-20

    In this research, encapsulation efficiency of cress seed gum (CSG) as a native hydrocolloid was compared with Arabic gum (AG) and maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent of 20 (M20), and 7 (M7)) for saffron (Crocus sativus) petal's extract by freeze drying method. Combinations of CSG-M20, AG-M20, and M7-M20 with ratios of 50:50 and M20 alone (100%) were used as wall materials. A mixture of 1:5 (based on dry matter) between core (concentrated anthocyanin extract of saffron petal) and wall materials were freeze dried and stability of encapsulated anthocyanins along with color parameters (a*, b*, L*, C, H° and TCD) of final powders were measured during 10 weeks of storage (at 35°C as an accelerated method). Total anthocyanins were determined through pH differential method every week. Four prepared formulations of encapsulated powders didn't show any significant differences (P>0.01) in terms of total anthocyanin content measured immediately after production and after 10 weeks storage. AG-M20 mixture and M20 alone showed the highest and lowest TCD, respectively. The mixture of CSG-M20 in comparison with AG-M20 and M20 had the same protecting effect (P<0.01) but showed a relatively high TCD (9.33).

  13. Natural variation in petal color in Lycoris longituba revealed by anthocyanin components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiuling; Shen, Ye; Wang, Mingxiu; Huang, Minren; Yang, Ruizhen; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Liangsheng; Xu, Yanjun; Wu, Rongling

    2011-01-01

    Lycoris longituba is one of the species belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family. Despite its limited distribution, endemic to central eastern China, this species displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, orange, to yellow, in nature. We study the natural variation of floral color in L. longituba by testing the components of water-soluble vacuolar pigments--anthocyanins--in its petals using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four anthocyanins were identified, cyanidin-3-sophoroside (Cy3So), cyanidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Cy3XyGlc), cyanidin-3-sambubioside (Cy3Sa), and pelargonidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Pg3XyGlc), which occur at various amounts in L. longituba petals of different colors. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. Anthocyanins have been thought to play a major role in acting as a UV screen that protects the plant's DNA from sunlight damage and attracting insects for the purpose of pollination. Thus, knowledge about the content and type of anthocyanins determining the petal coloration of Lycoris longituba will help to study the adaptive evolution of flowers and provide useful information for the ornamental breeding of this species.

  14. Natural variation in petal color in Lycoris longituba revealed by anthocyanin components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuling He

    Full Text Available Lycoris longituba is one of the species belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family. Despite its limited distribution, endemic to central eastern China, this species displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, orange, to yellow, in nature. We study the natural variation of floral color in L. longituba by testing the components of water-soluble vacuolar pigments--anthocyanins--in its petals using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four anthocyanins were identified, cyanidin-3-sophoroside (Cy3So, cyanidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Cy3XyGlc, cyanidin-3-sambubioside (Cy3Sa, and pelargonidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Pg3XyGlc, which occur at various amounts in L. longituba petals of different colors. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. Anthocyanins have been thought to play a major role in acting as a UV screen that protects the plant's DNA from sunlight damage and attracting insects for the purpose of pollination. Thus, knowledge about the content and type of anthocyanins determining the petal coloration of Lycoris longituba will help to study the adaptive evolution of flowers and provide useful information for the ornamental breeding of this species.

  15. Anthocyanin Characterization, Total Phenolic Quantification and Antioxidant Features of Some Chilean Edible Berry Extracts

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    Anghel Brito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin composition and HPLC fingerprints of six small berries endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis for the first time (HR-ToF-ESI-MS. The antioxidant features of the six endemic species were compared, including a variety of blueberries which is one of the most commercially significant berry crops in Chile. The anthocyanin fingerprints obtained for the fruits were compared and correlated with the antioxidant features measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA, and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty one anthocyanins were identified, and the major ones were quantified by HPLC-DAD, mostly branched 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity (2.33 ± 0.21 μg/mL in the DPPH assay, followed by blueberry (3.32 ± 0.18 μg/mL, and arrayán (5.88 ± 0.21, respectively.

  16. Effects of salicylic acid-induced wine rich in anthocyanins on metabolic parameters and adipose insulin signaling in high-fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; de Rosas, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J; Ponce, María Teresa; Martinez, Liliana; Miatello, Roberto M; Cavagnaro, Bruno; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of Syrah red wine treated with salicylic acid (RW SA) and its control red wine (RW) on metabolic parameters, systolic blood pressure and adipose tissue insulin signaling in high-fructose (F) fed rats. Grape treated with SA increased the anthocyanin (ANTs) levels in RW. F induced increased systolic blood pressure, dislipidemia and insulin resistance (HOMA:IR). F rats treated with RW significantly prevented these alterations while RW SA partially attenuated triglycerides levels and HOMA:IR without modifications in HDL cholesterol levels. F impaired the adipose tissue response to insulin. Supplementation with RW and RW SA partially attenuated these alterations. Rats supplemented with RW SA had lesser beneficial effects on metabolic alterations than control RW, while both RW and RW SA attenuated altered adipose response to insulin. More studies are necessary to deeply evaluate the effect on SA-induced RW rich in ANTs levels on metabolic alterations associated to MetS.

  17. Phototropin 2 is involved in blue light-induced anthocyanin accumulation in Fragaria x ananassa fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadomura-Ishikawa, Yasuko; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Noji, Sumihare; Takahashi, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Anthocyanins are widespread, essential secondary metabolites in higher plants during color development in certain flowers and fruits. In strawberries, anthocyanins are also key contributors to fruit antioxidant capacity and nutritional value. However, the effects of different light qualities on anthocyanin accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cv. Sachinoka) fruits remain elusive. In the present study, we showed the most efficient increase in anthocyanin content occurred by blue light irradiation. Light sensing at the molecular level was investigated by isolation of two phototropin (FaPHOT1 and FaPHOT2), two cryptochrome (FaCRY1 and FaCRY2), and two phytochrome (FaPHYA and FaPHYB) homologs. Expression analysis revealed only FaPHOT2 transcripts markedly increased depending on fruit developmental stage, and a corresponding increase in anthocyanin content was detected. FaPHOT2 knockdown resulted in decreased anthocyanin content; however, overexpression increased anthocyanin content. These findings suggested blue light induced anthocyanin accumulation, and FaPHOT2 may play a role in sensing blue light, and mediating anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry fruits. This is the first report to find a relationship between visible light sensing, and color development in strawberry fruits.

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Effects of Exogenous Hematin on Anthocyanin Biosynthesis during Strawberry Fruit Ripening

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin in strawberries has a positive effect on fruit coloration. In this study, the role of exogenous hematin on anthocyanin biosynthesis was investigated. Our result showed that the white stage of strawberries treated with exogenous hematin had higher anthocyanin content, compared to the control group. Among all treatments, 5 μM of hematin was the optimal condition to promote color development. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of fruit coloring regulated by hematin, transcri...

  19. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  20. Anthocyanins Present in Some Tropical Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tropical fruits are rich in anthocyanins, though limited information is available about the characterization and quantification of these anthocyanins. The identification of anthocyanin pigments in four tropical fruits was determined by ion trap mass spectrometry. Fruits studied included acero...

  1. Effects of condensed tannins on anthocyanins and colour of authentic pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Ozkan, Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) on anthocyanins (ACNs) and colour of pomegranate juice (PJ) samples obtained from nine registered varieties in Turkey. CT-catechins (CTCs) reactive to vanillin and phloroglucinol adducts of CT contents were determined. CTC and ACN contents of PJs highly depended on variety (p<0.01), and ranged from 31 to 155 mg/L juice and from 47 to 405 mg/L juice, respectively. As catechin-phloroglucinol content increased, ACN content also increased (r=0.866). Strong logarithmic correlation between the ratio of ACN contents to catechin-phloroglucinol contents and polymeric colour (PC) values of the samples was found (r=-0.822). When PC value of PJs was ⩾8% or ratio of ACN contents to catechin-phloroglucinol contents of PJs was ⩽2.82, ACN contents of the samples determined by spectrophotometric method were higher than those determined by HPLC.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of table and Port red wine anthocyanins: a crossover trial in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I; Marques, C; Évora, A; Cruz, L; de Freitas, V; Calhau, C; Faria, A; Mateus, N

    2017-05-24

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of Port and table red wine anthocyanins in healthy men. Volunteers were recruited to drink 250 mL of a table red wine (221 mg of anthocyanins) and 150 mL of young Port red wine (49 mg of anthocyanins). Venous blood was collected from participants at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after wine ingestion. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at 120 min. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites in plasma and urine samples were quantified by HPLC-DAD and tentatively identified by LC-MS. Red wine anthocyanins were detected in their intact forms in both plasma and urine samples, but the glucuronylated metabolites of peonidin and malvidin (PnGlucr and MvGlucr) were the two main derivatives detected after both red wine consumptions. For the first time, and supported by the synthesis of Mv3Glucr, the main pathway followed by Mv3glc after absorption was described and involves anthocyanidin conjugation with glucuronic acid after glucose removal. Despite the lower total content of anthocyanins ingested when volunteers drank Port wine, no differences were observed in the plasma Cmax of MvGlucr and PnGlucr after table and Port red wine consumption. The relative bioavailability of anthocyanins in Port wine was 96.58 ± 5.74%, compared to the anthocyanins present in red wine. In conclusion, both Port and table red wines are good sources of bioavailable anthocyanins.

  3. Partial dealcoholization of red wine by nanofiltration and its effect on anthocyanin and resveratrol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banvolgyi, Szilvia; Savaş Bahçeci, K; Vatai, Gyula; Bekassy, Sandor; Bekassy-Molnar, Erika

    2016-12-01

    The present work studies the use of nanofiltration for the production of red wine concentrate with low alcohol content. Factorial design was applied to measure the influences of transmembrane pressure (10-20 bar) and temperature (20-40 ℃) on the retention of valuable components such as anthocyanins and resveratrol, and on the nanofiltration membrane performance. The highest retention of anthocyanin and resveratrol was achieved at low temperature (20 ℃), while the high transmembrane pressure (20 bar) was found to increase the permeate flux considerably. The experiments demonstrated that nanofiltration appears as a valid technique for the production of low alcohol content red wine concentrate. Reduction of volume by a factor of 4, leads to 2.5-3 times more anthocyanins and resveratrol in the wine concentrates. The final new wine products - obtained by using various forms of reconstitution of the concentrated wine - had low alcohol content (4-6 % by volume) and their sensory attributes were similar to those of the original wine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Effects of Growth Temperature and Postharvest Cooling on Anthocyanin Profiles in Juvenile and Mature Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socquet-Juglard, Didier; Bennett, Alexandra A; Manns, David C; Mansfield, Anna Katharine; Robbins, Rebecca J; Collins, Thomas M; Griffiths, Phillip D

    2016-02-24

    The effects of growth temperatures on anthocyanin content and profile were tested on juvenile cabbage and kale plants. The effects of cold storage time were evaluated on both juvenile and mature plants. The anthocyanin content in juvenile plants ranged from 3.82 mg of cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside equivalent (Cy equiv)/g of dry matter (dm) at 25 °C to 10.00 mg of Cy equiv/g of dm at 16 °C, with up to 76% diacylated anthocyanins. Cold storage of juvenile plants decreased the total amount of anthocyanins but increased the diacylated anthocyanin content by 3-5%. In mature plants, cold storage reduced the total anthocyanin content from 22 to 12.23 mg/g after 5 weeks of storage in red cabbage, while the total anthocyanin content increased after 2 weeks of storage from 2.34 to 3.66 mg of Cy equiv/g of dm in kale without having any effect on acylation in either morphotype. The results obtained in this study will be useful for optimizing anthocyanin production.

  5. Effect of temperature on the anthocyanin extraction and color evolution during controlled dehydration of Tempranillo grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Ana; Perez-Serratosa, Maria; Varo, M Angeles; Merida, Julieta

    2014-08-06

    In this paper, the influence of temperature during the controlled dehydration of Tempranillo red grapes has been studied. Two experiments at fixed temperatures of 30 and 40 °C, and a third experiment alternating temperatures of 40 and 15 °C every 12 h were carried out. The must from grapes dried at 40 °C presented the reddest color, and the highest anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant activity. A possible hypothesis could be that the high temperature induced a continuous water evaporation from the grapes, preventing the oxygen entry. At the same time, the dehydration resulted in broken skins, which facilitated the transfer of colored compounds to the pulp, increasing the red color of the musts. However, when the temperature dropped, oxygen could penetrate through the skin and the browning reactions started. As a result, the must obtained from gra pes dehydrated by alternating high and low temperatures presented the least anthocyanin content and the least red color.

  6. Hydrophilic interaction chromatographic analysis of anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Chandré M; Stander, Maria A; de Villiers, André

    2013-12-06

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) provides an alternative separation mode for the analysis of phenolic compounds, in which aqueous-organic mobile phases with polar stationary phases are used. This paper reports the evaluation of HILIC for the analysis of the natural pigments anthocyanins, which are of importance because of their chromophoric properties and a range of health benefits associated with their consumption. Several HILIC stationary phases (silica, diol, amine, cyanopropyl and amide) and mobile phase combinations were evaluated, with the latter proving particularly important due to the distinctive chromatographic behaviour of anthocyanins. Diode array detection was used for selective detection of anthocyanins, while high resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was used for compound identification. The potential of HILIC separation is demonstrated for a range of anthocyanins varying in glycosylation and acylation patterns found in blueberries, grape skins, black beans, red cabbage and red radish. HILIC is shown to be a complementary separation method to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) due to the alternative retention mechanism.

  7. Determination of Flavonoids and Anthocyanins in Nitraria tangutorum by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe, Gao; Ying-Chun, Wang; Yan-Xu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MSn) method, qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids of stems, leaves, fruits and seeds, and anthocyanidin of fresh fruits in Nitraria tangutorum were performed. A total of 14 flavonoid components were identified from the seeds of N. tangutorum including three quercetin derivatives, three kaempferol derivatives, and eight isorhamnetin derivatives. A total of 12, 10, and 7 flavonoid components were identified from leaves, stems, and fruits of N. tangutorum, respectively; all were present in seeds also. The total content of flavonoids in leaves was the highest, up to 42.43 mg/g·dry weight. A total of 12 anthocyanidin components were identified from the fresh fruits of N. tangutorum, belonging to five anthocyanidin. The total content of anthocyanidin in fresh fruits was up to 45.83 mg/100 g· fresh weight, of which the acylated anthocyanidin accounted for 65.7%. The HPLC-DAD-MS(n) method can be operated easily, rapidly, and accurately, and is feasible for qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavone glycosides in N. tangutorum.

  8. Loading of anthocyanins on chitosan nanoparticles influences anthocyanin degradation in gastrointestinal fluids and stability in a beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Ge, Jiao; Yue, Pengxiang; Yue, XueYang; Fu, Ruiyan; Liang, Jin; Gao, Xueling

    2017-04-15

    The optimal preparation parameters to create anthocyanin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles was predicted using response surface methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was used to determine the preparation parameters that would achieve the preferred particle size and high encapsulation efficiency. The result suggested that the optimized conditions were 2.86mg/mL carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC), 0.98mg/mL chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) and 5.97mg anthocyanins. Using the predicted amounts, the experimentally prepared particles averaged 219.53nm with 63.15% encapsulation efficiency. The result was less than 5% different than the predicted result of 214.83nm particle size and 61.80% encapsulation efficiency. Compared with the free anthocyanin solution, the anthocyanin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed a slowed degradation in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. Compared with the free anthocyanin solutions in a model beverage system, the stability of the anthocyanins was increased in the anthocyanin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression and mapping of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in carrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mehtap; Willis, David K; Cavagnaro, Pablo F; Iorizzo, Massimo; Abak, Kazim; Simon, Philipp W

    2013-07-01

    Anthocyanin gene expression has been extensively studied in leaves, fruits and flowers of numerous plants. Little, however, is known about anthocyanin accumulation in roots of carrots or other species. We quantified expression of six anthocyanin biosynthetic genes [phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL3), chalcone synthase (CHS1), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR1), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX2), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT)] in three carrot inbreds with contrasting root color: solid purple (phloem and xylem); purple outer phloem/orange xylem; and orange phloem and xylem. Transcripts for five of these genes (CHS1, DFR1, F3H, LDOX2, PAL3) accumulated at high levels in solid purple carrots, less in purple-orange carrot, and low or no transcript in orange carrots. Gene expression coincided with anthocyanin accumulation. In contrast, UFGT expression was comparable in purple and orange carrots and relatively unchanged during root development. In addition, five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes [FLS1 (flavonol synthase), F3H, LDOX2, PAL3, and UFGT] and three anthocyanin transcription factors (DcEFR1, DcMYB3 and DcMYB5) were mapped in a population segregating for the P 1 locus that conditions purple root color. P 1 mapped to chromosome 3 and of the eight anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, only F3H and FLS1 were linked to P 1. The gene expression and mapping data suggest a coordinated regulatory control of anthocyanin expression in carrot root and establish a framework for studying the anthocyanin pathway in carrots, and they also suggest that none of the genes evaluated is a candidate for P 1.

  10. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases.

  11. Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

  12. Anthocyanin evolution and color changes in red grapes during their chamber drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Ana; Serratosa, Maria P; Merida, Julieta

    2013-10-16

    In this work, the effects of chamber drying under controlled temperature and moisture conditions on three varieties of red grapes (Merlot, Tempranillo, and Syrah) cultivated in warm areas in southern Spain were studied. This drying was made with a view to their use in the production of sweet red wines. Analyses included color parameters, browning index, and anthocyanin concentrations measured by HPLC-DAD/MS. Based on the results, drying increases color and the concentration of these phenolic compounds by the effect of dehydration of the berries and diffusion of the colored compounds from the skin to the pulp due to the structural alterations in their skin. In addition, drying increased the browning index (OD 420), although less markedly than OD 520, as well as decreased the hue (OD 420/OD 520). The musts exhibited the typical color of red wines and a marked darkness by the effect of their low lightness (L* anthocyanin content, less browning, and darker color. To increase the content of the high-molecular weight compounds and anthocyanin derivatives, more raisining time could be required.

  13. Encapsulation of Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.capitata L. f. rubra Anthocyanins by Spray Drying using Different Encapsulating Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahi Bernstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the drying air temperature (140 and 160°C and the concentration of encapsulating agents gum Arabic and polydextrose (10 and 15% on the physicochemical characteristics of the red cabbage extract obtained through extraction in acidulated water and drying using a spray dryer. The anthocyanin retention, antioxidant activity, water activity, solubility, color and microstructure of the final product were analyzed. Results showed that increase in the temperature did not cause significant changes in the anthocyanin quantity and antioxidant activity. The microscopic analysis revealed that for both the encapsulating agents, the absence of fissures and porosity in the particle surfaces produced powder with high solubility in water. The principal component analyses showed a strong correlation between the anthocyanin content and the antioxidant activity (r = 0.82 and luminosity (r = 0.81.

  14. Cloning and expression analyses of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in mulberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiwu; Shuai, Qin; Chen, Hu; Fan, Li; Zeng, Qiwei; He, Ningjia

    2014-10-01

    Anthocyanins are natural food colorants produced by plants that play important roles in their growth and development. Mulberry fruits are rich in anthocyanins, which are the most important active components of mulberry and have many potentially beneficial effects on human health. The study of anthocyanin biosynthesis will bring benefits for quality improvement and industrial exploration of mulberry fruits. In the present study, nine putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants were identified and cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the mulberry anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were conserved and had counterparts in other plants. Spatial transcriptional analysis showed detectable expression of eight of these genes in different tissues. The results of expression and UPLC analyses in two mulberry cultivars with differently colored fruit indicated that anthocyanin concentrations correlated with the expression levels of genes associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis including CHS1, CHI, F3H1, F3'H1, and ANS during the fruit ripening process. The present studies provide insight into anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants and may facilitate genetic engineering for improvement of the anthocyanin content in mulberry fruit.

  15. A role for anthocyanin in determining wine tannin concentration in Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmister, Rachel L; Mazza, Marica; Baker, Nardia K; Faulkner, Peta; Downey, Mark O

    2014-01-01

    Four wines were made to investigate the effect of different anthocyanin and tannin fruit concentrations on wine phenolics and colour. Wines that were made from fruit with high anthocyanin concentration had high tannin concentrations regardless of the concentration of tannin in fruit, while wines made from fruit with low anthocyanin also had low tannin concentration. It was found that fruit anthocyanin concentration correlated with wine tannin concentration, wine colour and polymeric pigment formation. Anthocyanin concentration might be a key component for increasing tannin solubility and extraction into wine and the formation of polymeric pigments. Industry implications include managing tannin and anthocyanin fruit concentration for targeting tannin extraction and polymeric pigment formation in wine. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Alginat dan CaCl2 terhadap Kadar Antosianin, Aktivitas Antioksidan, dan Karakteristik Sensoris Buah Duwet (Syzygium cumini Linn Restrukturisasi (Effect of Alginate and CaCl2 Concentrations on Anthocyanin Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Sensory Characteristics of Restructured Java Plum Fruit (Syzygium cumini Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Ninan Lestario

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Restructuration is one of the ways for processing fresh fruit without heating, so the nutritional value of fruit can be maintained. This method has been applied to several types of tropical fruits but has never been applied to java plum fruit, while it has high antioxidant activity but has a short shelf life. The aim of this research was to produce the best formulation to make restructured java plum fruit. Fresh java plum fruit puree was mixed with several concentrations of calcium alginate (1 %, 2 %, 3 %, and 4 % and CaCl2 (0.75 %; 1 %. Restructured fruit products were evaluated for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, texture, pH, and sensory properties. The result of this research showed that 1 % alginate and 1 % CaCl2 gave restructured java plum fruit with the highest anthocyanin content 171.61 mg/100g (DW and highest antioxidant activity 75.79 %. The overall organoleptic test with 20 panelists showed that restructured fruit with alginate 1 % and CaCl2 1 % or 0.75 % resulted the highest score 3.75.   ABSTRAK Restrukturisasi merupakan salah satu cara pengolahan buah segar tanpa pemanasan sehingga nilai gizi buah dapat dipertahankan. Metode ini sudah diteliti pada beberapa jenis buah tropis tetapi belum pernah dilakukan terhadap buah duwet, padahal buah duwet memiliki aktivitas antioksidan tinggi tetapi memiliki daya simpan rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan formulasi terbaik pada pembuatan restrukturisasi buah duwet. Bubur buah duwet segar dicampur dengan berbagai konsentrasi alginat (1 %, 2 %, 3 %, dan 4 % dan CaCl2 (0,75 %; 1 %. Produk buah hasil restrukturisasi diukur kandungan antosianin total, aktivitas antioksidan, tekstur, pH, dan sifat-sifat sensorisnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa alginat 1% dan CaCl2 1% memiliki kandungan antosianin tertinggi yaitu 171,61 mg/100g (BK dan aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi yaitu 75,79 %. Uji organoleptik dengan 20 panelis menunjukkan bahwa produk restrukturisasi buah

  17. Anthocyanin and antioxidant activity of snacks with coloured potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemś, Agnieszka; Pęksa, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kita, Agnieszka; Drożdż, Wioletta; Hamouz, Karel

    2015-04-01

    Coloured-fleshed potatoes of four varieties were used as raw material for coloured flour and fried snack production. The effects of thermal processes traditionally used in dried potato processing and in snack pellet manufacturing on anthocyanin profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant properties of obtained half- and ready products were studied. There was a significant influence of potato variety on the experimental flour and snack properties. Flours with the highest antioxidant activities were obtained from Salad Blue and Herbie 26 potatoes; however, the flour prepared from the Blue Congo exhibited a much higher total polyphenol and anthocyanin content. Snacks produced with coloured flour had 2-3 times higher antioxidant activities, 40% higher contents of polyphenols, attractive colour and better expansion compared to control samples. The lowest losses of anthocyanins during snack processing were in snacks with flour from the purple-fleshed Blue Congo and red-fleshed Herbie 26. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New aluminium alloys with high lithium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemme, K.; Velten, B.

    1989-06-01

    Since the early 80's there have been made great efforts to replace the high strength aluminium alloys for the aircraft and space industry by a new generation of aluminium-lithium alloys. The attractivity of this kind of alloys could be increased by a further reduction of their density, caused by an increasing lithium content (/ge/ 5 wt.% Li). Therefore binary high-lithium containing alloys with low density are produced and metallografically investigated. A survey of their strength and wear behavior is given by using tensile tests and pin abrasing tests. (orig.).

  19. Improved high performance liquid chromatographic separation of anthocyanin compounds from grapes using a novel mixed-mode ion-exchange reversed-phase column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Jason L; Yang, Raymond; Young, J Christopher; Strommer, Judith N; Tsao, Rong

    2007-04-27

    A novel mixed mode HPLC method using a column combining both ion-exchange and reversed-phase separation mechanisms has been developed to facilitate analysis of anthocyanins in grapes. Chromatographic performance and subsequent analysis of anthocyanidin diglucosides and acylated compounds are significantly improved using the new column, compared to those associated with conventional C18 reversed-phase methods. The mixed mode column produces a distinctive eluting pattern for the different anthocyanin subgroups, avoiding overlaps found with C18 columns. The enhanced chromatographic resolution provides nearly complete separation of 37 anthocyanin types, and permits detection of delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-caffeoyl) beta-D-glucoside for the first time in extracts of skins from Concord grapes.

  20. Intra-species variation in transient accumulation of leaf anthocyanins in Cistus creticus during winter: evidence that anthocyanins may compensate for an inherent photosynthetic and photoprotective inferiority of the red-leaf phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kytridis, Velissarios-Phaedon; Karageorgou, Panagiota; Levizou, Efi; Manetas, Yiannis

    2008-06-16

    Leaf color in some individuals of Cistus creticus turns transiently to red during winter, while neighboring individuals occupying the same site remain green. We have examined whether anthocyanin accumulation can be associated with variations in photosynthetic and/or photoprotective characteristics between the two phenotypes, rendering the red phenotype more vulnerable to photoinhibition and, accordingly, needing additional protection in the form of anthocyanins. Towards this aim, maximum (pre-dawn) and effective (mid-day) PSII photochemical efficiencies, xanthophyll cycle pool sizes and leaf nitrogen contents were seasonably followed, encompassing both the green (spring, summer, autumn) and the red (winter) period of the year. Moreover, the distribution of the two phenotypes in exposed and shaded sites was assessed. The frequency of red individuals was considerably higher in fully exposed sites, pointing to a photoprotective function of leaf anthocyanins. Yet, the assumption was not corroborated by pre-dawn PSII yield measurements, since both phenotypes displayed similar high values throughout the year and a similar drop during winter. However, the red phenotype was characterized by lower light-saturated PSII yields, xanthophyll cycle pool sizes and leaf nitrogen, during both the green and the red period of the year. Based on this correlative evidence, we suggest that winter redness in C. creticus may compensate for an inherent photosynthetic and photoprotective inferiority, possibly through a light screen and/or an antioxidant function of leaf anthocyanins.

  1. Photoprotection by foliar anthocyanins mitigates effects of boron toxicity in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia; Pardossi, Alberto; Tattini, Massimiliano; Gould, Kevin S

    2014-11-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is an important agricultural problem in arid environments. Excess edaphic B compromises photosynthetic efficiency, limits growth and reduces crop yield. However, some purple-leafed cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) exhibit greater tolerance to high B concentrations than do green-leafed cultivars. We hypothesised that foliar anthocyanins protect basil leaf mesophyll from photo-oxidative stress when chloroplast function is compromised by B toxicity. Purple-leafed 'Red Rubin' and green-leafed 'Tigullio' cultivars, grown with high or negligible edaphic B, were given a photoinhibitory light treatment. Possible effects of photoabatement by anthocyanins were simulated by superimposing a purple polycarbonate filter on the green leaves. An ameliorative effect of light filtering on photosynthetic quantum yield and on photo-oxidative load was observed in B-stressed plants. In addition, when green protoplasts from both cultivars were treated with B and illuminated through a screen of anthocyanic protoplasts or a polycarbonate film which approximated cyanidin-3-O-glucoside optical properties, the degree of photoinhibition, hydrogen peroxide production, and malondialdehyde content were reduced. The data provide evidence that anthocyanins exert a photoprotective role in purple-leafed basil mesophyll cells, thereby contributing to improved tolerance to high B concentrations.

  2. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Podsędek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage.

  3. Computer vision for high content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Oren Z; Frey, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    High Content Screening (HCS) technologies that combine automated fluorescence microscopy with high throughput biotechnology have become powerful systems for studying cell biology and drug screening. These systems can produce more than 100 000 images per day, making their success dependent on automated image analysis. In this review, we describe the steps involved in quantifying microscopy images and different approaches for each step. Typically, individual cells are segmented from the background using a segmentation algorithm. Each cell is then quantified by extracting numerical features, such as area and intensity measurements. As these feature representations are typically high dimensional (>500), modern machine learning algorithms are used to classify, cluster and visualize cells in HCS experiments. Machine learning algorithms that learn feature representations, in addition to the classification or clustering task, have recently advanced the state of the art on several benchmarking tasks in the computer vision community. These techniques have also recently been applied to HCS image analysis.

  4. Fenologia, produção e teor de antocianinas de cultivares de morangueiro em ambiente protegido Phenology, production and content of strawberry crops cultivars anthocyanins produced under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Oliveira Calvete

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversidade de cultivares de morangueiro exige estudos quanto à adaptação no local de cultivo. Por sua vez, a maior exigência do consumidor por produtos mais saudáveis requer informações a respeito das características nutracêuticas dos produtos. Este trabalho objetivou determinar as cultivares com maior adaptação ao cultivo protegido na região do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, os teores de antocianinas, bem como a época de plantio que proporcionam maior produtividade. O experimento foi conduzido em um ambiente protegido de 280 m², coberto com filme de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, de 150 µm, com aditivo anti UV. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, e os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as épocas de plantio das mudas (28 de abril e 13 de maio as parcelas principais, e as cultivares (Dover, Tudla, Comander, Oso Grande, Campinas, Chandler, Serrano e Camarosa, as subparcelas. Foram avaliadas características fenológicas e componentes do rendimento. Os teores de antocianinas foram determinados por espectrofotometria, com comprimento de onda de 528 nm. Não houve interação entre cultivares e épocas de plantio sobre as características avaliadas. A maior produtividade foi do morangueiro cultivado precocemente, em abril. As cultivares Camarosa, Dover, Oso Grande e Tudla são as mais indicadas, pelo maior rendimento e escalonamento da produção, e a cultivar Serrano, pelo maior teor de antocianinas.The diversification of strawberry cultivars demands studies about their adaptation in the cultivation place and, the increase of the consumer's requirement for healthier products require studies about the products nutraceutica characteristics. In such a way, this work aimed to determine the cultivars with higher adaptation under protected environment in Rio Grande do Sul, Planalto Médio region, the contents of anthocyanins, as well as the period that provides more productivity. The

  5. A new acylated anthocyanin from the red flowers of Camellia hongkongensis and characterization of anthocyanins in the section Camellia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Hashimoto, Fumio; Shimizu, Keiichi; Sakata, Yusuke

    2009-06-01

    Twelve anthocyanins (1-12) were isolated from the red flowers of Camellia hongkongensis Seem. by chromatography using open columns. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, that is, proton-nuclear magnetic resonance, carbon 13-nuclear magnetic resonance, heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, high resolution electrospray ionization mass and ultraviolet visible spectroscopies. Out of these anthocyanins, a novel acylated anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl)-beta-galactopyranoside (6), two known acylated anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-beta-galactopyranoside (7) and cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(E)-caffeoyl)-beta-galactopyranoside (8), and three known delphinidin glycosides (10-12) were for the first time isolated from the genus Camellia. Furthermore, pigment components in C. japonica L., C. chekiangoleosa Hu and C. semiserrata Chi were studied. The results indicated that the distribution of anthocyanins was differed among these species. Delphinidin glycoside was only detected in the flowers of C. hongkongensis, which is a special and important species in the section Camellia. Based on the characterization of anthocyanins in the section Camellia species, there is a close relationship among these species, and C. hongkongensis might be an important parent for creating new cultivars with bluish flower color.

  6. A New Acylated Anthocyanin from the Red Flowers of Camellia hongkongensis and Characterization of Anthocyanins in the Section Camellia Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Bin Li; Fumio Hashimoto; Keiichi Shimizu; Yusuke Sakata

    2009-01-01

    Twelve anthocyanins (1-12) were isolated from the red flowers of Camellia hongkongensis Seem. by chromatography using open columns. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, that is, proton-nuclear magnetic resonance, carbon 13-nuclear magnetic resonance, heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, high resolution electrospray ionization mass and ultraviolet visible spectroscopies. Out of these anthocyanins, a novel acylated anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl)-β-galactopyranoside (6), two known acylated anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-galactopyranoside (7) and cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(E)-caffeoyl)-β-galactopyranoside (8), and three known delphinidin glycosides (10-12) were for the first time isolated from the genus Camellia. Furthermore, pigment components in C. japonica L., C. chekiangoleosa Hu and C. semiserrata Chi were studied.The results indicated that the distribution of anthocyanins was differed among these species. Delphinidin glycoside was only detected in the flowers of C. hongkongensis, which is a special and important species in the section Camellia. Based on the characterization of anthocyanins in the section Camellia species, there is a close relationship among these species,and C. hongkongensis might be an important parent for creating new cultivars with bluish flower color.

  7. Sunlight-stimulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and anthocyanin accumulation in exocarp of ‘Mahajanaka’ mango

    OpenAIRE

    Kobkiat Saengnil

    2011-01-01

    The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) required for anthocyanin synthesis was stimulated by sunlight exposure resulting in the development of red colour in ‘Mahajanaka’ mango exocarp, which occurred only on the sunlight-exposed side of the fruit. The accumulation of anthocyanin was concurrent with the increase in PAL activity in the mature stage of the fruit. The exposed side of the fruit had higher PAL activity, endogenous sugar content, and anthocyanin accumulation than the unexp...

  8. Influence of rutin and ascorbic acid in colour, plum anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity stability in model juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Herrero, J A; Frutos, M J

    2015-04-15

    Model juices at pH 3.7 were prepared with different combinations of ascorbic acid, rutin (quercetin 3-rutinoside) and concentrated anthocyanin extract of plums (cv. Black Gold). The anthocyanins in the concentrated extract were cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, in a proportion of 76% and 24% respectively. The model juices were stored during 17 weeks in darkness at 20 °C. The colour stability was improved by the presence of rutin and strongly damaged by the ascorbic acid. The fortification of anthocyanin model juices with ascorbic acid originated the degradation of most of anthocyanins. However, anthocyanins improved ascorbic acid stability during storage. The copigmentation of anthocyanin and rutin showed a beneficial effect on colour stability from the 5 weeks of storage. In model juices prepared exclusively with purified plum extract a high correlation (R(2)=0.881) between anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity was found.

  9. Optimization of conditions to achieve high content of gamma amino butyric acid in germinated black rice, and changes in bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study estimated the optimum germination conditions to achieve high content of Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA and other phytochemicals in Thai black rice cultivar Kum Payao (BR. The Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology was employed to optimize the germination conditions. The changes in the GABA, phytochemical content, impact of salt, and temperature stress variation on phytochemical content, and stability of GABA were studied. The results showed that 12 h of soaking at pH 7, followed by 36 h of germination was the optimum condition to achieve maximum GABA content (0.2029 mg/g of germinated BR (GBR. The temperature (8 and 30 °C, and salt (50-200 mM NaCl content affected the phytochemicals of GBR, especially GABA, and anthocyanins. Obviously, the antioxidant capability, and enzyme (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting nature of BR was significantly (P < 0.001 increased after germination. The storage of GBR at 4 °C significantly, preserved the GABA content (∼80% for 45 days. Primarily, the current study revealed the changes in phytochemical content, and bioactivity of Thai black rice cr. Kum Payao during germination. More studies should be carried out on pharmacological benefits of GABA-rich GBR.

  10. The effect of sugars in relation to methyl jasmonate on anthocyanin formation in the roots of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (Poelln.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Góraj-Koniarska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose and sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol applied alone and in solution with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me on the anthocyanin content in the roots of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. None of the sugars used individually in the experiment affected anthocyanin accumulation in the roots of intact plants. The anthocyanin level was similar to that in the control. Sucrose at concentrations of 0.5% and 3.0%, and glucose at a concentration of 3.0% inhibited anthocyanin accumulation induced by JA-Me. Only fructose at a concentration of 3.0% stimulated anthocyanin accumulation induced by JA-Me. The sugar alcohols, mannitol at a concentration of 3.0% and sorbitol at 0.5% and 3.0%, inhibited anthocyanin accumulation in the roots of intact K. blossfeldiana plants induced by JA-Me. In excised roots, both sugars and JA-Me used individually did not affect the formation of anthocyanins. Also, the sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol applied simultaneously with JA-Me had no effect on the accumulation of anthocyanins. However, roots treated with sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose in solution with JA-Me promoted the induction of anthocyanins in the apical parts of the roots.  The results suggest that anthocyanin elicitation in the roots of K. blossfeldiana by methyl jasmonate may be dependent on the interaction of JA-Me with sugars transported from the stems (leaves to the roots.

  11. High content screening in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Raymond; Paliwal, Saurabh; Levchenko, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Miniaturization is key to advancing the state-of-the-art in high content screening (HCS), in order to enable dramatic cost savings through reduced usage of expensive biochemical reagents and to enable large-scale screening on primary cells. Microfluidic technology offers the potential to enable HCS to be performed with an unprecedented degree of miniaturization. Areas covered in this review This perspective highlights a real-world example from the authors’ work of HCS assays implemented in a highly miniaturized microfluidic format. Advantages of this technology are discussed, including cost savings, high throughput screening on primary cells, improved accuracy, the ability to study complex time-varying stimuli, and ease of automation, integration, and scaling. What the reader will gain The reader will understand the capabilities of a new microfluidics-based platform for HCS, and the advantages it provides over conventional plate-based HCS. Take home message Microfluidics technology will drive significant advancements and broader usage and applicability of HCS in drug discovery. PMID:21852997

  12. The food matrix affects the anthocyanin profile of fortified egg and dairy matrices during processing and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Nau, Françoise; Guerin-Dubiard, Catherin; Jardin, Julien; Lechevalier, Valérie; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Guadarrama, Alberto; Tóth, Tamás; Csavajda, Éva; Hingyi, Hajnalka; Karakaya, Sibel; Sibakov, Juhani; Capozzi, Francesco; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand to what extent the inclusion of anthocyanins into dairy and egg matrices could affect their stability after processing and their release and solubility during digestion. For this purpose, individual and total anthocyanin content of four different enriched matrices, namely custard dessert, milkshake, pancake and omelettete, was determined after their manufacturing and during in vitro digestion. Results showed that anthocyanin recovery after processing largely varied among matrices, mainly due to the treatments applied and the interactions developed with other food components. In terms of digestion, the present study showed that the inclusion of anthocyanins into food matrices could be an effective way to protect them against intestinal degradation, and also the incorporation of anthocyanins into matrices with different compositions and structures could represent an interesting and effective method to control the delivery of anthocyanins within the different compartments of the digestive tract.

