WorldWideScience

Sample records for high annual savings

  1. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  2. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  3. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  4. Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund : 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A review of the Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund as it operated under the new investment framework established in 1997 was presented. The new statutory mission of the Fund is to provide stewardship of the savings from Alberta's non-renewable resources by providing the greatest financial returns on those savings for current and future generations of Albertans. In 1998, the Fund earned $947 million in income with nearly $25 million of income being retained to ensure that the value of the Fund grows to off-set the effects of inflation. Net assets of the Fund on March 31, 1998 was $ 12.3 billion. Operation of the Fund, the accounting method used, and details about the Transition Portfolio and the Endowment Portfolio are provided. An assessment of Alberta's economic climate accompanies the auditor's report and the detailed financial statements of the Fund. tabs

  5. Savings Behavior and Satisfaction with Savings: A Comparison of Low- and High-Income Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth P.; Schumm, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Data on 1,739 married couples from 13 states were analyzed. Associations between satisfaction with savings and level of savings with measures of motivation to save, motivations to spend, and family resources were found to differ substantially between low- and high-income couples. (Author/CH)

  6. Empirical Study on Annual Energy-Saving Performance of Energy Performance Contracting in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongquan Ruan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A lack of trust in Energy Service Company (ESCo is the most critical factor affecting the development of Energy Performance Contracting (EPC in China, compared with other constraints. One cannot easily estimate the energy-saving performance of an EPC project. Under that condition, lack of trust may cause the Energy-Consuming Unit (ECU to suspect the energy-saving performance promised by the ESCo, thus leaving potentially profitable projects without necessary funding. Currently, specific studies taking an across-projects viewpoint on annual energy-saving performance of EPC projects in multiple subsectors, objectively and quantitatively, are lacking. This paper studies the regression relationships of annual energy-saving quantity in terms of revamping cost and the regression relationships of annual cost saving in terms of revamping cost. The regression results show that there are statistically significant correlations in the above relationships in the nine subsectors investigated. This is significant for ESCos and ECUs, because knowledge on energy-saving performance could contribute to EPC investment decisions and trust relationships between ESCos and ECUs. Then, a multiple linear regression model of revamping cost is set up to analyze its influencing factors. The model indicates that the subsector the sample belongs to, financing, registered capital of the ESCo, and contract period have significant effects on revamping cost. Thus, policy implications regarding innovation of EE promotion technology, clarifying ESCos’ exit mechanism, innovation of financing mechanism, and improving the market credit environment for promoting investment in EPC projects, are provided.

  7. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  8. Prospects for future uranium savings through LWRs with high performance cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochida, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Matsuura, H.; Ueji, M.; Murata, T.; Kanda, K.; Oka, Y.; Kondo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1986, Nuclear Power Engineering Cooperation (NUPEC) has been studying four types of LWR high performance core concepts (i.e., the uranium saving core I (USC-I), the uranium saving core II (USC-II), the high moderation core (HMC) and the low moderation core (LMC)), which aim at improvement of uranium and plutonium utilization. After the evaluation of fundamental core performance and uranium and plutonium material balance for each reactor, potential uranium savings with different reactor strategies are evaluated for the Japanese scenario with assumption of the growth of future nuclear power plant generation, annual reprocessing capacity and schedules for the introduction of high performance core. At 2030, about 3-6% savings in uranium demand are expected by USC-I or USC-II strategy, while about 14% savings by HMC strategy and about 8% by LMC strategy. (author)

  9. 12 CFR 502.26 - How does OTS calculate the semi-annual assessment for savings and loan holding companies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assessment for savings and loan holding companies? 502.26 Section 502.26 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Assessments Savings and Loan Holding Companies-Calculation of Assessments § 502.26 How does OTS calculate the semi-annual assessment for savings and loan...

  10. Electronic records' 1.4 m pounds annual saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    The St. Helens & Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust says it has reached a significant milestone in a major project via which it aims to cease completely using paper-based patient records and other patient-related information such as discharge summaries and X-ray results by converting all such documentation to online electronic form. With the purchase of three Kodak high-speed document scanners, which digitise the files, and a tailored version of C Cube Solutions' electronic document management software (EDMS), all 27 hospital departments at the Trust's two main acute hospitals have now "gone live" with the radical new system for medical records, and, as HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports, preparations are in hand to convert other important patient documentation into electronic form.

  11. Saving energy via high-efficiency fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Thomas Heine, sales and market manager for EC Upgrades, the retrofit arm of global provider of air movement solutions, ebm-papst A&NZ, discusses the retrofitting of high-efficiency fans to existing HVAC equipment to 'drastically reduce energy consumption'.

  12. Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation: Facility Utilizes Energy Assessments to Identify $930,000 in Potential Annual Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation (KUCC) used targeted energy assessments in the smelter and refinery at its Bingham Canyon Mine, near Salt Lake City, Utah. The assessment focused mainly on the energy-intensive processes of copper smelting and refining. By implementing the projects identified, KUCC could realize annual cost savings of $930,000 and annual energy savings of 452,000 MMBtu. The projects would also reduce maintenance, repair costs, waste, and environmental emissions. One project would use methane gas from an adjacent municipal dump to replace natural gas currently used to heat the refinery electrolyte.

  13. Annual Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort of Autonomously Heated and Cooled Office Chairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chin, Justin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Doug [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Energy use in offices buildings is largely driven by air conditioning demands. But the optimal temperature is not the same for all building occupants, leading to the infamous thermostat war. And many occupants have independently overcome building comfort weaknesses with their own space heaters or fans. NREL tested is a customized office chair that automatically heats and cools the occupant along the seat and chair back according to the occupants' personal preferences. This product is shown to deliver markedly better comfort at room temperatures well above typical office cooling setpoints. Experimental subjects reported satisfaction in these elevated air temperatures, partly because the chair's cooling effect was tuned to their own individual needs. Simulation of the chair in office buildings around the U.S. shows that energy can be saved everywhere, with impacts varying due to the climate. Total building HVAC energy savings exceeded 10% in hot-dry climate zones. Due to high product cost, simple payback for the chair we studied is beyond the expected chair life. We then understood the need to establish cost-performance targets for comfort delivery packages. NREL derived several hypothetical energy/cost/comfort targets for personal comfort product systems. In some climate regions around the U.S., these show the potential for office building HVAC energy savings in excess of 20%. This report documents this research, providing an overview of the research team's methods and results while also identifying areas for future research building upon the findings.

  14. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-12-01

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  15. The Save-WEFM Case as Reported to the 50th Annual NAEB Convention, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Sammy R.

    The history of Chicago FM radio station WEFM and the activities of the Citizen's Committee to Save WEFM are chronicled. The focus is principally on the actions of the Citizen's Committee to prevent the conversion of the radio station from a classical music format to rock and roll offerings and to block the sale of the station by Zenith to GCC…

  16. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Bakhtyar, B.; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year. PMID:25485294

  17. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  18. Dynamic target high pressure control of a VRF system for heating energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Geun Young; Lee, Je Hyeon; Kim, Inhan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed the dynamic target high pressure control of a VRF system. • We created the VRF control model using the EnergyPlus runtime language. • Multicalorimeter experimental results indicate that the energy efficiency improved by 21%. • EnergyPlus simulations demonstrate that the annual heating energy consumption was lowered by 22%. - Abstract: Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems are widely used because of their ability to provide individualized comfort control with energy-saving potential. This study develops load responsive high pressure control of a VRF system with the aim of reducing the heating energy consumption of a VRF system under part load conditions. The developed control consists of two parts: one part that determines the level of heating load, and the other that assigns a target high pressure based on the level of heating load. In this way, the compressor speed can be accurately matched to heating load, which improves the energy performance of the VRF system. A series of multicalorimeter experiments revealed that the heating capacity of the VRF system varied by 45% by modulating the target high pressure and that its efficiency was enhanced by 21% by changing the high pressure from 30 kgf/cm"2 to 25 kgf/cm"2. To evaluate the annual heating energy performance of the VRF system with the developed control, a custom computer code was developed to implement the developed control using a programming language called EnergyPlus Runtime Language. Simulation outcomes showed that the annual heating energy consumption of a medium-size office building was reduced by 22% when the developed control was applied.

  19. Preliminary estimates of cost savings for defense high level waste vitrification options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.

    1993-09-01

    The potential for realizing cost savings in the disposal of defense high-level waste through process and design modificatins has been considered. Proposed modifications range from simple changes in the canister design to development of an advanced melter capable of processing glass with a higher waste loading. Preliminary calculations estimate the total disposal cost (not including capital or operating costs) for defense high-level waste to be about $7.9 billion dollars for the reference conditions described in this paper, while projected savings resulting from the proposed process and design changes could reduce the disposal cost of defense high-level waste by up to $5.2 billion

  20. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States); Hollingsworth, Russell [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  1. Energy Saving in an ETC Solar System to Produce High Temperature Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Porras-Prieto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of solar water heating systems (SWHS based on evacuated tube collectors (ETC has experienced rapid growth in the residential sector. In contrast, the implementation of these systems in the industrial sector is very limited, due in part to the demand of a higher temperature in water. Taking into account that the final energy of the industrial sector is similar to the residential sector, to increase the generation of renewable energy and energy saving in cities, efforts in this sector should be redoubled. Therefore, the present work characterises the behaviour of a SWHS-ETC with active circulation to produce hot water at 90 °C, determining its performance, energy saving and profitability in different scenarios in Europe. The annual energy savings generated by the SWHS Range between 741 and 435 kWh m−2 (reduction of emissions between 215 and 88 kg CO2 m−2. The results of the analysis of profitability, studying the variation of the conventional energy price, the cost of the investment, the useful life and the energy supplied, in thousands of scenarios, are a valuable tool for correct decision making, as they can be of great utility to increase the implementation of these systems in the industrial sector.

  2. Technologies for high performance and energy saving in room air conditioners. Shoenegata kokoritsu eakon ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, N. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-31

    An energy saving inverter type air-conditioner was introduced. It is important to increase the efficiency in the low capacity zone below the rated capacity to realize the energy saving. For the reduction of peak, improving the efficiency in the high capacity operation is also necessary. The power consumption in compressor and in inverter is about 90 % of the total power consumption in air-conditioner. The other 10 % are distributed to the fan motor and the control unit. For achieving the energy saving, the reduction of this 10 % part is also necessary because this 10 % part is constant regardless of the capacity of air-conditioner. The compressor motor was modified to the brushless DC motor with rotor position detecting device to improve the rotor structure and the position detection system. The heat exchanger was changed to a room heat exchanger with slit pattern. For the outdoor heat exchanger, the complex curvature blade fan was adopted. The control system of air-conditioner was changed. The PMV was previously learned and input in the microcomputer to calculate the data. Resultantly, the power consumption was reduced by about 20 % as compared with the conventional air-conditioner. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1990-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  4. Saving Now and Saving Later: How High School Reform Can Reduce the Nation's Wasted Remediation Dollars. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For young people entering the twenty-first-century job market, high school graduation is no longer the finish line, but the starting line. While one-third of students will fail to graduate from high school, too many students who do graduate and make it to the postsecondary starting line find that they are underprepared for postsecondary work. A…

  5. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  6. Ultra high benefits system for electric energy saving and management of lighting energy in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a novel multi channel smart system to manage lighting energy in buildings. • Saving considerable electric energy which is converted to lighting in buildings. • Providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location in buildings. • Capability of working with all AC electric power sources. • To automatically control and manage lighting energy in buildings. - Abstract: This paper presents a smart system, including a multi channel dimmer and a central process unit (CPU) together with an exact multi channel feedback mechanism, which automatically regulates and manages lighting in buildings. Based on a multi channel luminance feedback, a high benefits technique is utilized to convert the electric energy to lighting energy. Saving a lot of the electric energy which should be converted to lighting energy in buildings, managing the lighting energy in buildings, providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each room (location), and the capability of working with all AC electric power sources regardless of frequency and voltage amplitude are some advantages of using the proposed system and technique, thus it will be widely used in buildings. An experimental prototype of the proposed smart system has been constructed to validate the theoretical results and to carry out the experimental tests. Experimental results earned by utilizing the proposed smart system in a sample building are presented to prove the benefits of using the system. The experimental results explicitly show a considerable electric energy saving (about 27%) in the sample building while the proposed system has provided desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location of the building

  7. Save Energy: Save Money!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  8. Passive annual heat storage principles in earth sheltered housing, a supplementary energy saving system in residential housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselm, Akubue Jideofor [Green Architecture Department, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2008-07-01

    This paper looks through the many benefits of earth not only as a building element in its natural form but as a building mass, energy pack and spatial enclosure which characterized by location, unique physical terrain and climatic factors can be utilized in developing housing units that will provide the needed benefits of comfort alongside the seasons. Firstly the study identifies existing sunken earth houses in the North-west of China together with identifying the characters that formed the ideas behind the choice of going below the ground. Secondly, the study examines the pattern of heat exchange, heat gains and losses as to identify the principles that makes building in earth significant as an energy conservation system. The objective of this, is to relate the ideas of sunken earth home design with such principles as the passive annual heat storage systems (PAHS) in producing houses that will serve as units used to collect free solar heat all summer and cools passively while heating the earth around it and also keeping warm in winter by retrieving heat from the soil while utilizing the free solar heat stored throughout the summer as a year-round natural thermal resource. (author)

  9. Offering lung cancer screening to high-risk medicare beneficiaries saves lives and is cost-effective: an actuarial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Bruce S; Henschke, Claudia I; Yankelevitz, David F; Yip, Rowena; Dec, Ellynne

    2014-08-01

    By a wide margin, lung cancer is the most significant cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The incidence of lung cancer increases with age, and Medicare beneficiaries are often at increased risk. Because of its demonstrated effectiveness in reducing mortality, lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging will be covered without cost-sharing starting January 1, 2015, by nongrandfathered commercial plans. Medicare is considering coverage for lung cancer screening. To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness (ie, cost per life-year saved) of LDCT lung cancer screening of the Medicare population at high risk for lung cancer. Medicare costs, enrollment, and demographics were used for this study; they were derived from the 2012 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) beneficiary files and were forecast to 2014 based on CMS and US Census Bureau projections. Standard life and health actuarial techniques were used to calculate the cost and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening. The cost, incidence rates, mortality rates, and other parameters chosen by the authors were taken from actual Medicare data, and the modeled screenings are consistent with Medicare processes and procedures. Approximately 4.9 million high-risk Medicare beneficiaries would meet criteria for lung cancer screening in 2014. Without screening, Medicare patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer have an average life expectancy of approximately 3 years. Based on our analysis, the average annual cost of LDCT lung cancer screening in Medicare is estimated to be $241 per person screened. LDCT screening for lung cancer in Medicare beneficiaries aged 55 to 80 years with a history of ≥30 pack-years of smoking and who had smoked within 15 years is low cost, at approximately $1 per member per month. This assumes that 50% of these patients were screened. Such screening is also highly cost-effective, at <$19,000 per life-year saved. If all eligible Medicare

  10. Design of high efficiency and energy saving aeration device for aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sibo

    2017-03-01

    Energy efficient aeration device for aquaculture, in line with "by more than a generation, dynamic aeration" train of thought for technical design and improvement. Removable aeration terminal as the core, multi-level water to improve the method, the mobile fading pore aeration, intelligent mobile and open and close as the main function, aimed at solving the existing pond aeration efficiency, low energy consumption is high, the function of a single problem. From energy saving, efficiency, biological bacteria on the three directions, the aquaculture industry of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Device of the main advantages are: 1, original mobile fading aerator on the one hand, to expand the scope of work, playing a micro porous aeration of dissolved oxygen with high efficiency and to achieve "by more than a generation", on the other hand, through the sports equipment, stir the mixture of water, the water surface of photosynthesis of plants rich in dissolved oxygen input parts of the tank, compared to the stillness of the aerator can be more fully dissolved oxygen.2, through the opening of the pressure sensor indirect control device, can make the equipment timely and stop operation, convenient in use at the same time avoid the waste of energy.3, the biofilm suspension in aeration terminal, can be accomplished by nitration of microbial multi-level water improvement, still can make biofilm increase rate of netting in the movement process, the biological and mechanical aerobic promote each other, improve the efficiency of both. In addition, the device has small power consumption, low cost of characteristics. And have a certain degree of technical barriers, have their own intellectual property rights, and high degree of product market demand, easily accepted by customers, has a very high popularization value.

  11. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  12. Pallet re-use and recycling saves high value material from landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Philip Araman; Robert Bush

    2010-01-01

    Pallets move the world. In the United States, an estimated 4 billion pallets are in daily service. Nationwide, on an annual basis, an estimated 441 million new pallets are manufactured and 357 million pallets are repaired or rebuilt from discarded pallets. Manufacturing these pallets consumes more than seven billion bd ft1 of lumber annually, roughly two-thirds...

  13. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  14. Sign Up for Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance service contracts between educational facilities and energy services companies, in which the company provides the money for energy-efficiency improvements and the school pays the company an annual fee. The company guarantees the savings will meet or exceed the fee. (EV)

  15. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  16. The model of creation of energy-saving competence of students of high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeer Evald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the most important conditions for the creationof energy-saving competence of students – undergraduate training. The actualityof the problem is caused by low energy efficiency of industrial production, significantly reduces the competitiveness of the domestic economy and, consequently, the need to intensify activities on the rational use of energy resources. The definition of energy-saving expertise, marked its structural components (value-motivational, cognitive activity-reflexive. Stages of creationof energy-saving expertise in system of continuous vocational training: diagnosis, motivation, learning and reflective-evaluative. The possibilities of educational technology and psycho designed to work with the psychological barriers and resistance to the process of regulation of energy consumption, the production facilities at its energy efficiency and energy saving. In particular, it is recommended to use active learning methods (discussion, games, analysis of problem situations, etc., Information and communication technologies for the implementation of educational and research projects in the field of energy conservation, the development and implementation of interactive multimedia learning environments.

  17. Extended operating times are more efficient, save money and maintain a high staff and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Jonathan Blair Thomas; French, Rachel; Gilliam, Andrew Douglas

    2018-01-01

    Current public sector austerity measures necessitate efficiency savings throughout the NHS. Performance targets have resulted in activity being performed in the private sector, waiting list initiative lists and requests for staff to work overtime. This has resulted in staff fatigue and additional agency costs. Adoption of extended operating theatre times (0800-1800 hours) may improve productivity and efficiency, with potentially significant financial savings; however, implementation may adversely affect staff morale and patient compliance. A pilot period of four months of extended operating times (4.5 hour sessions) was completed and included all theatre surgical specialties. Outcome measures included: the number of cases completed, late starts, early finishes, cancelled operations, theatre overruns, preoperative assessment and 18-week targets. The outcomes were then compared to pre-existing normal working day operating lists (0900-1700). Theatre staff, patient and surgical trainee satisfaction with the system were also considered by use of an anonymous questionnaire. The study showed that in-session utilisation time was unchanged by extended operating hours 88.7% (vs 89.2%). The service was rated as 'good' or 'excellent' by 87.5% of patients. Over £345,000 was saved by reducing premium payments. Savings of £225,000 were made by reducing privately outsourced operation and a further £63,000 by reviewing staff hours. Day case procedures increased from 2.8 to 3.2 cases/day with extended operating. There was no significant increase in late starts (5.1% vs 6.8%) or cancellation rates (0.75% vs 1.02%). Theatre over-runs reduced from 5% to 3.4%. The 18 weeks target for surgery was achieved in 93.7% of cases (vs 88.3%). The number of elective procedures increased from 4.1 to 4.89 cases/day. Only 13.33% of trainees (n = 33) surveyed felt that extended operating had a negative impact on training. The study concludes that extended operating increased productivity from

  18. Fuel saving and emissions cut through shore-side power concept for high-speed crafts at the red sea in egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiek, Ibrahim S.; Mosleh, Mosaad A.; Banawan, Adel A.

    2013-12-01

    The progress of economic globalization, the rapid growth of international trade, and the maritime transportation has played an increasingly significant role in the international supply chain. As a result, worldwide seaports have suffered from a central problem, which appears in the form of massive amounts of fuel consumed and exhaust gas fumes emitted from the ships while berthed. Many ports have taken the necessary precautions to overcome this problem, while others still suffer due to the presence of technical and financial constraints. In this paper, the barriers, interconnection standards, rules, regulations, power sources, and economic and environmental analysis related to ships, shore-side power were studied in efforts to find a solution to overcome his problem. As a case study, this paper investigates the practicability, costs and benefits of switching from onboard ship auxiliary engines to shore-side power connection for high-speed crafts called Alkahera while berthed at the port of Safaga, Egypt. The results provide the national electricity grid concept as the best economical selection with 49.03 percent of annual cost saving. Moreover, environmentally, it could achieve an annual reduction in exhaust gas emissions of CO2, CO, NO x , P.M, and SO2 by 276, 2.32, 18.87, 0.825 and 3.84 tons, respectively.

  19. Spending to save

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    the energy distribution companies meet their overall saving obligation, the net savings impact are about a third of the savings reported by the obligated parties. Further it was found that while energy savings in the public and business sector have a high net impact, some subsidies given under the EEO...... perspective. The evaluation has resulted in noticeable adjustments of the design of the Danish EEO, e.g. introduction of a 1 year payback-time limit for projects receiving subsidies, a minimum baseline for insulation products, and specification of documentation requirements....

  20. Low-Cost In-Fill Installation for High-Energy-Saving, Dynamic Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    increase 2% annually. This is consistent with national recognized energy prediction models. Electrical Labor costs: Electrical labor cost for wiring...Technology Description: ................................................................................................ 3 2.1.2 Energy Consumption ...22 Figure 15. Energy Consumption for the Calibration Period of 9/2/2015 - 9/16/2015

  1. Research of natural resources saving by design studies of Pressurized Light Water Reactors and High Conversion PWR cores with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, V.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of innovative neutronic conception of Pressurized Light Water Reactors (PWR) of 3. generation, saving of natural resources is of paramount importance for sustainable nuclear energy production. This study consists in the one hand to design high Conversion Reactors exploiting mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and in the other hand, to elaborate multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, in order to maximize natural resources economy. This study has two main objectives: first the design of High Conversion PWR (HCPWR) with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and secondly the setting up of multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, to better natural resources economy. The approach took place in four stages. Two ways of introducing thorium into PWR have been identified: the first is with low moderator to fuel volume ratios (MR) and ThPuO 2 fuel, and the second is with standard or high MR and ThUO 2 fuel. The first way led to the design of under-moderated HCPWR following the criteria of high 233 U production and low plutonium consumption. This second step came up with two specific concepts, from which multi-recycling strategies have been elaborated. The exclusive production and recycling of 233 U inside HCPWR limits the annual economy of natural uranium to approximately 30%. It was brought to light that the strong need in plutonium in the HCPWR dedicated to 233 U production is the limiting factor. That is why it was eventually proposed to study how the production of 233 U within PWR (with standard MR), from 2020. It was shown that the anticipated production of 233 U in dedicated PWR relaxes the constraint on plutonium inventories and favours the transition toward a symbiotic reactor fleet composed of both PWR and HCPWR loaded with thorium fuel. This strategy is more adapted and leads to an annual economy of natural uranium of about 65%. (author) [fr

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of retrofit of high-intensity discharge factory lighting with energy-saving alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, D.J. [Alabama Industrial Assessment Center, The University of Alabama, 1530 W. Tremont St, Allentown, PA 18102 (United States); Woodbury, K.A. [Alabama Industrial Assessment Center, The University of Alabama, 290 Hardaway Hall, Box 870276, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0276 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Due to increased concern about overall energy costs and the appearance of efficient and inexpensive lighting system alternatives, factories and plants with high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting are forced to consider retrofit with more modern, energy-efficient lighting. The decision is complicated from an economic perspective, and there is a lack of information readily available on the topic. This study provides an analysis of the replacement by retrofit of common probe-start metal halide and high-pressure sodium industrial lighting systems. Retrofit options considered include the more recent pulse-start metal halide lamps and a range of T5 high output and T8 fluorescent lamp configurations. Recent data on lighting system pricing, labor and energy costs, and time required for tasks are reported. The results generated include savings, payback period, and net present value for many retrofit options, as well as the change in energy consumption, carbon footprint, and lumen output for each retrofit. Effects of varying rate of return and daily duration of operation are considered. Based on change in lumen output, payback period, net present value, and comparison of lighting quality, one or two options are recommended from the overall retrofit options considered. A fluorescent retrofit is recommended for each of the HID initial scenarios considered. The payback period is no more than 3 years in any recommended case. The focus of this study is on the potential energy and cost savings, and some proposed solutions may, or may not, be acceptable due to lack of illuminance uniformity.

  3. Development of hydraulic elevators achieving high-reliability and energy saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kazutoshi; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sakata, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Eiichi

    1988-10-25

    The hydraulic elevator, having the advantage of maximally utilizing the height of building, as it does not necessitate the machinery room to be installed at the top of building, lowering the loading charge to the building, etc., is being considerably expanded in market for use. In order to design the energy-saving elevator improved in comfortability to be in, it is necessary to minimize, to the necessary limit, and so fix, as a constant, the running time at landing speed, for which necessary purpose a landing time minimizing (LM) control was developed. To shorten the running time at landing speed, the reduction in speed is delayed by the time, obtained and designated by detecting the operational condition of elevator. After having studied that time, respectively corresponding to each load and each temperature, it could improve the comfortability to be in, by securing the landing accuracy, and reduce the consumed power by 30 to 40%, by shortening the operation in time. 3 references, 6 figures.

  4. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  5. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, J.W. [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  6. Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form

  7. 1980 Annual status report: operation of the high flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    HFR Petten has been operated in 1980 in fulfilment of the 1980/83 JRC Programme Decision. Both reactor operation and utilization data have been met within a few percent of the goals set out in the annual working schedule, in support of a large variety of research programmes. Major improvements to experimental facilities have been introduced during the year and future modernization has been prepared

  8. Energy Saving High-Capacity Moderate Pressure Carbon Dioxide Storage System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach to high-pressure carbon dioxide storage will directly address the challenges associated with storage of compressed carbon dioxide - the need to reduce...

  9. High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program: 19th Annual Report, October 1, 2005 - September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, Arvid [ORNL

    2007-08-01

    Annual Report contains overview of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program and includes selected highlights of user activities for FY2006. Report is submitted to individuals within sponsoring DOE agency and to other interested individuals.

  10. Ferrites based infrared radiation coatings with high emissivity and high thermal shock resistance and their application on energy-saving kettle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianyi; Fan, Xi’an; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangqiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The ferrites based infrared radiation coating was prepared by HVOF for the first time. • The infrared radiation coatings were applied firstly on the household kettle. • The bonding strength between the coating and substrate could reach 30.7 MPa. • The coating kept intact when cycle reached 27 by quenching from 1000 °C using water. • The energy-saving efficiency of the kettle with coating could reach 30.5%. - Abstract: Starting from Fe 2 O 3 , MnO 2 , Co 2 O 3 and NiO powders, the ferrites based infrared radiation coatings with high emissivity and high thermal shock resistance were successfully prepared on the surface of carbon steel by high velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF). The coating thickness was about 120–150 μm and presented a typical flat lamellar structure. The coating surface was rough and some submicron grade grains distributed on it. The infrared emissivity of the ferrites based coating by HVOF was over 0.74 in 3–20 μm waveband at 800 °C, which was obviously higher than that of the coating by brushing process in the short waveband. The bonding strength was 30.7 MPa between the coating and substrate, which was five times more than that of conventional coatings by brushing process. The combined effect of the superior bonding strength, typical lamellar structure, pre-existing microcracks and newly generated pores made the cycle times reach 27 when the coating samples were quenched from 1000 °C using water. Lastly, the infrared radiation coatings were applied on the underside of household kettle, and the energy-saving efficiency could reach 30.5%. The ferrites based infrared radiation coatings obtained in this work are good candidates for saving energy in the field of cookware and industrial high temperature furnace

  11. RAMA casein zymography: Time-saving and highly sensitive casein zymography for MMP7 and trypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumitsu, Hidetaro; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2016-11-01

    To detect metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7), zymography is conducted using a casein substrate and conventional CBB stain. It has disadvantages because it is time consuming and has low sensitivity. Previously, a sensitive method to detect MMP7 up to 30 pg was reported, however it required special substrates and complicated handlings. RAMA casein zymography described herein is rapid, sensitive, and reproducible. By applying high-sensitivity staining with low substrate conditions, the staining process is completed within 1 h and sensitivity was increased 100-fold. The method can detect 10 pg MMP7 by using commercially available casein without complicated handlings. Moreover, it increases detection sensitivity for trypsin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Thirteenth Annual Report: October 1999 Through September 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasto, AE

    2001-01-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) is designed to assist American industries, universities, and governmental agencies develop advanced materials by providing a skilled staff and numerous sophisticated, often one-of-a-kind pieces of materials characterization equipment. It is a nationally designated user facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) office of Transportation Technologies, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Physically, it is a 64,500-ft(sup 2) building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HTML houses six ''user centers,'' which are clusters of specialized equipment designed for specific types of properties measurements. The HTML was conceived and built in the mid-1980s in response to the oil embargoes of the 1970s. The concept was to build a facility that would allow direct work with American industry, academia, and government laboratories in providing advanced high-temperature materials such as structural ceramics for energy-efficient engines. The HTML's scope of work has since expanded to include other, non-high-temperature materials of interest to transportation and other industries

  13. Potential energy savings from cool roofs in Spain and Andalusia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boixo, Sergio; Diaz-Vicente, Marian; Colmenar, Antonio; Castro, Manuel Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Cool roofs are an inexpensive method to save energy and to improve the comfort level in buildings in mild and hot climates. A high scale implementation of cool roofs in Andalusia, in the south of Spain, could potentially save 295,000 kWh per year, considering only residential buildings with flat roofs using electrical heating. At the current energy prices, consumers can save 59 million euros annually in electricity costs and the emission of 136,000 metric tons of CO 2 can be directly avoided every year from the production of that electricity. If radiative forcings are considered, Andalucía can potentially offset between 9.44 and 12 Mt of CO 2 . All the provinces in the rest of Spain are also studied in this paper. The biggest savings are achieved in Gran Canaria (48%), Tenerife (48%), Cádiz (36%), Murcia (33%), Huelva (30%), Málaga (29%), Almería (29%) and Sevilla (28%), where savings are greater than 2 euros per square meter of flat roof for old buildings with dark roofs. For the biggest cities the range of savings obtained are: between 7.4% and 11% in Madrid, between 12% and 18% in Barcelona and between 14% and 20% in Valencia. -- Highlights: ► We estimate potential savings in energy, CO 2 , and money for cool roofs in Spain (residential sector with flat roofs). ► Average savings are of around one euro per square meter in the biggest cities. ► Potential savings are of more than 2 €/m 2 in the hottest cities. ► In Andalusia the potential savings are 300 MWh, 60 millions euro and 136,000 tons of CO 2 per year. ► With forcings, the CO 2 equivalence of cool roofs in Andalusia is between 9 and 12 Mt.

  14. Energy saving by hot operating bearings in high temperature kilns. Final report; Energieeinsparung durch Heisslager in Hochtemperaturanlagen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.R.

    2003-07-01

    The project intended to show that ceramic sliding bearings will ensure longer life, energy and cost savings, reduced environmental pollution, and functional improvements. Ceramic sliding bearings were tested at high temperatures of up to 1400 C and low sliding rates, with and without lubrication. High-temperature test stands were constructed in the two partner institutes and adapted to the specifications of the industrial partners concerning the parameters to be investigated. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens 'Energieeinsparung durch Heisslager in Hochtemperaturanlagen' (EHIH) ist nachzuweisen, dass durch den Einsatz von keramischen Gleitlagern im Hochtemperaturbereich Standzeiterhoehungen, Energie- und Kosteneinsparungen, Umweltentlastungen und Funktionsverbesserungen moeglich sind. Auf der Basis der Anforderungsprofile der Industrie- und Forschungspartner waren umfangreiche Verschleisstests keramischer Gleitlager bei hohen Temperaturen (bis 1400 C) sowie niedrigen Gleitgeschwindigkeiten ohne und mit Feststoff-Schmierung vorgesehen. Hierzu wurden an beiden beteiligten Instituten Hochtemperatur-Pruefstaende aufgebaut, die den Anforderungen der jeweiligen Industriepartner hinsichtlich der zu testenden Lagerparameter (Drehzahl, Flaechenpressung, Temperaturprofile, etc.) angepasst wurden. (orig.)

  15. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  16. 1981 Annual status report. High-temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The high temperature materials programme is executed at the JRC, Petten Establishment and has for the 1980/83 programme period the objective to promote within the European Community the development of high temperature materials required for future energy technologies. A range of engineering studies is being carried out. A data bank storing factual data on alloys for high temperature applications is being developed and has reached the operational phase

  17. 1982 Annual status report: high-temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, M.

    1983-01-01

    The High Temperature Materials Programme is executed at the JRC, Petten Establishment and has for the 1980/83 programme period the objective to promote within the European Community the development of high temperature materials required for future energy technologies. Materials and engineering studies include: corrosion with or without load, mechanical properties under static or dynamic loads, surface protection creep of tubular components in corrosive environments and high temperature materials data bank

  18. Energy savings assessment for digital-to-analog converter boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes. - Research highlights: → We examined energy efficiency policies on digital-to-analog converter boxes in US. → The government assistance program resulted in high participation. → 35 million coupons were redeemed for the purchases of energy efficient DTAs. → Between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the policies. → Savings are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  19. Customer-economics of residential photovoltaic systems (Part 1): The impact of high renewable energy penetrations on electricity bill savings with net metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Given the uncertainty in future retail rates and the inherent links between rates and the customer–economics of behind-the-meter PV, there is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. In this article, we first use a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under two potential electricity market scenarios, including a reference and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, we develop retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV is estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. We find that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of high renewables on customer economics of solar. • We model three types of residential retail electricity rates. • Based on the rates, we calculate the bill savings from photovoltaic (PV) generation. • High renewables penetration can lead to lower bill savings with time-varying rates. • There is substantial uncertainty in the future bill savings from residential PV

  20. High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.

    1979-03-01

    Work on high energy hadron-hadron collisions in the geometrical model, performed under the DOE Contract No. EY-76-S-09-0946, is summarized. Specific items studied include the behavior of elastic hadron scatterings at super high energies and the existence of many dips, the computation of meson radii in the geometrical model, and the hadronic matter current effects in inelastic two-body collisions

  1. Annual report of the Division of High Temperature Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    Research activities conducted in the Division of High Temperature Engineering during fiscal 1981 are described. R and D works of our division are mainly related to a multi-purpose very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) and a fusion reactor. This report deals with the main results obtained on material test, development of computer codes, heat transfer, fluid-dynamics, structural mechanics and the construction of an M + A (Mother and Adapter) section of a HENDEL (Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop) as well. (author)

  2. The Effects of Earth Science Textbook Contents on High School Students' Knowledge of, Attitude toward, and Behavior of Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Yen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Shr-Jya

    2017-01-01

    As science textbooks are considered as one of the major source of climate change information of students, this study aims to examine the differences in energy saving and carbon reduction knowledge, attitude, and behavior between two groups of Taiwan's high school students using earth science textbooks of two different publishers. Some items of…

  3. 1982 Annual status report: operation of the high flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The high flux materials testing reactor has been operated in 1982 within a few percent of the pre-set schedule, attaining 73% overall availability. Its utilization reached another record figure in 20 years: 81% without, 92% with, the low enrichment test elements irradiated during the year

  4. The high field superconducting magnet program at LLNL: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Chaplin, M.R.; Kerns, J.A.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.; Slack, D.S.; Summers, L.T.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    In FY 86 the program continued along several interrelated thrust areas. These thrust areas have been broadly labeled as follows: (1) Superconductor Research and Technology; (2) Magnet Systems Materials Technology; (3) Magnet Systems Design Technology; (4) High Field Test Facility; and (5) Technology Transfer

  5. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)-a high average and/or low variance return-increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes.

  6. High-pitch computed tomography coronary angiography-a new dose-saving algorithm: estimation of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelsen, Dominik; Buchgeister, Markus; Korn, Andreas; Fenchel, Michael; Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas G; Thomas, Christoph; Schabel, Christoph; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Syha, Roland; Claussen, Claus D; Heuschmid, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate effective dose and organ equivalent doses of prospective ECG-triggered high-pitch CTCA. Materials and Methods. For dose measurements, an Alderson-Rando phantom equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters was used. The effective dose was calculated according to ICRP 103. Exposure was performed on a second-generation dual-source scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany). The following scan parameters were used: 320 mAs per rotation, 100 and 120 kV, pitch 3.4 for prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch CTCA, scan range of 13.5 cm, collimation 64 × 2 × 0.6 mm with z-flying focal spot, gantry rotation time 280 ms, and simulated heart rate of 60 beats per minute. Results. Depending on the applied tube potential, the effective whole-body dose of the cardiac scan ranged from 1.1 mSv to 1.6 mSv and from 1.2 to 1.8 mSv for males and females, respectively. The radiosensitive breast tissue in the range of the primary beam caused an increased female-specific effective dose of 8.6%±0.3% compared to males. Decreasing the tube potential, a significant reduction of the effective dose of 35.8% and 36.0% can be achieved for males and females, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The radiologist and the CT technician should be aware of this new dose-saving strategy to keep the radiation exposure as low as reasonablly achievable.

