WorldWideScience

Sample records for high annual income

  1. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.609 Annual income. (a) Annual income means all amounts, monetary or... of periodic amounts received from Social Security, annuities, insurance policies, retirement funds... provision must be received under employment training programs with clearly defined goals and objectives,...

  2. 7 CFR 1980.347 - Annual income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... policies, retirement funds, pensions, disability or death benefits, and other similar types of periodic... Agreement. (c) Income from such sources as seasonal type work of less than 12 months duration, commissions...) Recurring monetary gifts or contributions from someone who is not a member of the household. (8) Any...

  3. The Contribution of Multiple Use Forest Management to Small Farmers’ Annual Incomes in the Eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plinio Sist

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale farmers in the Brazilian Amazon collectively hold tenure over more than 12 million ha of permanent forest reserves, as required by the Forest Code. The trade-off between forest conservation and other land uses entails opportunity costs for them and for the country, which have not been sufficiently studied. We assessed the potential income generated by multiple use forest management for farmers and compared it to the income potentially derived from six other agricultural land uses. Income from the forest was from (i logging, carried out by a logging company in partnership with farmers’ associations; and (ii harvesting the seeds of Carapa guianensis (local name andiroba for the production of oil. We then compared the income generated by multiple-use forest management with the income from different types of agrarian systems. According to our calculations in this study, the mean annual economic benefits from multiple forest use are the same as the least productive agrarian system, but only 25% of the annual income generated by the most productive system. Although the income generated by logging may be considered low when calculated on an annual basis and compared to incomes generated by agriculture, the one-time payment after logging is significant (US$5,800 to US$33,508 and could be used to implement more intensive and productive cropping systems such as planting black pepper. The income from forest management could also be used to establish permanent fields in deforested areas for highly productive annual crops using conservation agriculture techniques. These techniques are alternatives to the traditional land use based on periodic clearing of the forest. Nevertheless, the shift in current practices towards adoption of more sustainable conservation agriculture techniques will also require the technical and legal support of the State to help small farmers apply these alternatives, which aim to integrate forest management in

  4. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  5. Transitioning from low-income growth to high-income growth : is there a middle income trap ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman, David; Eden, Maya; Nguyen, Ha

    2014-01-01

    Is there a "middle income trap"? Theory suggests that the determinants of growth at low and high income levels may be different. If countries struggle to transition from growth strategies that are effective at low income levels to growth strategies that are effective at high income levels, they may stagnate at some middle income level; this phenomenon can be thought of as a "middle income ...

  6. Economic consequences of incident disease: the effect on loss of annual income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayce, Signe L; Christensen, Ulla; Hougaard, Charlotte Ø

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the effect of incident disease on loss of annual income on an individual level, to analyse whether loss of job mediates the effect on loss of annual income, to analyse whether an association is modified by socioeconomic position, and to determine whether the effect on annual...... income is similar across three different diagnostic categories with different consequences in terms of functional limitations. METHODS: This was a register-based study with a longitudinal design using a register of the Danish population covering 412,450 person years. Data on hospitalization are linked...... to information on income and employment. The setting was a 10% random sample of all individuals living in Denmark and aged 43-60 years in 1996-99. RESULTS: Male cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), female cases of breast cancer and both male and female cases of intervertebral disease were associated...

  7. The consequences of high cigarette excise taxes for low-income smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Farrelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To illustrate the burden of high cigarette excise taxes on low-income smokers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from the New York and national Adult Tobacco Surveys from 2010-2011, we estimated how smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, and share of annual income spent on cigarettes vary by annual income (less than $30,000; $30,000-$59,999; and more than $60,000. The 2010-2011 sample includes 7,536 adults and 1,294 smokers from New York and 3,777 adults and 748 smokers nationally. Overall, smoking prevalence is lower in New York (16.1% than nationally (22.2% and is strongly associated with income in New York and nationally (P<.001. Smoking prevalence ranges from 12.2% to 33.7% nationally and from 10.1% to 24.3% from the highest to lowest income group. In 2010-2011, the lowest income group spent 23.6% of annual household income on cigarettes in New York (up from 11.6% in 2003-2004 and 14.2% nationally. Daily cigarette consumption is not related to income. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although high cigarette taxes are an effective method for reducing cigarette smoking, they can impose a significant financial burden on low-income smokers.

  8. 38 CFR 3.26 - Section 306 and old-law pension annual income limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Section 306 and old-law pension annual income limitations. 3.26 Section 3.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3...

  9. INCOME TAX IN FRANCE - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2009 income declaration form. For any other specific questions, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I\t- Annual internal taxation certificate for 2009 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2009, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2010 (see Bulletin No. 10-11/2010). It is intended exclusively for the French tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel, you will have received an e-mail containing a link to your annual ...

  10. Pioneering Annual Colorectal Cancer Screening and Treatment Targeting Low Income Communities in Malaysia (20102015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tze, Christina Ng Van; Fitzgerald, Henry; Qureshi, Akhtar; Tan, Huck Joo; Low, May Lee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of uptake of a customised annual Colorectal Cancer Awareness, Screening and Treatment Project (CCASTP) using faecal immunohistochemical test (FIT) kits in low income communities in Malaysia. The immediate objectives were (1) to evaluate the level of adherence of CRC screening among lowincome groups, (2) to assess the knowledge and awareness of the screened population and (3) to assess the accuracy of FIT kits. A total of 1,581 FIT kits were distributed between years 2010 to 2015 to healthy asymptomatic participants of the annual CCASTP organized by Empowered the Cancer Advocacy Society of Malaysia. Data for sociodemographic characteristics, critical health and lifestyle information of the registered subjects were collected. Findings for use of the FIT kits were collected when they were returned for stool analyses. Those testingd positive were invited to undergo a colonoscopy examination. A total of 1,436 (90.8%) of the subjects retuned the FITkits, showing high compliance. Among the 129 subjects with positive FIT results, 92 (71.3%) underwent colonoscopy. Six cases (6.5%) of CRC were found. Based on the data collected, the level of awareness of stool examination and knowledge about CRC was poor amongst the participants. Gender, age group, ethnicity and risk factors (i.e. smoking, lack of exercise and low consumption of fresh fruits) were associated with positive FITkit results. In conclusion, CRC screening can be performed in the community with a single FITkit. Although CRC knowledge and awareness is poor in lowincome communities, the average return rate of the FIT kits and rate of colonoscopy examination were 91.2% and 70.3%, respectively.

  11. High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel; Deaton, Angus

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has begun to distinguish two aspects of subjective well-being. Emotional well-being refers to the emotional quality of an individual's everyday experience—the frequency and intensity of experiences of joy, stress, sadness, anger, and affection that make one's life pleasant or unpleasant. Life evaluation refers to the thoughts that people have about their life when they think about it. We raise the question of whether money buys happiness, separately for these two aspects of well-being. We report an analysis of more than 450,000 responses to the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, a daily survey of 1,000 US residents conducted by the Gallup Organization. We find that emotional well-being (measured by questions about emotional experiences yesterday) and life evaluation (measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale) have different correlates. Income and education are more closely related to life evaluation, but health, care giving, loneliness, and smoking are relatively stronger predictors of daily emotions. When plotted against log income, life evaluation rises steadily. Emotional well-being also rises with log income, but there is no further progress beyond an annual income of ~$75,000. Low income exacerbates the emotional pain associated with such misfortunes as divorce, ill health, and being alone. We conclude that high income buys life satisfaction but not happiness, and that low income is associated both with low life evaluation and low emotional well-being. PMID:20823223

  12. High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel; Deaton, Angus

    2010-09-21

    Recent research has begun to distinguish two aspects of subjective well-being. Emotional well-being refers to the emotional quality of an individual's everyday experience--the frequency and intensity of experiences of joy, stress, sadness, anger, and affection that make one's life pleasant or unpleasant. Life evaluation refers to the thoughts that people have about their life when they think about it. We raise the question of whether money buys happiness, separately for these two aspects of well-being. We report an analysis of more than 450,000 responses to the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, a daily survey of 1,000 US residents conducted by the Gallup Organization. We find that emotional well-being (measured by questions about emotional experiences yesterday) and life evaluation (measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale) have different correlates. Income and education are more closely related to life evaluation, but health, care giving, loneliness, and smoking are relatively stronger predictors of daily emotions. When plotted against log income, life evaluation rises steadily. Emotional well-being also rises with log income, but there is no further progress beyond an annual income of ~$75,000. Low income exacerbates the emotional pain associated with such misfortunes as divorce, ill health, and being alone. We conclude that high income buys life satisfaction but not happiness, and that low income is associated both with low life evaluation and low emotional well-being.

  13. 78 FR 33395 - Annual Updates to the Income Contingent Repayment (ICR) Plan Formula for 2013-William D. Ford...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Updates to the Income Contingent Repayment (ICR) Plan Formula for 2013--William D. Ford Federal...- 800-877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct...

  14. 77 FR 30266 - Annual Updates to the Income Contingent Repayment (ICR) Plan Formula for 2012; William D. Ford...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Updates to the Income Contingent Repayment (ICR) Plan Formula for 2012; William D. Ford Federal... the ICR plan formula for 2012. Under the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan)...

  15. 77 FR 20796 - Annual Updates to the Income Contingent Repayment (ICR) Plan Formula for 2011; William D. Ford...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Updates to the Income Contingent Repayment (ICR) Plan Formula for 2011; William D. Ford Federal... the ICR plan formula for 2011. Under the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan)...

  16. School Choice Decision Making Among Suburban, High-Income Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Altenhofen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents’ decision making about whether to send their children to a traditional public or charter schools has been studied mostly in urban, low-income areas. Few studies have focused on the decisions of high-income, suburban families. In a sample of Core Knowledge charter schools in a predominantly White and socioeconomically advantaged set of suburbs in Denver, Colorado, we are able to examine both the closed- and open-ended responses of parents who reported the importance of various factors in the decision-making process. Similar to findings from urban, low-income areas, we find that parents rely on their social networks in choosing schools and report the importance of effective teachers, distance to school, and academic quality, which our open-ended responses reveal means different things to different parents. Contrasting previous research, we also find that high-income parents “do their research” on schools to which they are applying.

  17. Food Expenditures by China's High-Income Households

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    "High-income" households in China had per-capita disposable incomes of just $2,637 during 2003, but their ownership of consumer durable goods suggests a standard of living putting them in the "middle class." Their expenditures on food away from home were sharply higher than those of other urban households. Quantities of beverages, dairy products, and poultry products purchased for at-home consumption were also significantly higher, but purchases of most other food products were only marginall...

  18. Annual Cash Income from Community Forest Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Challenges for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Gabrielle Piketty

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Community forest management (CFM is considered an alternative way to protect forests while providing income for smallholders. Since the mid-1990s, the number of CFM projects has rapidly increased in the Brazilian Amazon, although most of them still face several difficulties. In this paper, we discuss the obstacles to the financial viability of CFM in this region and propose some ways to overcome them. Based on evidence from five case studies, we assess the extent to which sustainable forest management for commercial timber production contributes to smallholder income. We show that harvesting timber only provides a limited cash income to smallholders, even though forest covers 80% of their landholding. Market access to timber is very uncertain and smallholder communities often fail to make a profit from their timber. Minimum remunerative public prices and support for timber marketing are thus needed. Simpler and more flexible procedures are required to reduce the high transaction costs of obtaining a permit and increase smallholder involvement in legal forest management for commercial purposes. Finally, a better assessment of timber potential in smallholder forest reserves through systematic inventories would be useful to avoid arousing false expectations.

  19. Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    This represents the fourth and last annual report of a five year study investigating the early life ecology of the bonytail and razorback sucker at Cibola High Levee Pond. The work in 2004 included: telemetry studies, collection of physical water quality measurements, zooplankton samples, netting fish, the collection of scale samples for aging, predator/prey tank tests and a preliminary analysis of the data base.

  20. Stillbirths: the way forward in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenady, Vicki; Middleton, Philippa; Smith, Gordon C; Duke, Wes; Erwich, Jan Jaap; Khong, T Yee; Neilson, Jim; Ezzati, Majid; Koopmans, Laura; Ellwood, David; Fretts, Ruth; Frøen, J Frederik

    2011-05-14

    Stillbirth rates in high-income countries declined dramatically from about 1940, but this decline has slowed or stalled over recent times. The present variation in stillbirth rates across and within high-income countries indicates that further reduction in stillbirth is possible. Large disparities (linked to disadvantage such as poverty) in stillbirth rates need to be addressed by providing more educational opportunities and improving living conditions for women. Placental pathologies and infection associated with preterm birth are linked to a substantial proportion of stillbirths. The proportion of unexplained stillbirths associated with under investigation continues to impede efforts in stillbirth prevention. Overweight, obesity, and smoking are important modifiable risk factors for stillbirth, and advanced maternal age is also an increasingly prevalent risk factor. Intensified efforts are needed to ameliorate the effects of these factors on stillbirth rates. Culturally appropriate preconception care and quality antenatal care that is accessible to all women has the potential to reduce stillbirth rates in high-income countries. Implementation of national perinatal mortality audit programmes aimed at improving the quality of care could substantially reduce stillbirths. Better data on numbers and causes of stillbirth are needed, and international consensus on definition and classification related to stillbirth is a priority. All parents should be offered a thorough investigation including a high-quality autopsy and placental histopathology. Parent organisations are powerful change agents and could have an important role in raising awareness to prevent stillbirth. Future research must focus on screening and interventions to reduce antepartum stillbirth as a result of placental dysfunction. Identification of ways to reduce maternal overweight and obesity is a high priority for high-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries: epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; De Girolamo, G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Browne, M.A.O.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D.R.; Kessler, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part i

  2. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries : epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de, Girolamo G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Oakley Browne, M.A.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D.R.; Kessler, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part i

  3. Breast Cancer in South East Asia : Comparison of Presentation and Outcome Between a Middle Income and a High Income Country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saxena, Nakul; Hartman, Mikael; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Lim, Jennifer N. W.; Aw, Tar-Ching; Iau, Philip; Taib, Nur Aishah; Lee, Soo-Chin; Yip, Cheng-Har; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    2012-01-01

    There are large differences in socio-economic growth within the region of South East Asia, leading to sharp contrasts in health-systems development between countries. This study compares breast cancer presentation and outcome between patients from a high income country (Singapore) and a middle incom

  4. Breast Cancer in South East Asia : Comparison of Presentation and Outcome Between a Middle Income and a High Income Country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saxena, Nakul; Hartman, Mikael; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Lim, Jennifer N. W.; Aw, Tar-Ching; Iau, Philip; Taib, Nur Aishah; Lee, Soo-Chin; Yip, Cheng-Har; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    2012-01-01

    There are large differences in socio-economic growth within the region of South East Asia, leading to sharp contrasts in health-systems development between countries. This study compares breast cancer presentation and outcome between patients from a high income country (Singapore) and a middle incom

  5. 45 CFR 1611.5 - Authorized exceptions to the annual income ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assistance to maintain benefits provided by a governmental program for low income individuals or families; or...) The applicant's income does not exceed 200% of the applicable Federal Poverty Guidelines amount and: (i) The applicant is seeking legal assistance to obtain governmental benefits for low...

  6. Road safety in low income countries:relevance of experience from high income countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DineshMohan; GeetamTiwari

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To review the state of the art on important issues concerning road safety in less motorized countries(LMC).Methods:International literature and experiences were analysed to focus on the countermeasures that would be most effective in LMCs.Results:Road safety policies in hight motorized countries(HMC)have evolved over the last fifty years with a great deal of input from research and academicsituations and problems in those countries.Even the standards instituted for vehicles are based on the traffic patterns and types of crashes that are more prevalent in those societies.We have to accept the fact that safety has to be promoted in LMCs within the existing conditions.These include low per-capita incomes,presence of mixed traffic,low capacity for capital intensive infrastructure,and different law enforcenent capabilities.Pedestrians,bicyclists and motorized two-wheeler riders will remain dominant on LMC roads for many decades.When the HMC policies and designs are transferred to societies which have much lower per capita incomes,then these policies and designs have poor success rates.While a few LMCs can experience high growth rates for some periods,most of the other countries will continue to function as LMCs for quite some time to come.Conclusions:A much stronger effort at research,development and innovation is needed in LMCs.Each coutry must establish a department f road safety with adequate funds and staffed by specially trained professionals.International cooperation in the area of road safety should focus on exchange of scientific principles.experiences of successes and failures,and in scientific training of a large nuber of professionals in the LMCs.

  7. Do high-income or low-income immigrants leave faster?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Wahba, J.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the impact of the income earned in the host country on return migration of labor migrants from developing countries. We use a three-state correlated competing risks model to account for the strong dependence of labor market status and the income earned. Our analysis is based on administr

  8. Trouble brewing: pregaming among high school and incoming college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L; Tomaso, Cara C; Haas, Amie L; Olthuis, Janine V; Borish, Sarah; Borsari, Brian

    2013-10-01

    Pregaming (a.k.a., "prepartying," "pre-funking," or "predrinking") consists of drinking before going to a social function or gathering where alcohol may or may not be served. Existing research suggests that pregaming in high school and pre-college (i.e., the period between high school graduation and the start of college) is widespread. Moreover, pregaming prevalence appears to rapidly increase after students graduate from high school and transition into college. Thus, the purpose of this brief review is threefold: (a) to summarize the existing (albeit limited) research on pregaming among high school students and incoming college freshmen, (b) to present an overview of the risk factors that have been identified for participation in pregaming, and (c) to discuss the implications for practice that may be particularly relevant for school-employed/affiliated nurses as well as health practitioners who work in college settings.

  9. Arithmetic Accuracy in Children From High- and Low-Income Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elida V. Laski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated income group differences in kindergartners’ and first graders’ (N = 161 arithmetic by examining the link between accuracy and strategy use on simple and complex addition problems. Low-income children were substantially less accurate than high-income children, in terms of both percentage of correctly solved problems and the magnitude of errors, with low-income first graders being less accurate than high-income kindergartners. Higher-income children were more likely to use sophisticated mental strategies than their lower-income peers, who used predominantly inefficient counting or inappropriate strategies. Importantly, this difference in strategies mediated the relation between income group and addition. Examining underlying strategies has implications for understanding income group differences in arithmetic and potential means of remedying it via instruction.

  10. Environmental influences on food security in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Delvina; Bullen, Chris R; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2010-01-01

    Food security is a fundamental human right yet many people are food insecure, even in high-income countries. Reviewed here is the evidence for the physical, economic, sociocultural, and political environmental influences on household food security in high-income countries. The literature was evaluated using the ANGELO framework, which is a lens developed for understanding the environmental factors underpinning the obesity pandemic. A review of the literature identified 78 articles, which mostly reported on cross-sectional or qualitative studies. These studies identified a wide range of factors associated with food security. Foremost among them was household financial resources, but many other factors were identified and the complexity of the issue was highlighted. Few studies were prospective and even fewer tested the use of interventions other than the supplemental nutrition assistance program to address food security. This indicates a solution-oriented research paradigm is required to identify effective interventions and policies to enhance food security. In addition, comprehensive top-down and bottom-up interventions at the community and national levels are urgently needed.

  11. Health of adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Kajal; Payne, Donald; Mutch, Raewyn; Cherian, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Adolescent refugees are a vulnerable population with complex healthcare needs that are distinct from younger and older age groups. Physical health problems are common in this cohort with communicable diseases being the focus of attention followed by an emphasis on nutritional deficiencies and other chronic disorders. Adolescent refugees have also often experienced multiple traumatic stressors and are at a heightened risk of developing mental health problems. Navigating these problems at the time of pubertal development adds further challenges and can exacerbate or lead to the emergence of health risk behaviours. Educational difficulties and acculturation issues further compound these issues. Adolescents who have had experiences in detention or are unaccompanied by parents are particularly at risk. Despite a constantly growing number of adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries, knowledge regarding their specific healthcare needs is limited. Research data are largely extrapolated from studies conducted within paediatric and adult cohorts. Holistic management of the medical and psychological issues faced by this group is challenging and requires an awareness of the socioeconomic factors that can have an impact on effective healthcare delivery. Legal and ethical issues can further complicate their management and addressing these in a culturally appropriate manner is essential. Early identification and management of the healthcare issues faced by adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries are key to improving long-term health outcomes and future healthcare burden. This review article aims to increase knowledge and awareness of these issues among paediatricians and other health professionals.

  12. Taxation in France: Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules).   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2013 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2013, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 21 February 2014. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are ...

  13. Taxation in France: Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules). I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2014 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2014, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, has been available since 20 February 2015. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. 1. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel, you will have received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. 2. If you are no longer a member of the CERN pers...

  14. Taxation in France - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules). I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2015 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2015, issued by the Finance and Administration Processes Department, is available since 19 February 2016. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your an...

  15. Understanding why children die in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Peter; Fraser, James; Covington, Teresa; Freemantle, Jane; Petrou, Stavros; Pulikottil-Jacob, Ruth; Cutler, Tessa; Ellis, Catherine

    2014-09-06

    Many factors affect child and adolescent mortality in high-income countries. These factors can be conceptualised within four domains-intrinsic (biological and psychological) factors, the physical environment, the social environment, and service delivery. The most prominent factors are socioeconomic gradients, although the mechanisms through which they exert their effects are complex, affect all four domains, and are often poorly understood. Although some contributing factors are relatively fixed--including a child's sex, age, ethnic origin, and genetics, some parental characteristics, and environmental conditions--others might be amenable to interventions that could lessen risks and help to prevent future child deaths. We give several examples of health service features that could affect child survival, along with interventions, such as changes to the physical or social environment, which could affect upstream (distal) factors.