  13. Relationship Between Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Related Enzymes Activity in Pyrus pyrifolia Mantianhong and Its Bud Sports Aoguan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shou-qian; CHEN Xue-sen; ZHANG Chun-yu; LIU Xiao-jing; LIU Zun-chun; WANG Hai-bo; WANG Yan-ling; ZHOU Chao-hua

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the relationship between biosynthesis of anthocyanin and activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), chalcone ismoerase (CHI) enzymes in Pyrus pyrifolia. Changes in the level of anthocyanin and the activities of enzymes of anthocyanin biosynthesis including PAL, CH1 were studied in the pericarp of Pyrus pyrifolia Aoguan and Mantianhong during the period of pigment formation. Bagging treatment was also carried out to manipulate the synthesis of anthocyanin and the activities of related enzymes during the period of pigment formation. The results demonstrated that the level of anthocyanin of Aoguan was higher than that of Mantianhong. However, the content of anthocyanins has the similar changing trend in Aoguan and Mantianhong, highest anthocyanin concentrations of two varieties appeared in immature fruit and faded toward harvest. Meanwhile, similar changing trends of activities of PAL and CHI were also observed in both varieties. Aoguan has a lower activity of PAL than Mantianhong, whereas activity of CHI in Aoguan was higher than that in Mantianhong. Activity of PAL decreased during the period of pigment formation and was apparently not limiting to color development, whereas CHI activity increased at the same period and was closely related to the synthesis of anthocyanin. The results of bagging treatment showed that bagging treatment inhibited the activity of CHI, as well as the synthesis of anthocyanin, whereas debagging enhanced both the activity of CHI and synthesis of anthocyanin. The activity of CHI in debagging Aoguan pericarp was higher than the untreated Aoguan. However, effect of bagging treatment toward PAL activity was not obvious. Anthocyanin of bagging treated Aoguan decreased toward harvest. The content of anthocyanin of Pyrus pyrifolia increased at the beginning of fruit coloration period and decreased toward fruit harvest. Activity of PAL was apparently not limiting to color development, whereas CHI activity

  14. Effect of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols on chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in apple fruit: signature analysis, assessment, modelling, and relevance to photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlyak, Mark N; Melø, Thor Bernt; Naqvi, K Razi

    2008-01-01

    Whole apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) widely differing in pigment content and composition has been examined by recording its chlorophyll fluorescence excitation and diffuse reflection spectra in the visible and near UV regions. Spectral bands sensitive to the pigment concentration have been identified, and linear models for non-destructive assessment of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols via chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are put forward. The adaptation of apple fruit to high light stress involves accumulation of these protective pigments, which absorb solar radiation in broad spectral ranges extending from UV to the green and, in anthocyanin-containing cultivars, to the red regions of the spectrum. In ripening apples the protective effect in the blue region could be attributed to extrathylakoid carotenoids. A simple model, which allows the simulation of chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in the visible range and a quantitative evaluation of competitive absorption by anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols, is described. Evidence is presented to support the view that anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols play, in fruit with low-to-moderate pigment content, the role of internal traps (insofar as they compete with chlorophylls for the absorption of incident light in specific spectral bands), affecting thereby the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum.

  15. Analysis of anthocyanins in commercial fruit juices by using nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-vis detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Chiara; Dugo, Laura; D'Orazio, Giovanni; Lirangi, Melania; Dachà, Marina; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Nano-LC and conventional HPLC techniques were applied for the analysis of anthocyanins present in commercial fruit juices using a capillary column of 100 μm id and a 2.1 mm id narrow-bore C(18) column. Analytes were detected by UV-Vis at 518 nm and ESI-ion trap MS with HPLC and nano-LC, respectively. Commercial blueberry juice (14 anthocyanins detected) was used to optimize chromatographic separation of analytes and other analysis parameters. Qualitative identification of anthocyanins was performed by comparing the recorded mass spectral data with those of published papers. The use of the same mobile phase composition in both techniques revealed that the miniaturized method exhibited shorter analysis time and higher sensitivity than narrow-bore chromatography. Good intra-day and day-to-day precision of retention time was obtained in both methods with values of RSD less than 3.4 and 0.8% for nano-LC and HPLC, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed by external standard curve calibration of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside standard. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration ranges studied, 0.1-50 and 6-50 μg/mL for HPLC-UV/Vis and nano-LC-MS, respectively. LOD and LOQ values were good for both methods. In addition to commercial blueberry juice, qualitative and quantitative analysis of other juices (e.g. raspberry, sweet cherry and pomegranate) was performed. The optimized nano-LC-MS method allowed an easy and selective identification and quantification of anthocyanins in commercial fruit juices; it offered good results, shorter analysis time and reduced mobile phase volume with respect to narrow-bore HPLC.

  16. Using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography to study the complexation of anthocyanins with β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deineka, V. I.; Lapshova, M. S.; Deineka, L. A.

    2014-06-01

    It is shown by means of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC) with mobile phases containing additions of β-cyclodextrin that 5-glucosides of cyanidin and pelargonidin form stronger inclusion complexes than 3-glucosides; this is explained by the steric interference of the glucoside radical.

  17. Possible regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the production of anthocyanins in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, F.B.; Oosterhaven, J.; Martinez-Madrid, M.C.; Romojaro, F.

    2005-01-01

    The regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in the light-induced accumulation of anthocyanins in the epidermis of asparagus spears has been analysed. A correlation between the stimulation of PAL activity and the rise in total anthocyanin content has been observed. Light radiation induce

  18. Possible regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the production of anthocyanins in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, F.B.; Oosterhaven, J.; Martinez-Madrid, M.C.; Romojaro, F.

    2005-01-01

    The regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in the light-induced accumulation of anthocyanins in the epidermis of asparagus spears has been analysed. A correlation between the stimulation of PAL activity and the rise in total anthocyanin content has been observed. Light radiation induce

  19. Possible regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the production of anthocyanins in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, F.B.; Oosterhaven, J.; Martinez-Madrid, M.C.; Romojaro, F.

    2005-01-01

    The regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in the light-induced accumulation of anthocyanins in the epidermis of asparagus spears has been analysed. A correlation between the stimulation of PAL activity and the rise in total anthocyanin content has been observed. Light radiation

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Effects of Exogenous Hematin on Anthocyanin Biosynthesis during Strawberry Fruit Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huayin; Li, Jingjuan; Zhang, Yihui

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin in strawberries has a positive effect on fruit coloration. In this study, the role of exogenous hematin on anthocyanin biosynthesis was investigated. Our result showed that the white stage of strawberries treated with exogenous hematin had higher anthocyanin content, compared to the control group. Among all treatments, 5 μM of hematin was the optimal condition to promote color development. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of fruit coloring regulated by hematin, transcriptomes in the hematin- and non-hematin-treated fruit were analyzed. A large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in regulating anthocyanin synthesis, including the DEGs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, hormone signaling transduction, phytochrome signaling, starch and sucrose degradation, and transcriptional pathways. These regulatory networks may play an important role in regulating the color process of strawberries treated with hematin. In summary, exogenous hematin could promote fruit coloring by increasing anthocyanin content in the white stage of strawberries. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis suggests that hematin-promoted fruit coloring occurs through multiple related metabolic pathways, which provides valuable information for regulating fruit color via anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberries. PMID:28074176

  1. Anthocyanins and color degradation in ozonated grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, B K; O'Donnell, C P; Patras, A; Brunton, N; Cullen, P J

    2009-11-01

    Grape juice samples were ozonated with processing variables of ozone concentration (1.6-7.8% w/w) and treatment time (0-10 min). Effects of processing variables on grape juice color values (L, a and b) and anthocyanins were determined. The changes in lightness (L) values and total color difference (TCD) values were fitted well to zero-order kinetics whereas, a and b followed first-order kinetics. Three major anthocyanins were observed in the grape juice namely cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3Gl, 133.9 mg/L), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (Dy3Gl, 21.4) and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (My3Gl, 3.2mg/L). Significant reductions in anthocyanin content were observed during ozonation. During ozonation Cy3Gl was found to be stable compared to Dy3Gl and My3Gl. Changes in Cy3Gl were fitted well to the fraction conversion model. The results presented in this study indicate that both color and anthocyanin content are significantly affected during ozone processing. Thus, the effects of ozonation on the grape juice should be considered by processors prior to its adoption as a preservation technique.

  2. COLOUR, PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE SLOVAK ALIBERNET RED WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen Alibernet wine samples, originated from three most important Slovak vineyard regions, were evaluated spectrophotometrically for the content of total polyphenols, content of total anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and wine colour density. The determined total polyphenol contents in observed wines ranged from 2141 to 4274 mg gallic acid per liter (average content was 3057 mg gallic acid/L and total anthocyanin contents ranged from 73.4 to 791.2 mg/L (average content was 403.4 mg/L. Determined values of antioxidant activity were within the interval 54.8 – 86.8% (average value was 74.5% and the values of wine colour density varied between 0.944 and 4.592 (average value was 2.317. The statistical evaluation of the obtained results confirmed only weak linear correlation between total polyphenol content and total anthocyanin content, however strong linear correlations between total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity, resp. wine colour density were observed. Our results also confirmed very highly significant linear relationship between wine colour density and total polyphenol content, resp. antioxidant activity and between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

  3. Systematic Review of Anthocyanins and Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are dietary flavonoids commonly consumed in the diet, which have been suggested to have a preventative effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD development among epidemiological studies. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs testing the effects of purified anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts on markers of CVD (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, and blood pressure in both healthy and diseased populations. Eligible studies included RCTs of adults published in English. We searched PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, and BIOSIS Previews for relevant articles from inception until 1 July 2014. Twelve RCTs representing 10 studies were included in this review. Supplementation with anthocyanins significantly improved LDL cholesterol among diseased individuals or those with elevated biomarkers. Supplementation did not significantly affect other markers of CVD in either healthy individuals or those with elevated markers. No adverse effects of anthocyanins were reported across studies at levels up to 640 mg/day. Limitations of trials in the qualitative analyses include short trial duration and large variability in the dose administered within the trials. Longer-duration trials assessing dose response are needed to adequately determine whether an effect of supplementation exists.

  4. High content analysis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Federica; Motti, Dario; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Kaspar, Brian K

    2017-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. Neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglial cells all undergo pathological modifications in the onset and progression of ALS. A number of genes involved in the etiopathology of the disease have been identified, but a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ALS has yet to be determined. Currently, people affected by ALS have a life expectancy of only two to five years from diagnosis. The search for a treatment has been slow and mostly unsuccessful, leaving patients in desperate need of better therapies. Until recently, most pre-clinical studies utilized the available ALS animal models. In the past years, the development of new protocols for isolation of patient cells and differentiation into relevant cell types has provided new tools to model ALS, potentially more relevant to the disease itself as they directly come from patients. The use of stem cells is showing promise to facilitate ALS research by expanding our understanding of the disease and help to identify potential new therapeutic targets and therapies to help patients. Advancements in high content analysis (HCA) have the power to contribute to move ALS research forward by combining automated image acquisition along with digital image analysis. With modern HCA machines it is possible, in a period of just a few hours, to observe changes in morphology and survival of cells, under the stimulation of hundreds, if not thousands of drugs and compounds. In this article, we will summarize the major molecular and cellular hallmarks of ALS, describe the advancements provided by the in vitro models developed in the last few years, and review the studies that have applied HCA to the ALS field to date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of growth conditions on flavonols and anthocyanins accumulation in green and red lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia BRÜCKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different growth conditions on anthocyanins and flavonols accumulation in leaves of green and red loose leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa. Lettuce plants were grown in three types of conditions, in greenhouse (I. variant, behind clear glass in field (II. variant and in open field conditions (III. variant. Estimation of anthocyanins and flavonols content was done by non-destructive measurements with optical fluorescence sensor Multiplex® 3 (Force-A, France. It was estimated that green lettuce varieties had a greater flavonols content compared to red lettuce varieties in all experimental variants. The highest level of flavonols was detected in leaves of green variety Zoltán (1.218 RU and in red lettuce had the highest amount of flavonols in variety Carmesi (1.095 RU. At the same time red lettuce varieties were characterized by higher anthocyanins content. Parameter anthocyanin index is correlated with visible red coloration of leaves. The highest content of anthocyanins was detected in variety Oakly (0.867 RU. Under the open field conditions was found statistically significant higher (P < 0.05 flavonols and anthocyanins level in both green and red lettuce leaves compared to greenhouse conditions. It may be connected with intensification of flavonoids biosynthesis and accumulation which normally stimulated by sun irradiation, especially UV-B radiation.

  6. Antioxidant activity, polyphenol content, and related compounds in different fruit juices and homogenates prepared from 29 different pomegranate accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzulker, Revital; Glazer, Ira; Bar-Ilan, Igal; Holland, Doron; Aviram, Michael; Amir, Rachel

    2007-11-14

    Pomegranate juice is well known for its health beneficial compounds, which can be attributed to its high level of antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content. Our objective was to study the relationships between antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content, total anthocyanins content, and the levels of four major hydrolyzable tannins in four different juices/homogenates prepared from different sections of the fruit. To this end, 29 different accessions were tested. The results showed that the antioxidant activity in aril juice correlated significantly to the total polyphenol and anthocyanin contents. However, the homogenates prepared from the whole fruit exhibited an approximately 20-fold higher antioxidant activity than the level found in the aril juice. Unlike the arils, the antioxidant level in the homogenates correlated significantly to the content of the four hydrolyzable tannins in which punicalagin is predominant, while no correlation was found to the level of anthocyanins.

  7. Absorption and excretion of black currant anthocyanins in human and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L.. F.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.;

    2003-01-01

    Anthocyanins are thought to protect against cardiovascular diseases. Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits are hypercholesterolemic and used as a model of the development of atherosclerosis. To compare the uptake and excretion of anthocyanins in humans and WHHL rabbits, single-dose black...... currant anthocyanin studies were performed. Procedures for workup and analyses of urine and plasma samples containing anthocyanins were developed with high recoveries (99 and 81%, respectively) and low limits of quantification (greater than or equal to 6.6 and greater than or equal to 1.1 nM, respectively......). The excretion and absorption of anthocyanins from black currant juice were found to be within the same order of magnitude in the two species regarding urinary excretion within the first 4 h (rabbits, 0.035%; humans, 0.072%) and t(ma)x (rabbits, similar to30 min; humans, similar to45 min). A food matrix effect...

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF RED YOUNG WINES OXIDATION ON THE ANTHOCYANINS SPECTRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Elena Vîjan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is studied the oxidation process of some Romanian red wines, during two months after the bottles of winewere opened. For this, the absorbance spectra were drawn, the colour (the density, the intensity and the hue wasappreciation, the anthocyanin and sulphur dioxide content was determined. The studied wines were: CabernetSauvignon, Merlot and Pinot Noir, produced in 2009 by a local producer from the Valea Calugareasca area. The winecolour is determined by the spectrophotometric methods and the SO2 content was assayed by titration with iodinesolution. It was remark that, during the oxidation process of wines, the decreasing of SO2 content is produced in thesame time with the decreasing of anthocyanin content. They are correlated with the increase of the wine colourintensity. The research clearly showed the existence of correlations between the anthocyanins content and SO2 content,during the oxidation process of wine.

  9. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  10. Anthocyanin Concentration of "Assaria" Pomegranate Fruits During Different Cold Storage Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Graça; Fontes, Catarina; Antunes, Dulce; Neves, Alcinda; Martins, Denise

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of anthocyanins in fruits of "Assaria" pomegranate, a sweet Portuguese cultivar typically grown in Algarve (south Portugal), was monitored during storage under different conditions. The fruits were exposed to cold storage ( $5^{\\circ}$ C) after the following treatments: spraying with wax; spraying with $1.5$ % CaCl(2); spraying with wax and $1.5$ % CaCl(2); covering boxes with 25 $\\mu$ c thickness low-density polyethylene film. Untreated fruits were used as a control. The anthocyanin levels were quantified by either comparison with an external standard of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (based on the peak area) or individual calculation from the peak areas based on standard curves of each anthocyanin type. The storage time as well as the fruit treatment prior to storage influenced total anthocyanin content. The highest levels were observed at the end of the first month of storage, except for the fruits treated with CaCl(2), where the maximal values were achieved at the end of the second month. The anthocyanin quantification method influenced the final result. When total anthocyanin was calculated as a sum of individual pigments quantified based on standard curves of each anthocyanin type, lower values were obtained.

  11. Anthocyanin Accumulation Mediated by Blue Light and Cytokinin in Arabidopsis Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It has been reported that pigmentation in plants is stimulated by light and cytokinin (CTK); however, the signaling pathways and the relationship between light and CTK involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation remain to be elucidated. We investigated (i) the role of blue light (BL) and CTK in anthocyanin accumulation; and (ii) the relationship between BL and CTK in wild type (WT) and hy4 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Two-d-old seedlings grown on medium with or without kinetin (KT) or zeatin (ZT) in darkness were irradiated using BL at different fluence rates for 3 d before the anthocyanin content was determined using a spectrophotometric method. Anthocyanin accumulation was strongly induced by BL in WT seedlings but not in hy4 seedlings, which demonstrated that CRY1 is the main photoreceptor for BL. Both KT and ZT enhanced the response of the WT seedlings to BL in a dose-dependent manner, whereas they were not sufficient to promote anthocyanin accumulation in darkness. In addition, data from experiments using the hy4 mutant showed that the CTK effect of BL was also CRY1-dependent. The results from experiments with three different treatment programs showed that the relationship between BL and KT in anthocyanin accumulation of Arabidopsis seedlings seems neither multiplicative nor additive coaction, but rather interaction. BL is necessary for anthocyanin accumulation, and KT might be involved in the BL signaling pathway.

  12. Classification of fruits based on anthocyanin types and relevance to their health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of water-soluble pigments that confer the blue, purple, and red color to many fruits. Anthocyanin-rich fruits can be divided into three groups based on the types of aglycones of their anthocyanins: pelargonidin group, cyanidin/peonidin group, and multiple anthocyanidins group. Some fruits contain a major anthocyanin type and can serve as useful research tools. Cyanidin glycosides and peonidin glycosides can be metabolically converted to each other by methylation and demethylation. Both cyanidin and peonidin glycosides can be metabolized to protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid. Pelargonidin-3-glucoside is metabolized to 4-hydroxybenoic acid. On the other hand, phenolic acid metabolites of delphinidin, malvidin, and petunidin glycosides are unstable and can be further fragmented into smaller molecules. A literature review indicates berries with higher cyanidin content, such as black raspberries, chokeberries, and bilberries are more likely to produce an antiinflammatory effect. This observation seems to be consistent with the hypothesis that one or more stable phenolic acid metabolites contribute to the antiinflammatory effects of anthocyanin-rich fruits. More studies are needed before we can conclude that fruits rich in cyanidin, peonidin, or pelargonidin glycosides have better antiinflammatory effects. Additionally, fruit polyphenols other than anthocyanins could contribute to their antiinflammatory effects. Furthermore, blueberries could exert their health effects with other mechanisms such as improving intestinal microbiota composition. In summary, this classification system can facilitate our understanding of the absorption and metabolic processes of anthocyanins and the health effects of different fruits.

  13. Anthocyanin Concentration of “Assaria” Pomegranate Fruits During Different Cold Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of anthocyanins in fruits of “Assaria” pomegranate, a sweet Portuguese cultivar typically grown in Algarve (south Portugal, was monitored during storage under different conditions. The fruits were exposed to cold storage (5∘C after the following treatments: spraying with wax; spraying with 1.5% CaCl2; spraying with wax and 1.5% CaCl2; covering boxes with 25 μc thickness low-density polyethylene film. Untreated fruits were used as a control. The anthocyanin levels were quantified by either comparison with an external standard of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (based on the peak area or individual calculation from the peak areas based on standard curves of each anthocyanin type. The storage time as well as the fruit treatment prior to storage influenced total anthocyanin content. The highest levels were observed at the end of the first month of storage, except for the fruits treated with CaCl2, where the maximal values were achieved at the end of the second month. The anthocyanin quantification method influenced the final result. When total anthocyanin was calculated as a sum of individual pigments quantified based on standard curves of each anthocyanin type, lower values were obtained.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of an apple (Malus × domestica) yellow fruit somatic mutation identifies a gene network module highly associated with anthocyanin and epigenetic regulation

    OpenAIRE

    El-sharkawy, Islam; Liang, Dong; Xu, Kenong

    2015-01-01

    Using RNA-seq, this study analysed an apple (Malus×domestica) anthocyanin-deficient yellow-skin somatic mutant ‘Blondee’ (BLO) and its red-skin parent ‘Kidd’s D-8’ (KID), the original name of ‘Gala’, to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the mutation. A total of 3299 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between BLO and KID at four developmental stages and/or between two adjacent stages within BLO and/or KID. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) o...

  15. 美洲黑杨新品种全红杨叶片色素含量与叶色的对比研究%Comparison Analysis of Chromatism Value and Anthocyanin Contents of Populus×euramericana ‘Quanhong' Leaves in Different Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑红

    2012-01-01

    In order to study on inner pigment and external hue characteristic of Populus ×eu-ramericana 'quanhong' leaves and their relationship,the coloration mechanism of Populus×euramericana ' quanhong', the differences in photosynthetic characteristics, and pigment contents between Populus×euramericana 'zhonghong' and Populus linn 2025 were analyzed. The results showed that the leaves of Populus X euramericana ' quanhong' contained more photosynthetic pigment (chlorophy a,b and carotenoid ) and non photosynthetic pigment(Anthocyanin), especially the anthocyanin content significantly higher than that of Populus × euramericana ' zhonghong' and Populus linn 2025,and the three leaf color differed singificantly. When the hue a* value of PopulusXeuramericana 'quanhong' leaf and the color value were always positive and hue b* value were smaller positive with red leaf color; when the hue a* value of PopulusXeuramericana 'zhonghong' leaf and the color value changed from positive to negative and hue b* were positive value and increases, with leaf red to light and appearing to return to green; when the hue a* value of phenomenon; Populus linn 2025 leaf and the color value for the lower were negative value and hue b* was high positive,the blade always appeared yellowish green or green. The result was in line with the change of the pigment leaves ratio related to the influence of color.%为研究全红杨叶片内在色素与外在色相的特性及其关系,探讨全红杨的呈色机制,比较分析了生长季不同时期全红杨、中红杨和2025叶片中色素含量和叶色参数的差异.结果表明,全红杨叶片含有较多的光合色素(叶绿素a、b和类胡萝卜素)和非光合色素(花色素苷),尤其是花色素苷含量显著高于中红杨和2025,三者叶色差异明显.全红杨色相a*值和色光值始终为正值,色相b*值为较小的正值,叶色始终以红色为主;中红杨色相a*值和色光值由正值变为负值,色相b*值为正值并

  16. Metabolic Effects of Berries with Structurally Diverse Anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Overall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity. Diets supplemented with blackberry (mono-glycosylated cyanidins, black raspberry (acylated mono-glycosylated cyanidins, blackcurrant (mono- and di-glycosylated cyanidins and delphinidins, maqui berry (di-glycosylated delphinidins, Concord grape (acylated mono-glycosylated delphinidins and petunidins, and blueberry (mono-glycosylated delphinidins, malvidins, and petunidins showed a prominent discrepancy between biological activities of delphinidin/malvidin-versus cyanidin-type anthocyanins that could be explained by differences in their structure and metabolism in the gut. Consumption of berries also resulted in a strong shift in the gastrointestinal bacterial communities towards obligate anaerobes that correlated with decrease in the gastrointestinal luminal oxygen and oxidative stress. Further work is needed to understand mechanisms that lead to nearly anoxic conditions in the gut lumens, including the relative contributions of host, diet and/or microbial oxidative activity, and their implication to human health.

  17. Metabolic Effects of Berries with Structurally Diverse Anthocyanins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, John; Bonney, Sierra A.; Wilson, Mickey; Beermann, Arnold; Grace, Mary H.; Esposito, Debora; Lila, Mary Ann; Komarnytsky, Slavko

    2017-01-01

    Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content) on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity. Diets supplemented with blackberry (mono-glycosylated cyanidins), black raspberry (acylated mono-glycosylated cyanidins), blackcurrant (mono- and di-glycosylated cyanidins and delphinidins), maqui berry (di-glycosylated delphinidins), Concord grape (acylated mono-glycosylated delphinidins and petunidins), and blueberry (mono-glycosylated delphinidins, malvidins, and petunidins) showed a prominent discrepancy between biological activities of delphinidin/malvidin-versus cyanidin-type anthocyanins that could be explained by differences in their structure and metabolism in the gut. Consumption of berries also resulted in a strong shift in the gastrointestinal bacterial communities towards obligate anaerobes that correlated with decrease in the gastrointestinal luminal oxygen and oxidative stress. Further work is needed to understand mechanisms that lead to nearly anoxic conditions in the gut lumens, including the relative contributions of host, diet and/or microbial oxidative activity, and their implication to human health. PMID:28212306

  18. Anthocyanin accumulation and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Li, Xiaohua; Jang, In Hyuk; Park, Suhyoung; Ahn, Gil Hwan; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2011-06-08

    Radish [Raphanus sativus (Rs)] is an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in radish, the gene expression of enzymes directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was analyzed. These genes include phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). RsDFR and RsANS were found to accumulate in the flesh or skin of two radish cultivars (Man Tang Hong and Hong Feng No.1). Radish skin contained higher CHS, CHI, and F3H transcript levels than radish flesh in all three cultivars. In the red radish, 16 anthocyanins were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elctrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Some of them were acylated with coumaroyl, malonoyl, feruoyl, and caffeoyl moieties. Furthermore (-)-epicatechin and ferulic acid were also identified in the three cultivars.

  19. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchenko O.Yu.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L. can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying formation of these traits as well as contribution of the pigmentation to stress tolerance have not been widely studied in wheat. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying anthocyanin pigmentation in different wheat organs and to estimate the role of the pigmentation under different abiotic stress conditions in wheat seedlings. In the current study, near-isogenic lines (NILs: cv. ‘Saratovskaya 29’ (‘S29’ and lines i:S29Pp1Pp2PF and i:S29Pp1Pp3P developed on the ‘S29’ background but having grain pericarp coloration (genes Pp and more intense coleoptile (Rc, culm (Pc, leaf blade (Plb, leaf sheath (Pls pigmentation in comparison with ‘S29’, were used. Comparative transcriptional analysis of the five structural genes Chs, Chi, F3h, Dfr, Ans, encoding enzymes participating in the anthocyanin biosynthesis, was performed in different organs of NILs. It was shown that the presence of the Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp alleles conferring strong anthocyanin pigmentation induced more intense transcription of the structural genes, suggesting the genes Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp to play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis network. To evaluate the role of anthocyanins in stress response at the seedling stage, growth ability of the NILs and anthocyanin content in their coleoptiles were assessed after treatments with NaCl (100 and 200 mM, CdCl2 (25 and 50 μM and 15% PEG 6000

  20. Distinctive Anthocyanin Accumulation Responses to Temperature and Natural UV Radiation of Two Field-Grown Vitis vinifera L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernandes de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The responses of two red grape varieties, Bovale Grande (syn. Carignan and Cannonau (syn. Grenache, to temperature and natural UV radiation were studied in a three-years field experiment conducted in Sardinia (Italy, under Mediterranean climate conditions. Vines were covered with plastic films with different transmittances to UV radiation and compared to uncovered controls. Light intensity and spectral composition at the fruit zone were monitored and berry skin temperature was recorded from veraison. Total skin anthocyanin content (TSA and composition indicated positive but inconsistent effects of natural UV light. Elevated temperatures induced alterations to a greater extent, decreasing TSA and increasing the degree of derivatives acylation. In Cannonau total soluble solids increases were not followed by increasing TSA as in Bovale Grande, due to both lower phenolic potential and higher sensitivity to permanence of high temperatures. Multi linear regression analysis tested the effects of different ranges of temperature as source of variation on anthocyanin accumulation patterns. To estimate the thermal time for anthocyanin accumulation, the use of normal heat hours model had benefit from the addition of predictor variables that take into account the permanence of high (>35 °C and low (<15 °C and <17 °C temperatures during ripening.

  1. Accelerated, microwave-assisted, and conventional solvent extraction methods affect anthocyanin composition from colored grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona; Bryan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Anthocyanins are important dietary components with diverse positive functions in human health. This study investigates effects of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) on anthocyanin composition and extraction efficiency from blue wheat, purple corn, and black rice in comparison with the commonly used solvent extraction (CSE). Factorial experimental design was employed to study effects of ASE and MAE variables, and anthocyanin extracts were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (DAD), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatography. The extraction efficiency of ASE and MAE was comparable with CSE at the optimal conditions. The greatest extraction by ASE was achieved at 50 °C, 2500 psi, 10 min using 5 cycles, and 100% flush. For MAE, a combination of 70 °C, 300 W, and 10 min in MAE was the most effective in extracting anthocyanins from blue wheat and purple corn compared with 50 °C, 1200 W, and 20 min for black rice. The anthocyanin composition of grain extracts was influenced by the extraction method. The ASE extraction method seems to be more appropriate in extracting anthocyanins from the colored grains as being comparable with the CSE method based on changes in anthocyanin composition. The method caused lower structural changes in anthocaynins compared with the MAE method. Changes in blue wheat anthocyanins were lower in comparison with purple corn or black rice perhaps due to the absence of acylated anthocyanin compounds in blue wheat. The results show significant differences in anthocyanins among the 3 extraction methods, which indicate a need to standardize a method for valid comparisons among studies and for quality assurance purposes.

  2. Tissue distribution of anthocyanins in rats fed a blackberry anthocyanin-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgines, Catherine; Texier, Odile; Garcin, Pauline; Besson, Catherine; Lamaison, Jean-Louis; Scalbert, Augustin

    2009-09-01

    Anthocyanins are natural dietary pigments that could be involved in various health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of anthocyanins to various organs (bladder, prostate, testes, heart and adipose tissue) in rats fed with a blackberry anthocyanin-enriched diet for 12 days. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins were carried out by HPLC-DAD. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins (native anthocyanins and their metabolites) was low (0.20 +/- 0.03%, n = 8). Proportions of anthocyanin derivatives (methylated anthocyanins and glucurono-conjugated derivatives) differed according to the organ considered. The bladder contained the highest levels of anthocyanins followed by the prostate. Prostate, testes and heart contained native cyanidin 3-glucoside and a small proportion of cyanidin monoglucuronide. Cyanidin 3-glucoside and methylated derivatives were present in adipose tissue. Thus, anthocyanin feeding in rats resulted in a wide distribution of anthocyanin derivatives to several organs. Identification of target tissues of anthocyanins may then help to understand the mechanisms of action of anthocyanins in vivo.

  3. 黑花生衣花色苷含量测定及稳定性研究%Research of the stability and content detection of anthocyanin of black peanuts clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马勇; 陈琼; 张琪

    2012-01-01

    从黑花生衣中提取花色苷,并测定其含量;测定不同温度、酸碱度、光照及金属离子(Cu24Mn2+、Mg2+Fe3+)对黑花生衣花色苷稳定性的影响。在提取奈件为料液比1:50、乙醇浓度60%且为酸性、温度60℃、提取时间60min时,黑花生衣色素中花色苷含量为10.3mg,g;加热对花色苷有增色作用;pH小于5.0时随着pH增大花色苷的吸光度降低,pH大于5.0时随pH增大花色苷的吸光度增加,并朝蓝色趋势渐变;pH越接近7.0,光照后花色苷保存率越高;在Mn2+、Mg2+浓度为2.00mmol/L时,花色苷吸光度最高:随Fe3+、Cu2+浓度增加花色苷的吸光度随之增加,铁离子对黑花生衣花色苷无絮凝作用。%The experiment determined the containment of anthocyanins from the black peanut and stability of the anthocyanins under different temperature,pH,illumination conditions and different concentration of metal ions (Cu2+,Mn2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+). The anthocyanin was extracted under the optimum technological condition:ratio of material to liquid 1:50,60% ethanol as extractant,extraction temperature 60℃ and time 60min. The black peanut clothing contained 10.3mg/g anthocyanins,of which the absorbance decreased with the increasing of pH when pH lowered 5.0 but increased after the pH was higher than 5.0 and the color turned to the trend of blue gradually. Also,the closer the pH reached to 7.0,the better preservation rate of anthocyanin it had. Apparently,the absorbance stayed at the highest level when the concentration of Mn2+ or Mg2+ was 2.00mmol/L and it rose with the concentration of Fe3+ or Cu2+ increasing. No flocculation was found to the anthocyanins by Fe3+.

  4. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 2. Anthocyanins and pigmented polymers in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting wine anthocyanin concentration and composition and pigmented polymer formation were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. Vine vigor parameters were used to designate vigor zones within two vineyard sites (A and B) to produce research wines (2003 and 2004) and conduct a model extraction experiment (2004 only) to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. Wines and model extracts were analyzed by HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. For the model extractions, there were no differences between sites for pomace weight, whereas juice volume was higher for site A. This was not related to a larger berry size. Site A had a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) in the model extracts than site B specifically for the medium- and low-vigor zones. For anthocyanin composition in the model extraction, site B had a greater proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and less of the remaining anthocyanin glucosides (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and peonidin) compared to site A. In the wines, there was a vintage effect, with the 2003 wines having a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) than the 2004 wines. This appears to have been primarily due to a greater accumulation of anthocyanins in the fruit. In general, the medium-vigor zone wines had higher anthocyanin concentrations than either the high- or low-vigor zone wines. There was also vintage variation related to anthocyanin composition, with the 2003 wines having a higher proportion of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside compared to 2004. In both years, there were higher proportions of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides in wines made from low-vigor-zone fruit. Wines made from low-vigor zones showed a greater propensity to form vitisin A as well as pigmented polymers. Low

  5. Color Parameters and Total Anthocyanins of Sour Cherries (Prunus cerasus L. During Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pedišić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is very important indicator of quality of fresh fruit. It also serves for estimating the stage of maturity of fruit. Plant pigments responsible for the color of some kind of fruits are anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are the flavonoids which are present in high amounts in sour cherries. The aim of this study was to determine total anthocyanins and color parameters of sour cherries ‘Cigančica’ and ‘Keleris’ collected in Osijek and Zadar (Croatia in 2005 during ripening. Color parameters of skin and fl esh of sour cherries were determined with colorimetric CIE LAB method and total anthocyanins were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using UV/VIS PDA detector. Total anthocyanin was higher in sour cherries cv. Keleris grown in Zadar than in cv. Cigančica grown in Osijek during ripening although cv. Keleris is light colored genotype. Obtained results suggested that warm Mediterranean climate could have influence on high anthocyanin synthesis during ripening. Analysis of variance showed that stage of ripening did not influence total anthocyanin concentrations, but influenced almost all color parameters. Parameter H° was good indicator of color variation during ripening in both sour cherry cultivars.

  6. Effects of salinity stress on carotenoids, anthocyanins, and color of diverse tomato genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Eva; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Escudero-Gilete, M Luisa; Malorgio, Fernando; Heredia, Francisco J; Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J

    2011-11-09

    One nonanthocyanin-accumulating (Ailsa Craig) and three anthocyanin-accumulating tomato genotypes (Anthocyanin fruit type, Atroviolaceum, and Sun Black) were analyzed to assess differences in their carotenoid and anthocyanin levels and color and to evaluate the effects of nutrient solutions with different salt concentrations on these parameters. The carotenoid content of control Atroviolaceum tomatoes was ca. 2-2.5-fold higher relative to the other two types, and the color of its puree could be visually distinguished from those of other genotypes. Salinity stress led in some cases to a 2-3-fold increase in the lycopene content. Saline treatment increased the accumulation of total anthocyanins in fruits of Sun Black (2-fold increase), while it reduced it in fruits of Anthocyanin (10-fold decrease). In general, the treatment increased the differences in color of different purees. These results indicate that salinity stress can lead to similar or higher increases in tomato carotenoids than those achieved by genetic engineering. In addition, these changes were accompanied by visually discernible color differences in tomato products. Our findings show the considerable potential of exploiting saline soils to obtain tomatoes with higher levels of secondary metabolites like carotenoids and anthocyanins.

  7. Characterisation of Vranec, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot wines based on their chromatic and anthocyanin profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrovska Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wines of three different grape varieties, Vranec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were examined for their characterisation in terms of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential. Total, monomeric, polymeric and copigmented anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometry and the individual anthocyanin compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chromatic profile was evaluated according to colour density, hue, % red, % blue, % yellow and brilliance (% dA. The established data were submitted to analysis of variance and principle component analysis in order to evaluate their potential for differentiation of wines according to variety and vintage. Vranec wines have shown distinctive characteristics, with the highest content of anthocyanins and values of colour intensity, % red and % dA, compared to the other two studied varieties. The content of petunidin-3-glucoside, peonindin-3-glucoside and anthocyanin acetates were established as possible markers for differentiation of Vranec wines from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines. However, none of the assayed parameters could be used for differentiation of Cabernet Sauvignon from Merlot wines. It was observed that wine age limits successful classification of the wines by variety according to anthocyanins. The chromatic parameters allowed distinguishing of young (aged up to 1 year from old Vranec wines.