  7. Annual progress report 1988, operation of the high flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 the High Flux Reactor Petten was routinely operated without any unforeseen event. The availability was 99% of scheduled operation. Utilization of the irradiation positions amounted to 80% of the practical occupation limit. The exploitation pattern comprised nuclear energy deployment, fundamental research with neutrons, and radioisotope production. General activities in support of running irradiation programmes progressed in the normal way. Development activities addressed upgrading of irradiation devices, neutron radiography and neutron capture therapy

  8. Annual report 1989 operation of the high flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.; Gevers, A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1989 the operation of the High Flux Reactor Petten was carried out as planned. The availability was more than 100% of scheduled operating time. The average occupation of the reactor by experimental devices was 72% of the practical occupation limit. The reactor was utilized for research programmes in support of nuclear fission reactors and thermonuclear fusion, for fundamental research with neutrons and for radioisotope production. General activities in support of running irradiation programmes progressed in the normal way. Development activities addressed upgrading of irradiation devices, neutron radiography and neutron capture therapy

  9. Annual report 1990. Operation of the high flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.; Gevers, A.

    1990-01-01

    In 1990 the operation of the High Flux Reactor was carried out as planned. The availability was 96% of scheduled operating time. The average utilization of the reactor was 71% of the practical limit. The reactor was utilized for research programmes in support of nuclear fission reactors and thermonuclear fusion, for fundamental research with neutrons, for radioisotope production, and for various smaller activities. General activities in support of running irradiation programmes progressed in the normal way. Development activities addressed upgrading of irradiation devices, neutron radiography and neutron capture therapy

  10. Annual Report 1991. Operation of the high flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.; Gevers, A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 the operation of the High Flux Reactor was carried out as planned. The availability was more than 100% of scheduled operating time. The average utilization of the reactor was 69% of the practical limit. The reactor was utilized for research programmes in support of nuclear fission reactors and thermonuclear fusion, for fundamental research with neutrons, for radioisotope production, and for various smaller activities. Development activities addressed upgrading of irradiation devices, neutron capture therapy, neutron radiography and neutron transmutation doping of silicon. General activities in support of running irradiation programmes progressed in the normal way

  11. KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) annual report, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes research activities of KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) in the fiscal year 2005. Two years have passed since the KEK was reorganized as an inter-university research institute corporation, and KEK continue to facilitate a wide range of research programs based on high-energy accelerators for users from universities. KEK consists of two research institutes, the Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS) and the Institute of Materials Science (IMSS); and two laboratories, the Accelerator Laboratory and the Applied Research Laboratory. KEK has been operating four major accelerator facilities in Tsukuba: the 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), the KEK B-factory (KEKB), the Photon Factory (PF), and the Electron/Positron Injector Linac. We are now engaged in the construction of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) in Tokai in cooperation with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The J-PARC Center was established in February 2006 to take full responsibility for the operation of J-PARC. With the progress of construction, the PS ceased operation at the end of March 2006 after a history of 26 years. The task of KEK is to play a key role in the fields of elementary particle, nuclei, materials and life science as one of leading research facilities of the world. The fiscal year 2005 activities of both KEK employees and visiting researchers yielded excellent outcomes in these research fields. (J.P.N.)

  12. High Energy Physics Group. Annual progress report, fiscal year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Perhaps the most significant progress during the past twelve months of the Hawaii experimental program, aside from publication of results of earlier work, has been the favorable outcome of several important proposals in which a substantial fraction of our group is involved: the Mark II detector as first-up at the SLC, and DUMAND's Stage I approval, both by DOE review panels. When added to Fermilab approval of two neutrino bubble-chamber experiments at the Tevatron, E632 and E646, the major part of the Hawaii experimental program for the next few years is now well determined. Noteworthy in the SLAC/SLC/Mark II effort is the progress made in developing silicon microstrip detectors with microchip readout. Results from the IMB(H) proton decay experiment at the Morton Salt Mine, although not detecting proton decay, set the best lower limit on the proton's lifetime. Similarly the Very High Energy Gamma Ray project is closely linked with DUMAND, at least in principle, since these gammas are expected to arise from pi-zero decay, while the neutrinos come from charged meson decay. Some signal has been seen from Cygnus X-3, and other candidates are being explored. Preparations for upgrading the Fermilab 15' Bubble Chamber have made substantial progress. Sections of the Progress Report are devoted to VAX computer system improvements, other hardware and software improvements, travel in support of physics experiments, publications and other public reports, and last analysis of data still being gleaned from experimental data taken in years past (PEP-14 and E546, E388). High energy physics theoretical research is briefly described

  13. KEK (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics) annual report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Throughout this year, TRISTAN has maintained the highest energy among the electron-positron colliders in the world. After operating at 57 GeV in the center of mass with full operation of the APS-type room temperature RF accelerating system, 16 units of 5-cell superconducting RF cavities 24 m in total length were installed in the Nikko straight section during the summer shutdown. As a result, 30.4 GeV/beam or 60.8 GeV in the center of mass was achieved beyond the original design energy goal of TRISTAN. All experimental collaborations at the four intersections have collected much interesting data in the new energy region of electron-positron collisions. The experiment SHIP, a search for highly ionizing particles, has completed data taking in the Nikko experimental hall and is going to give new limits on Dirac monopoles. At the 24th International Conference on High Energy Physics held at Munich in August, 1988, as CERN Courier's report, for instance, the results from TRISTAN were really the highlight in e + e - collision physics. Although we could not find any definite evidence for the existence of toponium under 60 GeV or other new particles under 56 GeV, we obtained much new physics concerning interfering effects between electromagnetic and weak interactions, new information about QCD and so on. Active experiments on hadron physics with the 12 GeV main ring also have been carried out. For instance, an internal gas target experiment with a polarized proton beam was performed by a group from Texas A and M University in cooperation with a Japanese group. The KEK PS is now a very unique proton machine in the 10 GeV energy region as well as Brookhaven's AGS. (J.P.N.)

  14. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  15. Net savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    2001-01-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study was

  16. Net savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2001-02-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study

  17. KEK (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics) annual report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masatoshi; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Mori, Yoshiharu; Nakai, Kozi; Nakamura, Kenzo; Oide, Katsuya; Sato, Shigeru

    1986-01-01

    Aiming at the completion of TRISTAN colliding beam complex, the laboratory engaged in the construction works throughout this year. Following the commissioning of a high current 200 MeV electron linac for positron production and of a 250 MeV positron linac in April, positrons were successfully accelerated through the existing electron linac and the accumulation ring in October. On March 21, 1986, the electron-position collision in the accumulation ring was observed in its first trial at 5 GeV with a luminosity of about 10 28 /cm 2 s. The main ring accelerator tunnel, four experimental halls and other associated buildings were completed in this fiscal year. Each of the TRISTAN experimental groups has engaged in the construction of its own detector complex, aiming at the completion of the system by the spring of 1987. In particular, large superconducting solenoid magnets were successfully operated in the test. A large computer system with FACOM M382s for TRISTAN data analysis was commissioned in October. It is the serious concern to establish safety measures for the whole TRISTAN project. The positron beam accelerated by the existing 2.5 GeV electron linac was also fed to the Photon Factory storage ring. The 12 GeV proton synchrotron started the experiment on hadron science from the beginning of this fiscal year after one year shutdown. (Kako, I.)

  18. Operation of the High Flux Reactor. Annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This year was characterized by the end of a major rebuilding of the installation during which the reactor vessel and its peripheral components were replaced by new and redesigned equipment. Both operational safety and experimental use were largely improved by the replacement. The reactor went back to routine operation on February 14, 1985, and has been operating without problem since then. All performance parameters were met. Other upgrading actions started during the year concerned new heat exchangers and improvements to the reactor building complex. The experimental load of the High Flux Reactor reached a satisfactory level with an average of 57%. New developments aimed at future safety related irradiation tests and at novel applications of neutrons from the horizontal beam tubes. A unique remote encapsulation hot cell facility became available adding new possibilities for fast breeder fuel testing and for intermediate specimen examination. The HFR Programme hosted an international meeting on development and use of reduced enrichment fuel for research reactors. All aspects of core physics, manufacture technology, and licensing of novel, proliferation-free, research reactor fuel were debated

  19. Annual report on the high temperature triaxial compression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, N.D.; Menk, P.; Tully, R.; Houston, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The investigation of the environmental effects on the mechanical and engineering properties of deep-sea sediments was initiated on June 15, 1980. The task is divided into three categories. First, the design and fabrication of a High Temperature Triaxial Compression Device (HITT). Second, an investigation of the mechanical and engineering properties of the deep-sea sediments at temperatures ranging from 277 to 473 degrees kelvin. Third, assist in the development of constitutive relationships and an analytical model which describe the temperature dependent creep deformations of the deep-sea sediments. The environmental conditions under which the soil specimens are to be tested are variations in temperature from 277 to 473 degrees kelvin. The corresponding water pressure will vary up to about 2.75 MPa as required to prevent boiling of the water and assure saturation of the test specimens. Two groups of tests are to be performed. First, triaxial compression tests during which strength measurements and constant head permeability determinations shall be made. Second, constant stress creep tests, during which axial and lateral strains shall be measured. In addition to the aforementioned variables, data shall also be acquired to incorporate the effects of consolidation history, strain rate, and heating rate. The bulk of the triaxial tests are to be performed undrained. The strength measurement tests are to be constant-rate-of-strain and the creep tests are to be constant-stress tests. The study of the mechanical properties of the deep-sea sediments as a function of temperature is an integrated program

  20. Low inflation, a high net savings surplus and institutional restrictions keep the Japanese long-term interest rate low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Pieter W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains that the interest rate on long-term Japanese government bonds is low in comparison with other industrialised countries for four main reasons: lower inflation, net savings surplus, institutional restrictions and home bias. Monetary policy and institutionalised purchases of

  1. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic...

  2. Annual electricity consumption forecasting by neural network in high energy consuming industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Sohrabkhani, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for annual electricity consumption in high energy consumption industrial sectors. Chemicals, basic metals and non-metal minerals industries are defined as high energy consuming industries. It is claimed that, due to high fluctuations of energy consumption in high energy consumption industries, conventional regression models do not forecast energy consumption correctly and precisely. Although ANNs have been typically used to forecast short term consumptions, this paper shows that it is a more precise approach to forecast annual consumption in such industries. Furthermore, the ANN approach based on a supervised multi-layer perceptron (MLP) is used to show it can estimate the annual consumption with less error. Actual data from high energy consuming (intensive) industries in Iran from 1979 to 2003 is used to illustrate the applicability of the ANN approach. This study shows the advantage of the ANN approach through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the ANN forecast is compared with actual data and the conventional regression model through ANOVA to show its superiority. This is the first study to present an algorithm based on the ANN and ANOVA for forecasting long term electricity consumption in high energy consuming industries

  3. The full annual carbon balance of Eurasian boreal forests is highly sensitive to precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öquist, Mats; Bishop, Kevin; Grelle, Achim; Klemedtsson, Leif; Köhler, Stephan; Laudon, Hjalmar; Lindroth, Anders; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Wallin, Marcus; Nilsson, Mats

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forest biomes are identified as one of the major sinks for anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 and are also predicted to be particularly sensitive to climate change. Recent advances in understanding the carbon balance of these biomes stems mainly from eddy-covariance measurements of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE). However, NEE includes only the vertical CO2 exchange driven by photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration. A full net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) also requires inclusion of lateral carbon export (LCE) through catchment discharge. Currently LCE is often regarded as negligible for the NECB of boreal forest ecosystems of the northern hemisphere, commonly corresponding to ~5% of annual NEE. Here we use long term (13 year) data showing that annual LCE and NEE are strongly correlated (p=0.003); years with low C sequestration by the forest coincide with years when lateral C loss is high. The fraction of NEE lost annually through LCE varied markedly from solar radiation caused by clouds. The dual effect of precipitation implies that both the observed and the predicted increases in annual precipitation at high latitudes may reduce NECB in boreal forest ecosystems. Based on regional scaling of hydrological discharge and observed spatio-temporal variations in forest NEE we conclude that our finding is relevant for large areas of the boreal Eurasian landscape.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of annual versus biennial screening mammography for women with high mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Reka; Ismail, Zahra; Coldman, Andrew J; Elwood, Mark; Gelmon, Karen; Hedden, Lindsay; Hislop, Greg; Kan, Lisa; McCoy, Bonnie; Olivotto, Ivo A; Peacock, Stuart

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of screening mammography is much lower among women who have dense breast tissue, compared with women who have largely fatty breasts, and they are also at much higher risk of developing the disease. Increasing mammography screening frequency from biennially to annually has been suggested as a policy option to address the elevated risk in this population. The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of annual versus biennial screening mammography among women aged 50-79 with dense breast tissue. A Markov model was constructed based on screening, diagnostic, and treatment pathways for the population-based screening and cancer care programme in British Columbia, Canada. Model probabilities and screening costs were calculated from screening programme data. Costs for breast cancer treatment were calculated from treatment data, and utility values were obtained from the literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY), and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted. Compared with biennial screening, annual screening generated an additional 0.0014 QALYs (95% CI: -0.0480-0.0359) at a cost of $819 ($ = Canadian dollars) per patient (95% CI: 506-1185), resulting in an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $565,912/QALY. Annual screening had a 37.5% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/QALY. There is considerable uncertainty about the incremental cost-effectiveness of annual mammography. Further research on the comparative effectiveness of screening strategies for women with high mammographic breast density is warranted, particularly as digital mammography and density measurement become more widespread, before cost-effectiveness can be reevaluated. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Redundant Radix-4 Representation With High Speed Arithmetic Coprocessor Using Carry Save And Redundant Signed Digit Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Manoharrao Ingale

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Division is the inverse of multiplication so basic division consist of a sequence of subtraction which are just additions of the negations of the subtrahends Therefore CS addition can be used in the arithmetic for division as well. Division is however more complicated than multiplication in that subtrahend multiple of divisor chosen at any steps depends on the magnitude result of the preceding subtraction and that magnitude is not readily available with CS representation. Assuming twos complement representation subtraction with carry save representation is carried out in usual manner of the farming the ones complement of the subtrahend and then adding that with a 1 also added into the least significant bit position subtraction is performed by adding the negation of the subtrahend which twos complement representation consist of the ones complement addition of 1 in the least significant bit position.

  6. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)—a high average and/or low variance return—increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes. PMID:20352013

  7. Annual CO2 budget and seasonal CO2 exchange signals at a high Arctic permafrost site on Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luërs, J.; Westermann, Signe; Piel, K.

    2014-01-01

    -lasting snow cover, and several months of darkness. This study presents a complete annual cycle of the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics for a high Arctic tundra area at the west coast of Svalbard based on eddy covariance flux measurements. The annual cumulative CO2 budget is close to 0 g C m-2 yr-1...

  8. Savings associated with high-dose hypoallergenic house dust mite immunotherapy in rhinitis and/or asthma patients in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Robaina JC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available José Carlos García Robaina,1 Carlos Polanco Sánchez,2 Elvira Estella Pérez,2 1Allergy Department, University Hospital Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 2Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Corporate Affairs, Merck S.L., Madrid, Spain Objectives: To quantify the cost difference between conventional symptomatic treatment of mite allergy and specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT. Methods: Observational, retrospective, and multicenter study was carried out in Spain in 2013. The medical records of 419 patients diagnosed with rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma for mite allergy were retrieved. Mean age was 24.9 years (standard deviation 14.4. The use of symptomatic medication (rescue and daily, diagnostic tests, unscheduled medical care, and sick leave days associated with SCIT treatment versus no-SCIT treatment was compared. Also measured was the SCIT treatment to no-SCIT treatment costs ratio: used resources (symptomatic medication, unscheduled medical care, diagnostic tests, and 3 years SCIT treatment and sick leave days were quantified in euros. Efficacy (decreased resource usage of first-year treatment was assumed during the remaining 2 years and also during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: After a single year of SCIT, all quantified resources diminished significantly (P<0.05 from baseline. Estimated reduction in cost items included hospital resources (100% in hospitalizations, 82% in visits to the allergist, and 79% in emergency room visits, therapies (56% in rescue medication and 63% in daily medication, diagnostic tests (77%, and sick leave days (94%. Ratio of comparative calculation described as SCIT treatment versus non-SCIT treatment (or conventional symptomatic treatment is 0.8. Conclusion: Direct costs are reduced by 64% and indirect costs by 94%. SCIT of hypoallergenic preparation of dust mite (Acaroid® allows cost savings versus conventional treatment. Estimated savings for the public National Health

  9. Replication of Annual Cycles in Mn in Hudson River Cores: Mn Peaks During High Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D. H.; Hutson, D.; Marrero, A. M.; Block, K. A.; Chang, C.; Cai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using the results from an ITRAX, XRF scanner, we previously reported apparent annual cycles in Mn in a single, high sedimentation rate Hudson River core, LWB1-8, taken off Yonkers, NY (Carlson et al., 2016). We replicated these results in three more high sedimentation rate cores and found stratigraphic markers that verify our inferences about the annual nature of the Mn cycles. The three new cores are LWB4-5 taken off Peekskill, NY, and LWB3-44 and LWB3-25, both taken in Haverstraw Bay. The cores are from water depths of 7-9 meters and all have high magnetic susceptibilities (typically > 30 cgs units) in their upper 1 to 2 meters. The high susceptibilities are primarily produced by magnetite from modern industrial combustion. One core, LWB1-8, has reconnaissance Cs dates that verify the annual nature of the cycles. More Cs dates are expected before the meeting. We developed several new methods of verifying the annual nature of our layer counts. The first is looking at the grain size distribution and age of layers with unusually high Mn peaks. Peaks in Si, Ni and Ti and peaks in percentage of coarse material typically accompany the peaks in Mn. Some are visible as yellow sandy layers. The five highest peaks in Mn in LWB1-8 have layer counted ages that correspond (within 1 year in the top meter and within 2 years in the bottom meter) to 1996, 1948, 1913, 1857 and 1790. The latter three events are the three largest historical spring freshets on the Hudson. 1996 is a year of unusually high flow rate during the spring freshet. Based on our work and previous work on Mn cycling in rivers, we infer that the peaks in Mn are produced by extreme erosional events that erode sediment and release pore water Mn into the water column. The other methods of testing our chronology involve marine storms that increase Ca and Sr and a search for fragments of the Peekskill meteorite that fell in October 1992. More information on the latter will be available by the meeting.

  10. China’s High-yield Pulp Sector and Its Carbon Dioxide Emission: Considering the Saved Standing Wood as an Increase of Carbon Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of high-yield pulp in China has increased significantly in recent years. The well-known advantages of this type of pulp include low production cost, high opacity, and good paper formation. In the context of state-of-the-art technologies, China’s high-yield pulping, which is dominated by the PRC-APMP (preconditioning refiner chemical treatment-alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping process, has a much higher energy input but a significantly lower wood consumption in comparison with the kraft pulping process. If the saved wood in the forest or plantation is considered as an increment of carbon storage, then the carbon dioxide emission from the production of high-yield pulp can be regarded as much lower than that of kraft pulp.

  11. 1998 Annual Study Report. Surveys on seeds for global environmental technologies, including those for energy saving; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sho energy nado chikyu kankyo taisaku gijutsu no seeds ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The energy-saving and other global environmental technologies are surveyed by collecting relevant information from various institutes, both abroad and domestic, to contribute to development of ceramic gas turbines. USA has announced a climate change plan, based on the five principles, to promote utilization of high-efficiency technologies and development of new clean technologies. UK is promoting to improve energy efficiency, along with liberalization of its energy markets. Germany concentrates its efforts in the 'Program for Energy Research and Energy Technologies.' France places emphasis on prevention of air pollution and rational use of energy. The R and D trends at public institutes, e.g., universities, for global environmental technologies are surveyed, from which a total of 14 themes are extracted as the seed technologies. At the same time, a total of 9 techniques potentially applicable to the seeds are extracted by mainly reviewing JICST and patent information, and assessed. The R&D trends of the IPCC-related researchers are also surveyed, but provide no theme directly applicable to the seeds. Most of the related themes at the private and public institutes surveyed, both domestic and abroad, are concentrated on carbon dioxide. (NEDO)

  12. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  13. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  14. Use staff wisely to save NHS money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison

    2015-12-09

    The NHS could save up to £ 2 billion a year by improving workflow and containing workforce costs, according to Labour peer Lord Carter's review of NHS efficiency. Changes in areas such as rostering and management of annual leave must avoid increasing the pressure on staff.

  15. C. h. p. saves fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugas, C F

    1979-04-01

    A combined heat and power plant based on a diesel generator to produce 12MW of electricity and 12MW of heat has successfully supplied the town of Skultuna in Sweden during the winter and has saved 3,700t of oil annually.

  16. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model predictions of annual maximum pesticide concentrations in high vulnerability watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Michael F; Peranginangin, Natalia; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Chen, Wenlin

    2018-05-01

    Recent national regulatory assessments of potential pesticide exposure of threatened and endangered species in aquatic habitats have led to increased need for watershed-scale predictions of pesticide concentrations in flowing water bodies. This study was conducted to assess the ability of the uncalibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations in the flowing water bodies of highly vulnerable small- to medium-sized watersheds. The SWAT was applied to 27 watersheds, largely within the midwest corn belt of the United States, ranging from 20 to 386 km 2 , and evaluated using consistent input data sets and an uncalibrated parameterization approach. The watersheds were selected from the Atrazine Ecological Exposure Monitoring Program and the Heidelberg Tributary Loading Program, both of which contain high temporal resolution atrazine sampling data from watersheds with exceptionally high vulnerability to atrazine exposure. The model performance was assessed based upon predictions of annual maximum atrazine concentrations in 1-d and 60-d durations, predictions critical in pesticide-threatened and endangered species risk assessments when evaluating potential acute and chronic exposure to aquatic organisms. The simulation results showed that for nearly half of the watersheds simulated, the uncalibrated SWAT model was able to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations within a narrow range of uncertainty resulting from atrazine application timing patterns. An uncalibrated model's predictive performance is essential for the assessment of pesticide exposure in flowing water bodies, the majority of which have insufficient monitoring data for direct calibration, even in data-rich countries. In situations in which SWAT over- or underpredicted the annual maximum concentrations, the magnitude of the over- or underprediction was commonly less than a factor of 2, indicating that the model and uncalibrated parameterization

  17. [The impact of nutrient prosperity of the body on the alimentary status of junior high school pupils within the framework of the implementation of health-saving technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setko, A G; Trishina, S P; Timoshenko, E P

    2014-01-01

    In the work there was performed the assessment of the actual nutrition of high school pupils, its impact on the nutritional status and efficiency of the implementation in the modern educational process certified vitamin-mineral complexes as a health-saving component of the optimization of rations. The introduction of additional vitamin-mineral complexes into the food of high school pupils was established to lead to the optimization of nutrition content by most of macro- and micronutrients, which in turn contributed to the increase in the number of children with an adequate supply of the body with vitamins and also contributed to the increase of students with a satisfactory adaptation by 44.3%, cases having sufficient performance reserves by 48.4% and the decrease of the number of children with sharply reduced functional reserves by 4 times.

  18. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy; Glatt, Ms. Sandy [DOE Industrial Technologies Program; Orthwein, Mr. Bill [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to

  19. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  20. Cost savings from reduced catheter-related bloodstream infection after simulation-based education for residents in a medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elaine R; Feinglass, Joe; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Barnard, Cynthia; O'Donnell, Anna; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

    2010-04-01

    Interventions to reduce preventable complications such as catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) can also decrease hospital costs. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of simulation-based education. The aim of this study was to estimate hospital cost savings related to a reduction in CRBSI after simulation training for residents. This was an intervention evaluation study estimating cost savings related to a simulation-based intervention in central venous catheter (CVC) insertion in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) at an urban teaching hospital. After residents completed a simulation-based mastery learning program in CVC insertion, CRBSI rates declined sharply. Case-control and regression analysis methods were used to estimate savings by comparing CRBSI rates in the year before and after the intervention. Annual savings from reduced CRBSIs were compared with the annual cost of simulation training. Approximately 9.95 CRBSIs were prevented among MICU patients with CVCs in the year after the intervention. Incremental costs attributed to each CRBSI were approximately $82,000 in 2008 dollars and 14 additional hospital days (including 12 MICU days). The annual cost of the simulation-based education was approximately $112,000. Net annual savings were thus greater than $700,000, a 7 to 1 rate of return on the simulation training intervention. A simulation-based educational intervention in CVC insertion was highly cost-effective. These results suggest that investment in simulation training can produce significant medical care cost savings.

  1. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 26th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    A national survey of 3,351 high achieving high school students (junior and senior level) was conducted. All students had A or B averages. Topics covered include lifestyles, political beliefs, violence and entertainment, education, cheating, school violence, sexual violence and date rape, peer pressure, popularity, suicide, drugs and alcohol,…

  2. Effects of external debt on national savings in Botswana | Oageng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effects of external debt on national savings in Botswana using time series economic tools for the period 1980-2014. Annual data for Savings as percentage of GDP, GDP per capita, Exports as percentage of GDP, Exchange rates, Gross Fixed Capital Formation as ...

  3. Leaf anatomical and photosynthetic acclimation to cool temperature and high light in two winter versus two summer annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohu, Christopher M; Muller, Onno; Adams, William W; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Acclimation of foliar features to cool temperature and high light was characterized in winter (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Giant Nobel; Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold Col-0 and ecotypes from Sweden and Italy) versus summer (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Soraya; Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Italian Zucchini Romanesco) annuals. Significant relationships existed among leaf dry mass per area, photosynthesis, leaf thickness and palisade mesophyll thickness. While the acclimatory response of the summer annuals to cool temperature and/or high light levels was limited, the winter annuals increased the number of palisade cell layers, ranging from two layers under moderate light and warm temperature to between four and five layers under cool temperature and high light. A significant relationship was also found between palisade tissue thickness and either cross-sectional area or number of phloem cells (each normalized by vein density) in minor veins among all four species and growth regimes. The two winter annuals, but not the summer annuals, thus exhibited acclimatory adjustments of minor vein phloem to cool temperature and/or high light, with more numerous and larger phloem cells and a higher maximal photosynthesis rate. The upregulation of photosynthesis in winter annuals in response to low growth temperature may thus depend on not only (1) a greater volume of photosynthesizing palisade tissue but also (2) leaf veins containing additional phloem cells and presumably capable of exporting a greater volume of sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Energy saving certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)

  5. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'', to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective to investigate the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City. This paper summarizes our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance and annual C02 reduction of HIR strategies in the three initial cities. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer most savings potential: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by old or new construction and with a gas furnace or an electric heat pump. We defined prototypical building characteristics for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.IE model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on building [direct effect], (3) combined strategies I and 2 [direct effect], (4) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (5) combined strategies 1, 2 and 4 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show, that in Baton Rouge, potential annual energy savings of $15M could be realized by

  6. Highly efficient and energy-saving sectional treatment of landfill leachate with a synergistic system of biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guohua; Pang Yaning; Liu Lei; Gao Junxia; Lv Baoying

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a synergistic combination of the biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation (SBEO) of landfill leachate with sectional treatment on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode is proposed. The first stage involves the synergistic system of biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation. Then, the second stage is followed by individual biochemical treatment. Comparisons among the SBEO, electrochemical oxidation, biochemical treatment and biochemical treatment with the pretreatment of electrochemical oxidation are made systematically, which show that this method is both highly efficient and energy-saving. The higher TOC removal and low energy cost on the BDD electrode can be explained by the conversion of the bio-refractory pollutants to biodegradable organics in the electrochemical oxidation process, improving the current efficiency and reducing the energy cost. The treated wastewater is degraded only with biochemical treatment in the second stage, which further improves efficiency and reduced the energy cost.

  7. High annual risk of tuberculosis infection among nursing students in South India: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devasahayam J Christopher

    Full Text Available Nurses in developing countries are frequently exposed to infectious tuberculosis (TB patients, and have a high prevalence of TB infection. To estimate the incidence of new TB infection, we recruited a cohort of young nursing trainees at the Christian Medical College in Southern India. Annual tuberculin skin testing (TST was conducted to assess the annual risk of TB infection (ARTI in this cohort.436 nursing students completed baseline two-step TST testing in 2007 and 217 were TST-negative and therefore eligible for repeat testing in 2008. 181 subjects completed a detailed questionnaire on exposure to tuberculosis from workplace and social contacts. A physician verified the questionnaire and clinical log book and screened the subjects for symptoms of active TB. The majority of nursing students (96.7% were females, almost 84% were under 22 years of age, and 80% had BCG scars. Among those students who underwent repeat testing in 2008, 14 had TST conversions using the ATS/CDC/IDSA conversion definition of 10 mm or greater increase over baseline. The ARTI was therefore estimated as 7.8% (95%CI: 4.3-12.8%. This was significantly higher than the national average ARTI of 1.5%. Sputum collection and caring for pulmonary TB patients were both high risk activities that were associated with TST conversions in this young nursing cohort.Our study showed a high ARTI among young nursing trainees, substantially higher than that seen in the general Indian population. Indian healthcare providers and the Indian Revised National TB Control Programme will need to implement internationally recommended TB infection control interventions to protect its health care workforce.

  8. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Annual Update 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Jennifer L.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; Ingram, Erin S.; Maushard, Mary; Bridgeland, John M.; Balfanz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the national high school graduation rate hit a record high of 81.4 percent, and for the third year in a row, the nation remained on pace to meet the 90 percent goal by the Class of 2020. This sixth annual update on America's high school dropout challenge shows that these gains have been made possible by raising graduation rates for…

  9. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Annual Update 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; DePaoli, Jennifer L.; Ingram, Erin S.; Maushard, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This fifth annual update on America's high school dropout crisis shows that, for the first time in history, the nation has crossed the 80 percent high school graduation rate threshold and remains on pace, for the second year in a row, to meet the goal of a 90 percent high school graduation rate by the Class of 2020. This report highlights key…

  10. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  11. Energy Saving by Novel Bed-Integrated Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Kehayova, Nushka; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    High quality indoor environment in hospitals is important for patients’ healing and performance of the personnel. A novel method for minimizing spread of bio-effluents generated from hospitalized patients lying in bed was developed. The method consists of ventilated mattress (VM) which is able...... respectively with 55%, 71.1% and 85.9% and in the double room with 39.3%, 60.0%, and 80.4%. The use of the VM with reduced background CAV ventilation is an effective energy saving strategy for both double and single patient hospital rooms.......-bed hospital patient room (1.3 air changes per hour (ACH)) and double-bed patient room (1.6 ACH) was assessed by means of dynamic computer simulations. The estimated annual energy consumption for the rooms using the VM combined with CAV was compared to the annual energy consumption when the CAV ventilation...

  12. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  13. The Texas A and M student branch's annual high school teachers' conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.; Clements, M.

    1991-01-01

    To quote the American Nuclear Society (ANS) Student Constitution, the objective of a student branch is the advancement of science and engineering relating to the atomic nucleus, and of allied science and arts. The Texas A and M University (TAMU) student chapter has extended this objective to that of promoting a better understanding of the nuclear sciences by the general public. The student branch has attempted to reach these objectives by sponsoring a variety of activities designed to motivate and interest individuals to become more aware of nuclear technology and its benefits. These activities are directed toward fellow college students, high school teachers and students, and the surrounding community. One of the largest and most important activities organized by the TAMU student branch is the annual student conference

  14. Environmental friendly high efficient light source. Plasma lamp. 2006 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courret, G.

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for 2006 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work being done on the development of a high-efficiency source of light based on the light emission of a plasma. The report presents a review of work done in 2006, including thermodynamics and assessment of the efficiency of the magnetron, tests with small bulbs, study of the standing wave ratio (microwave fluxes) and the development of a new coupling system to allow ignition in very small bulbs. Also, knowledge on the fillings of the bulb and induced effects of the modulator were gained. The development of a second generation of modulator to obtain higher efficiency at lower power is noted.

  15. Contract saving schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O'Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contractual saving schemes for housing are institutionalised savings programmes normally linked to rights to loans for home purchase. They are diverse types as they have been developed differently in each national context, but normally fall into categories of open, closed, compulsory, and ‘free

  16. Money for Research, Not for Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High Performance Computer Facility Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewmark Communications; Sartor, Dale; Wilson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    High-performance computing facilities in the United States consume an enormous amount of electricity, cutting into research budgets and challenging public- and private-sector efforts to reduce energy consumption and meet environmental goals. However, these facilities can greatly reduce their energy demand through energy-efficient design of the facility itself. Using a case study of a facility under design, this article discusses strategies and technologies that can be used to help achieve energy reductions.

  17. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  18. Better Patient Care At High-Quality Hospitals May Save Medicare Money And Bolster Episode-Based Payment Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Thomas C; Greaves, Felix; Zheng, Jie; Orav, E John; Zinner, Michael J; Jha, Ashish K

    2016-09-01

    US policy makers are making efforts to simultaneously improve the quality of and reduce spending on health care through alternative payment models such as bundled payment. Bundled payment models are predicated on the theory that aligning financial incentives for all providers across an episode of care will lower health care spending while improving quality. Whether this is true remains unknown. Using national Medicare fee-for-service claims for the period 2011-12 and data on hospital quality, we evaluated how thirty- and ninety-day episode-based spending were related to two validated measures of surgical quality-patient satisfaction and surgical mortality. We found that patients who had major surgery at high-quality hospitals cost Medicare less than those who had surgery at low-quality institutions, for both thirty- and ninety-day periods. The difference in Medicare spending between low- and high-quality hospitals was driven primarily by postacute care, which accounted for 59.5 percent of the difference in thirty-day episode spending, and readmissions, which accounted for 19.9 percent. These findings suggest that efforts to achieve value through bundled payment should focus on improving care at low-quality hospitals and reducing unnecessary use of postacute care. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Neutron and gamma emission from highly excited states and states with high spin. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperber, D.

    1976-08-01

    Both classical and quantum models for the collision between heavy ions were studied. Classical models were used to account for the possibility of strong damping. Two models which account for side peaking and considerable energy loss were proposed. According to the first, the ions clutch at the distance of closest approach and the radial energy is dissipated fast in the entrance channel. This is followed by a slow motion in the exit channel up to the snapping point. According to the second model, there is an asymmetry in the conservative potential between the entrance and exit channels. The exit channel potential includes deformations. A dynamical model including transfer was developed. The trajectories are determined dynamically whereas the transfer is considered as a random process. Semi-classical calculations (first order quantum calculation) were performed to test the validity of the classical model or the sharp cut-off approximation. The main conclusion is that for energies high above the Coulomb barrier, the classical approximation is adequate but close to the barrier, it is insufficient, and quantum effects are important. It was shown that a quantum mechanical model using time dependent perturbation accounts very well for the angular distribution in strongly damped collisions. A list of publications is included

  20. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  1. Annualized TASAR Benefits for Virgin America Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Virgin America. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that about 25,000 gallons of fuel and about 2,500 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Virgin America in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Virgin America TASAR requests peaked at two to four requests per hour per sector in high-altitude Oakland and Salt Lake City center sectors east of San Francisco.

  2. The energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system for recycling wastewater from a high-rise building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanatamskul, Chavalit; Charoenphol, Chakraphan

    2015-01-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor-membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system has been developed as a compact biological treatment system for reuse of water from a high-rise building. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) compartment had five baffles and served as the anaerobic degradation zone, followed by the aerobic MBR compartment. The total operating hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the EABR-MBR system was 3 hours (2 hours for ABR compartment and very short HRT of 1 hour for aerobic MBR compartment). The wastewater came from the Charoen Wisawakam building. The results showed that treated effluent quality was quite good and highly promising for water reuse purposes. The average flux of the membrane was kept at 30 l/(m2h). The EABR-MBR system could remove chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus from building wastewater by more than 90%. Moreover, it was found that phosphorus concentration was rising in the ABR compartment due to the phosphorus release phenomenon, and then the concentration decreased rapidly in the aerobic MBR compartment due to the phosphorus uptake phenomenon. This implies that phosphorus-accumulating organisms inside the EABR-MBR system are responsible for biological phosphorus removal. The research suggests that the EABR-MBR system can be a promising system for water reuse and reclamation for high-rise building application in the near future.

  3. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  4. Do High Fidelity Wraparound Services for Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbances Save Money in the Long-Term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Angela; Marton, James; McLaren, Susan; Feng, Bo; Zhou, Mei

    2017-12-01

    Treating youth with serious emotional disturbances (SED) is expensive often requiring institutional care. A significant amount of recent federal and state funding has been dedicated to expanding home and community-based services for these youth as an alternative to institutional care. High Fidelity Wraparound (Wrap) is an evolving, evidence-informed practice to help sustain community-based placements for youth with an SED through the use of intensive, customized care coordination among parents, multiple child-serving agencies, and providers. While there is growing evidence on the benefits of Wrap, few studies have examined health care spending associated with Wrap participation and none have examined spending patterns after the completion of Wrap. Merging health care spending data from multiple agencies and programs allows for a more complete picture of the health care costs of treating these youth in a system-of-care framework. (i) To compare overall health care spending for youth who transitioned from institutional care into Wrap (the treatment group) versus youth not receiving Wrap (the control group) and (ii) to compare changes in health care spending, overall and by category, for both groups before (the pre-period) and after (the post-period) Wrap participation. The treatment group (N=161) is matched to the control group (N=324) temporally based on the month the youth entered institutional care. Both total health care spending and spending by category are compared for each group pre- and post-Wrap participation. The post-period includes the time in which the youth was receiving Wrap services and one year afterwards to capture long-term cost impacts. In the year before Wrap participation, the treatment group averaged USD 8,433 in monthly health care spending versus USD 4,599 for the control group. Wrap participation led to an additional reduction of USD 1,130 in monthly health care spending as compared to the control group in the post-period. For youth

  5. Invisible costs, visible savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, G

    1999-08-01

    By identifying hidden inventory costs, nurse managers can save money for the organization. Some measures include tracking and standardizing supplies, accurately evaluating patients' needs, and making informed purchasing decisions.

  6. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  7. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ZONAL WIND ANOMALIES IN HIGH AND LOW TROPOSPHERE AND ANNUAL FREQUENCY OF NW PACIFIC TROPICAL CYCLONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Zhen-song; HE Min

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between large-scale zonal wind anomalies and annual frequency of NW Pacific tropical cyclones and possible mechanisms are investigated with the methods of correlation and composition.It is indicated that when △ U200-△U850 >0 in the eastern tropical Pacific and △ U200- △U850 <0 in western tropical Pacific, the Walker cell is stronger in the Pacific tropical region and the annual frequency of NW Pacific tropical cyclone are above normal. In the years with zonal wind anomalies, the circulation of high and low troposphere and the vertical motions in the troposphere have significant characteristics. In the time scale of short-range climate prediction, zonal wind anomalies in high and low troposphere are useful as a preliminary signal of the annual frequency prediction of NW Pacific tropical cyclones.

  8. Must losing taxes on saving be harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    on account of international tax evasion mayprevent the overall saving-investment tax wedge from becoming too high, and hencemay be beneficial for moderate preferences for public goods. A world with 'high-spending' governments, in contrast, is made worse off by the loss of saving taxes,and hence stands...... are financed by taxes on savingand investment. There is international cross-ownership of firms, and countries areassumed to be unable to tax away pure profits. Countries then face an incentiveto impose a rather high investment tax also borne by foreigners. In this setting,the loss of the saving tax instrument...