  16. Comparison of Economic Evaluation Methods Across Low-income, Middle-income and High-income Countries: What are the Differences and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ulla Kou; Legood, Rosa; Pitt, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    There are marked differences in methods used for undertaking economic evaluations across low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries. We outline the most apparent dissimilarities and reflect on their underlying reasons. We randomly sampled 50 studies from each of three country income groups from a comprehensive database of 2844 economic evaluations published between January 2012 and May 2014. Data were extracted on ten methodological areas: (i) availability of guidelines; (ii) research questions; (iii) perspective; (iv) cost data collection methods; (v) cost data analysis; (vi) outcome measures; (vii) modelling techniques; (viii) cost-effectiveness thresholds; (ix) uncertainty analysis; and (x) applicability. Comparisons were made across income groups and odds ratios calculated. Contextual heterogeneity rightly drives some of the differences identified. Other differences appear less warranted and may be attributed to variation in government health sector capacity, in health economics research capacity and in expectations of funders, journals and peer reviewers. By highlighting these differences, we seek to start a debate about the underlying reasons why they have occurred and to what extent the differences are conducive for methodological advancements. We suggest a number of specific areas in which researchers working in countries of differing environments could learn from one another.

  17. Reducing rural households' annual income fluctuations due to rainfall variation through diversification of wildlife use: portfolio theory in a case study of south eastern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poshiwa, X.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Annual rural incomes in Southern Africa show large rainfall-induced fluctuations. Variable rainfall has serious implications for agro-pastoral activities (crop cultivation and livestock keeping), whereas wildlife and tourism are less affected. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of

  18. Analysing Individual Income Tax Planning in Colleges and Universities---Based on the Normal Wage Income and Annual Salary of One-time Bonus Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-hua

    2013-01-01

    Paying personal income tax is related to the vital interests of each faculty. In order to improve the faculty’s enthusiasm for work, it's very essential to make a plan for paying personal income tax.Based on the method of paying personal income tax, this essay gives a strategic analysis of tax planning with a combination of the university faculty’s actual salary situation.

  19. High economic inequality leads higher-income individuals to be less generous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Stéphane; House, Julian; Willer, Robb

    2015-12-29

    Research on social class and generosity suggests that higher-income individuals are less generous than poorer individuals. We propose that this pattern emerges only under conditions of high economic inequality, contexts that can foster a sense of entitlement among higher-income individuals that, in turn, reduces their generosity. Analyzing results of a unique nationally representative survey that included a real-stakes giving opportunity (n = 1,498), we found that in the most unequal US states, higher-income respondents were less generous than lower-income respondents. In the least unequal states, however, higher-income individuals were more generous. To better establish causality, we next conducted an experiment (n = 704) in which apparent levels of economic inequality in participants' home states were portrayed as either relatively high or low. Participants were then presented with a giving opportunity. Higher-income participants were less generous than lower-income participants when inequality was portrayed as relatively high, but there was no association between income and generosity when inequality was portrayed as relatively low. This research finds that the tendency for higher-income individuals to be less generous pertains only when inequality is high, challenging the view that higher-income individuals are necessarily more selfish, and suggesting a previously undocumented way in which inequitable resource distributions undermine collective welfare.

  20. Unlocking Emergent Talent: Supporting High Achievement of Low-Income, High Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Clarenbach, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This report takes a comprehensive look at achievement for low-income promising learners--past, present, and future. At its core, it challenges the nation to move beyond its near-singular focus of achieving minimum performance for all students, to identifying and developing the talent of all students who are capable of high achievement, including…

  1. Authorship ethics in global health research partnerships between researchers from low or middle income countries and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elise; Hunt, Matthew; Master, Zubin

    2014-05-28

    Over the past two decades, the promotion of collaborative partnerships involving researchers from low and middle income countries with those from high income countries has been a major development in global health research. Ideally, these partnerships would lead to more equitable collaboration including the sharing of research responsibilities and rewards. While collaborative partnership initiatives have shown promise and attracted growing interest, there has been little scholarly debate regarding the fair distribution of authorship credit within these partnerships. In this paper, we identify four key authorship issues relevant to global health research and discuss their ethical and practical implications. First, we argue that authorship guidance may not adequately apply to global health research because it requires authors to write or substantially revise the manuscript. Since most journals of international reputation in global health are written in English, this would systematically and unjustly exclude non-English speaking researchers even if they have substantially contributed to the research project. Second, current guidance on authorship order does not address or mitigate unfair practices which can occur in global health research due to power differences between researchers from high and low-middle income countries. It also provides insufficient recognition of "technical tasks" such as local participant recruitment. Third, we consider the potential for real or perceived editorial bias in medical science journals in favour of prominent western researchers, and the risk of promoting misplaced credit and/or prestige authorship. Finally, we explore how diverse cultural practices and expectations regarding authorship may create conflict between researchers from low-middle and high income countries and contribute to unethical authorship practices. To effectively deal with these issues, we suggest: 1) undertaking further empirical and conceptual research regarding

  2. A systematic review of responsive feeding and child obesity in high-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child overweight/obesity continues to be a serious public health problem in high-income countries. The current review had 3 goals: 1) to summarize the associations between responsive feeding and child weight status in high-income countries; 2) to describe existing responsive feeding measures; and 3)...

  3. Breast cancer in South East Asia: comparison of presentation and outcome between a middle income and a high income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nakul; Hartman, Mikael; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Lim, Jennifer N W; Aw, Tar-Ching; Iau, Philip; Taib, Nur Aishah; Lee, Soo-Chin; Yip, Cheng-Har; Verkooijen, Helena M

    2012-12-01

    There are large differences in socio-economic growth within the region of South East Asia, leading to sharp contrasts in health-systems development between countries. This study compares breast cancer presentation and outcome between patients from a high income country (Singapore) and a middle income country (Malaysia) in South East Asia. Within the Singapore Malaysia Breast Cancer Registry we identified all consecutive patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 1993 and 2007 at the National University Hospital in Singapore (high income country, n=2,141) and the University of Malaya Medical Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (middle income country, n=3,320). We compared demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment patterns, and survival between patients from both countries. In Malaysia, patients were less often diagnosed with in situ breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.1-0.3), more likely to be diagnosed with late stage (III and IV) disease (ORadj for stage III 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0; ORadj for stage IV 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4) as compared to patients from Singapore. Univariate analysis showed that Malaysian patients were at a 72% increased risk of death as compared to Singaporeans. After adjusting for other prognostic factors, the risk decreased by only 5% (ORadj 1.67, 95% CI 1.44-1.92). Differences in way of presentation (except stage and tumor size) and treatment of breast cancer patients from the two countries are small. The overall survival of breast cancer patients from Malaysia is much lower than that of Singaporean patients.

  4. Treasury Fiscal Service (formerly Bureau of Public Debt (BPD)) Annual Savings Bond/Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Interface

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This match allows SSA to verify a Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipient's income and other resources are within the eligibility ranges. SSA will use the match...

  5. Policies and initiatives aimed at addressing research misconduct in high-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Resnik

    Full Text Available David Resnik and Zubin Master review current policies and initiatives for preventing and managing research misconduct in high-income countries, summarize some high profile cases of misconduct, and make suggestions on ways forward.

  6. High-income does not protect against hurricane losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Tobias; Frieler, Katja; Levermann, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Damage due to tropical cyclones accounts for more than 50% of all meteorologically-induced economic losses worldwide. Their nominal impact is projected to increase substantially as the exposed population grows, per capita income increases, and anthropogenic climate change manifests. So far, historical losses due to tropical cyclones have been found to increase less than linearly with a nation’s affected gross domestic product (GDP). Here we show that for the United States this scaling is caused by a sub-linear increase with affected population while relative losses scale super-linearly with per capita income. The finding is robust across a multitude of empirically derived damage models that link the storm’s wind speed, exposed population, and per capita GDP to reported losses. The separation of both socio-economic predictors strongly affects the projection of potential future hurricane losses. Separating the effects of growth in population and per-capita income, per hurricane losses with respect to national GDP are projected to triple by the end of the century under unmitigated climate change, while they are estimated to decrease slightly without the separation.

  7. Oral Health Behaviour and Social and Health Factors in University Students from 26 Low, Middle and High Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor oral health is still a major burden for populations throughout the world, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was investigate oral health behaviour (tooth brushing and dental attendance and associated factors in low, middle and high income countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 19,560 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2.8 from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Results indicate that 67.2% of students reported to brush their teeth twice or more times a day, 28.8% about once a day and 4.0% never. Regarding dental check-up visit, 16.3% reported twice a year, 25.6% once a year, 33.9% rarely and 24.3% never. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, being a male, coming from a wealthy or quite well off family background, living in low income or lower middle income, weak beliefs in the importance of regular tooth brushing, depression and PTSD symptoms, tobacco use and frequent gambling, low physical activity, and low daily meal and snacks frequency were associated with inadequate tooth brushing (income or lower middle income, weak beliefs in the importance of regular tooth brushing, PTSD symptoms, illicit drug use, low physical activity, and low daily snacks frequency, skipping breakfast and inadequate fruit and vegetables consumption were associated with less than one annual dental care visit. Oral health behaviour among the students was found to be low. Various risk factors identified can be used to guide interventions to improve oral health behaviour among university students.

  8. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1990-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  9. Impact of geographic accessibility on utilization of the annual health check-ups by income level in Japan: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Misuzu; Sato, Yasunori; Nagashima, Kengo; Takahashi, Sho; Hata, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Although both geographic accessibility and socioeconomic status have been indicated as being important factors for the utilization of health care services, their combined effect has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to reveal whether an income-dependent difference in the impact of geographic accessibility on the utilization of government-led annual health check-ups exists. Existing data collected and provided by Chiba City Hall were employed and analyzed as a retrospective cohort study. The subjects were 166,966 beneficiaries of National Health Insurance in Chiba City, Japan, aged 40 to 74 years. Of all subjects, 54,748 (32.8%) had an annual health check-up in fiscal year 2012. As an optimal index of geographic accessibility has not been established, five measures were calculated: travel time to the nearest health care facility, density of health care facilities (number facilities within a 30-min walking distance from the district of residence), and three indices based on the two-step floating catchment area method. Three-level logistic regression modeling with random intercepts for household and district of residence was performed. Of the five measures, density of health care facilities was the most compatible according to Akaike's information criterion. Both low density and low income were associated with decreased utilization of the health check-ups. Furthermore, a linear relationship was observed between the density of facilities and utilization of the health check-ups in all income groups and its slope was significantly steeper among subjects with an equivalent income of 0.00 yen than among those with equivalent income of 1.01-2.00 million yen (p = 0.028) or 2.01 million yen or more (p = 0.040). This result indicated that subjects with lower incomes were more susceptible to the effects of geographic accessibility than were those with higher incomes. Thus, better geographic accessibility could increase the health check-up utilization and also

  10. Factors influencing trainee doctor emigration in a high income country: a mixed methods study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2017-09-25

    The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland.

  11. Global Pediatric Oncology: Lessons From Partnerships Between High-Income Countries and Low- to Mid-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antillon, Federico; Pedrosa, Francisco; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2016-01-01

    Partnerships between medical institutions in high-income countries (HICs) and low- to mid-income countries (LMICs) have succeeded in initiating and expanding pediatric cancer control efforts. The long-term goal is consistently a sustainable national pediatric cancer program. Here, we review the elements required for successful implementation, development, and long-term sustainability of pediatric cancer programs in LMICs that first arise as partnerships with institutions in HICs. Although plans must be adapted to each country's resources, certain components are unfailingly necessary. First, an essential step is provision of treatment regardless of ability to pay. Second, financial support for program development and long-term sustainability must be sought from sources both international and local, public and private. A local leader, typically a well-trained pediatric oncologist who devotes full-time effort to the project, should direct medical care and collaborate with hospital, governmental, and community leadership and international agencies. Third, nurses must be trained in pediatric cancer care and allowed to practice this specialty full-time. It is also essential to develop a grassroots organization, such as a foundation, dedicated solely to pediatric oncology. Its members must be trained and educated to provide pediatric cancer advocacy, fundraising, and (in concert with government) program sustainability. Finally, a project mentor in the HIC is crucial and should explore the possibility of collaborative research in the LMIC, which may offer significant opportunities. Relationships between the partnership's leaders and influential individuals in the community, hospital, grassroots foundation, and government will lay the foundation for productive collaboration and a sustainable pediatric oncology program. PMID:26578620

  12. Catholic High School Students' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Snapshot of Incoming College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This study is a survey of incoming freshmen at a Midwestern Catholic university on their agreement with Church teachings on homosexuality. In general, females had more homo-positive attitudes than males, graduates of catholic high schools had more homo-positive attitudes than graduates from non-Catholic high schools, and graduates from…

  13. Taxation in France | Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2012 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2012, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 15 February 2013. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at this link. In case of difficulty in obtaining your annual certificate, send an e-mail ex...

  14. The impact of migration on tuberculosis epidemiology and control in high-income countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Manish; Greenaway, Christina; Noori, Teymur; Munoz, Jose; Zenner, Dominik

    2016-03-23

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality in high-income countries with foreign-born individuals bearing a disproportionate burden of the overall TB case burden in these countries. In this review of tuberculosis and migration we discuss the impact of migration on the epidemiology of TB in low burden countries, describe the various screening strategies to address this issue, review the yield and cost-effectiveness of these programs and describe the gaps in knowledge as well as possible future solutions.The reasons for the TB burden in the migrant population are likely to be the reactivation of remotely-acquired latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) following migration from low/intermediate-income high TB burden settings to high-income, low TB burden countries.TB control in high-income countries has historically focused on the early identification and treatment of active TB with accompanying contact-tracing. In the face of the TB case-load in migrant populations, however, there is ongoing discussion about how best to identify TB in migrant populations. In general, countries have generally focused on two methods: identification of active TB (either at/post-arrival or increasingly pre-arrival in countries of origin) and secondly, conditionally supported by WHO guidance, through identifying LTBI in migrants from high TB burden countries. Although health-economic analyses have shown that TB control in high income settings would benefit from providing targeted LTBI screening and treatment to certain migrants from high TB burden countries, implementation issues and barriers such as sub-optimal treatment completion will need to be addressed to ensure program efficacy.

  15. Validating the WHO Maternal Near Miss Tool in a high-income country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Tom; de Koning, Ilona; Bezstarosti, Hans; van den Akker, Thomas; van Roosmalen, Jos; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study was performed to assess the applicability of the WHO Maternal Near Miss Tool (MNM Tool) and the organ dysfunction criteria in a high-income country. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The MNM tool was applied to 2552 women who died of pregnancy-related causes or sustained severe acute ma

  16. TAXATION IN FRANCE - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2011 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2011, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 1st March 2012. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at the following link: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/Impots/proc_impot_attestation_interne.asp. ...

  17. A systematic review of responsive feeding and child obesity in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Cross, Matthew B; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2011-03-01

    Child overweight/obesity continues to be a serious public health problem in high-income countries. The current review had 3 goals: 1) to summarize the associations between responsive feeding and child weight status in high-income countries; 2) to describe existing responsive feeding measures; and 3) to generate suggestions for future research. Articles were obtained from PubMed and PsycInfo using specified search criteria. The majority (24/31) of articles reported significant associations between nonresponsive feeding and child weight-for-height Z-score, BMI Z-score, overweight/obesity, or adiposity. Most studies identified were conducted exclusively in the United States (n = 22), were cross-sectional (n = 25), and used self-report feeding questionnaires (n = 28). A recent trend exists toward conducting research among younger children (i.e. infants and toddlers) and low-income and/or minority populations. Although current evidence suggests that nonresponsive feeding is associated with child BMI or overweight/obesity, more research is needed to understand causality, the reliability and validity between and within existing feeding measures, and to test the efficacy of responsive feeding interventions in the prevention and treatment of child overweight/obesity in high-income countries.

  18. 76 FR 23962 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Annual Catch Limits and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures AGENCY... annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs). This proposed rule to implement Amendment 2... have any direct or indirect socioeconomic impacts, because harvest limits and management...

  19. The Connector Study: A Strategy for Collecting Post-Graduation Data about Low-Income High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Karen D.; Wartman, Katherine Lynk; Brown, Paul Gordon; Gismondi, Adam N.; Pesce, Jessica R.; Stanfield, David

    2016-01-01

    Tracking low-income students after high school graduation presents significant problems for data collection. The Connector Study is an attempt to increase and enrich outcomes data in a longitudinal study of low-income graduates of a national network of innovative high schools by gathering alumni updates through telephone interviews with high…

  20. Cibola High Levee Pond Annual Report 2003. Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, G.A.; Carpenter, J.; Marsh, P.C.; Minckley, C.O.

    2003-01-01

    Bonytail and razorback sucker have once again spawned and produced swim-up larvae in Cibola High Levee Pond (CHLP). CHLP continues to support annual recruitment of bonytail while recent razorback sucker recruitment remains elusive. Thus far, razorbacks have experienced intermittent years of spawning success. Both native species were observed spawning on, or near, the riprap on the river levee. Razorbacks spawned from late January until mid-March over gravel and large cobble along the levee toe (2-3 m depth) and bonytail spawned along the levee shoreline during mid-April. Razorback suckers rapidly fin during the reproductive act, which flushes fines from the substrate and leaves gravel relatively clean. Bonytail on the other hand, appear to spawn over or on substrate that has been disturbed by beaver activity. Substrate scour or disturbance appears to be an important factor in spawning site selectiona?|

  1. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural elementary and middle schools in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Nguyen, Thuan; Pickus, Hayley; Chen, Zunqiu

    2014-08-01

    Food stores near schools are an important source of snacks for children. However, few studies have assessed availability of healthy snacks in these settings. The aim of this study was to assess availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near schools and examine how availability of healthy items varied by poverty level of the school and rural-urban location. Food stores were selected based on their proximity to elementary/middle schools in three categories: high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural. Audits were conducted within the stores to assess the presence or absence of 48 items in single-serving sizes, including healthy beverages, healthy snacks, fresh fruits, and fresh vegetables. Overall, availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was low in all stores. However, there was significant cross-site variability in availability of several snack and fruit items, with stores near high-income urban schools having higher availability, compared to stores near low-income urban and/or rural schools. Stores near rural schools generally had the lowest availability, although several fruits were found more often in rural stores than in urban stores. There were no significant differences in availability of healthy beverages and fresh vegetables across sites. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was limited in stores near schools, but these limitations were more severe in stores proximal to rural and low-income schools. Given that children frequent these stores to purchase snacks, efforts to increase the availability of healthy products, especially in stores near rural and low-income schools, should be a priority.

  2. High-Speed Incoming Infrared Target Detection by Fusion of Spatial and Temporal Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting high-speed incoming targets by the fusion of spatial and temporal detectors to achieve a high detection rate for an active protection system (APS). The incoming targets have different image velocities according to the target-camera geometry. Therefore, single-target detector-based approaches, such as a 1D temporal filter, 2D spatial filter and 3D matched filter, cannot provide a high detection rate with moderate false alarms. The target speed variation was analyzed according to the incoming angle and target velocity. The speed of the distant target at the firing time is almost stationary and increases slowly. The speed varying targets are detected stably by fusing the spatial and temporal filters. The stationary target detector is activated by an almost zero temporal contrast filter (TCF) and identifies targets using a spatial filter called the modified mean subtraction filter (M-MSF). A small motion (sub-pixel velocity) target detector is activated by a small TCF value and finds targets using the same spatial filter. A large motion (pixel-velocity) target detector works when the TCF value is high. The final target detection is terminated by fusing the three detectors based on the threat priority. The experimental results of the various target sequences show that the proposed fusion-based target detector produces the highest detection rate with an acceptable false alarm rate. PMID:25815448

  3. Obstructive sleep apnoea in adult indigenous populations in high-income countries: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Cindy E; Usher, Kim; Maguire, Graeme Paul

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is recognised as a common but under-diagnosed health issue. Currently, there is very little published data relating to the burden and impact of obstructive sleep apnoea among indigenous populations. The purpose of this review was to investigate the prevalence, impact, risk factors and treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea in indigenous populations in high-income countries. An integrative review was conducted on 25 English language studies and reports that investigated obstructive sleep apnoea among indigenous populations in high-income countries. Studies that did not focus on indigenous populations in the results or discussion were excluded. Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases and reference lists of eligible studies. Publication dates range from 1998 to 2012. Synthesis of studies indicates the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea is higher and severity is greater in indigenous populations compared with non-indigenous populations. Comparable risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea were identified in indigenous and non-indigenous populations, with only three studies identifying ethnicity as an independent risk factor. Indigenous populations in high-income countries are subject to an overall greater prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea that is also more severe. A higher prevalence of obesity, alcohol and tobacco use and comorbid medical conditions associated with low socioeconomic status rather than indigenous status per se appears to explain this disparity.

  4. Estimated annual incomes of South African traditional healers as generated by their practices and sales of their pre-modern traditional health products for 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background In South Africa, it is an accepted fact that the main role players in the manufacturing and selling of so called traditional medicine (TAM are traditional healers. The Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 not only strengthened this perception in 2007 by giving statutory recognition to traditional healers as traditional health practitioners, but also with its various definitions as they are reflected in the Act. There is an estimation that South African research on traditional healing that TAM, specifically under the guardianship of the traditional healers, generates in excess of R2 billion (R2,000 million annually. The idea also exists that the traditional healers offer a widespread indispensable medical service, specifically through their medical and health products, which contributes to a further R1 billion (R1,000 million or more in income. Aims The study aims to estimate the annual income generated by South African traditional healers in their practices and with the manufacturing, prescription and selling of their traditional health products for the period 2015/2016. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the South African traditional healers’ estimated annual incomes as generated by their practices and the manufacturing, prescription and selling of their health and medical products for the period 2015/2016. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results Over the years, it seems that a misconception was established in South Africa about what traditional medicines really are and who the specific manufacturers and sellers are. There is no differentiation between the traditional medicines offered and marketed in the South African retail and commercial market, and those prepared by traditional healers

  5. Unequal on top: Gender profiling and the income gap among high earner male and female professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Jennifer; Dobrev, Stanislav D

    2015-09-01

    We develop a comprehensive, multi-level model of income inequality between high earner men and women during the early career stages. We argue that young women are routinely subjected to "gender profiling" by employers-women's potential contribution to the organization is interpreted through the lens of social stereotypes and cultural norms that attribute to them weaker labor market commitment than men. We investigate two specific mechanisms that arise from this profiling and lead to income inequality: First, women have diminished access to resources and advancement opportunities within the firm which results in lower returns to tenure for women than for men. Second, external mobility is greatly beneficial for men but much less so for women because it reinforces the image of weak commitment. Salary regressions of early career history data of young MBA alumni of a prestigious U.S. business school accord with our conjectures.