  8. Increased Sucrose in the Hypocotyls of Radish Sprouts Contributes to Nitrogen Deficiency-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nana; Wu, Qi; Cui, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Effects of nitrogen (N) deficiency and sucrose (Suc) addition on regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and their relationship were investigated in this study. Radish sprouts subjected to N deficiency had 50% higher anthocyanin accumulation than when grown in Hoagland solution (a nutrient medium with all macronutrients). The contents of endogenous soluble sugars (Suc, fructose, and glucose) in the hypocotyls were also markedly increased by N limitation, with Suc showing the highest increase. Inhibition of carbohydrate biosynthesis by addition of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) also eliminated N deficiency-induced anthocyanin accumulation. The latter was further supported by the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis related genes and decreased activities of nitrate reductase in the presence of Suc. Together our results indicate that N deficiency-induced anthocyanin accumulation was, at least partly, dependent on the increase of the soluble sugar, especially Suc. This work is the first comprehensive study on relationship between N deficiency and sugar content on anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts. PMID:28083009

  9. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of anthocyanin composition of dark blue bee pollen from Echium plantagineum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola-Naranjo, Romina Daniela; Sánchez-Sánchez, José; González-Paramás, Ana María; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián Carlos

    2004-10-29

    Dark blue bee pollen samples from pollinic type Echium plantegineum were analysed in order to identify and quantify their anthocyanin pigments. Five samples were collected from different apicultural Spanish regions and the anthocyanin composition was determined by HPLC with diode array and MS detection. Eight different pigments were identified, the principal anthocyanin being petunidin-3-O-rutinoside. The other pigments found were delphinidin, cyanidin and petunidin-3-O-glucoside; delphinidin, cyanidin, peonidin and malvidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-(6"-malonylglucoside). The anthocyanin content ranged from 45 to 80 mg/100 g of blue pollen, which could represent a significant source of phytochemicals. Minor variations in the anthocyanin profiles were found, which could be explained by the geographical differences between collection regions.

  10. Effect of anthocyanin fractions from selected cultivars of Georgia-grown blueberries on apoptosis and phase II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anita; Akoh, Casimir C; Fischer, Joan; Krewer, Gerard

    2007-04-18

    In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to anthocyanins due to their abilities to inhibit oxidative stress and cell proliferation. The regulations of apoptosis and the phase II enzymes glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase (QR) are other potential mechanisms through which flavonoids such as anthocyanins may prevent cancer. Our study confirmed that anthocyanin fractions from high bush blueberry cultivars increased apoptosis using two different methods: DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. The effect of anthocyanins on the activity of the detoxifying enzymes GST and QR was also determined. Major anthocyanins identified were delphinidin, cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin. In Tifblue and Powderblue cultivars, DNA fragmentation increased at anthocyanin concentrations from 50 to 150 microg/mL, but cells treated with the anthocyanin fraction of Brightblue and Brightwell showed a prominent ladder at 50-100 microg/mL when compared to cells treated with 150 microg/mL. There was a significant difference in the caspase-3 activity (P cultivars. The response correlated positively with dose. The QR activity was lower in all cells treated with an anthocyanin fraction from Tifblue, Powderblue, Brightblue, and Brightwell cultivars than in control cells (P cultivars. The GST activity was lower (P cultivars and at all concentrations. These results indicated that apoptosis was confirmed in HT-29 cells when treated with anthocyanins from blueberry cultivars at 50-150 microg/mL concentrations, but these same concentrations decrease QR and GST activities rather than induce them.

  11. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemzadeh Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1 on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and thiobarbituric acid (TBA assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 μmol·mol−1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the

  12. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS) assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 μmol·mol−1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS) activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the extracts of H Bara

  13. Cast Iron With High Carbon Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A.; Hendrix, J. C.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Method proposed for solidifying high-carbon cast iron without carbon particles segregating at upper surface. Solidification carried out in low gravity, for example on airplane flying free-fall parabolic trajectory. Many different microstructures obtained by proposed technique, and percentage by weight of carbon retained in melt much higher than at present.

  14. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  15. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin concentration and composition in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting fruit anthocyanin accumulation and composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved assigning vigor zones in two vineyard sites based upon differences in vine growth. Fruits and wines were analyzed by HPLC from designated vigor zones in 2003 and 2004. Average berry weight (grams), average dry skin weight (milligrams), degrees Brix, and pH were higher and titratable acidity (grams per liter) was lower in 2003 compared to 2004. In 2003, only the highest and lowest vigor zones had differences in berry weight, whereas there were no differences in 2004. In both years, high vigor zones had lower degrees Brix and higher titratable acidity (milligrams per liter). Accumulation of anthocyanins (milligrams per berry) was greater in 2003 compared to 2004. There was a trend for lower anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per berry) in high vigor zones in both years. In 2004 compared to 2003, there was a higher proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and lower proportions of the other four anthocyanins (delphinidin-, cyanidin-, petunidin-, and peonidin-3-O-glucosides) found in Pinot Noir. In both years, site A had proportionally higher peonidin-3-O-glucoside and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside than site B. Some of these differences may be related to the higher exposure and temperatures found in site B compared to site A and also in the low vigor zones.

  16. The Role of Acyl-Glucose in Anthocyanin Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Sasaki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants can produce a wide variety of anthocyanin molecules through modification of the six common anthocyanin aglycons that they present. Thus, hydrophilic anthocyanin molecules can be formed and stabilized by glycosylation and acylation. Two types of glycosyltransferase (GT and acyltransferase (AT have been identified, namely cytoplasmic GT and AT and vacuolar GT and AT. Cytoplasmic GT and AT utilize UDP-sugar and acyl-CoA as donor molecules, respectively, whereas both vacuolar GT and AT use acyl-glucoses as donor molecules. In carnation plants, vacuolar GT uses aromatic acyl-glucoses as the glucose donor in vivo; independently, vacuolar AT uses malylglucose, an aliphatic acyl-glucose, as the acyl-donor. In delphinium and Arabidopsis, p-hydroxybenzoylglucose and sinapoylglucose are used in vivo as bi-functional donor molecules by vacuolar GT and AT, respectively. The evolution of these enzymes has allowed delphinium and Arabidopsis to utilize unique donor molecules for production of highly modified anthocyanins.

  17. Evaluation of the Organic Acids Ability for Extraction of Anthocyanins and Phenolic Compounds from Different Sources and Their Degradation Kinetics During Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Sepideh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of anthocyanin and phenolic acids has always received much attention due to their extensive range of colors and potential beneficial health effects. In this study extraction of anthocyanins from barberry, eggplant peel and red cabbage was investigated by using different organic solvents. Soluble solid content, antioxidant capacity, total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolic content were determined and then degradation kinetics of anthocyanin in different solution during freezing process was assayed. In order to examine the effect of different acids on the degree of extraction of anthocyanin and total phenol, varied concentration of hydrochloric, citric and acetic acids were dissolved in a mixture of water and ethanol to prepare acidified aqueous solution. Results indicated that citric acid solution is one of the best solvents for phenolic and anthocyanin extraction which showed the best scavenging activity of DPPH radical. Results from degradation kinetics of total monomeric anthocyanins revealed that stability of anthocyanins in the solution depended on temperature and other ingredients which are present in the medium. Moreover, the present data confirmed that barberry and red cabbage acidified extracts could be one of the more stable natural food colorants based on anthocyanins.

  18. Unraveling the mechanism underlying the glycosylation and methylation of anthocyanins in peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Wei, Guochao; Zhou, Hui; Gu, Chao; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Liao, Liao; Han, Yuepeng

    2014-10-01

    Modification of anthocyanin plays an important role in increasing its stability in plants. Here, six anthocyanins were identified in peach (Prunus persica), and their structural diversity is attributed to glycosylation and methylation. Interestingly, peach is quite similar to the wild species Prunus ferganensis but differs from both Prunus davidiana and Prunus kansueasis in terms of anthocyanin composition in flowers. This indicates that peach is probably domesticated from P. ferganensis. Subsequently, genes responsible for both methylation and glycosylation of anthocyanins were identified, and their spatiotemporal expression results in different patterns of anthocyanin accumulation in flowers, leaves, and fruits. Two tandem-duplicated genes encoding flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (F3GT) in peach, PpUGT78A1 and PpUGT78A2, showed different activity toward anthocyanin, providing an example of divergent evolution of F3GT genes in plants. Two genes encoding anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT), PpAOMT1 and PpAOMT2, are expressed in leaves and flowers, but only PpAOMT2 is responsible for the O-methylation of anthocyanins at the 3' position in peach. In addition, our study reveals a novel branch of UGT78 genes in plants that lack the highly conserved intron 2 of the UGT gene family, with a great variation of the amino acid residue at position 22 of the plant secondary product glycosyltransferase box. Our results not only provide insights into the mechanisms underlying anthocyanin glycosylation and methylation in peach but will also aid in future attempts to manipulate flavonoid biosynthesis in peach as well as in other plants.

  19. Anthocyanin and other phenolic compounds in Ceylon gooseberry (Dovyalis hebecarpa) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochi, Vivian Caetano; Godoy, Helena Teixeira; Giusti, M Monica

    2015-06-01

    Ceylon gooseberry is a deep-purple exotic berry that is being produced in Brazil with great market potential. This work aimed to determine major phenolic compounds in this specie by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS. Samples were collected in two different seasons. Pulp and skin were analyzed separately. Non-acylated rutinoside derivatives of delphinidin (∼60-63%) and cyanidin (∼17-21%) were major anthocyanins tentatively identified. All anthocyanins had higher concentration in skin than in pulp (64-82 and 646-534mg of cyaniding-3-glucoside equivalents/100g skin and pulp, respectively). Moreover, anthocyanin profile changed between sampling dates (p<0.05). Mainly for delphinidin-3-rutinoside which could be a result of season variation. In this specie, non-anthocyanin polyphenols represent less than 35% of total extracted polyphenols. The tentative identification proposed a flavonol and three ellagitannins as major compounds of the non-anthocyanin phenolics fraction. Finally, anthocyanin is the major phenolic class in this fruit and its composition and content are significantly affected by season.

  20. Formation of Short-Chain Fatty Acids, Excretion of Anthocyanins, and Microbial Diversity in Rats Fed Blackcurrants, Blackberries, and Raspberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Berries contain high amounts of dietary fibre and flavonoids and have been associated with improved metabolic health. The mechanisms are not clear but the formation of SCFAs, especially propionic and butyric acids, could be important. The potent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of flavonoids could also be a factor, but little is known about their fate in the gastrointestinal tract. Aim. To compare how blackcurrants, blackberries, raspberries, and Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 affect formation of SCFAs, inflammatory status, caecal microbial diversity, and flavonoids. Results and Conclusions. Degradation of the dietary fibre, formation of SCFAs including propionic and butyric acids, the weight of the caecal content and tissue, and the faecal wet and dry weight were all higher in rats fed blackcurrants rather than blackberries or raspberries. However, the microbial diversity of the gut microbiota was higher in rats fed raspberries. The high content of soluble fibre in blackcurrants and the high proportion of mannose-containing polymers might explain these effects. Anthocyanins could only be detected in urine of rats fed blackcurrants, and the excretion was lower with HEAL19. No anthocyanins or anthocyanidins were detected in caecal content or blood. This may indicate uptake in the stomach or small intestine.

  1. NAA和ABA处理对‘京优’葡萄花色苷生物合成相关基因表达的影响%Effects of NAA and ABA treatments on the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in 'Jing You' grape berry skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莉; 王军

    2011-01-01

    为人工调控花色苷合成,以‘京优’葡萄为实验材料,应用液相色谱-质谱(HPLC-MS)技术和荧光定量PCR,研究了萘乙酸(NAA)和脱落酸(ABA)处理对葡萄果皮花色苷积累及其生物合成相关基因表达的影响。结果表明:在‘京优’葡萄果皮中,可检测到16种花色苷;ABA处理的花色苷含量高于对照,NAA处理低于对照,并且ABA处理的果皮比对照和NAA多出3种花色苷;葡萄果实发育进入转色期,花色苷合成过程中类黄酮途径的结构基因上调表达,完熟后下调表达;ABA处理的果皮花色苷结构基因相对表达量高于对照,而NAA则低于对%In order to control anthocyanin synthesis of 'Jingyou' grape,we applied high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS) and real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) for studying the effects of naphthaleneacetic aicd(NAA) and abscisic acid(ABA) treatments on the accumulation of anthocyanins,as well as the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic correlative genes.The results showed that there were 16 sorts of anthocyanins in 'Jing You' berry skin.The anthocyanin contents of ABA treatment were higher but NAA treatment lower than that of control.And there were three extra anthocyanins in ABA treatment of berry skin.The structural genes in flavonoid pathway of anthocyanin synthesis were up-regulated at veraison,but down-regulated after complete maturity.The expression of anthocyanin structural genes was higher in ABA treatment than control,but lower for NAA treatment than control.The accumulation of anthocyanin and the correlative genes of anthocyanin synthesis were promoted by exogenous ABA.And NAA treatment had the opposite impacts.

  2. The anti-photooxidation of anthocyanins-rich leaves of a purple rice cultivar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Changlian; LIN Guizhu; LIN Zhifang; CHEN Shaowei

    2006-01-01

    In the leaf of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Yunnan purple rice, the anthocyanins with an obvious absorption peak at 530nm were distributed in the cells of upper and lower epidermis, bulliform tissue and bristle. The maximal photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate and chlorophyll content in flag leaves were 28% and 23%, respectively, more than the common green leaf rice cultivar Chijiaoruanzhan. Higher chlorophyll content is probably one of the physiological adaptations for enhancing light harvesting capacity of the antenna in photosystems in this cyanic leaves species. Upon the photooxidation of leaf segments mediated by methyl viologen in weak light for 3 days, the distinct bleaching of anthocyanins in purple rice was associated with the reduction of scavenging ability to DPPH· free radical ability and the increase in membrane leakage rate. But almost no changes in contents of flavonoids and total phenolics were observed. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fo, qP and фPSII decreased with the increase in NPQ and DES of xanthophylls cycle after photooxidation treatment. Green rice leaves showed more decrease in DPPH· scavenging rate and more increase in cell membrane leakage rate but showed a trace of anthocyanins during photooxidation. It is suggested that anthocyanin may be a beneficial and primary antioxidant in sun cyanic rice leaves against oxidative stress induced by environmental adversity. And photooxidation could induce different changing patterns of anthocyanins between the tested purple and green rice leaves.

  3. Sunlight-stimulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activity and anthocyanin accumulation in exocarp of ‘Mahajanaka’ mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobkiat Saengnil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL required for anthocyanin synthesis was stimulated by sunlight exposure resulting in the development of red colour in ‘Mahajanaka’ mango exocarp, which occurred only on the sunlight-exposed side of the fruit. The accumulation of anthocyanin was concurrent with the increase in PAL activity in the mature stage of the fruit. The exposed side of the fruit had higher PAL activity, endogenous sugar content, and anthocyanin accumulation than the unexposed side. It is concluded that sunlight increases red colour development of the mango exocarp by inducing PAL activity. Exposure to sunlight also enhances endogenous sugar accumulation in mango fruit.

  4. Transcriptional control of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in extreme phenotypes for berry pigmentation of naturally occurring grapevines

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    Castellarin Simone D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit coloration of red-skinned grapevines is mainly due to anthocyanin pigments. We analysed a panel of nine cultivars that included extreme phenotypes for berry colour, ranging from green (absence of anthocyanins to red, purple, violet and blue. Expression of six genes of the anthocyanin pathway coding for flavanone-hydroxylase (F3H, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H, flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H, UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, O-methyltransferase (OMT and four transcription factors (MybA, MybB, MybC, MybD was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR at four developmental stages from before the onset of ripening until full maturity and compared to anthocyanin metabolites. Results Total anthocyanin content at full maturity correlated well with the cumulative expression of F3H, UFGT and GST throughout ripening. Transcripts of the last two genes were absent in the green-skinned cultivar 'Sauvignonasse', also known as 'Tocai friulano', and were at least 10-fold less abundant in pale red cultivars, such as 'Pinot gris' and 'Gewürztraminer', compared to fully coloured cultivars. Predominance of tri-hydroxylated anthocyanins (delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin in cultivars bearing dark berries with violet and blue hue was associated with higher ratios of F3'5'H/F3'H transcription, compared to red-skinned cultivars. Higher levels of OMT transcripts were observed in berries of cultivars that accumulated methoxylated forms of anthocyanins more abundantly than non-methoxylated forms. Conclusion Colour variation of the grape berry conforms to a peculiar pattern of genotype-specific expression of the whole set of anthocyanin genes in a direct transcript-metabolite-phenotype relationship. Cumulative mRNA levels of the structural genes and their relative abundance throughout ripening explained per se the final phenotype for anthocyanin content, anthocyanin composition, colour intensity

  5. Expression of structural genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis of Vitis amurensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Zhao; Fei He; Malcolm J Reeves; Qiu-Hong Pan; Chang-Qing Duan; Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    This research was designed to assess the changes in anthocyanin content in grape skins of Vitis amurensis and to explore mRNA transcriptions of 11 structural genes (PAL, CHS3, CHI1, F3H2, F30H, F3050H, DFR, LDOX, UFGT, OMT and GST) related to anthocyanin biosynthesis during grape berry development, by the use of HPLC-MS/MS and real-time Q-PCR analysis. Accumulation of anthocyanins began at veraison, continued throughout the later berry development and reached a peak at maturity. Veraison is the time when the berries turn from green to purple. Expression of PAL, CHI1, and LDOX were up-regulated from 2 to 4 weeks after flowering (WAF), down-regulated from 6 WAF to veraison, whereas DFR was up-regulated at 8 WAF, and then up-regulated from veraison to maturity. CHS3, F3050H, UFGT, GST, and OMT were down-regulated from 2 WAF to veraison, and then up-regulated from veraison to maturity. The transcriptional expressions of the 11 structural genes also showed positive correlations with the anthocyanin content from veraison to maturity. Positive correlations were also observed between OMT transcrip-tional level and the content of methoxyl-anthocyanins, and between F3050H transcriptional level and the content of delphinidin anthocyanins. F3H2 and F30H expression was up-regulated at 2 WAF. F3H2 expression was down-regu-lated from 4 WAF to veraison and then up-regulated again from veraison to maturity. F30H expression was down-reg-ulated at 4 WAF and then up-regulated again from 6 WAF to maturity. F30H transcriptional level was correlated posi-tively with the cyanidin anthocyanin concentration from veraison to maturity. These results indicate that the onset of anthocyanin synthesis during berry development coincides with a coordinated increase in the expression of a number of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the stability of anthocyanins and shelf-life of various pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighourchi, H; Barzegar, M; Abbasi, S

    2008-10-15

    Food irradiation is a process which exposing food to ionizing radiations and it can improve the safety of food. The pomegranate juice contained considerable anthocyanins and has become a new functional food available for dieting and health. In the present study, the effects of gamma irradiation (0-10kGy) on the stability of anthocyanins and inhibition of microbial growth in pomegranate juice during storage were investigated. Results indicated that the irradiation at all applied doses, significantly reduced total and individual anthocyanins. Moreover, irradiation with higher dosages (3.5-10kGy) had undesirable effect on the total content of anthocyanins. However, irradiation at 2.0kGy had effectively diminished the total bacteria and fungi count and retarding microbial growth during storage. Based on adverse effect of gamma irradiation on ACs content of studied juices, it is not recommended to irradiate pomegranate juice with dosage higher than 2.0kGy.

  7. KARAKTERISTIK WARNA DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN ANTOSIANIN UBI JALAR UNGU [Color Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanin Extract from Purple Sweet Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Mahmudatussa’adah1,2*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin is a natural pigment that produces a range of colors, varying from red, purple, blue to yellow. The stability of the anthocyanin color is affected by pH, temperature, and light. Purple sweet potato is rich in anthocyanin, particularly a stable acylated anthocyanin. This research was conducted to study the effect of pH on color and antioxidative activity of anthocyanin extracted from purple sweet potatoes, harvested from Cilembu-Sumedang, Banjaran-Bandung, and Pakembangan-Kuningan. The experiments applied a completely randomized design with two replicates, analyzed in triplo. The results showed that the total number of monomeric anthocyanin in purple sweet potato harvested from Cilembu (3.78±0.08 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g dry weight, dw was higher than that of Banjaran (3.18±0.01 mg/g and Pakembangan (2.25±0.01 mg/g. The color of purple sweet potato anthocyanin extract was pH dependent. The color changed from red to faded red, purple, blue, green, and yellow as the pH increased from 1 to 14. The content of anthocyanins from three locations of purple sweet potatoes differed from each other (p<0.05. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of purple sweet potato anthocyanins extracted at pH 1 was higher than that at pH 4.5 and pH 7.

  8. TiO2 dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC): linear relationship of maximum power point and anthocyanin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Radin

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship of anthocyanin concentration from different organic fruit species and output voltage and current in a TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and hypothesized that fruits with greater anthocyanin concentration produce higher maximum power point (MPP) which would lead to higher current and voltage. Anthocyanin dye solution was made with crushing of a group of fresh fruits with different anthocyanin content in 2 mL of de-ionized water and filtration. Using these test fruit dyes, multiple DSSCs were assembled such that light enters through the TiO2 side of the cell. The full current-voltage (I-V) co-variations were measured using a 500 Ω potentiometer as a variable load. Point-by point current and voltage data pairs were measured at various incremental resistance values. The maximum power point (MPP) generated by the solar cell was defined as a dependent variable and the anthocyanin concentration in the fruit used in the DSSC as the independent variable. A regression model was used to investigate the linear relationship between study variables. Regression analysis showed a significant linear relationship between MPP and anthocyanin concentration with a p-value of 0.007. Fruits like blueberry and black raspberry with the highest anthocyanin content generated higher MPP. In a DSSC, a linear model may predict MPP based on the anthocyanin concentration. This model is the first step to find organic anthocyanin sources in the nature with the highest dye concentration to generate energy.

  9. Gene regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yun; Ma, Rui-juan; Shen, Zhi-jun; Yan, Juan; Yu, Ming-liang

    2014-09-01

    The blood-flesh peach has become popular in China due to its attractive anthocyanin-induced pigmentation and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation by examining the expression of nine genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway found in the peach mesocarp. Expression was measured at six developmental stages in fruit of two blood-flesh and one white-flesh peach cultivars, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results show that the expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene was closely related to anthocyanin accumulation in both of the blood-flesh peaches. In the white-flesh peach, we found that the transcription level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) during fruit development was much lower than that in the blood-flesh peach, even though all other genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed, suggesting that the PAL gene may be limiting in anthocyanin production in the white-flesh peach. Moreover, the transcription levels of the CHS and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) genes were markedly up-regulated at three days after bag removal (DABR) in the blood-flesh peach, suggesting that CHS and UFGT are the key genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis for both of the blood-flesh peaches. The present study will be of great help in improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation in blood-flesh peaches.

  10. Carbohydrate nutrition and anthocyanin accumulation in light grown and etiolated shoot cultures of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.

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    Vinterhalter Branka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of anthocyanins was studied in shoot cultures of carob at high (45.9 μmol s-1m-2 and low (9.2 μmol s-1m-2 irradiance levels and in darkness in relation to carbohydrate nutrition. Anthocyanin production was stimulated by light, but it also occurred in etiolated shoot cultures which developed in darkness. Anthocyanins were present in both leaves and shoot tips. The major factor affecting anthocyanin production was carbohydrate nutrition, with sucrose as a choice superior to fructose and glucose. The carbohydrate effect was clearly osmotic in nature, since anthocyanin production increased even at supraoptimal concentrations detrimental to the growth of shoot cultures. This conclusion was further confirmed in experiments in which sucrose was partly replaced with the sugar alcohols sorbitol and mannitol.

  11. Effects of cold atmospheric gas phase plasma on anthocyanins and color in pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Putnik, Predrag; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Pedisić, Sandra; Režek Jambrak, Anet; Herceg, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of cold atmospheric gas phase plasma on anthocyanins and color in pomegranate juice. Outcomes of plasma treatment were observed at different operating conditions: (i) treatment time (3, 5, 7 min), (ii) treated juice volume (3, 4, 5 cm(3)), and (iii) gas flow (0.75, 1, 1.25 dm(3)/min). The greatest anthocyanin stability was found at: 3 min treatment time, 5 cm(3) sample volume, and 0.75 dm(3)/min gas flow. Plasma treatment yielded higher anthocyanin content from 21% to 35%. Multivariate analysis showed that total color change was not associated with sample volume and treatment time, however it declined with increased gas flow. The change of color increased in comparison treated vs. untreated pomegranate juice. Constructed mathematical equation confirmed that increase of anthocyanin content increased with gas flow, sample volume and change in color. In summary, this study showed that plasma treatment had positive influences on anthocyanins stability and color change in cloudy pomegranate juice.

  12. Effect of ultrasound processing on anthocyanins and color of red grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, B K; Patras, A; Brunton, N; Cullen, P J; O'Donnell, C P

    2010-03-01

    Grape juice samples were sonicated with processing variables of amplitude level (24.4-61.0microm) and treatment time (0-10min) at a constant frequency of 20kHz and pulse durations of 5s on and 5s off. A full factorial experimental design with regression modeling was employed to investigate the main effects of amplitude level and treatment time on anthocyanins and color parameters. Significant effects of sonication on major anthocyanins cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (CA), malvanidin-3-O-glucosides (MA) and delphinidin-3-O-glucosides (DA), color values (L*, a*, b*) and color index (CI) were observed. Prediction models were found to be significant (panthocyanins (CA; MA; DA), color values (L*, a*, b*), TCD and CI inactivation were closely correlated to the experimental results obtained. Significant retention of anthocyanin content in grape juice was observed for CA (97.5 %); MA (48.2 %) and DA (80.9%) during sonication. CI and other color combinations (L*a*b*, L*a*/b* and L*b*/a*) were found to be strongly correlated with anthocyanin content. This study shows that sonication could be employed for as a preservation technique for fruit juice processing where anthocyanin retention is desired.

  13. The Dark-Purple Tea Cultivar 'Ziyan' Accumulates a Large Amount of Delphinidin-Related Anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Song; Li, Sha; Tang, Qian; Li, Huan-Xiu; Chen, Shen-Xiang; Li, Pin-Wu; Xu, Jin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Guo, Xiang

    2016-04-06

    Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%). The full-length cDNA sequences of flavonoid pathway genes were isolated by RNA-Seq coupled with conventional TA cloning, and their expression patterns were characterized. Purple-leaved cultivars had lower amounts of total catechins, polyphenols, and water extract than ordinary non-anthocyanin cultivars but similar levels of caffeine. Because dark-purple-leaved Camellia species are rare in nature, this study provides new insights into the interplay between the accumulations of anthocyanins and other bioactive components in tea leaves.

  14. Effects of sulfur water extraction on anthocyanins properties of tepals in flower of saffron (Crocus sativus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, L; Kalbasi-Ashtari, A; Hamedi, M; Ghorbani, F

    2015-02-01

    A sulfur solution with different metabisulfite concentrations (100, 400, 700, 1,000 and 2,000 ppm) was used to extract anthocyanins from saffron tepals. The extraction process was compared with acidified ethanol solution at similar extraction times of 20, 40, 60, 120, and 180 min at 40 °C. The recovery of anthocyanins with sulfur solution was higher than ethanol extraction and reached to 700 mg anthocyanins/100 g, when the sulfur concentration and extraction time were 700 ppm and 60 min, respectively. HPLC analysis showed that anthocyanins extracted with sulfur solution followed by partial desulfurization and reducing sulfur content (to less than 250 ppm) had around 100 % more cyanidin 3 glucosides and 100 % less pelargonidin 3,5 glucosides in comparison with ethanol extraction. Additionally, the color of low-sulfured anthocyanins had more saturation (chroma), less lightness, and more stability than the one extracted with ethanol solution. While monomeric and polymeric anthocyanins extracted with sulfur solution had less than 1 % changes after 3 h extraction time, they had more than 12 % changes when they extracted with alcoholic solution at similar conditions. Overall, the sulfur method had a potential to extract stable anthocyanins from waste and discarded saffron tepals in aqueous solvent, and with higher quantity and quality (more attractive color) than conventional ethanol extraction method.

  15. A Continuous Procedure Based on Column Chromatography to Purify Anthocyanins from Schisandra chinensis by a Macroporous Resin plus Gel Filtration Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Daran; Yang, Lei; Liu, Shouxin; Li, Jian; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui

    2016-02-06

    In our previous study, as natural food colorants and antioxidants, the color and content stabilities of Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) anthocyanins were investigated. In this work, the purification process parameters of S. chinensis anthocyanins using a macroporous resin and gel filtration chromatography were evaluated. The optimized parameters of static adsorption and desorption were as follows. The selected resin is HPD-300 (nonpolar copolymer styrene type resin), and the anthocyanins adsorption saturation capacity of HPD-300 resin was 0.475 mg/g dry resin. Adsorption time was 4 h, and 0.517 mg/mL of S. chinensis anthocyanins was adsorbed on the resin column with a flow rate of 39 mL/h (3 BV/h). After adsorption, the anthocyanins were completely desorpted with 2.5 BV of 90% (v/v) ethanol solution, and the desorption flow rate was 13 mL/h (1 BV/h). After purification by dynamic adsorption and desorption, the anthocyanins content in the effluent increased from 47.6 mg/g to 128.4 mg/g, the purity of anthocyanins increased six-fold from 5.08% to 30.43%, and the anthocyanins recovery was 96.5%. The major constituent of S. chinensis anthocyanins was isolated with Bio-Gel P2 gel filtration chromatography, and it was detected by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) as cyanidin-3-O-xylosylrutinoside. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of S. chinensis anthocyanins were investigated. After purification using the HPD-300 resin, the antioxidant activities of anthocyanins were increased 1.2-fold (FRAP) and 1.7-fold (ABTS).

  16. A Continuous Procedure Based on Column Chromatography to Purify Anthocyanins from Schisandra chinensis by a Macroporous Resin plus Gel Filtration Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daran Yue

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In our previous study, as natural food colorants and antioxidants, the color and content stabilities of Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis anthocyanins were investigated. In this work, the purification process parameters of S. chinensis anthocyanins using a macroporous resin and gel filtration chromatography were evaluated. The optimized parameters of static adsorption and desorption were as follows. The selected resin is HPD-300 (nonpolar copolymer styrene type resin, and the anthocyanins adsorption saturation capacity of HPD-300 resin was 0.475 mg/g dry resin. Adsorption time was 4 h, and 0.517 mg/mL of S. chinensis anthocyanins was adsorbed on the resin column with a flow rate of 39 mL/h (3 BV/h. After adsorption, the anthocyanins were completely desorpted with 2.5 BV of 90% (v/v ethanol solution, and the desorption flow rate was 13 mL/h (1 BV/h. After purification by dynamic adsorption and desorption, the anthocyanins content in the effluent increased from 47.6 mg/g to 128.4 mg/g, the purity of anthocyanins increased six-fold from 5.08% to 30.43%, and the anthocyanins recovery was 96.5%. The major constituent of S. chinensis anthocyanins was isolated with Bio-Gel P2 gel filtration chromatography, and it was detected by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS as cyanidin-3-O-xylosylrutinoside. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of S. chinensis anthocyanins were investigated. After purification using the HPD-300 resin, the antioxidant activities of anthocyanins were increased 1.2-fold (FRAP and 1.7-fold (ABTS.

  17. The extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from grapes to wine during fermentative maceration is affected by the enological technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B

    2011-05-25

    The effect of three enological techniques (low temperature prefermentative maceration, must freezing with dry ice, and the use of a maceration enzyme) on the extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from must to wine during fermentative maceration was studied to determine the extent to which these compounds are extracted and to assess the changes on their qualitative composition due to enological technique applied. The results showed that the dry ice treatment led to wines with high color intensity and high anthocyanin content, the maximum rate of extraction being observed the first 6 days of fermentative maceration. Regarding the effect of the different techniques on the quantitative and qualitative composition of proanthocyanidins, only the dry ice treatment seemed to favor the extraction of high molecular weight skin proanthocyanidins. The low temperature prefermentative maceration treatment led to the highest concentration of proanthocyanidins at the moment of pressing; however, this treatment, contrary to expectations, led to wines with the highest content of seed-derived proanthocyanidins. The use of the maceration enzyme also increased the concentration of proanthocyanidins during all of the fermentative process, as compared to a control wine, although the increase was not only due to skin proanthocyanidins but also seed proanthocyanidins. We have demonstrated in this study that maceration enzymes also facilitate seed phenolic extraction.

  18. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of sour cherries from Serbia

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    Mitić Milan N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: the total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA, as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in three sour cherry cultivars (Prunus cerasus L. introduced to the southeast Serbia climate conditions. Among the researched sour cherries, ‘Oblacinska’ cultivar contained the highest amounts of all groups of phenolics, followed by ‘Cigancica’ > ‘Marela’. A significant difference were observed in the phenolic content among different cultivars and growing seasons (p<0.05, and the phenolic compounds were significantly higher in the growing season 2009. The examined cultivars possess a high antioxidant capacity, and all phenolics of highy correlation with TAC. The following compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD: 4 anthocyanins, the most abundant of which was cyaniding-3-glucoside in ‘Marela’ and ‘Oblacinska’, and cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside in ‘Cigancica’, and 4 hydroxycinnamic acids, the most abundant of which was neochlorogenic acid in all sour cherry cultivars. The growing and ripening process on the tree of sour cherry cv. Oblacinska was evaluated, also. The results showed significant increases in total phenols during the ripening, the total anthocyanins and total antioxidant capacity and 4 quantified anthocyanins, however the neochlorogenic acid decreased during the ripening. The study indicated that the growing and climate conditions in southeast Serbia are convenient for introducing sour cherry cultivars.

  19. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content ...

  20. Photocontrol of Anthocyanin Synthesis: VII. Factors Affecting the Spectral Sensitivity of Anthocyanin Synthesis in Young Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, A L; Walsh, L

    1979-05-01

    Light-dependent anthocyanin synthesis is a typical high irradiance response (HIR) of plant photomorphogenesis. The spectral sensitivity of this response in young seedlings of cabbage and tomato is strongly affected by the length and mode of application of the light treatments. This observation suggests that the different experimental conditions, used in different action spectroscopy studies, might have been responsible, at least in part, for some of the reported differences in the characteristics of the HIR action spectra of different response-system combinations. In both cabbage and tomato, the values of the far red/blue, far red/red, and blue/red action ratios increase with increasing durations of the light treatments; this finding is in agreement with hypotheses of K. M. Hartmann (1966, 1967) and E. Schäfer (1975) for phytochrome action in the HIR. The similarity in the trend of change of the values of the action ratios suggests the possibility that the photomorphogenic pigment system, involved in the photoregulation of anthocyanin synthesis, may be the same in cabbage and tomato, even though there are some differences in the spectral sensitivity of the response between the two species.

  1. Influence of Fermentation Process on the Anthocyanin Composition of Wine and Vinegar Elaborated from Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Cerezo, Ana B; Garcia-Garcia, Isidoro; Troncoso, Ana M; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2017-02-01

    Anthocyanins are the major polyphenolic compounds in strawberry fruit responsible for its color. Due to their sensitivity, they are affected by food processing techniques such as fermentation that alters both their chemical composition and organoleptic properties. This work aims to evaluate the impact of different fermentation processes on individual anthocyanins compounds in strawberry wine and vinegar by UHPLC-MS/MS Q Exactive analysis. Nineteen, 18, and 14 anthocyanin compounds were identified in the strawberry initial substrate, strawberry wine, and strawberry vinegar, respectively. Four and 8 anthocyanin compounds were tentatively identified with high accuracy for the 1st time to be present in the beverages obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of strawberry, respectively. Both, the total and the individual anthocyanin concentrations were decreased by both fermentation processes, affecting the alcoholic fermentation to a lesser extent (19%) than the acetic fermentation (91%). Indeed, several changes in color parameters have been assessed. The color of the wine and the vinegar made from strawberry changed during the fermentation process, varying from red to orange color, this fact is directly correlated with the decrease of anthocyanins compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanin Rich Extracts from Blueberry and Blackcurrant Juice

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    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative potential of anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs obtained from two commercially available juices (blueberry and blackcurrant juices on three tumor cell lines; B16F10 (murine melanoma, A2780 (ovarian cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. Individual anthocyanin determination, identification and quantification were done using HPLC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the juices was determined through different mechanism methods such as DPPH and ORAC. For biological testing, the juices were purified through C18 cartridges in order to obtain fractions rich in anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins identified were glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. The antiproliferative activity of the fractions was tested using the MTT assay. The antiproliferative potential of ARF was found to be associated with those bioactive molecules, anthocyanins due to their antioxidant potential. The results obtained indicated that both blueberry and blackcurrants are rich sources of antioxidants including anthocyanins and therefore these fruits are highly recommended for daily consumption to prevent numerous degenerative diseases.

  3. Stabilization of natural colors and nutraceuticals: Inhibition of anthocyanin degradation in model beverages using polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Rojanasasithara, Thananunt; Mutilangi, William; McClements, David Julian

    2016-12-01

    Anthocyanins are widely used as natural colorants in foods, but they are highly susceptible to chemical degradation during storage leading to color fading. This study examined the potential of natural quillaja saponin and polyphenols (vanillin, epigallocatechin gallate, green tea extract, and protocatechualdehyde) at inhibiting color fading of anthocyanins in model beverages. The purple carrot anthocyanin (0.025%) in model beverages (citric acid, pH 3.0) containing l-ascorbic acid (0.050%) degraded with a first-order reaction rate during storage (40°C/7days in light). The addition of polyphenols (0.2%) delayed color fading, with the most notable improvement observed with green tea extract addition. The half-life for anthocyanin color fading increased from 2.9 to 6.7days with green tea extract. Fluorescence quenching measurements showed that the green tea extract contained components that interacted with anthocyanins probably through hydrophobic interactions. Overall, this study provides valuable information about enhancing the stability of anthocyanins in beverage systems using polyphenols.

  4. Mineral analysis, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in wine residues flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennemann Gabriela Datsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the mineral content (N, P, K, S, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in flours produced from residues of different grape cultivars from the wineries in the Southern region of Brazil. Mineral analysis showed a significant difference for all grape cultivar, with the exception for phosphorus content. Residues from cv. Seibel showed higher levels of N, Cu and Mg. The cultivars Ancelotta, Tanat and Bordô present higher contents of K, Zn, Mn, Fe and Ca. For the concentration of anthocyanins, cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon (114.7 mg / 100g, Tannat (88.5 mg / 100 g and Ancelotta (33.8 mg/100 g had the highest concentrations. The cultivars Pinot Noir (7.0 g AGE / 100 g, Tannat (4.3 g AGE / 100 g, and Ancelotta (3.9 g AGE / 100 g had the highest content of phenolic compounds. Considering these results, it became evident the potential of using the residue of winemaking to produce flour for human consumption, highlighting the grapes ‘Tannat' and ‘Ancellotta'.