  9. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Research activities presented in this annual report were carried out in 1987 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation and investigation of hot dense matter. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense heavy ion beams. The new accelerator facility SIS/ESR now under construction at GSI will provide an excellent potential for research in this field. The construction work at the new validity is on schedule. The building construction is near completion and the SIS accelerator will have its first beam at the beginning of next year. First experiments at lower intensity will start in summer 1989 and the full program will run after the cooler and storage ring ESR has got operational. Accordingly, the planning and the preparation of the high energy density experiments at this unique facility was an essential part of the activities last year. In this funding period emphasis was given to the experimental activities at the existing accelerator. In addition to a number of accelerator-oriented and instrumental developments, an experiment on beam-plasma interaction had first exciting results, a significant increase of the stopping power for heavy ions in plasma was measured. Other important activities were the investigation of dielectronic recombination of highly charged ions, spectroscopic investigations aiming at the pumping of short wavelength lasers by heavy ion beams and a crossed beam experiment for the determination of Bi + + Bi + ionization cross sections. As in previous years theoretical work an space-charge dominated beam dynamics as well as on hydrodynamics of dense plasmas, radiation transport and beam plasma interaction was continued, thus providing a basis for the future experiments. (orig.)

  10. High Temperature Materials Laboratory seventh annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Teague, P.A.

    1994-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its seventh year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements since the HTML began operation in 1987. A total of 193 nonproprietary agreements (91 industry and 102 university) and 41 proprietary agreements (39 industry and two university) are now in effect. This represents an increase of 21 nonproprietary user agreements during FY 1994. Forty-one states are represented by these users. During FY 1994, the HTML User Program evaluated 106 nonproprietary proposals (46 from industry, 52 from universities, and 8 from other government facilities) and 8 proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about ninety-five percent of those evaluated proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the Committee. This annual report discusses FY 1994 activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users and their proposals and FY 1994 publications, and summarizes nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1994.

  11. High Temperature Materials Laboratory, Eleventh Annual Report: October 1997 through September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    2000-03-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its eleventh year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation.A total of 522 agreements (351 industry,156 university,and 15 other federal agency) are now in effect (452 nonproprietary and 70 proprietary). This represents an increase of 75 user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1997). A state-by-state summary of the nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A. Forty-six states are represented. During FY 1998, the HTML User Program evaluated 80 nonproprietary proposals (32 from industry, 45 from universities, and 3 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. Appendix B provides a detailed breakdown of the nonproprietary proposals received during FY 1998. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1998.

  12. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Thirteenth Annual Report: October 1999 Through September 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, AE

    2001-11-07

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting 86 new projects and developing 50 new user agreements. The table on the following page presents the breakdown of these statistics. The figure on page 2 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. You may note that our total number of proposals is nearing 1000, and we expect to achieve this number in our first proposal review meeting of FY 2001. The large number of new agreements bodes well for the future. A list of proposals to the HTML follows this section; at the end of the report, we present a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are discussed in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Senior Advisory Committee, the completion of a formal Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP), and finalization of a purchase agreement with JEOL for a new-generation electron microscope.

  13. High Temperature Materials Laboratory eight and ninth annual reports, October 1994 through September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its ninth year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements, and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation. A total of 276 nonproprietary agreements (135 industry, 135 university, and 6 other federal agency) and 56 proprietary agreements are now in effect. This represents an increase of 70 nonproprietary user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1994). A state-by-state summary of these nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A, and an alphabetical listing is provided in Appendix B. Forty-four states are represented by these users. During FY 1995 and 1996, the HTML User Program evaluated 145 nonproprietary proposals (62 from industry, 82 from universities, and 1 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, frequently after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1995 and 1996.

  14. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  15. Leading Contributors to the Research Consortium's Annual Program, 1992-2011: High-Visibility Institutions, Researchers, and Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Lee, Hyo

    2013-01-01

    Between 1992-2011, peer-reviewed research on the Research Consortium's annual program has been published in abstract form in the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport". On the basis of frequency, high-visibility institutions, researchers, and sub-disciplinary categories were identified. Data were extracted from each abstract (N =…

  16. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Annual Update, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Bruce, Mary; Fox, Joanna Hornig

    2013-01-01

    This fourth annual update on America's high school dropout crisis shows that for the first time the nation is on track to meet the goal of a 90 percent high school graduation rate by the Class of 2020--if the pace of improvement from 2006 to 2010 is sustained over the next 10 years. The greatest gains have occurred for the students of color and…

  17. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2006-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  18. Genome-wide investigation reveals high evolutionary rates in annual model plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Li, Jinpeng; Wang, Dan; Araki, Hitoshi; Tian, Dacheng; Yang, Sihai

    2010-11-09

    Rates of molecular evolution vary widely among species. While significant deviations from molecular clock have been found in many taxa, effects of life histories on molecular evolution are not fully understood. In plants, annual/perennial life history traits have long been suspected to influence the evolutionary rates at the molecular level. To date, however, the number of genes investigated on this subject is limited and the conclusions are mixed. To evaluate the possible heterogeneity in evolutionary rates between annual and perennial plants at the genomic level, we investigated 85 nuclear housekeeping genes, 10 non-housekeeping families, and 34 chloroplast genes using the genomic data from model plants including Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula for annuals and grape (Vitis vinifera) and popular (Populus trichocarpa) for perennials. According to the cross-comparisons among the four species, 74-82% of the nuclear genes and 71-97% of the chloroplast genes suggested higher rates of molecular evolution in the two annuals than those in the two perennials. The significant heterogeneity in evolutionary rate between annuals and perennials was consistently found both in nonsynonymous sites and synonymous sites. While a linear correlation of evolutionary rates in orthologous genes between species was observed in nonsynonymous sites, the correlation was weak or invisible in synonymous sites. This tendency was clearer in nuclear genes than in chloroplast genes, in which the overall evolutionary rate was small. The slope of the regression line was consistently lower than unity, further confirming the higher evolutionary rate in annuals at the genomic level. The higher evolutionary rate in annuals than in perennials appears to be a universal phenomenon both in nuclear and chloroplast genomes in the four dicot model plants we investigated. Therefore, such heterogeneity in evolutionary rate should result from factors that have genome-wide influence, most likely those

  19. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  20. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  1. Gun control saves lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gun control legislation. One study estimated that more than 4 500 lives were saved across five SA cities from 2001 to 2005.[5] Pro-gun interest groups seeking to promote gun ownership and diffusion have attacked these findings, suggesting that stricter gun control was only enacted in 2004 following the publication of ...

  2. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  3. Exploring the time-saving bias: How drivers misestimate time saved when increasing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Peer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the time-saving bias, drivers underestimate the time saved when increasing from a low speed and overestimate the time saved when increasing from a relatively high speed. Previous research used a specific type of task --- drivers were asked to estimate time saved when increasing speed and to give a numeric response --- to show this. The present research conducted two studies with multiple questions to show that the time-saving bias occurs in other tasks. Study 1 found that drivers committed the time-saving bias when asked to estimate (a the time saved when increasing speed or (b the distance that can be completed at a given time when increasing speed or (c the speed required to complete a given distance in decreasing times. Study 2 showed no major differences in estimations of time saved compared to estimations of the remaining journey time and also between responses given on a numeric scale versus a visual analog scale. Study 3 tested two possible explanations for the time-saving bias: a Proportion heuristic and a Differences heuristic. Some evidence was found for use of the latter.

  4. Office-like Test Chambers to Measure Cool Roof Energy Savings in Four Indian Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, Rathish [Saint Gobain Research India Pvt. Ltd. (India); B, Sasank [Saint Gobain Research India Pvt. Ltd. (India); T, Rajappa [Saint Gobain Research India Pvt. Ltd. (India); N, Vinay [Saint Gobain Research India Pvt. Ltd. (India); Garg, Vishal [International Inst. of Information Technology, Hyderabad (India); Reddy, Niranjan [International Inst. of Information Technology, Hyderabad (India); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Selecting a high albedo (solar reflectance) waterproofing layer on the top of a roof helps lower the roof’s surface temperature and reduce the air conditioning energy consumption in the top floor of a building. The annual energy savings depend on factors including weather, internal loads, and building operation schedule. To demonstrate the energy saving potential of high albedo roofs, an apparatus consisting of two nearly identical test chambers (A and B) has been built in four Indian climates: Chennai (hot & humid), Bangalore (temperate), Jhagadia (Hot & dry) and Delhi (composite). Each chamber has well-insulated walls to mimic the core of an office building. Both chambers have the same construction, equipment, and operating schedule, differing only in roof surface. The reinforced cement concrete roof of Chamber A is surfaced with a low-albedo cement layer, while that of Chamber B is surfaced with a high-albedo water proof membrane (change in solar reflectance of 0.28). The experiment will be carried out for one year to explore seasonal variations in energy savings. Initial results in the month of July (post summer) shows that savings from high albedo roof ranges from 0.04 kWh/m2/day in temperate climates, to 0.08 kWh/m2/day in hot & dry climate.

  5. A model to estimate cost-savings in diabetic foot ulcer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshes, Neal R; Saedi, Samira; Wrobel, James; Kougias, Panos; Kundakcioglu, O Erhun; Armstrong, David G

    2017-04-01

    Sustained efforts at preventing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and subsequent leg amputations are sporadic in most health care systems despite the high costs associated with such complications. We sought to estimate effectiveness targets at which cost-savings (i.e. improved health outcomes at decreased total costs) might occur. A Markov model with probabilistic sensitivity analyses was used to simulate the five-year survival, incidence of foot complications, and total health care costs in a hypothetical population of 100,000 people with diabetes. Clinical event and cost estimates were obtained from previously-published trials and studies. A population without previous DFU but with 17% neuropathy and 11% peripheral artery disease (PAD) prevalence was assumed. Primary prevention (PP) was defined as reducing initial DFU incidence. PP was more than 90% likely to provide cost-savings when annual prevention costs are less than $50/person and/or annual DFU incidence is reduced by at least 25%. Efforts directed at patients with diabetes who were at moderate or high risk for DFUs were very likely to provide cost-savings if DFU incidence was decreased by at least 10% and/or the cost was less than $150 per person per year. Low-cost DFU primary prevention efforts producing even small decreases in DFU incidence may provide the best opportunity for cost-savings, especially if focused on patients with neuropathy and/or PAD. Mobile phone-based reminders, self-identification of risk factors (ex. Ipswich touch test), and written brochures may be among such low-cost interventions that should be investigated for cost-savings potential. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Jessica A; Pace, Michael L; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km 3  yr −1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km 3  yr −1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture. (paper)

  7. Training-induced annual changes in red blood cell profile in highly-trained endurance and speed-power athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciekot-Sołtysiak, Monika; Kusy, Krzysztof; Podgórski, Tomasz; Zieliński, Jacek

    2017-10-24

    An extensive body of literature exists on the effects of training on haematological parameters, but the previous studies have not reported how hematological parameters respond to changes in training loads within consecutive phases of the training cycle in highly-trained athletes in extremely different sport disciplines. The aim of this study was to identify changes in red blood cell (RBC) profile in response to training loads in consecutive phases of the annual training cycle in highly-trained sprinters (8 men, aged 24 ± 3 years) and triathletes (6 men, aged 24 ± 4 years) who competed at the national and international level. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), RBC, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and RBC distribution width (RDW) were determined in four characteristic training phases (transition, general subphase of the preparation phase, specific subphase of the preparation phase and competition phase). Our main findings are that (1) Hb, MCH and MCHC in triathletes and MCV in both triathletes and sprinters changed significantly over the annual training cycle, (2) triathletes had significantly higher values than sprinters only in case of MCH and MCHC after the transition and general preparation phases but not after the competition phase when MCH and MCHC were higher in sprinters and (3) in triathletes, Hb, MCH and MCHC substantially decreased after the competition phase, which was not observed in sprinters. The athletes maintained normal ranges of all haematological parameters in four characteristic training phases. Although highly-trained sprinters and triathletes do not significantly differ in their levels of most haematological parameters, these groups are characterized by different patterns of changes during the annual training cycle. Our results suggest that when interpreting the values of haematological parameters in speed-power and endurance

  8. Save energy - for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The article is an interview with Glenn Bjorklund, Vice President of SCalEd (Southern California Edison). The variations in Californian power demand and public electricity consumption habits are explained, together with types of power source used in electricity production. Questions are posed concerning SCalEd's energy saving strategy. The political implications of electricity charge changes are discussed. The planned energy resources for 1982-1992 are given with nuclear power being the largest contributor. (H.J.P./G.T.H.)

  9. Savings impact of a corporate energy manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorski, B.D.; O'Donnell, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the cost savings impact of employing an energy manager with a 16,000-employee corporation. The corporation, Canada's second largest airline, is currently operating nearly 3,000,000 ft 2 of mixed-use facilities spread across the country, with an annual energy budget for ground facilities of over Cdn $4,000,000. This paper outlines the methodology used by the energy manager to deploy an energy management program over a two-year period between April 1995 and May 1997. The paper examines the successes and the lessons learned during the period and summarizes the costs and benefits of the program. The energy manager position was responsible for developing an energy history database with more than 100 active accounts and for monitoring and verifying energy savings. The energy manager implemented many relatively low-cost energy conservation measures, as well as some capital projects, during the first two years of the program. In total, these measures provided energy cost savings of $210,000 per year, or 5% of the total budget. In each case, technologies installed as part of the energy retrofit projects provided not only cost savings but also better control, reduced maintenance, and improved working conditions for employees

  10. Better Buildings Alliance 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-31

    We are pleased to share with you a copy of the 2013 Annual Report. Inside, you’ll find significant program accomplishments, profiles on highlighted members, and plans for 2014. With your contributions, support, and leadership over the past 12 months, the program has reached significant milestones, including: Growing membership to over 200 members, to represent over 10 billion square feet of U.S. commercial building space and one-seventh of the market; Increasing participation in the 15 Solutions Teams by 75%; Developing 3 new high-efficiency technology specifications that if widely implemented, could save more than $5 billion in energy costs per year; Launching the Advanced RTU Campaign and Wireless Meter Challenge, and surpassing 100 million sq. ft. in the Lighting Energy Efficiency in Parking (LEEP) Campaign; Welcoming partners in new sectors, including K-12 schools and local governments; The program is a critical element of the Better Buildings Initiative, driving 20% energy savings in the building sector by 2020 through innovation, new technologies, and profiling leadership. Thank you for your ongoing participation, we are looking forward to working with you in the new year on your energy saving targets and advancing technical and market practices that promote energy savings at your organization.

  11. A Method for Estimating Potential Energy and Cost Savings for Cooling Existing Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, Otto

    2017-04-24

    NREL has developed a methodology to prioritize which data center cooling systems could be upgraded for better efficiency based on estimated cost savings and economics. The best efficiency results are in cool or dry climates where 'free' economizer or evaporative cooling can provide most of the data center cooling. Locations with a high cost of energy and facilities with high power usage effectiveness (PUE) are also good candidates for data center cooling system upgrades. In one case study of a major cable provider's data centers, most of the sites studied had opportunities for cost-effective cooling system upgrades with payback period of 5 years or less. If the cable provider invested in all opportunities for upgrades with payback periods of less than 15 years, it could save 27% on annual energy costs.

  12. Entrepreneurial Saving Practices and Reinvestment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Thorsten; Pamuk, Haki; Uras, Burak R.

    2017-01-01

    We use a novel enterprise survey to gauge the relationship between saving instruments and entrepreneurial reinvestment. We show that while most informal saving practices are not associated with a lower likelihood of reinvestment when compared with formal saving practices, there is a significantly

  13. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  14. Refrigeration: Introducing energy saving opportunities for business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    In some industries, most notably food and drink and chemicals, refrigeration accounts for a significant proportion of overall site energy costs. For instance, in the industrial handling of meat, poultry and fish, it often accounts for 50% of total energy costs. In ice-cream production the proportion is 70%. In a number of commercial sectors, refrigeration also represents a significant proportion of overall energy costs. For example: Cold storage 90%; Food supermarkets 50%; Small shops with refrigerated cabinets 70% or over; Pubs and clubs 30%. Against these high costs, even a small reduction in refrigeration energy use can offer significant cost savings, resulting in increased profits. Energy saving need not be expensive. Energy savings of up to 20% can be realised in many refrigeration plant through actions that require little or no investment. In addition, improving the efficiency and reducing the load on a refrigeration plant can improve reliability and reduce the likelihood of a breakdown. Most organisations can save energy and money on refrigeration by: More efficient equipment; Good maintenance; Housekeeping and control. This publication provides an understanding of the operation of refrigeration systems, identifies where savings can be realised and will enable readers to present an informed case on energy savings to key decision makers within their organisation. (GB)

  15. Energy. Saving 'Private' Areva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    While Areva keeps on loosing money (billions of euros for 2014), the saving of this company is at stake. Staff is already planned to be reduced in La Hague, and other staff reductions might occur after the failure of a previous strategic plan. Various activities could be sold (dismantling, mining). The article outlines the difficult relationships between Areva and EDF and the problems also faced by EDF. Some actors think that Areva should remain independent from EDF in order to be free to compete on international bidding. The rapprochement between these two companies is said to be necessary for the Ministry but seems very difficult to achieve

  16. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  17. Savings for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Mas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the relevance of formal financial services – in particular, savings – to poor people, the economic factors that have hindered the mass-scale delivery of such services in developing countries, and the technology-based opportunities that exist today to make massive gains in financial inclusion. It also highlights the benefits to government from universal financial access, as well as the key policy enablers that would need to be put in place to allow the necessary innovati...

  18. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  19. DOE-DARPA High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM), Annual HPCRM Team Meeting & Technical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Brown, B; Bayles, B; Lemieux, T; Choi, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Branagan, D; Blue, C; Peter, B; Beardsley, B; Graeve, O; Aprigliano, L; Yang, N; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-21

    The overall goal is to develop high-performance corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous-metal coatings for prolonged trouble-free use in very aggressive environments: seawater & hot geothermal brines. The specific technical objectives are: (1) Synthesize Fe-based amorphous-metal coating with corrosion resistance comparable/superior to Ni-based Alloy C-22; (2) Establish processing parameter windows for applying and controlling coating attributes (porosity, density, bonding); (3) Assess possible cost savings through substitution of Fe-based material for more expensive Ni-based Alloy C-22; (4) Demonstrate practical fabrication processes; (5) Produce quality materials and data with complete traceability for nuclear applications; and (6) Develop, validate and calibrate computational models to enable life prediction and process design.

  20. Learning to save lives!

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    They're all around you and watch over you, but you won't be aware of them unless you look closely at their office doors. There are 308 of them and they have all been given 12 hours of training with the CERN Fire Brigade. Who are they? Quite simply, those who could one day save your life at work, the CERN first-aiders. First-aiders are recruited on a volunteer basis. "Training is in groups of 10 to 12 people and a lot of emphasis is placed on the practical to ensure that they remember the life-saving techniques we show them", explains Patrick Berlinghi, a CERN first-aid instructor from TIS Division. He is looking forward to the arrival of four new instructors, which will bring the total number to twelve (eleven firemen and one member of the Medical Service). "The new instructors were trained at CERN from 16 to 24 May by Marie-Christine Boucher Da Ros (a member of the Commission Pédagogie de l'Observatoire National Français du Secourisme, the education commission of France's national first-aid body). This in...

  1. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Fourteenth Annual Report: October 2000 through September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.

    2002-05-16

    The HTML User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting 92 new projects and developing 48 new user agreements. Table 1 presents the breakdown of these statistics. Figure 1 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. You will note that the total number of HTML proposals has now exceeded 1000. Also, the large number of new agreements bodes well for the future. At the end of the report, we present a list of proposals to the HTML and a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are highlighted in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Senior Advisory Committee, and approval by ORNL for the construction of a building to house our new aberration-corrected electron microscope (ACEM) and several other sensitive electron and optical instruments.

  2. NRC high-level radioactive waste program. Annual progress report: Fiscal Year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.

    1997-01-01

    This annual status report for fiscal year 1996 documents technical work performed on ten key technical issues (KTI) that are most important to performance of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This report has been prepared jointly by the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Division of Waste Management and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses. The programmatic aspects of restructuring the NRC repository program in terms of KTIs is discussed and a brief summary of work accomplished is provided. The other ten chapters provide a comprehensive summary of the work in each KTI. Discussions on probability of future volcanic activity and its consequences, impacts of structural deformation and seismicity, the nature of of the near-field environment and its effects on container life and source term, flow and transport including effects of thermal loading, aspects of repository design, estimates of system performance, and activities related to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard are provided

  3. Global-scale high-resolution ( 1 km) modelling of mean, maximum and minimum annual streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark; Hendriks, Jan; Beusen, Arthur; Clavreul, Julie; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying mean, maximum and minimum annual flow (AF) of rivers at ungauged sites is essential for a number of applications, including assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. AF metrics can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict AF metrics based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, so far, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. We developed global-scale regression models that quantify mean, maximum and minimum AF as function of catchment area and catchment-averaged slope, elevation, and mean, maximum and minimum annual precipitation and air temperature. We then used these models to obtain global 30 arc-seconds (˜ 1 km) maps of mean, maximum and minimum AF for each year from 1960 through 2015, based on a newly developed hydrologically conditioned digital elevation model. We calibrated our regression models based on observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from about 4,000 catchments worldwide, ranging from 100 to 106 km2 in size, and validated them against independent measurements as well as the output of a number of process-based global hydrological models (GHMs). The variance explained by our regression models ranged up to 90% and the performance of the models compared well with the performance of existing GHMs. Yet, our AF maps provide a level of spatial detail that cannot yet be achieved by current GHMs.

  4. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Alaska Airlines Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport.

  5. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Virgin America Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Virgin America. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that about 25,000 gallons of fuel and about 2,500 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Virgin America in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Virgin America TASAR requests peaked at two to four requests per hour per sector in high-altitude Oakland and Salt Lake City center sectors east of San Francisco.

  6. Annual CO2 budget and seasonal CO2 exchange signals at a High Arctic permafrost site on Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüers, J.; Westermann, S.; Piel, K.; Boike, J.

    2014-01-01

    The annual variability of CO2 exchange in most ecosystems is primarily driven by the activities of plants and soil microorganisms. However, little is known about the carbon balance and its controlling factors outside the growing season in arctic regions dominated by soil freeze/thaw-processes, long-lasting snow cover, and several months of darkness. This study presents a complete annual cycle of the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics for a High Arctic tundra area on the west coast of Svalbard based on eddy-covariance flux measurements. The annual cumulative CO2 budget is close to zero grams carbon per square meter per year, but shows a very strong seasonal variability. Four major CO2 exchange seasons have been identified. (1) During summer (ground snow-free), the CO2 exchange occurs mainly as a result of biological activity, with a predominance of strong CO2 assimilation by the ecosystem. (2) The autumn (ground snow-free or partly snow-covered) is dominated by CO2 respiration as a result of biological activity. (3) In winter and spring (ground snow-covered), low but persistent CO2 release occur, overlain by considerable CO2 exchange events in both directions associated with changes of air masses and air and atmospheric CO2 pressure. (4) The snow melt season (pattern of snow-free and snow-covered areas), where both, meteorological and biological forcing, resulting in a visible carbon uptake by the high arctic ecosystem. Data related to this article are archived under: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.809507.

  7. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  8. Does Daylight Saving Save Energy? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Havránek, Tomáš; Herman, Dominik; Irsova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The original rationale for adopting daylight saving time (DST) was energy savings. Modern research studies, however, question the magnitude and even direction of the effect of DST on energy consumption. Representing the first meta-analysis in this literature, we collect 162 estimates from 44 studies and find that the mean reported estimate indicates modest energy savings: 0.34% during the days when DST applies. The literature is not affected by publication bias, but the results vary systemati...

  9. Energy saving in housing in Syria; Energieeinsparung im Wohnungsbau in Syrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantouch, Yaser

    2009-06-03

    The demand for energy is increasing in Syria annually by 10-11% and the population increases annually 2.54% This growth leads also to increase in the housing,that it is energy-unconscious and consumes many energy. This large increase in energy consumption is an important problem in the housing in Syria, particularly with the lack of observance of various climatic factors,this leads to install the heating or cooling system in all housing in order to improve thermal comfort. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency. The starting point is the experience from other countries (such as Germany), which have extensive policies, experience and rules for energy-saving buildings. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency to win. The starting point is the experience from other countries such as Germany, which has extensive policies and rules for energy-saving buildings have. These are transferred with appropriate additions to residential buildings in Syria, and they are specified for special conditions, as well as the economic, social, climatic and regulatory requirements in Syria. There is a new architectural concepts in the design of residential buildings in Syria on their energy issues to research.it was discussed the links between architecture, energy and ecology, concepts of energy-saving building and influencing factors in energy consumption in buildings analyzed and influence of these factors on building and energy in the study area (Syria). This work includes the calculations of energy-efficient building (temperature and energy consumption) for different variants with different simulation programs, and these are assessed socially and economically through interviews, surveys and calculations of Energy Price and the Cost of Buildings. It turns out that there are many opportunities for energy saving in housing in Syria by architectural, design

  10. Can lean save lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how over the last 18 months Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust have been exploring whether or not lean methodologies, often known as the Toyota Production System, can indeed be applied to healthcare. This paper is a viewpoint. One's early experience is that lean really can save lives. The Toyota Production System is an amazingly successful way of manufacturing cars. It cannot be simply translated unthinkingly into a hospital but lessons can be learned from it and the method can be adapted and developed so that it becomes owned by healthcare staff and focused towards the goal of improved patient care. Working in healthcare is a stressful and difficult thing. Everyone needs a touch of inspiration and encouragement. Applying lean to healthcare in Bolton seems to be achieving just that for those who work there.

  11. Determinants of Household Savings in Turkey Except for Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ŞENGÜR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Household has an extremely important place in the division of income for the economies. It plays a decisive role in personal consumption, investment, and savings. This study aims to identify the determinants of household savings except for income. In this study, "Household Budget Survey" conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute for the years 2002-2013 is used. Survey data has been analyzed by logistic regression models. The results of the study show that house ownership, having an extra house, having annual disposable income of over 10.000 ₺, education level also have a positive effect on household savings. On the other hand, the number of family members, car ownership, temporary or seasonal employment, and living in rural areas affect household savings in a negative way.

  12. Cost-savings of community water fluoridation program; Kerman, Iran, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eskandarizadeh

    2017-04-01

    CONCLUSION: This study indicates significant annual savings from CWFP; additional savings could be achieved if this program is implemented in other regions. We could also receive even more if this program is integrated with other public oral health programs such as screening school children, community dentistry and oral health education.

  13. Climate drives inter-annual variability in probability of high severity fire occurrence in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Alisa; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy

    2017-05-01

    A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function, leading to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Prior analyses of fire severity in California forests showed that time since last fire and fire weather conditions predicted fire severity very well, while a larger regional analysis showed that topography and climate were important predictors of high severity fire. There has not yet been a large-scale study that incorporates topography, vegetation and fire-year climate to determine regional scale high severity fire occurrence. We developed models to predict the probability of high severity fire occurrence for the western US. We predict high severity fire occurrence with some accuracy, and identify the relative importance of predictor classes in determining the probability of high severity fire. The inclusion of both vegetation and fire-year climate predictors was critical for model skill in identifying fires with high fractional fire severity. The inclusion of fire-year climate variables allows this model to forecast inter-annual variability in areas at future risk of high severity fire, beyond what slower-changing fuel conditions alone can accomplish. This allows for more targeted land management, including resource allocation for fuels reduction treatments to decrease the risk of high severity fire.

  14. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Raising High School Graduation Rates. Annual Update 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Jennifer L.; Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John

    2016-01-01

    The nation has achieved an 82.3 percent high school graduation rate--a record high. Graduation rates rose for all student subgroups, and the number of low-graduation-rate high schools and students enrolled in them dropped again, indicating that progress has had far-reaching benefits for all students. This report is the first to analyze 2014…

  15. 12 CFR 583.21 - Savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.21 Savings association. The term savings association means a Federal savings and loan association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act, a building and loan, savings and loan or homestead association or a cooperative...

  16. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  17. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  18. Fuelwood Savings and Carbon Emission Reductions by the Use of Improved Cooking Stoves in an Afromontane Forest, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Dresen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many Sub-Saharan African countries, fuelwood collection is among the most important drivers of deforestation and particularly forest degradation. In a detailed field study in the Kafa region of southern Ethiopia, we assessed the potential of efficient cooking stoves to mitigate the negative impacts of fuelwood harvesting on forests. Eleven thousand improved cooking stoves (ICS, specifically designed for baking Ethiopia’s staple food injera, referred to locally as “Mirt” stoves, have been distributed here. We found a high acceptance rate of the stove. One hundred forty interviews, including users and non-users of the ICS, revealed fuelwood savings of nearly 40% in injera preparation compared to the traditional three-stone fire, leading to a total annual savings of 1.28 tons of fuelwood per household. Considering the approximated share of fuelwood from unsustainable sources, these savings translate to 11,800 tons of CO2 saved for 11,156 disseminated ICS, corresponding to the amount of carbon stored in over 30 ha of local forest. We further found that stove efficiency increased with longer injera baking sessions, which shows a way of optimizing fuelwood savings by adapted usage of ICS. Our study confirms that efficient cooking stoves, if well adapted to the local cooking habits, can make a significant contribution to the conservation of forests and the avoidance of carbon emission from forest clearing and degradation.

  19. Canadian Potential Healthcare and Societal Cost Savings from Consumption of Pulses: A Cost-Of-Illness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. H. Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of dietary pulses, including beans, peas and lentils, is recommended by health authorities across jurisdictions for their nutritional value and effectiveness in helping to prevent and manage major diet-related illnesses of significant socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential annual healthcare and societal cost savings relevant to rates of reduction in complications from type 2 diabetes (T2D and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD following a low glycemic index (GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses, or 100 g/day pulse intake in Canada, respectively. A four-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to: (1 estimate the proportions of individuals who are likely to consume pulses; (2 evaluate the reductions in established risk factors for T2D and CVD; (3 assess the percent reduction in incidences or complications of the diseases of interest; and (4 calculate the potential annual savings in relevant healthcare and related costs. A low GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses and 100 g/day pulse intake were shown to potentially yield Can$6.2 (95% CI $2.6–$9.9 to Can$62.4 (95% CI $26–$98.8 and Can$31.6 (95% CI $11.1–$52 to Can$315.5 (95% CI $110.6–$520.4 million in savings on annual healthcare and related costs of T2D and CVD, respectively. Specific provincial/territorial analyses suggested annual T2D and CVD related cost savings that ranged from up to Can$0.2 million in some provinces to up to Can$135 million in others. In conclusion, with regular consumption of pulse crops, there is a potential opportunity to facilitate T2D and CVD related socioeconomic cost savings that could be applied to Canadian healthcare or re-assigned to other priority domains. Whether these potential cost savings will be offset by other healthcare costs associated with longevity and diseases of the elderly is to be investigated over the long term.

  20. SAVING BEHAVIOUR AND DETERMINANTS OF SAVING MOBILIZATION BY RURAL FINANCIAL CO-OPERATORS IN TIGRAI REGION, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebhatu Kifle Tesfamariam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identified and examined saving behaviour and determinants of saving mobiliza-tion by the rural co-operators in Southern Tigrai Ethiopia. The input for the study was ob-tained from randomly selected 120 rural household savers from six purposively selected ru-ral savings and credit cooperatives. The result of the study using least squares method showed that savings mobilized is determined by household annual income, amount of loan borrowed and year of member stay in the cooperative. These factors therefore have to be considered in designing strategies aimed at improving the saving mobilization of coopera-tive members in the study area. Besides, economically feasible cooperative societies in the region should be encouraged among the rural households by supporting them with revolv-ing funds as they are more effective and efficient in mobilizing rural savings and provide collateral plus guarantor-based loans with low default rate. This will enable them to boost up their production output and increase their savings thereby stimulating the rural economy.

  1. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Design Support for Tooling Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongtao

    2011-09-23

    High pressure die casting is an intrinsically efficient net shape process and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. Computer simulation has become widely used within the industry but use is not universal. Further, many key design decisions must be made before the simulation can be run and expense in terms of money and time often limits the number of decision iterations that can be explored. This work continues several years of work creating simple, very fast, design tools that can assist with the early stage design decisions so that the benefits of simulation can be maximized and, more importantly, so that the chances of first shot success are maximized. First shot success and better running processes contributes to less scrap and significantly better energy utilization by the process. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.83 trillion BTUs/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2012, a market penetration of 30% by 2015 is 1.89 trillion BTUs/year by 2022. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2022 is 0.037 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  2. Saving gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maria Anunciacao S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garantizado, Maria Auxiliadora G. [CONCREMAT Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The work presented was implemented in municipalities around the construction of the pipeline project Urucu-Coari-Manaus, the Engineering / IETEG-IENOR, because of the constant release of workers, consequently the finishing stages of this work and its future completion. The Project aims to guide saving gas with the workforce, their families and communities to the enterprise of small business cooperatives and solidarity within the potential of the site. This project is developed through the workshops: entrepreneur ship, tourism, use, reuse and recycling of products, and hortifruiti culture, agroecology, agribusiness (cooperativism solidarity) and forestry. Its execution took place in two phases, the first called 'pilot' of 12/12/2007 to 27/03/2008 in sections A and B1, in the municipality of Coari stretch and B2 in Caapiranga. The second phase occurred from 30/06 to 27/09/08, in the words B1, in the municipalities of Codajas and Anori words and B2 in Iranduba, Manacapuru and Anama. The workshops were held in state and municipal schools and administered by the Institute of Social and Environmental Amazon - ISAM, which had a team of coordinators, teachers, experts and masters of the time until the nineteen twenty-two hours to implement the project. (author)

  3. Save energy, without entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1992-01-01

    When we talk about saving energy what we usually mean is not wasting work. What we try to do when we design a process, is to use work as effectively as possible. It's hard to do that if we can't see it clearly. This paper illustrates how work can be seen (or calculated) without imposing entropy as a screen in front of it. We've all heard that the second law tells us that the entropy of the universe is increasing, and we are left with the feeling that the universe is ultimately headed for chaos, but receive little other information from this statement. A slightly more useful statement of the second law is the work potential of the universe is decreasing. However, this statement carries a needlessly negative ring. A simplified definition of the second law is: It takes work to change things. With these two corollaries: We can calculate the theoretical minimum work needed for a given change; and We can express the value of all changes in terms of work

  4. High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: Annual activity report (January 2010 - December 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a description of the operation of the French 'High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety' (HCTISN), of its missions, its organisation and its means, the progress report presents the High Committee activity for 2010 with summaries of its report on the transparency of nuclear material and waste management, its meetings, its work groups, its visits and participations to other events

  5. Measurements of spatially resolved high resolution spectra of laser-produced plasmas. FY 83 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, U.

    1984-01-01

    A high resolution grazing incidence spectrograph, provided by the Naval Research Laboratory and the Goddard Space Flight Center, has been installed on the Omega laser facility of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. This 3 meter instrument, with a 1200 lines/mm grating blazed at 2 0 35', has produced extremely high quality spectra in the wavelength region 10 A to 100 A. Spectra have been obtained from glass microballoon targets that are coated with a variety of high-Z materials. Transitions from the Na-like and Ne-like ionization stages of Fe, Ni, Cu, and Kr have been identified

  6. Saving-Based Asset Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schneider, Johannes; T. Smith, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of a novel class of preferences for the behavior of asset prices. Following a suggestion by Marshall (1920), we entertain the possibility that people derive utility not only from consumption, but also from the very act of saving. These ‘‘saving-based’’ prefere...

  7. Geology of Woman Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Madani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Money is lubricant and an instrument for economic transaction. Money social dimension has increased over time, transforming it from a sole economic instrument to a device for various transactions. Money economic value in society is indicated through different forms, one of which is saving, in the sense of money accumulation and its use under specific future circumstances. Women, who form half of the society, take specific approaches to money and savings. The current research aims to investigate the perspectives and changing attitude strategy to money and saving among married women. The participants of this study include 20 to 70 year-old employed household married women who were observed phenomenologically and interviewed qualitatively on saving through.   The findings of this study demonstrated women perspectives on various types of saving, ways of saving, transfer methods, saving consumption forms and their mechanism. It also revealed that while money is an economic instrument and possess the economic material; attitudes and acts related to money are influenced by social conditions that has consequently turned saving into a social phenomenon.

  8. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  9. [High energy physics research]: Annual performance report, December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Block, M.; Buchholz, D.; Gobbi, B.; Schellman, H.; Buchholz, D.; Rosen, J.; Miller, D.; Braaten, E. Chang, D.; Oakes, R.; Schellman, H.

    1992-01-01

    The various segments of the Northwestern University high energy physics research program are reviewed. Work is centered around experimental studies done primarily at FNAL; associated theoretical efforts are included

  10. [High energy physics research]: Annual performance report, December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992. [Northwestern Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J; Block, M; Buchholz, D; Gobbi, B; Schellman, H; Buchholz, D; Rosen, J; Miller, D; Braaten, E; Chang, D; Oakes, R; Schellman, H

    1992-01-01

    The various segments of the Northwestern University high energy physics research program are reviewed. Work is centered around experimental studies done primarily at FNAL; associated theoretical efforts are included.

  11. High-beta tokamak research. Annual progress report, 1 August 1982-1 August 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    The main research objectives during the past year fell into four areas: (1) detailed observations over a range of high-beta tokamak equilibria; (2) fabrication of an improved and more flexible high-beta tokamak based on our understanding of the present Torus II; (3) extension of the pulse length to 100 usec with power crowbar operation of the equilibrium field coil sets; and (4) comparison of our equilibrium and stability observations with computational models of MHD equilibrium and stability

  12. Annual evaluation of routine radiological survey/monitoring frequencies for the High Ranking Facilities Deactivating Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The Bethel Valley Watershed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has several Environmental Management (EM) facilities that are designated for deactivation and subsequent decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The Surplus Facilities Program at ORNL provides surveillance and maintenance support for these facilities as deactivation objectives are completed to reduce the risks associated with radioactive material inventories, etc. The Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program has established requirements for radiological monitoring and surveying radiological conditions in these facilities. These requirements include an annual evaluation of routine radiation survey and monitoring frequencies. Radiological survey/monitoring frequencies were evaluated for two High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project facilities, the Bulk Shielding Facility and Tower Shielding Facility. Considerable progress has been made toward accomplishing deactivation objectives, thus the routine radiological survey/monitoring frequencies are being reduced for 1999. This report identifies the survey/monitoring frequency adjustments and provides justification that the applicable RADCON Program requirements are also satisfied

  13. Drivers of inter-annual variation and long-term change in High-Arctic spider species abundances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Joseph J.; Hansen, Oskar L. P.; Olsen, Kent

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how species abundances vary in space and time is a central theme in ecology, yet there are few long-term field studies of terrestrial invertebrate abundances and the determinants of their dynamics. This is particularly relevant in the context of rapid climate change occurring...... in the Arctic. Arthropods can serve as strong indicators of ecosystem change due to their sensitivity to increasing temperatures and other environmental variables. We used spider samples collected by pitfall trapping from three different habitats (fen, mesic and arid heath) in High-Arctic Greenland to assess...... interpretation of long-term trends. We used model selection to determine which climatic variables and/or previous years’ abundance best explained annual variation in species abundances over this period. We identified and used 28 566 adult spiders that comprised eight species. Most notably, the abundances of some...