  6. 24 CFR 92.203 - Income determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... low-income families for the family size of the tenant and state that the tenant's annual income does... Security Income, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, or other public assistance or public welfare... for very low-income families established under § 92.252(b)(2) are based on adjusted income....

  7. 高收入家庭的理财规划方案%The Financial Planning of High Income Mr.Liu Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    只井杰

    2012-01-01

    刘先生家庭年度结余77万余元,为典型的421型高收入家庭.刘先生是做磷矿生意的,收入高风险也大,刘太太是农行柜员,收入较稳定,家有女儿读幼儿园,还有四老需要赡养.本理财规划方案在介绍刘先生家庭成员及资产情况基础上,编制家庭资产负债表和收入支出表,分析各项资产比率,指出刘先生家庭现阶段资产配置的不合理之处,旨在对该家庭进行现金规划、教育规划、住房规划、保险规划和投资规划.通过规划,该家庭的理财目标得以实现.%For Mr. Liu family is a typical 421 type of high income family. Its annual balance is more than 770000 yuan. Mr. Liu is doing phosphate rock business, and his income is high with high risk; his wife is an agriculture bank clerk, and her income is stable. His family members are a daughter who is in kindergarten, mother and father, mother in law and father in law. Based on introduction of Mr. Liu' s family and his asset, the paper works out the family balance sheet and income expenditure table, analyzes the assets ratio, and points out the unreasonable place in asset allocation of Mr. Liu's family, aiming to make cash planning, education planning, housing planning, insurance planning and investment planning for the family. Through the planning, the family's financial management target can be realized.

  8. Reciprocity in Labor Market Relationships: Evidence from an Experiment across High-Income OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Waichman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study differences in behavior across countries in a labor market context. To this end, we conducted a bilateral gift-exchange experiment comparing the behavior of subjects from five high-income OECD countries: Germany, Spain, Israel, Japan and the USA. We observe that in all countries, effort levels are increasing while rejection rates are decreasing in wage offers. However, we also find considerable differences in behavior across countries in both one-shot and repeated relationships, the most striking between Germany and Spain. We also discuss the influence of socio-economic indicators and the implications of our findings.

  9. Acculturation and obesity among migrant populations in high income countries – a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence to suggest that immigrant populations from low or medium-income countries to high income countries show a significant change in obesogenic behaviors in the host society, and that these changes are associated with acculturation. However, the results of studies vary depending on how acculturation is measured. The objective of this study is to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between acculturation - as measured with a standardized acculturation scale - and overweight/obesity among adult migrants from low/middle countries to high income countries. Methods A systematic review of relevant studies was undertaken using six EBSCOhost databases and following the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination’s Guidance for Undertaking Reviews in Health Care. Results The initial search identified 1135 potentially relevant publications, of which only nine studies met the selection criteria. All of the studies were from the US with migrant populations from eight different countries. Six studies employed bi-directional acculturation scales and three used uni-directional scales. Six studies indicated positive general associations between higher acculturation and body mass index (BMI), and three studies reported that higher acculturation was associated with lower BMI, as mainly among women. Conclusion Despite the small number of studies, a number of potential explanatory hypotheses were developed for these emerging patterns. The ‘Healthy Migrant Effect’ may diminish with greater acculturation as the host culture potentially promotes more unhealthy weight gain than heritage cultures. This appears particularly so for men and a rapid form of nutrition transition represents a likely contributor. The inconsistent results observed for women may be due to the interplay of cultural influences on body image, food choices and physical activity. That is, the Western ideal of a slim female body and higher values placed on physical activity and

  10. Acculturation and obesity among migrant populations in high income countries--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Maryam; Sønderlund, Anders Larrabee; Swinburn, Boyd; Mellor, David; Renzaho, Andre

    2013-05-10

    There is evidence to suggest that immigrant populations from low or medium-income countries to high income countries show a significant change in obesogenic behaviors in the host society, and that these changes are associated with acculturation. However, the results of studies vary depending on how acculturation is measured. The objective of this study is to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between acculturation--as measured with a standardized acculturation scale--and overweight/obesity among adult migrants from low/middle countries to high income countries. A systematic review of relevant studies was undertaken using six EBSCOhost databases and following the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination's Guidance for Undertaking Reviews in Health Care. The initial search identified 1135 potentially relevant publications, of which only nine studies met the selection criteria. All of the studies were from the US with migrant populations from eight different countries. Six studies employed bi-directional acculturation scales and three used uni-directional scales. Six studies indicated positive general associations between higher acculturation and body mass index (BMI), and three studies reported that higher acculturation was associated with lower BMI, as mainly among women. Despite the small number of studies, a number of potential explanatory hypotheses were developed for these emerging patterns. The 'Healthy Migrant Effect' may diminish with greater acculturation as the host culture potentially promotes more unhealthy weight gain than heritage cultures. This appears particularly so for men and a rapid form of nutrition transition represents a likely contributor. The inconsistent results observed for women may be due to the interplay of cultural influences on body image, food choices and physical activity. That is, the Western ideal of a slim female body and higher values placed on physical activity and fitness may counteract the obesogenic food

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Impact of High Seas Closure on Food Security in Low Income Fish Dependent Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Louise S. L.; Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Cheung, William W. L.; Miller, Dana; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Sumaila, U. Rashid

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how high seas closure will affect the availability of commonly consumed food fish in 46 fish reliant, and/or low income countries. Domestic consumption of straddling fish species (fish that would be affected by high seas closure) occurred in 54% of the assessed countries. The majority (70%) of countries were projected to experience net catch gains following high seas closure. However, countries with projected catch gains and that also consumed the straddling fish species domestically made up only 37% of the assessed countries. In contrast, much fewer countries (25%) were projected to incur net losses from high seas closure, and of these, straddling species were used domestically in less than half (45%) of the countries. Our findings suggest that, given the current consumption patterns of straddling species, high seas closure may only directly benefit the supply of domestically consumed food fish in a small number of fish reliant and/or low income countries. In particular, it may not have a substantial impact on improving domestic fish supply in countries with the greatest need for improved access to affordable fish, as only one third of this group used straddling fish species domestically. Also, food security in countries with projected net catch gains but where straddling fish species are not consumed domestically may still benefit indirectly via economic activities arising from the increased availability of non-domestically consumed straddling fish species following high seas closure. Consequently, this study suggests that high seas closure can potentially improve marine resource sustainability as well as contribute to human well-being in some of the poorest and most fish dependent countries worldwide. However, caution is required because high seas closure may also negatively affect fish availability in countries that are already impoverished and fish insecure. PMID:28033359

  7. From Low Income, High Poverty to High-Income, No Poverty? An Optimistic View of the Long-Run Evolution of Poverty in Indonesia By International Poverty Lines, 1984–2030

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Sumner; Peter Edward

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia has achieved well-documented and drastic improvements in average incomes and in the reduction of poverty. Much research has discussed this progress. This paper adds to the literature with a new perspective. We discuss poverty in Indonesia using the international poverty lines ($1.25, $2 and we add $10/day). We generate historic estimates of poverty and make projections based on various growth and inequality trends. We find that Indonesia has the potential to attain high-income count...

  8. Still High: Marginal Effective Tax Rates on Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Finn Poschmann

    2008-01-01

    Most federal and provincial government benefits for families with children are sharply income-tested. Reductions in these benefits, as family income rises, mean that low-income families face much higher effective tax rates than most others do, and deny such families the full benefit of the broad-based tax rate relief other Canadians have enjoyed in recent years.

  9. Does high-stakes testing increase cultural capital among low-income and racial minority students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Pyo Hong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on research from Texas and Chicago to examine whether high-stakes testing enables low-income and racial minority students to acquire cultural capital. While students' performance on state or district tests rose after the implementation of high-stakes testing and accountability policies in Texas and Chicago in the 1990s, several studies indicate that these policies seemed to have had deleterious effects on curriculum, instruction, the percentage of students excluded from the tests, and student dropout rates. As a result, the policies seemed to have had mixed effects on students' opportunities to acquire embodied and institutionalized cultural capital. These findings are consistent with the work of Shepard (2000, Darling-Hammond (2004a, and others who have written of the likely negative repercussions of high-stakes testing and accountability policies.

  10. Eye care utilization by older adults in low, middle, and high income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of visual impairment increases dramatically with age and therefore older adults should have their eyes examined at least every 1 to 2 years. Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to determine the frequency that older people had their eyes examined. We also examined factors associated with having a recent eye exam. Methods The World Health Surveys were conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2002-2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Participants 60 years and older from 52 countries (n = 35,839 were asked "When was the last time you had your eyes examined by a medical professional?". The income status of countries was estimated using gross national income per capita data from 2003 from the World Bank website. Prevalence estimates were adjusted to account for the complex sample design. Results Overall, only 18% (95% CI 17, 19 of older adults had an eye exam in the last year. The rate of an eye exam in the last year in low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries was 10%, 24%, 22%, and 37% respectively. Factors associated with having an eye exam in the last year included older age, female gender, more education, urban residence, greater wealth, worse self-reported health, having diabetes, and wearing glasses or contact lenses (p Conclusions Given that older adults often suffer from age-related but treatable conditions, they should be seen on a regular basis to prevent visual impairment and its disabling consequences.

  11. Factors for success in collaboration between high- and low-income countries: Developing a physiotherapy education programme in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background This study presents an example of collaboration between two higher education institutions: one in Norway, a high-income country, and one in Sudan, a low-income country, in developing an entry-level physiotherapy education programme in Sudan. The institution in Sudan had minimal theoretical and practical knowledge in physiotherapy. The study examined the factors important for the success of the bilateral collaboration. Material and methods We analysed written documents produced in t...

  12. Capital Income and Income Inequality: Evidence from Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Using urban household survey data collected by National Bureau of Statistics of China from 1988-2009, this study examines the distribution, composition, and changes of capital income and its contribution to income inequality. The data shows that capital income has increased considerably in past 20 years in urban China. Although the average value of capital income is still relatively low, the dispersion of capital income is significant, and for high-income earners capital income is substantial...

  13. The variation of acute treatment costs of trauma in high-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willenberg Lynsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to assist health service planning, understanding factors that influence higher trauma treatment costs is essential. The majority of trauma costing research reports the cost of trauma from the perspective of the receiving hospital. There has been no comprehensive synthesis and little assessment of the drivers of cost variation, such as country, trauma, subgroups and methods. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of research reporting the trauma treatment costs and factors associated with higher treatment costs in high income countries. Methods A systematic search for articles relating to the cost of acute trauma care was performed and included studies reporting injury severity scores (ISS, per patient cost/charge estimates; and costing methods. Cost and charge values were indexed to 2011 cost equivalents and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parities. Results A total of twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Eighty-one percent of these studies were conducted in high income countries including USA, Australia, Europe and UK. Studies either reported a cost (74.1% or charge estimate (25.9% for the acute treatment of trauma. Across studies, the median per patient cost of acute trauma treatment was $22,448 (IQR: $11,819-$33,701. However, there was variability in costing methods used with 18% of studies providing comprehensive cost methods. Sixty-three percent of studies reported cost or charge items incorporated in their cost analysis and 52% reported items excluded in their analysis. In all publications reviewed, predictors of cost included Injury Severity Score (ISS, surgical intervention, hospital and intensive care, length of stay, polytrauma and age. Conclusion The acute treatment cost of trauma is higher than other disease groups. Research has been largely conducted in high income countries and variability exists in reporting costing methods as well as the actual costs. Patient populations studied

  14. The Current System of Personal Income Tax Calls for Prompt Revision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    BEIJING’S revenue from personal income tax in 2001 was 8 billion yuan, an increase of 42 percent, and the amount of tax received from high-income earners increased 2.6 fold. From September to November 2001, high-income earners paid taxes of 60 million yuan they had previously evaded. In the first half of 2002, Beijing defined its key taxpayers, that is, those with an annual income exceeding 100,000 yuan. According to this definition, the tax-paying situation of at least 30,000 people is under control. Revisions to the Individual Income Tax

  15. Unintended pregnancy and perinatal depression trajectories in low-income, high-risk Hispanic immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anna L; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu

    2011-09-01

    Perinatal depression is a prevalent and detrimental condition. Determining modifiable factors associated with it would identify opportunities for prevention. This paper: 1) identifies depressive symptom trajectories and heterogeneity in those trajectories during pregnancy through the first-year postpartum, and 2) examines the association between unintended pregnancy and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms (BDI-II) were collected from low-income Hispanic immigrants (n=215) five times from early pregnancy to 12-months postpartum. The sample was at high-risk for perinatal depression and recruited from two prenatal care settings. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to identify distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms over the perinatal period. Multinomial logistic regression was then conducted to examine the association between unintended pregnancy (reported at baseline) and the depression trajectory patterns. Three distinct trajectory patterns of depressive symptoms were identified: high during pregnancy, but low postpartum ("Pregnancy High": 9.8%); borderline during pregnancy, with a postpartum increase ("Postpartum High": 10.2%); and low throughout pregnancy and postpartum ("Perinatal Low": 80.0%). Unintended pregnancy was not associated with the "Pregnancy High" pattern, but was associated with a marginally significant nearly four fold increase in risk of the "Postpartum High" pattern in depressive symptoms (RRR=3.95, ppregnancies during prenatal care must be educated of their increased risk, even if they do not exhibit antenatal depressive symptoms. Routine depression screening should occur postpartum, and referral to culturally appropriate treatment should follow positive screening results.

  16. Asylum Seekers, Violence and Health: A Systematic Review of Research in High-Income Host Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mazeda; Kiss, Ligia; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of literature on violence and related health concerns among asylum seekers in high-income host countries. We extracted data from 23 peer-reviewed studies. Prevalence of torture, variably defined, was above 30% across all studies. Torture history in clinic populations correlated with hunger and posttraumatic stress disorder, although in small, nonrepresentative samples. One study observed that previous exposure to interpersonal violence interacted with longer immigration detention periods, resulting in higher depression scores. Limited evidence suggests that asylum seekers frequently experience violence and health problems, but large-scale studies are needed to inform policies and services for this vulnerable group often at the center of political debate. PMID:23327250

  17. Construction of Meaning of the Undergraduate Course in Business Administration by High and Low Income Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Rezende Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical study undertaken with a sample of 368 undergraduate business administration students from five private universities in a large Brazilian city. The objective was to analyze the differences in perceptions of the course by students from high and low income backgrounds regarding the following issues: the cultural and symbolic elements involving higher education; the relevance of higher education in consumer priorities and the influence on consumption behavior of students; the appropriateness of the course to their reality; and the expected benefits of obtaining a degree. The data were analyzed using the Grade of Membership (GoM and t-test statistical techniques. The results, which were compared with the theoretical framework on consumption in a cultural and symbolic perspective, signaled there is a difference in meaning between the two groups of students.

  18. Evolution of HIV treatment guidelines in high- and low-income countries: converging recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Eugene T; Grant, Philip M; Zolopa, Andrew R

    2014-03-01

    Over the past 15 years, antiretroviral treatment guidelines for HIV infection have evolved significantly, reflecting the major advances in this therapeutic area. Evidenced-based recommendations have largely replaced expert opinion, while diagnostic monitoring and therapeutic interventions have become more sophisticated and effective. Just 10 years ago, there was a marked difference in access to antiretroviral therapy for patients in wealthy and impoverished countries. The increasing availability of therapy across the globe, however, has made it possible for international guidelines to resemble more closely those in high-income countries. This article compares the evolution of antiretroviral therapy treatment guidelines from the United States Department of Health and Human Services and the World Health Organization, focusing on when to initiate ART in asymptomatic patients and in those with an opportunistic infection; initial regimens in the general population and in special populations; when to change and what to change; and laboratory monitoring.

  19. Potential ecological footprints of active pharmaceutical ingredients: an examination of risk factors in low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kookana, Rai S; Williams, Mike; Boxall, Alistair B A; Larsson, D G Joakim; Gaw, Sally; Choi, Kyungho; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Thatikonda, Shashidhar; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Carriquiriborde, Pedro

    2014-11-19

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can enter the natural environment during manufacture, use and/or disposal, and consequently public concern about their potential adverse impacts in the environment is growing. Despite the bulk of the human population living in Asia and Africa (mostly in low- or middle-income countries), limited work relating to research, development and regulations on APIs in the environment have so far been conducted in these regions. Also, the API manufacturing sector is gradually shifting to countries with lower production costs. This paper focuses mainly on APIs for human consumption and highlights key differences between the low-, middle- and high-income countries, covering factors such as population and demographics, manufacture, prescriptions, treatment, disposal and reuse of waste and wastewater. The striking differences in populations (both human and animal), urbanization, sewer connectivity and other factors have revealed that the environmental compartments receiving the bulk of API residues differ markedly between low- and high-income countries. High sewer connectivity in developed countries allows capture and treatment of the waste stream (point-source). However, in many low- or middle-income countries, sewerage connectivity is generally low and in some areas waste is collected predominantly in septic systems. Consequently, the diffuse-source impact, such as on groundwater from leaking septic systems or on land due to disposal of raw sewage or septage, may be of greater concern. A screening level assessment of potential burdens of APIs in urban and rural environments of countries representing low- and middle-income as well as high-income has been made. Implications for ecological risks of APIs used by humans in lower income countries are discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program: 19th Annual Report, October 1, 2005 - September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, Arvid [ORNL

    2007-08-01

    Annual Report contains overview of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program and includes selected highlights of user activities for FY2006. Report is submitted to individuals within sponsoring DOE agency and to other interested individuals.

  1. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redmond, S; Woodhall, S; van den Broek, I;

    2015-01-01

    /EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study...... characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results: We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response...... consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men)....

  2. Drinking Game Participation Among High School and Incoming College Students: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L; Tomaso, Cara C; Cloutier, Renee M; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Kenney, Shannon R; Borsari, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The transition from high school to college has been characterized as a potentially vulnerable period because of decreased parental supervision and increased autonomy. This transition can increase risk for participation in high-risk behaviors such as drinking games (DGs), which are a social drinking activity that encourages intoxication and are associated with negative alcohol-related consequences. To date, there has not been a narrative review of DG research that examines this activity among high schoolers and incoming college students specifically, and thus, the current review bridges this gap. Findings indicate that DG participation is consistently linked to negative consequences (e.g., passing out, becoming sick) and other high-risk behaviors, such as prepartying (drinking before going to a social event). In addition, DG participation is linked to demographic (e.g., age, gender), psychological (e.g., personality, alcohol cognitions), and contextual/cultural factors (e.g., the college drinking culture). These findings have implications for current prevention and intervention efforts and suggest promising directions for future research.

  3. Summer Reading Remediation for Incoming Pupils 1975; High School Umbrella Number 2, School Year 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Victor

    The Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I program, Summer Reading Remediation for Incoming Pupils 1975, had two goals: to improve reading skills by supplying an intensive program of remediation in reading and to orient incoming students to their new school environment and its staff. Participating in the program were 2807 ninth and tenth grade…

  4. Evaluating the Impact of a Summer Dropout Prevention Program for Incoming Freshmen Attending an Under-Resourced High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth; Shriberg, David; Alves, Alison; de Oca, Jessie Montes; Reker, Kassandra; Roche, Meghan; Salgado, Manuel; Stegmaier, Jessica; Viellieu, Lindsay; Karahalios, Vicky; Knoll, Michael; Adams, Kristen; Diaz, Yahaira; Rau, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Low high school completion rates are an ongoing challenge for educators. This study provides the results of an evaluation of a ninth-grade summer transition program offered at a large public school with a high freshman dropout rate. The evaluation consisted of preprogram and postprogram surveys and interviews with 64 incoming freshman…

  5. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry.

  6. Systematic review of abstinence-plus HIV prevention programs in high-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Underhill

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abstinence-plus (comprehensive interventions promote sexual abstinence as the best means of preventing HIV, but also encourage condom use and other safer-sex practices. Some critics of abstinence-plus programs have suggested that promoting safer sex along with abstinence may undermine abstinence messages or confuse program participants; conversely, others have suggested that promoting abstinence might undermine safer-sex messages. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the effectiveness of abstinence-plus interventions for HIV prevention among any participants in high-income countries as defined by the World Bank. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cochrane Collaboration systematic review methods were used. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of abstinence-plus programs for HIV prevention among any participants in any high-income country; trials were included if they reported behavioural or biological outcomes. We searched 30 electronic databases without linguistic or geographical restrictions to February 2007, in addition to contacting experts, hand-searching conference abstracts, and cross-referencing papers. After screening 20,070 abstracts and 325 full published and unpublished papers, we included 39 trials that included approximately 37,724 North American youth. Programs were based in schools (10, community facilities (24, both schools and community facilities (2, health care facilities (2, and family homes (1. Control groups varied. All outcomes were self-reported. Quantitative synthesis was not possible because of heterogeneity across trials in programs and evaluation designs. Results suggested that many abstinence-plus programs can reduce HIV risk as indicated by self-reported sexual behaviours. Of 39 trials, 23 found a protective program effect on at least one sexual behaviour, including abstinence, condom use, and unprotected sex (baseline n = 19,819. No trial found adverse program effects on any

  7. Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth; Widom, Cathy Spatz; Browne, Kevin; Fergusson, David; Webb, Elspeth; Janson, Staffan

    2009-01-03

    Child maltreatment remains a major public-health and social-welfare problem in high-income countries. Every year, about 4-16% of children are physically abused and one in ten is neglected or psychologically abused. During childhood, between 5% and 10% of girls and up to 5% of boys are exposed to penetrative sexual abuse, and up to three times this number are exposed to any type of sexual abuse. However, official rates for substantiated child maltreatment indicate less than a tenth of this burden. Exposure to multiple types and repeated episodes of maltreatment is associated with increased risks of severe maltreatment and psychological consequences. Child maltreatment substantially contributes to child mortality and morbidity and has longlasting effects on mental health, drug and alcohol misuse (especially in girls), risky sexual behaviour, obesity, and criminal behaviour, which persist into adulthood. Neglect is at least as damaging as physical or sexual abuse in the long term but has received the least scientific and public attention. The high burden and serious and long-term consequences of child maltreatment warrant increased investment in preventive and therapeutic strategies from early childhood.