  5. Photosynthesis-dependent anthocyanin pigmentation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prasanta Kumar; Geul, Bang; Choi, Sang-Bong; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Park, Youn-Il

    2011-01-01

    Light is the ultimate energy source for photo-autotrophs on earth. For green plants, however, it can also be toxic under certain stressful environmental conditions and at critical developmental stages. Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, act as an effective screening mechanism that allows plant survival and proliferation under occasional periods of harmful irradiation through modulation of light absorption. Apart from light-sensing through photoreceptors such as phytochrome and cryptochrome, plants use the photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain to integrate light information. The redox status of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool of the PET chain regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, together with the plant hormone ethylene and plant hormone-like sugars. A complex signaling apparatus in acyanic cells appears to transduce information to cyanic cells to regulate anthocyanin production through an intercellular signaling pathway that remains largely uncharacterized. This review will highlight recent advances in this field and their implications for the regulation of anthocyanin pigmentation.

  6. Variation of anthocyanins and other major phenolic compounds throughout the ripening of four Portuguese blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sara; Costa, Eduardo M; Coelho, Marta C; Morais, Rui M; Pintado, Manuela E

    2017-01-01

    Blueberries are widely recognised as one of the richest sources of bioactive compounds, among which are anthocyanins, though the ripeness of berries has been reported as affecting the phytochemical composition of fruits. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate the variation of anthocyanins, and other major phenolics, throughout five ripening stages in four blueberry cultivars. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content increased during ripening, reaching the highest values when the blueberries are collected from bunches comprised of 75% ripe blueberries. Antagonistically, the amount of phenolic acid decreases, while the quercetin-3-glucoside levels remain stable. Furthermore, Goldtraube blueberries appear to possess, systematically, higher amounts of phenolic compounds than the other cultivars studied. Thus, when seeking the highest yield of anthocyanins, the preferred harvest should occur in bunches that contain ca 75% of ripe blueberries and, considering the cultivars assayed, the Goldtraube cultivar appears to be the richest in phenolic compounds.

  7. 拟南芥MicroRNA828负调控蔗糖诱导的花青素合成%MicroRNA828 Negatively Regulates Sucrose-Induced Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢烨; 孙毅; 李淡宁; 黄继荣

    2013-01-01

    花青素生物合成途径及转录调控因子虽然已基本被阐明,但其调控机理仍在日益更新.本研究利用蔗糖诱导花青素合成的表型,建立了一种筛选拟南芥花青素代谢突变体的方法.我们从T-DNA插入突变体库中筛选出一株花青素合成过量突变体,基因克隆结果表明是由MicroRNA828 (miR828)的功能缺失所致.进一步研究发现miR828过表达植株中蔗糖诱导的花青素积累较野生型减少,这与敲除miR828的靶基因TAS4导致花青素积累比野生型高的结果一致,表明miR828负调控花青素合成.miR828在各组织中表达量很低,但其表达受到蔗糖诱导.在讨论中,我们提出了miR828调控蔗糖诱导花青素合成的模型.%Anthocyanins displaying from red, blue to purple give plants a colorful world. They play an important role in pollination, seed dispersal, and stress resistance. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and the transcription factors have been well-documented, regulatory mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis are not fully understood. In this study, we established a system to screen mutants with high accumulation of anthocyanin in Arabidopsis thaliana, and provided new evidence that small RNA is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Using the phenomenon of sugar-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, we obtained a mutant accumulated a higher level of anthocyanin compared with the wild type (WT). TAIL-PCR analysis revealed that the phenotype was resulted from the loss-of-function microRNA828 (miR828). Consistently, anthocyanin content was reduced in miR828 overexpressors under sucrose treatment. In addition, knockout of TAS4, the target of miR828, also led to higher accumulation of anthocyanin in sugar-treated seedlings compared with WT. These results indicate that miR828 negatively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis. Further analysis demonstrated that the expression level of miR828 was quite low in various tissues, but was

  8. Approaches to understanding the contribution of anthocyanins to the antioxidant capacity of pasteurized pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegara, Salud; Mena, Pedro; Martí, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Influence of processing and storage conditions on anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity of clarified and cloudy juices from arils of the 'Mollar' pomegranate variety was studied. Clarification process reduced the content of total monomeric and individual anthocyanins, and increased the antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice. Thermal treatments (65 and 90 °C for 30 or 5 s) decreased the percentage of polymeric anthocyanin form, increasing on the contrary the monomeric one. In any case, storage temperature was the main factor affecting all the parameters tested. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (Cy3G) was more instable than delphinidin 3,5-di (Dp3,5dG) and cyaniding 3,5-diglucosides (Cy3,5dG). A linear relationship was observed between oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total monomeric anthocyanins, suggesting that they contributed strongly to the antioxidant capacity. Results presented in this study show that hurdle technology (heating plus refrigeration) may help to reduce anthocyanin degradation in pasteurized pomegranate juice, avoiding a dramatic impact on its colour and preserving the beneficial effects of this specific bioactive compounds on human health.

  9. Color, ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arozarena, Íñigo; Ortiz, Jacqueline; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Urretavizcaya, Inés; Salvatierra, Sara; Córdova, Inés; Marín-Arroyo, María Remedios; Noriega, María José; Navarro, Montserrat

    2012-08-01

    Twenty-eight blackberry ( Rubus glaucus Benth.) wines elaborated under different processing conditions were analyzed for total phenolics, ellagitannins, anthocyanins, color, and antioxidant activity. Ellagitannins were the main phenolic compounds and the most determinant factor in the antioxidant capacity of wines (r = 0.980). The major anthocyanins were cyanidin 3-rutinoside (64 ± 6%) and cyanidin 3-glucoside (19 ± 4%), followed by several minor compounds (17 ± 4%). Two of them were native blackberry anthocyanins, namely, cyanidin 3-rutinoside-5-glucoside and cyanidin 3-xylorutinoside. The remaining seven compounds were anthocyanin-related pigments generated during and after the alcoholic fermentation, identified as A-type and B-type vitisins and hydroxyphenylpyranoanthocyanins. The presence of fruit solids in contact with the liquid fraction during fermentation and the ratio of water to fruit employed in the preparation of the musts had a great impact on the content of ellagitannins, total phenolics, and the antioxidant activity of wines and a minor impact on their color and anthocyanin composition.

  10. Anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins profiling in wine lees by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with data-dependent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado de la Torre, M P; Ferreiro-Vera, C; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2013-12-26

    A method has been developed to study the content of anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidicins, and anthocyanins in wine lees, an abundant byproduct from wineries. Detection/quantitation of the target compounds was carried out by a hyphenated system consisting of a solid-phase extraction workstation (Prospekt-2 unit) online coupled to a liquid chromatograph-triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS), where standards were used for identification/quantitation of both anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins. Owing to the lack of anthocyanins standards, advantages from the use of data-dependent methods were taken for their identification and confirmatory analysis. Combination of the scanning methods (viz. product-ion, precursor-ion, and neutral-loss scanning) allowed identifying five different anthocyanins present in wine residues. The results thus obtained have been validated by complementary analysis of the extracts using LC-TOF/MS in high-resolution mode. Quantitation of the monitored compounds was supported on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and calibration curves run with standards of anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins.

  11. Obtaining Ready-to-Eat Blue Corn Expanded Snacks with Anthocyanins Using an Extrusion Process and Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayansi Escalante-Aburto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion is an alternative technology for the production of nixtamalized products. The aim of this study was to obtain an expanded nixtamalized snack with whole blue corn and using the extrusion process, to preserve the highest possible total anthocyanin content, intense blue/purple coloration (color b and the highest expansion index. A central composite experimental design was used. The extrusion process factors were: feed moisture (FM, 15%–23%, calcium hydroxide concentration (CHC, 0%–0.25% and final extruder temperature (T, 110–150 °C. The chemical and physical properties evaluated in the extrudates were moisture content (MC, %, total anthocyanins (TA, mg·kg−1, pH, color (L, a, b and expansion index (EI. ANOVA and surface response methodology were applied to evaluate the effects of the extrusion factors. FM and T significantly affected the response variables. An optimization step was performed by overlaying three contour plots to predict the best combination region. The extrudates were obtained under the following optimum factors: FM (% = 16.94, CHC (% = 0.095 and T (°C = 141.89. The predicted extrusion processing factors were highly accurate, yielding an expanded nixtamalized snack with 158.87 mg·kg−1 TA (estimated: 160 mg·kg−1, an EI of 3.19 (estimated: 2.66, and color parameter b of −0.44 (estimated: 0.10.

  12. Characterization of Anthocyanins in Perilla frutescens var. acuta Extract by Advanced UPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn Method and Their Anticancer Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Kang; Yao, You-Yuan; Chang, Ya-Ning

    2015-05-19

    The anthocyanin extract from a domestic Perilla cultivar (Perilla frutescens var. acuta) were isolated and characterized with high mass accuracy and multi-dimensional fragmentation by means of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis (ESI-IT-TOF-MSn). The new developed and applied LC-MS method focused on in-depth screening of anthocyanin compounds with similar structures which also provided a new approach of anthocyanin characterization without the use of external standards. Selective detection of interested anthocyanins was achieved utilizing extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) analysis, while MSn spectra were recorded to allow identification of the anthocyanin based on characteristic fragmentation patterns. Seven anthocyanins including one feruloyl (Cyanidin 3-O-feruloylglucoside-5-O-glucoside), two caffeoyl (Cyanidin 3-O-caffeoylglucoside-5-O-glucoside, Cyanidin 3-O-caffeoylglucoside-5-O-malonylglucoside) and four coumaroyl substituted anthocyanins (Cis-shisonin, Malonyl-cis-shisonin, Shisonin, and Malonyl-shisonin) were identified. Annexin-V FITC/PI flow cytometric assay was performed to analyze the influence of anthocyanin extract of P. frutescens var. acuta on cell apoptosis. The results suggested that Perilla anthocyanins can induce Hela cell apoptosis by a dose dependent manner.

  13. Characterization of Anthocyanins in Perilla frutescens var. acuta Extract by Advanced UPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn Method and Their Anticancer Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Kang He

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin extract from a domestic Perilla cultivar (Perilla frutescens var. acuta were isolated and characterized with high mass accuracy and multi-dimensional fragmentation by means of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC and electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis (ESI-IT-TOF-MSn. The new developed and applied LC-MS method focused on in-depth screening of anthocyanin compounds with similar structures which also provided a new approach of anthocyanin characterization without the use of external standards. Selective detection of interested anthocyanins was achieved utilizing extracted ion chromatogram (EIC analysis, while MSn spectra were recorded to allow identification of the anthocyanin based on characteristic fragmentation patterns. Seven anthocyanins including one feruloyl (Cyanidin 3-O-feruloylglucoside-5-O-glucoside, two caffeoyl (Cyanidin 3-O-caffeoylglucoside-5-O-glucoside, Cyanidin 3-O-caffeoylglucoside-5-O-malonylglucoside and four coumaroyl substituted anthocyanins (Cis-shisonin, Malonyl-cis-shisonin, Shisonin, and Malonyl-shisonin were identified. Annexin-V FITC/PI flow cytometric assay was performed to analyze the influence of anthocyanin extract of P. frutescens var. acuta on cell apoptosis. The results suggested that Perilla anthocyanins can induce Hela cell apoptosis by a dose dependent manner.

  14. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality.

  15. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity after fresh storage of blueberry treated with edible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2015-05-01

    The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate.

  16. Shedding light on filovirus infection with high-content imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Gianluca; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G

    2012-08-01

    Microscopy has been instrumental in the discovery and characterization of microorganisms. Major advances in high-throughput fluorescence microscopy and automated, high-content image analysis tools are paving the way to the systematic and quantitative study of the molecular properties of cellular systems, both at the population and at the single-cell level. High-Content Imaging (HCI) has been used to characterize host-virus interactions in genome-wide reverse genetic screens and to identify novel cellular factors implicated in the binding, entry, replication and egress of several pathogenic viruses. Here we present an overview of the most significant applications of HCI in the context of the cell biology of filovirus infection. HCI assays have been recently implemented to quantitatively study filoviruses in cell culture, employing either infectious viruses in a BSL-4 environment or surrogate genetic systems in a BSL-2 environment. These assays are becoming instrumental for small molecule and siRNA screens aimed at the discovery of both cellular therapeutic targets and of compounds with anti-viral properties. We discuss the current practical constraints limiting the implementation of high-throughput biology in a BSL-4 environment, and propose possible solutions to safely perform high-content, high-throughput filovirus infection assays. Finally, we discuss possible novel applications of HCI in the context of filovirus research with particular emphasis on the identification of possible cellular biomarkers of virus infection.

  17. Shedding Light on Filovirus Infection with High-Content Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha G. Panchal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy has been instrumental in the discovery and characterization of microorganisms. Major advances in high-throughput fluorescence microscopy and automated, high-content image analysis tools are paving the way to the systematic and quantitative study of the molecular properties of cellular systems, both at the population and at the single-cell level. High-Content Imaging (HCI has been used to characterize host-virus interactions in genome-wide reverse genetic screens and to identify novel cellular factors implicated in the binding, entry, replication and egress of several pathogenic viruses. Here we present an overview of the most significant applications of HCI in the context of the cell biology of filovirus infection. HCI assays have been recently implemented to quantitatively study filoviruses in cell culture, employing either infectious viruses in a BSL-4 environment or surrogate genetic systems in a BSL-2 environment. These assays are becoming instrumental for small molecule and siRNA screens aimed at the discovery of both cellular therapeutic targets and of compounds with anti-viral properties. We discuss the current practical constraints limiting the implementation of high-throughput biology in a BSL-4 environment, and propose possible solutions to safely perform high-content, high-throughput filovirus infection assays. Finally, we discuss possible novel applications of HCI in the context of filovirus research with particular emphasis on the identification of possible cellular biomarkers of virus infection.

  18. EFFECT OF CARBON CONTENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH AND HIGH ELONGATION STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Chen; X.Chen; 等

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of new kind of hot-rolled high strength and high elongation steels with retained austenite were studied by discussing the in-fluence of different carbon content.The research results indicate that carbon content has a significant effect on retaining austenite and consequently resulting in high elon-gation.Besides,new findings about relationship between carbon content and retained austenite as well as properties were discussed in the paper.

  19. 甘蔗皮花色苷的提取工艺及稳定性初探%Study on extraction and stability of anthocyanins from sugarcane skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雄; 周静峰; 师邱毅; 王延辉

    2011-01-01

    Extraction and stability of anthocyanins from sugarcane skin were studied. The results from single-factor and orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum extraction condition were:extraction solution of 80% ethanol- hydrochloric acid(pH 1. 0),the ratio of materials was 1∶ 20,extracting at 40℃ for 2h under ultrasonic wave,and the total content of anthocyanins reached 288. 06mg/100g. The stability test showed that anthocyanins from sugarcane skin was sensitive to pH,light,high temperature. In the presences of some metal ions including sodium,potassium,calcium,magnesium or copper,the anthocyanins was stable,whereas the attendance of iron would deteriorate it.%通过单因素实验和正交实验对甘蔗皮花色苷的提取工艺进行优化,并对其稳定性作初步探讨。结果表明:用80%乙醇-盐酸溶液(pH=1.0)作为提取剂,料液比1∶20(g/mL),40℃恒温超声波(超声功率100W)辅助提取2.0h,提取效果最佳,花色苷含量达到288.06mg/100g。稳定性实验表明,甘蔗皮花色苷溶液对pH、光照、温度等敏感,对钠、钾、钙、镁、铜等金属离子均稳定,但铁离子会使其变质。

  20. Evaluation of dissolution rate on high plutonium content MOX fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugaya, Shinichi; Kurita, Ichiro; Endo, Hideo; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kihara, Yoshiyuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ogasawara, Masahiro; Shinada, Masanori; Kowata, Masato [Inspection Development Company Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The dissolution rate of high Pu content MOX fuel into nitric acid was measured as a function of Pu content. MOX fuel samples, pressed and sintered, were dissolved in 7 M of boiling nitric acid, and the dissolution rate was measured by analyzing the Pu and U concentration in the solution. The dissolution rate of MOX fuel tended to decrease with the increase in the Pu content and was reduced after 6 hours of dissolution. These results agreed well with previous ones, but the dissolution rate was 3-6 times faster than those. It is estimated that the cause of this difference was due to underestimation of the surface area of MOX fuel powder and the difference of the MOX O/M ratio. (author)

  1. Developmental toxicity assay using high content screening of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz-McPeak, Susan; Guo, Xiaoqing; Cuevas, Elvis; Dumas, Melanie; Newport, Glenn D; Ali, Syed F; Paule, Merle G; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2015-03-01

    Typically, time-consuming standard toxicological assays using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model evaluate mortality and teratogenicity after exposure during the first 2 days post-fertilization. Here we describe an automated image-based high content screening (HCS) assay to identify the teratogenic/embryotoxic potential of compounds in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Automated image acquisition was performed using a high content microscope system. Further automated analysis of embryo length, as a statistically quantifiable endpoint of toxicity, was performed on images post-acquisition. The biological effects of ethanol, nicotine, ketamine, caffeine, dimethyl sulfoxide and temperature on zebrafish embryos were assessed. This automated developmental toxicity assay, based on a growth-retardation endpoint should be suitable for evaluating the effects of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants in a high throughput manner. This approach can significantly expedite the screening of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants, thereby improving the current risk assessment process by decreasing analysis time and required resources.

  2. Structural identification of anthocyanins and analysis of concentrations during growth and flowering in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Mohamed, Zaidul Islam Sarker; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Naoto; Noda, Takahiro; Saito, Tatsuya

    2007-11-14

    The anthocyanin profiles and variety/breeding-line differences of anthocyanin concentrations in petals of common buckwheat flowers have been studied. Four anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were isolated from the petals of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), separated using high performance liquid chromatography and identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry techniques. In every variety/breeding line tested, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside was detected as the major anthocyanin and the next is cyanidin 3-O-glucoside whereas cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were trace or not detectable in white and pink flowered buckwheat. Of all the varieties/breeding lines tested, Gan-Chao, a Chinese variety, contained the highest amount of anthocyanins. The largest part of cyanidin moiety was presented as a proanthocyanidin form (PAs-Cy). Anthocyanins and PAs-Cy in petals were increased along with increase of flower development stages. Therefore, fully developed petals of red flowered buckwheat, especially Gan-Chao, are promising as a new anthocyanin-rich material for food processing.

  3. Metabolic profiling of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and other secondary metabolites in kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Tae; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Suhyoung; Lee, Sang-Won; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Uddin, Md Romij; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2012-08-22

    We profiled and quantified glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and other secondary metabolites in the skin and flesh of pale green and purple kohlrabis. Analysis of these distinct kohlrabis revealed the presence of 8 glucosinolates, 12 anthocyanins, 2 carotenoids, and 7 phenylpropanoids. Glucosinolate contents varied among the different parts and types of kohlrabi. Glucoerucin contents were 4-fold higher in the flesh of purple kohlrabi than those in the skin. Among the 12 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(feruloyl)(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. Carotenoid levels were much higher in the skins than the flesh of both types of kohlrabi. The levels of most phenylpropanoids were higher in purple kohlrabi than in pale green ones. trans-Cinnamic acid content was 12.7-fold higher in the flesh of purple kohlrabi than that in the pale green ones. Thus, the amounts of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenylpropanoids varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the two types of kohlrabi were significant.

  4. Molecular Dynamics of Materials Possessing High Energy Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-26

    I -RI90 634 MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF MATERIALS POSSESSING HIGH ENERGY 1/1 r CONTENTCU) COLUMBIA UNIV MENd YORK N J TURRO 26 JAN GO I RFOSR-TR-88-0168...Bolling Air Force Base, D.C. 2 61102F_ 2303 I B2 11 T,TL.E (Inciuoe Security Classification) Molecular Dynamics of Materials Possessing High Energy...York 10027 (212) 280-2175 TITLE: MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF MATERIALS POSSESSING HIGH ENERGY CONTENT .. 0 0 88 2 ... "" ’% ,i u , . .. .. ....... ŝ" ;! ,i

  5. Information management for high content live cell imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High content live cell imaging experiments are able to track the cellular localisation of labelled proteins in multiple live cells over a time course. Experiments using high content live cell imaging will generate multiple large datasets that are often stored in an ad-hoc manner. This hinders identification of previously gathered data that may be relevant to current analyses. Whilst solutions exist for managing image data, they are primarily concerned with storage and retrieval of the images themselves and not the data derived from the images. There is therefore a requirement for an information management solution that facilitates the indexing of experimental metadata and results of high content live cell imaging experiments. Results We have designed and implemented a data model and information management solution for the data gathered through high content live cell imaging experiments. Many of the experiments to be stored measure the translocation of fluorescently labelled proteins from cytoplasm to nucleus in individual cells. The functionality of this database has been enhanced by the addition of an algorithm that automatically annotates results of these experiments with the timings of translocations and periods of any oscillatory translocations as they are uploaded to the repository. Testing has shown the algorithm to perform well with a variety of previously unseen data. Conclusion Our repository is a fully functional example of how high throughput imaging data may be effectively indexed and managed to address the requirements of end users. By implementing the automated analysis of experimental results, we have provided a clear impetus for individuals to ensure that their data forms part of that which is stored in the repository. Although focused on imaging, the solution provided is sufficiently generic to be applied to other functional proteomics and genomics experiments. The software is available from: fhttp://code.google.com/p/livecellim/

  6. Stability-increasing effects of anthocyanin glycosyl acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-Ling; Yu, Yu-Qi; Chen, Zhong-Jian; Wen, Guo-Song; Wei, Fu-Gang; Zheng, Quan; Wang, Chong-De; Xiao, Xing-Lei

    2017-01-01

    This review comprehensively summarizes the existing knowledge regarding the chemical implications of anthocyanin glycosyl acylation, the effects of acylation on the stability of acylated anthocyanins and the corresponding mechanisms. Anthocyanin glycosyl acylation commonly refers to the phenomenon in which the hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin glycosyls are esterified by aliphatic or aromatic acids, which is synthetically represented by the acylation sites as well as the types and numbers of acyl groups. Generally, glycosyl acylation increases the in vitro and in vivo chemical stability of acylated anthocyanins, and the mechanisms primarily involve physicochemical, stereochemical, photochemical, biochemical or environmental aspects under specific conditions. Additionally, the acylation sites as well as the types and numbers of acyl groups influence the stability of acylated anthocyanins to different degrees. This review could provide insight into the optimization of the stability of anthocyanins as well as the application of suitable anthocyanins in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  7. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  8. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  9. Effect of Light on Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Brassica oleracea L.and Analysis on Expression Pattern of Anthocyanin Structural Genes%光对紫甘蓝花青素合成代谢影响及基因表达模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚丽; 胡宗利; 张彬; 朱明库; 陈国平

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the influence of light on anthocyanin synthesis and metabolism of purple cabbage and the mechanism of regulation in purple cabbage, "Early Red" purple cabbage was used as the test material, and cabbage "Feng Yuan 913" (green cabbage) was used as the control. Seedlings were planted under light or dark condition for one week, and then the anthocyanin content was determined by using the pH differential spectrum method at pH 1.0 and pH 4.5. Subsequently, semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed to analyze the expression pattern of structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. The results showed that no significant difference was observed in expression level of structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple cabbage after treated by light or dark except for PAL and UFGT. In addition, purple cabbage seedlings were still colored obviously even grew in the dark, but the young seedlings of green cabbage turned up albefaction completely. The expression levels of downstream structural genes in anthocyanin synthesis pathway were significantly increased in purple cabbage compared with those of green cabbage. At the same time, young seedlings were colored deeply, indicating that mass anthocyanin in purple cabbage was correlated with high expression of these genes.%为了研究光对紫甘蓝花青素合成代谢影响及其调控机制,以“早红”紫甘蓝为试验材料,普通甘蓝“丰园913”(青甘蓝)为对照,对生长1周的幼苗进行遮光处理和光照处理,采用pH差示法测定花青素含量,半定量RTPCR分析花青素合成途径结构基因表达模式.结果表明:光照处理与遮光处理后,除PAL、UFGT外,紫甘蓝结构基因表达无明显差异,无光条件下,紫甘蓝幼苗仍着色明显,而青甘蓝幼苗完全白化;与青甘蓝相比,紫甘蓝花青素合成途径下游结构基因表达量明显增高,幼苗着色深,揭示紫甘蓝花青素的大量积累与下游结构基因的表达密切相关.

  10. Expression of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins after transformation of alfalfa with maize Lc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Heather; Yu, Min; Auser, Patricia; Blahut-Beatty, Laureen; McKersie, Brian; Bowley, Steve; Westcott, Neil; Coulman, Bruce; Lloyd, Alan; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2003-07-01

    Three anthocyanin regulatory genes of maize (Zea mays; Lc, B-Peru, and C1) were introduced into alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in a strategy designed to stimulate the flavonoid pathway and alter the composition of flavonoids produced in forage. Lc constructs included a full-length gene and a gene with a shortened 5'-untranslated region. Lc RNA was strongly expressed in Lc transgenic alfalfa foliage, but accumulation of red-purple anthocyanin was observed only under conditions of high light intensity or low temperature. These stress conditions induced chalcone synthase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase expression in Lc transgenic alfalfa foliage compared with non-transformed plants. Genotypes containing the Lc transgene construct with a full-length 5'-untranslated region responded more quickly to stress conditions and with a more extreme phenotype. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of field-grown tissue indicated that flavone content was reduced in forage of the Lc transgenic plants. Leucocyanidin reductase, the enzyme that controls entry of metabolites into the proanthocyanidin pathway, was activated both in foliage and in developing seeds of the Lc transgenic alfalfa genotypes. Proanthocyanidin polymer was accumulated in the forage, but (+)-catechin monomers were not detected. B-Peru transgenic and C1 transgenic populations displayed no visible phenotypic changes, although these transgenes were expressed at detectable levels. These results support the emerging picture of Lc transgene-specific patterns of expression in different recipient species. These results demonstrate that proanthocyanidin biosynthesis can be stimulated in alfalfa forage using an myc-like transgene, and they pave the way for the development of high quality, bloat-safe cultivars with ruminal protein bypass.

  11. Aggressive content of high school students' TV viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jina S; Somers, Cheryl L

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' exposure to television programming with aggressive content and to explore whether consumption of aggressive TV varied by sex and ethnicity. Participants were 472 boys and girls from two high schools, one urban and one suburban. Definitions of both direct and indirect aggression were used to rate TV programs, and the participants' exposure to both was assessed. Analysis yielded a statistically significant effect for sex but not ethnicity as girls watched more TV programs containing indirect aggression. Also, exposure to aggressive TV content peaked in Grade 10 and fell sharply thereafter. The importance of educating adolescents about the images they view is highlighted. Implications for research are discussed.

  12. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  13. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchu, Nancy; Patel, Bhavini; Sebastian, Blaise; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium.

  14. Effect of glucuronosylation on anthocyanin color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, Sarah Anne; Hansen, Esben Halkjaer; Malien-Aubert, Céline; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Bak, Søren; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2009-04-22

    The effect of glucuronosylation on the color stability of anthocyanins was investigated using glucuronosylated anthocyanins isolated from the flower petals of the red daisy (Bellis perennis) or obtained by enzymatic in vitro synthesis using heterologously expressed red daisy glucuronosyltransferase BpUGT94B1. Color stability toward light and heat stress was assessed by monitoring CIELAB color coordinates and stability at pH 7.0 by A(550). Cyanidin-3-O-2''-O-glucuronosylglucoside showed improved color stability in response to light compared to both cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-2''-O-diglucoside. A similar increase in color stability was not observed following heat treatment. Glucuronosylation did not increase the stability of anthocyanins at pH 7.0 as determined by A(550). To test for a possible effect of glucuronosylation on the color stability of anthocyanins in plant extracts used for food coloration, an elderberry (Sambucus nigra) extract was glucuronosylated in vitro. Glucuronosylation of approximately 50% of total anthocyanins proceeded fast and resulted in increased color stability in response to both heat and light. The data show that glucuronosylation may be used to stabilize industrially used extracts of natural colorants.

  15. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Gao; Yunmin Chen; Liangtong Zhan; Xuecheng Bian

    2015-01-01

    Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) depend largely on the waste’s initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW). After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW), the following findings were obtained: (1) HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC) than LKWC MSW, but the field ca-pacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2) the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3) compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG) generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4) the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5) the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  16. Liquid alternative diesel fuels with high hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancsok, Jenoe; Varga, Zoltan; Eller, Zoltan; Poelczmann, Gyoergy [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon Processing; Kasza, Tamas [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    Mobility is a keystone of the sustainable development. In the operation of the vehicles as the tools of mobility internal combustion engines, so thus Diesel engines will play a remarkable role in the next decades. Beside fossil fuels - used for power these engines - liquid alternative fuels have higher and higher importance, because of their known advantages. During the presentation the categorization possibilities based on the chronology of their development and application will be presented. The importance of fuels with high hydrogen content will be reviewed. Research and development activity in the field of such kind of fuels will be presented. During this developed catalytic systems and main performance properties of the product will be presented which were obtained in case of biogasoils produced by special hydrocracking of natural triglycerides and in case of necessity followed by isomerization; furthermore in case of synthetic biogasoils obtained by the isomerization hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins produced from biomass based synthesis gas. Excellent combustion properties (cetane number > 65-75), good cold flow properties and reduced harmful material emission due to the high hydrogen content (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}) are highlighted. Finally production possibilities of linear and branched paraffins based on lignocelluloses are briefly reviewed. Summarizing it was concluded that liquid hydrocarbons with high isoparaffin content are the most suitable fuels regarding availability, economical and environmental aspects, namely the sustainable development. (orig.)

  17. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  18. Comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Yang, Li-Wen; Li, Meng-Ling; Dai, Si-Lan

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key environmental factors that affect anthocyanin biosynthesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear, and many problems regarding phenotypic change and corresponding gene regulation have not been solved. In the present study, comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves were performed in Chrysanthemum × morifolium 'Purple Reagan'. After contrasting the variations in the flower color phenotype and relative pigment content, as well as expression patterns of structural and regulator genes responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis and photoreceptor between different plant organs under light and dark conditions, we concluded that (1) both the capitulum and foliage are key organs responding to light for chrysanthemum coloration; (2) compared with flavones, shading makes a greater decrease on the anthocyanins accumulation; (3) most of the structural and regulatory genes in the light-induced anthocyanin pathway specifically express in the ray florets; and (4) CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmANS, CmDFR, Cm3GT, CmMYB5-1, CmMYB6, CmMYB7-1, CmbHLH24, CmCOP1 and CmHY5 are key genes for light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in chrysanthemum ray florets, while on the transcriptional level, the expressions of CmPHYA, CmPHYB, CmCRY1a, CmCRY1b and CmCRY2 are insignificantly changed. Moreover, the inferred comprehensive effect of multiple signals on the accumulation of anthocyanins and transmission channel of light signal that exist between the leaves and ray florets were further discussed. These results further our understanding of the relationship between the gene expression and light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, and lay foundations for the promotion of the molecular breeding of novel flower colors in chrysanthemums.

  19. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Blando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L (also called tart cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW.

  20. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines II. Anthocyanin Derived Pigments and Their Color Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Originating in the grapes, anthocyanins and their derivatives are the crucial pigments responsible for the red wine color. During wine maturation and aging, the concentration of monomeric anthocyanins declines constantly, while numerous more complex and stable anthocyanin derived pigments are formed, mainly including pyranoanthocyanins, polymeric anthocyanins produced from condensation between anthocyanin and/or flavan-3-ols directly or mediated by aldehydes. Correspondingly, their structural modifications result in a characteristic variation of color, from purple-red color in young red wines to brick-red hue of the aged. Because of the extreme complexity of chemical compounds involved, many investigations have been made using model solutions of know composition rather than wine. Thus, there is a large amount of research still required to obtain an overall perspective of the anthocyanin composition and its change with time in red wines. Future findings may well greatly revise our current interpretation of the color in red wines. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the anthocyanins derived pigments in red wines, as well as their color evolution.

  1. Anthocyanins and their variation in red wines. II. Anthocyanin derived pigments and their color evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liang, Na-Na; Mu, Lin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2012-02-07

    Originating in the grapes, anthocyanins and their derivatives are the crucial pigments responsible for the red wine color. During wine maturation and aging, the concentration of monomeric anthocyanins declines constantly, while numerous more complex and stable anthocyanin derived pigments are formed, mainly including pyranoanthocyanins, polymeric anthocyanins produced from condensation between anthocyanin and/or flavan-3-ols directly or mediated by aldehydes. Correspondingly, their structural modifications result in a characteristic variation of color, from purple-red color in young red wines to brick-red hue of the aged. Because of the extreme complexity of chemical compounds involved, many investigations have been made using model solutions of know composition rather than wine. Thus, there is a large amount of research still required to obtain an overall perspective of the anthocyanin composition and its change with time in red wines. Future findings may well greatly revise our current interpretation of the color in red wines. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the anthocyanins derived pigments in red wines, as well as their color evolution.

  2. On the bioavailability of flavanols and anthocyanins: flavanol-anthocyanin dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Iva; Nave, Frederico; Gonçalves, Rui; de Freitas, Victor; Mateus, Nuno

    2012-11-15

    The bioavailability of flavanols, anthocyanins and anthocyanin-derived pigments like flavanol-anthocyanin dimers already reported to occur in food products is a major unsolved issue. The absorption of the flavanol-anthocyanin dimer (+)-catechin-(4,8)-malvidin-3-O-glucoside (Cat-Mv3glc) through Caco-2 cells was assessed by performing transepithelial transport assays. The ability of Cat-Mv3glc to cross Caco-2 cells was compared with that of malvidin-3-glucoside (Mv3glc), (+)-catechin (Cat) and procyanidin B3 (Cat-Cat), in order to evaluate the influence of some structural features on the transport efficiency. The flavanol-anthocyanin dimer was absorbed in this intestinal model although with a lower efficiency than the monomers Cat and Mv3glc. On the other hand, Cat-Mv3glc was found to cross the intestinal barrier model more significantly than Cat-Cat. This feature may be related to the presence of the glucose moiety in its structure. Overall, this study brings more insights into the bioavailability of anthocyanins and flavanols and represents the first report on the bioavailability of flavanol-anthocyanins.

  3. Strawberry (cv. Romina Methanolic Extract and Anthocyanin-Enriched Fraction Improve Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL are recognized as critical factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Healthy dietary patterns, with abundant fruit and vegetable consumption, may prevent the onset of these risk factors due to the presence of phytochemical compounds. Strawberries are known for their high content of polyphenols; among them, flavonoids are the major constituents, and it is presumed that they are responsible for the biological activity of the fruit. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies that actually evaluate the effects of different fractions isolated from strawberries. In order to assess the effects of two different strawberry extracts (whole methanolic extract/anthocyanin-enriched fraction on the lipid profile and antioxidant status in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells, the triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol content, lipid peroxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS content and antioxidant enzymes’ activity on cell lysates were determined. Results demonstrated that both strawberry extracts not only improved the lipid metabolism by decreasing triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol contents, but also improved the redox state of HepG2 cells by modulating thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production, antioxidant enzyme activity and ROS generation. The observed effects were more pronounced for the anthocyanin-enriched fraction.

  4. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. 花色素苷功能饮料的稳定性%Study on the Stability of Anthocyanin Energy Drink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冰冰; 郝振华; 胡云双; 陈秀芳; 金丽琴

    2012-01-01

    文中研究花色素苷功能饮料的稳定性。采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定不同条件处理后饮料中的花色素苷的含量。花色素苷对温度和光照非常敏感,金属离子K+、Na+、Ca2+、Mg2+、Zn2+和Cu2+对花色素苷的稳定性没有显著影响。不同灭菌方式对花色素苷的稳定性影响不同,其中超高温瞬时灭菌法对其影响最小。结果表明:花色素苷功能饮料适宜在室温避光条件下保存,同时饮料中可适当加入一些金属元素增加其经济价值和营养价值;灭菌方式可采用超高温瞬时灭菌法,确保营养成分不流失。%Study on the stability of Anthocyanin energy drink. According to high performance liquid chromatog- raphy (HPLC) to determine the Anthocyanin content after different processing conditions. Anthocyanin is very sensi- tive to temperature and light, The stability of Anthocyanin is not significant effect to K ~ , Ca2~ , Mg2~ , Zn2~ and Cu2~ ,which is also different effects to different sterilization way, ultra high temperature short time sterilization as to it affect the least. Anthocyanin energy drink can be conserved at room temperature for preventing light conditions, and can be appropriately added with some metal ions to increase its nutritional value;Ultra high temperature short time sterilization can be adopted to ensures that the nutrient composition is without loss.

  6. Effect on in vitro starch digestibility of Mexican blue maize anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Sanchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of blue maize extracts obtained by acid-methanol treatment on the nutritional in vitro starch fractions such as: rapidly digestive starch (RDS), slowly digestive starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) of native and gelatinized commercial maize starch. Chromatographic analysis (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) of blue maize extracts showed the presence of seven anthocyanins, where cyanidin-3-(6″-malonylglucoside) was the main. Blue maize extracts modified nutritional in vitro starch fractions (decrease of RDS) while RS content increased (1.17 and 2.02 times for native and gelatinized commercial maize starch, respectively) when anthocyanins extracts were added to starch up to 75% (starch weight). This preliminary observation provides the basis for further suitability evaluation of blue maize extract as natural starch-modifier by the possible anthocyanins-starch interaction. Anthocyanin extracts can be a suitable to produce functional foods with higher RS content with potential human health benefits.

  7. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  8. Effect of various factor on the stability of the anthocyanin pigment in passion fruit skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pruthi

    1960-04-01

    Full Text Available Since loss of anthocyanins is one of the major factors contributing to the colour deterioration in many highly coloured fruits, the effects of various factors such as temperature, oxygen, pH, ascorbic acid, tannic acid, thiourea and hydrogen peroxide on the stability of the anthocyanin pigment (Pelargonidin 3-diglucoside naturally occurring in passion fruit skin (Passiflora edulis, sims. have been studied with a view to elucidate the mechanism of degradation of the pigment during refrigerated and common storage of the fresh fruit. Storage studies demonstrated that (i ascorbic acid in the presence of oxygen accelerated the deterioration of the pigment; (ii thiourea decreased the rate of destruction of ascorbic acid, thus indirectly preventing the rate of anthocyanin losses; (iii tannins had a stabilizing effect on the pigment; (iv pH had a very significant effect on the stability of the pigment; and (v high storage temperature and H2O2 both had destructive effect on the pigment.