  14. The M77 Highway: saving lives and money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Evan O T; Augustine, Angelica; Tait, Gavin R

    2008-09-01

    Upgrading of a stretch of the A77, a major road in South West Scotland to Highway status has resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of serious and fatal road traffic accidents on a major international route. Notwithstanding the pain and suffering prevented, the annual economic savings amount to over pound 6.1 Million ($12.14 M/euro 7.96 M) The Highway, with an effective central reservation barrier, will pay for itself in 17 years and will continue to prevent serious injury and save lives.

  15. Research in high energy physics. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, S.L.; Tata, X.

    1996-01-01

    The high energy physics research program at the University of Hawaii is directed toward the study of the properties of the elementary particles and the application of the results of these studies to the understanding of the physical world. Experiments using high energy accelerators are aimed at searching for new particles, testing current theories, and measuring properties of the known particles. Experiments using cosmic rays address particle physics and astrophysical issues. Theoretical physics research evaluates experimental results in the context of existing theories and projects the experimental consequences of proposed new theories

  16. Annual report of the Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics Laboratory, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, B.

    1988-01-01

    Research within the DELPHI program; neutrino research; the H1 collaboration, which is building one of the two spectrometers for the HERA electron-proton collider; CELLO; production and decay of mesons and baryons; use of emulsions in studies of charmed and beauty particles; and the CHARM1 project which studies high energy neutrino scattering with a marble target are presented [fr

  17. Prediction of storm transfers and annual loads with data-based mechanistic models using high-frequency data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenden, Mary C.; Tych, Wlodek; Beven, Keith J.; Collins, Adrian L.; Evans, Robert; Falloon, Peter D.; Forber, Kirsty J.; Hiscock, Kevin M.; Hollaway, Michael J.; Kahana, Ron; Macleod, Christopher J. A.; Villamizar, Martha L.; Wearing, Catherine; Withers, Paul J. A.; Zhou, Jian G.; Benskin, Clare McW. H.; Burke, Sean; Cooper, Richard J.; Freer, Jim E.; Haygarth, Philip M.

    2017-12-01

    Excess nutrients in surface waters, such as phosphorus (P) from agriculture, result in poor water quality, with adverse effects on ecological health and costs for remediation. However, understanding and prediction of P transfers in catchments have been limited by inadequate data and over-parameterised models with high uncertainty. We show that, with high temporal resolution data, we are able to identify simple dynamic models that capture the P load dynamics in three contrasting agricultural catchments in the UK. For a flashy catchment, a linear, second-order (two pathways) model for discharge gave high simulation efficiencies for short-term storm sequences and was useful in highlighting uncertainties in out-of-bank flows. A model with non-linear rainfall input was appropriate for predicting seasonal or annual cumulative P loads where antecedent conditions affected the catchment response. For second-order models, the time constant for the fast pathway varied between 2 and 15 h for all three catchments and for both discharge and P, confirming that high temporal resolution data are necessary to capture the dynamic responses in small catchments (10-50 km2). The models led to a better understanding of the dominant nutrient transfer modes, which will be helpful in determining phosphorus transfers following changes in precipitation patterns in the future.

  18. HYFIRE II: fusion/high-temperature electrolysis conceptual-design study. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    As in the previous HYFIRE design study, the current study focuses on coupling a Tokamak fusion reactor with a high-temperature blanket to a High-Temperature Electrolyzer (HTE) process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Scaling of the STARFIRE reactor to allow a blanket power to 6000 MW(th) is also assumed. The primary difference between the two studies is the maximum inlet steam temperature to the electrolyzer. This temperature is decreased from approx. 1300 0 to approx. 1150 0 C, which is closer to the maximum projected temperature of the Westinghouse fuel cell design. The process flow conditions change but the basic design philosophy and approaches to process design remain the same as before. Westinghouse assisted in the study in the areas of systems design integration, plasma engineering, balance-of-plant design, and electrolyzer technology

  19. F-Element ion chelation in highly basic media. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    'A large percentage of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) produced in the DOE complex over the last thirty years temporarily resides in storage tanks maintained at highly basic pH. The final permanent waste remediation plan will probably require that liquid and solid fractions be chemically treated in order to partition and concentrate the dominate hazardous emitters from the bulk of the waste. This is no small task. Indeed, there does not exist a well developed molecular chemistry knowledge base to guide the development of suitable separations for actinide and fission products present in the strongly basic media. The goal of this project is to undertake fundamental studies of the coordination chemistry of f-element ions and their species formed in basic aqueous solutions containing common waste treatment ions (e.g., NO 3 - , CO 3 2- , organic carboxylates, and EDTA), as well as new waste scrubbing chelators produced in this study.'

  20. Research in high energy elementary particle physics: Annual progress report, [March 1, 1986-February 29, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.; Ramond, P.; Thorn, C.; Avery, P.; Walker, J.; Tanner, D.; Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N.; Majeswki, S.

    1988-01-01

    This is a progress report covering the period March 1, 1986 through February 29, 1988 for the High Energy Physics program at the University of Florida (DOE Florida Demonstration Project grant FG05-86-ER40272). Our research program covers a braod range of topics in theoretical and experimental physics and includes detector development and an Axion search. Included in this report is a summary of our program and a discussion of the research progress

  1. High frequency electromagnetic impedance measurements for characterization, monitoring and verification efforts. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.; Lee, K.H.; Pellerin, L.

    1998-01-01

    'Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small due, and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data can be mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. The authors are developing a non-invasive method for accurately imaging the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the plane wave impedance approach, known as the magnetotelluric (MT) method at low frequencies. Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques. The summary of the work to date is divided into three sections: equipment procurement, instrumentation, and theoretical developments. For most earth materials, the frequency range from 1 to 100 MHz encompasses a very difficult transition zone between the wave propagation of displacement currents and the diffusive behavior of conduction currents. Test equipment, such as signal generators and amplifiers, does not cover the entire range except at great expense. Hence the authors have divided the range of investigation into three sub-ranges: 1--10 MHz, 10--30 MHz, and 30--100 MHz. Results to date are in the lowest frequency range of 1--10 MHz. Even though conduction currents

  2. High energy particle physics at Purdue. Annual technical progress report, March 1982-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Koltick, D.S.; Loeffler, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: a study of electron-positron annihilation using the High Resolution Spectrometer at SLAC; proton decay; extensive muon showers; gamma ray astronomy; the DUMAND project; theoretical work on fundamental problems in electromagnetic, weak, strong, and gravitational interactions; chi production by hadrons; p-nucleus interactions; development of the Collider Detector at Fermilab; and study of the observed hadrons as the relativistic bound states of baryons and antibaryons

  3. Testing and evaluation of solidified high-level waste forms. Joint annual progress report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malow, G.

    1985-01-01

    A second joint programme of the European Atomic Community was started in 1981 under the indirect action programme (1980-84), Action No 5 'Testing and evaluation of the properties of various potential materials for immobilizing high activity waste'. The overall objective of the research is to test various European potential solidified high-level radioactive waste forms so as to predict their behaviour after disposal. The most important aspect is to produce data to calculate the activity release from the waste products under the attack of various aqueous solutions. The experiments were partly performed under waste repository relevant conditions and partly under simplified conditions for investigating basic activity release mechanisms. The topics of the programme were: (i) studies of basic leaching mechanisms; (ii) studies of hydrothermal leaching and surface attack of waste glasses; (iii) leach test carried out in contact with granite at low water flow rates; (iv) static leach tests with specimen surrounded by canister and backfill materials; (v) specific isotope leach tests in slowly flowing water; (vi) leach test of actinide spiked samples; (vii) leach tests of highly radioactive samples; (viii) leach tests of alpha radiation stability; (ix) studies of mechanical stability; (x) studies of mineral phases as model compounds and phase relations

  4. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. Annual progress report, September 1, 1991--September 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R & D.

  5. Evolution of China's power dispatch principle and the new energy saving power dispatch policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciwei, Gao; Yang, Li

    2010-01-01

    With social economic reform in the past decades, the power industry of China is gradually evolving from a highly integrated one toward an electricity market, which can be characterized based on the transition of the power dispatch principle. To attract investment in the power generating industry, China introduced non-state-owned power plants to the original system of a highly vertically integrated power industry with annual power generation quota guarantees, which makes the traditional economic dispatch principle not applicable. The newly debuted energy saving power dispatch (ESPD) is an attempt to fully exploit the maximum energy savings and was implemented by an administrative code. Starting in August 2007, the pilot operation of the ESPD was implemented in five provinces, but after two years, it is still not widely applied all over the country. This paper details the transition of China's power dispatch principle with particular attention to its origin and content. Moreover, the factors that influence the ESPD's actual energy saving effect are discussed, as well as the sustainability of the policy. (author)

  6. Millwater Pumping System Optimization Improves Efficiency and Saves Energy at an Automotive Glass Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-03-01

    In 2001, the Visteon automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee renovated its millwater pumping system. This improvement saved the plant $280,000 annually in energy and operating costs, reduced annual energy consumption by 3.2 million kilowatt-hours, reduced water consumption, improved system performance, and reduced use of water treatment chemicals.

  7. Mixing processes in high-level waste tanks. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    Flammable gases can be generated in DOE high-level waste tanks, including radiolytic hydrogen, and during cesium precipitation from salt solutions, benzene. Under normal operating conditions the potential for deflagration or detonation from these gases is precluded by purging and ventilation systems, which remove the flammable gases and maintain a well-mixed condition in the tanks. Upon failure of the ventilation system, due to seismic or other events, however, it has proven more difficult to make strong arguments for well-mixed conditions, due to the potential for density-induced stratification which can potentially sequester fuel or oxidizer at concentrations significantly higher than average. This has complicated the task of defining the safety basis for tank operation. Waste-tank mixing processes have considerable overlap with similar large-enclosure mixing processes that occur in enclosure fires and nuclear reactor containments. Significant differences also exist, so that modeling techniques that have been developed previously can not be directly applied to waste tanks. In particular, mixing of air introduced through tank roof penetrations by buoyancy and pressure driven exchange flows, mixed convection induced by an injected high-velocity purge jet interacting with buoyancy driven flow, and onset and breakdown of stable stratification under the influence of an injected jet have not been adequately studied but are important in assessing the potential for accumulation of high-concentration pockets of fuel and oxygen. Treating these phenomena requires a combination of experiments and the development of new, more general computational models than those that have been developed for enclosure fires. U.C. Berkeley is now completing the second year of its three-year project that started in September, 1996. Excellent progress has been made in several important areas related to waste-tank ventilation and mixing processes.'

  8. Development and characterization of solidified forms for high-level wastes: 1978. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Mendel, J.E.

    1979-12-01

    Development and characterization of solidified high-level waste forms are directed at determining both process properties and long-term behaviors of various solidified high-level waste forms in aqueous, thermal, and radiation environments. Waste glass properties measured as a function of composition were melt viscosity, melt electrical conductivity, devitrification, and chemical durability. The alkali metals were found to have the greatest effect upon glass properties. Titanium caused a slight decrease in viscosity and a significant increase in chemical durability in acidic solutions (pH-4). Aluminum, nickel and iron were all found to increase the formation of nickel-ferrite spinel crystals in the glass. Four multibarrier advanced waste forms were produced on a one-liter scale with simulated waste and characterized. Glass marbles encapsulated in a vacuum-cast lead alloy provided improved inertness with a minimal increase in technological complexity. Supercalcine spheres exhibited excellent inertness when coated with pyrolytic carbon and alumina and put in a metal matrix, but the processing requirements are quite complex. Tests on simulated and actual high-level waste glasses continue to suggest that thermal devitrification has a relatively small effect upon mechanical and chemical durabilities. Tests on the effects radiation has upon waste forms also continue to show changes to be relatively insignificant. Effects caused by decay of actinides can be estimated to saturate at near 10 19 alpha-events/cm 3 in homogeneous solids. Actually, in solidified waste forms the effects are usually observed around certain crystals as radiation causes amorphization and swelling of th crystals

  9. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-temperature Packaging: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    As maximum device temperatures approach 200 °Celsius, continuous operation, sintered silver materials promise to maintain bonds at these high temperatures without excessive degradation rates. A detailed characterization of the thermal performance and reliability of sintered silver materials and processes has been initiated for the next year. Future steps in crack modeling include efforts to simulate crack propagation directly using the extended finite element method (X-FEM), a numerical technique that uses the partition of unity method for modeling discontinuities such as cracks in a system.

  10. 14th annual Results and Review Workshop on High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Wolfgang E; Resch, Michael M; Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2011; High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '11

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in simulation on supercomputers. Leading researchers present results achieved on systems of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) for the year 2011. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering, ranging from CFD to computational physics and chemistry, to computer science, with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting results for both vector systems and microprocessor-based systems, the book allows readers to compare the performance levels and usability of various architectures. As HLRS

  11. High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, Scot [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Power electronics that use high-temperature devices pose a challenge for thermal management. With the devices running at higher temperatures and having a smaller footprint, the heat fluxes increase from previous power electronic designs. This project overview presents an approach to examine and design thermal management strategies through cooling technologies to keep devices within temperature limits, dissipate the heat generated by the devices and protect electrical interconnects and other components for inverter, converter, and charger applications. This analysis, validation, and demonstration intends to take a multi-scale approach over the device, module, and system levels to reduce size, weight, and cost.

  12. High energy particle physics at Purdue. Annual technical progress report, March 1983-March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Koltick, D.S.; Loeffler, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: a study of electron-positron annihilation using the High Resolution Spectrometer; experimental study of proton decay; gamma ray astrophysics; the DUMAND project; fundamental problems in the theory of gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions; chi production by hadrons; study of collective phenomena; search for the onset of collective phenonmena; work on the Collider Detector at Fermilab; search for a deconfined quark-gluon phase of strongly interacting matter at the FNAL proton-antiproton collider; and development of an electrodeless drift chamber

  13. High energy particle physics at Purdue. Annual progress report, March 1981-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Koltick, D.S.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Willmann, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: study of electron positron annihilation using the High Resolution Spectrometer at PEP; experimental study of proton decay; a study of rare processes in meson spectroscopy utilizing the SLAC Hybrid Bubble Chamber System; theory of fundamental problems of gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions; experimental study of chi production by hadrons; p-nucleus interactions; development of the Collider Detector at Fermilab; anitneutrino physics and low energy neutrino physics; and the study of the observed hadrons as the relativistic bound states of baryons and antibaryons

  14. Annual report for the High Energy Physics Program at The University of Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksay, L.; Busenitz, J.K.

    1993-10-01

    The High Energy Physics group at University of Alabama is a member of the L3 collaboration studying e + e - collisions near the Z degree pole at the LEP accelerator at CERN. About 2 million Z degree events have been accumulated and the experiment has been prolific in publishing results on the Z resonance parameters, the Z couplings to all leptons and quarks with mass less than half the Z mass, searches for new particles and interactions, and studies of strong interactions and/or weak charged current decays of quarks and leptons abundantly produced in Z decays. They are contributing to data analysis as well as to detector hardware. In particular, they are involved in a major hardware upgrade for the experiment, namely the design, construction and commissioning of a Silicon Microvertex Detector (SMD) which has successfully been installed for operation during the present grant period. A report is presented on their recent L3 activities and their plans for the next grant period of twelve months (April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995). Their main interests in data analysis are in the study of single photon final states and the physics made more accessible by the SMD, such as heavy flavor physics. Their hardware efforts continue to be concentrated on the high precision capacitive and optical alignment monitoring systems for the SMD and also includes gas monitoring for the muon system. They are also planning to participate in the coming upgrade of the L3 detector

  15. 12 CFR 561.43 - Savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., chartered under section 5 of the Act, or a building and loan, savings and loan, or homestead association, or... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings association. 561.43 Section 561.43... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.43 Savings association. The term savings association means a...

  16. High Temperature Materials Laboratory sixth annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1993-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its sixth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 172 nonproprietary agreements (88 university and 84 industry) and 35 proprietary agreements, (2 university, 33 industry) are now in effect. Six other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-eight states are represented by these interactions. Ninety-four nonproprietary research proposals (44 from universities, 47 from industry, and 3 from other government facilities) and three proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1993 are summarized.

  17. High Temperature Materials Laboratory fourth annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1991-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its fourth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 118 nonproprietary agreements (62 university and 56 industry) and 28 proprietary agreements (2 university, 26 industry) are now in effect. Five other government facilities have also participated in the user program. Sixty-free nonproprietary research proposals (38 from university, 26 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and four proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1991 are summarized.

  18. NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B. A.; Shah, S.; Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.; Yu, L.; Paradis, D.; Katiraei, F.; Seguin, R.; Costyk, D.; Woyak, J.; Jung, J.; Russell, K.; Broadwater, R.

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed to analyze the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to benefit from the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the installation of 500 megawatts (MW) of utility-scale PV systems (with 1-5 MW typical ratings) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE's service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC). This report provides the findings of the research completed under the project to date.

  19. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  20. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The experimental activities at GSI were concentrated on the progress in beam-plasma interaction experiments of heavy ion with ionized matter, plasma -lens forming devices, intense beam at high temperature experimental area, and charge exchange collisions of ions. The development to higher intensities and phase space densities during 1993 for the SIS and the ESR is recorded. The possibility of studying of funneling of two beams in a two-beam RFQ is studied. Specific results are presented with respect to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The problem of ion stopping in plasma and pumping X-ray lasers with heavy ion beams are discussed. Various contributions deal with dense plasma effects, shocks and opacity. (HP)

  1. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  2. A comparison of annual and seasonal carbon dioxide effluxes between subarctic Sweden and high-arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Mats P.; Morgner, Elke; Björk, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    in the literature. Winter emissions varied in their contribution to total annual production between 1 and 18%. Artificial snow drifts shortened the snow-free period by 2 weeks and decreased the annual CO2 emission by up to 20%. This study suggests that future shifts in vegetation zones may increase soil respiration...

  3. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. Annual activity report. June 2008 - December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document is the first activity report of the High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), created on June 18, 2008. The HCTISN is a French authority of information, dialogue and debate about the risks linked with nuclear activities and about their impacts on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. The committee has the ability to express his opinion and recommendations about any question on the above topics and to propose any measure aiming at warranting or improving the transparency in the nuclear domain. This activity report offers a synthetic overview of the actions already undertaken: the plutonium imports from UK, the contamination incident at the Socatri facility (a Areva-Eurodif daughter company located at the Tricastin site), and the dismantling strategy of basic nuclear facilities. It presents the composition, organization, missions and means of the Committee, the different working groups and the follow-up of the different recommendations emitted so far by the Committee. (J.S.)

  4. High Level Radioactive Waste Management: Proceedings of the second annual international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The final disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) has been one of the most arduous problems facing the nuclear industry. This issue has many facets, which are addressed in these proceedings. The papers herein contain the most current information regarding the conditioning and disposal of HLW. Most of the needs are technical in nature, such as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, and characterization of the geology of a repository to provide assurance that radioactive and other hazardous materials will not reach the surrounding environment. Many of the papers discuss non-US programs. Continued international cooperation and technology exchange is essential. There are other concerns that must be addressed before the final emplacement of HLW. Some of the other issues addressed in these proceedings are conformance to regulations, transportation, socioeconomics, and public education. Any impediments in these areas must be resolved along with the scientific issues before final waste disposal. This conference provides a forum for information exchange. The papers in these proceedings will provide the basis for future planning and decisions. Continued cooperation of the technical community will ultimately result in the safe disposal of HLW. Individual abstracts are indexed separately for the data base

  5. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  6. Overview of contractual savings institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vittas, Dimitri; Skully, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Contractual savings institutions include national provident funds, life insurance companies, private pension funds, and funded social pension insurance systems. They have long-term liabilities and stable cash flows and are therefore ideal providers of term finance, not only to government and industry, but also to municipal authorities and the housing sector. Except for Singapore, Malaysia, and a few other countries, most developing countries have small and insignificant contractual savings in...

  7. The rise of corporate savings

    OpenAIRE

    Roc Armenter

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, several developed economies have experienced large changes in how much households and firms save. In fact, a sharp increase in firms’ savings behavior has changed the net position of the (nonfinancial) corporate sector vis-à-vis the rest of the economy. ; Why have firms in the business of producing goods or services become lenders? This is quite at odds with traditional models of corporate finance, which suggest that firms issue debt and equity to fund their operati...

  8. Energy supply and energy saving in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Ilchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main problems and solutions of energy saving and energy supply in Ukraine. Low energy efficiency has become one of the main factors of the crisis in the Ukrainian economy. The most relevant scientific and methodical approaches to assessment of the level of energy consumption and saving are indicated. The comparative analysis of annual energy use has been made. A potential to solve energy supply problems is strongly correlated with the ability to ensure the innovative development of economy for efficient and economical use of existing and imported energy resources. The ways for reducing of energy resource consumption have been suggested. Creation of technological conditions for the use of alternative energy sources is considered to be rational also. The development of renewable sources of energy (alternative and renewable energy sources will provide a significant effect in reducing the use of traditional energy sources, harmful emissions and greenhouse gas. Under these conditions, increasing of energy efficiency of economy and its competitiveness can be real. Improvement of environmental and social conditions of citizens of the country will mark a positive step towards the EU, and also will cancel some problems of the future generation.

  9. Natural gas decompression energy recovery: Energy savings potential in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, A.; Piemonte, C.; Rampini, E.; Vatrano, F.; Techint SpA, Milan; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveyed the natural gas distribution systems employed in the Italian civil, industrial and thermoelectric sectors to identify those installations which can make use of gas decompression energy recovery systems (consisting of turbo-expanders or alternative expanders) to economically generate electric power. Estimates were then made of the total amount of potential energy savings. The study considered as eligible for energy savings interventions only those plants with a greater than 5,000 standard cubic meter per hour plant capacity. It was evaluated that, with suitable decompression equipment installed at 50 key installations (33 civil, 15 industrial), about 200 GWh of power could be produced annually, representing potential savings of about 22,000 petroleum equivalent tonnes of energy. A comparative analysis was done on three investment alternatives involving inputs of varying amounts of Government financial assistance

  10. Energy savings: persuasion and persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eijadi, David; McDougall, Tom; Leaf, Kris; Douglas, Jim; Steinbock, Jason; Reimer, Paul [The Weidt Group, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Gauthier, Julia [Xcel Energy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wild, Doug; Richards McDaniel, Stephanie [BWBR Architects, Inc., Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the architects, sponsoring utility and energy simulation specialist joined together to investigate the persistence of energy savings in three completed projects: a college library; a municipal transportation facility; and a hospital. The primary question being 'How well did the design decisions made with the help of simulation analysis translate into building operations over several years?' Design simulation and metered performance data are compared for specific energy-saving strategies. The paper provides a brief overview of the basis of selection of the three projects, the energy design assistance methods employed and the decisions made, along with their savings expectations. For each case, design characteristics, modelling assumptions, selected strategies and actual metered performance are outlined. We find evidence of appropriate levels of energy conservation, but they are not the absolute values predicted. In each case, the discrepancies between modelling assumptions and final construction or operating procedures are identified, examined and rectified. The paper illustrates that while owners are saving energy, they are not always getting the full savings potential for what they install. The paper concludes with a re-examination of the overall process. It evaluates the potential for additional savings of individual technologies and related larger utility incentives to design teams and building owners.

  11. Energy-Saving Benefits of Adiabatic Humidification in the Air Conditioning Systems of Semiconductor Cleanrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Suk Jo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the applicability of adiabatic humidification in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC systems of semiconductor cleanrooms. Accurate temperature and humidity control are essential in semiconductor cleanrooms and high energy consumption steam humidification is commonly used. Therefore, we propose an adiabatic humidification system employing a pressurized water atomizer to reduce the energy consumption. The annual energy consumption of three different HVAC systems were analyzed to evaluate the applicability of adiabatic humidification. The studied cases were as follows: (1 CASE 1: a make-up air unit (MAU with a steam humidifier, a dry cooling coil (DCC, and a fan filter unit (FFU; (2 CASE 2: a MAU with the pressurized water atomizer, a DCC, and a FFU; and (3 CASE 3: a MAU, a DCC, and a FFU, and the pressurized water atomizer installed in the return duct. The energy saving potential of adiabatic humidification over steam humidification has been proved, with savings of 8% and 23% in CASE 2 and CASE 3 compared to CASE 1, respectively. Furthermore, the pressurized water atomizer installed in the return duct exhibits greater energy saving effect than when installed in the MAU.

  12. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  13. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Huang, Yu (Joe) [White Box Technologies; Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  14. 76 FR 16477 - General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS...), 12 CFR 562.4 (audit of savings association, savings and loan holding company, or affiliate), 12 CFR... the savings association), 12 CFR 584.1(f) (books and records of each savings and loan holding company...

  15. Using an Ablation Gradient Model to Characterize Annual Glacial Melt Contribution to Major Rivers in High Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzik, M. J.; Armstrong, R. L.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Painter, T. H.; Racoviteanu, A.; Rittger, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ice melt from mountain glaciers can represent a significant contribution to freshwater hydrological budgets, along with seasonal snow melt, rainfall and groundwater. In the rivers of High Asia, understanding the proportion of glacier ice melt is critical for water resource management of irrigation and planning for hydropower generation and human consumption. Current climate conditions are producing heterogeneous glacier responses across the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalayan ranges. However, it is not yet clear how contrasting glacier patterns affect regional water resources. For example, in the Upper Indus basin, estimates of glacial contribution to runoff are often not distinguished from seasonal snow contribution, and vary widely, from as little as 15% to as much as 55%. While many studies are based on reasonable concepts, most are based on assumptions uninformed by actual snow or ice cover measurements. While straightforward temperature index models have been used to estimate glacier runoff in some Himalayan basins, application of these models in larger Himalayan basins is limited by difficulties in estimating key model parameters, particularly air temperature. Estimating glacial area from the MODIS Permanent Snow and Ice Extent (MODICE) product for the years 2000-2013, with recently released Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTMGL3) elevation data, we use a simple ablation gradient approach to calculate an upper limit on the contribution of clean glacier ice melt to streamflow data. We present model results for the five major rivers with glaciated headwaters in High Asia: the Bramaputra, Ganges, Indus, Amu Darya and Syr Darya. Using GRDC historical discharge records, we characterize the annual contribution from glacier ice melt. We use MODICE interannual trends in each basin to estimate glacier ice melt uncertainties. Our results are being used in the USAID project, Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS), to inform regional-scale planning for

  16. Social Capital, Network Effects and Savings in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    social networks in rural Vietnam can play a role in increasing formal savings where knowledge gaps exist. Networks are defined as active membership of women’s unions and the quality of networks is measured by the level of formal savings observed among group members. We find that membership of high...... quality networks leads to higher levels of saving in formal financial institutions and to higher levels of saving for productive investments as compared with other precautionary or lifecycle motives. Our results suggest that transmitting financial information through formal networks could be effective...... in increasing formal savings at grassroots level. We also conclude that ensuring information disseminated by networks is both accurate and desirable as well as important given that behavioural effects are also found in low-quality networks....

  17. Energy saving in industrial varnishing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirst, W.

    1978-01-01

    The search for more effective varnishing techniques and better varnish surfaces and the increasing consideration of environmental protection, energy and raw materials conservation have helped to promote electron beam hardening. Also the development of high-solid varnishes have brought about the following improvements: Better quality of the varnish surface, possible saving of one layer in multilayer coatings, reduced emission in the waste air of the spray booth, conservation of valuable raw materials and energy. (orig.) [de

  18. The annual planktonic protist community structure in an ice-free high Arctic fjord (Adventfjorden, West Spitsbergen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszyn, A. M.; Wiktor, J. M.; Wiktor, J. M.; Griffiths, C.; Kristiansen, S.; Gabrielsen, T. M.

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the size and trophic structure of the annual planktonic protist community structure in the ice-free Adventfjorden in relation to environmental factors. Our high-resolution (weekly to monthly) study was conducted in 2012, when warm Atlantic water was advected into the fjord in winter and summer. We observed a distinct seasonality in the protist communities. The winter protist community was characterised by extremely low levels of protist abundance and biomass (primarily Dinophyceae, Ciliophora and Bacillariophyceae) in a homogenous water column. In the second half of April, the total protist abundance and biomass rapidly increased, thus initiating the spring bloom in a still well-mixed water column. The spring bloom was initially dominated by the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis pouchetii and Bacillariophyceae (primarily from the genera Thalassiosira, Fragilariopsis and Chaetoceros) and was later strictly dominated by Phaeocystis colonies. When the bloom terminated in mid-June, the community shifted towards flagellates (Dinophyceae, Ciliophora, Cryptophyceae and nanoflagellates 3-7 μm in size) in a stratified, nutrient-depleted water column. Decreases in the light intensity decreased the protist abundance and biomass, and the fall community (Dinophyceae, Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae) was followed by the winter community.

  19. Energy-Saving Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, W. E.; Edwards, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Commutation by field-effect transistor allows more efficient operation. High voltage field-effect transistor (FET) controls silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's). Circuit requires only one capacitor and one inductor in commutation circuit: simpler, more efficient, and more economical than conventional inverters. Adaptable to dc-to-dc converters.

  20. Chapter 10: Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stern, Frank [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Spencer, Justin [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Savings from electric energy efficiency measures and programs are often expressed in terms of annual energy and presented as kilowatt-hours per year (kWh/year). However, for a full assessment of the value of these savings, it is usually necessary to consider the measure or program's impact on peak demand as well as time-differentiated energy savings. This cross-cutting protocol describes methods for estimating the peak demand and time-differentiated energy impacts of measures implemented through energy efficiency programs.

  1. "High/Scope Supporting the Child, the Family, the Community": A Report of the Proceedings of the High/Scope Ireland Third Annual Conference, 12th October 2004, Newry, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    The third annual High/Scope Ireland Conference provided a forum for speakers workshop leaders and delegates from across Ireland, the UK, USA, Europe and South Africa to share their experiences of High/Scope in action. Research demonstrates that long term benefits for High/Scope participants include increased literacy rates, school success and…

  2. How to tackle energy saving and load leveling. Energy saving towards 2000 and measures for the coming winter (energy-saving activities by California`s SCE, demand side management activities); Sho energy fuka heijunka ni do torikumuka. Seireki 2000 nen ni muketa sho energy to konto no shoene taisaku, Kashu SCE no sho energy (DSM katsudo wo saguru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, S. [The Energy Conservation Center Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Tokyo Electric Power has realized a peak shift of 5% for the maximum power demand by various measures to cope with increasing power demand and differential rate by time zone, including expansion of the differential rate system and heat-storage systems. Some of more notable recent techniques are eco-ice and eco-vendor systems, the former storing ice in the heat-storage tanks and the latter strongly cooling vending machines during nighttime. The NAS battery system is being developed as the new technique for load leveling. The energy-related advisory organ for Minister of International Trade and Industry asks each industrial unit to save at least 1% of power on the annual average as the energy-saving measure towards 2000. The energy-saving measures promoted by the government for the coming winter are controlled release of wastes, efficient use of power, setting room temperature at 19{degree}C or lower and voluntarily refrain from commuting by cars. The US power industry is abandoning the concept of DSM in the midst of deregulation and increased competition, and cutting budgets for new energy development. California`s SCE is promoting energy-saving through expanded use of high-efficiency motors, accurate grasp of customers` needs and publicity activities through internet systems. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Control Evaluation Information System Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Sutedjo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the control of information system savings in the banking and to identify the weaknesses and problem happened in those saving systems. Research method used are book studies by collecting data and information needed and field studies by interview, observation, questioner, and checklist using COBIT method as a standard to assess the information system control of the company. The expected result about the evaluation result that show in the problem happened and recommendation given as the evaluation report and to give a view about the control done by the company. Conclusion took from this research that this banking company has met standards although some weaknesses still exists in the system.Index Terms - Control Information System, Savings

  4. Are Women Empowered to Save?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Woolley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female economic empowerment – rising earnings, increased opportunities, greater labour force participation – has given many women the means to save. The shifting of responsibility for retirement security from employers and governments onto individuals has given women a reason to save. But are women actually saving? In this paper, we explore the relationship between the gender dynamics within a family and the accumulation of wealth. We find that little evidence in support of the conventional wisdom that families with a female financial manager save more and repay their debts more often. We find some evidence that male financial management leads to greater savings, and other evidence suggesting that savings patterns have a complex relationship with intra-family gender dynamics. El empoderamiento económico de la mujer – el aumento de los ingresos, mayores oportunidades, mayor participación laboral – ha dado a muchas mujeres los medios para ahorrar. Al pasar la responsabilidad de los ingresos de la jubilación de los empleadores y el gobierno a los individuos ha dado a las mujeres un motivo para ahorrar. ¿Pero realmente ahorran las mujeres? En este artículo se analizan las relaciones entre las dinámicas de género en una familia, y la acumulación de riqueza. Se ha llegado a la conclusión de que hay poca evidencia que apoye la creencia convencional de que las familias en las que una mujer gestiona las financias ahorran más y devuelven sus créditos más frecuentemente. Se ha encontrado alguna evidencia de que la gestión financiera por varones acarrea mayores ahorros, y otras evidencias que sugieren que los patrones de ahorro tienen una relación compleja con las dinámicas de género dentro de la familia.

  5. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...

  6. Design Study for a Low-enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    This report documents progress made during fiscal year 2007 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium fuel (LEU). Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. A high volume fraction U/Mo-in-Al fuel could attain the same neutron flux performance as with the current, HEU fuel but materials considerations appear to preclude production and irradiation of such a fuel. A diffusion barrier would be required if Al is to be retained as the interstitial medium and the additional volume required for this barrier would degrade performance. Attaining the high volume fraction (55 wt. %) of U/Mo assumed in the computational study while maintaining the current fuel plate acceptance level at the fuel manufacturer is unlikely, i.e. no increase in the percentage of plates rejected for non-compliance with the fuel specification. Substitution of a zirconium alloy for Al would significantly increase the weight of the fuel element, the cost of the fuel element, and introduce an as-yet untried manufacturing process. A monolithic U-10Mo foil is the choice of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preliminary calculations indicate that with a modest increase in reactor power, the flux performance of the reactor can be maintained at the current level. A linearly-graded, radial fuel thickness profile is preferred to the arched profile currently used in HEU fuel because the LEU fuel media is a metal alloy foil rather than a powder. Developments in analysis capability and nuclear data processing techniques are underway with the goal of verifying the preliminary calculations of LEU flux performance. A conceptual study of the operational cost of an LEU fuel fabrication facility yielded the conclusion that the annual fuel cost to the HFIR would increase significantly from the current, HEU fuel cycle. Though manufacturing can be accomplished with existing technology

  7. Improved methods to evaluate realised energy savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis regards the calculation of realised energy savings at national and sectoral level, and the policy contribution to total savings. It is observed that the results of monitoring and evaluation studies on realised energy savings are hardly applied in energy saving policy. Causes are the lack

  8. Option pricing: a flexible tool to disseminate shared savings contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Mark W; Buendia, Anthony M; Lauderdale, Katherine E; Hussey, Peter S

    2013-08-01

    Due to volatility in healthcare costs, shared savings contracts can create systematic financial losses for payers, especially when contracting with smaller providers. To improve the business case for shared savings, we calculated the prices of financial options that payers can "sell" to providers to offset these losses. Using 2009 to 2010 member-level total cost of care data from a large commercial health plan, we calculated option prices by applying a bootstrap simulation procedure. We repeated these simulations for providers of sizes ranging from 500 to 60,000 patients and for shared savings contracts with and without key design features (minimum savings thresholds,bonus caps, cost outlier truncation, and downside risk) and under assumptions of zero, 1%, and 2% real cost reductions due to the shared savings contracts. Assuming no real cost reduction and a 50% shared savings rate, per patient option prices ranged from $225 (3.1% of overall costs) for 500-patient providers to $23 (0.3%) for 60,000-patient providers. Introducing minimum savings thresholds, bonus caps, cost outlier truncation, and downside risk reduced these option prices. Option prices were highly sensitive to the magnitude of real cost reductions. If shared savings contracts cause 2% reductions in total costs, option prices fall to zero for all but the smallest providers. Calculating the prices of financial options that protect payers and providers from downside risk can inject flexibility into shared savings contracts, extend such contracts to smaller providers, and clarify the tradeoffs between different contract designs, potentially speeding the dissemination of shared savings.

  9. Can efficient supply management in the operating room save millions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung W; Dickerson, Cheryl

    2009-04-01

    Supply expenses occupy an ever-increasing portion of the expense budget in today's increasingly technologically complex operating rooms. Yet, little has been studied and published in the anesthesia literature. This review attempts to bring the topic of supply management to anesthesiologists, who play a significant role in operating room management. Little investigative work has been performed on supply management. Anecdotal reports suggest the benefits of a perpetual inventory system over a periodic inventory system. A perpetual inventory system uses utilization data to update inventory on hand continually and this information is linked to purchasing and restocking, whereas a periodic inventory system counts inventory at some regular intervals (such as annually) and uses average utilization to set par levels. On the basis of application of operational management concepts, ways of taking advantage of a perpetual inventory system to achieve savings in supply expenses are outlined. These include linking the operating room scheduling and supply order system, distributor-driven just-in-time delivery of case carts, continual updating of preference lists based on utilization patterns, increasing inventory turnovers, standardizing surgical practices, and vendor consignment of high unit-cost items such as implants. In addition, Lean principles of visual management and elimination of eight wastes may be applicable to supply management.