  8. Risk factors for high blood pressure in low income children aged 3-4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Márcia Regina; da Costa Louzada, Maria Laura; Rauber, Fernanda; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bó

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure among low income children aged 3-4 years. Data were collected during a randomized trial conducted in São Leopoldo, Brazil, with 500 mother-child pairs recruited from the maternity ward of a local hospital. Breastfeeding data were obtained during the children's first year of life. At 3 to 4 years of age, children's anthropometric, dietary, and blood pressure assessments were obtained. Sodium intake was estimated from two multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls. Systolic blood pressure > 90th percentile for age, sex, and height was classified as high systolic blood pressure, according to the population-based percentiles provided by the Task Force on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Blood pressure data were obtained from 331 children at 3 to 4 years. The mean value of systolic blood pressure was 91.31 mmHg (SD = 8.30 mmHg) and 5.2% (n = 17) presented high systolic blood pressure. The results of the multivariable analyses showed that children who consumed more than 1,200 mg of sodium/day and with waist-to-height ratio higher than 0.5 presented, respectively, 3.32 (95%CI 0.98-11.22) and 8.81 (95%CI 2.13-36.31) greater risk of having high systolic blood pressure. Exclusive breastfeeding, child overweight and change in body mass index z score during the first year of life were not associated with the outcome. The results of this study suggest that at preschool age sodium intake and high waist-to-height ratio are risk factors for high systolic blood pressure.

  9. Greater increases in temperature extremes in low versus high income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Nicholas; Alexander, Lisa; Green, Donna; Donat, Markus

    2017-03-01

    It is commonly expected that the world’s lowest income countries will face some of the worst impacts of global warming, despite contributing the least to greenhouse gas emissions. Using global atmospheric reanalyses we show that the world’s lowest income countries are already experiencing greater increases in the occurrence of temperature extremes compared to the highest income countries, and have been for over two decades. Not only are low income countries less able to support mitigation and adaptation efforts, but their typically equatorial location predisposes them to lower natural temperature variability and thus greater changes in the occurrence of temperature extremes with global warming. This aspect of global warming is well known but overlooked in current international climate policy agreements and we argue that it is an important factor in reducing inequity due to climate impacts.

  10. High Taxes in Hard Times: How Denmark Built and Maintained a Huge Income Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Ganghof, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    Denmark is a welfare state whose income tax burden is larger than the total tax burden of the United States or Japan. Given recent political science accounts of the links between tax mixes and the welfare state, Denmark seems to be a puzzling anomaly. These accounts see income taxation as inherently problematic and claim that "regressive taxes" (social security contributions and indirect consumption) have been conducive to building and maintaining large tax/welfare states. This article provid...

  11. Prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages in high and low per capita income areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Corilee A; Corrado, Rachel S; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To better understand availability and price of beverages in Hawai'i, the prices of healthy (milk, orange juice, unsweetened tea, unsweetened coffee, diet soda) and unhealthy beverages (regular soda, fruit drink, sports drink, sweetened tea, flavored water) were collected and the beverage prices in lower per capita income areas and higher per capita income areas were compared. Cross-sectional data on prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and quick serve restaurants from two lower per capita income areas (Waimanalo and Wai'anae) and two higher per capita income areas (Hawai'i Kai and Manoa) on O'ahu, Hawai'i from May 15 to June 10, 2012. Using composite data from across all areas, there was a significant difference of $0.58 (95% CI 0.46, 0.70) between the healthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.76 ± $0.86) and the unhealthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.18 ± $0.38) (P <.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between per capita income areas, the lower per capita income areas' mean price per 20 ounces of healthy beverages was slightly higher and mean price per 20 ounces of unhealthy beverages was slightly lower than the higher per capita income areas. Pricing strategies that enable healthy beverages to be less expensive than unhealthy beverages is one method to increase consumption of healthy beverages and decrease consumption of unhealthy beverages. Reduction in unhealthy beverage consumption is needed to help reduce obesity, especially in the lower per capita income areas that have higher obesity prevalence.

  12. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period…

  13. Effect of Nutrition Supplement Education on Nutrition Supplement Knowledge among High School Students from a Low-Income Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeffrey C.; Perry, Danielle R.; Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of a nutrition supplement educational intervention in improving the nutrition supplement knowledge of low-income adolescents. Data on high school students separated into experimental and control groups indicated that they had extremely poor pre-intervention knowledge. However, the short-term nutrition education…

  14. The Effectiveness of DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency for Predicting Reading Comprehension of High- and Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologos, Timon M.; Brabham, Edna G.

    2011-01-01

    Correlations and sequential analyses between performance on Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills-Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) and reading achievement on the Stanford Achievement Test-Tenth Edition (SAT-10) during 2003-2004 were examined for high- and low-income children. Participants were 215 third graders, 112 above and 103 below…

  15. Determinants of late and/or inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in high-income countries : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Jansen, Danielle; Baarveld, Frank; van der Schans, Cornelis; Schellevis, Francois G.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal healthcare is likely to prevent adverse outcomes, but an adequate review of utilization and its determinants is lacking. Objective: To review systematically the evidence for the determinants of prenatal healthcare utilization in high-income countries. Method: Search of

  16. Determinants of late and/or inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; Schans, C.P. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal healthcare is likely to prevent adverse outcomes, but an adequate review of utilization and its determinants is lacking. Objective: To review systematically the evidence for the determinants of prenatal healthcare utilization in high-income countries. Method: Search of

  17. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redmond, S; Woodhall, S; van den Broek, I

    2015-01-01

    characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results: We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response...

  18. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  19. Evaluation of a School-Based Sex Education Program for Low Income Male High School Students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Monica; Ross, Ines

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated a 1-year sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile. Findings for 92 students in the baseline year, 1993, and 196 students in the 1998 cohort show a reduction in the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse, changes attitudes toward abstinence, and differences in communication about…

  20. Why income inequality is so high in Serbia: Empirical evidence and a measurement of the key factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Gorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the extent and evolution of income inequality in Serbia and examine factors that may have contributed to the high and rising inequality. Specifically, using data from the 2013 Survey of Income and Living Conditions, we focus on two issues: the effect of the quantity and quality of household members’ employment on the earnings of low-wage workers, and the role of taxes and social transfers in redistributing income from the betteroff to the poor. The results suggest that income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient, has significantly increased in Serbia over the period of economic crisis, reaching 38.7 in 2013. The examined causes of such a high inequality are the high rate of low work intensity of household members and the high proportion of people working in non-standard forms of employment (i.e., part-time, temporary, and self-employment arrangements, mostly in the informal sector. In addition, the low coverage of social transfers, particularly monetary social assistance and child benefits, and the very low level of progressivity of the Serbian personal tax system explain the relatively modest - by international standards - redistributive role of direct taxes and social transfers.

  1. Nothing Succeeds Like Success? Equity, Student Outcomes, and Opportunity to Learn in High- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez, Lucrecia; Fagioli, Loris

    2016-01-01

    A strong relationship between article background and educational outcomes fuels a negative inequality cycle. This paper explores the interplay between student socioeconomic status and educational outcomes, and the mediating role of Opportunity-to-Learn (OTL) in high- and middle-income countries. Using data from PISA 2012, we find that the…

  2. Determinants of late and/or inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in high-income countries : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Jansen, Danielle; Baarveld, Frank; van der Schans, Cornelis; Schellevis, Francois G.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal healthcare is likely to prevent adverse outcomes, but an adequate review of utilization and its determinants is lacking. Objective: To review systematically the evidence for the determinants of prenatal healthcare utilization in high-income countries. Method: Search of publicati

  3. Determinants of late and/or inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; Schans, C.P. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal healthcare is likely to prevent adverse outcomes, but an adequate review of utilization and its determinants is lacking. Objective: To review systematically the evidence for the determinants of prenatal healthcare utilization in high-income countries. Method: Search of publicati

  4. Proceedings of the 2007 Low-Income Energy Network (LIEN) annual conference : cool ideas, hot solutions : working together to end energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanji, Z. [Low-Income Energy Network, Toronto, ON (Canada)] (comp.)

    2007-07-01

    The Low-Income Energy Network (LIEN) is a network of community organizations that promote programs and policies that address the problems of energy poverty and homelessness. LIEN raises awareness about reducing Ontario's contribution to smog and climate change by promoting a healthy economy through the more efficient use of energy and a transition to renewable energy sources. This conference provided a forum to propose solutions to low-income energy issues such as rising energy prices and rate affordability; reducing bills and pollution through energy conservation programs for low-income consumers; creating a comprehensive province-wide, low-income energy consumers' strategy; and, including energy poverty on the public agenda. One of the 3 presentations from this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Public reporting on quality, waiting times and patient experience in 11 high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechel, Bernd; McKee, Martin; Haas, Marion; Marchildon, Gregory P; Bousquet, Frederic; Blümel, Miriam; Geissler, Alexander; van Ginneken, Ewout; Ashton, Toni; Saunes, Ingrid Sperre; Anell, Anders; Quentin, Wilm; Saltman, Richard; Culler, Steven; Barnes, Andrew; Palm, Willy; Nolte, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    This article maps current approaches to public reporting on waiting times, patient experience and aggregate measures of quality and safety in 11 high-income countries (Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States). Using a questionnaire-based survey of key national informants, we found that the data most commonly made available to the public are on waiting times for hospital treatment, being reported for major hospitals in seven countries. Information on patient experience at hospital level is also made available in many countries, but it is not generally available in respect of primary care services. Only one of the 11 countries (England) publishes composite measures of overall quality and safety of care that allow the ranking of providers of hospital care. Similarly, the publication of information on outcomes of individual physicians remains rare. We conclude that public reporting of aggregate measures of quality and safety, as well as of outcomes of individual physicians, remain relatively uncommon. This is likely to be due to both unresolved methodological and ethical problems and concerns that public reporting may lead to unintended consequences. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Religiosity and Health Risk Behaviour Among University Students in 26 Low, Middle and High Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Amuleru-Marshall, Omowale; Mufune, Pempelani; Zeid, Alaa Abou

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess religiosity and health risk behaviours among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 20,222 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2. 8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Among all students, 41.1 % engaged at least once a week in organized religious activity, 35.8 % practised a non-organized religious activity daily or more than once daily, and more or less two-thirds of the students agreed to the three different statements on intrinsic of subjective religiosity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher reported involvement in organized religious activity was associated with addictive, injury, sexual and oral health risk behaviour, while lower reported involvement in organized religious activity was associated with physical inactivity and oral health risk behaviour. Lower reported involvement in non-organized religious activity was associated with addictive, nutrition risk, injury, sexual and oral health risk behaviour, while higher reported involvement in non-organized religious activity was associated with physical inactivity. Finally, lower reported intrinsic religiosity was associated with addictive and sexual risk behaviour, while higher reported intrinsic religiosity was associated with nutrition risk behaviour, physical inactivity and oral health risk behaviour.

  7. HIV testing and counselling for migrant populations living in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-del Arco, Debora; Monge, Susana; Azcoaga, Amaya; Rio, Isabel; Hernando, Victoria; Gonzalez, Cristina; Alejos, Belen; Caro, Ana Maria; Perez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar, Francisco; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2013-12-01

    The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009. Of 1034 abstracts, 37 articles were selected. Migrants, mainly from HIV-endemic countries, are at risk of HIV infection and its consequences. The HIV prevalence among migrants is higher than the general population's, and migrants have higher frequency of delayed HIV diagnosis. For migrants from countries with low HIV prevalence and for ethnic minorities, socio-economic vulnerability puts them at risk of acquiring HIV. Migrants have specific legal and administrative impediments to accessing HIV testing-in some countries, undocumented migrants are not entitled to health care-as well as cultural and linguistic barriers, racism and xenophobia. Migrants and ethnic minorities fear stigma from their communities, yet community acceptance is key for well-being. Migrants and ethnic minorities should be offered HIV testing, but the barriers highlighted in this review may deter programs from achieving the final goal, which is linking migrants and ethnic minorities to HIV clinical care under the public health perspective.

  8. Community Hospitals in Selected High Income Countries: A Scoping Review of Approaches and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor M Winpenny

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no single definition of a community hospital in the UK, despite its long history. We sought to understand the nature and scope of service provision in community hospitals, within the UK and other high-income countries. Methods: We undertook a scoping review of literature on community hospitals published from 2005 to 2014. Data were extracted on features of the hospital model and the services provided, with results presented as a narrative synthesis. Results: 75 studies were included from ten countries. Community hospitals provide a wide range of services, with wide diversity of provision appearing to reflect local needs. Community hospitals are staffed by a mixture of general practitioners (GPs, nurses, allied health professionals and healthcare assistants. We found many examples of collaborative working arrangements between community hospitals and other health care organisations, including colocation of services, shared workforce with primary care and close collaboration with acute specialists. Conclusions: Community hospitals are able to provide a diverse range of services, responding to geographical and health system contexts. Their collaborative nature may be particularly important in the design of future models of care delivery, where emphasis is placed on integration of care with a key focus on patient-centred care.

  9. Geographic Access to Specialty Mental Health Care Across High- and Low-Income US Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Janet R; Allen, Lindsay; Clennon, Julie; Ji, Xu; Druss, Benjamin G

    2017-05-01

    With the future of the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid program unclear, it is critical to examine the geographic availability of specialty mental health treatment resources that serve low-income populations across local communities. To examine the geographic availability of community-based specialty mental health treatment resources and how these resources are distributed by community socioeconomic status. Measures of the availability of specialty mental health treatment resources were derived using national data for 31 836 zip code tabulation areas from 2013 to 2015. Analyses examined the association between community socioeconomic status (assessed by median household income quartiles) and resource availability using logistic regressions. Models controlled for zip code tabulation area-level demographic characteristics and state indicators. Dichotomous indicators for whether a zip code tabulation area had any (1) outpatient mental health treatment facility (more than nine-tenths of which offer payment arrangements for low-income populations), (2) office-based practice of mental health specialist physician(s), (3) office-based practice of nonphysician mental health professionals (eg, therapists), and (4) mental health facility or office-based practice (ie, any community-based resource). Of the 31 836 zip code tabulation areas in the study, more than four-tenths (3382 of 7959 [42.5%]) of communities in the highest income quartile (mean income, $81 207) had any community-based mental health treatment resource vs 23.1% of communities (1841 of 7959) in the lowest income quartile (mean income, $30 534) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.50-2.03). When examining the distribution of mental health professionals, 25.3% of the communities (2014 of 7959) in the highest income quartile had a mental health specialist physician practice vs 8.0% (637 of 7959) of those in the lowest income quartile (adjusted odds ratio, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.53-3.66). Similarly, 35.1% of the

  10. Public Health Responses to and Challenges for the Control of Dengue Transmission in High-Income Countries: Four Case Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Viennet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar using specific keywords for articles published up to 05 May 2016. We found that outbreaks rarely occur where only Aedes albopictus is present. The main similarities between countries uncovered by our review are the proximity to dengue-endemic countries, the presence of a competent mosquito vector, a largely nonimmune population, and a lack of citizens' engagement in control of mosquito breeding. We identified important epidemiological and environmental issues including the increase of local transmission despite control efforts, population growth, difficulty locating larval sites, and increased human mobility from neighboring endemic countries. Budget cuts in health and lack of practical vaccines contribute to an increased risk. To be successful, dengue-control programs for high-income countries must consider the epidemiology of dengue in other countries and use this information to minimize virus importation, improve the control of the cryptic larval habitat, and engage the community in reducing vector breeding. Finally, the presence of a communicable disease center is critical for managing and reducing future disease risks.

  11. Should pharmacogenetics be incorporated in major depression treatment? Economic evaluation in high- and middle-income European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, Paolo; Bajo, Emanuele; Bigelli, Marco; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2012-01-10

    The serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates response to SSRIs and side-effect burden. The aim of this study is to quantify the cost-utility of incorporating 5-HTTLPR genotyping in drug treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously reported a theoretical model to simulate antidepressant treatment with citalopram or bupropion for 12 weeks. The drugs were alternatively selected according to an 'as usual' algorithm or based on response and tolerability predicted by 5-HTTLPR profile. Here we apply this model to conduct a cost-utility analysis in three European regions with high GDP (Euro A), middle GDP (Euro B) and middle-high GDP (Euro C). In addition we test a verification scenario in which citalopram+bupropion augmentation is administered to individuals with the least favorable 5-HTTLPR genotype. Treatment outcomes are remission and Quality Adjusted-Life Weeks (QALW). Cost data (international $, year 2009) are retrieved from the World Health Organization (WHO) and national official sources. In base-case scenario incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) values are $1147 (Euro A), $1185 (Euro B) and $1178 (Euro C). From cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC), the probability of having an ICER value below WHO recommended cost-utility threshold (3 GDP per capita=$1926) is >90% in high-income countries (Euro A). In middle- income regions, these probabilities are income countries (Euro B). This simulation using data from 27 European states suggests that choosing antidepressant treatment from the results of 5-HTTLPR might be a cost-effective solution in high income countries. Its feasibility in middle income countries needs further research.

  12. Public Health Responses to and Challenges for the Control of Dengue Transmission in High-Income Countries: Four Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Ritchie, Scott A.; Williams, Craig R.; Faddy, Helen M.; Harley, David

    2016-01-01

    Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar using specific keywords for articles published up to 05 May 2016. We found that outbreaks rarely occur where only Aedes albopictus is present. The main similarities between countries uncovered by our review are the proximity to dengue-endemic countries, the presence of a competent mosquito vector, a largely nonimmune population, and a lack of citizens’ engagement in control of mosquito breeding. We identified important epidemiological and environmental issues including the increase of local transmission despite control efforts, population growth, difficulty locating larval sites, and increased human mobility from neighboring endemic countries. Budget cuts in health and lack of practical vaccines contribute to an increased risk. To be successful, dengue-control programs for high-income countries must consider the epidemiology of dengue in other countries and use this information to minimize virus importation, improve the control of the cryptic larval habitat, and engage the community in reducing vector breeding. Finally, the presence of a communicable disease center is critical for managing and reducing future disease risks. PMID:27643596

  13. Public Health Responses to and Challenges for the Control of Dengue Transmission in High-Income Countries: Four Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Ritchie, Scott A; Williams, Craig R; Faddy, Helen M; Harley, David

    2016-09-01

    Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar using specific keywords for articles published up to 05 May 2016. We found that outbreaks rarely occur where only Aedes albopictus is present. The main similarities between countries uncovered by our review are the proximity to dengue-endemic countries, the presence of a competent mosquito vector, a largely nonimmune population, and a lack of citizens' engagement in control of mosquito breeding. We identified important epidemiological and environmental issues including the increase of local transmission despite control efforts, population growth, difficulty locating larval sites, and increased human mobility from neighboring endemic countries. Budget cuts in health and lack of practical vaccines contribute to an increased risk. To be successful, dengue-control programs for high-income countries must consider the epidemiology of dengue in other countries and use this information to minimize virus importation, improve the control of the cryptic larval habitat, and engage the community in reducing vector breeding. Finally, the presence of a communicable disease center is critical for managing and reducing future disease risks.

  14. 论我国高收入者个税流失及治理%The Research on the Loss of Personal Income Tax of High-income Group and Its Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭礼明

    2014-01-01

    个人所得税具有税负公平功能,公平功能要求做到所得多者多纳税,所得少者少纳税,无所得者不纳税。我国高收入者个税存在一定程度的流失现象,个税的工薪税性质与多数国家个税的富人税性质有很大的差别,个人所得税税制模式、税制要素和个税征管方面均存在导致高收入者个税易于流失的问题,个税改革应该从这些方面加以完善。%Personal income tax has the function of tax-burden fairness, the function of fairness requires that the more income, the more tax, the less income, the less tax, and no tax without income. The tax loss of high-income group is serious in our country, The payroll tax nature of personal income tax is different from the rich tax nature of personal income tax in most countries, the issue of High earners tax loss exists in many aspects, such as models of tax system in personal income tax, elements of tax system and tax collection and administration, the reform of personal income tax should be improved from these aspects.

  15. Intro - High Performance Computing for 2015 HPC Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitsner, Tom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The recent Executive Order creating the National Strategic Computing Initiative (NSCI) recognizes the value of high performance computing for economic competitiveness and scientific discovery and commits to accelerate delivery of exascale computing. The HPC programs at Sandia –the NNSA ASC program and Sandia’s Institutional HPC Program– are focused on ensuring that Sandia has the resources necessary to deliver computation in the national interest.