  9. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  10. Cooked blueberries: anthocyanin and anthocyanidin degradation and their radical-scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Amaro, L Filipe; Pinho, Olivia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2010-08-25

    This study examined anthocyanin and anthocyanidin composition and radical-scavenging activity of three cultivars of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L., cv. Bluecrop, Bluetravel, and Ozarkblue) before and after cooking. A total of 13 anthocyanins were separated and monitored in methanolic extracts of raw fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector (HPLC/DAD). Principal component analysis using the anthocyanin profile as variables revealed differences according to cultivar origin. Of the six common anthocyanidins, four were identified and quantified in the hydrolysates, namely, malvidin, the most abundant, followed by cyanidin, petunidin, and delphynidin. A systematic evaluation of the degradation of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins of blueberries cooked in stuffed fish was performed. The percentage of anthocyanin degradation in cooked blueberries (by progressive heating from 12 to 99 °C for 60 min) ranged between 16 and 30% for Bluecrop, 30-42% for Bluetravel, and 12-41% for Ozarkblue. However, cooked blueberries maintained or increased radical-scavenging activity when evaluated by the 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Overall, results show that cooked blueberries can serve as a good source of bioactive phytochemicals.

  11. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  12. Fruit characterization of high oil content avocado varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-López Vicente Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To expand the data bank on avocado (Persea americana Mill. varieties all over the world, and to select good varieties for commercial or improving purposes, a partial fruit characterization of 13 high oil content (11.23-18.80% was performed. The chosen varieties are growing in a Venezuelan germplasm bank: Fuerte, Peruano, Lula, Ortega, Red Collinson, Alcemio, Araira 1, Pope, Ettinger, Gripiña 5, Barker, Duke, and Ryan. They were characterized for pulp oil and moisture; weight (whole fruit, seed, pulp and peel; length, width and fruit shape; peel characteristics (roughness, color and hand peeling; and ripeness time. The variety Ryan showed the highest oil content (18.80% and calorific value (191 Kcal/100 g wet flesh. Avocado varieties grown in Venezuela have generally less oil content and are generally lighter than those from other countries. Most of the varieties had low pulp proportion, and were pyriform, with rough green peel and difficult to hand peel. Red Collinson had an uncommon reddish peel. The ripening time was between 4 and 10 days after harvest.

  13. EFFECT OF CARBON CONTENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH AND HIGH ELONGATION STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Chen; X. Chen; P.H. Li; S.K. Pu; Z.X. Yuan; B.F. Xu; D.X. Lou; A.M. Guo; S.B.Zhou

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of new kind of hot-rolled high strengthand high elongation steels with retained austenite were studied by discussing the in-fluence of different carbon content. The research results indicate that carbon contenthas a significant effect on retaining austenite and consequently resulting in high elon-gation. Besides, new findings about relationship between carbon content and retainedaustenite as well as properties were discussed in the paper.

  14. The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant air1 implicates SOS3 in the regulation of anthocyanins under salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Van Oosten, Michael James

    2013-08-08

    The accumulation of anthocyanins in plants exposed to salt stress has been largely documented. However, the functional link and regulatory components underlying the biosynthesis of these molecules during exposure to stress are largely unknown. In a screen of second site suppressors of the salt overly sensitive3-1 (sos3-1) mutant, we isolated the anthocyanin-impaired-response-1 (air1) mutant. air1 is unable to accumulate anthocyanins under salt stress, a key phenotype of sos3-1 under high NaCl levels (120 mM). The air1 mutant showed a defect in anthocyanin production in response to salt stress but not to other stresses such as high light, low phosphorous, high temperature or drought stress. This specificity indicated that air1 mutation did not affect anthocyanin biosynthesis but rather its regulation in response to salt stress. Analysis of this mutant revealed a T-DNA insertion at the first exon of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding for a basic region-leucine zipper transcription factor. air1 mutants displayed higher survival rates compared to wild-type in oxidative stress conditions, and presented an altered expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes such as F3H, F3′H and LDOX in salt stress conditions. The results presented here indicate that AIR1 is involved in the regulation of various steps of the flavonoid and anthocyanin accumulation pathways and is itself regulated by the salt-stress response signalling machinery. The discovery and characterization of AIR1 opens avenues to dissect the connections between abiotic stress and accumulation of antioxidants in the form of flavonoids and anthocyanins. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  15. Color and chemical stability of a variety of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid in solution and powder forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Megan E; Mauer, Lisa J

    2013-05-01

    The color and chemical stabilities of six anthocyanins, including cyanidin 3-glucoside, highly purified and present in semipurified extracts (also containing other anthocyanins) from grape pomace, purple corn, and black rice, were determined in combination with ascorbic acid in solutions at differing pH values (3.0 and 4.0) and temperatures (6-40 °C) and lyophilized powders at different relative humidities (43-98% RH). Color and chemical changes were analyzed using CIELAB measurements and HPLC, respectively. In liquids, stability was inversely related to increasing pH and temperature; for powders, stability was inversely related to RH. The mutual destruction of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid in solution was confirmed, with unexpected new findings showing no significant stabilizing/destabilizing effect based upon anthocyanin structure, including differing flavylium core (three types) and type of acylation (two aliphatic, one cinnamic acid), or final extract purity.

  16. 石榴果实花青苷差异性分析%Analysis of Differences for Anthocyanins in Fruit of Pomegranate Liu Ancheng1, Wang Liangsheng2, Wang Qing1, Pang Changmin1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安成; 王亮生; 王庆; 庞长民

    2013-01-01

    In order to find types and difference of anthocyanins in the peel and pulp of pomegranate, a high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) and HPLC electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn) methods were employed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthocyanins. The results showed that:10 anthocyanins were detected at 525 nm from 11 different origins of the ornamental or edible pomegranate peel and pulp, Delphinidin 3-pentoside and Peonidin-3-hexoside were first detected from pomegranate. It was not relativity in contents of anthocyanins in peel and pulp, and anthocyanins were not the same. The inspection found in several kinds of materials, anthocyanins contents in pulp of ornamental pomegranate were higher than in peel, and in peel of edible varieties were higher than in pulp.%  为了探讨石榴果实中花青苷的种类及果皮和果肉间的差异,采用高效液相色谱-光电二极管阵列检测器联用技术(HPLC-PAD)和高效液相色谱-电喷雾离子化-多级质谱联用技术(HPLC-ESI-MSn),进行花青苷的定性及定量分析。结果发现,从11份不同产地观赏或食用石榴的果皮和果肉中,在525 nm共检测出10种花青苷成分,其中飞燕草素3-戊糖苷(Dp-3-pentoside)和芍药花素3-己糖苷(Pn-3-hexoside)首次从石榴果实中检测到。果皮和果肉中总花青苷含量无相关性,且种类也不完全相同。从检测的几种材料中发现,观赏石榴果皮中花青苷含量高于果肉,而食用品种果肉中的含量高于果皮。

  17. Gene Expression Profiling of Development and Anthocyanin Accumulation in Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Based on Transcriptome Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Li

    Full Text Available Red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. 'Hongyang' is a promising commercial cultivar due to its nutritious value and unique flesh color, derived from vitamin C and anthocyanins. In this study, we obtained transcriptome data of 'Hongyang' from seven developmental stages using Illumina sequencing. We mapped 39-54 million reads to the recently sequenced kiwifruit genome and other databases to define gene structure, to analyze alternative splicing, and to quantify gene transcript abundance at different developmental stages. The transcript profiles throughout red kiwifruit development were constructed and analyzed, with a focus on the biosynthesis and metabolism of compounds such as phytohormones, sugars, starch and L-ascorbic acid, which are indispensable for the development and formation of quality fruit. Candidate genes for these pathways were identified through MapMan and phylogenetic analysis. The transcript levels of genes involved in sucrose and starch metabolism were consistent with the change in soluble sugar and starch content throughout kiwifruit development. The metabolism of L-ascorbic acid was very active, primarily through the L-galactose pathway. The genes responsible for the accumulation of anthocyanin in red kiwifruit were identified, and their expression levels were investigated during kiwifruit development. This survey of gene expression during kiwifruit development paves the way for further investigation of the development of this uniquely colored and nutritious fruit and reveals which factors are needed for high quality fruit formation. This transcriptome data and its analysis will be useful for improving kiwifruit genome annotation, for basic fruit molecular biology research, and for kiwifruit breeding and improvement.

  18. Image analysis benchmarking methods for high-content screen design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C J; Straight, A F

    2010-05-01

    The recent development of complex chemical and small interfering RNA (siRNA) collections has enabled large-scale cell-based phenotypic screening. High-content and high-throughput imaging are widely used methods to record phenotypic data after chemical and small interfering RNA treatment, and numerous image processing and analysis methods have been used to quantify these phenotypes. Currently, there are no standardized methods for evaluating the effectiveness of new and existing image processing and analysis tools for an arbitrary screening problem. We generated a series of benchmarking images that represent commonly encountered variation in high-throughput screening data and used these image standards to evaluate the robustness of five different image analysis methods to changes in signal-to-noise ratio, focal plane, cell density and phenotype strength. The analysis methods that were most reliable, in the presence of experimental variation, required few cells to accurately distinguish phenotypic changes between control and experimental data sets. We conclude that by applying these simple benchmarking principles an a priori estimate of the image acquisition requirements for phenotypic analysis can be made before initiating an image-based screen. Application of this benchmarking methodology provides a mechanism to significantly reduce data acquisition and analysis burdens and to improve data quality and information content.

  19. Anthocyanins in the bracts of Curcuma species and relationship of the species based on anthocyanin composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshioka, Masaji; Umegaki, Naoko; Boontiang, Kriangsuk; Pornchuti, Witayaporn; Thammasiri, Kanchit; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Tateishi, Akira; Kubota, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Five anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, petunidin 3-O-rutinoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified. Three anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside, were putatively identified based on C18 HPLC retention time, absorption spectrum, including λmax, and comparisons with those of corresponding standard anthocyanins, as the compounds responsible for the pink to purple-red pigmentation of the bracts of Curcuma alismatifolia and five related species. Cluster analysis based on four major anthocyanins formed two clusters. One consisted of only one species, C. alismatifolia, and the other consisted of five. Each cluster further formed sub-clusters depending on either species or habitats.

  20. Anthocyanins and their variation in red wines I. Monomeric anthocyanins and their color expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liang, Na-Na; Mu, Lin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2012-02-07

    Originating in the grapes, monomeric anthocyanins in young red wines contribute the majority of color and the supposed beneficial health effects related to their consumption, and as such they are recognized as one of the most important groups of phenolic metabolites in red wines. In recent years, our increasing knowledge of the chemical complexity of the monomeric anthocyanins, their stability, together with the phenomena such as self-association and copigmentation that can stabilize and enhance their color has helped to explain their color representation in red wine making and aging. A series of new enological practices were developed to improve the anthocyanin extraction, as well as their color expression and maintenance. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the monomeric anthocyanins in red wines, emphasizing their origin, occurrence, color enhancing effects, their degradation and the effect of various enological practices on them.

  1. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Originating in the grapes, monomeric anthocyanins in young red wines contribute the majority of color and the supposed beneficial health effects related to their consumption, and as such they are recognized as one of the most important groups of phenolic metabolites in red wines. In recent years, our increasing knowledge of the chemical complexity of the monomeric anthocyanins, their stability, together with the phenomena such as self-association and copigmentation that can stabilize and enhance their color has helped to explain their color representation in red wine making and aging. A series of new enological practices were developed to improve the anthocyanin extraction, as well as their color expression and maintenance. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the monomeric anthocyanins in red wines, emphasizing their origin, occurrence, color enhancing effects, their degradation and the effect of various enological practices on them.

  2. A MYB transcription factor regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapol, Yossapol; Ketsa, Saichol; Lin-Wang, Kui; Ferguson, Ian B; Allan, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit undergo rapid red colour development, both on the tree and after harvest, resulting in high anthocyanin production in the pericarp. Here, we report the isolation of three full-length mangosteen MYB transcription factors (GmMYB1, GmMYB7 and GmMYB10) and all the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (GmPal to GmUFGT). Phylogenetic analysis at the protein level of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family showed GmMYB10 had a high degree of similarity with production of anthocyanin pigment1 in Arabidopsis and as well as sequences from other plant species related to the elevation of anthocyanin pigmentation. In transient transactivation assays, GmMYB10, co-expressed with AtbHLH2, strongly activated the GmDFR and AtDFR promoters. Transcripts of GmMYB10 and GmUFGT were highly abundant with onset of pigmentation and subsequently during red colouration. Our results suggest that GmMYB10 plays an important role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis both on the tree and after harvest, while GmUFGT may be a key biosynthetic gene in mangosteen pigmentation. The expression patterns of GmMYB10 and GmUFGT correlated with ethylene production that increased linearly until stage 5 (dark purple) and decreased thereafter. 1-Methycyclopropene (1-MCP) clearly delayed red colouration with resulting down-regulation of GmMYB10. These results suggest that the effect of ethylene on anthocyanin biosynthesis may be via the regulation of GmMYB10 expression.

  3. Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonpatana, Kom; Giusti, M. Mónica; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; MorenoCruz, Maria; Riedl, Ken M.; Kumar, Purnima; Failla, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Some fruits and their anthocyanin-rich extracts have been reported to exhibit chemopreventive activity in the oral cavity. Insights regarding oral metabolism of anthocyanins remain limited. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blueberry, chokeberry, black raspberry, red grape, and strawberry were incubated ex vivo with human saliva from 14 healthy subjects. All anthocyanins were partially degraded in saliva. Degradation of chokeberry anthocyanins in saliva was temperature dependent and decreased by heating saliva to 80 °C and after removal of cells. Glycosides of delphinidin and petunidin were more susceptible to degradation than those of cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and malvidin in both intact and artificial saliva. Stability of di- and tri-saccharide conjugates of anthocyanidins slightly, but significantly, exceeded that of monosaccharide compounds. Ex vivo degradation of anthocyanins in saliva was significantly decreased after oral rinsing with antibacterial chlorhexidine. These results suggest that anthocyanin degradation in the mouth is structure-dependent and largely mediated by oral microbiota. PMID:22868153

  4. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion study of pomegranate juice phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vicente, Antonio; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2002-04-10

    Pomegranate is an important source of bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins, other phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid. In the present work an in vitro availability method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine. This method enables the study of the release of anthocyanins, vitamin C, and total phenols from the pomegranate juice and their transformations during gastrointestinal digestion. Results have shown that pomegranate phenolic compounds are available during the digestion in a quite high amount (29%). Nevertheless, due to pH, anthocyanins are largely transformed into non-red forms and/or degraded (97%), and similar results are obtained for vitamin C (>95% degradation).

  5. The Immunomodulation Effect of Aronia Extract Lacks Association with Its Antioxidant Anthocyanins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    was developed to obtain high-purity anthocyanins in the extract. The antioxidative activity of the extract, the anthocyanin-rich fraction (AF) was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferric-reducing ability of plasma along with resveratrol as a reference. The immunomodulation properties were...... assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes mono mac 6. The isolated AF, containing six different anthocyanins, exhibited a stronger antioxidative capacity compared to resveratrol. Resveratrol enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production by LPS......, whereas AF only had a slight effect in reducing IL-10. These results demonstrated that there was no major relationship between the antioxidative effect and immunomodulation capacities of AF and resveratrol. The immunomodulatory activity of the extract is associated with bioactive compounds in Aronia other...

  6. The effect of pigment matrix, temperature and amount of carrier on the yield and final color properties of spray dried purple corn (Zea mays L.) cob anthocyanin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Fei; Giusti, M Monica

    2017-07-15

    Spray drying is an economic technique to produce anthocyanin-based colorants. High pigments yields with minimum color degradation are desirable to maximize quality and profits. This study evaluated the impacts of purple corncob (PCC) anthocyanin extraction matrices (hot water, 40% ethanol, C18 purified), drying inlet temperature (130, 150, 170°C) and amount of carrier (2%, 5%, 10% maltodextrin) on the yields and quality of PCC anthocyanin powders. Monomeric and polymeric anthocyanins, color properties (CIELch, haze), and pigments composition before and after spray drying were determined. The yield and final color quality of spray dried PCC anthocyanins were affected (p<0.05) by all parameters evaluated. The pigment matrix, inlet temperature, and carrier amount had biggest impacts on product water solubility, pigments degradation and yield, respectively. The optimal combination of hot water extracts spray dried with 5% maltodextrin at 150°C gave the highest pigment yield (∼90%) with good solubility with the least color loss.

  7. High resolution DNA content measurements of mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkel, D.; Lake, S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Van Dilla, M.A.; Stephenson, D.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-01-01

    The high condensation and flat shape of the mammalian sperm nucleus present unique difficulties to flow cytometric measurement of DNA content. Chromatin compactness makes quantitative fluorescent staining for DNA difficult and causes a high index of refraction. The refractive index makes optical measurements sensitive to sperm head orientation. We demonstrate that the optical problems can be overcome using the commercial ICP22 epiillumination flow cytometer (Ortho Instruments, Westwood, MA) or a specially built cell orientating flow cytometer (OFCM). The design and operation of the OFCM are described. Measurements of the angular dependence of fluorescence from acriflavine stained rabbit sperm show that it is capable of orienting flat sperm with a tolerance of +-7/sup 0/. Differences in the angular dependence for the similarly shaped bull and rabbit sperm allow discrimination of these cells. We show that DNA staining with 4-6 diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or an ethidium bromide mithramycin combination allows resolution of the X and Y populations in mouse sperm. They have also been successful with sperm from the bull, ram, rabbit, and boar. Reliable results with human sperm are not obtained. The accuracy of the staining and measurement techniques are verified by the correct determination of the relative content of these two populations in sperm from normal mice and those with the Cattanach (7 to X) translocation. Among the potential uses of these techniques are measurement of DNA content errors induced in sperm due to mutagen exposure, and assessment of the fractions of X and Y sperm in semen that may have one population artifically enriched.

  8. 蔗糖对紫色土豆微型薯形成及花青素含量的影响%Effect of sucrose on minituber formation and the accumulation of anthocyanin in purple potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞娟; 龚一富; 郭伦; 杭雨晴; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    为深入探讨蔗糖在植物花青素生物合成过程中的调节作用,以紫色土豆为材料,分析不同蔗糖浓度对紫色土豆外植体生长、花青素含量、微型薯形成以及花青素生物合成相关基因表达的影响。结果表明,紫色土豆外植体在蔗糖浓度为15 g/L时生长情况最好,平均长度最长,平均重量最重,但高浓度蔗糖对外植体生长起抑制作用;蔗糖能促进紫色土豆花青素含量的积累及微型薯的形成,随着蔗糖浓度的增加,花青素含量随之增加,紫色土豆花青素含量在蔗糖浓度为120 g/L时最高,为5.11 mg/g FW,是对照组的8.89倍;蔗糖浓度为60 g/L时,微型薯重量最重,为0.34 g,结实率最高,达到22.50%。 RT-PCR结果显示,蔗糖能促进StF3′5′H、StUFGT以及StDFR的表达,蔗糖通过调控此类花青素合成相关基因的表达影响紫色土豆花青素含量。%To illuminate the sucrose regulation of plant anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway , the effects of different sucrose concentration on the explants growth , anthocyanin accumulation , the minituber formation and the related gene expression involved in anthocyanin bio -synthesis in purple potato were investigated .The results indicated that when cultured with 15 g/L sucrose , the explants have the best growth condition , the growth of explants was inhibited at high concentration of sucrose .Sucrose enhanced the contents of anthocyanin and the minituber formation in purple potato .With the increasing of sucrose concentration , anthocyanin accumulation was significantly increased.When treated with 120 g/L sucrose, the contents of anthocyanin achieved the highest value as 5.11 mg/g FW.The minitu-bers have a heaviest weight (0.34 g) and highest setting rate (22.50%), when treated with 60 g/L sucrose.The related genes in-volved in anthocyanin biosynthesis including StF3′5′H, StDFR and StUFGT were up-regulated by sucrose , implying

  9. Chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and gas exchange changes assessed by spectroradiometry in Fragaria chiloensis under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel Garriga; Jorge B. Retamales; Sebastin Romero-Bravo; Peter DS Caligari; Gustavo A. Lobos

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophyl and anthocyanin contents provide a valuable indicator of the status of a plant’s physiology, but to be more widely utilized it needs to be assessed easily and non-destructively. This is particularly evident in terms of assessing and exploiting germplasm for plant-breeding programs. We report, for the first time, experiments with Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch. and the estimation of the effects of response to salinity stress (0, 30, and 60 mmol NaCl/L) in terms of these pigments content and gas exchange. It is shown that both pigments (which interestingly, themselves show a high correlation) give a good indication of stress response. Both pigments can be accurately predicted using spectral reflectance indices (SRI);however, the accuracy of the predictions was slightly improved using multilinear regression analysis models and genetic algorithm analysis. Specifical y for chlorophyl content, unlike other species, the use of published SRI gave better indications of stress response than Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The effect of salt on gas exchange is only evident at the highest concentration and some SRI gave better prediction perfor-mance than the known Photochemical Reflectance Index. This information wil therefore be useful for identifying tolerant genotypes to salt stress for incorporation in breeding programs.

  10. Strong and moldable cellulose magnets with high ferrite nanoparticle content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Sylvain; Andersson, Richard L; Ström, Valter; Olsson, Richard T; Berglund, Lars A

    2014-11-26

    A major limitation in the development of highly functional hybrid nanocomposites is brittleness and low tensile strength at high inorganic nanoparticle content. Herein, cellulose nanofibers were extracted from wood and individually decorated with cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles and then for the first time molded at low temperature (ferrite and cellulose material. A nanocomposite with 70 wt % ferrite, 20 wt % cellulose nanofibers, and 10 wt % epoxy showed a modulus of 12.6 GPa, a tensile strength of 97 MPa, and a strain at failure of ca. 4%. Magnetic characterization was performed in a vibrating sample magnetometer, which showed that the coercivity was unaffected and that the saturation magnetization was in proportion with the ferrite content. The used ferrite, CoFe2O4, is a magnetically hard material, demonstrated by that the composite material behaved as a traditional permanent magnet. The presented processing route is easily adaptable to prepare millimeter-thick and moldable magnetic objects. This suggests that the processing method has the potential to be scaled-up for industrial use for the preparation of a new subcategory of magnetic, low-cost, and moldable objects based on cellulose nanofibers.

  11. The Gray Institute 'open' high-content, fluorescence lifetime microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, P R; Tullis, I D C; Pierce, G P; Newman, R G; Prentice, J; Rowley, M I; Matthews, D R; Ameer-Beg, S M; Vojnovic, B

    2013-08-01

    We describe a microscopy design methodology and details of microscopes built to this 'open' design approach. These demonstrate the first implementation of time-domain fluorescence microscopy in a flexible automated platform with the ability to ease the transition of this and other advanced microscopy techniques from development to use in routine biology applications. This approach allows easy expansion and modification of the platform capabilities, as it moves away from the use of a commercial, monolithic, microscope body to small, commercial off-the-shelf and custom made modular components. Drawings and diagrams of our microscopes have been made available under an open license for noncommercial use at http://users.ox.ac.uk/~atdgroup. Several automated high-content fluorescence microscope implementations have been constructed with this design framework and optimized for specific applications with multiwell plates and tissue microarrays. In particular, three platforms incorporate time-domain FLIM via time-correlated single photon counting in an automated fashion. We also present data from experiments performed on these platforms highlighting their automated wide-field and laser scanning capabilities designed for high-content microscopy. Devices using these designs also form radiation-beam 'end-stations' at Oxford and Surrey Universities, showing the versatility and extendibility of this approach. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  12. Runaway electron dynamics in tokamak plasmas with high impurity content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Loarte, A.; Lehnen, M.

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics of high energy runaway electrons is analyzed for plasmas with high impurity content. It is shown that modified collision terms are required in order to account for the collisions of the relativistic runaway electrons with partially stripped impurity ions, including the effect of the collisions with free and bound electrons, as well as the scattering by the full nuclear and the electron-shielded ion charge. The effect of the impurities on the avalanche runaway growth rate is discussed. The results are applied, for illustration, to the interpretation of the runaway electron behavior during disruptions, where large amounts of impurities are expected, particularly during disruption mitigation by massive gas injection. The consequences for the electron synchrotron radiation losses and the resulting runaway electron dynamics are also analyzed.

  13. High-content screening of functional genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rines, Daniel R; Tu, Buu; Miraglia, Loren; Welch, Genevieve L; Zhang, Jia; Hull, Mitchell V; Orth, Anthony P; Chanda, Sumit K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in functional genomics have enabled genome-wide genetic studies in mammalian cells. These include the establishment of high-throughput transfection and viral propagation methodologies, the production of large-scale cDNA and siRNA libraries, and the development of sensitive assay detection processes and instrumentation. The latter has been significantly facilitated by the implementation of automated microscopy and quantitative image analysis, collectively referred to as high-content screening (HCS), toward cell-based functional genomics application. This technology can be applied to whole genome analysis of discrete molecular and phenotypic events at the level of individual cells and promises to significantly expand the scope of functional genomic analyses in mammalian cells. This chapter provides a comprehensive guide for curating and preparing function genomics libraries and performing HCS at the level of the genome.

  14. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  15. Light exclusion influence on grape anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study contrasted the anthocyanins of investigational grape clusters that developed without light incidence (light-excluded), to those of control clusters that were shaded naturally beneath the vine canopy (control-shaded). Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque w...

  16. Relationship of light quantity and anthocyanin production in Pennisetum setaceum Cvs. rubrum and red riding hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Andrea G; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P; Cameron, Arthur C; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-02-11

    Pennisetum setaceum cvs. Rubrum and Red Riding Hood are purple-pigmented ornamental grasses when grown in high-light environments. In low-light environments, foliage appears light purple or green, and as a result, aesthetic appeal is reduced. The impact of light on anthocyanin pigmentation was compared for P. setaceum Rubrum foliage and flowers and Red Riding Hood foliage grown under different light intensities and light sources. Light environments included UV supplemental light in the greenhouse, high-pressure sodium supplemental light in the greenhouse, cool-white fluorescent light in a growth chamber, and full sun outside. Anthocyanins in two cultivars of P. setaceum were analyzed by HPLC and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral experiments. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, were identified in the leaves and flowers of both cultivars and quantified by HPLC analysis. The major anthocyanin in both cultivars was cyanidin 3-glucoside and had highest concentration (0.199% fresh weight) in Rubrum leaves grown under fluorescent lights in the growth chamber with a photoperiod of 24 h and a daily light integral (DLI) of 13.3 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1) and in Rubrum and Red Riding Hood leaves and flowers (0.097 and 0.12% fresh weight) from plants grown outside in full sun with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 42 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The minor anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, had the highest quantity in plants grown in low-light-intensity greenhouse environments with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 2.3-7.0 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The functional significance of anthocyanins in P. setaceum Rubrum is discussed.

  17. Structure-function relationships of anthocyanins from various anthocyanin-rich extracts on the inhibition of colon cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Pu; Bomser, Joshua A; Schwartz, Steven J; He, Jian; Magnuson, Bernadene A; Giusti, M Mónica

    2008-10-22

    Anthocyanins are potent antioxidants and may be chemoprotective. However, the structure-function relationships are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the chemoprotective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts (AREs) with variable anthocyanin profiles to understand the relationship between anthocyanin chemical structure and chemoprotective activity, measured as inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation. Additionally, the chemoprotective interaction of anthocyanins and other phenolics was investigated. AREs with different anthocyanin profiles from purple corn, chokeberry, bilberry, purple carrot, grape, radish, and elderberry were tested for growth inhibition (GI 50) using a human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell line. All AREs suppressed HT29 cell growth to various degrees as follows: purple corn (GI 50 approximately 14 microg of cy-3-glu equiv/mL) > chokeberry and bilberry > purple carrot and grape > radish and elderberry (GI 50 > 100 microg of cy-3-glu equiv/mL). Anthocyanins played a major role in AREs' chemoprotection and exerted an additive interaction with the other phenolics present. Statistical analyses suggested that anthocyanin chemical structure affected chemoprotection, with nonacylated monoglycosylated anthocyanins having greater inhibitory effect on HT-29 cell proliferation, whereas anthocyanins with pelargonidin, triglycoside, and/or acylation with cinnamic acid exerted the least effect. These findings should be considered for crop selection and the development of anthocyanin-rich functional foods.

  18. Anatomical and biochemical analysis reveal the role of anthocyanins in flower coloration of herbaceous peony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Da-Qiu; Wei, Meng-Ran; Liu, Ding; Tao, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is particularly appreciated because of its elegant and gorgeous flower color, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms of flower coloration. In this study, three P. lactiflora cultivars 'Xuefeng', 'Fenyulou' and 'Dahonglou' with white, pink and red flower were selected as the materials. Their anatomical structures, cell sap pH and metal elements were investigated, and the colored pigment mainly distributed in palisade mesophyll was only found in 'Fenyulou' and 'Dahonglou', and their shape of epidermal cells, cell sap pH and metal elements were not the key factors deciding phenotype color. Moreover, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids were performed, their total anthocyanin, anthoxanthin and flavonoid contents were decreased during flower development, and only anthocyanin content in 'Dahonglou' was always higher than that in 'Xuefeng' and 'Fenyulou'. Subsequently, three anthocyanin compositions were found, and peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside (Pn3G5G) was identified as the main anthocyanin composition. In addition, the full-length of flavonol synthase gene (FLS) was isolated with the GenBank accession number KM259902, and the expression patterns of eight flavonoid biosynthetic genes showed that only PlDFR and PlANS basically had the highest levels in 'Dahonglou' and the lowest levels in 'Xuefeng', and they basically displayed a descended trend during flower development especially PlDFR, suggesting that these two genes might play a key role in the anthocyanin biosynthesis which resulted in the shift from white to pink and red in flowers. These results would contribute to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of flower coloration in P. lactiflora.

  19. The Effect Of Some Plant Growth Regulators And Their Combination With Methyl Jasmonate On Anthocyanin Formation In Roots Of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góraj Justyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs - auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, brassinosteroid, ethylene and their interaction with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me applied to roots of the whole plants Kalanchoe blossfeldiana on the accumulation of anthocyanins in roots. The highest stimulation of anthocyanins synthesis was stated with application of JA-Me alone. In response to treatments with the other tested PGRs, the content of anthocyanins in roots of a whole plant was different depending on the concentration of the PGR when being applied alone or together with JA-Me. Auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA at a concentration of 50 mg·L-1, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 5 mg·L-1 and abscisic acid (ABA at 10 mg·L-1 induced anthocyanin accumulation with approximately 60-115% compared to the control while 24-epibrassinolid (epiBL, gibberellic acid (GA3 and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP had no effect on the anthocyanin accumulation. The simultaneous administration of the PGRs with JA-Me usually resulted in the accumulation of anthocyanins in roots in a manner similar to that caused by JA-Me. PGRs applied to isolated roots did not stimulate anthocyanin accumulation, except for the combination of JA-Me with 50 mg·L-1 IAA.

  20. The Upregulation of NtAN2 Expression at Low Temperature is Required for Anthocyanin Accumulation in Juvenile Leaves of Lc-transgenic Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-An Huang; Ting Zhao; Hua-Jie Fan; Ning Wang; Shu-Song Zheng; Hong-Qing Ling

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanins often accumulate in plants subjected to environmental stress,including low temperature.However,the molecular regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis at low temperature is largely unknown.Here,tobacco was transformed with a maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc driven by AtSPX3 promoter to investigate the effect of Lc upon the anthocyanin-biosynthesis pathway.We found that the anthocyanin-biosynthesis pathway could not be activated in wild type,while Lc-transgenic tobacco lines exhibited purple pigmentation in juvenile leaves at low temperature.Accordingly,the total anthocyanin contents increased specifically in juvenilc leaves in Lc-transgenic lines.Transcriptional analysis showed that NtCHS and NtCHI were induced by low temperature in leaves of wild type and transgenic lines.NtDFR was uniquely expressed in Lc-transgenic lines,but its transcript was not detected in wild type,implying that NtDFR expression in tobacco leaves was dependent on Lc.Furthermore,the expression of NtAN2 (regulatory gene) and NtANS (anthocyanidin synthase gene) was coordinately upregulated in Lc-transgenic lines under low temperature,suggesting that both Lc and NtAN2 might activate the expression of NtANS,Based on our findings and previous reports,we postulated that Lc interacted with NtAN2 induced by low-temperature stress and consequently stimulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in juvenile leaves of Lc-transgenic tobacco lines.

  1. Antioxidant Contents and Antioxidant Activities of White and Colored Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Oh, Seung Hee; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Woo, Shun Hee; Kim, Hong Sig; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the antioxidant substance content and antioxidant activities of white (Superior) and colored (Hongyoung, Jayoung, Jasim, Seohong, and Jaseo) potatoes. The potatoes were extracted with 80% ethanol and were evaluated for the total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents and for 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous metal ion chelating effect. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents of Hongyoung and Jayoung were higher than white and other colored potatoes. All colored potato extracts, except for Jaseo and Seohong, showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activities than the general white potato extract. Hongyoung and Jayoung had the highest ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Optical density values for the reducing power of Jayoung and Jaseo at concentration of 2 mg/mL were 0.148 and 0.090, respectively. All colored potato extracts had lower ferrous metal ion chelating effect than the white potato. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation was observed between total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content (r=0.919), anthocyanin content (r=0.992), and ABTS radical scavenging activity (r=0.897). Based on these results, this research may be useful in developing the Hongyoung and Jayoung cultivars with high antioxidant activities.

  2. Dyeing of Silk with Anthocyanins Dyes Extract from Liriope platyphylla Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new source of natural anthocyanins dyes, from Liriope platyphylla fruit, is proposed. This paper analyzes the dye extracts, the primary color components of the extracts, the color features of the extracts under different pH conditions, and their application in silk dyeing. The research shows that, nine anthocyanins are found in  L. platyphylla fruits by analyzing the results of the HPLC/DAD, MS, and MS/MS spectra. The five major anthocyanins related to delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives take up 91.72% of total anthocyanin contents. The color of the solution is red under acidic condition (pH < 3.0 and stays in yellow under alkaline condition with pH values above 7.0. The dye extracts applied to silk fabric with mordant free dyeing show different color under different pH conditions, changing between purple, blue, green, and yellow. However, the dyed colors is light and the dyeing rate is low. Metal mordant such as Sn in chelation enhances the dye depth and improves the fastness of the dyed silk fabrics, especially in silk fabrics dyed by premordanting and metamordanting.

  3. Comparative Leaves Transcriptome Analysis Emphasizing on Accumulation of Anthocyanins in Brassica: Molecular Regulation and Potential Interaction with Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad A; Pan, Qi; Chen, Daozong; Zhang, Qinghua; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    The purple leaf pigmentation mainly associated with anthocyanins accumulation is common in Brassica but the mechanisms of its production and its potential physiological functions are poorly understood. Here, we performed the phenotypic, cytological, physiological, and comparative leaves transcriptome analyses of 11 different varieties belonging to five Brassica species with purple or green leaves. We observed that the anthocyanin was accumulated in most of vegetative tissues in all species and also in reproduction organs of B. carinata. Anthocyanin accumulated in different part of purple leaves including adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells as well as palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. Leave transcriptome analysis showed that almost all late biosynthetic genes (LBGs) of anthocyanin, especially Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase (DFR), Anthocyanidin Synthase (ANS) and Transparent Testa 19 (TT19), were highly up-regulated in all purple leaves. However, only one of transcript factors in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, Transparent Testa 8 (TT8), was up regulated along with those genes in all purple leaves, indicating its pivotal role for anthocyanin production in Brassica. Interestingly, with the up-regulation of genes for anthocyanin synthesis, Cytosolic 6-phosphogluconolactonase (PLG5) which involved in the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway was up-regulated in all purple leaves and three genes FTSH PROTEASE 8 (FTS8), GLYCOLATE OXIDASE 1 (GOX1), and GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE 1;4 (GLN1;4) related to degradation of photo-damaged proteins in photosystem II and light respiration were down-regulated. These results highlighted the potential physiological functions of anthocyanin accumulation related to photosynthesis which might be of great worth in future.

  4. Comparative Leave Transcriptome Analysis Emphasizing on Accumulation of Anthocyanins in Brassica: Molecular Regulation and Potential Interaction with Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan Mushtaq

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purple leaf pigmentation mainly associated with anthocyanins accumulation is common in Brassica but the mechanisms of its production and its potential physiological functions are poorly understood. Here, we performed the phenotypic, cytological, physiological and comparative leaves transcriptome analyses of 11 different varieties belonging to five Brassica species with purple or green leaves. We observed that the anthocyanin was accumulated in most of vegetative tissues in all Brassica species and also in reproduction organs of B. carinata. Anthocyanin accumulated in different part of purple leaves including adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells as well as palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. Leave transcriptome analysis showed that almost all late biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin especially Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase (DFR, Anthocyanidin Synthase (ANS and Transparent Testa 19 (TT19, were highly up-regulated in all purple leaves. However, only one of transcript factors in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, Transparent Testa 8 (TT8, was co-up regulated along with those genes in all purple leaves, indicating its pivotal role for anthocyanin production in Brassica. Interestingly, with the up-regulation of genes for anthocyanin synthesis, Cytosolic 6-phosphogluconolactonase (PLG5 which involved in the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway was up-regulated in all purple leaves and three genes FTSH PROTEASE 8 (FTS8, GLYCOLATE OXIDASE 1 (GOX1 and GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE 1;4 (GLN1;4 related to degradation of photo-damaged proteins in photosystem II and light respiration were down-regulated. These results highlighted the potential physiological functions of anthocyanin accumulation related to photosynthesis which might be of great worth in future.

  5. Influência do solvente no conteúdo total de polifenóis, antocianinas e atividade antioxidante de extratos de bagaço de uva (Vitis vinifera variedades Tannat e Ancelota Solvent Influence on total polyphenol content, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity of grape (Vitis vinifera bagasse extracts from Tannat and Ancelota - different varieties of Vitis vinifera varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Ivan Rockenbach

    2008-12-01

    Tannat variety and acetone/ethanol 50% for Ancelota variety, respectively. The total phenolic contents in acetone 50 and 70% were higher in both varieties while the anthocyanin contents in these varieties were higher in ethanol 50 and 70%. The antioxidant activity was higher in acetone 50 and 70% for Tannat variety and acetone/ethanol 50 and 70% for Ancelota variety by the ABTS method. Regarding the reduction power performed by the FRAP method, it was higher in acetone 70% in both varieties. During the oxidation inhibition power assay, the addition of 100 and 200 µL of ethanolic extracts 50% of Tannat and Ancelota varieties showed higher efficiency since it was almost two times higher than acetonic extracts.