  10. Can this merger be saved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, S

    1999-01-01

    In this fictional case study, a merger that looked like a marriage made in heaven to those at corporate headquarters is feeling like an infernal union to those on the ground. The merger is between Synergon Capital, a U.S. financial-services behemoth, and Beauchamp, Becker & Company, a venerable British financial-services company with strong profits and an extraordinarily loyal client base of wealthy individuals. Beauchamp also boasts a strong group of senior managers led by Julian Mansfield, a highly cultured and beloved patriarch who personifies all that's good about the company. Synergon isn't accustomed to acquiring such companies. It usually encircles a poorly managed turnaround candidate and then, once the deal is done, drops a neutron bomb on it, leaving file cabinets and contracts but no people. Before acquiring Beauchamp, Synergon's macho men offered loud assurances that they would leave the tradition-bound company alone-provided, of course, that Beauchamp met the ambitious target numbers and showed sufficient enthusiasm for cross-selling Synergon's products to its wealthy clients. In charge of making the acquisition work is Nick Cunningham, one of Synergon's more thoughtful executives. Nick, who was against the deal from the start, is the face and voice of Synergon for Julian Mansfield. And Mansfield, in his restrained way, is angry at the constant flow of bureaucratic forms, at the rude demands for instant information, at the peremptory changes. He's even dropping broad hints at retirement. Nick has already been warned: if Mansfield goes, you go. Six commentators advise Nick on how to save his job by bringing peace and prosperity to the feuding couple.

  11. Foreword. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: My Foreword to the 2002 Annual Report ended with a handful of best wishes for the year 2003. One of them, rather highly pitched, was addressed to our funding authorities: may their preaching about a ''Knowledge Based Society in Poland'' come true ! There is, unfortunately, little evidence that this preaching is taken seriously by the preachers, even though the time for that in a unifying Europe is high. I hope that this Annual Report bears witness that at least we are doing our bit in this direction. Thus: We have published 203 papers in international journals. Several of them quickly gain international recognition. There was hard competition for our internal awards. The four emerging winners are behind the contributions: on the creation of circular vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates (contribution 8.23), on our share in the NA49 experiment at CERN (contribution 6.4), on our use of solid state nuclear track detectors, SSNTD, in the hostile environment of hot plasma experiments (contribution 5.5) and on some special detectors for positron emission tomography to be applied in hadron therapy (contribution 3.7). We have also contributed to the general education by, e.g., having over 7000 young guests at our Training Department (see Chapter 11 ), taking part in the Science Festival in Warsaw and Lodz, or starting the ''Roland Maze project'' in that city. The project aims at involving a large number of high school pupils in active research concerning extensive air showers at highest energies (contribution 7.6). Very importantly, it has gained approval and financial support of the local authorities in Lodz. Two international meetings were organized by our Institute: the 28 Mazurian Lakes Conference, ''The Atomic Nucleus as a Laboratory for Fundamental Processes'', EPS sponsored, see e.g. CERN Courier 44 (2004), and the ''Conference on Plasma Research and Applications, PLASMA 2003'', biannual gathering of plasma physics its. Our attempts at obtaining EU

  12. Lambda as a factor for saving energy. When are special high-performance insulating materials worthwhile?; Einsparfaktor Lambda. Wann rechnen sich besonders leistungsfaehige Daemmstoffe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, Sven-Erik [Arbeitskreis Baufachpresse e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The probably most important criterion of an insulating material is its specific thermal conductivity. The so-called lambda value describes the amount of heat which flows in one second at a temperature difference of one Kelvin through one square meters of a one meter thick layer of a material. The lower the lambda-value, the much better. While usual insulating materials exist in the heat conductance stages 035 to 045, in the meantime the manufactures overestimate oneself with super-insulating materials whose thermal conductivity reach a value of 0.019. VIP panels have a heat conductivity to approximately 0.006 W/(m{sup 2} K). This is a high damming performance,which has its price.

  13. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings between Salishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  14. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilationstrategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings betweenSalishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  15. Revolving fund for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prebensen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A key issue in Eastern Europe is the adjustment of prices from the former COMECON level to a level conforming with free market conditions. In the case of household heating, this issue involves the removal of government subsidies leading to sharply increasing prices, metering of individual consumption, improving the efficiency of energy production, distribution and use - where savings of 30-50% in each link are technically feasible - thereby providing a potential for a adapting consumption patterns to higher energy prices, provided that funds are available. Currently, investment in commercial heat production and distribution systems have received substantial international support - whereas investment in reduction of demand has been little exploited. The Revolving Fund for Energy Savings in Polish Households is a concept for efficient financing of small-scale projects. It aims at financing, on the level of housing cooperatives, on the basis of a simplified lending and project evaluation procedure, well suited to current Polish conditions or an organizationally and financially weak banking system and little developed technical knowledge in the field of energy saving. A general introduction to the issue is given and technical problems are elaborated. The implementation of Energy Savings in Housing seen from the banking point of view, and a current pilot scheme for financing, are described. (AB)

  16. Social Capital and Savings Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    We explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in imparting information about the returns to saving where potential knowledge gaps and mistrust exists. Using data from Vietnam we find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that information transmitted via reputable social...

  17. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  18. About "Save the Children Committee (India)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the activity among charitable committees to provide education and shelter to orphans and homeless children in India. "Save The Children Committee" of the All India Women's Conference began operations during the Bengal famine of 1943 by providing shelter to children who were homeless or did not know where their parents were. The Bengal Relief Committee also provided shelters, which later became Children's Homes, which were operated by the Save The Children Committee. Funding support for the homes came from individual donors and organizations. The Bengal government provided Rs.25/month/child for 450 children. Children's homes were set up in Phola, Mymensingh, and Brahmanberia, in the present day Bangladesh, and in Bankura. The Committee took over homes in Mahishadal, Khagda, and Belbeni. After 1948, the Children's Homes in East Pakistan were transferred to India. In 1952, several Children's Committees merged. Funds were supplied by international organizations. Government support levels varied over time. Schools for orphans changed from an emphasis on self-reliance and work to ordinary schooling. Brief descriptions are provided for homes at Pifa, Mangalgunge in Bongaon Subdivision, Thakurpukur in 24-Parganas, and Khagda in Midnapore district. For example, the home at Khagda was begun by the Bengal Relief Committee at the time of the famine of 1944. Save The Children Committee took over its operations in 1946. It is now a home for 21 boys. The boys have access to a good high school, have achieved academically, and received respect from the community.

  19. 99th Regional Support Command Uses LED Lighting to Capture Significant Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-11-03

    Case study describes how the Army Reserve 99th Regional Support Command (RSC) cut its energy consumption in half at the Support Command's Technical Sergeant Vernon McGarity Army Reserve Center by replacing more than 1,200 fluorescent troffers with 46 W and 61 W LED troffers with dimmers. The site achieved annual savings of more than 180,000 kWh and more than $20,000 in energy cost savings.

  20. 76 FR 31680 - General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... Savings and Loan Holding Companies. OMB Number: 1550-0011. Form Number: N/A. Description: This information...), 12 CFR 562.4 (audit of savings association, savings and loan holding company, or affiliate), 12 CFR...

  1. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  2. The impact of translucent fabric shades and control strategies on energy savings and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankanapon, Pimonmart

    shade colors. The results clearly show the benefit of automatic shade control strategies with integrated lighting control over a condition when shades are closed all day. The main contributor to the total energy savings is from lighting energy savings, followed by cooling energy savings. Shades provide greater benefit in a hot climate and in a moderate climate than in a cold climate. Different control strategies provide savings in the range of 7-35% for annual total space energy with higher savings with light colored shades. Control strategies of shades should be selected and optimized based on climate, orientation, window area, and window/shade properties. High performance glazings, when equipped with shades, show lower energy savings when compared to standard glazings. High transmittance/reflectance shades, such as white shades, perform better than dark shades in most of the cases due to higher lighting energy savings obtained with the automatic electric lighting control and the resulting cooling energy savings from rejection of some solar energy and a reduction in the heat from lights. A South orientation showed the least benefit of automatic control of shades when compare to other orientations due to the large fraction of time shades are required to provide visual comfort. Under automatic shade control, energy savings are higher the more often the shades can be raised. The different automatic control strategies present tradeoffs between energy savings and comfort. With regard to visual quality, daylight quality assessments on view, glare, luminance ratios, and UDI can be used to assess shade control strategies. Automatic shade control can increase the number of view hours while controlling sunlight penetration. With automatic shade control, more daylight hours can be provided within the beneficial range of 100-2000 lux compared to shades that are closed all day. For a person facing the window, discomfort glare is likely to increase the more often the shades are

  3. High-Temperature Coatings Offer Energy Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. X-Plane Program included the first-of-its-kind research in aerodynamics and astronautics with experimental vehicles, including the first aircraft to break the sound barrier; the first aircraft to fly in excess of 100,000, then 200,000, and then 300,000 feet; and the first aircraft to fly at three, four, five, and then six times the speed of sound. During the 1990s, NASA started developing a new thermal protection material to test on the X-33 and X-34 supersonic aircraft. The X-33 was intended to demonstrate the technologies needed for a new reusable launch vehicle and was projected to reach an altitude of approximately 50 miles and speeds of more than Mach 11. The X-34, a small, reusable technology demonstrator for a launch vehicle, was intended to reach an altitude of 250,000 feet and fly at speeds of Mach 8. As a result of its research and development efforts, NASA s Ames Research Center invented the Protective Ceramic Coating Material (PCCM). Applied to a surface, the thin, lightweight coating could protect the material underneath from extreme temperatures. The capability of the technology came from its emissivity, which radiated heat away from the surface it covered, thereby decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the underlying material. PCCM not only increased the capability of materials to withstand higher temperatures, it also exhibited impressive thermal shock, vibration, and acoustic performance. In addition, it proved to be resistant to abrasion and mechanical damage and was also environmentally safe, due to it being water-based and containing no solvents. Even though funding for the X-33 and X-34 ended in 2001, PCCM continued on a path of innovation.

  4. Nuclear Physics Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents articles and abstracts published in foreign journals, covering the following subjects: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, applied physics, instrumentation, nonlinear phenomena and high energy physics

  5. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air

  6. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings[direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building[direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces[indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3[direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each

  7. FY 1997 cost savings report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellards, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    With the end of the cold war, funding for the Environmental Management program increased rapidly as nuclear weapons production facilities were shut down, cleanup responsibilities increased, and facilities were transferred to the cleanup program. As funding for the Environmental Management (EM) program began to level off in response to Administration and Congressional efforts to balance the Federal budget, the program redoubled its efforts to increase efficiency and get more productivity out of every dollar. Cost savings and enhanced performance are an integral pair of Hanford Site operations. FY1997 was the third year of a cost savings program that was initially defined in FY 1995. The definitions and process remained virtually the same as those used in FY 1996

  8. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  9. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on case studies of water saving campaigns and new collaborations, the pa-per will serve, on the one hand, as an interpretation of the water saving strategy in Co-penhagen in the light of Ecological Modernisation, and on the other hand, as a critical discussion of Ecological Modernisation...... as a frame for understanding resource manage-ment. The water management in Copenhagen has in recent years undergone a rather radi-cal transition. Along with strong drivers for resource management in the region the mu-nicipal water supplier has tested and implemented a number of initiatives to promote sus...... to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management. A main...

  10. Good practice in saving energy at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and

  11. Cost savings through innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, J.M.; Jackson, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Newly developed technologies can and already are saving money. Other technologies under development will provide solutions to problems which are currently impossible or too expensive to address, and still others will offer alternative strategies where baseline approaches are not acceptable to the public. All of these options will be considered as the nation decides what it wishes to accomplish, and fund, to clean up the nuclear weapons complex

  12. Long-run savings and investment strategy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Russell; Guillén, Montserrat; Nielsen, Jens Perch; Pérez-Marín, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    We focus on automatic strategies to optimize life cycle savings and investment. Classical optimal savings theory establishes that, given the level of risk aversion, a saver would keep the same relative amount invested in risky assets at any given time. We show that, when optimizing lifecycle investment, performance and risk assessment have to take into account the investor's risk aversion and the maximum amount the investor could lose, simultaneously. When risk aversion and maximum possible loss are considered jointly, an optimal savings strategy is obtained, which follows from constant rather than relative absolute risk aversion. This result is fundamental to prove that if risk aversion and the maximum possible loss are both high, then holding a constant amount invested in the risky asset is optimal for a standard lifetime saving/pension process and outperforms some other simple strategies. Performance comparisons are based on downside risk-adjusted equivalence that is used in our illustration.

  13. Long-Run Savings and Investment Strategy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Gerrard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on automatic strategies to optimize life cycle savings and investment. Classical optimal savings theory establishes that, given the level of risk aversion, a saver would keep the same relative amount invested in risky assets at any given time. We show that, when optimizing lifecycle investment, performance and risk assessment have to take into account the investor’s risk aversion and the maximum amount the investor could lose, simultaneously. When risk aversion and maximum possible loss are considered jointly, an optimal savings strategy is obtained, which follows from constant rather than relative absolute risk aversion. This result is fundamental to prove that if risk aversion and the maximum possible loss are both high, then holding a constant amount invested in the risky asset is optimal for a standard lifetime saving/pension process and outperforms some other simple strategies. Performance comparisons are based on downside risk-adjusted equivalence that is used in our illustration.

  14. Cost-saving treatment strategies in in vitro fertilization: a combined economic evaluation of two large randomized clinical trials comparing highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechowski, Jaroslaw; Connolly, Mark; Schneider, Dirk; McEwan, Philip; Kennedy, Richard

    2009-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of two gonadotropin treatments that are available in the United Kingdom in light of limited public funding and the fundamental role of costs in IVF treatment decisions. An economic evaluation based on two large randomized clinical trials in IVF patients using a simulation model. Fifty-three fertility clinics in 13 European countries and Israel. Women indicated for treatment with IVF (N = 986), aged 18-38, participating in double-blind, randomized controlled trials. Highly purified menotropin (HP-hMG, Menopur) or recombinant follitropin alpha (rFSH, Gonal-F). Cost per IVF cycle and cost per live birth for HP-hMG and rFSH alpha. HP-hMG was more effective and less costly versus rFSH for both IVF cost per live birth and for IVF cost per baby (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was negative). The mean costs per IVF treatment for HP-hMG and rFSH were 2408 pounds (95% confidence interval [CI], 2392 pounds, 2421 pounds) and 2660 pounds (95% CI 2644 pounds, 2678 pounds), respectively. The mean cost saving of 253 pounds per cycle using HP-hMG allows one additional cycle to be delivered for every 9.5 cycles. Treatment with HP-hMG was dominant compared with rFSH in the United Kingdom. Gonadotropin costs should be considered alongside live-birth rates to optimize outcomes using scarce health-care resources.

  15. High annual radon concentration in dwellings and natural radioactivity content in nearby soil in some rural areas of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulan Ljiljana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some previous studies on radon concentration in dwellings of some areas of Kosovo and Metohija have revealed a high average radon concentration, even though the detectors were exposed for three months only. In order to better design a larger study in this region, the annual measurements in 25 houses were carried out as a pilot study. For each house, CR-39-based passive devices were exposed in two rooms for the two consecutive six-month periods to account for seasonal variations of radon concentration. Furthermore, in order to correlate the indoor radon with radium in nearby soil and to improve the knowledge of the natural radioactivity in the region, soil samples near each house were collected and 226Ra, 232Th, 40K activity concentration were measured. The indoor radon concentration resulted quite high from the average (163 Bq/m3 and generally it did not differ considerably between the two rooms and the two six-month periods. The natural radionuclides in soil resulted to be distributed quite uniformly. Moreover, the correlation between the226Ra content in soil and radon concentration in dwellings resulted to be low (R2=0.26. The annual effective dose from radon and its short-lived progeny (5.5 mSv, in average was calculated by using the last ICRP dose conversion factors. In comparison, the contribution to the annual effective dose of outdoor gamma exposure from natural radionuclides in soil is nearly negligible (66 mSv. In conclusion, the observed high radon levels are only partially correlated with radium in soil; moreover, a good estimate of the annual average of radon concentration can be obtained from a six-month measurement with a proper choice of exposure period, which could be useful when designing large surveys.

  16. FY 1998 report on the results of the R and D on the venture promotion type regional consortium small-/medium-size enterprise creation base type. Research and development of energy-saving and high-efficient drying system of high water content organic substances; 1998 nendo kogansui yukibutsu no shoenegata kokoritsu kanso system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project is implemented to save energy for drying bio-products (biological object organic substances), such as laver, fish and shellfish, shiitake mushroom and tobacco leaves, without deteriorating their flavor, taste, color and luster. In particular, it is aimed at development of high-efficiency drying devices friendly to these products, e.g., laver, and in harmony with energy-saving environments through creation of novel drying chambers and peripheral facilities around the heat exchanger, and elucidation of the drying processes of the organic substances. These devices can of course contribute to energy saving and environmental protection, and, at the same time, bring about the merit of easily controlling the three elements of the drying conditions precisely for the process of drying a specific organic substance. Moreover, the R and D project will help establish know-hows that allow the drying devices to diffuse into various areas for specific drying environments characteristic of region and product. The FY 1998 R and D efforts include (1) elucidation of the stepwise process for drying each product, (2) development of the algorithm for thermohydraulic elucidation of the system and drying process, (3) development of drying chambers for drying systems, and designing and fabrication of the optimum chamber shapes, and (4) evaluation of the energy flows and mass balances in the drying system. (NEDO)

  17. Pediatric Specialty Care Model for Management of Chronic Respiratory Failure: Cost and Savings Implications and Misalignment With Payment Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Robert J; McManus, Michael L; Rodday, Angie Mae; Weidner, Ruth Ann; Parsons, Susan K

    2018-05-01

    To describe program design, costs, and savings implications of a critical care-based care coordination model for medically complex children with chronic respiratory failure. All program activities and resultant clinical outcomes were tracked over 4 years using an adapted version of the Care Coordination Measurement Tool. Patient characteristics, program activity, and acute care resource utilization were prospectively documented in the adapted version of the Care Coordination Measurement Tool and retrospectively cross-validated with hospital billing data. Impact on total costs of care was then estimated based on program outcomes and nationally representative administrative data. Tertiary children's hospital. Critical Care, Anesthesia, Perioperative Extension and Home Ventilation Program enrollees. None. The program provided care for 346 patients and families over the study period. Median age at enrollment was 6 years with more than half deriving secondary respiratory failure from a primary neuromuscular disease. There were 11,960 encounters over the study period, including 1,202 home visits, 673 clinic visits, and 4,970 telephone or telemedicine encounters. Half (n = 5,853) of all encounters involved a physician and 45% included at least one care coordination activity. Overall, we estimated that program interventions were responsible for averting 556 emergency department visits and 107 hospitalizations. Conservative monetization of these alone accounted for annual savings of $1.2-2 million or $407/pt/mo net of program costs. Innovative models, such as extension of critical care services, for high-risk, high-cost patients can result in immediate cost savings. Evaluation of financial implications of comprehensive care for high-risk patients is necessary to complement clinical and patient-centered outcomes for alternative care models. When year-to-year cost variability is high and cost persistence is low, these savings can be estimated from documentation within care

  18. Estimated time of arrival and debiasing the time saving bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Gabriella; Patten, Christopher J D; Svenson, Ola; Eriksson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The time saving bias predicts that the time saved when increasing speed from a high speed is overestimated, and underestimated when increasing speed from a slow speed. In a questionnaire, time saving judgements were investigated when information of estimated time to arrival was provided. In an active driving task, an alternative meter indicating the inverted speed was used to debias judgements. The simulated task was to first drive a distance at a given speed, and then drive the same distance again at the speed the driver judged was required to gain exactly 3 min in travel time compared with the first drive. A control group performed the same task with a speedometer and saved less than the targeted 3 min when increasing speed from a high speed, and more than 3 min when increasing from a low speed. Participants in the alternative meter condition were closer to the target. The two studies corroborate a time saving bias and show that biased intuitive judgements can be debiased by displaying the inverted speed. Practitioner Summary: Previous studies have shown a cognitive bias in judgements of the time saved by increasing speed. This simulator study aims to improve driver judgements by introducing a speedometer indicating the inverted speed in active driving. The results show that the bias can be reduced by presenting the inverted speed and this finding can be used when designing in-car information systems.

  19. Airline enters 2 shared-savings deals for $1M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, J.

    1984-02-06

    Pan American World Airways has two shared-savings agreements to reduce electricity costs at its maintenance base near Miami International Airport by 20 to 25%. The two Andover 256 energy management systems (EMS) to monitor and control lighting and cooling in four buildings are already in operation. A second phase involving solar-powered water heating systems and retrofit work to air conditioning, ventilating, and lighting systems at six other buildings is nearing completion. Pan Am will divide the projected $700,000 in annual energy savings with two investor groups for seven years, after which Pan Am can buy the equipment at fair market value, renew the contract, or have the equipment removed.

  20. A REALLY WHEEZY WAY TO SAVE MONEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Grace; Almossawi, Ofran; Dulfeker, Hasna; Jones, Vicky; Taylor, Felicity

    2016-09-01

    to £2.48 for the equivalent dose of non-soluble prednisolone dispensed with a tablet crusher. Several hospital trusts have switched to using non-soluble prednisolone in order to achieve cost savings, but there have been anecdotal reports of poor palatability, raising concerns about compliance with taking medication once discharged.The switch from a soluble to a non-soluble formulation of prednisolone represents an annual saving of more than £44,000 for this hospital alone and, at scale, could realise substantial potential savings to the NHS, without compromising patients' clinical care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Lighting Energy Saving with Light Pipe in Farm Animal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans von Wachenfelt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish animal production sector has potential for saving electric lighting of €4-9 million per year using efficient daylight utilisation. To demonstrate this, two light pipe systems, Velux® (house 1 and Solatube® (house 2, are installed in two identical pig houses to determine if the required light intensity, daylight autonomy (DA, and reduced electricity use for illumination can be achieved. In each house, three light sensors continuously measure the indoor daylight relative to an outdoor sensor. If the horizontal illuminance at pig height decreases below 40 lux between 08.00 and 16.00 hours, an automatic control system activates the lights, and electricity use is measured. The daylight factor (DF and DA are determined for each house, based on annual climate data. The mean annual DA of 48% and 55% is achieved for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Light pipes in house 2 have delivered significantly more DA than those in house 1. The most common illuminance range between 0 and 160 lux is recorded in both houses, corresponding to approximately 82% and 83% of daylight time for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Further, the daylighting system for house 2 has produced a uniform DF distribution between 0.05 and 0.59. The results demonstrate that considerable electric energy savings can be achieved in the animal production sector using light pipes. Saving 50% of electric lighting would correspond to 36 GWh or 2520 t CO2 per year for Sweden, but currently the energy savings are not making the investment profitable.

  2. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...

  3. 24 CFR 221.1 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Savings clause. 221.1 Section 221.1... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Eligibility Requirements-Low Cost Homes-Savings Clause § 221.1...

  4. Consumer behaviours: Teaching children to save energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents.

  5. How much electricity can we save by using direct current circuits in homes? Understanding the potential for electricity savings and assessing feasibility of a transition towards DC powered buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgo, Brock; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Hendrickson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DC distribution systems are analyzed using monitored appliance and solar PV data. • DC-distributed PV energy generates savings under real-world load and solar profiles. • Savings from direct-DC are generally not cost-effective in current markets. • Non-technical hurdles remain before DC can be widely adopted in US homes. - Abstract: Advances in semiconductor-based power electronics and growing direct current loads in buildings have led researchers to reconsider whether buildings should be wired with DC circuits to reduce power conversions and facilitate a transition to efficient DC appliances. The feasibility, energy savings, and economics of such systems have been assessed and proven in data centers and commercial buildings, but the outcomes are still uncertain for the residential sector. In this work, we assess the technical and economic feasibility of DC circuits using data for 120 traditionally-wired AC homes in Austin, Texas to understand the effect of highly variable demand profiles on DC-powered residences, using appliance-level use and solar generation data, and performing a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify costs and benefits. Results show site energy savings between 9% and 20% when solar PV is distributed to all home appliances. When battery storage for excess solar energy is considered, these savings increase to 14–25%. At present DC equipment prices, converting all equipment to DC causes levelized annual costs of electricity to homeowners to roughly double. However, by converting only homes’ air conditioning condensing units to DC, the costs of direct-DC are greatly reduced and home site energy savings of 7–16% are generated. In addition to quantifying savings, we find major nontechnical barriers to implementing direct-DC in homes. These include a lack of standards for such systems, a relatively small market for DC appliances and components, utility programs designed for AC power, and a workforce unfamiliar with DC

  6. Saving energy in the baking industry. Energiesparen in der Baeckerei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    Measures for energy conservation and rational energy use have been given priority in almost all sectors of our economy. Between July and December 1991, 40 bakeries were studied for their energy consumptions in a study commissioned by BEWAG/EBAG in Berlin. Most bakeries will have to reckon with annual turnovers which will not rise as they used to. This brochure explains those measures which are best suited to use electric power in the business effectively to save energy, to lower costs and to reduce pollution. (orig./UA)

  7. Future of energy savings policy in Denmark (in Japanese)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of Denmark, its energy development and CO2 emission is outlined, especially in the years after 1973. Energy consumption within the country has remained almost constant, but including the country's large merchant fleet, energy consumption has grown by more than 50% to now...... 260 GJ annually per person. Danish energy saving policies with energy taxes, etc. are described. One important measure has been the use of heat from combined heat and power plants to heat buildings, which used to account for 40% of all energy consumption....

  8. Energy saving consulting in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-01

    For anyone who wants to realise the dream of his own house, the terms of thermal insulation and saving heating plant should be central in planning this. One needs advice from experts for this. A survey of the many consultants offices available in Hamburg is provided. The list was compiled with the assistance of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce and the Hamburg Trades Council and of professional associations. The information on the special fields of activity of the named consultants is based on their statements.

  9. Medical savings accounts make waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J

    1995-02-27

    MSAs: the theory. Medical savings account legislation would allow consumers to set aside pre-tax dollars to pay for day-to-day healthcare costs. The accounts are to be backed up by a catastropic policy with a deductible roughly equal to the maximum amount allowed in the MSA. The aim is to reduce healthcare cost inflation by making consumers more aware of the costs of healthcare than they are under comprehensive policies and enabling them to shop for the lowest-cost, highest-quality care.

  10. Student saving, does it exist? : A study of students' saving behavior, attitude towards saving and motivation to save.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvesson, Joakim; Yu, Shiyu

    2011-01-01

    Swedish households are getting deeper in debt and house prices keeps on rising. This is what happened in USA and it was one of the major causes of the recent financial crisis. To avoid a similar crisis in Sweden we think one part of the solution is to make sure that those who are students today and soon will get jobs, buy houses, take loans etcetera have necessary knowledge to do so. Students’ saving is an area that almost completely lacked researchers’ attention, and one goal with this thesi...

  11. Value of travel time savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Masurier, P.; Polak, J.; Pawlak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    A team of specialist market researchers and Value of Time experts comprising members from SYSTRA, Imperial College London and the Technical University of Denmark has conducted a formal audit and peer review of research undertaken by Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent to derive Value of Travel Time Savings...... Preference (RP) models that were used to derive final Values of Travel Time (VTT). This report contains the findings of our audit and peer review of the procedures adopted by the research team during data collection of the three surveys (SP, RP and Employers Surveys); a peer review of the reported approach...

  12. Connecting possibilistic prudence and optimal saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lucia Casademunt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the optimal saving problem in the framework of possibility theory. The notion of possibilistic precautionary saving is introduced as a measure of the way the presence of possibilistic risk (represented by a fuzzy number influences a consumer in establishing the level of optimal saving. The notion of prudence of an agent in the face of possibilistic risk is defined and the equivalence between the prudence condition and a positive possibilistic precautionary saving is proved. Some relations between possibilistic risk aversion, prudence and possibilistic precautionary saving were established.

  13. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  14. Feasibility study on energy saving and environmental improvement via utilization of residual oil at Petron Bataan Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A feasibility study has been performed on reduction of global warming gas emission at Bataan Refinery of Petron Company in the Republic of the Philippines by utilizing residual oil in the refinery at high efficiency. In the project, installation will be implemented on thermal power generation equipment using a low-speed diesel engine that uses residual oil as fuel, and a waste heat recovered steam generation system having NOx removing equipment at Bataan Revinary of Petron Company, in addition to the existing boiler-turbine power generation system. As a result of the discussions, the annual energy saving effect in 8 years after the installation will correspond to crude oil of 50,409 tons, and in 20 years cumulatively, it will correspond to 1,017,224 tons. The annual reduction of the global warming gas emission in 8 years after the installation will be 131,698 t-CO2, or 2,657,599 t-CO2 for 20 years cumulatively. The total investment amount for these facilities is about 4.1 billion yen, whereas the investment and energy saving effects were 10.7 tons of crude oil equivalent/year-one million yen. In addition, the investment and global warming gas emission reducing effects were 28.1 t-CO2/year-one million yen. (NEDO)

  15. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  16. Electricity consumption and energy savings potential of video game consoles in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hittinger, E.; Mullins, K.A.; Azevedo, I.L. [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Total energy consumption of video game consoles has grown rapidly in the past few decades due to rapid increases in market penetration, power consumption of the devices, and increasing usage driven by new capabilities. Unfortunately, studies investigating the energy impacts of these devices have been limited and potential responses, such as ENERGY STAR requirements, have been difficult to define and implement. We estimate that the total electricity consumption of video game consoles in the US was around 11 TWh in 2007 and 16 TWh in 2010 (approximately 1 % of US residential electricity consumption), an increase of almost 50 % in 3 years. However, any estimate of total game console energy consumption is highly uncertain, and we have determined that the key uncertainty is the unknown consumer behavior with regards to powering down the system after use. Even under this uncertainty, we demonstrate that the most effective energy-saving modification is incorporation of a default auto power down feature, which could reduce electricity consumption of game consoles by 75 % (10 TWh reduction of electricity in 2010), saving consumers over USD 1 billion annually in electricity bills. We conclude that using an auto power down feature for game consoles is at least as effective for reducing energy consumption as implementing a strict set of energy efficiency improvements for the devices, is much easier to implement given the nature of the video game console industry, and could be applied retroactively to currently deployed consoles through firmware updates.

  17. Risk transfer via energy-savings insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2003-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and potential disputes over stipulated savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building diagnostics and commissioning), financial methods are less developed in the energy management arena than in other segments of the economy. Energy-savings insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - transfers and spreads both types of risk over a larger pool of energy efficiency projects and reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy service firms who lack sufficiently strong balance sheets to self-insure the savings. ESI encourages those implementing energy-saving projects to go beyond standard measures and thereby achieve more significant levels of energy savings. Insurance providers are proponents of improved savings measurement and verification techniques, as well as maintenance, thereby contributing to national energy-saving objectives. If properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy-saving projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Governmental agencies have been pioneers in the use of ESI and could continue to play a role

  18. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostick, D.J.; Larson, L.L.; Hostick, C.J.

    1998-03-01

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region

  19. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  20. Saving in cycles: how to get people to save more money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Leona; Dholakia, Utpal

    2014-02-01

    Low personal savings rates are an important social issue in the United States. We propose and test one particular method to get people to save more money that is based on the cyclical time orientation. In contrast to conventional, popular methods that encourage individuals to ignore past mistakes, focus on the future, and set goals to save money, our proposed method frames the savings task in cyclical terms, emphasizing the present. Across the studies, individuals who used our proposed cyclical savings method, compared with individuals who used a linear savings method, provided an average of 74% higher savings estimates and saved an average of 78% more money. We also found that the cyclical savings method was more efficacious because it increased implementation planning and lowered future optimism regarding saving money.

  1. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase 1: Petroleum savings analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive analysis of near term electric hybrid vehicles are presented, with emphasis on their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles are first modeled. The projected U.S. fleet composition is estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs are conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates are then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of sevral conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle mission battery combination. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  2. SAVE ENERGY IN TEXTILE SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCALIA Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency and competitiveness in textile and clothing manufacturing sector must take into account the current and future energy challenges. Energy efficiency is a subject of critical importance for the Textile & Clothing industry, for other sectors and for the society in general. EURATEX has initiated Energy Made-to-Measure, an information campaign running until 2016 to empower over 300 textile & clothing companies, notably SMEs, to become more energy efficient. SET( Save Energy in Textile SMEs a collaborative project co-funded within the European Programme Intelligent Energy Europe II helps companies to understand their energy consumption and allows them to compare the sector benchmarks in different production processes. SET has developed the SET tool, Energy Saving and Efficiency Tool, a free of charge tool customized for textile manufacturers. The SET tool is made up of 4 elements: a stand-alone software (SET Tool for self-assessment based on an Excel application; an on-line part (SET tool Web for advanced benchmarking and comparison of the performances across years; a guiding document for the companies and overview of financial incentives and legal obligations regarding energy efficiency. Designed specifically for small and medium enterprises (SMEs, the SET tool enables the evaluation of energy consumption and recommends measures to reduce the consumption. Prior to modifying the company’s production processes and making investments to increase energy efficiency, textile SMEs need to get different type of information, including legal context, economic and technical peculiarities.

  3. Energy savings potential of a hybrid desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in Beirut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghali, Kamel

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the transient performance of a hybrid desiccant vapor compression air conditioning system is numerically simulated for the ambient conditions of Beirut. The main feature of this hybrid system is that the regenerative heat needed by the desiccant wheel is partly supplied by the condenser dissipated heat while the rest is supplied by an auxiliary gas heater. The hybrid air conditioning system of the present study replaces a 23 kW vapor compression unit for a typical office in Beirut characterized by a high latent load. The vapor compression subsystem size in the hybrid air conditioning system is reduced to 15 kW at the peak load when the regeneration temperature was fixed at 75 deg. C. Also the sensible heat ratio of the combined hybrid system increased from 0.47 to 0.73. Based on hour by hour simulation studies for a wide range of recorded ambient conditions of Beirut city, this paper predicts the annual energy consumption of the hybrid system in comparison with the conventional vapor compression system for the entire cooling season. The annual running costs savings for the hybrid system is 418.39 USD for a gas cost price of 0.141 USD/kg. The pay back period of the hybrid system is less than five years when the initial cost of the hybrid air conditioning system priced an additional 1712.00 USD. Hence, for a 20-year life cycle, the life cycle savings of the hybrid air conditioning system are 4295.19 USD

  4. U.S. Army Reserve 88th Readiness Division Finds Big Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-20

    Fact sheet features lighting work done for the U.S. Army Reserve 88th Readiness Division, which was recognized in two 2017 Interior Lighting Campaign exemplary recognition categories. The troffer lighting upgrade projects at the two recognized sites are expected to save more than 246,000 kWh annually or roughly enough electricity to run 23 homes for a year.

  5. 10 Cents To Save a Life: Ending Hunger as a Special Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Ina Ruth

    The annual "10 Cents to Save a Life" program is a special event that has been held at Mount Ida College in Newton Centre, Massachusetts for two years. The purposes of the event include: (1) teaching the public relations class and communication majors applied public relations theory through both a fundraising campaign and an education…

  6. Expanding the Annual Irrigation Maps (AIM) Product to the entire High Plains Aquifer (HPA): Addressing the Challenges of Cotton and Deficit-Irrigated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. R.; Deines, J. M.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The High Plains Aquifer (HPA) is the most extensively irrigated aquifer in the continental United States and is the largest major aquifer in North America with an area of 500,000 km2. Increased demand for agricultural products has led to expanded irrigation extent, but brought with it declining groundwater levels that have made irrigation unsustainable in some locations. Understanding these irrigation dynamics and mapping irrigated areas through time are essential for future sustainable agricultural practices and hydrological modeling. Map products using remote sensing have only recently been able to track annual dynamics at relatively high spatial resolution (30 m) for a large portion of the northern HPA. However follow-on efforts to expand these maps to the entire HPA have met with difficulty due to the challenge of distinguishing irrigation in crop types that are commonly deficit- or partially-irrigated. Expanding these maps to the full HPA requires addressing unique features of partially irrigated fields and irrigated cotton, a major water user in the southern HPA. Working in Google Earth Engine, we used all available Landsat imagery to generate annual time series of vegetation indices. We combined this information with climate covariables, planting dates, and crop specific training data to algorithmically separate fully irrigated, partially irrigated, and non-irrigated field locations. The classification scheme was then applied to produce annual maps of irrigation across the entire HPA. The extensive use of ancillary data and the "greenness" time series for the algorithmic classification generally increased accuracy relative to previous efforts. High-accuracy, representative map products of irrigation extent capable of detecting crop type and irrigation intensity within aquifers will be an essential tool to monitor the sustainability of global aquifers and to provide a scientific bases for political and economic decisions affecting those aquifers.