  16. Antiretrovirals for low income countries: an analysis of the commercial viability of a highly competitive market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakeeto, Olive N; Elliott, Brian V

    2013-02-15

    The price of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in low income countries declined steadily in recent years. This raises concerns about the commercial viability of the market of ARVs in low income countries. Using 2 costing scenarios, we modeled the production cost of the most commonly used ARVs in low income countries in 2010 and 2012, and assessed whether, at the median price paid by low income countries, their manufacturers would still make profits. By interviews we consulted 11 generic manufacturers on the current state of the ARV market, and on what would be required to ensure their continued commitment to supply ARVs to low income countries. Using the lowest prices for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) quoted to WHO, and applying published assumptions about the production cost of ARVs, our baseline estimate was that Indian generic manufacturers would have made profits on only 1 out of 13 formulations of ARVs in both 2010 and 2012, and publicly owned manufacturers would have made profits on 5 and 3 out of 13 formulations in 2010 and 2012, respectively. We needed to assume a 20% and a 40% lower API cost for our model to predict that publicly owned and Indian manufacturers, respectively, would make profits on the sale of the majority of their ARVs. Between 2010 and 2012, we estimate that--across the ARV portfolio--the gross profit on sales of ARVs to low income countries decreased with between 6% and 7% of their sales price. Generic manufacturers consider that current prices are unsustainable. They suggested amendments to the tender procedures, simplified regulatory procedures, improved forecasting, and simplification of the ARV guidelines as critical improvements to maintain a viable ARV market. While recent price decreases indicate that there is still space for price reduction, our estimate that gross profit margin on sales decreased by 6 to 7% between 2010 and 2012 lends credibility to assertions by generic manufacturers that the ARV market in low income

  17. Antiretrovirals for low income countries: an analysis of the commercial viability of a highly competitive market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakakeeto Olive N

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The price of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs in low income countries declined steadily in recent years. This raises concerns about the commercial viability of the market of ARVs in low income countries. Methods Using 2 costing scenarios, we modeled the production cost of the most commonly used ARVs in low income countries in 2010 and 2012, and assessed whether, at the median price paid by low income countries, their manufacturers would still make profits. By interviews we consulted 11 generic manufacturers on the current state of the ARV market, and on what would be required to ensure their continued commitment to supply ARVs to low income countries. Results Using the lowest prices for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API quoted to WHO, and applying published assumptions about the production cost of ARVs, our baseline estimate was that Indian generic manufacturers would have made profits on only 1 out of 13 formulations of ARVs in both 2010 and 2012, and publicly owned manufacturers would have made profits on 5 and 3 out of 13 formulations in 2010 and 2012, respectively. We needed to assume a 20% and a 40% lower API cost for our model to predict that publicly owned and Indian manufacturers, respectively, would make profits on the sale of the majority of their ARVs. Between 2010 and 2012, we estimate that - across the ARV portfolio - the gross profit on sales of ARVs to low income countries decreased with between 6% and 7% of their sales price. Generic manufacturers consider that current prices are unsustainable. They suggested amendments to the tender procedures, simplified regulatory procedures, improved forecasting, and simplification of the ARV guidelines as critical improvements to maintain a viable ARV market. Conclusions While recent price decreases indicate that there is still space for price reduction, our estimate that gross profit margin on sales decreased by 6 to 7% between 2010 and 2012 lends credibility to

  18. Fifteen-year trends in the prevalence of barriers to healthy eating in a high-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestral, Carlos; Khalatbari-Soltani, Saman; Stringhini, Silvia; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2017-03-01

    Background: Despite increasing levels of education and income in the Swiss population over time and greater food diversity due to globalization, adherence to dietary guidelines has remained persistently low. This may be because of barriers to healthy eating hampering adherence, but whether these barriers have evolved in prevalence over time has never been assessed, to our knowledge.Objective: We assessed 15-y trends in the prevalence of self-reported barriers to healthy eating in Switzerland overall and according to sex, age, education, and income.Design: We used data from 4 national Swiss Health Surveys conducted between 1997 and 2012 (52,238 participants aged ≥18 y, 55% women), applying multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to assess trends in prevalence of 6 barriers to healthy eating (taste, price, daily habits, time, lack of willpower, and limited options).Results: The prevalence of 3 barriers exhibited an increasing trend until 2007, followed by a decrease in 2012 (from 44% in 1997 to 50% in 2007 and then to 44% in 2012 for taste, from 40% to 52% and then to 39% for price, and from 29% to 34% and then to 32% for time; quadratic P-trend trend trend trend Trends were similar for all barriers irrespective of sex, age, education, and income.Conclusion: Between 1997 and 2012, barriers to healthy eating remained highly prevalent (≥20%) in the Swiss population and evolved similarly irrespective of age, sex, education, and income. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Access to HIV/AIDS care: a systematic review of socio-cultural determinants in low and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gari, Sara; Doig-Acuña, Camilo; Smail, Tino; Malungo, Jacob R S; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Merten, Sonja

    2013-05-28

    The role of socio-cultural factors in influencing access to HIV/AIDS treatment, care and support is increasingly recognized by researchers, international donors and policy makers. Although many of them have been identified through qualitative studies, the evidence gathered by quantitative studies has not been systematically analysed. To fill this knowledge gap, we did a systematic review of quantitative studies comparing surveys done in high and low income countries to assess the extent to which socio-cultural determinants of access, identified through qualitative studies, have been addressed in epidemiological survey studies. Ten electronic databases were searched (Cinahl, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, IBSS, JSTOR, MedLine, Psyinfo, Psyindex and Cochrane). Two independent reviewers selected eligible publications based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize data comparing studies between low and high income countries. Thirty-four studies were included in the final review, 21 (62%) done in high income countries and 13 (38%) in low income countries. In low income settings, epidemiological research on access to HIV/AIDS services focused on socio-economic and health system factors while in high income countries the focus was on medical and psychosocial factors. These differences depict the perceived different barriers in the two regions. Common factors between the two regions were also found to affect HIV testing, including stigma, high risk sexual behaviours such as multiple sexual partners and not using condoms, and alcohol abuse. On the other hand, having experienced previous illness or other health conditions and good family communication was associated with adherence to ART uptake. Due to insufficient consistent data, a meta-analysis was only possible on adherence to treatment. This review offers evidence of the current challenges for interdisciplinary work in epidemiology and public health. Quantitative studies did not

  20. Rich-Poor Income Gap Hits 40-Year High As Poverty Rate Stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

    On September 26, 1990, the Census Bureau released its 1989 figures on poverty and income which showed that no significant progress was made in reducing poverty in 1989, and that gaps between rich and poor and between the wealthy and the middle class hit their widest points in more than 40 years. Although 1989 marked the seventh year of economic…

  1. Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

  2. Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of…

  3. International outsourcing of medical research by high-income countries: changes from 1995 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belforti, Raquel K; Wall, Michal Sarah; Lindenauer, Peter K; Pekow, Penelope S; Rothberg, Michael B

    2010-02-01

    Medical research outsourcing provides a financial benefit to those conducting research and financial incentives to the developing countries hosting the research. Little is known about how frequently outsourcing occurs or the type of research that is outsourced. To document changes in medical research outsourcing over a 10-year period, we conducted a cross-sectional comparison of 3 medical journals: Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine, and JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association in the last 6 months of 1995 and 2005. The main outcome measure was the 10-year change in proportion of studies including patients from low-income countries. We reviewed 598 articles. During the 10-year period, the proportion of first authors from low-income countries increased from 3% to 6% (P = 0.21), whereas studies with participants from low-income countries increased from 8% to 22% (P = Outsourcing of medical research seems to be increasing. Additional studies are required to know if subjects from low-income countries are being adequately protected.

  4. Iatrogenic Dysnatremias in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Grisaru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAcute gastroenteritis (AGE causing dehydration with or without dysnatremias is a common childhood health challenge. While it is accepted that oral rehydration therapy is preferred, clinical factors or parent and healthcare provider preferences may lead to intravenous rehydration (IVR. Isotonic solutions are increasingly recommended in most scenarios requiring IVR. Nevertheless, children with AGE, having ongoing losses of water and electrolytes, represent a unique population.ObjectivesTo evaluate the association between acquired dysnatremias and IVR in children with AGE.MethodsA systematic search of MEDLINE database was conducted through September 14, 2016. Observational studies and clinical trials conducted in high-income countries were included. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach was used to evaluate the overall quality of evidence for each outcome.Results603 papers were identified of which 6 were included (3 randomized controlled trials and 3 observational studies. Pooling of patient data was not possible due to significantly different interventions or exposures. Single studies results demonstrated that within 24 h, administration of isotonic saline was not associated with a significant decline in serum sodium while hypotonic solutions (0.2–0.45% saline were associated, in one study, with mean serum sodium declines from 1.3 mEq/L (139.2, SD 2.9–137.9, SD 2.5 in 133 young infants (aged 1–28 months, to 5.7 (SD 3.1 mEq/L in a subgroup of 18 older children (age mean 5.8, SD 2.7 years. Both isotonic and hypotonic saline were shown to be associated with improvement of baseline hyponatremia in different studies. Baseline hypernatremia was corrected within 4–24 h in 81/83 (99.6% children using hypotonic saline IVR.ConclusionThere is a paucity of publications assessing the risk for acquired dysnatremias associated with IVR in children with AGE. Current high-quality evidence

  5. Access to mental health services and psychotropic drug use in refugees and asylum seekers hosted in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, M; Turrini, G; Barbui, C

    2015-10-01

    In the populations of refugees and asylum seekers hosted in high-income countries, access to mental health care and psychotropic drugs, is a major challenge. A recent Swedish cross-sectional register study has explored this phenomenon in a national cohort of 43 403 young refugees and their families from Iraq, Iran, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Afghanistan. This register study found lower rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees, as compared with Swedish-born residents, with an increase in the use with duration of residence. In this commentary, the results of this survey are discussed in view of their global policy implications for high-income countries hosting populations of refugees and asylum seekers.

  6. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…

  7. CONSUMERS' RESISTANCE TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN HIGH INCOME COUNTRIES: THE ROLE OF INFORMATION IN AN UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Wallace E.; Rousu, Matthew C.; Shogren, Jason F.; Tegene, Abebayehu

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the market characteristics that push consumers in high income countries to resist GM foods, with an emphasis on negative information from environmental groups and third-party, verifiable information. For this study, unique data were collected from adult consumers in the United States who participated in laboratory auctions of three food types with randomly assigned labeling and information treatments. Using U.S. consumers is important because U.S. consumers are generally s...

  8. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic...

  9. Exploring the impact of a career development program on underrepresented minorities and low-income middle and high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder-Luchey, Keli Koran F.

    Initially, when academic outreach programs for low income students and underrepresented minorities were created, the idea was to inspire and motivate students to prepare for a college education in very general terms. However, the new trend in outreach programming is to concentrate on career goals, as opposed to programs that simply provide basic information and enrichment. The focus is to create curriculum-based outreach programs, addressing the specific academic and career needs of low income and underrepresented minorities. This study explored the impact of participation in the University at Buffalo's Science and Technology Enrichment Program (STEP), a comprehensive career exploration and academic enrichment program for low income and underrepresented minority middle and high school students, on the level of education and career attainment---particularly in the areas in which they have historically been underrepresented---science, technology, health and the health-related professions. A survey questionnaire was mailed to former STEP high school graduates to measure the impact of STEP program services on the pursuit and attainment of postsecondary education as well as career attainment, particularly in the fields of Science and Technology. A control group, consisting of non-STEP high school graduates, was established and used to compare to the STEP program outcomes. Results indicate that former STEP participants were more likely to attend and graduate from college, along with be employed in a Science or Science related occupation. Results of additional findings, along with policy implications and suggestions for future research and practice are discussed.

  10. High income, employment, postgraduate education, and marriage. A suicidal cocktail among psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies dating back over 100 years have shown that the risk of suicide in the general population is associated with low income, unemployment, educational underachievement, and singleness. However, little is known about the association between suicide risk and these factors in psychiatric...... patients. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between suicide risk, socioeconomic position, and marital status in psychiatric patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Population-based cohort study of all first-ever psychiatric patients aged 16 to 65 years admitted from 1981 to 1998, with administrative......% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.02) in the third lowest to 0.83 (95% CI, 0.73-0.93) in the second lowest and to 0.68 (95% CI, 0.61-0.76) in the lowest income group. Compared with the fully employed, the HR for unemployed patients was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.77-0.93); for social benefits' recipients, 0.58 (95% CI, 0...

  11. High income, employment, postgraduate education, and marriage. A suicidal cocktail among psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben

    2007-01-01

    .48-0.70); and for disability or age pensioners, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.55-0.71). Compared with postgraduate education, HRs (95% CIs) associated with a bachelor's degree, vocational school, or primary school education were 0.82 (0.67-1.02), 0.66 (0.55-0.80), and 0.54 (0.44-0.65), respectively. The HRs (95% CIs) for widowed, divorced......CONTEXT: Studies dating back over 100 years have shown that the risk of suicide in the general population is associated with low income, unemployment, educational underachievement, and singleness. However, little is known about the association between suicide risk and these factors in psychiatric...... longitudinal data on income, labor market affiliation, educational attainment, and marital and cohabitational status (96,369 patients, 256,619 admissions, and 2727 suicides). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide risks after hospital discharge were depicted using Kaplan-Meier product-limit methods. Hazard ratios (HRs...

  12. Providing High Quality Care in Low-Income Areas of Maryland: Definitions, Resources, and Challenges from Parents and Child Care Providers' Perspectives. Publication #2012-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole; Simkin, Shana; Wessel, Julia; Rodrigues, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Early life experiences are critical to a child's development. Research has shown that, for a variety of reasons, children born into low-income families are at a disadvantage when compared to their higher-income peers. Fortunately, research has also shown a positive association between high quality child care and the academic and social-emotional…

  13. Being the stranger: Comparing study abroad experiences of nursing students in low and high income countries through hermeneutical phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Hendrika J; de Vries-Erich, Joy M; Lund, Karen

    2016-10-01

    To understand the experience of American nursing students who complete a study abroad trip to a low-income country, Bangladesh, versus a high-income country, the Netherlands in the development of cultural consciousness. Hermeneutic (interpretive) phenomenology was used to explore the journals of 44 students' experiences and reflections. The comprehensive understanding of the naïve and structural analysis revealed that, no matter where these students travelled, they increased their cultural consciousness. We need to revise curricula to create 'change from the familiar' experiences for all students (many cannot afford study abroad) to move students to cultural consciousness on their journey to cultural competency that may improve client health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mobile health use in low- and high-income countries: an overview of the peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Armstrong, Matthew J

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of mobile phone technology has introduced new possibilities to the field of medicine. Combining technological advances with medical expertise has led to the use of mobile phones in all healthcare areas including diagnostics, telemedicine, research, reference libraries and interventions. This article provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature, published between 1 August 2006 and 1 August 2011, for the application of mobile/cell phones (from basic text-messaging systems to smartphones) in healthcare in both resource-poor and high-income countries. Smartphone use is paving the way in high-income countries, while basic text-messaging systems of standard mobile phones are proving to be of value in low- and middle-income countries. Ranging from infection outbreak reporting, anti-HIV therapy adherence to gait analysis, resuscitation training and radiological imaging, the current uses and future possibilities of mobile phone technology in healthcare are endless. Multiple mobile phone based applications are available for healthcare workers and healthcare consumers; however, the absolute majority lack an evidence base. Therefore, more rigorous research is required to ensure that healthcare is not flooded with non-evidence based applications and is maximized for patient benefit.

  15. Tobacco control environment: cross-sectional survey of policy implementation, social unacceptability, knowledge of tobacco health harms and relationship to quit ratio in 17 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara K; Corsi, Daniel J; Gilmore, Anna B; Kruger, Annamarie; Igumbor, Ehimario; Chifamba, Jephat; Yang, Wang; Wei, Li; Iqbal, Romaina; Mony, Prem; Gupta, Rajeev; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Mohan, V; Kumar, Rajesh; Rahman, Omar; Yusoff, Khalid; Ismail, Noorhassim; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Altuntas, Yuksel; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Yusufali, AfzalHussein; Dagenais, Gilles; Lear, Scott; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Lanas, Fernando; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Teo, Koon; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-03-31

    This study examines in a cross-sectional study 'the tobacco control environment' including tobacco policy implementation and its association with quit ratio. 545 communities from 17 high-income, upper-middle, low-middle and low-income countries (HIC, UMIC, LMIC, LIC) involved in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH) study from 2009 to 2014. Community audits and surveys of adults (35-70 years, n=12 953). Summary scores of tobacco policy implementation (cost and availability of cigarettes, tobacco advertising, antismoking signage), social unacceptability and knowledge were associated with quit ratios (former vs ever smokers) using multilevel logistic regression models. Average tobacco control policy score was greater in communities from HIC. Overall 56.1% (306/545) of communities had >2 outlets selling cigarettes and in 28.6% (154/539) there was access to cheap cigarettes (80% of participants disapproved youth smoking (95.7% HIC, 57.6% UMIC, 76.3% LMIC and 58.9% LIC). The average knowledge score was >80% in 48.4% of communities (94.6% HIC, 53.6% UMIC, 31.8% LMIC and 35.1% LIC). Summary scores of policy implementation, social unacceptability and knowledge were positively and significantly associated with quit ratio and the associations varied by gender, for example, communities in the highest quintile of the combined scores had 5.0 times the quit ratio in men (Odds ratio (OR) 5·0, 95% CI 3.4 to 7.4) and 4.1 times the quit ratio in women (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4 to 7.1). This study suggests that more focus is needed on ensuring the tobacco control policy is actually implemented, particularly in LMICs. The gender-related differences in associations of policy, social unacceptability and knowledge suggest that different strategies to promoting quitting may need to be implemented in men compared to women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. High coverage needle/syringe programs for people who inject drugs in low and middle income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Jarlais Don C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons who inject drugs (PWID are at an elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. In many high-income countries, needle and syringe exchange programs (NSP have been associated with reductions in blood-borne infections. However, we do not have a good understanding of the effectiveness of NSP in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. Methods A systematic literature review based on PRISMA guidelines was utilized to collect primary study data on coverage of NSP programs and changes in HIV and HCV infection over time among PWID in low-and middle-income and transitional countries (LMICs. Included studies reported laboratory measures of either HIV or HCV and at least 50% coverage of the local injecting population (through direct use or through secondary exchange. We also included national reports on newly reported HIV cases for countries that had national level data for PWID in conjunction with NSP scale-up and implementation. Results Studies of 11 NSPs with high-coverage from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Estonia, Iran, Lithuania, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam were included in the review. In five studies HIV prevalence decreased (range −3% to −15% and in three studies HCV prevalence decreased (range −4.2% to −10.2%. In two studies HIV prevalence increased (range +5.6% to +14.8%. HCV incidence remained stable in one study. Of the four national reports of newly reported HIV cases, three reported decreases during NSP expansion, ranging from −30% to −93.3%, while one national report documented an increase in cases (+37.6%. Estimated incidence among new injectors decreased in three studies, with reductions ranging from −11/100 person years at risk to −16/100 person years at risk. Conclusions While not fully consistent, the data generally support the effectiveness of NSP in reducing HIV and HCV infection in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. If

  17. 基于高收入群体的税收政策反思%Reflection of the Tax Policy to the High-income Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    经庭如; 崔志坤

    2011-01-01

    中国的某些税收政策没有起到调节收入分配、缩小收入差距的作用,对形成高收入群体的收入来源和财产,往往采取轻税政策,广大低收入者由于在收入、财产等方面的匮乏使其无法享受到税收优惠的好处。中国应改变目前的税收政策取向,加大对高收入群体的征税力度,发挥税收政策调节功能,实现收入分配公平。%Some tax policies of China have defects in adjusting the income distribution and narrowing the income gap.To the income and property the high income group often takes light tax policy,but to the low-income people,due to the lack of income and property,making them unable to enjoy the preferential tax benefits.China should change tax policy orientation that increase taxes on high-income group to achieve tax policy adjustment function and achieve fair income distribution.

  18. Determinants of late and/or inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Jansen, Danielle Emc; Baarveld, Frank; van der Schans, Cees P; Schellevis, François G; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal healthcare is likely to prevent adverse outcomes, but an adequate review of utilization and its determinants is lacking. To review systematically the evidence for the determinants of prenatal healthcare utilization in high-income countries. Search of publications in EMBASE, CINAHL and PubMed (1992-2010). Studies that attempted to study determinants of prenatal healthcare utilization in high-income countries were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the studies. Only high-quality studies were included. Data on inadequate use (i.e. late initiation, low-use, inadequate use or non-use) were categorized as individual, contextual and health behaviour-related determinants. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. Ultimately eight high-quality studies were included. Low maternal age, low educational level, non-marital status, ethnic minority, planned pattern of prenatal care, hospital type, unplanned place of delivery, uninsured status, high parity, no previous premature birth and late recognition of pregnancy were identified as individual determinants of inadequate use. Contextual determinants included living in distressed neighbourhoods. Living in neighbourhoods with higher rates of unemployment, single parent families, medium-average family incomes, low-educated residents, and women reporting Canadian Aboriginal status were associated with inadequate use or entering care after 6 months. Regarding health behaviour, inadequate use was more likely among women who smoked during pregnancy. Evidence for determinants of prenatal care utilization is limited. More studies are needed to ensure adequate prenatal care for pregnant women at risk.

  19. Trends in Walking and Cycling Safety: Recent Evidence From High-Income Countries, With a Focus on the United States and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucher, John

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To examine changes in pedestrian and cyclist fatalities per capita (1990–2014) and per kilometer (2000–2010) in selected high-income countries, and in fatalities and serious injuries per kilometer by age in the United States and Germany (2001–2009). Methods. We used Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development data to estimate 5-year annual averages of per-capita fatalities relative to the 1990–1994 average. To control for exposure, we divided fatalities and serious injuries by kilometers of walking or cycling per year for countries with comparable data from national household travel surveys. Results. Most countries have reduced pedestrian and cyclist fatality rates per capita and per kilometer. The serious injuries data show smaller declines or even increases in rates per kilometer. There are large differences by age group in fatality and serious injury rates per kilometer, with seniors having the highest rates. The United States has much higher fatality and serious injury rates per kilometer than the other countries examined, and has made the least progress in reducing per-capita fatality rates. Conclusions. The United States must greatly improve walking and cycling conditions. All countries should focus safety programs on seniors and children. PMID:27997241

  20. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloia Christopher Robert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood.

  1. A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income New York City supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

    2014-05-07

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase.