  6. The dust content of QSO hosts at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, F; Vignali, C; Pozzi, F; Pipino, A; Matteucci, F

    2013-01-01

    Infrared observations of high-z quasar (QSO) hosts indicate the presence of large masses of dust in the early universe. When combined with other observables, such as neutral gas masses and star formation rates, the dust content of z~6 QSO hosts may help constraining their star formation history. We have collected a database of 58 sources from the literature discovered by various surveys and observed in the FIR. We have interpreted the available data by means of chemical evolution models for forming proto-spheroids, investigating the role of the major parameters regulating star formation and dust production. For a few systems, given the derived small dynamical masses, the observed dust content can be explained only assuming a top-heavy initial mass function, an enhanced star formation efficiency and an increased rate of dust accretion. However, the possibility that, for some systems, the dynamical mass has been underestimated cannot be excluded. If this were the case, the dust mass can be accounted for by stan...

  7. Bathochromic and hyperchromic effects of aluminum salt complexation by anthocyanins from edible sources for blue color development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Giusti, M Monica

    2014-07-23

    Use of artificial food colorants has declined due to health concerns and consumer demand, making natural alternatives a high demand. The effects of Al(3+) salt on food source anthocyanins were evaluated with the objective to better understand blue color development of metalloanthocyanins. This is one of the first known studies to evaluate the effects of food source anthocyanin structures, including acylation, with chelation of aluminum. Cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives from different plants were treated with factorial excess of Al(3+) in pH 3-6 and evaluated by spectrophotometry and colorimetry over 28 days. Anthocyanin concentration, salt ratio, and pH determined final color and intensity. Pyrogallol moieties on delphinidin showed furthest bathochromic shifts, whereas acylation promoted higher chroma. Blue color developed at lower pH when acylated anthocyanins reacted with Al(3+); hue ∼270 occurred with acylated delphinidin at pH ≥ 2.5. Highest chelate stability was found with AlCl3100-500× anthocyanin concentration. This investigation showed anthocyanin-metal chelation can produce a variety of intense violet to blue colors under acidic pH with potential for food use.

  8. Analysis of the Thermal Degradation of the Individual Anthocyanin Compounds of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.): A New Approach Using High-Resolution Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulou, Ioanna; Thaeron, Delphine; Baker, Ashley; Jones, Anita; Robertson, Neil

    2015-08-12

    The black carrot dye is a mixture of cyanidin molecules, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of which shows a highly overlapped aromatic region. In this study, the (1)H NMR (800 MHz) aromatic chemical shifts of the mixture were fully assigned by overlaying them with the characterized (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the separated compounds. The latter were isolated using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and their chemical shifts were identified using (1)H and two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy (COSY) NMR spectroscopy. The stability of the black carrot mixture to heat exposure was investigated at pH 3.6, 6.8, and 8.0 by heat-treating aqueous solutions at 100 °C and the powdered material at 180 °C. From integration of high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra, it was possible to follow the relative degradation of each compound, offering advantages over the commonly used ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis) and HPLC approaches. UV/vis spectroscopy and CIE color measurements were used to determine thermally induced color changes, under normal cooking conditions.

  9. Thermal stability of anthocyanins and colourless phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and model solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ulrike A; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed at a systematic assessment of the factors influencing the anthocyanin (AC) stability and colour retention of pomegranate juices and less complex model solutions with particular focus on the effects of colourless phenolic copigments (CP). The thermal stability of ACs in three pomegranate juices obtained from isolated arils and the entire fruit with and without previous steaming, in model solutions with AC:CP ratios ranging from 1:0 to 1:4 (m/m), and in two purified extracts from pomegranate juices characterised by different phenolic profiles, respectively, was investigated upon heating at 60, 70, 80 and 90°C for 15 min to 5h. The thermal impact on the AC and CP contents, and the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and AC degradation products were monitored using HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Total phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity and colour properties were determined spectrophotometrically. Heating at 90°C for 5h resulted in total AC losses ranging from 76% to 87% of the initial AC levels in the juices, 78% in both extracts as well as 57% and ∼78% in the model solutions, showing the best stability at an AC:CP ratio of 1:2 and in juices having the highest initial AC contents, respectively. In contrast, the AC stability was independent of total phenolic contents, and low and high molecular pomegranate matrix components (such as organic acids and sugars). Good correlation of the AC contents with red colour (a(∗)) was observed for all samples at elevated temperatures (70-90°C). The stability of putative health-promoting polyphenols of pomegranate juices was not markedly affected by the thermal treatment. Unexpectedly, the HMF contents only slightly increased upon forced heating. Therefore, the visual appearance does not adequately reflect the quality and storage stability of pomegranate juices.

  10. Identification of anthocyanins inLigustrum quihoui Carr and chromatographic separation techniques%小叶女贞果实花青素组分鉴定及色谱纯化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王二雷; 陈晶晶; 赵叶辉; 刘静波

    2016-01-01

    为提高小叶女贞果实的食用、药用价值,该文系统研究了果实中花青素种类构成及提取物的制备技术。试验采用紫外可见光谱法、高效液相色谱-质谱串联法、酸水解制备苷元等技术对小叶女贞果实花青素含量、单体种类进行了测定,并借助提取、萃取、柱层析等技术研究了花青素提取物的分离纯化过程。研究结果如下:测得每100 g小叶女贞果实中含花青素总量为(499±18.42)mg,从中鉴定出2种花青素单体,分别为矢车菊素-3-O-葡萄糖苷和牵牛花色素-3-O-葡萄糖苷,并以后者为主要存在形式;获得了纯天然、简单易行的花青素提取物制备技术,主要包括酸化乙醇提取、乙酸乙脂萃取、Amberlite XAD-7HP大孔树脂层析分离步骤,最终制得的花青素提取物纯度为35%、得率为0.6%。该研究为后期制备高纯度牵牛花素-3-O-葡萄糖苷单体提供了良好原料基础,为深入研究小叶女贞果实花青素功能活性及其在食品、药品领域潜在应用提供了参考。%As one kind of important hedge materials, Ligustrum quihoui Carr. has been widely used in landscaping. Currently, a number of researchers are engaged in the identification of the chemical structure for the leaves ofLigustrum quihoui Carr.. However, the chemical ingredients in the fruits have not been well studied up till now, especially the study on the anthocyanins is rare. In order to promote the application ofLigustrum quihoui Carr. on food and medicine fields, the present research focuses on the determination of anthocyanin content and monomer composition ofLigustrum quihoui Carr. fruits. The study adopted the combined techniques of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy spectrum (UV-vis), reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), high-performance liquid chromatography - diode array detector - electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC

  11. Semisolid Slurry Preparation of Die Steel with High Chromium Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei-min; ZHAO Ai-min; ZHANG Li-juan; ZHONG Xue-you

    2004-01-01

    The semisolid slurry preparation of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV with high chromium content was studied. The results show that the semisolid slurry of both steels with solid of 40 %-60 % can be made by electromagnetic stirring method and is easy to be discharged from the bottom little hole of the stirring chamber. The sizes of the spherical primary austenite in the slurry of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV are 50-100 μm and 80-150 μm, respectively. The homogeneous temperature field and solute field for both steel melts are obtained. The strong temperature fluctuation in the melt with many fine primary austenite grains occurs and the remelting of the secondary arm roots at the same time is accelerated because of the electromagnetic stirring. These are the most important reasons for deposition of spherical primary austenite grains.

  12. High-Content Screening for Quantitative Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzi Usaj, Mojca; Styles, Erin B; Verster, Adrian J; Friesen, Helena; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2016-08-01

    High-content screening (HCS), which combines automated fluorescence microscopy with quantitative image analysis, allows the acquisition of unbiased multiparametric data at the single cell level. This approach has been used to address diverse biological questions and identify a plethora of quantitative phenotypes of varying complexity in numerous different model systems. Here, we describe some recent applications of HCS, ranging from the identification of genes required for specific biological processes to the characterization of genetic interactions. We review the steps involved in the design of useful biological assays and automated image analysis, and describe major challenges associated with each. Additionally, we highlight emerging technologies and future challenges, and discuss how the field of HCS might be enhanced in the future.

  13. Preparation of Garlic Powder with High Allicin Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; XU Shi-ying

    2007-01-01

    Garlic powder with high allicin content was prepared using microwave-vacuum and vacuum drying as well as microencapsulation to protect alliinase activity throughout the stomach and improve the ratio of alliin transforming into allicin. The results showed that the optimal drying condition was 376.1 W for 3 min, 282.1 W for 3 min, 188 W for 9 min, and 94 W for 3 min. The thiosulfinates retention after drying was 90.2%. Following drying, the garlic powder was microencapsulated by modified fluidized bed technique. Scanning electron microscope revealed good integrity and core materials that were embedded in the microcapsules. Studies on the release kinetics of microencapsulated garlic granulates in vitro using simulated intestinal fluid indicated that release of garlic powder could be controlled in the intestine by passing stomach conditions.

  14. Automation in high-content flow cytometry screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, U; Wand, M P

    2009-09-01

    High-content flow cytometric screening (FC-HCS) is a 21st Century technology that combines robotic fluid handling, flow cytometric instrumentation, and bioinformatics software, so that relatively large numbers of flow cytometric samples can be processed and analysed in a short period of time. We revisit a recent application of FC-HCS to the problem of cellular signature definition for acute graft-versus-host-disease. Our focus is on automation of the data processing steps using recent advances in statistical methodology. We demonstrate that effective results, on par with those obtained via manual processing, can be achieved using our automatic techniques. Such automation of FC-HCS has the potential to drastically improve diagnosis and biomarker identification.

  15. High-content analysis for drug delivery and nanoparticle applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Cryan, Sally-Ann; Dawson, Kenneth A; O'Brien, Peter J; Simpson, Jeremy C

    2015-08-01

    High-content analysis (HCA) provides quantitative multiparametric cellular fluorescence data. From its origins in discovery toxicology, it is now addressing fundamental questions in drug delivery. Nanoparticles (NPs), polymers, and intestinal permeation enhancers are being harnessed in drug delivery systems to modulate plasma membrane properties and the intracellular environment. Identifying comparative mechanistic cytotoxicity on sublethal events is crucial to expedite the development of such systems. NP uptake and intracellular routing pathways are also being dissected using chemical and genetic perturbations, with the potential to assess the intracellular fate of targeted and untargeted particles in vitro. As we discuss here, HCA is set to make a major impact in preclinical delivery research by elucidating the intracellular pathways of NPs and the in vitro mechanistic-based toxicology of formulation constituents.

  16. MdHB1 down-regulation activates anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white-fleshed apple cultivar 'Granny Smith'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonghua; Liu, Cuihua; Yan, Dan; Wen, Xiaohong; Liu, Yanli; Wang, Haojie; Dai, Jieyu; Zhang, Yujie; Liu, Yanfei; Zhou, Bin; Ren, Xiaolin

    2017-02-01

    Coloration in apple (Malus×domestica) flesh is mainly caused by the accumulation of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is biosynthesized through the flavonoid pathway and regulated by MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report that the HD-Zip I TF MdHB1 was also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. MdHB1 silencing caused the accumulation of anthocyanin in 'Granny Smith' flesh, whereas its overexpression reduced the flesh content of anthocyanin in 'Ballerina' (red-fleshed apple). Moreover, flowers of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'NC89') overexpressing MdHB1 showed a remarkable reduction in pigmentation. Transient promoter activation assays and yeast one-hybrid results indicated that MdHB1 indirectly inhibited expression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT). Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation determined that MdHB1 acted as a homodimer and could interact with MYB, bHLH, and WD40 in the cytoplasm, consistent with its cytoplasmic localization by green fluorescent protein fluorescence observations. Together, these results suggest that MdHB1 constrains MdMYB10, MdbHLH3, and MdTTG1 to the cytoplasm, and then represses the transcription of MdDFR and MdUFGT indirectly. When MdHB1 is silenced, these TFs are released to activate the expression of MdDFR and MdUFGT and also anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulting in red flesh in 'Granny Smith'. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Compostos fenólicos totais e antocianinas em suco de uva Total phenolics and anthocyanins in grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia R. Malacrida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As concentrações de compostos fenólicos totais e antocianinas em sucos de uva reconstituídos e simples, de diferentes marcas, disponíveis no comércio varejista da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais foram quantificadas. Também se determinou a contribuição das antocianinas poliméricas à cor e o índice de degradação das antocianinas. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 0,27 e 2,41 g/L e as concentrações de antocianinas de 1,17 a 66,80 mg/L. Foram observadas diferenças significativas (Teste de Duncan, pTotal phenolics and anthocyanins contents were quantified in simple and reprocessed grape juices of different brands, commercially available in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil metropolitan area. The contribution of polymeric anthocyanins to color and the anthocyanins degradation index were also determined. Total phenolics levels varied from 0,27 to 2,41 g/L and anthocyanin concentrations from 1,17 to 66,80 mg/L. Significant differences were found (Duncan's test, p<0,05 in total phenolic and anthocyanin concentrations among different brands of reprocessed grape juice as well as the simple juice. The percent contribution of polymeric anthocyanins to color also varied significantly among different brands, the simple grape juice showing a higher percentage (81,6% than the reprocessed one (77,5%. The latter presented total mean value of anthocyanins degradation (3,92 higher than the former one (3,44.

  18. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  19. Separation of Anthocyanins in Echinacea Purpurea Flower by High Speed Counter-current Chromatography and the Research on the Antioxidant Activity of the Anthocyanins%高速逆流色谱法分离紫锥菊花色苷及其抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳银; 罗晋; 李觅路; 陆英; 刘仲华

    2012-01-01

    建立了高速逆流色谱(HSCCC)分离制备紫锥菊花色苷类化合物的方法,并对所获得的2个花色苷单体进行了体外抗氧化性实验.以新鲜紫锥菊花瓣为原料,含0.1% HCI的60%乙醇为溶剂避光冷浸提取,经乙酸乙酯萃取和D101大孔吸附树脂(100 mL,2 cm×30 cm)纯化后,得2.1g紫锥菊花色苷提取物干粉样品.以水-正丁醇-甲基叔丁基甲醚-乙腈-三氟乙酸(6∶3∶2∶1∶0.001)为HSCCC分离溶剂系统,上相为固定相,下相为流动相,流速2.0 mL/min,进样量160 mg,通过一次分离得到2种花色苷单体化合物,经HPLC检测其纯度分别达95.1% (9.8 mg)、98.2%( 14.3 mg),MS及NMR技术鉴定其结构分别为矢车菊素-3-O-β-D葡萄糖苷(化合物1)和矢车菊素-3-O-(6″-O-丙二酰-β-D葡萄糖苷)(化合物2).以Vc为对照组,对所获得的2种花色苷单体化合物进行了1,1-二苯基-2苦肼基(DPPH·)体外抗氧化性能评价,结果显示2种花色苷对DPPH·的半清除率(EC50)均小于10 mg/L,小于对照样Vc,表明2种花色苷均具有较强的自由基清除作用,且化合物1的清除能力强于化合物2.%An efficient method for the isolation and preparation of two anthocyanins, cyaniding 3-0-(β-D-giucopyranoside) (compound 1) and cyaniding 3-0-(6"-0-malonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) (compound 2) , from Echinacea purpurea flower by high speed counter-current chromatography ( HSCCC ) was established. The fresh flower was extracted with 60% ethanol (containing 0. 1% HC1) at low temperature and dark conditions. 2. 1 g of crude sample for HSCCC was prepared after extracted with ethyl acetate and passed through an adsorbing column (2 cm x 30 cm, containing 100 mL D101 macroporous resin). Then water - n-butanol - methyl tert-butyl ether - acetonitrile - trifluoroacetic acid(6 : 3 : 2 : 1 : 0. 001) was used as the two-phase solvent system, in which the upper phase was used as the stationary phase, while the lower phase was used as the mobile phase, the

  20. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  1. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  2. Direct photothermal techniques for quantification of anthocyanins in sour cherry cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.; Toth, M.; Buijnsters, J.G.; György Végvári, G.

    2011-01-01

    The analytical performance of the newly proposed laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and of optothermal window (OW) method for quantification of total anthocyanin concentration (TAC) in five sour cherry varieties is compared to that of the spectrophotometry (SP). High performance liquid chr

  3. Effects of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts on the risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocic, B; Filipovic, S; Nikolic, M; Petrovic, B

    2011-01-01

    Anthocyanins are the largest group of water-soluble pigments in the plant kingdom. Anthocyanins are responsible for most of the red, blue, and purple colors of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and other plant tissues or products. In recent years, numerous studies have shown that anthocyanins display a wide range of biological activities. This review summarises recent literature evidence on the association of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts consumption with the risk for gastrointestinal tract cancer, concentrating on the results from in vivo animal model tumor systems, as well as data from human epidemiological studies. Potential cancer chemopreventive activities of anthocyanins were revealed from in vitro studies. In vivo animal model tumor systems showed that dietary anthocyanins inhibit cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Some epidemiological studies have revealed protective effects of anthocyanins consumption on gastrointestinal cancer risk in humans. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that absorption of anthocyanins into the bloodstream of rodents and humans is minimal, suggesting that they may have little efficacy in tissues other than the gastrointestinal tract and skin. Future studies should be undertaken to determine if the anticancer effects of anthocyanins are due to the parent compounds and/or to their metabolites.

  4. Optimization of NIR Spectroscopy Based on Ant Colony Optimization and Genetic Algorithm for the Anthocyanin Content in Scented Tea%蚁群和遗传算法优化花茶花青素近红外光谱预测模型的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳肖; 黄晓玮; 邹小波; 赵杰文; 石吉勇; 张小磊

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of the anthocyanin content in scented tea was discussed by selecting the optimal spectra intervals from the whole NIR spectroscopy using two variable models: Ant colony optimization interval partial least squares (ACO-iPLS) and Genetic Algorithm interval partial least squares (GA-iPLS). The ACO-iPLS full-spectrum was split into 12 intervals. The optimal intervals selected were the 1st interval, 9th interval and 10th interval. The calibration and prediction correlation coefficient of ACO-iPLS model were 0.901 3 and 0.864 2, in which the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.160 0 mg/g and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.206 0 mg/g were achieved.As in the GA-iPLS model, the data set was split into 15 intervals for optimization where 1st and 5th intervals were selected. The calibration and prediction correlation coefficient of GA-iPLS model were 0.901 3 and 0.864 2, and the RMSECV and RMSEP of GA-iPLS models based on these intervals were 0.156 0 mg/g and 0.206 0 mg/g, respectively. The results showed that both ACO-iPLS and GA-iPLS models could efficiently select spectrum intervals for quantitative analysis of anthocyanin in scented tea. The optimal GA-iPLS model had better performance with higher accuracy.%以建立花茶花青素含量的最优近红外光谱模型为目标,对比研究了蚁群算法(Ant Colony Optimization, ACO)和遗传算法(Genetic Algorithm, GA)优化近红外光谱谱区的效果。ACO-iPLS将全光谱划分为12个子区间时,优选出第1、9、10共3个子区间,所建的校正集和预测集相关系数分别为0.9013和0.8642;交互验证均方根误差(RMSECV)和预测均方根误差(RMSEP)分别为0.1600 mg/g和0.2020 mg/g;GA-iPLS将全光谱划分为15个子区间时,优选出第1、5共2个子区间,所建模型的校正集和预测集相关系数分别为0.9063和0.8793,交互验证均

  5. Impact of different wood chip species (oak, acacia and cherry on evolution of individual anthocyanins, chromatic characteristics and antioxidant capacity in model wine solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordão António M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work was to investigate the impact of different oak (Q. alba, Q. robur and Q. pyrenaica, acacia and cherry wood chips on evolution of individual anthocyanin content, chromatic characteristics and antioxidant capacity by the use of model wine solutions. According to the results obtained, model wine solutions containing acacia and especially cherry wood extracts showed more evident changes of individual anthocyanin composition, especially due to the formation of large number of new direct condensation anthocyanins, than model wines with oak extracts. These results were accompanied also by a higher color degradation and a lower antioxidant potential of solutions containing the different wood chip extract species, compared with solutions containing only anthocyanin alone. This research contributes to a better knowledge about the color evolution of red wines when they are aging in contact with new alternative wood species, especially acacia and cherry.

  6. An oral multispecies biofilm model for high content screening applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommerein, Nadine; Stumpp, Sascha N.; Müsken, Mathias; Ehlert, Nina; Winkel, Andreas; Häussler, Susanne; Behrens, Peter; Buettner, Falk F. R.; Stiesch, Meike

    2017-01-01

    Peri-implantitis caused by multispecies biofilms is a major complication in dental implant treatment. The bacterial infection surrounding dental implants can lead to bone loss and, in turn, to implant failure. A promising strategy to prevent these common complications is the development of implant surfaces that inhibit biofilm development. A reproducible and easy-to-use biofilm model as a test system for large scale screening of new implant surfaces with putative antibacterial potency is therefore of major importance. In the present study, we developed a highly reproducible in vitro four-species biofilm model consisting of the highly relevant oral bacterial species Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella dispar and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The application of live/dead staining, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and urea-NaCl fluorescence in situ hybridization (urea-NaCl-FISH) revealed that the four-species biofilm community is robust in terms of biovolume, live/dead distribution and individual species distribution over time. The biofilm community is dominated by S. oralis, followed by V. dispar, A. naeslundii and P. gingivalis. The percentage distribution in this model closely reflects the situation in early native plaques and is therefore well suited as an in vitro model test system. Furthermore, despite its nearly native composition, the multispecies model does not depend on nutrient additives, such as native human saliva or serum, and is an inexpensive, easy to handle and highly reproducible alternative to the available model systems. The 96-well plate format enables high content screening for optimized implant surfaces impeding biofilm formation or the testing of multiple antimicrobial treatment strategies to fight multispecies biofilm infections, both exemplary proven in the manuscript. PMID:28296966

  7. Effect of salt stress in the regulation of anthocyanins and color of hibiscus flowers by digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Borghesi, Eva; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-07-23

    The effect of salt stress (200 mM NaCl for 28 days) on physiological characteristics of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, such as abscisic acid (ABA) content, electrolyte leakage, and photochemical efficiency in leaves, and its influence on biomass production, anthocyanin composition, and color expression of flowers were evaluated. Salinity significantly increased electrolyte leakage and ABA content in leaves and reduced the flower fresh weight. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were lower in salt stress condition, compared to control. Moreover, salt stress negatively affected the content of anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-sophoroside), which resulted in a visually perceptible loss of color. The detailed anthocyanin composition monitored by HPLC-DAD-MS and the color variations by digital image analysis due to salt stress showed that the effect was more noticeable at the basal portion of petals. A forward stepwise multiple regression was performed for predicting the content of anthocyanins from appearance characteristics obtained by image analysis, reaching R-square values up to 0.90.

  8. Development of automatic image analysis methods for high-throughput and high-content screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, Zi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of image analysis methods for ultra-high content analysis of high-throughput screens where cellular phenotype responses to various genetic or chemical perturbations that are under investigation. Our primary goal is to deliver efficient and robust image analysis

  9. Development of automatic image analysis methods for high-throughput and high-content screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, Zi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of image analysis methods for ultra-high content analysis of high-throughput screens where cellular phenotype responses to various genetic or chemical perturbations that are under investigation. Our primary goal is to deliver efficient and robust image analysis

  10. Light and the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA control the protein stability of the MYB transcription factors PAP1 and PAP2 involved in anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Schrader, Andrea; Kokkelink, Leonie; Falke, Christian; Welter, Bastian; Iniesto, Elisa; Rubio, Vicente; Uhrig, Joachim F; Hülskamp, Martin; Hoecker, Ute

    2013-05-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments that accumulate only in light-grown and not in dark-grown Arabidopsis plants. Repression of anthocyanin accumulation in darkness requires the CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1/SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (COP1/SPA) ubiquitin ligase, as cop1 and spa mutants produce anthocyanins also in the dark. Here, we show that COP1 and SPA proteins interact with the myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factors PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP)1 and PAP2, two members of a small protein family that is required for anthocyanin accumulation and for the expression of structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. The increased anthocyanin levels in cop1 mutants requires the PAP1 gene family, indicating that COP1 functions upstream of the PAP1 gene family. PAP1 and PAP2 proteins are degraded in the dark and this degradation is dependent on the proteasome and on COP1. Hence, the light requirement for anthocyanin biosynthesis results, at least in part, from the light-mediated stabilization of PAP1 and PAP2. Consistent with this conclusion, moderate overexpression of PAP1 leads to an increase in anthocyanin levels only in the light and not in darkness. Here we show that SPA genes are also required for reducing PAP1 and PAP2 transcript levels in dark-grown seedlings. Taken together, these results indicate that the COP1/SPA complex affects PAP1 and PAP2 both transcriptionally and post-translationally. Thus, our findings have identified mechanisms via which the COP1/SPA complex controls anthocyanin levels in Arabidopsis that may be useful for applications in biotechnology directed towards increasing anthocyanin content in plants. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 镉诱导满江红(Azolla imbricata)花色素苷的初步鉴定、抗氧化活性及其作用机理%Preliminary identification, antioxidant activity and mechanism of anthocyanins from Azolla imbricata induced by cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴灵鹏; 董新姣; 马海虎; 盛丽梅

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the molecular structure of the anthocyanins which are induced by Cd in Azolla imbricata, anthocyanins were induced with 0.1mg·L-1 Cd, extracted with 0.1% HCI in methanol, purified by an Amberlite XAD-7 column and separated by Sephedex LH-20 column. The main compound was preliminarily identified as luteolinidin- 5-glucoside by its ultraviolet/visible absorbance spectrum and high performance liquid ( HPLC )chromatography. In vitro antioxidant properties of anthocyanins before and after purification were also evaluated by different analytical methods. The results showed that the total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, scavenging activity of superoxide anion radical (O2 - )and hydroxyl radical ( · OH )increased significantly with increasing concentrations of anthocyanin extracts, and the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins after purification was higher than the values of anthocyanins before purification. When the concentration of anthocyanins reached 0. 5 mg · mL-1, the values of anthocyanins after purification were increased by 3.16,1.36,2.71 and 1.86 times respectively, compared to anthocyanins before purification, indicating that luteolinidin-5-glucoside was the most important substance responsible for the antioxidant properties of A. imbricata. In addition, the antioxidant mechanism of anthocyanins is also discussed in this paper. In conclusion, the results obtained in this work indicated that the increase in the content of anthocyanins may be involved in internal detoxification mechanisms of A. imbricata against Cd toxicity.%为了研究镉诱导的满江红花色素苷的分子结构,分别用0.1 mg·L-1Cd、0.1%盐酸-甲醇溶液、XAD-7大孔树脂和葡聚糖凝胶SephadexLH-20柱对其进行诱导、提取、纯化和分离.经紫外可见光谱特性和HPLC图谱分析.初步确定此物质为木犀草定-5-葡萄糖苷.采用不同的体外实验方法评价了满江红花色素苷纯化前后的抗氧化活性.结果表明,花

  12. Antidiabetic and Synergistic Effects of Anthocyanin Fraction from Berberis integerrima Fruit on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sabahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a complex endocrine disorder. There is a serious attempt to identify antidiabetic compounds from natural sources to use with other drugs for reduction of diabetes complications. Present study is based on the investigation of antihyperglycemic effect of anthocyanin fraction of Berberis integerrima Bunge (AFBI fruits on some physiological parameters (glucose level, glycogen content, and body weight in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced diabetic rats and evaluation of synergic effect of this fraction with metformin and glibenclamide. Male Sprague dawley rats were divided into nine groups: healthy control group, diabetic control group, diabetic groups treated with anthocyanin fraction (200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively; diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide and metformin separately, diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg, metformin + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg. Treatment of diabetic rats with AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose as compared with control. Moreover, AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly increased liver glycogen and body weight compared to control. Nevertheless, there were no synergistic effects between anthocyanin fraction and metformin or glibenclamide on blood glucose, liver glycogen, and body weight. The results of this study indicate that AFBI possesses hypoglycemic effects and may be considered for evaluation in future diabetes clinical studies.

  13. Evaluation of non-thermal effects of electricity on anthocyanin degradation during ohmic heating of jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercali, Giovana Domeneghini; Gurak, Poliana Deyse; Schmitz, Frederico; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira

    2015-03-15

    This study investigated the non-thermal effects of electricity on anthocyanin degradation during ohmic heating of jaboticaba juice. For this, temperature profiles during conventional and ohmic heating processes were matched, and the degradation kinetics of anthocyanins were compared at temperatures ranging from 70 to 90°C. The monomeric anthocyanin content was quantified by UV-Visible spectroscopy using the pH-differential method. Anthocyanin degradation was fitted to a first-order model. The rate constants ranged from 1.7 to 7.5 × 10(-3)min(-1) and from 1.8 to 7.6 × 10(-3)min(-1) for ohmic and conventional heating, respectively. The analysis of variance (α=0.05) showed no significant differences between rate constants of the ohmic and conventional heating at the same temperatures. All kinetic and thermodynamic parameters evaluated showed similar values for both technologies. These results indicate that the presence of the oscillating electric field did not affect the degradation rates of anthocyanins during ohmic heating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins with Macroporous Resins

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    Xueming Liu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46 mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91 mg/mL resin. The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing.

  15. On statistical analysis of factors affecting anthocyanin extraction from Ixora siamensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Nor, N. A.; Arof, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on designing an experimental model in order to evaluate the influence of operative extraction parameters employed for anthocyanin extraction from Ixora siamensis on CIE color measurements (a*, b* and color saturation). Extractions were conducted at temperatures of 30, 55 and 80°C, soaking time of 60, 120 and 180 min using acidified methanol solvent with different trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) contents of 0.5, 1.75 and 3% (v/v). The statistical evaluation was performed by running analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression calculation to investigate the significance of the generated model. Results show that the generated regression models adequately explain the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between the independent variables and the responses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed high coefficient determination values (R2) of 0.9687 for a*, 0.9621 for b* and 0.9758 for color saturation, thus ensuring a satisfactory fit of the developed models with the experimental data. Interaction between TFA content and extraction temperature exhibited to the highest significant influence on CIE color parameter.

  16. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  17. Application of maltodextrin and gum Arabic in microencapsulation of saffron petal's anthocyanins and evaluating their storage stability and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavee Khazaei, K; Jafari, S M; Ghorbani, M; Hemmati Kakhki, A

    2014-05-25

    In this work, anthocyanin stability and color of encapsulated freeze-dried saffron petal's extract with various matrices consisting gum Arabic (AG) and maltodextrin (M7 and M20) were studied. Total anthocyanins of powders and color parameters (a*, b*, L*, C, H° and TCD) were measured immediately after production and during storage up to 10 weeks by pH differential method and computer vision, respectively. Different compounds of wall materials did not show any significant differences in terms of stabilizing anthocyanins (Panthocyanin content of the powders was observed after storage. The efficiency order of wall materials considering total color differences (TCD) was AG>M20>M7. By evaluating 3D surface and Cox trace plots it was revealed that wall formulas which had the lowest amount of AG and highest amounts of M20 and M7 showed the lowest total color differences after storage (Panthocyanins of saffron petal's extract.

  18. Research progress on anthocyanin of wine%葡萄酒中花色苷的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文华; 刘忠义

    2011-01-01

    花色苷是葡萄酒的主要呈色物质,同时也具有一定的生理活性功能.文章总结并简述葡萄酒中花色苷的结构、含量变化、性质及稳定性因素、成色作用的途径、生理活性功能、纯化鉴定方法,以期为葡萄酒中花色苷的研究提供参考.%Anthocyanins is the main coloring matter in wine, it have a certain function in physiological activity. Reviewed the anthocyanins' structure, contents change, character, stability factors, color formation, physiological activities and purified identification methods. It would provide reference for the research of anthocyanin in wine.

  19. Chokeberry Anthocyanin Extract as Pancreatic β-Cell Protectors in Two Models of Induced Oxidative Stress

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    Dumitriţa Rugină

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of a chokeberry anthocyanin extract (CAE on pancreatic β-cells (βTC3 exposed to hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2- and high glucose- (HG- induced oxidative stress conditions. In order to quantify individual anthocyanins high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled to photodiode array (PDA was used. The identification of the fragment ion pattern of anthocyanins was carried out by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS. The results showed that physiologically achievable concentrations of CAE (1, 5, and 10 μM protect βTC3 against H2O2- and HG-induced cytotoxicity. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were increased in pancreatic β-cells pretreated with CAE compared to cells exposed to the prooxidant agents. GSH levels initially reduced after exposure to H2O2 and HG were restored by pretreatment with CAE. Insulin secretion in βTC3 cells was enhanced by CAE pretreatment. CAE restored the insulin pool and diminished the intracellular reactive oxygen species level in glucose-induced stress condition in βTC3 cells. These results demonstrate that anthocyanins from CAE were biologically active, showing a secretagogue potential and an antioxidative protection of enzymatic systems, conferring protection against H2O2 and glucose toxicity in βTC3 cells.

  20. Antioxidant capacity and antimutagenic activity of anthocyanin and carotenoid extracts from nixtamalized pigmented Creole maize races (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Díaz, Sandra; Ortiz-Valerio, Ma del Carmen; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Figueroa-Cárdenas, Juan de Dios; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Ramos-Gómez, Minerva; Campos-Vega, Rocio; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2012-12-01

    Nixtamalization process is the first step to obtain maize based products, like tortillas; however, in both the traditional and commercial processes, white grain is generally preferred. Creole maize races, mainly pigmented varieties, have increasingly attention since these are rich in anthocyanins and carotenoids. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of rich anthocyanins and carotenoids extracts from creole maize races before (grain) and after (masa and tortilla) the nixtamalization process. Most anthocyanins and carotenoids were lost during nixtamalization. Before nixtamalization, blue and red genotypes contained either higher antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin contents (963 ± 10.0 and 212.36 ± 0.36 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside eq/100 g, respectively) than the white and yellow genotypes. However, the highest carotenoid levels were displayed by red grains (1.01 ± 0.07 to 1.14 ± 0.08 μg of β-carotene eq/g extract). Anthocyanins losses were observed when the blue grains were processed into masa (83 %) and tortillas (64 %). Anthocyanins content correlated with antiradical activity (r = 0.57) and with 2-aminoanthracene -induced mutagenicity inhibition on TA98 and TA100 (r = -0.62 and r = -0.44, respectively). For white grains, nixtamalization also reduced carotenoids (53 to 56 %), but not antioxidant activity and 2-Aa-induced mutagenicity. Throughout the nixtamalization process steps, all the extracts showed antimutagenic activity against 2-aminoanthracene-induced mutagenicity (23 to 90 %), displaying higher potential to inhibit base changes mutations than frameshift mutations in the genome of the tasted microorganism (TA100 and TA98, respectively). The results suggest that even though there were pigment losses, creole maize pigments show antioxidant and antimutagenic activities after nixtamalization process.

  1. Effects of Anthocyanin and Flavanol Compounds on Lipid Metabolism and Adipose Tissue Associated Systemic Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obesity

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    Roel A. van der Heijden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Naturally occurring substances from the flavanol and anthocyanin family of polyphenols have been proposed to exert beneficial effects in the course of obesity. We hypothesized that their effects on attenuating obesity-induced dyslipidemia as well as the associated inflammatory sequelae especially have health-promoting potential. Methods. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=52 received a control low-fat diet (LFD; 10 kcal% fat for 6 weeks followed by 24 weeks of either LFD (n=13 or high-fat diet (HFD; 45 kcal% fat; n=13 or HFD supplemented with 0.1% w/w of the flavanol compound epicatechin (HFD+E; n=13 or an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (HFD+B; n=13. Energy substrate utilization was determined by indirect calorimetry in a subset of mice following the dietary switch and at the end of the experiment. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 3 days and 4, 12, and 20 weeks after dietary switch and analyzed for systemic lipids and proinflammatory cytokines. Adipose tissue (AT histopathology and inflammatory gene expression as well as hepatic lipid content were analyzed after sacrifice. Results. The switch from a LFD to a HFD lowered the respiratory exchange ratio and increased plasma cholesterol and hepatic lipid content. These changes were not attenuated by HFD+E or HFD+B. Furthermore, the polyphenol compounds could not prevent HFD-induced systemic rise of TNF-α levels. Interestingly, a significant reduction in Tnf gene expression in HFD+B mice was observed in the AT. Furthermore, HFD+B, but not HFD+E, significantly prevented the early upregulation of circulating neutrophil chemoattractant mKC. However, no differences in AT histopathology were observed between the HFD types. Conclusion. Supplementation of HFD with an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract but not with the flavanol epicatechin may exert beneficial effects on the systemic early inflammatory response associated with diet-induced obesity. These systemic effects were transient

  2. Overexpression of PtrMYB119, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor from Populus trichocarpa, promotes anthocyanin production in hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Seong; Nguyen, Van Phap; Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Min-Ha; Eom, Seok Hyun; Lim, You Jin; Kim, Won-Chan; Park, Eung-Jun; Choi, Young-Im; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2016-09-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of colorful and bioactive natural pigments with important physiological and ecological functions in plants. We found an MYB transcription factor (PtrMYB119) from Populus trichocarpa that positively regulates anthocyanin production when expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that PtrMYB119 is highly homologous to Arabidopsis PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1), a well-known transcriptional activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Independently produced transgenic poplars overexpressing PtrMYB119 or PtrMYB120 (a paralogous gene to PtrMYB119) (i.e., 35S::PtrMYB119 and 35S::PtrMYB120, respectively) showed elevated accumulation of anthocyanins in the whole plants, including leaf, stem and even root tissues. Using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, we confirmed that the majority of the accumulated anthocyanin in our transgenic poplar is cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. Gene expression analyses revealed that most of the genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were highly upregulated in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars compared with the nontransformed control poplar. Among these genes, expression of PtrCHS1 (Chalcone Synthase1) and PtrANS2 (Anthocyanin Synthase2), which catalyze the initial and last steps of anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively, was upregulated by up to 350-fold. Subsequent transient activation assays confirmed that PtrMYB119 activated the transcription of both PtrCHS1 and PtrANS2 Interestingly, expression of MYB182, a repressor of both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis, was largely suppressed in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars, while expression of MYB134, an activator of PA biosynthesis, was not changed significantly. More interestingly, high-level accumulation of anthocyanins in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars did not have an adverse effect on plant growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PtrMYB119 and PtrMYB120

  3. A two-stage process with temperature-shift for enhanced anthocyanin production in strawberry cell suspension cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫; Shintaro; Furusaki; Chris; Franco

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage process with temperature-shift has been developed to enhance the anthocyanin yield in suspension cultures of strawberry cells. The effect of the temperature-shift interval and the shift-time point was investigated for the optimization of this strategy. In this process, strawberry cells were grown at 30℃ (the optimum temperature for cell growth) for a certain period as the first stage, with the temperature shifted to a lower temperature for the second stage. In response to the temperature shift-down, anthoeyanin synthesis was stimulated and a higher content could be achieved than that at both boundary temperatures but cell growth was suppressed. When the lower boundary temperature was deereased, cell growth was lowered and a delayed, sustained maximum anthocyanin content was achieved. Anthocyanin synthesis was strongly influeneed by the shift-time point but cell growth was not. Consequently, the maximum anthocyanin content of 2.7 mg(?)g-fresh cell-1 was obtained on day 9 by a temperature-

  4. Premature and ectopic anthocyanin formation by silencing of anthocyanidin reductase in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thilo C; Mirbeth, Beate; Rentsch, Judith; Sutter, Corina; Ring, Ludwig; Flachowsky, Henryk; Habegger, Ruth; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a fruit crop with a distinct biphasic flavonoid biosynthesis. Whereas, in the immature receptacle, high levels of proanthocyanidins accumulate, which are associated with herbivore deterrence and pathogen defense, the prominent color-giving anthocyanins are primarily produced in ripe 'fruits' helping to attract herbivores for seed dispersal. Here, constitutive experimental down-regulation of one branch of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis was performed. As a result, the proportion of epicatechin monomeric units within the proanthocyanidin polymer chains was reduced, but this was not the case for the epicatechin starter unit. Shortened chain lengths of proanthocyanidins were also observed. All enzymatic activities for the production of color-giving anthocyanins were already present in unripe fruits at levels allowing a striking red anthocyanin phenotype in unripe fruits of the RNAi silencing lines. An immediately recognizable phenotype was also observed for the stigmata of flowers, which is another epicatechin-forming tissue. Thus, the down-regulation of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) induced a redirection of the proanthocyanidin pathway, leading to premature and ectopic anthocyanin biosynthesis via enzymatic glycosylation as the alternative pathway. This redirection is also seen in flavonol biosynthesis, which is paralleled by higher pollen viability in silencing lines. ANRi transgenic lines of strawberry provide a versatile tool for the study of the biological functions of proanthocyanidins.