  7. Inconvenient messages. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    In their annual report of 2007, the Dutch Energy Council (AER) advices the Dutch government to show more decisiveness in the implementation of energy policy. The analyses of the council resulted in a series of advices: enforce energy saving; be prepared for a new oil crisis; be more efficient with natural gas from the Groningen province; maintain a friendly relationship with gas nation Russia; Acknowledge the fact that coal and or /nuclear energy cannot be missed. Finally, the Energy Council appreciatively ascertained that most of the above points of advice have been incorporated in the Energy memorandum published by the Minister of Economic Affairs on June 18th. [mk] [nl

  8. A method for estimating maternal and newborn lives saved from health-related investments funded by the UK government Department for International Development using the Lives Saved Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid K. Friberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2010, the UK Government Department for International Development (DFID committed through its 'Framework for results for reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RMNH' to save 50,000 maternal lives and 250,000 newborn lives by 2015. They also committed to monitoring the performance of this portfolio of investments to demonstrate transparency and accountability. Methods currently available to directly measure lives saved are cost-, time-, and labour-intensive. The gold standard for calculating the total number of lives saved would require measuring mortality with large scale population based surveys or annual vital events surveillance. Neither is currently available in all low- and middle-income countries. Estimating the independent effect of DFID support relative to all other effects on health would also be challenging. Methods The Lives Saved Tool (LiST is an evidence based software for modelling the effect of changes in health intervention coverage on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child mortality. A multi-country LiST-based analysis protocol was developed to retrospectively assess the total annual number of maternal and newborn lives saved from DFID aid programming in low- and middle-income countries. Results Annual LiST analyses using the latest program data from DFID country offices were conducted between 2013 and 2016, estimating the annual number of maternal and neonatal lives saved across 2010–2015. For each country, independent project results were aggregated into health intervention coverage estimates, with and in the absence of DFID funding. More than 80% of reported projects were suitable for inclusion in the analysis, with 151 projects analysed in the 2016 analysis. Between 2010 and 2014, it is estimated that DFID contributed to saving the lives of 15,000 women in pregnancy and childbirth with health programming and 88,000 with family planning programming. It is estimated that DFID health programming

  9. A method for estimating maternal and newborn lives saved from health-related investments funded by the UK government Department for International Development using the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Ingrid K; Baschieri, Angela; Abbotts, Jo

    2017-11-07

    In 2010, the UK Government Department for International Development (DFID) committed through its 'Framework for results for reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RMNH)' to save 50,000 maternal lives and 250,000 newborn lives by 2015. They also committed to monitoring the performance of this portfolio of investments to demonstrate transparency and accountability. Methods currently available to directly measure lives saved are cost-, time-, and labour-intensive. The gold standard for calculating the total number of lives saved would require measuring mortality with large scale population based surveys or annual vital events surveillance. Neither is currently available in all low- and middle-income countries. Estimating the independent effect of DFID support relative to all other effects on health would also be challenging. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is an evidence based software for modelling the effect of changes in health intervention coverage on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child mortality. A multi-country LiST-based analysis protocol was developed to retrospectively assess the total annual number of maternal and newborn lives saved from DFID aid programming in low- and middle-income countries. Annual LiST analyses using the latest program data from DFID country offices were conducted between 2013 and 2016, estimating the annual number of maternal and neonatal lives saved across 2010-2015. For each country, independent project results were aggregated into health intervention coverage estimates, with and in the absence of DFID funding. More than 80% of reported projects were suitable for inclusion in the analysis, with 151 projects analysed in the 2016 analysis. Between 2010 and 2014, it is estimated that DFID contributed to saving the lives of 15,000 women in pregnancy and childbirth with health programming and 88,000 with family planning programming. It is estimated that DFID health programming contributed to saving 187,000 newborn lives. It is

  10. Savings and Debts in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The savings and debts problematic bring us in front the Keynesian principles of supporting the global demand, so spectacular immortalized inside his “General Theory of Money. The architects of the European Union consider that production in agriculture and other economic branches is “ab initio” grounded on the credit mechanism administrated by banks: the present day approach of the agricultural process configured it as costly, owing a relatively medium to long term duration, and risky, making important the banking institution for mitigating such constrains. Romania fights for the ambitious goal of entering in the euro zone, and this target became even more challenging after the new EU Regulation No 1176/2011 on the prevention and correction of macroeconomic imbalances, which stipulates a safer surveillance for the member states. In fact, our country has to meet the exigencies of nominal and real convergence criteria, measured by the European scoreboard and relevant index.

  11. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  12. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    In this annual report the work done at the named institute is described. This concerns experiments with synchrotron radiations, high energy physics experiments at the PETRA and DORIS storage rings, studies of MFS interactions, and some neutrino experiments at CERN. A list of publications is included. (HSI)

  13. NIKHEF Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this annual report 1982, the NIKHEF research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry is described in a wide context. Next, the reports of the individual projects of section-H and section-K are described in detail. Finally, the report gives some statistical information of publications, colloquia and co-workers. (Auth.)

  14. NIKHEF Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF) during its first year. Following a general introduction to the research areas in which NIKHEF is involved, 29 brief reports from the project groups are presented. Details concerning personnel, participation in councils and committees, finances, publications, colloquia and participation in congresses and schools are included. (Auth.)

  15. Measured energy savings and cost-effectiveness of conservation retrofits in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greely, K.M.; Harris, J.P.; Hatcher, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the measured savings and cost-effectiveness of 447 commercial retrofit projects in the US, Canada, and Europe, representing over 1,700 buildings. For these projects, they examine savings and cost-effectiveness by building type and retrofit strategy, savings from individual measures, peak electric demand savings, comparisons of measured vs. predicted savings, and the persistence of savings in the years following a retrofit. Median annual site energy savings amounted to 20 kBtu/ft 2 , or 18% of whole-building usage; median retrofit cost was $0.56/ft 2 (1988 $), the median payback time was 3.1 years, and the median cost of conserved energy was $3.10/site MBtu. When examined by retrofit strategy, they found that projects with only HVAC and/or lighting retrofits had median payback times of one to three years, while those affecting the building shell, either alone or in combination with other types of measures, had payback times of five or more years. Projects in which only maintenance practices were changed typically saved 12% of their pre-retrofit consumption, often using in-house labor. Their research suggests that, despite significant savings and short payback times for the majority of projects, optimum savings are often not being achieved, due to limited owner willingness to invest in all cost-effective measures, as well as to improper retrofit installation and/or maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of energy management as a process is needed, including both inspection and commissioning of installed retrofits and ongoing tracking of energy consumption as an indicator of operating problems

  16. Moonlight project promotes energy-saving technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In promoting energy saving, development of energy conservation technologies aimed at raising energy efficiency in the fields of energy conversion, its transportation, its storage, and its consumption is considered, along with enactment of legal actions urging rational use of energies and implementation of an enlightenment campaign for energy conservation to play a crucial role. Under the Moonlight Project, technical development is at present being centered around the following six pillars: (1) large scale energy saving technology; (2) pioneering and fundamental energy saving technology; (3) international cooperative research project; (4) research and survey of energy saving technology; (5) energy saving technology development by private industry; and (6) promotion of energy saving through standardization. Heat pumps, magnetohydrodynamic generators and fuel cells are discussed.

  17. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  18. Energy saving plan for lime calcining kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Lime calcining kilns operating in China are of old type, consuming more heat energy by 30% or more than the latest type kilns. For the purpose of the COP3 joint implementation, a renewal plan was discussed taking up Benxi Steel Group Company as the object. The new type kiln is a parallel flow energy regenerating (Maerz) kiln. It has as high thermal efficiency as 900 kcal/kg of product. Annual fuel conservation as converted into crude oil will be 7.49x10{sup 3} tons, annual fuel cost reduction will be 101,200,000 yuan, and annual reduction in CO2 emission will be 23,200 tons. The estimated cost required for the project will be 991 million yen, or 66,070,000 yuan if the exchange rate is assumed to be 15 yen to one yuan. The profitability was discussed based on using bank loans and the special environmental yen loan. The investment recovering period was calculated as 7.9 years. This provides no realizability as a project on the business base. However, China strongly desires renewal of the facilities because of discharge of dust from old type facilities, and inferior quality of lime products. The project could be a candidate without doubt if the CDM system will have been established. (NEDO)

  19. Saving in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Aryeetey; Christopher Udry

    2000-01-01

    Gross domestic savings in Africa averaged only 8 percent of GDP in the 1980s, compared to 23 percent for Southeast Asia and 35 percent in the Newly Industrialized Economies. Aside from being generally low, saving rates in most of Africa have shown consistent decline over the last thirty years. These savings figures must be considered tentative, because they are derived as a residual in the national accounts from expenditure and production data that are themselves quite unreliable. Notwithstan...

  20. Energy savings in CSFR - building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Czechoslovak/Danish project on energy savings in buildings proves that it is possible to save up to 30% of the energy in buildings. 10% can be saved at an investment of 27 bill KCS. The total investment that is needed to save 30% is 140 bill KCS. Further energy savings can be obtained through more energy efficient supply systems. Information dissemination is important for the energy saving programme as are economic incentives. Investments in energy savings should be profitable for the investor, but this is not the case in the Czech and Slovak republics today. Changes are needed. Energy prices are still to low, compared to investment costs. Financial possibilities are not satisfactory for private investors. Price systems are not favourable to investment in energy savings. Training is needed for boiler men and energy consultants. Legislation is essential for the support of the full range of activities in the energy sector. Research and Development activities must back up the development of the sector. Pilot projects can illuminate the savings potential. The production of technical equipment for control and metering and production of insulation materials must be promoted. (AB)

  1. Cogeneration an opportunity for industrial energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, R.A.; Butt, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the cogeneration from industrial energy savings opportunities perspective. The energy crisis in these days forces industry to find ways to cope with critical situation. There are several energy savings options which if properly planned and implemented would be beneficial both for industry and community. One way of energy saving is Cogeneration i.e. Combined Heat and Power. The paper will review the basic methods, types and then discuss the suitability of these options for specific industry. It has been identified that generally process industry can get benefits of energy savings. (author)

  2. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  3. A multifunctional energy-saving magnetic field generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui; Sun, Wanpeng; Liu, Jinzhen; Shi, Jinhua

    2018-03-01

    To improve the energy utilization of magnetic field generators for biological applications, a multifunctional energy-saving magnetic field generator (ESMFG) is presented. It is capable of producing both an alternating magnetic field (AMF) and a bipolar pulse magnetic field (BPMF) with high energy-saving and energy-reuse rates. Based on a theoretical analysis of an RLC second-order circuit, the energy-saving and energy-reuse rates of both types of magnetic fields can be calculated and are found to have acceptable values. The results of an experimental study using the proposed generator show that for the BPMF, the peak current reaches 130 A and the intensity reaches 70.3 mT. For the AMF, the intensity is 11.0 mT and the RMS current is 20 A. The energy-saving and energy-reuse rates for the AMF generator are 61.3% and 63.5%, respectively, while for the BPMF generator, the energy-saving rate is 33.6%. Thus, the proposed ESMFG has excellent potential for use in biomedical applications.

  4. Dedicated orthogeriatric service saves the HSE a million euro

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, E

    2016-03-01

    Hip fracture is common in older adults and is associated with high morbidity, mortality and significant health care costs. A pilot orthogeriatrics service was established in an acute hospital. We aimed to establish the cost effectiveness of this service. Length of hospital stay, discharge destination and rehabilitation requirements were analysed for a one year period and compared to patients who received usual care prior to the service. We calculated the costs incurred and savings produced by the orthogeriatric service. Median length of stay was reduced by 3 days (p=<0.001) saving €266,976. There was a 19% reduction in rehabilitation requirements saving €192,600. Median rehabilitation length of stay was reduced by 6.5 days saving €171,093. Reductions in long term care requirements led to savings of €10,934 per week. Costs to establish such a service amount to €171,564. The introduction of this service led to improved patient outcomes in a cost effective manner.

  5. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  6. Your Savings and Investment Dollar. Money Management. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This booklet, written with the beginning investor in mind, will help readers set clear-cut financial goals and develop a savings and investment program for achieving them. It is suitable for personal use by adults or for classroom use in junior high through adult consumer education classes. The booklet provides information on a variety of savings…

  7. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on water loss saving as the benefit derived from biological control of this plant between 1990 and 2013 at New Year's Dam, Alicedale, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Estimates of water loss due to evapotranspiration from water hyacinth vary significantly; therefore, the study used three different rates, high, ...

  8. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... fastest 100-year in human history, in which the world population has .... achieving modern water-saving high-yield and quality type from .... Information technology, intelligent technology and 3S technology ... perfor-mance and longer service life. .... using artificial neural network technology and data commu-.

  9. Energy Savings Analysis of the Proposed Revision of the Washington D.C. Non-Residential Energy Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Hart, Philip R.

    2017-12-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of savings for the proposed Washington D.C. energy code relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010. It includes annual and life cycle savings for site energy, source energy, energy cost, and carbon dioxide emissions that would result from adoption and enforcement of the proposed code for newly constructed buildings in Washington D.C. over a five year period.

  10. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  11. Enershield : energy saving air barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallihan, D. [Enershield Industries Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Enershield Industries is a leader in air barrier technology and provides solution for the Canadian climate. This presentation described the advantages of air barriers and the impact of rising energy costs. An air barrier is used to separate areas of differing environments and makes existing building systems more efficient. This presentation discussed how an air barrier works. It also identified how Enershield Industries calculates energy savings. It described air barrier applications and those who use barrier technology. These include the commercial and industrial sector as well as the personnel and retail sector. Barrier technology can be used for cold storage; vehicle and equipment washes; food processing; and environmental separation. Features and benefits such as the ability to create seal, acoustic insulation, and long term durability were also discussed. Last, the presentation addressed model selection and design criteria issues. Design criteria that were presented included a discussion of acoustic installation, articulating nozzles, scroll cased fans, and structural frame. Other design criteria presented were galvanized frames, telescopic sliders, and off the shelf parts. It was concluded that the ability to reduce energy consumption and enhance employee/client comfort is beneficial to the employer as well as to the employee. figs.

  12. Mission aware energy saving strategies for Army ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattathreya, Macam S.

    on, gear is on neutral position, the vehicle is stationary, and the alternator powers the systems. The proposed energy saving strategy for silent surveillance mission minimizes unnecessary battery discharges by controlling the power states of systems according to the mission needs and available battery capacity. Initial experiments show that the proposed approach saves 3% energy when compared with the baseline strategy for one scenario and 1.8% for the second scenario. The proposed energy saving strategy for normal surveillance mission operates the engine at fuel-efficient speeds to meet vehicle demand and to save fuel. The experiment and simulation uses a computerized vehicle model and a test bench to validate the approach. In comparison to vehicles with fixed high-idle engine speed increments, experiments show that the proposed strategy saves fuel energy in the range of 0-4.9% for the tested power demand range of 44-69 kW. It is hoped to implement the proposed strategies on a real Army ground vehicle to start realizing the energy savings.

  13. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  14. Analysis of DOE s Roof Savings Calculator with Comparison to other Simulation Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huang, Yu [White Box Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Kenneth W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on national averages and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance surfaces, HVAC duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation levels, and other parameters. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA. However, RSC gives different energy savings estimates than previous cool roof simulation tools so more thorough software and empirical validation proved necessary. This report consolidates much of the preliminary analysis for comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to that from other simulation engines.

  15. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Annual Update, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; Moore, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    America continues to make progress in meeting its high school dropout challenge. Leaders in education, government, nonprofits and business have awakened to the individual, social and economic costs of the dropout crisis and are working together to solve it. This year, all states, districts, and schools are required by law to calculate high school…

  16. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Executive Summary. Annual Update, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Bruce, Mary; Fox, Joanna Hornig

    2012-01-01

    This 2012 report shows that high school graduation rates continue to improve nationally and across many states and school districts, with 12 states accounting for the majority of new graduates over the last decade. Tennessee and New York continue to lead the nation with double-digit gains in high school graduation rates over the same period. The…

  17. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Annual Update, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Bruce, Mary; Fox, Joanna Hornig

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the authors shared a Civic Marshall Plan to create a Grad Nation. Through that first report and subsequent update, they saw hopeful signs of progress in boosting high school graduation rates in communities across the country. This 2012 report shows that high school graduation rates continue to improve nationally and across many states and…

  18. Concepts. Environmental care through energy saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.

    1987-04-01

    Energy saving is an important ingredient of a preventive energy policy. It helps to reduce pollutants which are one essential source of damage done to air, water and soil. But even the environmentally damaging side effects of energy production, storage and distribution can be cut down through energy saving.

  19. Housing-related lifestyle and energy saving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    of relevant background characteristics. A multivariate GLM analysis reveals that when differences in housing-related lifestyles are controlled, neither country of residence nor the interaction between lifestyle and country of residence influence energy saving innovativeness or everyday energy-saving efforts...

  20. Mozambican Aggregate Consumption and Domestic Saving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was an unprecedented decade for its break with the previous trend; but so far, the new trend does not correspond to a substantial change in growth strategy to ensure that foreign savings become complementary rather than a substitute for domestic savings. Keywords: consumption, economic growth strategy, domestic ...

  1. 37 CFR 11.61 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savings clause. 11.61 Section... Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.61 Savings clause. (a... subsequent to such effective date, if such conduct would continue to justify suspension or exclusion under...

  2. Saving Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy saving action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-saving measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, electricity demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional…

  3. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a...

  4. Research on stable, high-efficiency, amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, A.; Bennett, M.; Chen, L.; D`Aiello, R.; Fieselmann, B.; Li, Y.; Newton, J.; Podlesny, R.; Yang, L. [Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States). Thin Film Div.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes work to demonstrate a multijunction module with a ``stabilized`` efficiency (600 h, 50{degrees}C, AM1.5) of 10.5%. Triple-junction devices and modules using a-Si:H alloys with carbon and germanium were developed to meet program goals. ZnO was used to provide a high optical transmission front contact. Proof of concept was obtained for several important advances deemed to be important for obtaining high (12.5%) stabilized efficiency. They were (1) stable, high-quality a-SiC:H devices and (2) high-transmission, textured ZnO. Although these developments were not scaled up and included in modules, triple-junction module efficiencies as high as 10.85% were demonstrated. NREL measured 9.62% and 9.00% indoors and outdoors, respectively. The modules are expected to lose no more than 20% of their initial performance. 28 refs.

  5. Evaluating energy saving system of data centers based on AHP and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingni

    2018-03-01

    Due to the high energy consumption of communication, energy saving of data centers must be enforced. But the lack of evaluation mechanisms has restrained the process on energy saving construction of data centers. In this paper, energy saving evaluation index system of data centers was constructed on the basis of clarifying the influence factors. Based on the evaluation index system, analytical hierarchy process was used to determine the weights of the evaluation indexes. Subsequently, a three-grade fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was constructed to evaluate the energy saving system of data centers.

  6. TASK 2.5.4 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY SAVINGS CALCULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2010-03-01

    California s major energy utilities and the California Energy Commission (CEC) are seeking to allocate capital that yields the greatest return on investment for energy infrastructure that meets any part of the need for reliable supplies of energy. The utilities are keenly interested in knowing the amount of electrical energy savings that would occur if cool roof color materials are adopted in the building market. To meet this need the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have been collaborating on a Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) project to develop an industry-consensus energy-savings calculator. The task was coordinated with an ongoing effort supported by the DOE to develop one calculator to achieve both the DOE and the EPA objectives for deployment of cool roof products. Recent emphasis on domestic building energy use has made the work a top priority by the Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) tool is designed to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and practitioners easily run complex simulations. The latest web technologies and usability design were employed to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on the best available statistical evidence and can provide energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than the building location. A key goal for the tool is to promote the energy benefits of cool color tile, metal and asphalt shingle roof products and other energy saving systems. The RSC tool focuses on applications for the roof and attic; however, the code conducts a whole building simulation that puts the energy and heat flows of the roof and attic into the perspective of the whole house. An annual simulation runs in about 30 sec. In addition to cool

  7. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance

  8. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of$875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance sheets to self

  9. Saving electricity in a hurry - update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, Sara Bryan

    2011-06-15

    As demonstrated by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami-triggered blackouts in Japan, electricity shortfalls can happen anytime and anywhere. Countries can minimise the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of such electricity shortfalls by developing emergency energy-saving strategies before a crisis occurs. This new IEA report highlights preliminary findings and conclusions from electricity shortfalls in Japan, the United States, New Zealand, South Africa and Chile. It draws on recent analysis to: reinforce well-established guidelines on diagnosing electricity shortfalls, identifying energy-saving opportunities and selecting a package of energy-saving measures; and highlight proven practice for implementing emergency energy-saving programmes. This paper will be valuable to government, academic, private-sector and civil-society stakeholders who inform, develop and implement electricity policy in general, and emergency energy-saving programmes in particular.

  10. ONU Power Saving Scheme for EPON System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Hiroaki; Tano, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Masaki; Kozaki, Seiji; Yamanaka, Hideaki

    PON (Passive Optical Network) achieves FTTH (Fiber To The Home) economically, by sharing an optical fiber among plural subscribers. Recently, global climate change has been recognized as a serious near term problem. Power saving techniques for electronic devices are important. In PON system, the ONU (Optical Network Unit) power saving scheme has been studied and defined in XG-PON. In this paper, we propose an ONU power saving scheme for EPON. Then, we present an analysis of the power reduction effect and the data transmission delay caused by the ONU power saving scheme. According to the analysis, we propose an efficient provisioning method for the ONU power saving scheme which is applicable to both of XG-PON and EPON.

  11. Values and Technologies in Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    2000-01-01

    of this saving can cause what is called the rebound effect, which reduces the savings obtained from the technology. Ways to avoid this effect are suggested, and they require value changes, primarly around frugality, consumption, and hard-working. There are indications that some of the necessary changes are well......The chapter is based on the assumption, that technology improvement is not sufficient to achieve a sustainable world community. Changes in people´s values are necessary. A simple model suggest how values, together with basic needs and with the environmental and societal frames, determine people......´s behavioural pattern and lifestyles. Deliberate changes in social values are illustrated by a historical example. From the side of technology the basic principles in the economy of energy savings are briefly described. The marginally profitable energy savings provides an economic saving. The application...

  12. Advances in High-Throughput Speed, Low-Latency Communication for Embedded Instrumentation (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Scott

    2012-06-01

    Scott Jordan on "Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  13. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7.

  14. Potential energy savings in renovation projects of residential and service buildings; Energiansaeaestoemahdollisuudet rakennuskannan korjaustoiminnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heljo, J.; Vihola, J.

    2012-11-01

    maintenance. Residential buildings, about 70 % of which are owned by private individuals, play a major role in renovation. The owners cannot be enticed or ordered to implement renovations that they do not find sensible or cannot afford. Especially in areas facing an uncertain future, the financial capacity for expensive renovation measures is low. In theory, it is possible to save considerably more energy than is considered feasible. The theoretical savings potential was estimated by making the entire residential and service building stock correspond to 2010 energy regulations for new construction in the calculation model. That resulted in about 40 % savings in the existing stock. That level is, however, realisable only in the case of individual buildings. Since some buildings and structural elements have already been renovated, and some will not be renovated for various reasons, a maximum of half of this theoretical savings potential in the entire building stock (about 20 %) will be realised by 2050. The limiting factors are technical, economical, functional and decision-making related. The key piece of input data for calculations was the number of renovation operations in connection with which energy-saving measures can be carried out. An average of about 2 % of structural elements are repaired annually. More windows are replaced than other elements. Annual energy savings depend on the rate of renovations and the energy efficiency of selected solutions. The feasible annual extra savings in heating energy from renovations varies from 0,2-0,7 % in the case of the existing residential and service building stock. In 2020 the cumulative annual savings would thus be 2-7 % and in 2050 8-28 % compared to 2010. The in-between values can be interpolated linearly. Based on the calculations of this study, the realisable savings potential in the current building stock would be about 20 % in 2050. That is assumed possible, but without intensified energy-saving measures, the savings could

  15. Forschungszentrum Juelich. Annual report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, Frank; Lueers, Katja; Roegener, Wiebke; Stettien, Annette; Trautwein, Ilse; Stahl-Busse, Brigitte

    2016-07-01

    The annual report 2015 of the Forschungszentrum Juelich covers research activities, including high-lights of brain science, electrically controllable quantum bits, climate science and atmosphere research, knowledge management, including education and international cooperation, and an economic survey.

  16. Forschungszentrum Juelich. Annual report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, Frank; Roegener, Wiebke

    2014-07-01

    The annual report 2013 of the Forschungszentrum Juelich covers research activities, including high-lights of brain science, electrically controllable quantum bits, climate science and atmosphere research, knowledge management, including education and international cooperation, and an economic survey.

  17. Annual surveillance by CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound for ovarian cancer in both high-risk and population risk women is ineffective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodward, E R; Sleightholme, H V; Considine, A M

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of annual CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) scan as surveillance for ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Retrospective audit. SETTING: NHS Trust. POPULATION: Three hundred and forty-one asymptomatic women enrolled for ovarian cancer screening: 179 were in a high...... and local cancer registry data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ovarian cancers occurring in study population. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of TVU, and CA125 as a screening tool for ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Four ovarian cancers and one endometrial...... cancer occurred. One ovarian cancer was detected at surveillance, three occurred in women who presented symptomatically between screenings. Thirty women underwent exploratory surgery because of abnormal findings at surveillance. Two women had cancer (PPV = 6.7%); one had ovarian cancer and the other...

  18. Evaluation of energy savings potential of variable refrigerant flow (VRF from variable air volume (VAV in the U.S. climate locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsu Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Variable refrigerant flow (VRF systems are known for their high energy performance and thus can improve energy efficiency both in residential and commercial buildings. The energy savings potential of this system has been demonstrated in several studies by comparing the system performance with conventional HVAC systems such as rooftop variable air volume systems (RTU-VAV and central chiller and boiler systems. This paper evaluates the performance of VRF and RTU-VAV systems in a simulation environment using widely-accepted whole building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. A medium office prototype building model, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE, is used to assess the performance of VRF and RTU-VAV systems. Each system is placed in 16 different locations, representing all U.S. climate zones, to evaluate the performance variations. Both models are compliant with the minimum energy code requirements prescribed in ASHRAE standard 90.1-2010 — energy standard for buildings except low-rise residential buildings. Finally, a comparison study between the simulation results of VRF and RTU-VAV models is made to demonstrate energy savings potential of VRF systems. The simulation results show that the VRF systems would save around 15–42% and 18–33% for HVAC site and source energy uses compared to the RTU-VAV systems. In addition, calculated results for annual HVAC cost savings point out that hot and mild climates show higher percentage cost savings for the VRF systems than cold climates mainly due to the differences in electricity and gas use for heating sources.

  19. America Saves! Energizing Main Street's Small Businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, James [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The America Saves! Energizing Main Street Small Businesses project engaged the 1,200-member National Main Street Center (NMSC) network of downtown organizations and other local, regional, and national partners to test a methodology for sharing customized energy efficiency information with owners of commercial buildings smaller than 50,000 square feet. Led by the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s Preservation Green Lab, the project marshalled local staff and volunteers to gather voluntarily-disclosed energy use information from participating businesses. This information was analyzed using a remote auditing tool (validated by the National Renewable Energy Lab) to assess energy savings opportunities and design retrofit strategies targeting seven building types (food service and sales, attached mixed-use, strip mall, retail, office, lodging, and schools). The original project design contemplated extensive leveraging of the Green Button protocol for sharing annualized utility data at a district scale. Due the lack of adoption of Green Button, the project partners developed customized approaches to data collection in each of twelve pilot communities. The project team encountered considerable challenges in gathering standardized annual utility data from local partners. After overcoming these issues, the data was uploaded to a data storehouse. Over 450 properties were benchmarked and the remote auditing tool was tested using full building profiles and utility records for more than 100 commercial properties in three of the pilot communities. The audit tool demonstrated potential for quickly capturing, analyzing, and communicating energy efficiency opportunities in small commercial buildings. However, the project team found that the unique physical characteristics and use patterns (partial vacancy, periodic intensive uses) of small commercial buildings required more trouble-shooting and data correction than was anticipated. In addition, the project revealed that

  20. Standardized ultrasound templates for diagnosing appendicitis reduce annual imaging costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Andrew B; Sales, Stephen; Nielsen, Jason W; Adler, Brent; Bates, David Gregory; Kenney, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound is preferred over computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing appendicitis in children to avoid undue radiation exposure. We previously reported our experience in instituting a standardized appendicitis ultrasound template, which decreased CT rates by 67.3%. In this analysis, we demonstrate the ongoing cost savings associated with using this template. Retrospective chart review for the time period preceding template implementation (June 2012-September 2012) was combined with prospective review through December 2015 for all patients in the emergency department receiving diagnostic imaging for appendicitis. The type of imaging was recorded, and imaging rates and ultrasound test statistics were calculated. Estimated annual imaging costs based on pretemplate ultrasound and CT utilization rates were compared with post-template annual costs to calculate annual and cumulative savings. In the pretemplate period, ultrasound and CT rates were 80.2% and 44.3%, respectively, resulting in a combined annual cost of $300,527.70. Similar calculations were performed for each succeeding year, accounting for changes in patient volume. Using pretemplate rates, our projected 2015 imaging cost was $371,402.86; however, our ultrasound rate had increased to 98.3%, whereas the CT rate declined to 9.6%, yielding an annual estimated cost of $224,853.00 and a savings of $146,549.86. Since implementation, annual savings have steadily increased for a cumulative cost savings of $336,683.83. Standardizing ultrasound reports for appendicitis not only reduces the use of CT scans and the associated radiation exposure but also decreases annual imaging costs despite increased numbers of imaging studies. Continued cost reduction may be possible by using diagnostic algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of annual effective dose from 226Ra 228Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of high level natural radiation of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathivand, A.A.; Asefi, M.; Amidi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A knowledge of natural radioactivity in man and his environment is important since naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to man. Radioactive nuclides present in the natural environment enter the human body mainly through food and water.Besides, measurement of naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment can be used not only as a reference when routine releases from nuclear installation or accidental radiation exposures are assessed, but also as a baseline to evaluate the impact caused by non-nuclear activities. In Iran, measurement of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples in normal and high-background radiation areas have been performed by some investigators but no information has been available on 226 Ra and 228 Ra in foodstuffs. Therefore we have started measurements of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in foodstuffs of Ramsar which is a coastal city in the north part of Iran and has been known as one of the world's high level natural radiation areas, using low level gamma spectrometry measurement system .The results from our measurements and food consumption rates for inhabitants of Ramsar city have been used for the estimation of annual effective dose due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city. A total of 33 samples from 11 different foodstuffs including root vegetables (beetroot), leafy vegetables (lettuce, parsley and spinach) and tea, meat,chicken, pea,broad bean, rice, and cheese were purchased from markets and were analyzed for their 226 Ra and 228 Ra concentrations. The highest concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined in tea samples with 1570 and 1140 mBq kg -1 respectively and the maximum estimated annual effective dose from 226 Ra and Ra due to consumption foodstuffs were determined to be 19.22 and 0.71 μSv from rice and meat samples respectively

  2. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood, E-mail: faisal.mirza@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway); Bergland, Olvar, E-mail: olvar.bergland@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)

    2011-06-15

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: > We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. > DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. > The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. > Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. > Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  3. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood; Bergland, Olvar

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: → We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. → DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. → The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. → Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. → Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  4. High temperature fracture and fatigue of ceramics. Annual technical progress report No. 6, August 15, 1994--August 14, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.

    1996-04-01

    This report covers work done in the first year of our new contract {open_quotes}High Temperature Fracture and Fatigue of Ceramics,{close_quotes} which commenced in August, 1995 as a follow-on from our prior contract {open_quotes}Mechanisms of Mechanical Fatigue in Ceramics.{close_quotes} Our activities have consisted mainly of studies of the failure of fibrous ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) at high temperature; with a little fundamental work on the role of stress redistribution in the statistics of fracture and cracking in the presence of viscous fluids.

  5. Power saving regulated light emitting diode circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haville, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    A power saving regulated light source circuit, comprising a light emitting diode (LED), a direct current source and a switching transistor connected in series with the LED, a control voltage producing resistor connected in series with the LED to produce a control voltage corresponding to the current through the LED, a storage capacitor connected in parallel with the series combination of the LED and the resistor, a comparator having its output connected to the input of the transistor, the comparator having a reference input and a control input, a stabilized biasing source for supplying a stabilized reference voltage to the reference input, the control input of the comparator being connected to the control voltage producing resistor, the comparator having a high output state when the reference voltage exceeds the control voltage while having a low output state when the control voltage exceeds the reference voltage, the transistor being conductive in response to the high state while being nonconductive in response to the low state, the transistor when conductive being effective to charge the capacitor and to increase the control voltage, whereby the comparator is cycled between the high and low output states while the transistor is cycled between conductive and nonconductive states

  6. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities. Semi-annual progress report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Bajt, D.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period July 1, 1995 - December 31, 1995. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included

  7. Physics of intense light ion beams and production of high energy density in matter. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, H.J.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents the results obtained in 1994 within the FZK-program on 'Physics of intense ion beams and pulsed plasmas'. It describes the present status of the 6 MW, 2 TW pulsed generator KALIF-HELIA, the production and focussing of high power ion beams and numerical simulations and experiments related to the hydrodynamics of beam matter interaction. (orig.) [de

  8. Quantification of energy savings from Ireland's Home Energy Saving scheme. An ex post billing analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, J.; Clancy, M.; Ni Hogain, S. [Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, Wilton Park House, Wilton Terrace, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2013-02-15

    This paper quantifies the energy savings realised by a sample of participants in the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland's Home Energy Saving (HES) residential retrofit scheme (currently branded as the Better Energy Homes scheme), through an ex post billing analysis. The billing data are used to evaluate: (1) the reduction in gas consumption of the sample between pre- (2008) and post- (2010) scheme participation when compared to the gas consumption of a control group, (2) an estimate of the shortfall when this result is compared to engineering-type ex ante savings estimates and (3) the degree to which these results may apply to the wider population. All dwellings in the study underwent energy efficiency improvements, including insulation upgrades (wall and/or roof), installation of high-efficiency boilers and/or improved heating controls, as part of the HES scheme. Metered gas use data for the 210 households were obtained from meter operators for a number of years preceding dwelling upgrades and for a post-intervention period of 1 year. Dwelling characteristics and some household behavioural data were obtained through a survey of the sample. The gas network operator provided anonymised data on gas usage for 640,000 customers collected over the same period as the HES sample. Dwelling type data provided with the population dataset enabled matching with the HES sample to increase the internal validity of the comparison between the control (matched population data) and the treatment (HES sample). Using a difference-in-difference methodology, the change in demand of the sample was compared with that of the matched population subset of gas-using customers in Ireland over the same time period. The mean reduction in gas demand as a result of energy efficiency upgrades for the HES sample is estimated as 21 % or 3,664{+-}603 kWh between 2008 and 2010. An ex ante estimate of average energy savings, based on engineering calculations (u value reductions and improved boiler

  9. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Gasiorowska, Agata; Kesebir, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American), that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.

  10. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaleskiewicz

    Full Text Available Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American, that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.

  11. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Kirk, Roy J.; Welker, Robert A.; Sparling, William J.; Butler, Sharon E.; Irwin, Susan W.

    1989-04-01

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  12. Directions of organisational and low-cost energy saving of engineering enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhedzhula Viacheslav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses directions of energy saving of industrial enterprises. Taking into account the tendency to continuous growth of cost of energy resources, introduction of measures that would allow reduction of energy consumption of enterprises is an urgent task. One of the most important obstacles in the process of introduction of energy efficient solutions are fund limits and low awareness of owners and managers of industrial enterprises. The article offers a new classification of energy saving measures: apart from traditional expense and organisation measures it introduces the low-cost measures notion. It offers to consider low-cost those measures that are realised by the enterprise by means of own funds, moreover, their repayment term is not more than one year. It offers analytical expression for identification of annual funds saving from introduction of low-cost measures. It considers the process of identification of saving of funds from introduction of some of the main low-cost measures in detail: replacement of lighting units, balancing of ventilation networks and elimination of water leakages from pipelines and water supply equipment. Based on the analysis of bibliography information the article provides a list of main measures on energy saving, which could be referred to the low-cost ones. The proposed approaches would allow paying more attention to practical aspects of realisation of the concept of energy saving in the industry.

  13. DESIGN STUDY FOR A LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM CORE FOR THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR, ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2010 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current level. Studies are reported of support to a thermal hydraulic test loop design, the implementation of finite element, thermal hydraulic analysis capability, and infrastructure tasks at HFIR to upgrade the facility for operation at 100 MW. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. Continuing development in the definition of the fuel fabrication process is described.

  14. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-03-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2008 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Scoping experiments with various manufacturing methods for forming the LEU alloy profile are presented.

  15. Annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Vyver, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    In 1983, the various research projects in which the nuclear physics laboratory of Ghent State University is involved, were continued. In the present Annual Report, the results obtained in the field of photofission, photonuclear reactions positron annihilation, dosimetry and nuclear theory are summarized. The new 10 MeV high duty factor linear electron accelerator is presently being installed: performance tests will be carried out until July 1984; after which this facility will gradually become available for nuclear research purposes. (AF)

  16. NERSC 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John (ed.)

    1999-03-01

    This 1998 annual report from the National Scientific Energy Research Computing Center (NERSC) presents the year in review of the following categories: Computational Science; Computer Science and Applied Mathematics; and Systems and Services. Also presented are science highlights in the following categories: Basic Energy Sciences; Biological and Environmental Research; Fusion Energy Sciences; High Energy and Nuclear Physics; and Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Other Projects.

  17. IKF - annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Steuer, E.

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed in the named institute during 1982 together with a list of publications. The work concerns nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, high-energetic heavy ion physics, heavy ion-atom collisions, nuclear solidstate physics, solid-state particle detectors, the application of nuclear methods and mass spectroscopy, ion source development, instrumental development and data processing, interdisciplinary cooperation, as well as the Van de Graaf accelerator facilities. (HSI) [de

  18. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    1976-01-01

    This annual report contains research reports from the various groups of the Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm. Reports are made by workers in the Atomic and Molecular Physics group, the Surface Physics group, the Nuclear Physics group, the group researching into High Energy Physics and related topics and the Instrumentation and Methods group. The report also contains a list of the papers published by members of the Institute during the year and a list of the theses which were presented. (B.D.)

  19. Principles of valuing business travel time savings

    OpenAIRE

    Fowkes, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    OVERVIEW\\ud \\ud There are two approaches to valuing travel time savings to business people. The first is that which has formed the basis of UK policy for about 30 years, and which is set out in Section 2. This takes the value of travel time savings on employer’s business as equal to the gross wage rate plus an allowance for other costs that the employer saves. These might include such things as desk space, computer, tools, uniform, protective clothing, travel expenses. These were investigated...

  20. Who's in the business of saving lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Chang, Pepe

    2006-10-01

    There are individuals, including children, dying needlessly in poverty-stricken third world countries. Many of these deaths could be prevented if pharmaceutical companies provided the drugs needed to save their lives. Some believe that because pharmaceutical companies have the power to save lives, and because they can do so with little effort, they have a special obligation. I argue that there is no distinction, with respect to obligations and responsibilities, between pharmaceutical companies and other types of companies. As a result, to hold pharmaceutical companies especially responsible for saving lives in third world countries is unjustified.

  1. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  2. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  3. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a savings...

  4. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O 2 - ) and ozonide (O 3 - ) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K 2 O: 56 SiO 2 was prepared from reagent grade K 2 CO3 and SiO 2 powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 10 8 rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  5. Spatial models for probabilistic prediction of wind power with application to annual-average and high temporal resolution data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzi, Amanda; Pinson, Pierre; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2017-01-01

    average wind power generation, and for a high temporal resolution (typically wind power averages over 15-min time steps). In both cases, we use a spatial hierarchical statistical model in which spatial correlation is captured by a latent Gaussian field. We explore how such models can be handled...... with stochastic partial differential approximations of Matérn Gaussian fields together with Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations. We demonstrate the proposed methods on wind farm data from Western Denmark, and compare the results to those obtained with standard geostatistical methods. The results show...