  2. Trends in annual minimum exposed snow and ice cover in High Mountain Asia from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittger, Karl; Brodzik, Mary J.; Painter, Thomas H.; Racoviteanu, Adina; Armstrong, Richard; Dozier, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    Though a relatively short record on climatological scales, data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from 2000-2014 can be used to evaluate changes in the cryosphere and provide a robust baseline for future observations from space. We use the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm, based on spectral mixture analysis, to estimate daily fractional snow and ice cover and the MODICE Persistent Ice (MODICE) algorithm to estimate the annual minimum snow and ice fraction (fSCA) for each year from 2000 to 2014 in High Mountain Asia. We have found that MODSCAG performs better than other algorithms, such as the Normalized Difference Index (NDSI), at detecting snow. We use MODICE because it minimizes false positives (compared to maximum extents), for example, when bright soils or clouds are incorrectly classified as snow, a common problem with optical satellite snow mapping. We analyze changes in area using the annual MODICE maps of minimum snow and ice cover for over 15,000 individual glaciers as defined by the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) Version 5, focusing on the Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Upper Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River basins. For each glacier with an area of at least 1 km2 as defined by RGI, we sum the total minimum snow and ice covered area for each year from 2000 to 2014 and estimate the trends in area loss or gain. We find the largest loss in annual minimum snow and ice extent for 2000-2014 in the Brahmaputra and Ganges with 57% and 40%, respectively, of analyzed glaciers with significant losses (p-valueELA) for each year from 2000-2014. We test this new algorithm in the Upper Indus basin and produce annual estimates of ELA. For the Upper Indus basin we are deriving annual ELAs that range from 5350 m to 5450 m which is slightly higher than published values of 5200 m for this region.

  3. The effect of family policies and public health initiatives on breastfeeding initiation among 18 high-income countries: a qualitative comparative analysis research design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amanda Marie Lubold

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to examine the effects of macro-level factors - welfare state policies and public health initiatives - on breastfeeding initiation among eighteen high-income countries...

  4. Socioeconomic Determinants of Sodium Intake in Adult Populations of High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestral, Carlos; Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Petrovic, Dusan; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    A poorer quality diet among individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) may partly explain the higher burden of noncommunicable disease among disadvantaged populations. Because there is a link between sodium intake and noncommunicable diseases, we systematically reviewed the current evidence on the social patterning of sodium intake. To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the evidence on the association between SES and sodium intake in healthy adult populations of high-income countries. We followed the PRISMA-Equity guidelines in conducting a literature search that ended June 3, 2016, via MEDLINE, Embase, and SciELO. We imposed no publication date limits. We considered only peer-reviewed articles meeting the following inclusion criteria: (1) reported a measure of sodium intake disaggregated by at least 1 measure of SES (education, income, occupation, or any other socioeconomic indicator); (2) were written in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, or Italian; and (3) were conducted in a high-income country as defined by the World Bank (i.e., per capita national gross income was higher than $12 746). We also excluded articles that exclusively sampled low-SES individuals, pregnant women, children, adolescents, elderly participants, or diseased patients or that reported results from a trial or intervention. As summary measures, we extracted (1) the direction (positive, negative, or neutral) and the magnitude of the association between each SES indicator and sodium intake, and (2) the estimated sodium intake according to SES level. When possible and if previously unreported, we calculated the magnitude of the relative difference in sodium intake between high- and low-SES groups for each article, applying this formula: ([value for high-SES group - value for low-SES group]/[value for high-SES group]) × 100. We considered an association significant if reported as such, and we set an arbitrary 10% relative difference as clinically relevant and

  5. Diffusion of Internet Banking amongst educated consumers in a high income non-OECD country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Awamleh,

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the internet banking channels and service preferences of educated banking consumers in the UAE and examines the factors influencing the intention to adopt or to continue the use of internet banking among both users and non users of internet banking.It is shown that although the banking sector in the UAE is a regional leader, internet banking in the UAE is yet to be properly utilized as a real added value tool to improve customer relationship and to attain cost advantages. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was used to identify factors influencing the intention to adopt and continued use of internet banking customers. Data was collected from internet banking users and potential users in the United Arab Emirates and factor analyses and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the data. Relative usefulness is introduced as one of the factors and is defined as the degree to which a new technology is better than exiting ones. There is a significant difference between users and non-users on six of the seven factors identified. Further, it was revealed that relative usefulness, perceived risk, computer efficacy and image had a significant impact on continued usage of internet banking for IB Users, while relative usefulness and result demonstrability were the only ones significant for Non-users of internet banking. The effects of age, gender, income, and e-commerce users also explored. Result demonstrability is significant for all categories of non-users except for those with income below AED 7,000. Implications of results were discussed, and future research directions outlined.

  6. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  7. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  8. Income in the United States: 2002. Current Population Reports. Consumer Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNavas-Walt, Carmen; Cleveland, Robert W.; Webster, Bruce H., Jr.

    Using data from the 2003 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement, this study found that real median household money income declined by 1.1 percent between 2001-2002 to $42,409. Real median household income was unchanged between 2001-2002 for three of four alternative income definitions. The fourth, real median household…

  9. Effects of the Global Financial Crisis on Health in High-Income Oecd Countries: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolos, Marina; Heino, Pia; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence documents how economic crises impact aspects of health across countries and over time. We performed a systematic narrative review of the health effects of the latest economic crisis based on studies of high-income countries. Papers published between January 2009 and July 2015 were selected based on review of titles and abstracts, followed by a full text review conducted by two independent reviewers. Ultimately, 122 studies were selected and their findings summarized. The review finds that the 2008 financial crisis had negative effects on mental health, including suicide, and to a varying extent on some non-communicable and communicable diseases and access to care. Although unhealthy behaviors such as hazardous drinking and tobacco use appeared to decline during the crisis, there have been increases in some groups, typically those already at greatest risk. The health impact was greatest in countries that suffered the largest economic impact of the crisis or prolonged austerity. The Great Recessions in high-income countries have had mixed impacts on health. They tend to be worse when economic impacts are more severe, prolonged austerity measures are implemented, and there are pre-existing problems of substance use among vulnerable groups. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Elimination of perinatal HIV infection in the United States and other high-income countries: achievements and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesheim, Steven; Harris, Lauren Fitz; Lampe, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe progress and challenges to elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission (EMCT) in high-income countries. Recent findings Despite ongoing declines in the number of perinatally HIV-infected infants in most high-income countries, the number of HIV-infected women delivering may be increasing, accompanied by apparent changes in this population, including higher percentages with antiretroviral “pre-treatment” (with possible antiretroviral resistance), other co-infections, mental health diagnoses, and recent immigration. The impact of antiretroviral resistance on mother-to-child transmission is yet to be defined. A substantial minority of infant HIV acquisitions occur in the context of maternal acute HIV infection during pregnancy. Some infant infections occur after pregnancy, e.g., by premastication of food, or breastfeeding (perhaps by an uninfected woman who acquires HIV while breastfeeding). Summary The issues of EMCT are largely those of providing proper care for HIV-infected women. Use of combination antiretroviral therapy by increasing proportions of the infected population may function as a structural intervention important to achieving this goal. Providers and public health systems need to be alert for HIV-serodiscordant couples in which the woman is uninfected and for changes in the population of HIV-infected pregnant women. Accurate data about HIV-exposed pregnancies is vital to monitor progress toward EMCT. PMID:23925002

  11. Micro-phytoplankton community structure in the coastal upwelling zone off Concepción (central Chile): Annual and inter-annual fluctuations in a highly dynamic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabalón, V.; Morales, C. E.; González, H. E.; Menschel, E.; Schneider, W.; Hormazabal, S.; Valencia, L.; Escribano, R.

    2016-12-01

    An intensification of upwelling-favorable winds in recent decades has been detected in some of the main eastern boundary current systems, especially at higher latitudes, but the response of coastal phytoplankton communities in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) remains unknown. At higher latitudes in the HCS (35-40°S), strong seasonality in wind-driven upwelling during spring-summer coincides with an annual increase in coastal chlorophyll-a and primary production, and a dominance of micro-phytoplankton. In order to understand the effects of potential upwelling intensification on the micro-phytoplankton community in this region, annual and inter-annual variability in its structure (total and taxa-specific abundance and biomass) and its association with oceanographic fluctuations were analyzed using in situ time series data (2002-2009) from a shelf station off Concepcion (36.5°S). At the annual scale, total mean abundance and biomass, attributed to a few dominant diatom taxa, were at least one order of magnitude greater during spring-summer than autumn-winter, in association with changes in upwelling and surface salinity and temperature, whereas macro-nutrient concentrations remained relatively high all the year. At the inter-annual scale, total abundance and biomass decreased during the upwelling season of the 2006-2009 period compared with the 2002-2006 period, notably due to lower abundances of Skeletonema and Leptocylindrus, but the relative dominance of a few taxa was maintained. The 2006-2009 period was characterized by higher upwelling intensity, colder and higher salinity waters, and changes in nutrient concentrations and ratios compared with the first period. The inter-annual changes in the micro-phytoplankton community were mostly associated with changes in surface salinity and temperature (changes in upwelling intensity) but also with changes in Si/N and N/P, which relate to other land-derived processes.

  12. Identidad social de un grupo de altos ingresos económicos. Social identity of a group of high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dujarric Bermúdez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación indaga la existencia de una relación entre los ingresos económicos y la identidad, para lo cual se trabajó con un grupo de altos ingresos de la provincia de La Habana. Desde el Enfoque de Identidades Sociales se intenta comprender la configuración subjetiva de este grupo, así como su proyección ante la situación actual del país. Utilizamos un enfoque mixto, procesando la información a partir del Statistical Packetfor Social Sciencies (SPSS y el análisis de contenido. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian que los ingresos modelan una identidad social y constituyen un referente sobre cómo se está moviendo la subjetividad de este grupo social, así como de su proyección ante la situación actual del país. The research investigates the existence of a relationship between economic income and social identity, for which we worked with a group of high incomes in the province of Havana. From the Social Identity Perspective we try to understand the subjectivity of this group and its projection to the current situation. We worked with a mixed methodology and processed the information using the Statistical Packet for Social Sciencies (SPSS and the content analysis. The results show that incomes shape an identity and give some hints about the movement ofthis group social subjectivity, in this period of reforms.

  13. Welfare state regimes, gender, and depression: a multilevel analysis of middle and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-28

    Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10-0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26-0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86-3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health.

  14. Income and Employment in the United States, 1988 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays 1988 estimates for total personal income, per capita personal income, annual number of full-time and part-time jobs, average wage per job in...

  15. Income and Employment in the United States, 1982 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays 1982 estimates for total personal income, per capita personal income, annual number of full-time and part-time jobs, average wage per job in...

  16. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (pfast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood. PMID:23289746

  17. Financial stress, parent functioning and adolescent problem behavior: an actor-partner interdependence approach to family stress processes in low-, middle-, and high-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen

    2014-10-01

    The family stress model proposes that financial stress experienced by parents is associated with problem behavior in adolescents. The present study applied an actor-partner interdependence approach to the family stress model and focused on low-, middle-, and high-income families to broaden our understanding of the pathways by which the financial stress of mothers and fathers are related to adolescent outcomes. The study uses dyadic data (N = 798 heterosexual couples) from the Relationship between Mothers, Fathers and Children study in which two-parent families with an adolescent between 11 and 17 years of age participated. Path-analytic results indicated that in each of the families the association between parents' financial stress and problem behavior in adolescents is mediated through parents' depressive symptoms, interparental conflict, and positive parenting. Family stress processes also appear to operate in different ways for low-, middle-, and high-income families. In addition to a higher absolute level of financial stress in low-income families, financial stress experienced by mothers and fathers in these families had significant direct and indirect effects on problem behavior in adolescents, while in middle- and high-income families only significant indirect effects were found. The financial stress of a low-income mother also had a more detrimental impact on her level of depressive feelings than it had on mothers in middle-income families. Furthermore, the study revealed gender differences in the pathways of mothers and fathers. Implications for research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed.

  18. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  19. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Muntaner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.05–0.27 and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58 regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category, the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34 and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53 and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63 and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49 and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15 regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health.

  20. High Throughput Plasmid Sequencing with Illumina and CLC Bio (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athavale, Ajay [Monsanto

    2012-06-01

    Ajay Athavale (Monsanto) presents "High Throughput Plasmid Sequencing with Illumina and CLC Bio" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  1. The Economics of Education: Public Benefits of High-Quality Preschool Education for Low-Income Children. Building Communities for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Jerrold; MacGregor, Theo

    Noting that high-quality preschool increases the ability of low-income children to profit from elementary and secondary education, thereby increasing their high school graduation rate and generating economic and other returns for taxpayers, this report articulates and analyzes the economic benefits of providing a high-quality preschool education…

  2. Household expenditures on dietary supplements sold for weight loss, muscle building, and sexual function: Disproportionate burden by gender and income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bryn Austin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplements sold for weight loss (WL, muscle building (MB, and sexual function (SF are not medically recommended. They have been shown to be ineffective in many cases and pose serious health risks to consumers due to adulteration with banned substances, prescription pharmaceuticals, and other dangerous chemicals. Yet no prior research has investigated how these products may disproportionately burden individuals and families by gender and socioeconomic position across households. We investigated household (HH cost burden of dietary supplements sold for WL, MB, and SF in a cross-sectional study using data from 60,538 U.S. households (HH in 2012 Nielsen/IRi National Consumer Panel, calculating annual HH expenditures on WL, MB, and SF supplements and expenditures as proportions of total annual HH income. We examined sociodemographic patterns in HH expenditures using Wald tests of mean differences across subgroups. Among HH with any expenditures on WL, MB, or SF supplements, annual HH first and ninth expenditure deciles were, respectively: WL $5.99, $145.36; MB $6.99, $141.93; and SF $4.98, $88.52. Conditional on any purchases of the products, female-male-headed HH spent more on WL supplements and male-headed HH spend more on MB and SF supplements compared to other HH types (p-values < 0.01. High-income ($30,000 < annual income < $100,000, compared to low-income (annual income < $30,000 HH, spent more on all three supplements types (p-values < 0.01; however, proportional to income, low-income HH spent 2–4 times more than high-income HH on WL and MB supplements (p-values < 0.01. Dietary supplements sold for WL, MB, and SF disproportionately burden HH by income and gender.

  3. Conceptualising the prevention of adverse obstetric outcomes among immigrants using the 'three delays' framework in a high-income context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Pauline; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2012-12-01

    Women from high-mortality settings in sub-Saharan Africa can remain at risk for adverse maternal outcomes even after migrating to low-mortality settings. To conceptualise underlying socio-cultural factors, we assume a 'maternal migration effect' as pre-migration influences on pregnant women's post-migration care-seeking and consistent utilisation of available care. We apply the 'three delays' framework, developed for low-income African contexts, to a high-income western scenario, and aim to identify delay-causing influences on the pathway to optimal facility treatment. We also compare factors influencing the expectations of women and maternal health providers during care encounters. In 2005-2006, we interviewed 54 immigrant African women and 62 maternal providers in greater London, United Kingdom. Participants were recruited by snowball and purposive sampling. We used a hermeneutic, naturalistic study design to create a qualitative proxy for medical anthropology. Data were triangulated to the framework and to the national health system maternity care guidelines. This maintained the original three phases of (1) care-seeking, (2) facility accessibility, and (3) receipt of optimal care, but modified the framework for a migration context. Delays to reciprocal care encounters in Phase 3 result from Phase 1 factors of 'broken trust, which can be mutually held between women and providers. An additional factor is women's 'negative responses to future care', which include rationalisations made during non-emergency situations about future late-booking, low-adherence or refusal of treatment. The greatest potential for delay was found during the care encounter, suggesting that perceived Phase 1 factors have stronger influence on Phase 3 than in the original framework. Phase 2 'language discordance' can lead to a 'reliance on interpreter service', which can cause delays in Phase 3, when 'reciprocal incongruent language ability' is worsened by suboptimal interpreter systems

  4. Poverty and the risk of leukemia and cancer in the central nervous system in children: A cohort study in a high-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Risco Kollerud, Ruby; Blaasaas, Karl Gerhard; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2015-11-01

    The association between childhood cancer and socioeconomic status is inconclusive. Family income has seldom been included in large population-based studies, and the specific contributions of it remain unknown. A total of 712,674 children born between 1967 and 2009 in the Oslo region were included. Of these, 864 were diagnosed with leukemia or cancer in the central nervous system before the age of 15 years. The association between poverty and childhood leukemia or brain cancer was analyzed using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. Family income was stratified according to poverty lines. Parents' educational level and several perinatal variables were also examined. Family poverty during the first 2 years of life was associated with lymphoid leukemia before the age of 15 years: odds ratio 1.72, 95% confidence interval 1.11-2.64. In the same age group we found a significant dose response, with a 21% increased risk of lymphoid leukemia with increasing poverty. The risk for intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumors in the whole study period was lower for children in the middle family income category. For astrocytomas there was a more than 70% increased risk in the medium income category when analyzing the two first years of life. The observed increase was reduced when all years each child contributed to the study were included. The risk of cancer in the central nervous system overall was 20% higher in the medium income category compared to the high-income category. Being born into a household of low family income the first 2 years of life was found to be a risk factor for development of lymphoid leukemia. For astrocytomas we observed an increased risk among children born into the medium income category throughout the first two years of life. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. Application of the Polytomous Logistic Regression Model to Study of Tax Compliance of High Income Personal%运用Logistic回归模型加强高收入者纳税遵从的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓琴; 李哲

    2012-01-01

    Strengthening tax collection and promoting tax compliance has been very important for all tax administrations.The authors will use the polytomous Logistic Model to analyze by using the sample,which is from the data of tax return of individual with annual income of 120000 yuan and above in one city,Jiangsu Province.The authors reject the missing values to make "grade five categories of owed tax" the response variable;and the independent variables are taxpayer's age,the taxable income amount,taxes,sex,occupation categories,industry categories,so that it is possible to carry out the Logistic regression analysis.The authors hope that such study can be useful to the tax officers in terms of administration on high income earners with annual income of 120000 yuan and above as well as improving compliance.%加强高收入者的个人所得税征管、促进纳税遵从一直是税务部门的重要工作之一。利用多元有序因变量Logistic回归模型,以江苏某市2010年度年所得12万元以上个人所得税纳税申报的数据为样本,以"应补税额"等级的五分类有序变量为因变量,以纳税申报表中纳税人的年龄、应纳税所得额、应纳税额、性别、职业大类、行业大类6个影响因素为自变量,进行多元有序因变量的Logistic回归分析,研究结果可为税务系统加强年所得12万元以上高收入者个人所得税的申报与征管、促进纳税遵从提供新的思路。

  6. Leaf anatomical and photosynthetic acclimation to cool temperature and high light in two winter versus two summer annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohu, Christopher M; Muller, Onno; Adams, William W; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Acclimation of foliar features to cool temperature and high light was characterized in winter (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Giant Nobel; Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold Col-0 and ecotypes from Sweden and Italy) versus summer (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Soraya; Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Italian Zucchini Romanesco) annuals. Significant relationships existed among leaf dry mass per area, photosynthesis, leaf thickness and palisade mesophyll thickness. While the acclimatory response of the summer annuals to cool temperature and/or high light levels was limited, the winter annuals increased the number of palisade cell layers, ranging from two layers under moderate light and warm temperature to between four and five layers under cool temperature and high light. A significant relationship was also found between palisade tissue thickness and either cross-sectional area or number of phloem cells (each normalized by vein density) in minor veins among all four species and growth regimes. The two winter annuals, but not the summer annuals, thus exhibited acclimatory adjustments of minor vein phloem to cool temperature and/or high light, with more numerous and larger phloem cells and a higher maximal photosynthesis rate. The upregulation of photosynthesis in winter annuals in response to low growth temperature may thus depend on not only (1) a greater volume of photosynthesizing palisade tissue but also (2) leaf veins containing additional phloem cells and presumably capable of exporting a greater volume of sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant.

  7. Tax Planning on One-time Annual Bonus under the New Individual Income Tax Law%个人所得税法修改后全年一次性奖金的纳税筹划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃庆寅; 韦坚

    2012-01-01

    The new individual income tax law has been put into force since September 1,2011.The tax method of one-time annual bonus is likely to generate non-reasonable tax burden,and lead to the unreasonable situation of tax increment exceeding the bonus increment.It is necessary to plan reasonably the amount and ways of bonus payment with the purpose of avoiding abnormal intervals of bonus amounts,and make a best combination scheme for salary and bonus.%修改后的新个人所得税法于2011年9月1日起施行。全年一次性奖金的计税办法容易导致税负不合理,出现税额的增量超过奖金增量的不合理现象。单位在发放奖金时,有必要合理地筹划奖金发放的数额和方式,避开奖金发放数额的异常区间,制定工资与奖金最佳组合方案。

  8. A Qualitative Analysis of Mexican-Immigrant Mothers' Involvement in a High-Performing Low-Income Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Isela

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how low-income first- and second-generation Mexican-immigrant mothers, the largest sub-group of the Latino population, support the academic success of their children who are in a low-income successful elementary school. The specific setting was Roosevelt Elementary located in North Texas. Participants were selected…

  9. Race, Poverty and SAT Scores: Modeling the Influences of Family Income on Black and White High School Students' SAT Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Roman, Ezekiel J.; Everson, Howard T.; McArdle, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational policy makers and test critics often assert that standardized test scores are strongly influenced by factors beyond individual differences in academic achievement such as family income and wealth. Unfortunately, few empirical studies consider the simultaneous and related influences of family income, parental education, and…

  10. Race, Poverty and SAT Scores: Modeling the Influences of Family Income on Black and White High School Students' SAT Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Roman, Ezekiel J.; Everson, Howard T.; McArdle, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational policy makers and test critics often assert that standardized test scores are strongly influenced by factors beyond individual differences in academic achievement such as family income and wealth. Unfortunately, few empirical studies consider the simultaneous and related influences of family income, parental education, and…

  11. Good Health to All: Reducing Health Inequalities among Children in High- and Low-Income Canadian Families

    OpenAIRE

    Claire de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Improving the health of children in low-income families, which is chronically worse than that of richer children, requires well-targeted policy reforms. This report identifies the policies that would, for families across different income groups, best address inequality in the health of children.

  12. Education, Employment and Income of High School Vocational Agriculture Graduates. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, R. M.; Seaver, S. K.