  5. Sn, a maize bHLH gene, modulates anthocyanin and condensed tannin pathways in Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mark Paske; Paolocci, Francesco; Hughes, John-Wayne; Turchetti, Valentina; Allison, Gordon; Arcioni, Sergio; Morris, Phillip; Damiani, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Anthocyanins and condensed tannins are major flavonoid end-products in higher plants. While the transactivation of anthocyanins by basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors is well documented, very little is known about the transregulation of the pathway to condensed tannins. The present study analyses the effect of over-expressing an Sn transgene in Lotus corniculatus, a model legume, with the aim of studying the regulation of anthocyanin and tannin end-products. Contrary to expectation, effects on anthocyanin accumulation were subtle and restricted to the leaf midrib, leaf base and petiole tissues. However, the accumulation of condensed tannin polymers was dramatically enhanced in the leaf blade and this increase was accompanied by a 50-fold increase in the number of tannin-containing cells in this tissue. A detailed analysis of selected lines indicated that this transactivational phenotype correlated with high steady-state transcript levels of the introduced transgene and the introduction of a single copy of the CaMV35S-Sn construct into these clonal genotypes. While the levels of condensed tannins in leaves were increased by up to 1% of the dry weight, other major secondary end-products (flavonols, lignins and inducible phytoalexins) were unaltered in transactivated lines. These results give an initial insight into the developmental and higher-order regulation of polyphenolic metabolism in Lotus and other higher plant species.

  6. Anthocyanin biosynthesis for cold and freezing stress tolerance and desirable color in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-07-01

    Flavonoids are divided into several structural classes, including anthocyanins, which provide flower and leaf colors and other derivatives that play diverse roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. This study characterized four anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes of Brassica rapa, a structural gene of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, and investigated their association with pigment formation, cold and freezing tolerance in B. rapa. Sequences of these genes were analyzed and compared with similar gene sequences from other species, and a high degree of homology with their respective functions was found. Organ-specific expression analysis revealed that these genes were only expressed in the colored portion of leaves of different lines of B. rapa. Conversely, B. rapa anthocyanidin synthase (BrANS) genes also showed responses to cold and freezing stress treatment in B. rapa. BrANSs were also shown to be regulated by two transcription factors, BrMYB2-2 and BrTT8, contrasting with anthocyanin accumulation and cold stress. Thus, the above results suggest the association of these genes with anthocyanin biosynthesis and cold and freezing stress tolerance and might be useful resources for development of cold-resistant Brassica crops with desirable colors as well.

  7. Influence of Different Maceration Times on the Anthocyanin Composition and Sensory Properties of Blatina Wines

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    Stanka Herjavec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Skin maceration contact time is essential winemaking technique to affect anthocyanin concentration and high quality of red wines. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in basic composition, anthocyanin profile and sensory properties of Blatina wines obtained with skin contact time from 4, 8, 12 to 16 days. Results indicate that longer period of maceration positively influenced the quality of Blatina wines. Blatina wines obtained by 12 or 16 days of maceration presented a significant increase of the dry extract, ash, total phenol and pH value. It was observed that the concentration of total and individual anthocyanins significantly increased reaching a maximum value within 12 days of the skin maceration. In all wines, the dominant anthocyanin was malvidin 3-glucoside. Best organoleptic properties were observed in the wines macerated for 16 days.

  8. Stability of the anthocyanins extracted from residues of the wine industry

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    Edmar Clemente

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are highly important due to their antioxidant capacity. They are the most important among the phenolic compounds and one of the main natural dyes used in the food industry. In this research, residue of processed grapes was used to investigate the presence of anthocyanins, the possibility of their extraction from the residue, and their stability. The extraction solution consisted of 70 mL of ethanol 70% and 30 mL of HCl 0.1% at pH 2.0. The results found for the processed grapes residue was 26.20 mg.100 g-1. In order to evaluate stability, caffeic acid was added at 0.5:1 w/v; 0.8:1 w/v; and 1:1 w/v concentrations. Anthocyanins extract reached the greatest stability at 0.5:1 w/v concentration, with 82.47% color retention and a half-life period of 15 days. Therefore, the use of this organic acid as a stabilizer for anthocyanins is feasible.

  9. Impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the (poly)phenol content of wild blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; George, Trevor W; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-05-07

    Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in (poly)phenols may have positive effects on human health. Currently there is limited information regarding the effects of processing on the (poly)phenolic content of berries, in particular in processes related to the baking industry. This study investigated the impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the anthocyanin, procyanidin, flavonol, and phenolic acid contents of wild blueberry using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Anthocyanin levels decreased during cooking, proving, and baking, whereas no significant changes were observed for total procyanidins. However, lower molecular weight procyanidins increased and high molecular weight oligomers decreased during the process. Quercetin and ferulic and caffeic acid levels remained constant, whereas increases were found for chlorogenic acid. Due to their possible health benefits, a better understanding of the impact of processing is important to maximize the retention of these phytochemicals in berry-containing products.

  10. Efficient quantification of the health-relevant anthocyanin and phenolic acid profiles in commercial cultivars and breeding selections of blueberries ( Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Gad G; Brown, Allan F; Funakoshi, Yayoi; Mbeunkui, Flaubert; Grace, Mary H; Ballington, James R; Loraine, Ann; Lila, Mary A

    2013-05-22

    Anthocyanins and phenolic acids are major secondary metabolites in blueberry with important implications for human health maintenance. An improved protocol was developed for the accurate, efficient, and rapid comparative screening for large blueberry sample sets. Triplicates of six commercial cultivars and four breeding selections were analyzed using the new method. The compound recoveries ranged from 94.2 to 97.5 ± 5.3% when samples were spiked with commercial standards prior to extraction. Eighteen anthocyanins and 4 phenolic acids were quantified in frozen and freeze-dried fruits. Large variations for individual and total anthocyanins, ranging from 201.4 to 402.8 mg/100 g, were assayed in frozen fruits. The total phenolic acid content ranged from 23.6 to 61.7 mg/100 g in frozen fruits. Across all genotypes, freeze-drying resulted in minor reductions in anthocyanin concentration (3.9%) compared to anthocyanins in frozen fruits. However, phenolic acids increased by an average of 1.9-fold (±0.3) in the freeze-dried fruit. Different genotypes frequently had comparable overall levels of total anthocyanins and phenolic acids, but differed dramatically in individual profiles of compounds. Three of the genotypes contained markedly higher concentrations of delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside, which have previously been implicated as bioactive principles in this fruit. The implications of these findings for human health benefits are discussed.

  11. Adsorption behavior of natural anthocyanin dye on mesoporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Yoshiumi; Haga, Eriko; Yoda, Keiko; Shibata, Masashi; Fukuhara, Choji; Tomita, Yasumasa; Maeda, Yasuhisa; Kobayashi, Kenkichiro

    2014-01-01

    Because of its non-toxicity, naturally occurring anthocyanin is potentially suitable as a colorant for foods and cosmetics. To the wider use of the anthocyanin, the immobilization on the inorganic host for an easy handling as well as the improvement of the stability is required. This study is focused on the adsorption of significant amount of the natural anthocyanin dye onto mesoporous silica, and on the stability enhancement of the anthocyanin by the complexation. The anthocyanin has successfully been adsorbed on the HMS type mesoporous silica containing small amount of aluminum. The amount of the adsorbed anthocyanin has been increased by modifying the pore wall with n-propyl group to make the silica surface hydrophobic. The light fastness of the adsorbed anthocyanin has been improved by making the composite with the HMS samples containing aluminum, although the degree of the improvement is not so large. It has been proposed that incorporation of the anthocyanin molecule deep inside the mesopore is required for the further enhancement of the stability.

  12. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Gugger, Paul F; Wang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  13. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus. PMID:27635336

  14. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans. is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten. with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd. with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1 were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  15. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple Dioscorea alata (DA tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process should be taken into account; for instance, soaking in citric acid and blanching in order to preserve the bioactive compounds. To examine the inhibitory effects of acidic soaking and steam blanching on polyphenol oxidase activities, these experiments used four levels of citric acid (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% and two levels of steam blanching time course (5 and 10 minutes. It was found that steam blanching for 5 or 10 minutes could reduce the activity of polyphenol oxidase, and consequently, retard the oxidation process and retain the polyphenolic compounds. Soaking the purple DA slices into a 1% citric acid solution followed by steam blanching for 10 min resulted in the highest total anthocyanins (104.36 mg/100 g, polyphenols (198.52 mg equivalent gallic acid/100 g, with an antioxidant capacity of 1.300 mg trolox equivalent/100 g. This study showed that the retention of bioactive compounds of DA tuber through soaking the tuber slices in solution containing inexpensive chemicals like citric acid at low concentrations, combined with 10 minutes of steam blanching resulted in flour containing total anthocyanins and phenolic as high as 44.51 and 62.58% of fresh tuber, respectively.

  16. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    component of such validation studies is the selection of a challenging and balanced set of source (reference) HDR content. In order to facilitate this, we present an objective method based on the premise that a more challenging HDR scene encapsulates higher contrast, and as a result will show up more...

  17. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  18. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants.

  19. The State of the Art in Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Its Regulation in Pigmented Sweet Oranges [(Citrus sinensis) L. Osbeck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Piero, Angela Roberta

    2015-04-29

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments belonging to the flavonoid compound family involved in nature in several aspects of plant development and defense. By bestowing much of the color and flavor on fruits and vegetables, they are components of the human diet and, thanks to their radical-scavenging properties, are not considered exclusively as food products but also as therapeutic agents. Several cultivars of red (or blood) oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], such as Tarocco, Moro, and Sanguinello, are characterized by the presence of anthocyanins in both the rind and fruit juice vesicles. The amount and composition of anthocyanins in the pigmented orange cultivar vary greatly depending on variety, maturity, region of cultivation, and many other environmental conditions. Most of the blood orange varieties require a wide day-night thermal range to maximize color formation. Therefore, the production of red oranges characterized by high anthocyanin levels is limited to a few regions and in particular to the Sicilian area around Mount Etna in Italy, where the characteristic climate conditions yield fruits of unique color intensity and quality. In this review, both the basic information and the most recent advances in red orange anthocyanins are reported, with intense attention given to their biosynthesis and regulation.

  20. A novel glucosylation reaction on anthocyanins catalyzed by acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase in the petals of carnation and delphinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Yuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Tera, Masayuki; Okamura, Masachika; Abe, Yutaka; Okamoto, Emi; Nakamura, Haruka; Funabashi, Hisakage; Takatsu, Makoto; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2010-10-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanin in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) and delphiniums (Delphinium grandiflorum) involves novel sugar donors, aromatic acyl-glucoses, in a reaction catalyzed by the enzymes acyl-glucose-dependent anthocyanin 5(7)-O-glucosyltransferase (AA5GT and AA7GT). The AA5GT enzyme was purified from carnation petals, and cDNAs encoding carnation Dc AA5GT and the delphinium homolog Dg AA7GT were isolated. Recombinant Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT proteins showed AA5GT and AA7GT activities in vitro. Although expression of Dc AA5GT in developing carnation petals was highest at early stages, AA5GT activity and anthocyanin accumulation continued to increase during later stages. Neither Dc AA5GT expression nor AA5GT activity was observed in the petals of mutant carnations; these petals accumulated anthocyanin lacking the glucosyl moiety at the 5 position. Transient expression of Dc AA5GT in petal cells of mutant carnations is expected to result in the transfer of a glucose moiety to the 5 position of anthocyanin. The amino acid sequences of Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT showed high similarity to glycoside hydrolase family 1 proteins, which typically act as β-glycosidases. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that other plant species are likely to have similar acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferases.

  1. The Changes in Color, Soluble Sugars, Organic Acids, Anthocyanins and Aroma Components in “Starkrimson” during the Ripening Period in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available “Starkrimson” is a traditional apple cultivar that was developed a long time ago and was widely cultivated in the arid region of the northern Wei River of China. However, little information regarding the quality characteristics of “Starkrimson” fruit has been reported in this area. To elucidate these characteristics, the color, soluble sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and aroma components were measured during the ripening period through the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results indicated that the changes in anthocyanin contents took place later than the changes in the Commission International Eclairage (CIE parameters. Meanwhile, cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal, fructose, sucrose, glucose and malic acid were the primary organic compounds, and 1-butanol-2-methyl-acetate, 2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were the most abundant aroma components in the skin. Furthermore, rapidly changing soluble sugars and organic acid synchronization took place in the early ripening period, while rapidly changing aroma components occurred later, on the basis of fresh weight. This result suggested that the production of aroma components might be a useful index of apple maturity.

  2. Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on some Quantitative Traits and Anthocyanin of Roselle under Zabol conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahman Ebrahimzadeh abdashti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. belongs to the Malvaceae family, and is an annual or biennial plant that cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions for its stem fibers, eatable calyces, leaves and grains. Roselle is resistant to relatively high temperatures throughout the growing and fruiting times. Continuous use of chemical fertilizers destroys the soil ecological balance, reduces soil fertility and groundwater pollution is caused. In contrast, organic fertilizers are very safe for human health and the environment. It is made by recycling organic material as plant and animals waste, and food scraps in a controlled process. Of the organic fertilizers can be noted to compost, vermicompost, cattle manure andhumic acid. The study was carried out in order to sustainable agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of organic and chemical fertilizers on some quantitative traits and anthocyanin of roselle. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed in complete randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications in research field of agricultural faculty, university of zabol. The treatments included T1: control, T2: NPK in a ratio of 2:1:1 (300 kg ha-1, T3: cattle manure (20 t ha-1, T4: compost (10 t ha-1, T5: vermicompost (5 t ha-1, T6: humic acid foliar in a ratio of 1.5 per thousands, T7: 50% of T2 and T6 , T8: 50% of T3 and T6, T9: 50% of T4 and T6 and T10: 50% of the T5 and T6. Five plants were chosen and an average of five plants was calculated as the single plant for measuring of variables that included the height, number of branches, stem diameter, shoot fresh weight, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, number of seeds per plant, fresh and dry weights of sepals, inflorescence length, length and diameter of fruit. Method of Wagner has been used for the anthocyanin measurement. Results and Discussion: Results of this research showed that the application of different fertilizers

  3. Effect of frozen storage on the anthocyanins and phenolic components of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeedghazi, Hossein; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza

    2014-02-01

    Pomegranate juice's valuable nutritional components may be reduced during its processing or storage. This work examined the effect of frozen storage at -25 °C on some chemical characteristics of pomegranate juice. Total anthocyanin content of pomegranate juice, which was measured using the pH differential method, decreased by 11% after 20 days of frozen storage. Phenolic components, measured using a Folin and Ciocalteu assay by means of a UV-vis spectrophotometer, decreased by 29% after 20 days of frozen storage. Antioxidant activity, measured based on the radical scavenging properties of the juice using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, decreased by 50% after 20 days of frozen storage. Pomegranate juice has 5 major anthocyanins, including Cyanidin 3-glucoside, Cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, Delphinidin 3-glucoside, Pelargonidin 3-glucoside and Pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside are 5 major anthocyanins of pomegranate juice. They were measured using the LC-MS method and results showed that Pelargonidin 3,5- diglucoside had the greatest decrease. Also, the LC-MS method showed that ellagic acid decreased by 15%.

  4. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-01-01

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>105 km3) within short time span (basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB. PMID:27143196

  5. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Anthurium "Albama" and its anthocyanin-loss mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Li

    Full Text Available Anthurium is one of the most important tropical ornamental plants in the world. The traded value of anthurium is second only to that of tropical orchids among the tropical flowers. The spathe is the main ornamental organ and its color variation mainly arises from anthocyanin contents. Understanding the molecular regulation of spathe color will accelerate new variety creation of anthurium. To announce gene expression differences between Anthurium andraeanum 'Albama' and its one unique anthocyanin-loss mutant, we collected spathes of the wild-type and the mutant from two stages in spathe development (the flower separates protrude from the sheath and the spathe is fully expanded and extracted total RNAs for transcriptome profiling. Using short read sequencing technology (Illumina, 51,955,564, 53,822,224, 54,221,990 and 52,276,418 sequencing raw reads, respectively, for wild-type and mutant in the two stages were assembled de novo into 111,268 unique sequences (unigenes with a mean length of 652 bp. 47,563 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the Nr database, and 32,768 unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database. 28,350 and 19,293 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Further, analysis of differentially expressed genes in the comparison between wild-type and mutant and between the two different developmental stages was carried out, indicating that the expression of an extensive set of genes changed as the result of mutation. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the Illumina sequencing allowed de novo transcriptome assembly and could obtain differentially expressed genes between A. andraeanum wild-type and the anthocyanin-loss mutant. The expression differences of AN2 and UFGT might cause the anthocyanin-loss mutation.

  7. Fruit Ripes and Anthocyanin Pigments in the Skin of Grapes (Vitis spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    In ‘Royal’, ‘Russki Concord’ and ‘Schuyler’ grapes, anthocyanin composition was slightly changed during ripening. However, the anthocyanin composition of ‘Queen’ showed evolution. Major anthocyanin, malvidin glucoside, was appeared in the early period of ripening. Because the end product as malvidin glucoside was appeared soon, the biosynthesis of anthocyanin was rapidly proceeded to last step at an early stage of fruit color development. The anthocyanin compositions of ‘Kaiji’, ‘Koshu’, ‘Sek...

  8. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  9. Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY N"m A.R. TURNER AND A. WHITE...TO biEPROOU.; AND SELL THIS REPORT Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography A.R...8217/......... .. Availability Cooes Dist Avaiardlo A-i Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  10. Electric-arc synthesis of soot with high content of higher fullerenes in parallel arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutlov, A. E.; Nekrasov, V. M.; Sergeev, A. G.; Bubnov, V. P.; Kareev, I. E.

    2016-12-01

    Soot with a relatively high content of higher fullerenes (C76, C78, C80, C82, C84, C86, etc.) is synthesized in a parallel arc upon evaporation of pure carbon electrodes. The content of higher fullerenes in soot extract amounts to 13.8 wt % when two electrodes are simultaneously burnt in electric-arc reactor. Such a content is comparable with the content obtained upon evaporation of composite graphite electrodes with potassium carbonate impurity.

  11. High content screening as high quality assay for biological evaluation of photosensitizers in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela M F Vaz

    Full Text Available A novel single step assay approach to screen a library of photdynamic therapy (PDT compounds was developed. Utilizing high content analysis (HCA technologies several robust cellular parameters were identified, which can be used to determine the phototoxic effects of porphyrin compounds which have been developed as potential anticancer agents directed against esophageal carcinoma. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach a small detailed study on five porphyrin based compounds was performed utilizing two relevant esophageal cancer cell lines (OE21 and SKGT-4. The measurable outputs from these early studies were then evaluated by performing a pilot screen using a set of 22 compounds. These data were evaluated and validated by performing comparative studies using a traditional colorimetric assay (MTT. The studies demonstrated that the HCS assay offers significant advantages over and above the currently used methods (directly related to the intracellular presence of the compounds by analysis of their integrated intensity and area within the cells. A high correlation was found between the high content screening (HCS and MTT data. However, the HCS approach provides additional information that allows a better understanding of the behavior of these compounds when interacting at the cellular level. This is the first step towards an automated high-throughput screening of photosensitizer drug candidates and the beginnings of an integrated and comprehensive quantitative structure action relationship (QSAR study for photosensitizer libraries.

  12. Pedagogical content knowledge and preparation of high school physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Etkina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge—PCK. The program has been in place for 7 years and has a steady production rate of an average of six teachers per year who remain in the profession. The main purpose of the paper is to provide information about a possible structure, organization, and individual elements of a program that prepares physics teachers. The philosophy of the program and the coursework can be implemented either in a physics department or in a school of education. The paper provides details about the program course work and teaching experiences and suggests ways to adapt it to other local conditions.

  13. A multi-channel high time resolution detector for high content imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lapington, J S; Miller, G M; Ashton, T J R; Jarron, P; Despeisse, M; Powolny, F; Howorth, J; Milnes, J

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging has long benefited from advances in photon counting detectors arising from space and particle physics. We describe a microchannel plate-based detector system for high content (multi-parametric) analysis, specifically designed to provide a step change in performance and throughput for measurements in imaged live cells and tissue for the ‘omics’. The detector system integrates multi-channel, high time resolution, photon counting capability into a single miniaturized detector with integrated ASIC electronics, comprising a fast, low power amplifier discriminator and TDC for every channel of the discrete pixel electronic readout, and achieving a pixel density improvement of order two magnitudes compared with current comparable devices. The device combines high performance, easy reconfigurability, and economy within a compact footprint. We present simulations and preliminary measurements in the context of our ultimate goals of 20 ps time resolution with multi-channel parallel analysis (1024 chan...

  14. Ferulic acid 5-hydroxylase 1 is essential for expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes and anthocyanin accumulation under photooxidative stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruta, Takanori; Noshi, Masahiro; Nakamura, Maki; Matsuda, Shun; Tamoi, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2014-04-01

    Anthocyanins are important for preventing photoinhibition and photodamage. By comprehensive reverse genetic analysis of chloroplast-produced H2O2-responsive genes, we isolated here an anthocyanin-deficient mutant under photooxidative stress, which lacked ferulate 5-hydroxylase 1 (FAH1) involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Interestingly, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes was also inhibited in this mutant. These findings suggest that FAH1 is essential for expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes and anthocyanin accumulation under photooxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we found that estrogen-inducible silencing of thylakoid membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase, which is a major H2O2-scavenging enzyme in chloroplasts, enhances the expression of FAH1 and anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes and accumulation of anthocyanin without any application of stress. Thus, it is likely that chloroplastic H2O2 activates FAH1 expression to induce anthocyanin accumulation for protecting cells from photooxidative stress.

  15. Molecular genetics of blood-fleshed peach reveals activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by NAC transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Wang, Huiliang; Gu, Chao; Dare, Andrew P; Espley, Richard V; He, Huaping; Allan, Andrew C; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin pigmentation is an important consumer trait in peach (Prunus persica). In this study, the genetic basis of the blood-flesh trait was investigated using the cultivar Dahongpao, which shows high levels of cyanidin-3-glucoside in the mesocarp. Elevation of anthocyanin levels in the flesh was correlated with the expression of an R2R3 MYB transcription factor, PpMYB10.1. However, PpMYB10.1 did not co-segregate with the blood-flesh trait. The blood-flesh trait was mapped to a 200-kb interval on peach linkage group (LG) 5. Within this interval, a gene encoding a NAC domain transcription factor (TF) was found to be highly up-regulated in blood-fleshed peaches when compared with non-red-fleshed peaches. This NAC TF, designated blood (BL), acts as a heterodimer with PpNAC1 which shows high levels of expression in fruit at late developmental stages. We show that the heterodimer of BL and PpNAC1 can activate the transcription of PpMYB10.1, resulting in anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco. Furthermore, silencing the BL gene reduces anthocyanin pigmentation in blood-fleshed peaches. The transactivation activity of the BL-PpNAC1 heterodimer is repressed by a SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like TF, PpSPL1. Low levels of PpMYB10.1 expression in fruit at early developmental stages is probably attributable to lower levels of expression of PpNAC1 plus the presence of high levels of repressors such as PpSPL1. We present a mechanism whereby BL is the key gene for the blood-flesh trait in peach via its activation of PpMYB10.1 in maturing fruit. Partner TFs such as basic helix-loop-helix proteins and NAC1 are required, as is the removal of transcriptional repressors.

  16. Epidermal coumaroyl anthocyanins protect sweet basil against excess light stress: multiple consequences of light attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattini, Massimiliano; Landi, Marco; Brunetti, Cecilia; Giordano, Cristiana; Remorini, Damiano; Gould, Kevin S; Guidi, Lucia

    2014-11-01

    The putative photoprotective role of foliar anthocyanins continues to attract heated debate. Strikingly different experimental set-ups coupled with a poor knowledge of anthocyanin identity have likely contributed to such disparate opinions. Here, the photosynthetic responses to 30 or 100% solar irradiance were compared in two cultivars of basil, the green-leafed Tigullio (TG) and the purple-leafed Red Rubin (RR). Coumaroyl anthocyanins in RR leaf epidermis significantly mitigated the effects of high light stress. In full sunlight, RR leaves displayed several shade-plant traits; they transferred less energy than did TG to photosystem II (PSII), and non-photochemical quenching was lower. The higher xanthophyll cycle activity in TG was insufficient to prevent inactivation of PSII in full sunlight. However, TG was the more efficient in the shade; RR was far less able to accommodate a large change in irradiance. Investment of carbon to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was more in RR than in TG in the shade, and was either greatly enhanced in TG or varied little in RR because of high sunlight. The metabolic cost of photoprotection was lower whereas light-induced increase in biomass production was higher in RR than in TG, thus making purple basil the more light tolerant. Purple basil appears indeed to display the conservative resource-use strategy usually observed in highly stress tolerant species. We conclude that the presence of epidermal coumaroyl anthocyanins confers protective benefits under high light, but it is associated with a reduced plasticity to accommodate changing light fluxes as compared with green leaves.

  17. Anthocyanin-sensitized solar cells using carbon nanotube films as counter electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwei; Zeng, Haifeng; Subramanian, Venkatachalam; Masarapu, Charan; Hung, Kai-Hsuan; Wei, Bingqing

    2008-11-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) films have been used as counter electrodes in natural dye-sensitized (anthocyanin-sensitized) solar cells to improve the cell performance. Compared with conventional cells using natural dye electrolytes and platinum as the counter electrodes, cells with a single-walled nanotube (SWNT) film counter electrode show comparable conversion efficiency, which is attributed to the increase in short circuit current density due to the high conductivity of the SWNT film.

  18. A wheat R2R3-MYB protein PURPLE PLANT1 (TaPL1) functions as a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Choi, Myoung-Goo; Kang, Chon-Sik; Park, Chul-Soo; Choi, Sang-Bong; Park, Youn-Il

    2016-01-15

    Transcriptional activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in vegetative tissues of monocotyledonous plants is mediated by cooperative activity of one component from each of the following two transcription factor families: MYB encoded by PURPLE PLANT1/COLORED ALEURONE1 (PL1/C1), and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) encoded by RED/BOOSTER (R1/B1). In the present study, putative PL cDNA was cloned from the wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar Iksan370, which preferentially expresses anthocyanins in coleoptiles. Phylogenetic tree analysis of deduced amino acid sequences showed that a putative TaPL1 is highly homologous to barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvPL1, but is distinct from wheat TaC1. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana stably expressing putative TaPL1 accumulated anthocyanin pigments in leaves and up-regulated structural genes involved in both early and late anthocyanin biosynthesis steps. TaPL1 transcript levels in Iksan370 were more prominent in vegetative tissues such as young coleoptiles than in reproductive tissues such as spikelets. TaPL1 expression was significantly up-regulated by environmental stresses including cold, salt, and light, which are known to induce anthocyanin accumulation. These combined results suggest that TaPL1 is an active positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in wheat coleoptiles.

  19. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Solbrig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR operated from April 18, 1969, until 1990. ZPPR operated at low power for testing nuclear reactor designs. This paper examines the temperature of Pu content ZPPR fuel while it is in storage. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible cladding damage. Damage to the cladding could lead to fuel hydriding and oxidizing. A series of computer simulations were made to determine the range of temperatures potentially occuring in the ZPPR fuel. The maximum calculated fuel temperature is 292°C (558°F. Conservative assumptions in the model intentionally overestimate temperatures. The stored fuel temperatures are dependent on the distribution of fuel in the surrounding storage compartments, the heat generation rate of the fuel, and the orientation of fuel. Direct fuel temperatures could not be measured but storage bin doors, storage sleeve doors, and storage canister temperatures were measured. Comparison of these three temperatures to the calculations indicates that the temperatures calculated with conservative assumptions are, as expected, higher than the actual temperatures. The maximum calculated fuel temperature with the most conservative assumptions is significantly below the fuel failure criterion of 600°C (1,112°F.

  20. A Grapevine Anthocyanin Acyltransferase, Transcriptionally Regulated by VvMYBA, Can Produce Most Acylated Anthocyanins Present in Grape Skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Amy R; Cavallini, Erika; Jia, Yong; Moss, Sarah M A; McDavid, Debra A J; Hooper, Lauren C; Robinson, Simon P; Tornielli, Giovanni B; Zenoni, Sara; Ford, Christopher M; Boss, Paul K; Walker, Amanda R

    2015-11-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds responsible for red/purple colors in the leaves, fruit, and flowers of many plant species. They are produced through a multistep pathway that is controlled by MYB transcription factors. VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 activate anthocyanin biosynthesis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and are nonfunctional in white grapevine cultivars. In this study, transgenic grapevines with altered VvMYBA gene expression were developed, and transcript analysis was carried out on berries using a microarray technique. The results showed that VvMYBA is a positive regulator of the later stages of anthocyanin synthesis, modification, and transport in cv Shiraz. One up-regulated gene, ANTHOCYANIN 3-O-GLUCOSIDE-6″-O-ACYLTRANSFERASE (Vv3AT), encodes a BAHD acyltransferase protein (named after the first letter of the first four characterized proteins: BEAT [for acetyl CoA:benzylalcohol acetyltransferase], AHCT [for anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase], HCBT [for anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase], and DAT [for deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase]), belonging to a clade separate from most anthocyanin acyltransferases. Functional studies (in planta and in vitro) show that Vv3AT has a broad anthocyanin substrate specificity and can also utilize both aliphatic and aromatic acyl donors, a novel activity for this enzyme family found in nature. In cv Pinot Noir, a red-berried grapevine mutant lacking acylated anthocyanins, Vv3AT contains a nonsense mutation encoding a truncated protein that lacks two motifs required for BAHD protein activity. Promoter activation assays confirm that Vv3AT transcription is activated by VvMYBA1, which adds to the current understanding of the regulation of the BAHD gene family. The flexibility of Vv3AT to use both classes of acyl donors will be useful in the engineering of anthocyanins in planta or in vitro.

  1. High dynamic range images for enhancing low dynamic range content

    OpenAIRE

    Banterle, Francesco; Dellepiane, Matteo; Scopigno, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This poster presents a practical system for enhancing the quality of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) videos using High Dynamic Range (HDR) background images. Our technique relies on the assumption that the HDR information is static in the video footage. This assumption can be valid in many scenarios where moving subjects are the main focus of the footage and do not have to interact with moving light sources or highly reflective objects. Another valid scenario is teleconferencing via webcams, where th...

  2. A role for PacMYBA in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinjie; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Kaichun; Yuan, Huazhao; Liao, Xiong; Wang, Qi; Guo, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Li, Tianhong

    2014-05-01

    The MYB transcription factors and plant hormone ABA have been suggested to play a role in fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking in sweet cherry. The present study describes the first functional characterization of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, PacMYBA, from red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.). Transient promoter assays demonstrated that PacMYBA physically interacted with several anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to activate the promoters of PacDFR, PacANS and PacUFGT, which are thought to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the immature seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PacMYBA exhibited ectopic pigmentation. Silencing of PacMYBA, using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing technique, resulted in sweet cherry fruit that lacked red pigment. ABA treatment significantly induced anthocyanin accumulation, while treatment with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) blocked anthocyanin production. PacMYBA expression peaked after 2 h of pre-incubation in ABA and was 15.2-fold higher than that of sweet cherries treated with NDGA. The colorless phenotype was also observed in the fruits silenced in PacNCED1, which encodes a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. The endogenous ABA content as well as the transcript levels of six structural genes and PacMYBA in PacNCED1-RNAi (RNA interference) fruit were significantly lower than in the TRV vector control fruit. These results suggest that PacMYBA plays an important role in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis and ABA is a signal molecule that promotes red-colored sweet cherry fruit accumulating anthocyanin.

  3. Electronic structure and optical properties of some anthocyanins extracted from grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosub, Ion; Kajzar, Francois; Makowska-Janusik, Malgorzata; Meghea, Aurelia; Tane, Alexandrina; Rau, Ileana

    2012-08-01

    The pallet of applications of natural dyes and pigments is continuously extending as a stringent need to meet the challenges arisen from sustainable development, particularly related to replacing synthetic chemicals by eco-friendly renewable raw materials. In this respect, the well known nutritive and therapeutic properties demonstrated by anthocyanin compounds present in selective plant extracts of numerous fruits, vegetables and flowers could be largely complemented by their characteristics as chromophores and fluorophores with high potential in promising applications in bio-imaging for diagnostic and therapy, but also in electronic and photonic devices, solar cells, etc. In this context, this paper proposes an improved protocol for extraction and HPLC detection of anthocyanins from black grapes. Moreover, in order to exploit their potential to be applied as chromatic and fluorescence molecular probes, the electronic properties have been studied by correlating spectral characteristics with trichromatic parameters, combined with quantum chemistry computation.

  4. New acylated anthocyanins from purple yam and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Chiemi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Agawa, Sayuri; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Kozone, Ikuko; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Terahara, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Purple yam (Dioscorea alata L.), which is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is characterized by its color and viscosity. Previous studies have shown that purple yams contain a variety of acylated anthocyanins that exhibit higher levels of antioxidant activity than the corresponding nonacylated compounds. In this study, the pigments found in purple yams from the Philippines (D. alata) were isolated and evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Four new acylated anthocyanins, alanins (1-4) were isolated from the MeOH extracts of purple yam, which were subsequently determined to be cyanidin (1, 2, and 4) and peonidin (3) type compounds, along with four known anthocyanins (5-8). The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectroscopic methods, including NMR and MS analyses. The antioxidant activities of anthocyanins 1-8 were investigated using oxygen radical absorbing capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays.

  5. Bleaching of the red anthocyanin induced by superoxide radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, H; Uefuji, H; Sakihama, Y

    1996-08-01

    Red anthocyanin prepared from petals of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. was photobleached in the EDTA-riboflavin system. The rate of bleaching monitored at 565 nm depended on the light intensity and EDTA concentrations. Anaerobic conditions and/or addition of superoxide dismutase prevented the bleaching of anthocyanin, whereas mannitol and catalase did not. A similar bleaching was observed under dark conditions in the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system. The results indicate that anthocyanin is bleached by the nonenzymatic reaction with the superoxide radical and suggest that the pigment can function as an antioxidant. The antioxidative efficiency of cyanidin to superoxide was 10-fold higher than that of cyanidin-3-sophoroside as a Hibiscus anthocyanin.

  6. Effects of Different Growing Regions on Quality Characteristics, Bioactive Compound Contents, and Antioxidant Activity of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Thi, Nhuan Do

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growing regions on quality characteristics, total bioactive compound contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity in aronia. Aronia grown in 3 different regions (Sangjoo, Ulju, and Youngcheon) in Korea was obtained and used fresh or as a freeze-dried powder. No statistically significant differences were observed for moisture, ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents in aronia sampled from the 3 different regions. Aronia grown in Sangjoo had the highest total acid content and the lowest sugar content and pH value. Conversely, aronia grown in Youngcheon possessed the lowest total acid content and the highest sugar content and pH value. Aronia grown in Sangjoo possessed relatively high levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as high antioxidant activity in comparison with aronia produced in other regions. Aronia grown in Youngcheon scored the highest for taste and overall acceptability in sensory evaluations, which may be related to the high sugar content and pH, and the low total acidity of the fruits. It is possible that higher sugar contents and pH, and lower total acidity in the aronia grown in Youngcheon result in more preferable sensory characteristics. However, they also contain relatively low levels of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and have low antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays. PMID:27752502

  7. Identification of antimutagenic properties of anthocyanins and other polyphenols from rose (Rosa centifolia) petals and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2013-06-01

    Petals from different rose (Rosa centifolia) cultivars ("passion," "pink noblesse," and "sphinx") were assessed for antimutagenicity using Escherichia coli RNA polymerase B (rpoB)-based Rif (S) →Rif (R) (rifampicin sensitive to resistant) forward mutation assay against ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutagenesis. The aqueous extracts of rose petals from different cultivars exhibited a wide variation in their antimutagenicity. Among these, cv. "passion" was found to display maximum antimutagenicity. Upon further fractionation, the anthocyanin extract of cv. "passion" displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than its phenolic extract. During thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, the anthocyanin extract got resolved into 3 spots: yellow (Rf : 0.14), blue (Rf : 0.30), and pink (Rf : 0.49). Among these spots, the blue one displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than the other 2. Upon high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, this blue spot further got resolved into 2 peaks (Rt : 2.7 and 3.8 min). The 2nd peak (Rt : 3.8 min) displaying high antimutagenicity was identified by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis as peonidin 3-glucoside, whereas less antimutagenic peak 1 (Rt : 2.7) was identified as cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside. The other TLC bands were also characterized by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis. The least antimutagenic pink band (Rf : 0.49) was identified as malvidin 3-acetylglucoside-4-vinylcatechol, whereas non-antimutagenic yellow band (Rf : 0.14) was identified as luteolinidin anthocyanin derivative. Interestingly, the anthocyanin extracted from rose tea of cv. "passion" exhibited a similar antimutagenicity as that of the raw rose petal indicating the thermal stability of the contributing bioactive(s). The findings thus indicated the health protective property of differently colored rose cultivars and the nature of their active bioingredients.