  6. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Griffin, Frederick P [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  7. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, David G.; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D.; Griffin, Frederick P.; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D.; Chandler, David

    2012-01-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  8. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Energy saving program for the Sao Paulo State Primary Schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Brazil Renpo Kyowakoku Sao Paulo shuritsu shoto gakko no sho energy keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, discussions have been given on improvement measures for lighting equipment in the Sao Paulo State Primary Schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil. Measures for the energy saving are composed of modification to high-efficiency lighting equipment using electronic ballasts, high-efficiency fluorescent lamps, and reflectors, and introduction of control systems using lighting control sensors. In the survey, taking up 3,000 schools as the objects of implementation, a project scheme was established that the energy saving measures will be introduced, and the investment cost will be recovered by concluding the ESCO service for five years, after which the school side enjoys the profit for five years. As a result of the discussions, the total project cost will amount to 2.82 billion yen, with which the energy saving quantity would be 7,636 tons annually as converted to crude oil, or 114,540 tons during a period of 15 years as the achievement of the project as a whole. Greenhouse gas emission would be reduced by 7,397 t-CO2 on an annual average, or 110,949 t-CO2 in the project as a whole. Discussions on the profitability revealed that the internal profit rate can be calculated as 15.73%, indicating that the profitability can be envisaged. (NEDO)

  9. Studies related to chemical mechanisms of gas formation in Hanford high-level nuclear wastes. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barefield, E.K.; Liotta, C.L.; Neumann, H.M.

    1997-01-01

    'Work during the past year has been concentrated in three areas: Analysis of the Relative Contributions of Thermal versus Radiolytic Pathways for Complexant Decomposition in Tank 101SY; Synthesis of Potential Precursors to HNO/NO - , and Analysis of the Kinetics of Decomposition of Piloty''s Acid at High [OH - ]. The undergraduate student worked on the aluminum catalyzed reactions of nitrite ion with 2-hydroxyethylamines. This is a follow-up to earlier work done under Westinghouse Hanford and PNNL funding that will be expanded to include an exploration of the complexation of nitrite ion by aluminum when Ms. Chalfant''s lab skills are sufficiently established. A brief synopsis of work in each of the first three areas.'

  10. Prepared for the thirtieth annual conference on bioassay analytical and environmental chemistry. Reliable analysis of high resolution gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.B.; Buschbom, R.; Rieksts, G.A.; Palmer, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A new method has been developed to reliably analyze pulse height-energy spectra obtained from measurements employing high resolution germanium detectors. The method employs a simple data transformation and smoothing function to calculate background and identify photopeaks and isotopic analysis. This technique is elegant in its simplicity because it avoids dependence upon complex spectrum deconvolution, stripping, or other least-square-fitting techniques which complicate the assessment of measurement reliability. A moving median was chosen for data smoothing because, unlike moving averages, medians are not dominated by extreme data points. Finally, peaks are identified whenever the difference between the background spectrum and the transformed spectrum exceeds a pre-determined number of standard deviations

  11. High energy physics program at Texas A and M University. Annual report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Texas A&M experimental high energy physics program continued to reach significant milestones in each of its research initiatives during the course of the past year. We are participating in two major operating experiments, CDF and MACRO. In CDF, the Texas A&M group has spearheaded the test beam program to recalibrate the Forward Hadron Calorimeter for the upcoming CDF data run, as well as contributing to the ongoing analysis work on jets and b-quarks. In MACRO, we have assisted in the development of the final version of the wave form digitizing system being implemented for the entire scintillator system. The construction of the first six supermodules of the detector has been completed and all six are currently taking data with streamer chambers while four have the completed scintillator counter system up and running. We have built and tested prototypes of a liquid-scintillator fiber calorimeter system, in which internally reflecting channels are imbedded in a lead matrix and filled with liquid scintillator. This approach combines the performance features of fiber calorimetry and the radiation hardness of liquid scintillator, and is being developed for forward calorimetry at the SSC. The microstrip chamber is a new technology for precision track chambers that offers the performance required for future hadron colliders. The theoretical high energy physics program has continued to develop during the past funding cycle. We have continued the study of their very successful string-derived model that unifies all known interactions; flipped SU(5), which is the leading candidate for a TOE. Work has continued on some generalizations of the symmetries of string theory, known as W algebras. These are expected to have applications in two-dimensional conformal field theory, two-dimensional extensions of gravity and topological gravity and W-string theory.

  12. Annual report for the High Energy Physics Program at Texas A and M University, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The experimental and theoretical high energy physics programs at Texas A and M University have continued their ambitious research activities over the past year. On the experimental side, the authors have continued their participation in two major operating experiments, CDF and MACRO, and each of these programs have attained significant milestones during this period. Especially note worthy is the CDF Collaborations paper on the ''evidence'' for the top quark and MACRO's completion of the construction of the ''Attico''. In CDF, the Texas A and M group continues to play a leading role in the plans for upgrading the silicon vertex detector, as well as supporting the on going running of this experiment during its current data taking run. In addition, the group has focused its analysis efforts on studies of trilepton events and as well searching for supersymmetric particles. In MACRO, the authors have continued their work on the development of the final version of the wave form digitizing system. Within the past month the final production circuits have been assembled and they are currently testing these units at Texas A and M. The authors plan to complete this testing and commission the wave form digitizing system on the MACRO detector by the end of 1994. The theoretical high energy physics program has also continued to develop during the past funding cycle. D. Nanopoulos and colleagues have continued the study of their very successful string-derived model that unifies all known interactions; flipped SU(5), which is the leading candidate for a theory of everything. C. Pope has continued his work on generalizations of the symmetries of string theory, known as W algebras

  13. Estimated incident cost savings in shipping due to inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sabine; Bijwaard, Govert; Heij, Christiaan

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of safety inspections of ships has been analysed from various angles, but until now, relatively little attention has been given to translate risk reduction into incident cost savings. This paper provides a monetary quantification of the cost savings that can be attributed to port state control inspections and industry vetting inspections. The dataset consists of more than half a million ship arrivals between 2002 and 2007 and contains inspections of port state authorities in the USA and Australia and of three industry vetting regimes. The effect of inspections in reducing the risk of total loss accidents is estimated by means of duration models, in terms of the gained probability of survival. The monetary benefit of port state control inspections is estimated to range, on average, from about 70 to 190 thousand dollars, with median values ranging from about 20 to 45 thousand dollars. Industry inspections have even higher benefits, especially for tankers. The savings are in general higher for older and larger vessels, and also for vessels with undefined flag and unknown classification society. As inspection costs are relatively low in comparison to potential cost savings, the results underline the importance of determining ships with relatively high risk of total loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible before......, 3) Domestic hot water consumption and 4) Air change rate. Based on the analysis, a methodology is established that can be used to make more realistic and accurate predictions of expected energy savings associated with energy upgrading taking into account user behaviour....... the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single-family houses...

  15. Maintaining a Viable Energy Savings Performance Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weber, Katherine L; Huckeby, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Substantial amounts of information are available on Energy Savings Performance Contract award requirements, measurement, and verification, but we have found very little information on the day-to-day...

  16. Potential Logistics Cost Savings from Engine Commonality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Robert L; Higer, Matthew W

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this MBA Project is to determine potential logistics cost savings the USAF and DoD could have realized through the life of the F-16 fighter aircraft had they required engine commonality...

  17. Radioisotope savings in industry and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Benefits and savings achieved in industry and agriculture were described by leading experts from six different countries at a public discussion organized by the Agency on 24 September 1963, during the last IAEA General Conference.

  18. Site preparation savings through better utilization standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Watson; B.J. Stokes; I.W. Savelle

    1984-01-01

    This reports preliminary paper results of a study to determine the savings in the cost of site preparation that can be accomplished by the intensive utiliiation of understory biomass. mechanized sys terns can potentially be used for recovering this material.

  19. Caustic saving potentile in textile processing mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Rehman, A.; Ghafar, A.; Hafeez, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The textile processing industry of pakistan has great potential of improvement in resource consumption in various production processes. One major concern is the heavy usage of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) especially during the mercerization process which incurs a significant cost to a textile processing mill. To reduce the unit fabric production cost and stay competitive, the industry need to minimize the caustic wastage and explore the caustic saving potential. This paper describe the detailed caustic consumption practices and saving potentials in woven textile sector based on the data base of 100 industries. Region wise caustic saving potential is also investigated . Three caustic conservation option including process improvement, reuse and recycling, and caustic recovery plants are discussed. Detailed technical and and financial requirements. saving potentials and paybacks of these options are provided. (author)

  20. Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents People with glaucoma see the world through a tunnel. Glaucoma is ...

  1. Statistical Uncertainty in the Medicare Shared Savings...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to analysis reported in Statistical Uncertainty in the Medicare Shared Savings Program published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  2. The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES) package is a tool to help school designers assess the potential financial payback and indoor humidity control benefits of Energy Recovery Ventilation (ERV) systems for school applications.

  3. Carmanah Technologies Corporation 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    British Columbia-based Carmanah Technologies is a world leader in the design, manufacture and supply of patented solar-powered light emitting diode (LED) lighting solutions. As a leading alternative energy manufacturer, it was the first company to integrate LEDs with solar chargers and battery power storage. Carmanah products have high-end assembly, minimal size, maximized performance and field-proven reliability. The products have been used in public transit applications, roadway lighting, and for general aviation lighting solutions. In 2004, their products saved the equivalent of 6,705 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. This annual report includes information on the company's net earnings and investor profiles. The company has large markets for its products with little competition. It has a strong management team and its funding places it in a position to capitalize on current and emerging technologies. The company's energy resource activities were described and an operations review was presented along with consolidated financial statements and common share information such as assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  4. 31 CFR 359.35 - May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds through a payroll savings plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? 359.35 Section 359.35 Money and Finance: Treasury... May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? You may purchase definitive bonds through deductions from your pay if your employer maintains a payroll savings plan. An...

  5. 31 CFR 351.47 - May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds through a payroll savings plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? 351.47 Section 351.47 Money and Finance: Treasury....47 May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? You may purchase... maintains a payroll savings plan. An authorized issuing agent must issue the bonds. ...

  6. A fast, high light output scintillator for gamma ray and neutron detection. Fifth Semi-Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entine, Gerald; Kanai, S.; Shah, M.S.; Leonard Cirignano, M.S.; Jarek Glodo; Van Loef, Edgar V.

    2003-01-01

    In view of the attractive properties of RbGd2Br7:Ce for gamma-ray and thermal neutron detection, and the lack of larger volume crystals, the goal of the Phase I project was to perform a rigorous investigation of the crystal growth of this exciting material and explore its capabilities for gamma-ray and thermal neutron detection. The Phase I research was very successful. All technical objectives were met and in many cases exceeded expectations. We were able to produce large (>1 cm3) RbGd2Br7:Ce crystals with excellent scintillation properties and demonstrated the possibility to detect thermal neutrons. As far as we are aware, our Phase I experiment was the first to demonstrate thermal neutron detection with RbGd2Br7:Ce. Clearly, the feasibility of the proposed research was adequately proven. The Phase II research builds on the successful results obtained during Phase I. Phase II will initially focus on optimizing the RbGd2Br7:Ce growth process to produce high quality, larger volume RbGd2Br7:Ce crystals. We will continue to use the versatile Bridgman technique. During this process, crystal growth parameters will be adjusted for optimal growth conditions. Our goal is to produce high quality RbGd2Br7:Ce crystals of size 1 inch x 1 inch x 1 inch (∼16 cm3). We will work on packaging aspects that allow efficient light collection and prevent crystal degradation. We will study and measure emission spectra, light yield, scintillation decay, energy and time resolution. The effects of variation in Ce concentration on the scintillation properties of RbGd2Br7:Ce will be examined in detail. Comprehensive gamma-ray spectroscopic and imaging studies will be conducted. Also, optimization of RbGd2Br7:Ce for thermal neutron detection will be addressed. Our initial studies will determine the optimal geometry of the RbGd2Br7:Ce crystals for neutron detection. For thermal neutron detection experiments, we will produce large area, thin samples in order to minimize gamma-ray sensitivity

  7. Qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement - Second period 2011-2013. The Certificates of Energy Savings: an arrangement which catalyses decision by households for energy saving works. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    After previous assessments on energy savings, costs, and potentials, this publication reports a qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement (certificate of energy savings). The objective is to get a better insight into decision making by the final consumer. After a brief presentation of the survey methodology, the report describes the CEEs as a catalyst for higher performance works. The survey highlighted the incentive effect of the CEE premium, and the lever effect of advice and information. The report also outlines that the CEE is an additional tool to other public aids. It indicates that works are highly motivated by a search for energy savings, and are actually efficient to meet this objective

  8. The value of business travel time savings

    OpenAIRE

    Fowkes, A.S.; Marks, P.; Nash, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The value of time savings for business travellers forms a sizeable part of the benefits from trunk road, rail and air transport improvement schemes. It is therefore important to possess appropiate values to place on business travel time savings for evaluation purposes. The normal approach in practice is to adopt the wage rate of the workers in question plus an increment for overheads and non-wage payments. \\ud \\ud In this paper criticisms of this approach are discssed and the implications of ...

  9. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  10. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of t...

  11. Individual savings accounts for social insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Hansen, Martin Ino; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2008-01-01

    Using Danish data, we find that about three-fourths of the taxes levied to finance public transfers actually finance benefits that redistribute income over the life cycle of individual taxpayers rather than redistribute resources across people. This finding and similar results for other countries...... provide a rationale for financing part of social insurance via mandatory individual savings accounts. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mandatory individual savings accounts for social insurance and survey some recent alternative proposals for such accounts...

  12. Do water-saving technologies improve environmental flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Charles; Reddy, V. Ratna; Linstead, Conor; Dhar, Murli; Roy, Sumit; May, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Water saving and conservation technologies (WCTs) have been promoted widely in India as a practical means of improving the water use efficiency and freeing up water for other uses (e.g. for maintaining environmental flows in river systems). However, there is increasing evidence that, somewhat paradoxically, WCTs often contribute to intensification of water use by irrigated and rainfed farming systems. This occurs when: (1) Increased crop yields are coupled with increased consumptive water use and/or (2) Improved efficiency, productivity and profitability encourages farmers to increase the area cropped and/or to adopt multiple cropping systems. In both cases, the net effect is an increase in annual evapotranspiration that, particularly in areas of increasing water scarcity, can have the trade-off of reduced environmental flows. Recognition is also increasing that the claimed water savings of many WCTs may have been overstated. The root cause of this problem lies in confusion over what constitutes real water saving at the system or basin scales. The simple fact is that some of the water that is claimed to be ‘saved’ by WCTs would have percolated into the groundwater from where it can be and often is accessed and reused. Similarly, some of the “saved” runoff can be used downstream by, for example, farmers or freshwater ecosystems. This paper concludes that, particularly in areas facing increasing water scarcity, environmental flows will only be restored and maintained if they are given explicit (rather than theoretical or notional) attention. With this in mind, a simple methodology is proposed for deciding when and where WCTs may have detrimental impacts on environmental flows.

  13. The Future of Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs in the United States: Projected Spending and Savings to 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-11

    We develop projections of future spending on, and savings from, energy efficiency programs funded by electric and gas utility customers in the United States, under three scenarios through 2025. Our analysis, which updates a previous LBNL study, relies on detailed bottom-up modeling of current state energy efficiency policies, regulatory decisions, and demand-side management and utility resource plans. The three scenarios are intended to represent a range of potential outcomes under the current policy environment (i.e., without considering possible major new policy developments). By 2025, spending on electric and gas efficiency programs (excluding load management programs) is projected to double from 2010 levels to $9.5 billion in the medium case, compared to $15.6 billion in the high case and $6.5 billion in the low case. Compliance with statewide legislative or regulatory savings or spending targets is the primary driver for the increase in electric program spending through 2025, though a significant share of the increase is also driven by utility DSM planning activity and integrated resource planning. Our analysis suggests that electric efficiency program spending may approach a more even geographic distribution over time in terms of absolute dollars spent, with the Northeastern and Western states declining from over 70% of total U.S. spending in 2010 to slightly more than 50% in 2025, with the South and Midwest splitting the remainder roughly evenly. Under our medium case scenario, annual incremental savings from customer-funded electric energy efficiency programs increase from 18.4 TWh in 2010 in the U.S. (which is about 0.5% of electric utility retail sales) to 28.8 TWh in 2025 (0.8% of retail sales). These savings would offset the majority of load growth in the Energy Information Administration’s most recent reference case forecast, given specific assumptions about the extent to which future energy efficiency program savings are captured in that forecast

  14. The future of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs in the USA. Projected spending and savings to 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, G.L.; Goldman, C.A.; Hoffman, I.M.; Billingsley, M. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720-8136 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    We develop projections of future spending on, and savings from, energy efficiency programs funded by electric and gas utility customers in the USA, under three scenarios through 2025. Our analysis, which updates a previous LBNL study, relies on detailed bottom-up modeling of current state energy efficiency policies, regulatory decisions, and demand-side management and utility resource plans. The three scenarios are intended to represent a range of potential outcomes under the current policy environment (i.e., without considering possible major new policy developments). Key findings from the analysis are as follows: (1) By 2025, spending on electric and gas efficiency programs (excluding load management programs) is projected to double from 2010 levels to USD 9.5 billion in the medium case, compared to USD 15.6 billion in the high case and USD 6.5 billion in the low case; (2) Compliance with statewide legislative or regulatory savings or spending targets is the primary driver for the increase in electric program spending through 2025, though a significant share of the increase is also driven by utility DSM planning activity and integrated resource planning; (3) Our analysis suggests that electric efficiency program spending may approach a more even geographic distribution over time in terms of absolute dollars spent, with the Northeastern and Western states declining from over 70 % of total USA spending in 2010 to slightly more than 50 % in 2025, and the South and Midwest splitting the remainder roughly evenly; (4) Under our medium case scenario, annual incremental savings from customer-funded electric energy efficiency programs increase from 18.4 TWh in 2010 in the USA (which is about 0.5 % of electric utility retail sales) to 28.8 TWh in 2025 (0.8 % of retail sales); (5) These savings would offset the majority of load growth in the Energy Information Administration's most recent reference case forecast, given specific assumptions about the extent to which future

  15. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Yang, N; Headley, T; Lucadamo, G; Yio, J; Chames, J; Gardea, A; Clift, M; Blue, G; Peters, W; Rivard, J; Harper, D; Swank, D; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Brown, R; Wolejsza, T; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Graeve, O; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Boudreau, J

    2007-01-01

    New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to be difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer

  16. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Yang, N; Headley, T; Lucadamo, G; Yio, J; Chames, J; Gardea, A; Clift, M; Blue, G; Peters, W; Rivard, J; Harper, D; Swank, D; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Brown, R; Wolejsza, T; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Graeve, O; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-20

    New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to be difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer

  17. Pion and kaon correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. Annual report, April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    Data analysis is in progress for recent experiments performed by the NA44 collaboration with the first running of 160 A GeV 208 Pb-induced reactions at the CERN SPS. Identified singles spectra were taken for pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, antiprotons and antideuterons. Two-pion interferometry measurements were made for semi-central-triggered 208 Pb + Pb collisions. An upgraded multiple-particle spectrometer allows high statistics data sets of identified particles to be collected near mid-rapidity. A second series of experiments will be performed in the fall of 1995 with more emphasis on identical kaon interferometry and on the measurement of rare particle spectra and correlations. Modest instrumentation upgrades by TAMU are designed to increase the trigger function for better impact parameter selection and improved collection efficiency of valid events. An effort to achieve the highest degree of projectile-target stopping is outlined and it is argued that an excitation function on the SPS is needed to better understand reaction mechanisms. Analysis of experimental results is in the final stages at LBL in the EOS collaboration for two-ion interferometry in the 1.2 A GeV Au+Au reaction, taken with full event characterization

  18. Microstructural properties of high level waste concentrates and gels with raman and infrared spectroscopies. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, S.F.; Coarbin, R.A.; Johnston, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    'Monosodium aluminate, the phase of aluminate found in waste tanks, is only stable over a fairly narrow range of water vapor pressure (22% relative humidity at 22 C). As a result, aluminate solids are stable at Hanford (seasonal average RH ∼20%) but are not be stable at Savannah River (seasonal average RH ∼40%). Monosodium aluminate (MSA) releases water upon precipitation from solution. In contrast, trisodium aluminate (TSA) consumes water upon precipitation. As a result, MSA precipitates gradually over time while TSA undergoes rapid accelerated precipitation, often gelling its solution. Raman spectra reported for first time for monosodium and trisodium aluminate solids. Ternary phase diagrams can be useful for showing effects of water removal, even with concentrated waste. Kinetics of monosodium aluminate precipitation are extremely slow (several months) at room temperature but quite fast (several hours) at 60 C. As a result, all waste simulants that contain aluminate need several days of cooking at 60 C in order to truly represent the equilibrium state of aluminate. The high level waste (HLW) slurries that have been created at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites over that last fifty years constitute a large fraction of the remaining HLW volumes at both sites. In spite of the preponderance of these wastes, very little quantitative information is available about their physical and chemical properties other than elemental analyses.'

  19. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high-level waste. Joint annual progress report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Within the framework of the Community R and D programme on management and storage of radioactive waste (shared-cost action), a research activity is aiming at the assessment of corrosion behaviour of potential container materials for geological disposal of vitrified high-level wastes. In this report, the results obtained during the year 1983 are described. Research performed at the Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etudes de l'Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN) at Mol (B), concerns the corrosion behaviour in clay environments. The behaviour in salt is tested by the Kernforschungszentrum (KfK) at Karlsruhe (D). Corrosion behaviour in granitic environments is being examined by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) at Fontenay-aux-Roses (F) and the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Harwell (UK); the first is concentrating on corrosion-resistant materials and the latter on corrosion-allowance materials. Finally, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) at Vitry (F) is examining the formation and behaviour of passive layers on the metal alloys in the various environments

  20. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  1. Cost Savings for Manufacturing Lithium Batteries in a Flexible Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2015-06-01

    The flexible plant postulated in this study would produces types of batteries for electric-drive vehicles of the types hybrid (HEV), 10-mile range and 40-mile range plug-in hybrids (PHEV) and a 150-mile range battery-electric (EV). The annual production rate of the plant is 235,000 per year (30,000 EV batteries and 100,000 HEV batteries). The unit cost savings as calculated with the Argonne BatPaC model for this flex plant vs. dedicated plants range from 8% for the EV battery packs to 23% for the HEV packs including the battery management systems (BMS). The investment cost savings are even larger, ranging from 21% for EVs to 43% for HEVs. The costs of the 1.0-kWh HEV batteries are projected to approach $710 per unit and that of the EV batteries $228 per kWh with the most favorable cell chemistries and including the BMS. The best single indicator of the cost of producing lithium-manganate spinel/graphite batteries in a flex plant is the total cell area of the battery. For the four batteries studied, the price range is $20-24 per m2 of cell area including the cost of the BMS, averaging $21 per m2 for the entire flex plant.

  2. Impacts of Commercial Building Controls on Energy Savings and Peak Load Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas E.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Commercial buildings in the United States use about 18 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of primary energy annually . Studies have shown that as much as 30% of building energy consumption can be avoided by using more accurate sensing, using existing controls better, and deploying advanced controls; hence, the motivation for the work described in this report. Studies also have shown that 10% to 20% of the commercial building peak load can be temporarily managed/curtailed to provide grid services. Although many studies have indicated significant potential for reducing the energy consumption in commercial buildings, very few have documented the actual savings. The studies that did so only provided savings at the whole building level, which makes it difficult to assess the savings potential of each individual measure deployed.

  3. Partnership Provides Tutoring, Saves Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Tamar; Knight, Eileen Quinn

    2010-01-01

    In the past, collaboration between universities and high schools has been limited to placing student teachers in a classroom to get acclimated to the teaching environment. Saint Xavier University wanted education students to develop their teaching skills in a deeper manner. A nearby high school, with many students from immigrant families, also had…

  4. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  5. Creation of Carbon Credits by Water Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutoshi Shimizu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Until now, as a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from Japanese homes, the emphasis has been on reduction of energy consumption for air-conditioning and lighting. In recent years, there has been progress in CO2 emission reduction through research into the water-saving performance of bathroom fixtures such as toilets and showers. Simulations have shown that CO2 emissions associated with water consumption in Japanese homes can be reduced by 25% (1% of Japan’s total CO2 emissions by 2020 through the adoption of the use of water-saving fixtures. In response to this finding, a program to promote the replacement of current fixtures with water-saving toilet bowls and thermally insulated bathtubs has been added to the Government of Japan’s energy-saving policy. Furthermore, CO2 emission reduction through widespread use of water-saving fixtures has been adopted by the domestic credit system promoted by the Government of Japan as a way of achieving CO2 emission-reduction targets; application of this credit system has also begun. As part of a bilateral offset credit mechanism promoted by the Government of Japan, research to evaluate the CO2 reduction potential of the adoption of water-saving fixtures has been done in the city of Dalian, in China.

  6. Experimental prediction of severe droughts on seasonal to intra-annual time scales with GFDL High-Resolution Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Lin, S.

    2011-12-01

    Regional heat waves and drought have major economic and societal impacts on regional and even global scales. For example, during and following the 2010-2011 La Nina period, severe droughts have been reported in many places around the world including China, the southern US, and the east Africa, causing severe hardship in China and famine in east Africa. In this study, we investigate the feasibility and predictability of severe spring-summer draught events, 3 to 6 months in advance with the 25-km resolution Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory High-Resolution Atmosphere Model (HiRAM), which is built as a seamless weather-climate model, capable of long-term climate simulations as well as skillful seasonal predictions (e.g., Chen and Lin 2011, GRL). We adopted a similar methodology and the same (HiRAM) model as in Chen and Lin (2011), which is used successfully for seasonal hurricane predictions. A series of initialized 7-month forecasts starting from Dec 1 are performed each year (5 members each) during the past decade (2000-2010). We will then evaluate the predictability of the severe drought events during this period by comparing model predictions vs. available observations. To evaluate the predictive skill, in this preliminary report, we will focus on the anomalies of precipitation, sea-level-pressure, and 500-mb height. These anomalies will be computed as the individual model prediction minus the mean climatology obtained by an independent AMIP-type "simulation" using observed SSTs (rather than using predictive SSTs in the forecasts) from the same model.

  7. Saving-enhanced memory: the benefits of saving on the learning and remembering of new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C; Stone, Sean M

    2015-02-01

    With the continued integration of technology into people's lives, saving digital information has become an everyday facet of human behavior. In the present research, we examined the consequences of saving certain information on the ability to learn and remember other information. Results from three experiments showed that saving one file before studying a new file significantly improved memory for the contents of the new file. Notably, this effect was not observed when the saving process was deemed unreliable or when the contents of the to-be-saved file were not substantial enough to interfere with memory for the new file. These results suggest that saving provides a means to strategically off-load memory onto the environment in order to reduce the extent to which currently unneeded to-be-remembered information interferes with the learning and remembering of other information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. 'Basic survey project for joint implementation, etc.' for revamp study on feedstock change and energy saving in India fertilizer plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys and discussions were given on energy conservation and reduction of global warming gas emission in a fertilizer plant in Goa, India. Zuari Industries Limited in Goa manufactures ammonia from naphtha, and urea from ammonia and CO2. The surveys discussed the reduction of manufacturing cost by changing the raw material of this factory, naphtha into natural gas and by using the energy saving processes, as well as the reduction of CO2 gas emission. In the ammonia manufacturing, discussions were given on adoption of the MDEA process in CO2 transfer, the Kellogg Advanced Ammonia Process (KAAP) converter in synthesizing ammonia, and a high-pressure condensate stripper, and on improvements in the compressor and turbine. In the urea synthesis, adoption of the ACES21 process of Toyo Engineering was discussed. As a result of the discussions, the annual energy saving effect was calculated as 382,883 Gcal in the ammonia plant, and 174,174 Gcal in the urea plant, which corresponds to conservation of crude oil of 1,114,100 tons cumulatively for twenty years. In addition, the reduction of global warming gas emission was calculated as 4,902,780 t-CO2 . (NEDO)

  9. Humanitarian response: improving logistics to save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.

  10. Cost saving synergistic shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1976-01-01

    Segmented carbon rings, used to replace elastomeric seal lip, provide resistance to high temperatures generated in lubricating film. Machining and close manufacturing tolerances of conventional segmented seal are avoided by mounting segmented rings in elastomeric flex section.

  11. Annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes the work during 1982 of the Nuclear Physics Institute of Lyon. The achievement of SARA postaccelerator in Grenoble, realized in collaboration with the Nuclear Science Institute, permits to pursue new lines of research in heavy ion physics. A new isotope separator was realized by the nuclear spectroscopy group and the high energy experimental group cooperates with the LAPP to build in international collaboration the L3 detector for LEP. The topics covered include theoretical physics, high energy and intermediate energy physics, nuclear physics and interdisciplinary physics, such as solid state physics and neutronics [fr

  12. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindh, U.; Sundberg, O.

    1977-01-01

    The Gustaf Werner Institute (GWI) annual report for the year 1976 presents in a condensed form the scientific activities in the disciplines High Energy Physics and Physical Biology at Uppsala University. The activities in High Energy Physics fall into three domains: Research with the local accelerator, participation in collaborations at international centers and work on the rebuilding of the Uppsala synchrocyclotron. A major subject of research in Physical Biology is control of growth and differentiation, as reflected in the kinetics of biochemical reactions or in the behaviour of healthy or malignant cells at various levels of organization. (Auth.)

  13. Process Industry and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Over a period of two years the NAP's Special Interest Group Energy (SIG-E) has dedicated itself to studying the way in which the process industry and its supply chain has been dealing with energy as a theme. In the past it was strongly believed that many opportunities were left unused and that different forms of cooperation inside the chain should contribute to accelerated improvement of energy efficiency in the process industry. Sixteen companies that are actively involved in the entire value chain have scrutinised their daily situation wondering how to operate more successfully. With approximately one quarter of total energy consumption the Dutch process industry is a major player in reaching national energy and climate objectives by 2020. The objective (improve energy efficiency by 2% annually) is as ambitious as that 'business as usual' is insufficient. A drastic change in how matters are approached is thus essential. The question is how to proceed? By analysing energy projects, in-depth interviews with decision makers in the industry, through literature searches and by organising lectures inside and outside the sector, SlG-E has been able to develop a true picture of the mechanisms concerning energy-related investments. Two major points of interest have been energy-oriented tendering (demand side) and the market introduction of innovations (supply side). The main problems of 'how to do more in the energy domain' is: (a) the process industry is insufficiently familiar with the capabilities of the supply chain, and (b) the supply chain is insufficiently aware of the questions that exist in the process industry. Therefore, the links in the value chain understand each other poorly. The answer to this problem is compound and consists of more interaction between the process industry and the supply chain (machine constructors, engineering firms and consultancies, education and research). As for the process industry: (a) Make improved energy

  14. Annual effective dose equivalents arising from inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their decay products in high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonghou

    1985-01-01

    The author presents the data of on-the-sport investigations in the high background radiation area in Yangjiang County in 1975 and 1981. Monazite sand is contained in the soil of this area. The average concentrations of 222 Rn in the air indoors and out doors of the high background radiation area are 31.8 and 16.4 Bqm -3 respectively, which are equal to 2.9 and 1.5 times the average concentrations in the control area. The average concentrations of 220 Rn in the air indoors and outdoors of the high background area are 167.5 and 18.4 Bqm -3 , corresponding to 9.6 and 4.8 times those of the control area respectively. The average potential alpha energy concentrations for daughters of 222 Rn indoors and outdoors are 0.1 and 0.097 μJm -3 , which are equal to 2.6 and 2.2 times those of the control are respectively. The average potential alpha energy concentrations for daughters of 220 Rn indoors and outdoors are 0.255 and 0.053 μJm -3 , corresponding to 3.7 and 2.7 times those of the control area respectively. The average annual effective dose equivalents arising from inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their decay products in high background radiation area are estimated to be 2.8 mSv per caput, in which 40.5% arise from 220 Rn and its decay products. This result is about 3 times that in the neighboring control area

  15. Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Gartland, L.; Akbari, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Rainer, L. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Dark roofs raise the summertime air-conditioning demand of buildings. For highly-absorptive roofs, the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures can be as high as 90 F, while for highly-reflective roofs with similar insulative properties, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs are effective in reducing cooling energy use. Several experiments on individual residential buildings in California and Florida show that coating roofs white reduces summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use from 2--63%. This demonstration project was carried out to address some of the practical issues regarding the implementation of reflective roofs in a few commercial buildings. The authors monitored air-conditioning electricity use, roof surface temperature, plenum, indoor, and outdoor air temperatures, and other environmental variables in three buildings in California: two medical office buildings in Gilroy and Davis and a retail store in San Jose. Coating the roofs of these buildings with a reflective coating increased the roof albedo from an average of 0.20--0.60. The roof surface temperature on hot sunny summer afternoons fell from 175 F--120 F after the coating was applied. Summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use was reduced by 18% (6.3 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Davis building, 13% (3.6 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Gilroy building, and 2% (0.4 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the San Jose store. In each building, a kiosk was installed to display information from the project in order to educate and inform the general public about the environmental and energy-saving benefits of cool roofs. They were designed to explain cool-roof coating theory and to display real-time measurements of weather conditions, roof surface temperature, and air-conditioning electricity use. 55 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Feasibility study on energy saving and reduction of CO2 emissions at Pertamina's Cilacap Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  17. Implementation of an optical diagnosis strategy saves costs and does not impair clinical outcomes of a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, Jasper L A; Greuter, Marjolein J E; Hazewinkel, Yark; Coupé, Veerle M H; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-12-01

     In an optical diagnosis strategy, diminutive polyps that are endoscopically characterized with high confidence are removed without histopathological analysis and distal hyperplastic polyps are left in situ. We evaluated the effectiveness and costs of optical diagnosis.  Using the Adenoma and Serrated pathway to Colorectal CAncer (ASCCA) model, we simulated biennial fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening in individuals aged 55 - 75 years. In this program, we compared an optical diagnosis strategy with current histopathology assessment of all diminutive polyps. Base-case assumptions included 76 % high-confidence predictions and sensitivities of 88 %, 91 %, and 88 % for endoscopically characterizing adenomas, sessile serrated polyps, and hyperplastic polyps, respectively. Outcomes were colorectal cancer burden, number of colonoscopies, life-years, and costs.  Both the histopathology strategy and the optical diagnosis strategy resulted in 21 life-days gained per simulated individual compared with no screening. For optical diagnosis, €6 per individual was saved compared with the current histopathology strategy. These cost savings were related to a 31 % reduction in colonoscopies in which histopathology was needed for diminutive polyps. Projecting these results onto the Netherlands (17 million inhabitants), assuming a fully implemented FIT-based screening program, resulted in an annual undiscounted cost saving of € 1.7 - 2.2 million for optical diagnosis.  Implementation of optical diagnosis in a FIT-based screening program saves costs without decreasing program effectiveness when compared with current histopathology analysis of all diminutive polyps. Further work is required to evaluate how endoscopists participating in a screening program should be trained, audited, and monitored to achieve adequate competence in optical diagnosis.

  18. Energy savings for solar heating systems; Solvarmeanlaegs energibesparelser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Fan, J.

    2011-01-15

    these systems are also not influenced by the solar heating system type, the company marketing the system, the auxiliary energy supply system, the collector area, the collector tilt, the collector azimuth, the energy consumption of the house or the location of the house. That is, yearly energy savings for new solar heating systems in one family houses are high, ranging from 300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 2090 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. If the existing energy system is used as the back up energy system for the solar heating system typical yearly energy savings vary from 500 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 800 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. For solar heating systems with a new energy unit including a new natural gas boiler typical yearly energy savings vary from 1000 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 2000 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. (Author)

  19. Efficient Kill-Save Ratios Ease Up the Cognitive Demands on Counterintuitive Moral Utilitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémolière, Bastien; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2014-07-01

    The dual-process model of moral judgment postulates that utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas (e.g., accepting to kill one to save five) are demanding of cognitive resources. Here we show that utilitarian responses can become effortless, even when they involve to kill someone, as long as the kill-save ratio is efficient (e.g., 1 is killed to save 500). In Experiment 1, participants responded to moral dilemmas featuring different kill-save ratios under high or low cognitive load. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants responded at their own pace or under time pressure. Efficient kill-save ratios promoted utilitarian responding and neutered the effect of load or time pressure. We discuss whether this effect is more easily explained by a parallel-activation model or by a default-interventionist model. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. The Time-Saving Bias in a Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Zíka, Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    The time-saving bias is a cognitive error which systematically influences human perception of relationship between speed and time. As a consequence they overestimate time gained/lost when accelerating/decelerating from higher speed and underestimate time gained/lost when accelerating/decelerating from lower speed. This bias is most salient in the context of a car driving where such a misperception might lead to an excessively high travelling speed. Apart from the impact on the driving safety,...

  1. Can Business Save the Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jack

    1990-01-01

    Business' agenda for improving education is linked to gubernatorial goals for school reform: (1) improve preschool learning readiness; (2) increase high school graduation rates; (3) require subject matter mastery in grades 4, 8, and 12; (4) improve math and science achievement; (5) teach literacy, global awareness, and citizen responsibility; and…

  2. Implementing Suicide Prevention Programs: Costs and Potential Life Years Saved in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lesage, Alain; Latimer, Eric; Seguin, Monique

    2015-09-01

    ,979 per life year saved. Suicide prevention programs such as the NAD trial are cost-effective and can result in important potential cost-savings due to averted suicide deaths and reduced life years lost. Implementation of suicide prevention programs at the population level in Canada is cost-effective. Community mental health programs aimed at increasing awareness and the treatment of depression and better follow-up of high risk individuals for suicide are associated with a minimal per capita investment. These programs can result in important potential cost-savings due to averted suicide deaths and decreased disability due to depression. Additional research should focus on whether the outcomes of multi-modal suicide programs are specific or synergistic and most effective for which population subgroups. This may help inform how best to invest resources for the highest return.

  3. An energy saving mechanism of EPON networks for real time video transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Ping; Wu, Ho-Ting; Chiang, Yun-Ting; Chien, Shieh-Chieh; Ke, Kai-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Modern access networks are constructed widely by passive optical networks (PONs) to meet the growing bandwidth demand. However, higher bandwidth means more energy consumption. To save energy, a few research works propose the dual-mode energy saving mechanism that allows the ONU to operate between active and sleep modes periodically. However, such dual-mode energy saving design may induce unnecessary power consumption or packet delay increase in the case where only downstream data exist for most of the time. In this paper, we propose a new tri-mode energy saving scheme for Ethernet PON (EPON). The new tri-mode energy saving design, combining the dual-mode saving mechanism with the doze mode, allows the ONU to switch among these three modes alternatively. In the doze mode, the ONU may receive downstream data while keeping its transmitter close. Such scenario is often observed for real time video downstream transmission. Furthermore, the low packet delay of high priority upstream data can be attained through the use of early wake-up mechanism employed in both energy saving modes. The energy saving and system efficiency can thus be achieved jointly while maintaining the differentiated QoS for data with various priorities. Performance results via simulation have demonstrated the effectiveness of such mechanism.