    In order to evaluate vocational agriculture education in 21 Connecticut high schools for the purposes of developing or updating curriculums, this study intended to: (1) determine employment rates of vocational agriculture graduates in agricultural areas, (2) determine post-secondary educational attainment levels, (3) determine variables affecting…

  13. School Connectedness for Students in Low-Income Urban High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; Jones, Amina; McLaughlin, Milbrey Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: In this article, we explore school connectedness for students in a high-poverty urban school. Current approaches to measuring connection conflate behavior and attitudinal measures of connection and rarely explore school connection in urban school settings. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: We examine…

  14. The Desire for (Danish) Quality in High and Low Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    . To fully explain the patterns, We introduce a model in which the price-sales correlation can be interpreted as the market's desire for high quality goods over low cost substitutes. We discover an inverted U shaped relation between a country's desire for quality and its per capita GDP, which we term...

  15. ACT Scores of Incoming Freshmen to New Mexico State University by High School Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edington, Everett D.

    The American College Testing (ACT) scores of New Mexico public high school graduates who applied for admission to New Mexico State University in 1981 were analyzed to determine the relationship between ACT scores and school size. The schools were divided into 6 categories according to enrollment: less than 100 students (15 applicants), 100-199…

  16. Longing for the good life: understanding emigration from a high-income country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2007-01-01

    The outline of this article is as follows. First, we provide information on trends in emigration from highly developed countries. We review salient aspects of Dutch emigration history to provide a broader context for the extraordinary nature of today’s upsurge in emigration. We describe the theoreti

  17. [High Energy Physics: Research in high energy physics]. Annual report, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barish, B C

    1982-12-31

    This report discusses high energy physics research on: Quantum chromodynamics; neutrinos; multiparticle spectrometers; inclusive scattering; Mark III detector; and cascade decays of phi resonances. (LSP)

  18. Highly predictable photosynthetic production in natural macroalgal communities from incoming and absorbed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Anne Lise; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Binzer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    (canopy absorptance, species number and thallus metabolism). Detached thalli of dominant species performed optimally at different times of the year, but showed no general seasonal changes in photosynthetic features. Production capacity of communities at high light varied only 1.8-fold over the year...... and was unrelated to incident irradiance, temperature and mean thallus photosynthesis, while community absorptance was a highly significant predictor. Actual rates of community photosynthesis were closely related to incident and absorbed irradiance alone. Community absorptance in turn was correlated to canopy...... metabolically active, and (3) maximum possible absorptance at 100% constrains the total photosynthesis of all species. Our results imply that the photosynthetic production of macroalgal communities is more predictable than their complex and dynamic nature suggest and that predictions are possible over wide...

  19. The impact of socioeconomic status on foodborne illness in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K L; Leon, J S; Rebolledo, P A; Scallan, E

    2015-09-01

    Foodborne illness is a major cause of morbidity and loss of productivity in developed nations. Although low socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with negative health outcomes, its impact on foodborne illness is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to examine the association between SES and laboratory-confirmed illness caused by eight important foodborne pathogens. We completed this systematic review using PubMed for all papers published between 1 January 1980 and 1 January 2013 that measured the association between foodborne illness and SES in highly developed countries and identified 16 studies covering four pathogens. The effect of SES varied across pathogens: the majority of identified studies for Campylobacter, salmonellosis, and E. coli infection showed an association between high SES and illness. The single study of listeriosis showed illness was associated with low SES. A reporting bias by SES could not be excluded. SES should be considered when targeting consumer-level public health interventions for foodborne pathogens.

  20. High annual risk of tuberculosis infection among nursing students in South India: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devasahayam J Christopher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nurses in developing countries are frequently exposed to infectious tuberculosis (TB patients, and have a high prevalence of TB infection. To estimate the incidence of new TB infection, we recruited a cohort of young nursing trainees at the Christian Medical College in Southern India. Annual tuberculin skin testing (TST was conducted to assess the annual risk of TB infection (ARTI in this cohort. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 436 nursing students completed baseline two-step TST testing in 2007 and 217 were TST-negative and therefore eligible for repeat testing in 2008. 181 subjects completed a detailed questionnaire on exposure to tuberculosis from workplace and social contacts. A physician verified the questionnaire and clinical log book and screened the subjects for symptoms of active TB. The majority of nursing students (96.7% were females, almost 84% were under 22 years of age, and 80% had BCG scars. Among those students who underwent repeat testing in 2008, 14 had TST conversions using the ATS/CDC/IDSA conversion definition of 10 mm or greater increase over baseline. The ARTI was therefore estimated as 7.8% (95%CI: 4.3-12.8%. This was significantly higher than the national average ARTI of 1.5%. Sputum collection and caring for pulmonary TB patients were both high risk activities that were associated with TST conversions in this young nursing cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a high ARTI among young nursing trainees, substantially higher than that seen in the general Indian population. Indian healthcare providers and the Indian Revised National TB Control Programme will need to implement internationally recommended TB infection control interventions to protect its health care workforce.

  1. The construction of the training process highly skilled athletes in soccer and field hockey in the annual cycle of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyukevych V.M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study - to justify the theoretical and methodological principles and concepts of the training process of building highly skilled athletes in soccer and field hockey in the annual cycle of training. The results . Calculate the ratio of training loads of different orientation in the annual cycle of training. Means of producing football players in the annual training cycle is as follows: non-specific (general training exercise - 45.6%, specific - 54.4% (special training exercise - 4.1% subsidiary - 22, 7%, competitive - 27.6% . Means of producing players in the annual training cycle is as follows: non-specific (general training exercise - 49.0%, specific - 51.0% (special training - 2.3% subsidiary - 26.1%, competitive exercise - 22.0% .

  2. The effects of household income distribution on stroke prevalence and its risk factors of high blood pressure and smoking: a cross-sectional study in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla

    2017-03-01

    Stroke is a major chronic disease and a common cause of adult disability and mortality. Although there are many known risk factors for stroke, lower income is not one that is often discussed. To determine the unadjusted and adjusted association of income distribution on the prevalence of stroke in Saskatchewan, Canada. Information was collected from the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada for 2000-2008. In total, 178 variables were analysed for their association with stroke. Prior to statistical adjustment, stroke was seven times more common for lower income residents than higher income residents. After statistical adjustment, only four covariates were independently associated with stroke prevalence, including having high blood pressure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.12-3.24), having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.88-3.29), being a daily smoker (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.16-1.58) and being physically inactive (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.13-1.43). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.41-1.63). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with daily smoking prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.25-1.33). Knowledge of disparities in the prevalence, severity, disability and mortality of stroke is critically important to medical and public health professionals. Our study found that income distribution was strongly associated with stroke, its main disease intermediary - high blood pressure - and its main risk factor - smoking. As such, income is an important variable worthy of public debate as a modifiable risk factor for stroke.

  3. Environmental friendly high efficient light source. Plasma lamp. 2006 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courret, G.

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for 2006 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work being done on the development of a high-efficiency source of light based on the light emission of a plasma. The report presents a review of work done in 2006, including thermodynamics and assessment of the efficiency of the magnetron, tests with small bulbs, study of the standing wave ratio (microwave fluxes) and the development of a new coupling system to allow ignition in very small bulbs. Also, knowledge on the fillings of the bulb and induced effects of the modulator were gained. The development of a second generation of modulator to obtain higher efficiency at lower power is noted.

  4. Small area estimates reveal high cigarette smoking prevalence in low-income cities of Los Angeles county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Baldwin, Susie B; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret; Yu, Hongjian; Teutsch, Steven

    2012-06-01

    Los Angeles County has among the lowest smoking rates of large urban counties in the USA. Nevertheless, concerning disparities persist as high smoking prevalence is found among certain subgroups. We calculated adult smoking prevalence in the incorporated cities of Los Angeles County in order to identify cities with high smoking prevalence. The prevalence was estimated by a model-based small area estimation method with utilization of three data sources, including the 2007 Los Angeles County Health Survey, the 2000 Census, and the 2007 Los Angeles County Population Estimates and Projection System. Smoking prevalence varied considerably across cities, with a more than fourfold difference between the lowest (5.3%) and the highest prevalence (21.7%). Higher smoking prevalence was generally found in socioeconomically disadvantaged cities. The disparities identified here add another layer of data to our knowledge of the health inequities experienced by low-income urban communities and provide much sought data for local tobacco control. Our study also demonstrates the feasibility of providing credible local estimates of smoking prevalence using the model-based small area estimation method.

  5. The Desire for (Danish) Quality in High and Low Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    We estimate the correlation between firm prices and sales within a CN8 product-country-year market. We do this for every market to which at least 16 different Danish firms exported between 1999 and 2006. Approximately 60% of Danish exports are to markets in which the price is negatively correlate...... a Quality Kuznets Curve. This curve has a turning point around 10 000 Euros for Danish exports. The Quality Kuznets Curve appears both when looking across products and within products.......We estimate the correlation between firm prices and sales within a CN8 product-country-year market. We do this for every market to which at least 16 different Danish firms exported between 1999 and 2006. Approximately 60% of Danish exports are to markets in which the price is negatively correlated....... To fully explain the patterns, We introduce a model in which the price-sales correlation can be interpreted as the market's desire for high quality goods over low cost substitutes. We discover an inverted U shaped relation between a country's desire for quality and its per capita GDP, which we term...

  6. Use of benchmarking and public reporting for infection control in four high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, Thomas; Gastmeier, Petra; Holmes, Alison; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Shannon, Richard P; Pittet, Didier; Harbarth, Stephan

    2011-06-01

    Benchmarking of surveillance data for health-care-associated infection (HCAI) has been used for more than three decades to inform prevention strategies and improve patients' safety. In recent years, public reporting of HCAI indicators has been mandated in several countries because of an increasing demand for transparency, although many methodological issues surrounding benchmarking remain unresolved and are highly debated. In this Review, we describe developments in benchmarking and public reporting of HCAI indicators in England, France, Germany, and the USA. Although benchmarking networks in these countries are derived from a common model and use similar methods, approaches to public reporting have been more diverse. The USA and England have predominantly focused on reporting of infection rates, whereas France has put emphasis on process and structure indicators. In Germany, HCAI indicators of individual institutions are treated confidentially and are not disseminated publicly. Although evidence for a direct effect of public reporting of indicators alone on incidence of HCAIs is weak at present, it has been associated with substantial organisational change. An opportunity now exists to learn from the different strategies that have been adopted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Container productivity, daily survival rates and dispersal of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in a high income dengue epidemic neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro: presumed influence of differential urban structure on mosquito biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, Mariana Rocha; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; de Freitas, Rafael Maciel

    2009-01-01

    ... and, consequently, dengue transmission. Container productivity, probability of daily survival (PDS) and dispersal rates were estimated for mosquito populations in a high income neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro...

  8. High prevalence of arterial hypertension in a Brazilian Northeast population of low education and income level, and its association with obesity and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüy Lyra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension (AH in an adult population with a predominance of families with low education and income levels, in the hinterlands of Pernambuco, Brazil, and to analyze its association with other factors related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 2008/2009 was conducted with a sample of 198 subjects stratified by age, and representative of the urban adult population of the Canaã district of city of Triunfo, in the hinterlands of Pernambuco, Brazil. RESULTS: One hundred ninety eight individuals with average age of 57.7 years old (31 to 90 years-old, mainly women (65.6%, and with low income and education levels (81.3% with a monthly income of less than one minimum wage were evaluated. Among these, 127 (64.1% were identified as having AH, 54 (42.5% of whom had no prior diagnosis. From those who were previously diagnosed, only 31.3% had good blood pressure control. Higher prevalence was observed in those individuals with lower incomes, higher body mass indexes (BMI, and those with metabolic syndrome (MS. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrated that there was a high prevalence of AH in the urban, low education and income levels adult population of Triunfo, strongly associated with lower income levels, elevated BMI, and the presence of MS; and a high prevalence of bad blood pressure control among the previously diagnosed cases. These results indicate that more effective interventions for early detection and adequate control of this disease and its comorbidities are necessary.

  9. Cesarean section and the risk of emergency peripartum hysterectomy in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Cara Z; Thompson, Erika L; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Nembhard, Wendy N

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the incidence and mortality rates associated with emergency peripartum hysterectomy, factors that lead to uncontrolled hemorrhage and emergency peripartum hysterectomy, and to determine the relationship between cesarean section and risk of emergency peripartum hysterectomy. Studies published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012 were identified using PubMed, OVID and Web of Science databases. Studies were included if they reported incidence rates for emergency peripartum hysterectomy, factors that lead to hemorrhage and emergency peripartum hysterectomy, or the association of emergency peripartum hysterectomy with cesarean section in high-income countries. Four hundred and fifty-one studies were identified, and 52 were included. The incidence of emergency peripartum hysterectomy ranged from 0.20 to 5.09 per 1000 deliveries with a median incidence rate of 0.61 per 1000 deliveries. These rates have increased over time. Rates varied by region/country, specifically with the United States reporting higher rates than North American, Asian, Oceania, and European countries. The most common factor leading to emergency peripartum hysterectomy was placental abnormalities. Both cesarean section and prior cesarean section were strong risk factors for emergency peripartum hysterectomy with higher risks conferred for each additional cesarean section. The mean percentage of maternal deaths for EPH survivors was 3.0 %. Given the association of cesarean section with emergency peripartum hysterectomy, the increased risk of emergency peripartum hysterectomy should be factored into the decision of whether to proceed with cesarean delivery, particularly for women who desire more children.

  10. EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES' EXPERIENCES WITH STRESS: UNDERSTANDING VARIATIONS WITHIN A HIGH-RISK, LOW-INCOME SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Jason T; Vu, Jennifer A; Bargreen, Kaitlin N; Hallam, Rena A; Han, Myae

    2017-09-01

    The federal Early Head Start program provides a relevant context to examine families' experiences with stress since participants qualify on the basis of poverty and risk. Building on previous research that has shown variations in demographic and economic risks even among qualifying families, we examined possible variations in families' perceptions of stress. Family, parent, and child data were collected to measure stressors and risk across a variety of domains in families' everyday lives, primarily from self-report measures, but also including assay results from child cortisol samples. A cluster analysis was employed to examine potential differences among groups of Early Head Start families. Results showed that there were three distinct subgroups of families, with some families perceiving that they experienced very high levels of stress while others perceived much lower levels of stress despite also experiencing poverty and heightened risk. These findings have important implications in that they provide an initial step toward distinguishing differences in low-income families' experiences with stress, thereby informing interventions focused on promoting responsive caregiving as a possible mechanism to buffer the effects of family and social stressors on young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Inter-Seasonal and Annual Co-Variation of Smallholder Production Portfolios, Volumes and Incomes with Rainfall and Flood Levels in the Amazon Estuary: Implications for Building Livelihood Resilience to Increasing Variability of Hydro-Climatic Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, N. D.; Fernandes, K.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.; Brondizio, E. S.; Almeida, O.; Rivero, S.; Rabelo, F. R.; Dou, Y.; Deadman, P.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we investigate inter-seasonal and annual co-variations of rainfall and flood levels with Caboclo production portfolios, and proportions of it they sell and consume, in the Amazon Estuary from August 2012 to August 2014. Caboclos of the estuary maintain a diverse and flexible land-use portfolio, with a shift in dominant use from agriculture to agroforestry and forestry since WWII (Vogt et al., 2014). The current landscape is configured for acai, shrimp and fish production. In the last decade the frequency of wet seasons with anomalous flood levels and duration has increased primarily from changes in rainfall and discharge from upstream basins. Local rainfall, though with less influence on extreme estuarine flood levels, is reported to be more sporadic and intense in wet season and variable in both wet and dry seasons, for yet unknown reasons. The current production portfolio and its flexibility are felt to build resilience to these increases in hydro-climatic variability and extreme events. What is less understood, for time and costliness of daily measures at household levels, is how variations in flood and rainfall levels affect shifts in the current production portfolio of estuarine Caboclos, and the proportions of it they sell and consume. This is needed to identify what local hydro-climatic thresholds are extreme for current livelihoods, that is, that most adversely affect food security and income levels. It is also needed identify the large-scale forcings driving those extreme conditions to build forecasts for when they will occur. Here we present results of production, rainfall and flood data collected daily in households from both the North and South Channel of the Amazon estuary over last two years to identify how they co-vary, and robustness of current production portfolio under different hydro-climatic conditions.

  12. Importance of Client Orientation Domains in Non-Clinical Quality of Care: A Household Survey in High and Low Income Districts of Mashhad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Somayeh; Yousefi, Mehdi; Banikazemi, Seyed Hasan; Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Seyed Amir Hossein; Vakilzadeh, Ali Khorsand; Hoseinzadeh Aval, Narges

    2015-12-18

    Responsiveness introduced by WHO as a key indicator to assess the performance of health systems and measures by common set of domains that are categorized in to two main categories "Respect for persons" and "client orientation". This study measured importance of client orientation domains in high and low income districts of Mashhad. In this cross-sectional and explanatory study, Sample of 923 households were selected randomly from two high and low income districts of Mashhad. World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire was used for data collection. Standard frequency analyses and Ordinal logistic regression (OLR) was employed for data analysis. In general, respondents selected quality of basic amenities as the most important domain and access to social support networks was identified as the least important domain. Households in high income area scored higher domains of prompt attentions and choice Compared to low income. There was a significant relationship between variables of ages, having member that need to care and self-assessed health with the ranking of client orientation domains.Study of households' view on ranking of non-clinical aspects of quality of care, especially when faced with limited resources, can help to conduct efforts towards subjects that are more important, and lead to improve the health system performance and productivity.

  13. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ZONAL WIND ANOMALIES IN HIGH AND LOW TROPOSPHERE AND ANNUAL FREQUENCY OF NW PACIFIC TROPICAL CYCLONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Zhen-song; HE Min

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between large-scale zonal wind anomalies and annual frequency of NW Pacific tropical cyclones and possible mechanisms are investigated with the methods of correlation and composition.It is indicated that when △ U200-△U850 >0 in the eastern tropical Pacific and △ U200- △U850 <0 in western tropical Pacific, the Walker cell is stronger in the Pacific tropical region and the annual frequency of NW Pacific tropical cyclone are above normal. In the years with zonal wind anomalies, the circulation of high and low troposphere and the vertical motions in the troposphere have significant characteristics. In the time scale of short-range climate prediction, zonal wind anomalies in high and low troposphere are useful as a preliminary signal of the annual frequency prediction of NW Pacific tropical cyclones.

  14. High-resolution annual maps of whole system mangrove carbon stocks from 2000 to 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Stuart E

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove forests store high densities of organic carbon compared to other forested ecosystems1. Such high carbon storage coupled with their rate of deforestation means that mangroves can contribute to global carbon emissions and are candidates for Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes. This study quantifies two important datasets required for emissions and PES reporting: 1) annual mangrove carbon stocks from 2000 to 2012 at the global, national, and sub-national level; and 2) global carbon emissions resulting from deforestation within this period. We show that mangroves stored 4.19 Pg of carbon in 2012, with Indonesia, Brazil, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea accounting for greater than 50% of this stock. Of this 4.19 Pg, 2.96 Pg of the global carbon stock is contained within the soil and 1.23 Pg in the living biomass. Two percent of global carbon was lost between 2000 and 2012, equivalent to 316,705 tonnes of potential C02 emissions.

  15. CSIR Annual report 1966

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty second annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1966, to the 31st December 1966. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  16. CSIR Annual report 1970

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty sixth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1970, to the 31st December 1970. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  17. CSIR Annual report 1968

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fourth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1968, to the 31st December 1968. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  18. CSIR Annual report 1971

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty seventh annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1971, to the 31st December 1971. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  19. CSIR Annual report 1969

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fifth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1969, to the 31st December 1969. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  20. CSIR Annual report 1963

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the nineteenth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1963, to the 31st December 1963. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  1. CSIR Annual report 1982

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty eighth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1982 to 31 December 1982. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1982, certified...

  2. CSIR Annual report 1980

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty-sixth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1980 to 31 December 1980. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1980, certified...

  3. Twenty-five year trends in body mass index by education and income in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prättälä Ritva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic gradient in obesity and overweight is amply documented. However, the contribution of different socioeconomic indicators on trends of body mass index (BMI over time is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of education and income with (BMI from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. Methods Data were derived from nationwide cross-sectional health behaviour surveys carried out among Finns annually since 1978. This study comprises data from a 25-year period (1978–2002 that included 25 339 men and 25 330 women aged 25–64 years. BMI was based on self-reported weight and height. Education in years was obtained from the questionnaire and household income from the national tax register. In order to improve the comparability of the socioeconomic position measures, education and income were divided into gender-specific tertiles separately for each study year. Linear regression analysis was applied. Results An increase in BMI was observed among men and women in all educational and income groups. In women, education and income were inversely associated with BMI. The magnitudes of the associations fluctuated but stayed statistically significant over time. Among the Finnish men, socioeconomic differences were more complicated. Educational differences were weaker than among the women and income differences varied according to educational level. At the turn of the century, the high income men in the lowest educational group had the highest BMI whereas the income pattern in the highest educational group was the opposite. Conclusion No overall change in the socio-economic differences of BMI was observed in Finland between 1978 and 2002. However, the trends of BMI diverged in sub-groups of the studied population: the most prominent increase in BMI took place in high income men with low education and in low income men with high education. The results encourage further research on the

  4. mHealth Application Areas and Technology Combinations*. A Comparison of Literature from High and Low/Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Haitham; Marschollek, Michael

    2017-08-08

    health, hepatitis vaccination, cold and flu, ED prescribed antibiotics, iodine deficiency, and liver transplantation (n=1 each). The remainder of solutions (n=14) did not focus on a certain disease. Most applications fell in the areas of health monitoring and surveillance (n=93) and health promotion and raising awareness (n=88). Fewer solutions addressed the areas of communication and reporting (n=11), data collection (n=6), telemedicine (n=5), emergency medical care (n=3), point of care support (n=2), and decision support (n=2). The majority of solutions used SMS messaging (n=94) or mobile apps (n=71). Fewer used IVR/phone calls (n=8), mobile website/email (n=5), videoconferencing (n=2), MMS (n=2), or video (n=1) or voice messages (n=1). Studies were mostly RCTs, with the majority suffering from small sample sizes and short study durations. Problems addressed by solutions included travel distance for reporting, self-management and disease monitoring, and treatment/medication adherence. SMS and app solutions are the most common forms of mHealth applications. SMS solutions are prevalent in both high and LMICs while app solutions are mostly used in high income countries. Common application areas include health promotion and raising awareness using SMS and health monitoring and surveillance using mobile apps. Remaining application areas are rarely addressed. Diabetes is the most commonly targeted medical condition, yet remains deficient in LMICs.