  8. Effect of frozen storage on the anthocyanins and phenolic components of pomegranate juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsaeedghazi, Hossein; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate juice’s valuable nutritional components may be reduced during its processing or storage. This work examined the effect of frozen storage at −25 °C on some chemical characteristics of pomegranate juice. Total anthocyanin content of pomegranate juice, which was measured using the pH differential method, decreased by 11% after 20 days of frozen storage. Phenolic components, measured using a Folin and Ciocalteu assay by means of a UV–vis spectrophotometer, decreased by 29% after 20 da...

  9. A parallel microfluidic flow cytometer for high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian K; Evans, James G; Cheung, Man Ching; Ehrlich, Daniel J

    2011-05-01

    A parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) uses a high-speed scanning photomultiplier-based detector to combine low-pixel-count, one-dimensional imaging with flow cytometry. The 384 parallel flow channels of the PMC decouple count rate from signal-to-noise ratio. Using six-pixel one-dimensional images, we investigated protein localization in a yeast model for human protein misfolding diseases and demonstrated the feasibility of a nuclear-translocation assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing an NFκB-EGFP reporter.

  10. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life.

  11. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sharifiyan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  12. LC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) determination of direct condensation flavanol-anthocyanin adducts in pressure extracted pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentandreu, Enrique; Navarro, Jose L; Sendra, Jose M

    2010-10-13

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice, obtained by pressure extraction of the whole fruit, has been analyzed for its flavanol-anthocyanin adduct content using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with diode array detection, coupled to mass spectrometry (ion trap) with electrospray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)), operating in positive ion mode. A total of 35 dimers have been detected, consisting of mono- and disubstituted hexoside derivatives of the adducts between the flavan-3-ols (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)catechin and (epi)afzelechin and the anthocyanidins delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin. In addition, evidence is given for the presence of additional anthocyanin-flavanol adducts in this juice.

  13. Degradation Kinetics of Anthocyanins from European Cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus L. Fruit Extracts. Effects of Temperature, pH and Storage Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cimpoiu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available European cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus L. fruits are well known for their biological properties, of which some are due to the presence of anthocyanins in the berries. Current literature provides little information concerning these fruits. The stability of anthocyanins from Viburnum opulus fruits, in aqueous and ethanolic extracts, stored under darkness for 7 days at different temperatures (2 °C, 37 °C and 75 °C and pH values (pH = 3 and 7, was studied here. The lowest stability was showed by the anthocyanins from the water extract stored at 75 °C and pH = 7, with half-life and constant rate values of 1.98 h and 0.3488 h−1, respectively. The results showed a good correlation between the total anthocyanin content (determined using the pH differential method and the time of storage, with determination coefficients varying from R2 = 0.9298 to R2 = 0.9971. Results indicate that the storage degradation of anthocyanins followed first-order reaction kinetics under all investigated conditions.

  14. Instability of anthocyanin composition under different subculture conditions during long-term suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Fréaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Junge; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju

    2011-11-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. In order to understand the instability in plant cell culture, we investigated anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, in our laboratory. Not only the anthocyanin contents but also its composition exhibited instability along with the long-term subculture. New methods were developed to indicate the instability of plant cell culture. Both the definition of instability coefficient (delta) and the application of factor scores were the first time in this field. To examine the effects of culture conditions on instability of anthocyanin biosynthesis, different subculture cycles and inoculum sizes had been investigated. Subculture cycle and inoculum size were both environmental cues driving the instability. Compared with subculture cycle, inoculum size was more effective in working on the instability of anthocyanin accumulation. Among all the conditions investigated in our study, (6.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 2.00 g), (7.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 1.60 g) and (7 d, 2.40 g), the condition of 7 d-subculture cycle together with 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to keep the stable production of anthocyanins.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Junqueira-Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic. LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit’s characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  16. High content image cytometry in the context of subnuclear organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, W H; Van Neste, L; Dieriks, B; Joss, G H; Van Oostveldt, P

    2010-01-01

    The organization of proteins in space and time is essential to their function. To accurately quantify subcellular protein characteristics in a population of cells with regard for the stochasticity of events in a natural context, there is a fast-growing need for image-based cytometry. Simultaneously, the massive amount of data that is generated by image-cytometric analyses, calls for tools that enable pattern recognition and automated classification. In this article, we present a general approach for multivariate phenotypic profiling of individual cell nuclei and quantification of subnuclear spots using automated fluorescence mosaic microscopy, optimized image processing tools, and supervised classification. We demonstrate the efficiency of our analysis by determination of differential DNA damage repair patterns in response to genotoxic stress and radiation, and we show the potential of data mining in pinpointing specific phenotypes after transient transfection. The presented approach allowed for systematic analysis of subnuclear features in large image data sets and accurate classification of phenotypes at the level of the single cell. Consequently, this type of nuclear fingerprinting shows potential for high-throughput applications, such as functional protein assays or drug compound screening.

  17. Effects of baking on cyanidin-3-glucoside content and antioxidant properties of black and yellow soybean crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Margaret; Lu, Yingjian; Kaplan, Nicholas; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-11-15

    Black soybean is a potential functional food ingredient with high anthocyanin content, but the ability to maintain anthocyanin content under dry heat processing has not been reported. This study investigated the effects of soybean seed coat colour and baking time-temperature combinations on the extractable antioxidant properties of a soy cracker food model. Crackers prepared with black soybeans had significantly higher TPC, total isoflavones, and peroxyl, hydroxyl, and ABTS(+) radical scavenging abilities than their yellow counterparts, at all time-temperature combinations. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was detected only in black soybean crackers, and all baking treatments significantly decreased C3G. The greatest losses occurred at the low temperature×long time and high temperature×short time, the smallest loss with moderate temperature×short/medium time. The high temperature treatment altered phenolic acid and isoflavone profiles; however, total isoflavones were unaffected. Overall results suggest that moderate baking temperature at minimal time may best preserve anthocyanin and other phenolics in baked black soybean crackers.

  18. Quantitative changes in proteins responsible for flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit at different ripening stages: A targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing multiple reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Li, Li; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, ZhaoQi; Li, XiHong

    2015-06-03

    To better understand the regulation of flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis, a targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing LC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring was conducted on two strawberry cultivars at three ripening stages. This quantitative proteomic workflow was improved through an OFFGEL electrophoresis to fractionate peptides from total protein digests. A total of 154 peptide transitions from 47 peptides covering 21 proteins and isoforms related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were investigated. The normalized protein abundance, which was measured using isotopically-labeled standards, was significantly changed concurrently with increased anthocyanin content and advanced fruit maturity. The protein abundance of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; anthocyanidin synthase, chalcone isomerase; flavanone 3-hydroxylase; dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase, cytochrome c and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 2, was all significantly increased in fruit of more advanced ripeness. An interaction between cultivar and maturity was also shown with respect to chalcone isomerase. The good correlation between protein abundance and anthocyanin content suggested that a metabolic control point may exist for anthocyanin biosynthesis. This research provides insights into the process of anthocyanin formation in strawberry fruit at the level of protein concentration and reveals possible candidates in the regulation of anthocyanin formation during fruit ripening. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation of strawberry fruit during ripening is challenging due to limited molecular biology tools and established hypothesis. Our targeted proteomic approach employing LC-MS/MS analysis and MRM technique to quantify proteins in relation to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in strawberry fruit during fruit ripening is novel. The identification of peptides

  19. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey A. Tinkov; Elizaveta V. Popova; Evgenia R. Gatiatulina; Anastasia A. Skalnaya; Elena N. Yakovenko; Irina B. Alchinova; Mikhail Y. Karganov; Anatoly V. Skalny; Nikonorov, Alexandr A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and method...

  20. Trend in Plutonium Content of MOX in Thermal Reactor Use and Irradiation Behavior of MOX with High Plutonium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, N.; Baba, T.; Kamimura, K. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization - JNES, TOKYU REIT Toranomon Bldg., 3-17-1, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001 (Japan); Verwerft, M.; Jutier, F. [SCK-CEN (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    The uranium enrichment of UO{sub 2} fuel for the current power reactors, both PWR and BWR, tends to increase because of increasing burn-up target. The plutonium content of MOX fuel used in thermal reactors shall be determined in order to have reactivity worth equivalent to enriched UO{sub 2} fuel based on physical accounting method for adjusting fissile enrichment, thus the plutonium content tends to increase according to the increment of the uranium enrichment of UO{sub 2} fuel and this trend shall further be accentuated due to the fact that Pu recovered from reprocessing of the spent high burnup UO{sub 2} fuel contains less fissile isotopes. The plutonium content is calculated by use of the physical accounting method with the plutonium having several kinds of isotope ratios and the calculation results indicate that the plutonium content in MOX will evolve to ratios in excess of 10%. It shall be, therefore, important to know the irradiation behavior of MOX with high plutonium content of more than 10 wt%. MOX fuel rods having a plutonium content of about 14 wt% and fabricated by use of MIMAS process have been irradiated under PWR conditions in the Belgian test reactors BR-3 and BR-2. The peak fuel rod burn-up of the fuel rods studied in this paper ranges from 31 to 37 GWd/t-HM, and their average burnup is about 22-26 GWd/t-HM with the rod averaged linear heat generation rate of about 15-21 kW/m. The MOX rods are investigated by destructive and non-destructive post irradiation examinations and some of them are now continued to be irradiated in BR-2. Mixed Oxide (U,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel produced by the MIMAS process results in a fine dispersion of Pu enriched particles in a UO{sub 2} matrix and effectively gives three enrichment classes: low, medium and high enriched. The high enriched particles (often called 'Pu spots'), have an enrichment of around 25 wt% Pu, the low enriched phase is the UO{sub 2} matrix and contains only trace amounts of Pu. An

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Silicon Oxynitride MCM-41 with High Nitrogen Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cunman; XU Zheng; LIU Qian

    2005-01-01

    Mesoporous silicon oxynitrides MCM-41 were synthesized successfully. The resulting materials not only have high nitrogen contents and good structural characteristics of MCM-41 (high surface area, narrow pore size distribution and good order), but also are amorphous. The composition and structure of the materials were investigated by CNH element analysis, XPS, Si MAS NMR, XRD, HRTEM and N2 sorption, respectively. Mesoporous silicon oxynitrides MCM-41 with a high nitrogen content are still non-crystal (amorphous).

  2. EKSTRAKSI DAN STABILITAS ANTOSIANIN DARI KULIT BUAH DUWET (Syzgium cumini [Extraction and Stability of Anthocyanins From Jambolan (Syzgium cumini Skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Fauzi1

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins were extracted from jambolan skins using neutral solvents e.i water, ethanol, sopropanol, water ; ethanol (1:1, water : isopropanol (1:1, ethanol : isopropanol (1:1, and water, ethanol, isoppropanol (1:1:1 at 5 and 270>C. the stability of the anthocyanins was as effected by pH, heat, oxidator, and light was investigated. The extraction using combination of water and isopropanol at 270C showed the highest total yield, i.e 71.54% (db. Furthermore, the highest anthocyanin concentration and yield were obtained in the extracts using combination of water and ethanol at 270>C i.e. 10 007.03 mg/L (db and 2.78% (db, respectively. At low pH, the pigment extracts sowed high stability; and gradually decreased and lost color when the pH was increased. The greatest color intensity (red was obtained at pHs values less than 3.5. The anthocyanins were relatively stable during heating temperature of 40 and 600C in which more than 80% of pigment could be maintained for 4 hour of heating. Heating at high temperatures (80 and 1000C decreased the color stability more than 80%. Presence of oxidator H2O2 reduced the stability up to 73.52%. The UV and flouresecent light exposure for 7 days also reduced the stability by 11.47% and 10.62%, respectively.

  3. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  4. Content-Based Curriculum for High-Ability Learners, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce, Ed.; Little, Catherine A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The newly updated "Content-Based Curriculum for High-Ability Learners" provides a solid introduction to curriculum development in gifted and talented education. Written by experts in the field of gifted education, this text uses cutting-edge design techniques and aligns the core content with national and state standards. In addition to a revision…

  5. Mycorrhizal inoculation affects the phytochemical content in strawberry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cecatto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation date of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the fruit quality and the content of phytochemicals in a strawberry soilless growing system. The experiment was performed in Huelva (Spain and was conducted in a greenhouse on the La Rábida Campus of Huelva University under natural light and temperature from October 2013 to June 2014. Three short-day strawberry cultivars (‘Splendor’, ‘Sabrina’ and ‘Fortuna’ were grown in polyethylene bags filled with coconut fibres. Randomized block design, with 3 repetitions and factorial arrangement (3 cultivars x 3 treatments, was established. Each replicate consisted of one bag with 12 plants supporting structures at 40 cm height. The treatments were: T1 = mycorrhizal inoculation in the transplantation; T2 = mycorrhizal inoculation 30 days after transplantation (DAT; and T0 = control treatment, without inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation significantly affected the contents of anthocyanin and phenolics. When the inoculation is performed in the transplantation, the fruits showed a high content of anthocyanin and total phenolics. The mycorrhizal inoculation influences decreasing the acidity in fruit throughout the growing season and increase firmness only during the early stage of production.

  6. Composition and Content of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits and Their Effects on Wheat Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jian-min; LIU Ai-feng; WU Xiang-yun; LIU Jian-jun; ZHAO Zhen-dong; LIU Guang-tian

    2002-01-01

    Sedimentation values, flour glutenin macropolymer (GMP) contents, composition and contents of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GS) of 233 flour samples were determined. Our data indicated that subunit 1 occurred more frequently at Glu-A1, subunit pair 7 + 8 at Glu- B1 and 2 + 12 at Glu-D1. The significant relationships between Glu-1 quality score and total HMW glutenin content, sedimentation value and GMP content suggested that the composition of HMW-GS affects wheat quality strongly. Moreover,the total content of HMW-GS was correlated with certain quality parameters more significantly. Relationship between subunit 5 + 10 content and breadmaking quality was better than others, but 2 + 12, 7 + 8, 7 + 9 and 4 + 12 also correlated with certain quality parameters significantly. The contents of total HMW-glutenin, x-type subunits and y-type subunits related with sedimentation value, flour GMP content, and Glu-1 quality score more strongly than that of individual subunit or subunit pair. The flour GMP content, with excellent correlation to sedimentation value, total contents of HMW glutenin, x- and y-type subunits and many other quality parameters, could be an ideal indicator of breadmaking quality at earlier generations for breeding purpose for its simple procedure and small scale.

  7. High Seas High Schoolers: Creating ERESE Content on an Expedition to Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, R.; English, B.; Staudigel, D.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Hart, S.

    2005-12-01

    As part of the ERESE program, three high school seniors aboard the ALIA expedition generated contents and published a live trip website with a wide range of information about the science and personal aspects of the cruise. These activities served to relate as much meaningful information about the month-long research cruise in the South Pacific as possible, to people of all ages and skills. The website http://earthref.org/ERESE/projects/ALIA/ has reports on almost every aspect of the research cruise; from what it is like staying on the Research Vessel Kilo Moana for a month, to operating machinery, to interviews with the captain and chief scientists, and even how the equipment aboard works, in less than technical terms. An effective way to relay what was actually going on aboard the Kilo Moana, were the daily reports, written by the high school students, complete with the pictures and videos taken that day. This website connected the ALIA cruise to high school students and classrooms, who were following the expedition through the website both in the United States and in Samoa. High school seniors designed and implemented the "CruiseWatch" feature on the Alia website. This "applet" extracts data from the shipboard datastream and relays them to the ERESE website at the San Diego Supercomputing center via satellite, where they are prepared for real-time display on the cruise website. Data displayed include the ships' location on the map, geographic coordinates, heading, speed and wind speed. During dredging operations it displays the length of wire deployed, wire speed and wire tension. Overall the website with the daily reports and photographs, in addition to other web media, gave this trip a unique ability to engage people from around the world in researching oceanographic and geological phenomena.

  8. Adapting human pluripotent stem cells to high-throughput and high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbordes, Sabrina C; Studer, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as a source of cells for drug discovery, cytotoxicity assessment and disease modeling requires their adaptation to large-scale culture conditions and screening formats. Here, we describe a simple and robust protocol for the adaptation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to high-throughput screening (HTS). This protocol can also be adapted to human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and high-content screening (HCS). We also describe a 7-d assay to identify compounds with an effect on hESC self-renewal and differentiation. This assay can be adapted to a variety of applications. The procedure involves the culture expansion of hESCs, their adaptation to 384-well plates, the addition of small molecules or other factors, and finally data acquisition and processing. In this protocol, the optimal number of hESCs plated in 384-well plates has been adapted to HTS/HCS assays of 7 d.

  9. Optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds in mulberry (Morus nigra) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Carrera, Ceferino; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G; Barbero, Gerardo F

    2017-03-15

    New ultrasound-assisted extraction methods for the determination of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds present in mulberries have been developed. Several extraction variables, including methanol composition (50-100%), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasound amplitude (30-70%), cycle (0.2-0.7s), solvent pH (3-7) and solvent-solid ratio (10:1.5-20:1.5) were optimized. A Box-Behnken design in conjunction with a response surface methodology was employed to optimize the conditions for the maximum response based on 54 different experiments. Two response variables were considered: total anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds. Extraction temperature and solvent composition were found to be the most influential parameters for anthocyanins (48°C and 76%) and phenolic compounds (64°C and 61%). The developed methods showed high reproducibility and repeatability (RSD<5%). Finally, the new methods were successfully applied to real samples in order to investigate the presence of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds in several mulberry jams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anthocyanin and flavonoid production from Perilla frutescens: pilot plant scale processing including cross-flow microfiltration and reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Linghua; Lozano, Yves; Bombarda, Isabelle; Gaydou, Emile; Li, Bin

    2006-06-14

    Extraction and concentration at a pilot plant scale of anthocyanins and flavonoids from Perilla frutescens var. frutescens harvested in the Guangzhou area of China were investigated. The study of extraction efficiency using mineral acids and organic acids showed that 0.01 mol/L nitric acid was the most suitable to extract flavonoids from this slightly red leaf cultivar. The red extract contained 12 mg/L (as cyanidin equivalent) anthocyanins and other flavones. The multistep process included cross-flow microfiltration (CFM) with a ceramic type membrane, reverse osmosis (RO), and rotating evaporation (RE). The filtration fluxes were high and constant for CFM (150 L/h/m2 at 0.6 b) and for RO (22 L/h/m2 at 40 b). The red extract was concentrated 9.4 times by RO and then 5.4 times by RE. It contained 422 mg/L anthocyanins, representing 77% of the total extracted anthocyanin. The proportion of flavonoids was found unchanged during processing. The concentrated extract showed a pH of 2.7, and its free acidity was found to be 46% of the acidity added for extraction, because of the buffering capacity of the extract. At the concentration level reached, a crystallized deposit occurred and was identified as tartrate.

  11. REQUIREMENT OF FLUIDITY OF HIGH WATER CONTENT MATERIALS FORTHE GETWAY-SIDE BACKFILLING TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiTaiyue; MaNianjie

    1996-01-01

    Through analyzing the effects of water consumption, diameter of solid particle, and flow velocity on the fluidity of high water content material slurry, the relationship among the fluidity, the isotropy of the slurry, and the pumping facilities applied in getway-side backfilling has been found. And the requirment of fluidity of high water content material for the design of getway-side backfilling technique is put forward in the paper.

  12. A degradation model for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunmin; Guo, Ruyang; Li, Yu-Chao; Liu, Hailong; Zhan, Tony Liangtong

    2016-12-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has a high content of kitchen waste (KW), and therefore contains large quantities of water and non-hollocellulose degradable organics. The degradation of high KW content MSW cannot be well simulated by the existing degradation models, which are mostly established for low KW content MSW in developed countries. This paper presents a two-stage anaerobic degradation model for high KW content MSW with degradations of hollocellulose, sugars, proteins and lipids considered. The ranges of the proportions of chemical compounds in MSW components are summarized with the recommended values given. Waste components are grouped into rapidly or slowly degradable categories in terms of the degradation rates under optimal water conditions for degradation. In the proposed model, the unionized VFA inhibitions of hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis are considered as well as the pH inhibition of methanogenesis. Both modest and serious VFA inhibitions can be modeled by the proposed model. Default values for the parameters in the proposed method can be used for predictions of degradations of both low and high KW content MSW. The proposed model was verified by simulating two laboratory experiments, in which low and high KW content MSW were used, respectively. The simulated results are in good agreement with the measured data of the experiments. The results show that under low VFA concentrations, the pH inhibition of methanogenesis is the main inhibition to be considered, while the inhibitions of both hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis caused by unionized VFA are significant under high VFA concentrations. The model is also used to compare the degradation behaviors of low and high KW content MSW under a favorable environmental condition, and it shows that the gas potential of high KW content MSW releases more quickly.

  13. Enhanced ethanol fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high spermidine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Construction of robust and efficient yeast strains is a prerequisite for commercializing a biofuel production process. We have demonstrated that high intracellular spermidine (SPD) contents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to improved tolerance against various fermentation inhibitors, including furan derivatives and acetic acid. In this study, we examined the potential applicability of the S. cerevisiae strains with high SPD contents under two cases of ethanol fermentation: glucose fermentation in repeated-batch fermentations and xylose fermentation in the presence of fermentation inhibitors. During the sixteen times of repeated-batch fermentations using glucose as a sole carbon source, the S. cerevisiae strains with high SPD contents maintained higher cell viability and ethanol productivities than a control strain with lower SPD contents. Specifically, at the sixteenth fermentation, the ethanol productivity of a S. cerevisiae strain with twofold higher SPD content was 31% higher than that of the control strain. When the SPD content was elevated in an engineered S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose, the resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited much 40-50% higher ethanol productivities than the control strain during the fermentations of synthetic hydrolysate containing high concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. These results suggest that the strain engineering strategy to increase SPD content is broadly applicable for engineering yeast strains for robust and efficient production of ethanol.

  14. Protective effect of black raspberry seed containing anthocyanins against oxidative damage to DNA, protein, and lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Hee; Shim, Soon-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to determine bioactive components and radical scavenging capacity of black raspberry seed extracts as byproducts obtaining during the juice (FSE) and wine (WSE) making process. Cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was identified as a major anthocyanin and the total anthocyanin contents of fresh and wine seed were 78.24 and 41.61 mg/100 g of dry weight, respectively. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of FSE and WSE were 2.31 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 360.95 mg catechin equivalent (CE), and 2.44 g GAE and 379.54 mg CE per 100 g dry weight, respectively. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values were 1041.9 μM TE/g for FSE and 1060.4 μM TE/g for WSE. Pretreatment of the FSE and WSE inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA and protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals, and Fe(3+)/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner. WSE more effectively protected from oxidative damage than FSE. Results from the current study suggest that black raspberry seeds as byproducts from juice and wine processing could be potential sources for natural antioxidants.

  15. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Some Small Fruits Containing Anthocyanins Using Electrochemical and Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Căta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the antioxidant capacity of some fruits extracts containing anthocyanins (strawberry, raspberry, elderberry, mulberry, blackberry, bilberry, black and red currant using an electrochemical technique and three classical chemical methods based on reaction between antioxidants and a chromogen compound. evaluation of antioxidant activities of extracts was performed by using FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant capacity, ABTS (2,2’-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate] and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were correlated with their content of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. Good correlations were obtained especially between antioxidant activities and total phenolics content. Cyclic voltammetry was used for the evaluation of overall reducing capacity of the extracts using a glassy carbon electrode. Reducing capacity of selected fruits extracts was assessed based on the half-peak potential (E1/2 of the first oxidation peak. The oxidation potentials characterized by E1/2 value were not correlated with the antioxidant activities evaluated by the classical methods. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  16. Physicochemical Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Sour Cherry cv. Marasca During Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pedisić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry cv. Marasca is Dalmatian cultivar from XVI century. Cultivation is limited on the north and central part of Dalmatia and on the part of the islands, where it achieves the best quality of fruit, high content of dry matter and sugar respectively, agreeable aroma and intense color. Sour cherry cv. Marasca is source of biologically active ingredients, organic and inorganic compounds, dietary fibers, aromatic compounds and high content of phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins and hormone melatonin. Many epidemiological studies showed that phenolic compounds have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and they have beneficial effect on human health. Marasca is rich with mentioned compounds. Physicochemical composition (total and soluble dry matter, pH value, total acidity during ripening of cv. Marasca ecotype Recta (Cerasus marasca recta grown in Zadar and Split area were determined. Total and soluble dry matter increased and pH value and total acidity showed little change during ripening. The content of phenolic compounds increased during ripening as well as content of anthocyanins, while antioxidant activity decreased with ripening. That indicates there was no correlation between antioxidant activity and content of total phenolic compounds.

  17. Enhanced absorption of anthocyanins after oral administration of phytic acid in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Ito, Kyoko; Yonekura, Kumiko; Tsuda, Takanori; Ichiyanagi, Takashi; Hirayama, Masao; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2007-03-21

    Many studies on the bioavailability of polyphenols have been reported. However, the relative urinary excretions of AC are also low, ranging from 0.004% to 0.1%. By contrast, other polyphenols show higher urinary excretion levels. Here, we studied the enhancing effects of phytic acid (IP6) on absorption of blackcurrant anthocyanins (BCAs) in rats and humans. In rats after oral administration of BCAs (as 241 mg of AC/kg body weight) in IP6 (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%) solution, the ACs recovery in urine was increased dependent on IP6 dose. These results suggest that the IP6 enhances gastrointestinal absorption of ACs. At the further analysis of IP6 enhancement effect in rat, whereas BCAs were normally passed through the stomach and duodenum within 2 h, in IP6 group, after 2-6 h post-administration, stomach and jejunum content's weights were specifically heavy, and large amounts of ACs were also detected in stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. These results suggested that the mixture of BCAs and IP6 reduced the gastrointestinal motility. Prolongation of ACs residue in gastrointestinal tract then caused the enhancing effects of IP6 on absorption of AC. In the human study, each subject was orally administrated a BCA beverage containing BCA concentrate (AC 4 mg/kg body weight), 1% of IP6, and 1% of sodium citrate as a pH stabilizer. Both the plasma level and the urinary excretion of AC were increased as compared to BCA administration without IP6. AC intake with IP6 may increase the bioavailability of AC to the comparative level as other polyphenols. Yet, phytic acid, being a strong chelator of important minerals, contributes to mineral deficiencies. An interference with iron uptake has been reported. Safety tests are therefore necessary before high dose IP6 can be used in foods.

  18. New Role of Rosea1 in Regulating Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway in Hairy Root of Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in hairy roots system by ectopically expressing Rosea1 and Delila and we found something different from previous research. The RT-PCR results revealed that Rosea1 could activate early and late biosynthetic genes tested, including CHS, DFR and ANS. Delila enhanced the expression of CHS weakly, but did not influence DFR or ANS. The two regulators, Rosea1 and Delila, failed to interplay each other. It was speculated that Delila would be ineffective in the absence of Rosea1, another MYB factor specifically controlling CHS may exist. This investigation provided a new way to increase anthocyanin content by over expressing a MYB factor, potentially to be used in the field of agriculture and food

  19. Development of a New Foxtail Millet Germplasm with Super Early Maturity and High Iron Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-li; SUN Shi-xian; CHENG Ru-hong; HUANG Wen-sheng; LIU Jun-xin; QU Zhu-feng; XIA Xue-yan; SHI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    Super Early Maturation No.2 is a new foxtail millet germplasm developed by using the targeted-character-gene-bankbreeding method. It has several outstanding characteristics. (1) Super early maturity. It can normally mature in Bashang,Hebei Province, China, where the altitude is around 1 400 meters, and it needs 1 650℃ of effective accumulated temperature in the growing period. (2) Millet is rich in iron. The iron content of the millet of Super Early Maturation No.2 is 54.10 mg kg-1,which is 62.0% higher than the average iron content of the foxtail millet varieties in China. (3) High crude fat content. Its crude fat content is 6.24%, which is 54.1% higher than the average content of foxtail millet varieties in China. (4) High crude protein content. The average of the crude protein content of all the foxtail millet varieties in China is 12.71%, only5% varieties surpass 14%, however, the crude protein content of Super Early Maturation No.2 is 14.36%, which is rare in improved varieties of foxtail millet in China. (5) Overall characteristics are good.

  20. Tissue- and isoform-specific phytochrome regulation of light-dependent anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Phytochromes regulate light- and sucrose-dependent anthocyanin synthesis and accumulation in many plants. Mesophyll-specific phyA alone has been linked to the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation in response to far-red light in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, multiple mesophyll-localized phytochromes were implicated in the photoregulation of anthocyanin accumulation in red-light conditions. Here, we report a role for mesophyll-specific phyA in blue-light-dependent regulation of anthocyanin l...

  1. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomato anthocyanins: a transcriptomics approach to understanding mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Achterfeldt, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Background and rationale: Epidemiological data shows an inverse relationship between consumption of anthocyanins and cardiovascular disease risk, while supplementing animal diets with anthocyanin-rich food/extracts reduced atherosclerosis and altered gene expression. However, due to the presence of other bioactives, these studies cannot prove that anthocyanins cause the observed effects. To determine this, suitable control foods (i.e. similar foods lacking anthocyanins) are needed, but these ...

  2. Antioxidative and Cardioprotective Properties of Anthocyanins from Defatted Dabai Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Nurulhuda, M. Halid; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir; Roowi, Suri

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine anthocyanins and their antioxidative and cardioprotective properties in defatted dabai parts. Anthocyanins in crude extracts and extract fractions of defatted dabai peel and pericarp were quantified using UHPLC, while their antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress inhibition ability were evaluated by using DPPH and CUPRAC assays as well as linoleic acid oxidation system, hemoglobin oxidation, and PARP-1 inhibition ELISA. Cardioprotective effect of the defatted dabai peel extract was evaluated using hypercholesterolemic-induced New Zealand white rabbits. Six anthocyanins were detected in the defatted dabai peel, with the highest antioxidant capacities and oxidative stress inhibition effect compared to the other part. The defatted dabai peel extract has also inhibited lipid peroxidation (plasma MDA) and elevated cellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) in the tested animal model. Major anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside) and other anthocyanins (pelargonidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside) detected in the defatted dabai peel are potential future nutraceuticals with promising medicinal properties. PMID:24368926

  3. Antioxidative and Cardioprotective Properties of Anthocyanins from Defatted Dabai Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock Eng Khoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine anthocyanins and their antioxidative and cardioprotective properties in defatted dabai parts. Anthocyanins in crude extracts and extract fractions of defatted dabai peel and pericarp were quantified using UHPLC, while their antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress inhibition ability were evaluated by using DPPH and CUPRAC assays as well as linoleic acid oxidation system, hemoglobin oxidation, and PARP-1 inhibition ELISA. Cardioprotective effect of the defatted dabai peel extract was evaluated using hypercholesterolemic-induced New Zealand white rabbits. Six anthocyanins were detected in the defatted dabai peel, with the highest antioxidant capacities and oxidative stress inhibition effect compared to the other part. The defatted dabai peel extract has also inhibited lipid peroxidation (plasma MDA and elevated cellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx in the tested animal model. Major anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside and other anthocyanins (pelargonidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside detected in the defatted dabai peel are potential future nutraceuticals with promising medicinal properties.

  4. High-content screening of yeast mutant libraries by shotgun lipidomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarasov, Kirill; Stefanko, Adam; Casanovas, Albert;

    2014-01-01

    To identify proteins with a functional role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis we designed a high-throughput platform for high-content lipidomic screening of yeast mutant libraries. To this end, we combined culturing and lipid extraction in 96-well format, automated direct infusion nanoelectrosp......To identify proteins with a functional role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis we designed a high-throughput platform for high-content lipidomic screening of yeast mutant libraries. To this end, we combined culturing and lipid extraction in 96-well format, automated direct infusion...... factor KAR4 precipitated distinct lipid metabolic phenotypes. These results demonstrate that the high-throughput shotgun lipidomics platform is a valid and complementary proxy for high-content screening of yeast mutant libraries....

  5. The role of anthocyanin in photoprotection and its relationship with the xanthophyll cycle and the antioxidant system in apple peel depends on the light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changsheng; Li, Houhua; Zhang, Di; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-11-01

    The synthesis of anthocyanin, the xanthophyll cycle, the antioxidant system and the production of active oxygen species (AOS) were compared between red and non-red apple cultivars, in response to either long-term sunlight exposure (high light intensity) during fruit development, or to exposure of bagged fruits to lower light intensity late in fruit development. During fruit development of red and non-red apples, the xanthophyll cycle pool size decreased much more in red apple peel late in development. With accumulation of AOS induced by long-term sunlight exposure, enhancement of the antioxidant system was found. However, this change became significantly lower in red apple than non-red apple as fruit developed, which might serve to accelerate the anthocyanin synthesis in red apple peel. When, late in fruit development, bagged fruits were exposed to sunlight, the accumulation of AOS was lower in red apple peel than in non-red peel. This could be due to the higher anthocyanin concentration in the red peels. Meanwhile, compared with that in non-red cultivar, the xanthophyll cycle and the antioxidant system in red apple peel were protected first but then down-regulated by its higher anthocyanin concentration during sunlight exposure. In conclusions, red and non-red apples peel possess different photoprotective mechanisms under high light conditions. The relationship between anthocyanin synthesis and the xanthophyll cycle, and the antioxidant system, depends on the light conditions that fruit undergoes. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 Interact with bHLH to Enhance Anthocyanin Accumulation in Pears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouqian Feng

    Full Text Available Color is an important agronomic trait of pears, and the anthocyanin content of fruit is immensely significant for pear coloring. In this study, an anthocyanin-activating R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, PyMYB10.1, was isolated from fruits of red sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Aoguan. Alignments of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that PyMYB10.1 was involved in anthocyanin regulation. Similar to PyMYB10, PyMYB10.1 was predominantly expressed in red tissues, including the skin, leaf and flower, but it was minimally expressed in non-red fruit flesh. The expression of this gene could be induced by light. Dual-luciferase assays indicated that both PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 activated the AtDFR promoter. The activation of AtDFR increased to a greater extent when combined with a bHLH co-factor, such as PybHLH, MrbHLH1, MrbHLH2, or AtbHLH2. However, the response of this activation depended on the protein complex formed. PyMYB10-AtbHLH2 activated the AtDFR promoter to a greater extent than other combinations of proteins. PyMYB10-AtbHLH2 also induced the highest anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco transient-expression assays. Moreover, PybHLH interacted with PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1. These results suggest that both PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 are positive anthocyanin biosynthesis regulators in pears that act via the formation of a ternary complex with PybHLH. The functional characterization of PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 will aid further understanding of the anthocyanin regulation in pears.

  7. The effect of methyl jasmonate and phenolic acids on growth of seedlings and accumulation of anthocyanins in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me and phenolic acids: trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA, p-coumaric acid (p-CA, salicylic acid (SA as well as naringenine (NAR on growth of seedlings and accumulation of anthocyanins in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench were studied. JA-Me and phenolics were applied to growth medium of 4-days etiolated buckwheat seedlings before their exposition to day/night (16h/8h conditions. The increase of primary roots and hypocotyls length were measured after 3 days of seedling growth in such conditions. At the end of experiment the total anthocyanins contents were measured as well. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me and trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA inhibited growth of the primary root in young buckwheat seedlings, while naringenine (NAR had a stimulatory influence, and p-coumaric acid had no effect at all. None of investigated phenolics or JA-Me had an effect on the growth of buckwheat hypocotyls, except the mixture of JA-Me and p-coumarcic acid. JA-Me significantly decreased the anthocyanins level in buckwheat hypocototyls, but not in cotyledons. trans-Cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid and naringenine had no significant influence on the anthocyanin level in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. Simultaneous treatment of buckwheat seedlings with JA-Me and t-CA or p-CA did not change the inhibition of anthocyanins accumulation in buckwheat hypocotyls by JA-Me. In the hypocotyls of buckwheat treated with a mixture of JA-Me and NAR, or SA, a synergistic reduction of anthocyanins was observed.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of three genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase from Ginkgo biloba in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hua

    Full Text Available Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR, EC1.1.1.219 catalyzes a key step late in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids important to plant survival and human nutrition. Three DFR cDNA clones (designated GbDFRs were isolated from the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. The deduced GbDFR proteins showed high identities to other plant DFRs, which form three distinct DFR families. Southern blot analysis showed that the three GbDFRs each belong to a different DFR family. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the GbDFRs share the same ancestor as other DFRs. The expression of the three recombinant GbDFRs in Escherichia coli showed that their actual protein sizes were in agreement with predictions from the cDNA sequences. The recombinant proteins were purified and their activity was analyzed; both GbDFR1 and GbDFR3 could catalyze dihydroquercetin conversion to leucocyanidin, while GbDFR2 catalyzed dihydrokaempferol conversion to leucopelargonidin. qRT-PCR showed that the GbDFRs were expressed in a tissue-specific manner, and transcript accumulation for the three genes was highest in young leaves and stamens. These transcription patterns were in good agreement with the pattern of anthocyanin accumulation in G.biloba. The expression profiles suggested that GbDFR1 and GbDFR2 are mainly involved in responses to plant hormones, environmental stress and damage. During the annual growth cycle, the GbDFRs were significantly correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves. A fitted linear curve showed the best model for relating GbDFR2 and GbDFR3 with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves. GbDFR1 appears to be involved in environmental stress response, while GbDFR3 likely has primary functions in the synthesis of anthocyanins. These data revealed unexpected properties and differences in three DFR proteins from a single species.

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Anthocyanin%蓝莓花青素的抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 潘利华

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究蓝莓花青素的抗氧化活性.[方法]采用酸化乙醇提取蓝莓鲜果中的蓝莓花青素,并通过羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率试验评价蓝莓花青素的抗氧化能力.[结果]蓝莓花青素对羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率随着浓度的增大而增强,其抗氧化活性高于相同浓度的抗坏血酸.[结论]蓝莓花青素具有很高的抗氧化活性,可以作为天然抗氧化剂进行开发.%[Objective] T