  4. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase I. Petroleum savings analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of near-term electric-hybrid vehicles. Its purpose was to estimate their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles were first modeled. The projected US fleet composition was estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs were conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates were then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of several conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle-mission-battery combination. A discussion of lessons learned during the construction and test of the General Electric Hybrid Test Vehicle is also presented. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  5. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Jane [MDA; Schumacher, Leon [University of Missouri

    2014-10-23

    buildings, and the homes on these farms. The expected measurable outcomes of the project were to improve the environment and stimulate the economy by: • Reducing annual fossil fuel emissions by 1,942 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, reducing the total annual energy use on at least 323 small animal farms and 100 farm homes by at least 8,000 kWh and 2,343 therms per farm. • Stimulating the economy by creating or retaining at least 69 jobs, and saving small animal farmers an average of $2,071 per farm in annual energy expenditures. B. Project Scope The MAESTRO team chose the target population of small farms because while all agriculture is traditionally underserved in energy efficiency programs, small farms were particularly underserved because they lack the financial resources and access to energy efficiency technologies that larger farms deploy. The MAESTRO team reasoned that energy conservation, financial and educational programs developed while serving the agricultural community could serve as a national model for other states and their agricultural sectors. The target population was approximately 2,365 small animal farm operations in Missouri, specifically those farms that were not by definition a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO). The program was designed to create jobs by training Missouri contractors and Missouri University Extension staff how to conduct farm audits. The local economy would be stimulated by an increase in construction activity and an increasing demand for energy efficient farm equipment. Additionally, the energy savings were deemed critical in keeping Missouri farms in business. This project leveraged funds using a combination of funds from the Missouri Department of Natural Resources’ Missouri Energy Center and its Soil and Water Conservation Program, from the state's Linked Deposits, MASBDA's agricultural loan guarantee programs, and through the in-kind contribution of faculty and staff time to the project from these

  6. High-precision analysis on annual variations of heavy metals, lead isotopes and rare earth elements in mangrove tree rings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Kefu; Kamber, Balz S.; Lawrence, Michael G.; Greig, Alan; Zhao Jianxin

    2007-01-01

    Annual variations from 1982 to 1999 of a wide range of trace elements and reconnaissance Pb isotopes ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) were analyzed by solution ICP-MS on digested ash from mangrove Rhizophora apiculata, obtained from Leizhou Peninsula, along northern coast of South China Sea. The concentrations of the majority of elements show a weak declining trend with growth from 1982 to 1999, punctuated by several high concentration spikes. The declining trends are positively correlated with ring width and negatively correlated with inferred water-use efficiency, suggesting a physiological control over metal-uptake in this species. The episodic metal concentration-peaks cannot be interpreted with lateral movement or growth activities and appear to be related to environmental pollution events. Pb isotope ratios for most samples plot along the 'Chinese Pb line' and clearly document the importance of gasoline Pb as a source of contaminant. Shale-normalised REE + Y patterns are relatively flat and consistent across the growth period, with all patterns showing a positive Ce anomaly and elevated Y/Ho ratio. The positive Ce anomaly is observed regardless of the choice of normaliser, in contrast to previously reported REE patterns for terrestrial and marine plants. This pilot study of trace element, REE + Y and Pb isotope distribution in mangrove tree rings indicates the potential use of mangroves as monitors of historical environmental change

  7. Retrospectively reported month-to-month variation in sleeping problems of people naturally exposed to high-amplitude annual variation in daylength and/or temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady A. Putilov

    Full Text Available Compared to literature on seasonal variation in mood and well-being, reports on seasonality of trouble sleeping are scarce and contradictive. To extend geography of such reports on example of people naturally exposed to high-amplitude annual variation in daylength and/or temperature. Participants were the residents of Turkmenia, West Siberia, South and North Yakutia, Chukotka, and Alaska. Health and sleep-wake adaptabilities, month-to-month variation in sleeping problems, well-being and behaviors were self-assessed. More than a half of 2398 respondents acknowledged seasonality of sleeping problems. Four of the assessed sleeping problems demonstrated three different patterns of seasonal variation. Rate of the problems significantly increased in winter months with long nights and cold days (daytime sleepiness and difficulties falling and staying asleep as well as in summer months with either long days (premature awakening and difficulties falling and staying asleep or hot nights and days (all 4 sleeping problems. Individual differences between respondents in pattern and level of seasonality of sleeping problems were significantly associated with differences in several other domains of individual variation, such as gender, age, ethnicity, physical health, morning-evening preference, sleep quality, and adaptability of the sleep-wake cycle. These results have practical relevance to understanding of the roles playing by natural environmental factors in seasonality of sleeping problems as well as to research on prevalence of sleep disorders and methods of their prevention and treatment in regions with large seasonal differences in temperature and daylength.

  8. High temperature turbine technology program. Phase II. Technology test and support studies. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Work performed on the High Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Phase II - Technology Test and Support Studies during the period from January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979 is summarized. Objectives of the program elements as well as technical progress and problems encountered during this Phase II annual reporting period are presented. Progress on design, fabrication and checkout of test facilities and test rigs is described. LP turbine cascade tests were concluded. 350 hours of testing were conducted on the LP rig engine first with clean distillate fuel and then with fly ash particulates injected into the hot gas stream. Design and fabrication of the turbine spool technology rig components are described. TSTR 60/sup 0/ sector combustor rig fabrication and testing are reviewed. Progress in the design and fabrication of TSTR cascade rig components for operation on both distillate fuel and low Btu gas is described. The new coal-derived gaseous fuel synthesizing facility is reviewed. Results and future plans for the supporting metallurgical programs are discussed.

  9. THE PUZZLE OF SIMULTANEOUS SAVINGS AND DEBTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA IANOLE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available „Neither a borrower nor a lender be” recommends Shakespeare in Hamlet. The advice seems particularly interesting in nowadays society where a person can be easily found in both approximate situations, in the same time. It goes without saying that saving and borrowing do not describe mutually exclusive strategies of financial management and thus many people retain savings or carry on saving at the same time as having debts. We add to this fact a more pragmatically wisdom, the one of the economist Robert Solow -“We (economists think of wealth as fungible; we think a dollar is a dollar. Why don't they (the others do so?” (Solow, 1987 – and we naturally ask ourselves if the mechanism of having simultaneous savings and debts is a rational one, according to traditional economics.Making appeal to the emerging body of behavioral economics literature we reach to the mental accounting theory to see if it can explain savings inclination versus debt inclination. The main research question we want to explore is the following: if mental accounting prevents people from spending money from one „mental account” on goods belonging to another one, will people – after using all their money from a given account – be willing to go into debt to buy goods belonging to this account in a situation when they still have money in other accounts?

  10. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  11. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  12. Cost and impact of scaling up interventions to save lives of mothers and children: taking South Africa closer to MDGs 4 and 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumbwe Chola

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has made substantial progress on child and maternal mortality, yet many avoidable deaths of mothers and children still occur. This analysis identifies priority interventions to be scaled up nationally and projects the potential maternal and child lives saved. Design: We modelled the impact of maternal, newborn and child interventions using the Lives Saved Tools Projections to 2015 and used realistic coverage increases based on expert opinion considering recent policy change, financial and resource inputs, and observed coverage change. A scenario analysis was undertaken to test the impact of increasing intervention coverage to 95%. Results: By 2015, with realistic coverage, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR can reduce to 153 deaths per 100,000 and child mortality to 34 deaths per 1,000 live births. Fifteen interventions, including labour and delivery management, early HIV treatment in pregnancy, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and handwashing with soap, will save an additional 9,000 newborns and children and 1,000 mothers annually. An additional US$370 million (US$7 per capita will be required annually to scale up these interventions. When intervention coverage is increased to 95%, breastfeeding promotion becomes the top intervention, the MMR reduces to 116 and the child mortality ratio to 23. Conclusions: The 15 interventions identified were adopted by the National Department of Health, and the Health Minister launched a campaign to encourage Provincial Health Departments to scale up coverage. It is hoped that by focusing on implementing these 15 interventions at high quality, South Africa will reach Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 soon after 2015 and MDG 5 several years later. Focus on HIV and TB during early antenatal care is essential. Strategic gains could be realised by targeting vulnerable populations and districts with the worst health outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the usefulness of priority

  13. Numerical investigation of the energy saving potential of a semi-transparent photovoltaic double-skin facade in a cool-summer Mediterranean climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jinqing; Curcija, Dragan C.; Lu, Lin; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Yang, Hongxing; Zhang, Weilong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive simulation model has been developed to predict the overall energy performance of PV-DSF. • Sensitivity analyses of air gap depths were conducted and the optimal air gap depth was identified. • The overall energy performance and energy saving potential of the PV-DSF was evaluated. • A comparative study was conducted between the PV-DSF and other commonly used window technologies. - Abstract: This paper presents the annual overall energy performance and energy-saving potential of a ventilated photovoltaic double-skin facade (PV-DSF) in a cool-summer Mediterranean climate zone. A numerical simulation model based on EnergyPlus was utilized to simulate the PV-DSF overall energy performance, simultaneously taking into account thermal power and daylight. Based on numerical model, sensitivity analyses about air gap width and ventilation modes have been lead in Berkeley (California) with the aim to optimize unit’s structure design and operational strategy of PV-DSF. Via simulation, the overall energy performance including thermal, power and daylighting of the optimized PV-DSF was evaluated using the typical meteorological year (TMY) weather data. It was found that per unit area of the proposed PV-DSF was able to generate about 65 kW h electricity yearly. If high efficiency cadmium telluride (CdTe) semi-transparent PV modules are adopted, the annual energy output could be even doubled. The PV-DSF studied, also featured good thermal and daylighting performances. The PV-DSF can effectively block solar radiation while still providing considerable daylighting illuminance. Due simply to excellent overall energy performance, a PV-DSF at Berkeley can reduce net electricity use by about 50% compared with other commonly used glazing systems. Efficiency improvements of semi-transparent PV modules would further increase the energy saving potential of a PV-DSF and thus making this technology more promising.

  14. The value of retrofitting carbon-saving measures into fuel poor social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    With current fuel poverty and carbon-saving policies continuing to miss their targets in the UK, the synergy between the two problems is investigated to highlight an approach that could be mutually beneficial. Focussing on the 550,000 fuel poor socially housed dwellings in the UK, costs of between Pounds 3.9 and Pounds 17.5 bn are estimated as the required capital investment for achieving deep-cut carbon savings (defined as at least 50%) across this section of the housing stock, with a potential total annual carbon saving of 1.7 MtCO 2 . It is assumed that such costs would be largely (or totally) state-funded, though additional private investment could clearly increase the possible carbon savings across this section of the stock. The use of these socially housed fuel poor dwellings as low-carbon exemplars is discussed, and benefits for the private housing sector are postulated. The study also focuses on the problem of installing non-cost effective measures, i.e. technologies that would not currently be encouraged by existing subsidy schemes, but which might be necessary for achieving large carbon-saving targets.

  15. Daylight saving time transitions and hospital treatments due to accidents or manic episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daylight saving time affects millions of people annually but its impacts are still widely unknown. Sleep deprivation and the change of circadian rhythm can trigger mental illness and cause higher accident rates. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time changes the circadian rhythm and may cause sleep deprivation. Thus it seems plausible that the prevalence of accidents and/or manic episodes may be higher after transition into and out of daylight saving time. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of transitions into and out of daylight saving time on the incidence of accidents and manic episodes in the Finnish population during the years of 1987 to 2003. Methods The nationwide data were derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. From the register we obtained the information about the hospital-treated accidents and manic episodes during two weeks before and two weeks after the transitions in 1987–2003. Results The results were negative, as the transitions into or out of daylight saving time had no significant effect on the incidence of accidents or manic episodes. Conclusion One-hour transitions do not increase the incidence of manic episodes or accidents which require hospital treatment.

  16. Daylight saving time transitions and hospital treatments due to accidents or manic episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Tuuli A; Haukka, Jari; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Background Daylight saving time affects millions of people annually but its impacts are still widely unknown. Sleep deprivation and the change of circadian rhythm can trigger mental illness and cause higher accident rates. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time changes the circadian rhythm and may cause sleep deprivation. Thus it seems plausible that the prevalence of accidents and/or manic episodes may be higher after transition into and out of daylight saving time. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of transitions into and out of daylight saving time on the incidence of accidents and manic episodes in the Finnish population during the years of 1987 to 2003. Methods The nationwide data were derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. From the register we obtained the information about the hospital-treated accidents and manic episodes during two weeks before and two weeks after the transitions in 1987–2003. Results The results were negative, as the transitions into or out of daylight saving time had no significant effect on the incidence of accidents or manic episodes. Conclusion One-hour transitions do not increase the incidence of manic episodes or accidents which require hospital treatment. PMID:18302734

  17. Composite plastic coatings and face rolled materials technology, energy- and environment-saving, based on irradiation of liquid monomers by broad and high-current electron beams in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisburd, David

    1994-05-01

    The technology is based on the well-known process of hardening some organic liquid monomers and oligomers (resins and lacquers) under the action of ionizing radiation, i.e. electron, ion, ultra-violet, laser, and X-ray beams. The main mechanism of hardening is 3D polymerization of initial monomers induced by irradiation. First of all 1D polymer chains are created. And the next stage is cross-linking of them. Numerical attempts to apply such a process for plastic materials production met some earnest difficulties. Our decision to perform the whole processing in vacuum changed radically the main properties of radiation induced hardening technology. The inhibition of polymerization by reactive oxygen became unessential. The output window foil of accelerator became unnecessary. Application of super broad beams such as 1 sq.m became possible. The entire efficiency of grid electricity was increased to 60% and it was not the limit. One of the main advantages is that the processing carried out in vacuum may satisfy the highest ecological standards. The technology developed is contamination free and environment-saving.

  18. "Green" High-Temperature Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    PMR-15 is a processable, high-temperature polymer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center in the 1970's principally for aeropropulsion applications. Use of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in these applications can lead to substantial weight savings, thereby leading to improved fuel economy, increased passenger and payload capacity, and better maneuverability. PMR-15 is used fairly extensively in military and commercial aircraft engines components seeing service temperatures as high as 500 F (260 C), such as the outer bypass duct for the F-404 engine. The current world-wide market for PMR-15 materials (resins, adhesives, and composites) is on the order of $6 to 10 million annually.

  19. Comparing the Medicaid Retrospective Drug Utilization Review Program Cost-Savings Methods Used by State Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Sergio I

    2017-12-01

    The Medicaid Drug Utilization Review (DUR) program is a 2-phase process conducted by Medicaid state agencies. The first phase is a prospective DUR and involves electronically monitoring prescription drug claims to identify prescription-related problems, such as therapeutic duplication, contraindications, incorrect dosage, or duration of treatment. The second phase is a retrospective DUR and involves ongoing and periodic examinations of claims data to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, underutilization, drug-drug interaction, or medically unnecessary care, implementing corrective actions when needed. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services requires each state to measure prescription drug cost-savings generated from its DUR programs on an annual basis, but it provides no guidance or unified methodology for doing so. To describe and synthesize the methodologies used by states to measure cost-savings using their Medicaid retrospective DUR program in federal fiscal years 2014 and 2015. For each state, the cost-savings methodologies included in the Medicaid DUR 2014 and 2015 reports were downloaded from Medicaid's website. The reports were then reviewed and synthesized. Methods described by the states were classified according to research designs often described in evaluation textbooks. In 2014, the most often used prescription drugs cost-savings estimation methodology for the Medicaid retrospective DUR program was a simple pre-post intervention method, without a comparison group (ie, 12 states). In 2015, the most common methodology used was a pre-post intervention method, with a comparison group (ie, 14 states). Comparisons of savings attributed to the program among states are still unreliable, because of a lack of a common methodology available for measuring cost-savings. There is great variation among states in the methods used to measure prescription drug utilization cost-savings. This analysis suggests that there is still room for improvement in terms of

  20. Feeding your piggy bank with intentions : A study on saving behaviour, saving strategies, and happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Francisco Vela, S.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Casais, M.

    2014-01-01

    The act of saving money can connect one’s present state to a meaningful future state, especially if we consider money not as a direct source of happiness, but as a resource for engaging in meaningful activities. To explore how design can contribute to making the act of saving more meaningful, we

  1. Saving for Success: Financial Education and Savings Goal Achievement in Individual Development Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Mary L.; Mauldin, Teresa; Sabia, Joseph J.; Koonce, Joan; Palmer, Lance

    2011-01-01

    Using microdata from the American Dream Demonstration, the current study examines factors associated with savings and savings goal achievement (indicated by a matched withdrawal) among participants of individual development account (IDA) programs. Multinomial logit results show that hours of participation in financial education programs, higher…

  2. Public-opinion poll on energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A public-opinion poll was carried out on energy saving from November 26 to December 2, 1981, across the country. The number of persons participated in the survey was 5,000, whose age was 20 and above. The recovery ratio was 4,007 persons (80.1 %). The results of the survey and also the question-answer form are given with respective percentages. The questions were in the following three categories: (1) cognizance of energy saving - space-heating temperature, energy saving conscience use of private cars, purchase of highenergy consumption appliances; (2) energy for future - energy consumption, energy consumption trend, new types of energy, main sources of power generation, nuclear power in the overall electric power, apprehension toward nuclear power plants, safety measures in nuclear power plants; (3) governmental energy policy measures. (J.P.N.)

  3. An energy saving system for hospital laundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Polykrati, A.D.; Proios, A.N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koufakis, E.I. [Public Power Corp. S.A., Crete (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Hospital laundries are one of the largest consumers of water and electrical and thermal energy. This paper examined the energy savings achieved by a system using the hot wastewater from the washing process. Hospital laundries consume thermal energy using steam, which is produced in boilers by burning diesel oil or natural gas. Electrical energy for the mechanical drives, ventilation and also the lighting required in the laundry area are big consumers of energy. The paper presented the proposed system and discussed the parameters of the system and system dimensioning. The paper also provided and discussed an interpretation of steam and energy savings. The proposed system was considered to be economically viable, simple in its construction, installation and operation. From the application of the suggested system, the cost savings resulted in a satisfactory payback period for the capital invested of approximately three to five years. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show the potential of natural ventilation as a passive cooling method within the residential sector of countries which are located in warm conditions using Mexico as a case study. The method is proposed as performing, with a simplified ventilation model, thermal......–airflow simulations of 27 common cases of dwellings (considered as one thermal zone) based on the combination of specific features of the building design, occupancy and climate conditions. The energy saving potential is assessed then by the use of a new assessment method suitable for large-scale scenarios using...... the actual number of air-conditioned dwellings distributed among the 27 cases. Thereby, the energy saving is presented as the difference in the cooling demand of the dwelling during one year without and with natural ventilation, respectively. Results indicate that for hot-dry conditions, buildings with high...

  5. NIRE annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of `ecotechnology` that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts on such topics as: emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from advanced coal combustors; catalysts for diesel NO{sub x} removal; measuring dust from stationary sources; software for life cycle assessment; marine disposal of CO{sub 2}; emissions of greenhouse gases from coal mines in Japan; structural changes in coal particles during gasification; solubilization and desulfurization of high sulfur coal with trifluoromethane sulfuroic acid; and oxidation mechanisms of H{sub 2}S.

  6. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the research done at the named institute. These abstracts concern the development of accelerators and ion sources, the construction of the magnetic spectrograph and radiation detectors, the investigation of solids and microstructures by nuclear methods, the development of electronic circuits, the advances in data processing, the study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure, and reaction mechanisms, the research on atomic physics and the interaction of charged particles with matter, the studies in medium and high energy physics, the theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and the research in cosmochemistry. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (orig./HSI) [de

  7. Institute annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  8. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the research done at the named institute. These abstracts concern the development of accelerators and ion sources, the construction of the magnetic spectrograph and radiation detectors, the investigation of solids and microstructures by nuclear methods, the development of electronic circuits, the advances in data processing, the study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure, and reaction mechanisms, the research on atomic physics and the interaction of charged particles with matter, the studies in medium and high energy physics, the theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and the research in cosmochemistry. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (orig./HSI) [de

  9. Institute annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  10. 1992 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Annual report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire at Orsay (France). The main themes are presented. Concerning experimental research: nuclear structure, ground states and low energy excited states, high excitation energy nuclear states, nuclear matter and nucleus-nucleus collision, intermediate energy nuclear physics, radiochemistry, inter-disciplinary research, scientific information and communication; concerning theoretical physics: particles and fields (formal aspects and hadronic physics), chaotic systems and semi-classical methods, few body problems, nucleus-nucleus scattering, nucleus spectroscopy and clusters, statistical physics and condensed matter; concerning general activities and technological research: accelerators, detectors, applications in cryogenics, data processing, Isolde and Orion equipment

  11. IKF annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Boecking, H.

    1983-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the scientific work performed at the named institute descriptions of the operation of the Van-de-Graaf accelerator facilities of this institute and the work of the technical establishments, as well as a list of publications. The scientific work concerns nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, high energy heavy ion physics, atomic physics with fast ions, nuclear solid state physics, solid-state track detectors, applications of nuclear methods in solid state physics, ion source developments, apparative developments and data processing, as well as interdisciplinary collaborations. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI) [de

  12. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the research done at the named institute. These abstracts concern the development of accelerators and ion sources, the construction of the magnetic spectrograph and radiation detectors, the investigation of solids and microstructures by nuclear methods, the development of electronic circuits, the advances in data processing, the study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure, and reaction mechanisms, the research on atomic physics and the interaction of charged particles with matter, the studies of in medium and high energy physics, the theoretical studies of nuclear structure and the research in cosmophysics. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (orig./HSI) [de

  13. Saving emissions trading from irrelevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindale, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled climate change is the greatest risk that humanity faces. The main burden will fall on developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. But Europe and its residents will also be damaged in many ways, including extreme weather, heat waves, and the spread of tropical diseases. Climate change is a quintessentially global challenge. If pollution shifts from one part of the world to another - from Europe to China, for example - the global climate is no better off. The main EU climate policy, the Emissions Trading System, now stipulates such a low carbon price that it has become essentially irrelevant. The European Commission should propose a Europe-wide carbon price floor of euro 30 per tonne, high enough to influence investment decisions and encourage energy efficiency and low-carbon energy supply. The Commission should also propose border tax adjustments, with the revenue returned to the country of origin

  14. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  15. Savings in its sights for Somerset Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Colin Russell, healthcare specialist at Schneider Electric (pictured), explains how the company has recently worked with Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust to implement a major energy-saving project at the Trust's Musgrove Park Hospital in Taunton. He argues that, at a time when all areas of the service are being asked to reduce costs, such partnerships can potentially save the institution millions of pounds and significantly reduce carbon emissions, while "revitalising" parts of the NHS estate, and ensuring continuity of vital hospital services for facilities managers.

  16. Nuclear recycling: costs, savings, and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses the economics, physical and chemical processes, and safety of nuclear fuel recycling. The spent fuel must be chemically reprocessed in order to recover uranium and plutonium. Topics considered include indifference costs, recycling in light water reactors (LWRs), plutonium in fast reactors, the choice between recycling and storage, safeguards, and weapons proliferation. It is shown that the economics of recycling nuclear fuel involves the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved, and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium

  17. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving. Analysis of the research literature suggests that previous financial literacy efforts have yielded mixed results. Evidence suggests that interventions provided for employees in the workplace have helped increase household saving, but estimates of the magnitude of the impact vary widely. For financial education initiatives targeted to other groups, the evidence is much more ambiguous, suggesting a need for more econometrically rigorous evaluations.

  18. Financing aspects of electricity saving's in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacca, S.A.; Sauer, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    Programs regarding to energy saving in Brasil arised by the early 80's from the concern with oil products consumption. The situation has changed and electricity is growing in importance when energy conservation is discussed. Thus, the government, following examples from abroad, has been trying to overcome the barriers that obstruct a massive process evolution towards energy saving, since the potential is spread out in many society segments. One important issue is related to financing energy conservation. This paper attempts to analyze the utilities efforts allied to public and private banks investments towards energy conservation financing. (author)

  19. Saving water to save the environment: Contrasting the effectiveness of environmental and monetary appeals in a residential water saving intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijs, M.S.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Veling, H.P.; Lange, M.A. de; Meegeren, P. van; Lion, R.

    2017-01-01

    To convince people to reduce their energy consumption, two types of persuasive appeals often are used by environmental organizations: Monetary appeals (i.e., 'conserving energy will save you money') and environmental appeals (i.e., 'conserving energy will protect the environment'). In this field

  20. Taxation and the household saving rate: evidence from OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes anew the relationship between taxation and the household saving rate. On the basis of standard savings and tax revenue data from a sample of OECD countries, it provides compelling empirical evidence of a powerful impact of taxes on household savings. In particular, income taxes are shown to affect negatively the household saving rate much more than consumption taxes.

  1. 12 CFR 541.18 - Interim Federal savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an existing savings and loan holding company or to facilitate any other transaction the Office may... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim Federal savings association. 541.18... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.18 Interim Federal savings association. The term...

  2. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life-saving appliances. 173.219 Section 173.219... Life-saving appliances. (a) A life-saving appliance, self-inflating or non-self-inflating, containing small quantities of hazardous materials that are required as part of the life-saving appliance must...

  3. Estimation on oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Xie, Chunping

    2013-01-01

    China is currently in the stage of industrialization and urbanization, which is characterized by rigid energy demand and rapid growth of energy consumption. Therefore, energy conservation will become a major strategy for China in a transition to low-carbon economy. China's transport industry is of high energy consumption. In 2010, oil consumption in transport industry takes up 38.2% of the country's total oil demand, of which 23.6% is taken up by road transport sector. As a result, oil saving in China's road transport sector is vital to the whole nation. The co-integration method is developed to find a long-run relationship between oil consumption and affecting factors such as GDP, road condition, labor productivity and oil price, to estimate oil demand and to predict future oil saving potential in China's transport sector under different oil-saving scenarios. Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. Results show that under BAU condition, oil demand of China's road transport sector will reach 278.5 million ton of oil equivalents (MTOE) in 2020. Oil saving potential will be 86 MTOE and 131 MTOE under moderate oil-saving scenario and advanced oil-saving scenario, respectively. This paper provides a reference to establishing oil saving policy for China's road transport sector. - Highlights: • We adopt the co-integration model to estimate oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector. • Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. • GDP, ratio of classified highway, labor productivity and oil price are main factors affecting oil consumption. • Scenario analysis approach is applied to calculate oil saving potential under different energy saving scenarios. • Future policy for oil conservation in China's road transport sector is suggested

  4. Analysis of potential energy, economic and environmental savings in residential buildings: Solar collectors combined with microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, I.; Prieto, M.M.; Fernández, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Centralization of energy systems for a group of buildings improves profitability. ► Thermal solar systems are economically interesting even in low radiation locations. ► Regulations currently in force determine the feasibility of high efficiency energy systems. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of a combined solar-cogeneration installation for providing energy services in a set of four residential buildings. Different configurations as regards the number of collectors and their orientation, the number of buildings grouped together, the type of microturbines used in the cogeneration system and their daily and annual operating period are studied from the legal, economic and environmental perspectives. The installation that fulfils the minimum requirements of the solar system coverage and the cogeneration system efficiency currently in force, and simultaneously leads to the highest energy, economic and environmental savings is the one that integrates both technologies and centralises the installation for the four buildings together. A payback period lower than 8 years is obtained that makes this investment recommendable, but it is also concluded that maintaining the existing subsidies for these technologies and lowering the costs of the equipment, are essential factors to ensure the feasibility of this type of installations

  5. Veridian Corporation 2002 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Veridian Corporation is a local electricity distributor which provides power to 90,000 homes and businesses from Pickering to Belleville, Ontario. Its corporate structure includes a holding company and two subsidiaries, Veridian Energy Inc., and Veridian Connections Inc. This annual report demonstrates how community ownership has resulted in a unique relationship with the utility and customers. Through market opening, the utility brought effective management to its distribution business. A variety of performance measurement indices were implemented to improve operational efficiencies and enhance customer service. A $1 million capital dividend was declared in 2002 and the utility received a credit rating of A and A-, resulting in savings of $300,000 annually. The return on equity (ROE) was limited due to the electricity distribution rate freeze. This report described internal operations in terms of performance management goals, safety records and gain sharing. This report presents an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information including the accounts of Veridian and its share of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs.

  6. Veridian Corporation 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Veridian Corporation is a local electricity distributor which provides power to 90,000 homes and businesses from Pickering to Belleville, Ontario. Its corporate structure includes a holding company and two subsidiaries, Veridian Energy Inc., and Veridian Connections Inc. This annual report demonstrates how community ownership has resulted in a unique relationship with the utility and customers. Through market opening, the utility brought effective management to its distribution business. A variety of performance measurement indices were implemented to improve operational efficiencies and enhance customer service. A $1 million capital dividend was declared in 2002 and the utility received a credit rating of A and A-, resulting in savings of $300,000 annually. The return on equity (ROE) was limited due to the electricity distribution rate freeze. This report described internal operations in terms of performance management goals, safety records and gain sharing. This report presents an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information including the accounts of Veridian and its share of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  7. Breakthrough Energy Savings with Waterjet Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee W. Saperstein; R. Larry Grayson; David A. Summers; Jorge Garcia-Joo; Greg Sutton; Mike Woodward; T.P. McNulty

    2007-05-15

    Experiments performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla's Waterjet Laboratory have demonstrated clearly the ability of waterjets to disaggregate, in a single step, four different mineral ores, including ores containing iron, lead and copper products. The study focused mainly on galena-bearing dolomite, a lead ore, and compared the new technology with that of traditional mining and milling to liberate the valuable constituent for the more voluminous host rock. The technical term for the disintegration of the ore to achieve this liberation is comminution. The potential for energy savings if this process can be improved, is immense. Further, if this separation can be made at the mining face, then the potential energy savings include avoidance of transportation (haulage and hoisting) costs to move, process and store this waste at the surface. The waste can, instead, be disposed into the available cavities within the mine. The savings also include the elimination of the comminution, crushing and grinding, stages in the processing plant. Future prototype developments are intended to determine if high-pressure waterjet mining and processing can be optimized to become cheaper than traditional fragmentation by drilling and blasting and to optimize the separation process. The basic new mining process was illustrated in tests on two local rock types, a low-strength sandstone with hematite inclusions, and a medium to high-strength dolomite commonly used for construction materials. Illustrative testing of liberation of minerals, utilized a lead-bearing dolomite, and included a parametric study of the optimal conditions needed to create a size distribution considered best for separation. The target goal was to have 50 percent of the mined material finer than 100 mesh (149 microns). Of the 21 tests that were run, five clearly achieved the target. The samples were obtained as run-of-mine lumps of ore, which exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity within the samples. This

  8. A case study of cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Erwin W; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M; Berden, Hubert J J M

    2015-09-01

    We propose a mathematical programming formulation that incorporates annualized hours and shows to be very flexible with regard to modeling various contract types. The objective of our model is to minimize salary cost, thereby covering workforce demand, and using annualized hours. Our model is able to address various business questions regarding tactical workforce planning problems, e.g., with regard to annualized hours, subcontracting, and vacation planning. In a case study for a Dutch hospital two of these business questions are addressed, and we demonstrate that applying annualized hours potentially saves up to 5.2% in personnel wages annually.

  9. Fourth Annual Report on Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, Nino; Bertini, Ilaria; Federici, Alessandro; Moneta Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the main elements of the annual report on energy efficiency 2015. The results indicate that, thanks to national policies for energy efficiency, Italy saved over 7.5 million tons of oil equivalent per year in the period 2005-2013. Compared to the National Plan for Energy Efficiency 2014, the report shows that the 2020 objectives have already been achieved for more than 20%, with residential (35.7% of the target) and industry (26.6%) among the sectors that contributed most to this result. Substantial savings could result from the agribusiness sector through the dissemination of efficient technologies in the logistics and large retail chains. A key role lies with the banks: 86% of banks has developed products dedicated to efficiency, necessitating guidelines for replicability of projects, and audit and rating to assess their quality [it

  10. IHEP 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    IHEP's focal points of research encompass high energy physics experiment and theory, cosmic ray and high energy astrophysics, theory of nuclear physics, nuclear detector and nuclear electronics, accelerator physics and technology, synchrotron radiation technology and application, nuclear analytical technique and application, free electron laser, computer and network application, radiation projection, etc. In 2001, IHEP further compacted its scientific goal by defining three key fields of high energy physics, research and development of advanced accelerator technologies, and advanced synchrotron radiation technologies and applications, as well as 10 relevant major research orientations. The plentiful results on scientific research, operation and upgrading of BEPC/BES/BSRF and other branches of work in 2001 are given in this annual report

  11. 12 CFR 575.10 - Acquisition and disposition of savings associations, savings and loan holding companies, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... associations, savings and loan holding companies, and other corporations by mutual holding companies. 575.10... COMPANIES § 575.10 Acquisition and disposition of savings associations, savings and loan holding companies... savings and loan holding company in the stock form that is not a subsidiary holding company, provided the...

  12. A new NDVI measure that overcomes data sparsity in cloud-covered regions predicts annual variation in ground-based estimates of high arctic plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rune Karlsen, Stein; Anderson, Helen B.; van der Wal, René; Bremset Hansen, Brage

    2018-02-01

    Efforts to estimate plant productivity using satellite data can be frustrated by the presence of cloud cover. We developed a new method to overcome this problem, focussing on the high-arctic archipelago of Svalbard where extensive cloud cover during the growing season can prevent plant productivity from being estimated over large areas. We used a field-based time-series (2000-2009) of live aboveground vascular plant biomass data and a recently processed cloud-free MODIS-Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set (2000-2014) to estimate, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the onset of plant growth. We then summed NDVI values from onset of spring to the average time of peak NDVI to give an estimate of annual plant productivity. This remotely sensed productivity measure was then compared, at two different spatial scales, with the peak plant biomass field data. At both the local scale, surrounding the field data site, and the larger regional scale, our NDVI measure was found to predict plant biomass (adjusted R 2 = 0.51 and 0.44, respectively). The commonly used ‘maximum NDVI’ plant productivity index showed no relationship with plant biomass, likely due to some years having very few cloud-free images available during the peak plant growing season. Thus, we propose this new summed NDVI from onset of spring to time of peak NDVI as a proxy of large-scale plant productivity for regions such as the Arctic where climatic conditions restrict the availability of cloud-free images.

  13. Multi-Annual Kinematics of an Active Rock Glacier Quantified from Very High-Resolution DEMs: An Application-Case in the French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bodin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rock glaciers result from the long-term creeping of ice-rich permafrost along mountain slopes. Under warming conditions, deformation is expected to increase, and potential destabilization of those landforms may lead to hazardous phenomena. Monitoring the kinematics of rock glaciers at fine spatial resolution is required to better understand at which rate, where and how they deform. We present here the results of several years of in situ surveys carried out between 2005 and 2015 on the Laurichard rock glacier, an active rock glacier located in the French Alps. Repeated terrestrial laser-scanning (TLS together with aerial laser-scanning (ALS and structure-from-motion-multi-view-stereophotogrammetry (SFM-MVS were used to accurately quantify surface displacement of the Laurichard rock glacier at interannual and pluri-annual scales. Six very high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs, pixel size <50 cm of the rock glacier surface were generated, and their respective quality was assessed. The relative horizontal position accuracy (XY of the individual DEMs is in general less than 2 cm with a co-registration error on stable areas ranging from 20–50 cm. The vertical accuracy is around 20 cm. The direction and amplitude of surface displacements computed between DEMs are very consistent with independent geodetic field measurements (e.g., DGPS. Using these datasets, local patterns of the Laurichard rock glacier kinematics were quantified, pointing out specific internal (rheological and external (bed topography controls. The evolution of the surface velocity shows few changes on the rock glacier’s snout for the first years of the observed period, followed by a major acceleration between 2012 and 2015 affecting the upper part of the tongue and the snout.

  14. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W. [Tecogen, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  15. Save Beady Kid from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrikopoulos, Melissa; Thompson, Wesley; Pecore, John

    2017-01-01

    Art and science help students investigate light energy and practice fair testing. With the goal of finding a way to save "Beady Kid" from invisible rays, students used science practices to investigate the transfer of light energy from the Sun. During this art-integrated science lesson presented in this article, upper elementary (grades…

  16. Water savings through off-farm employment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachong Castro, V.; Heerink, N.; Shi, X.; Qu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to gain more insight into the relationship between off-farm employment of rural households and water-saving investments and irrigation water use in rural China. Design/methodology/approach – Data from a survey held among 317 households in Minle County, Zhangye

  17. Charter School Spending and Saving in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sherrie; Rose, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Examining resource allocation practices, including savings, of charter schools is critical to understanding their financial viability and sustainability. Using 9 years of finance data from California, we find charter schools spend less on instruction and pupil support services than traditional public schools. The lower spending on instruction and…

  18. Tip Saves Energy, Money for Pennsylvania Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wastewater treatment plant in Berks County, Pennsylvania is saving nearly $45,000 a year and reducing hundreds of metric tons of greenhouse gases since employing an energy conservation tip offered by the Water Protection Division in EPA’s R3 and PADEP.

  19. How to save money on medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Saving money on prescription drugs. www.fda.gov/Drugs/EmergencyPreparedness/BioterrorismandDrugPreparedness/ucm134215.htm . Updated May 4, 2016. Accessed October 14, 2016. U.S. Food and Drug ...

  20. Energy saving baking methods. Energibesparende bagemetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gry, P.

    1988-01-01

    The project ''Energy Saving Baking Methods'', run as part of the Energy Research Project-1984, and has as its aim to investigate potentials for energy saving by employing microwaves in the baking process. The project is a follow-up of the Nordic Industry Fund project which was completed in 1983. Smaller test ovens with IR long waves, warm air convection and microwaves of 2,47 GHz were used. Measurements of heat distribution from all three energy sources have been made. Extensive experiments have been carried out in order to develope baking methods for white loaves which are energy saving, but where the quality of the bread does not undergo any form of deterioration. Tests were made using microwaves alone, and in combination with hot air and IR. A resulting saving 35% baking time was achieved, and a further reduction of baking time can be reached where a greater improvement of energy distribution can take place, especially in the case of microwaves and IR. (AB).