  5. Drowning in a high-income developing country in the Middle East: newspapers as an essential resource for injury surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, Peter; Subait, Omer Mohamed; Ali, Mohamed Hassan Al; Grivna, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Despite frequent media accounts of drownings in the United Arab Emirates, little was known about the epidemiology and prevention of such incidents. The research objective was to assess newspapers as a national source on incidence, activities, and risk factors for drowning in this high-income media-rich developing country where official sources do not include sufficient variables for injury prevention. The three main national English and six Arabic newspapers were assessed for electronic retrieval of incidents, which proved impractical; however, the largest English-language paper maintained a clipping file on drowning. Newspaper data, including incidence, activity, and purpose, together with personal, equipment, and environmental risk factors, were compared with Ministry of Health reports for 1998-2002. Incidence from clippings was 0.50drownings/100,000population/year and from Ministry reports, 0.27. Activity such as swimming or boating and purpose of activity such as recreational or occupational were unreported by the Ministry. Activity was reported in 100% of newspaper clippings. Swimming (49%) was the most common activity. The purpose of 17% of cases was classified as occupational. Gender was 100% complete in both sources. In newspaper reports, age was classifiable as child or adult, while the Ministry used age groups. National citizenship was 100% reported by Ministry; 91% of newspaper reports included nationality, providing details for expatriates. Swimming ability was unreported by Ministry, and by newspaper 52%, of whom 73% were non-swimmers. While the newspaper provided information on body of water, mainly ocean and pools, this was unreported by Ministry. Month was unspecified by Ministry, 100% by newspaper. Neither reported safety equipment. The newspaper proved the most useful resource for drowning prevention since there were more incidents and most included key variables; however, Ministry reports provided supplementary information. Newspapers with

  6. High Temperature Materials Laboratory, Eleventh Annual Report: October 1997 through September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    2000-03-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its eleventh year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation.A total of 522 agreements (351 industry,156 university,and 15 other federal agency) are now in effect (452 nonproprietary and 70 proprietary). This represents an increase of 75 user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1997). A state-by-state summary of the nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A. Forty-six states are represented. During FY 1998, the HTML User Program evaluated 80 nonproprietary proposals (32 from industry, 45 from universities, and 3 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. Appendix B provides a detailed breakdown of the nonproprietary proposals received during FY 1998. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1998.

  7. High Temperature Materials Laboratory eight and ninth annual reports, October 1994 through September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its ninth year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements, and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation. A total of 276 nonproprietary agreements (135 industry, 135 university, and 6 other federal agency) and 56 proprietary agreements are now in effect. This represents an increase of 70 nonproprietary user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1994). A state-by-state summary of these nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A, and an alphabetical listing is provided in Appendix B. Forty-four states are represented by these users. During FY 1995 and 1996, the HTML User Program evaluated 145 nonproprietary proposals (62 from industry, 82 from universities, and 1 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, frequently after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1995 and 1996.

  8. High Temperature Materials Laboratory seventh annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Teague, P.A.

    1994-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its seventh year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements since the HTML began operation in 1987. A total of 193 nonproprietary agreements (91 industry and 102 university) and 41 proprietary agreements (39 industry and two university) are now in effect. This represents an increase of 21 nonproprietary user agreements during FY 1994. Forty-one states are represented by these users. During FY 1994, the HTML User Program evaluated 106 nonproprietary proposals (46 from industry, 52 from universities, and 8 from other government facilities) and 8 proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about ninety-five percent of those evaluated proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the Committee. This annual report discusses FY 1994 activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users and their proposals and FY 1994 publications, and summarizes nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1994.

  9. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Thirteenth Annual Report: October 1999 Through September 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, AE

    2001-11-07

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting 86 new projects and developing 50 new user agreements. The table on the following page presents the breakdown of these statistics. The figure on page 2 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. You may note that our total number of proposals is nearing 1000, and we expect to achieve this number in our first proposal review meeting of FY 2001. The large number of new agreements bodes well for the future. A list of proposals to the HTML follows this section; at the end of the report, we present a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are discussed in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Senior Advisory Committee, the completion of a formal Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP), and finalization of a purchase agreement with JEOL for a new-generation electron microscope.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Energy Usage and Energy Efficiency Behavior in Low- and High-Income Households: The Case of Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Malama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has been an important topic since the latter part of the last century. This is because adoption of energy efficiency measures has been acknowledged as one of the key methods of addressing the negative impact of climate change. In Zambia, however, the need to adopt energy efficiency measures has not just been driven by the imperative to mitigate the negative effects of climate change but also by a critical shortage of energy. This research looks at households’ energy consumption behavior in low- and high-income areas of Kitwe. Recent studies on the relationship between household energy consumption and behavioral lifestyle have been descriptive, with limited emphasis on the relationships between various variables. In this study, descriptive and inferential statistics have been used to investigate relationships between the two income groups and various energy consumption-related variables such as knowledge about energy reduction measures, energy saving strategies, barriers to the use of energy saving strategies, and the motives for using energy reduction strategies. Methodologically, the study was largely quantitative in nature, with questionnaires administered to a combined total of 56 households. However, key interviews were also conducted that helped us to get a clearer understanding of some of the issues covered in the research. Key findings are that whereas the descriptive statistics show that there are behavioral differences between the two income groups, the inferential statistics show that there is no relationship between income level and the energy efficiency variables. This has been found to be consistent with results from studies done elsewhere. The key lesson is that there is low usage of energy efficiency measures in both low- and high-income areas and that the authorities need to change the way information is disseminated to consumers from the current method of advertising to social diffusion.

  11. 26 CFR 1.441-1 - Period for computation of taxable income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Accounting Periods § 1.441-1 Period for computation of taxable income... be made for a period known as the taxable year. For rules relating to methods of accounting, the... taxpayer keeps no books, does not have an annual accounting period, or has an annual accounting period that...

  12. The Role of Parents in High-Achieving Schools Serving Low-Income, At-Risk Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Melissa; Wolfe, Randi B.; Lieberman, Joyce M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the critical elements of parent involvement as related to children's improved academic achievement. Survey data were collected from 220 parents whose children attend three Chicago public elementary schools. The schools serve largely minority, low-income populations and score in the top third of the Illinois State…

  13. A Comparison of the Nutritional Quality of Food Products Advertised in Grocery Store Circulars of High- versus Low-Income New York City Zip Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danna Ethan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Grocery stores can be an important resource for health and nutrition with the variety and economic value of foods offered. Weekly circulars are a means of promoting foods at a sale price. To date, little is known about the extent that nutritious foods are advertised and prominently placed in circulars. This study’s aim was to compare the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC. Circulars from grocery stores in the five highest and five lowest median household income NYC zip codes were analyzed. Nutrition information for food products was collected over a two-month period with a total of 805 products coded. The study found no significant difference between the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC. In both groups, almost two-thirds of the products advertised were processed, one-quarter were high in carbohydrates, and few to no products were low-sodium, high-fiber, or reduced-, low- or zero fat. Through innovative partnerships with health professionals, grocery stores are increasingly implementing in-store and online health promotion strategies. Weekly circulars can be used as a means to regularly advertise and prominently place more healthful and seasonal foods at an affordable price, particularly for populations at higher risk for nutrition-related chronic disease.

  14. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    , and increasing the distance to forests. The total household annual income subjects to ELCs were estimated to decrease by 15–19%. While providing some employment opportunities, we find no evidence of positive income effects of ELCs on households in the areas where ELCs are located....... and the contribution of each major product to income inequality; and identified the main household characteristics influencing absolute and relative incomes. ELCs were found to consistently have negative impacts on household total income, environmental income, size of available cultivable land and livestock holdings...

  15. Provider payments and patient charges as policy tools for cost-containment: How successful are they in high-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrin, Guy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2003-07-31

    In this paper, we focus on those policy instruments with monetary incentives that are used to contain public health expenditure in high-income countries. First, a schematic view of the main cost-containment methods and the variables in the health system they intend to influence is presented. Two types of instruments to control the level and growth of public health expenditure are considered: (i) provider payment methods that influence the price and quantity of health care, and (ii) cost-containment measures that influence the behaviour of patients. Belonging to the first type of instruments, we have: fee-for-service, per diem payment, case payment, capitation, salaries and budgets. The second type of instruments consists of patient charges and reference price systems for pharmaceuticals. Secondly, we provide an overview of experience in high-income countries that use or have used these particular instruments. Finally, the paper assesses the overall potential of these instruments in cost-containment policies.

  16. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.C.

    2002-11-01

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best

  17. Worldwide floods are changing: Evidence from global high-quality annual maximum streamflow records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hong; Westra, Seth; Leonard, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, floods have led to significant human and economic impacts (in 2014 alone the global cost of floods has been estimated to be US 37.4 billion), and reported flood losses have increased significantly from just US7 billion per year in the 1980s. Recent empirical evidence of significant increasing trends in heavy rainfall has raised the concern of potential changes in flooding magnitude and frequency as a result of large-scale climatic changes. However, other driving forces, including changes in channel capacity and catchment characteristics, also play a large role in rainfall-runoff processes so trends in heavy precipitation cannot be taken as a proxy for trends in flooding. In order to test whether global floods are changing or not, this study analyses a records global discharge time series from 1966 to 2005. Trends in worldwide flood magnitude were analysed using annual maxima daily streamflow obtained from Global Runoff Data Centre database, which holds records of 9,213 stations across the globe, with an average time series length of 42 years per station. High quality records during the reference period (1966 - 2005) with no more than 2 year of missing data were selected as the input of this study (1209 stations in all). To remove streamflow records impacted by large dams, the HydroSHEDS watershed boundaries and Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) databases are used to identify stations with existing dams in theirs upstream drainage basins. The Mann-Kendall test at the 5% significant level is applied on selected time series to identify stations showing significant positive and negative trends. The percentage of significantly increasing or decreasing stations are investigated in different climatic regions and catchment sizes, and compared against a bootstrap-based field significant test to represent the null hypothesis. The results indicate strong evidence against the null hypothesis of no change in flood magnitude at global and regional scales.

  18. Simulating future supply of and requirements for human resources for health in high-income OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Birch, Stephen; MacKenzie, Adrian; Rigby, Janet

    2016-12-12

    As part of efforts to inform the development of a global human resources for health (HRH) strategy, a comprehensive methodology for estimating HRH supply and requirements was described in a companion paper. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of that methodology, using data publicly available online, to simulate the supply of and requirements for midwives, nurses, and physicians in the 32 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) up to 2030. A model combining a stock-and-flow approach to simulate the future supply of each profession in each country-adjusted according to levels of HRH participation and activity-and a needs-based approach to simulate future HRH requirements was used. Most of the data to populate the model were obtained from the OECD's online indicator database. Other data were obtained from targeted internet searches and documents gathered as part of the companion paper. Relevant recent measures for each model parameter were found for at least one of the included countries. In total, 35% of the desired current data elements were found; assumed values were used for the other current data elements. Multiple scenarios were used to demonstrate the sensitivity of the simulations to different assumed future values of model parameters. Depending on the assumed future values of each model parameter, the simulated HRH gaps across the included countries could range from shortfalls of 74 000 midwives, 3.2 million nurses, and 1.2 million physicians to surpluses of 67 000 midwives, 2.9 million nurses, and 1.0 million physicians by 2030. Despite important gaps in the data publicly available online and the short time available to implement it, this paper demonstrates the basic feasibility of a more comprehensive, population needs-based approach to estimating HRH supply and requirements than most of those currently being used. HRH planners in individual countries, working with their

  19. Towards comprehensive early abortion service delivery in high income countries: insights for improving universal access to abortion in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angela; Bateson, Deborah; Estoesta, Jane; Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2016-10-22

    Improving access to safe abortion is an essential strategy in the provision of universal access to reproductive health care. Australians are largely supportive of the provision of abortion and its decriminalization. However, the lack of data and the complex legal and service delivery situation impacts upon access for women seeking an early termination of pregnancy. There are no systematic reviews from a health services perspective to help direct health planners and policy makers to improve access comprehensive medical and early surgical abortion in high income countries. This review therefore aims to identify quality studies of abortion services to provide insight into how access to services can be improved in Australia. We undertook a structured search of six bibliographic databases and hand-searching to ascertain peer reviewed primary research in English between 2005 and 2015. Qualitative and quantitative study designs were deemed suitable for inclusion. A deductive content analysis methodology was employed to analyse selected manuscripts based upon a framework we developed to examine access to early abortion services. This review identified the dimensions of access to surgical and medical abortion at clinic or hospital-outpatient based abortion services, as well as new service delivery approaches utilising a remote telemedicine approach. A range of factors, mostly from studies in the United Kingdom and United States of America were found to facilitate improved access to abortion, in particular, flexible service delivery approaches that provide women with cost effective options and technology based services. Standards, recommendations and targets were also identified that provided services and providers with guidance regarding the quality of abortion care. Key insights for service delivery in Australia include the: establishment of standards, provision of choice of procedure, improved provider education and training and the expansion of telemedicine for medical

  20. How to Reduce the Incomes of the Two Labour Elites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractIn Western countries the share of incomes form assets in national income has fallen considerably during the last century. Inequality in labour incomes is much more important. Two types of labour show relatively high incomes: the professions and managers. incomes of the former show along-

  1. The Evolution of Income Concentration in Japan, 1886-2002: Evidence from Income Tax Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chiaki Moriguchi; Emmanuel Saez

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of income concentration in Japan from 1886 to 2002 by constructing long-run series of top income shares and top wage income shares, using income tax statistics. We find that (1) income concentration was extremely high throughout the pre-WWII period during which the nation underwent rapid industrialization; (2) a drastic de-concentration of income at the top took place in 1938-1945; (3) income concentration has remained low throughout the post-WWII period despi...

  2. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  3. Income and Employment in the United States, 1991-1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays 1991 and 1992 estimates for total personal income, per capita personal income, annual number of full-time and part- time jobs, average wage...

  4. Income and Employment in the United States, 1989-1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays 1989 and 1990 estimates for total personal income, per capita personal income, annual number of full-time and part- time jobs, average wage...

  5. Income and Employment in the United States, 1993-2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays 1993 to 2001 estimates for total personal income, per capita personal income, annual number of full-time and part- time jobs, average wage...

  6. Income and Employment in the United States, 1979-1981 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays 1979, 1980, and 1981 estimates for total personal income, per capita personal income, annual number of full-time and part- time jobs, average...

  7. Income and Employment in the United States, 1983-1987 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays 1983 to 1987 estimates for total personal income, per capita personal income, annual number of full-time and part- time jobs, average wage...

  8. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  9. 2006 annual results: Gaz de France announces record-high results and exceeds its objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 13 March 2007 - In fiscal year 2006, Gaz de France had the best operational performance in its history. The Group confirms the strength of its business model, with sound Infrastructure business and sharp growth in Exploration - Production, Trading and Sales: - Net income, Group share: 2.3 billion euros; - EBITDA: 5.15 billion euros; - Dynamic dividend policy: 1.1 euro per share (+62%); - Investments at stepped-up pace: 4 billion euros (+38%); - Contribution of Group's international activities doubled in two years (39% of sales); - Many operational advances: strengthened operations, Exploration-Production, LNG Infrastructures and Electricity; - Major steps completed in merger project with Suez.

  10. 2006 annual results: Gaz de France announces record-high results and exceeds its objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 13 March 2007 - In fiscal year 2006, Gaz de France had the best operational performance in its history. The Group confirms the strength of its business model, with sound Infrastructure business and sharp growth in Exploration - Production, Trading and Sales: - Net income, Group share: 2.3 billion euros; - EBITDA: 5.15 billion euros; - Dynamic dividend policy: 1.1 euro per share (+62%); - Investments at stepped-up pace: 4 billion euros (+38%); - Contribution of Group's international activities doubled in two years (39% of sales); - Many operational advances: strengthened operations, Exploration-Production, LNG Infrastructures and Electricity; - Major steps completed in merger project with Suez.

  11. Income and Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We employ a behavioral measure of trustworthiness obtained from a trust game carried out with a sample of the general British population, the individuals of which were extensively interviewed on earlier occasions. Our basic finding is that given past income, higher current income increases trustworthiness and, given current income, higher past income reduces trustworthiness. Past income determines the level of financial aspirations, and whether or not these aspirations are fulfilled by the level of current income affects trustworthiness.

  12. Despite increased use and sales of statins in India, per capita prescription rates remain far below high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Niteesh K; Dugani, Sagar; Shrank, William H; Polinski, Jennifer M; Stark, Christina E; Gupta, Rajeev; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Brill, Gregory; Jha, Prabhat

    2014-02-01

    Statin use has increased substantially in North America and Europe, with resultant reductions in cardiovascular mortality. However, little is known about statin use in lower-income countries. India is of interest because of its burden of cardiovascular disease, the unique nature of its prescription drug market, and the growing globalization of drug sales. We conducted an observational study using IMS Health data for the period February 2006-January 2010. During the period, monthly statin prescriptions increased from 45.8 to 84.1 per 1,000 patients with coronary heart disease-an increase of 0.80 prescriptions per month. The proportion of the Indian population receiving a defined daily statin dose increased from 3.35 percent to 7.78 percent. Nevertheless, only a fraction of those eligible for a statin appeared to receive the therapy, even though there were 259 distinct statin products available to Indian consumers in January 2010. Low rates of statin use in India may reflect problems with access to health care, affordability, underdiagnosis, and cultural beliefs. Because of the growing burden of cardiovascular disease in lower-income countries such as India, there is an urgent need to increase statin use and ensure access to safe products whose use is based on evidence. Policies are needed to expand insurance, increase medications' affordability, educate physicians and patients, and improve regulatory oversight.

  13. Population income and longitudinal trends in living kidney donation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jagbir; Dong, Jianghu; Gill, John

    2015-01-01

    Living kidney donation is declining in the United States. We examined longitudinal trends in living donation as a function of median household income and donor relation to assess the effect of financial barriers on donation in a changing economic environment. The zip code-level median household income of all 71,882 living donors was determined by linkage to the 2000 US Census. Longitudinal changes in the rate of donation were determined in income quintiles between 1999 and 2004, when donations were increasing, and between 2005 and 2010, when donations were declining. Rates were adjusted for population differences in age, sex, race, and ESRD rate using multilevel linear regression models. Between 1999 and 2004, the rate of growth in living donation per million population was directly related to income, increasing progressively from the lowest to highest income quintile, with annualized changes of 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.14 to 1.05) for Q1 and 1.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 2.77) for Q5 (Pincome with longitudinal changes also varied by donor relationship. In conclusion, changes in living donation in the past decade varied by median household income, resulting in increased disparities in donation between low- and high-income populations. These findings may inform public policies to support living donation during periods of economic volatility.

  14. Impact of income status on prognosis of acute coronary syndrome patients during Greek financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrikopoulos, George; Tzeis, Stylianos; Terentes-Printzios, Dimitrios; Varounis, Christos; Vlachopoulos, Charalampos; Mantas, Ioannis; Patsilinakos, Sotirios; Lampropoulos, Stylianos; Olympios, Christoforos; Kartalis, Athanasios; Manolis, Athanasios; Gotsis, Alexandros; Triposkiadis, Filippos; Tsaknakis, Themistoklis; Goudevenos, Ioannis; Kaprinis, Ioannis; Pras, Athanasios; Vasiliou, Fotios; Skoumpourdis, Emmanouil; Sakka, Gerasimoula; Draganigos, Antonios; Vardas, Panos

    2016-06-01

    The effect of income status on patient outcome merits investigation during periods of financial crisis. We evaluated the impact of income status on out-of-hospital prognosis in a cohort of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, included in a countrywide study during a period of financial crisis. The study is a secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter, observational study-the PHAETHON study-enrolling consecutive ACS patients in 37 hospitals in Greece. Patients were classified as low or high income based on the reported net annual household income using as a cut-off point the relative poverty threshold for Greece of 12,000 Euros. The outcome measure was survival free of the primary composite endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischemic attack, urgent revascularization and urgent hospitalization due to cardiovascular causes). The study population included 794 patients. The administration rate of evidence-based medications was similar in the low- (n = 455) and high-income (n = 339) groups during hospitalization and upon discharge. In a median follow-up of 189 days (interquartile range: 180-212 days), low-income patients had 92 % higher risk of the combined endpoint as compared to high-income patients [Hazard ratio (HR):1.92, 95 % CI:1.25-2.94, p = 0.003]. The effect of low-income status on the combined outcome remained significant after adjustment for age, gender and depression (HR:1.59, 95 % CI:1.02-2.49; p = 0.043). In a period of financial crisis, low income is a significant and independent predictor of poor out-of-hospital outcome in ACS patients. This association has profound implications and should be taken into consideration by public health policy makers.

  15. The Income Gap GROWS Large

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The income gap between regions, urban and rural areas, industries and various social groups is widening in China. The gap, as indicated by the Gini Coefficient, extended beyond an alarming level. A World Bank report said the Gini Coefficient for China surged to 0.47 in 2009, exceeding the "red line" of 0.4. The problems caused by the rising income disparity have been the focus of public attention. Some experts believe that it is high time for China to shrink this income gap. A Xinhua News Agency research team recently analyzed this trend, and published an article in the Economic Information Daily. Edited excerpts follow:

  16. The Income Gap Grows Large

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The income gap between regions,urban and rural areas,industries and various social groups is widening in China.The gap,as indicated by the Gini Coefficient,extended beyond an alarming level.A World Bank report said the Gini Coefficient for China surged to 0A7 in 2009,exceeding the "red line"of 0.4.The problems caused by the rising income disparity have been the focus of public attention.Some experts believe that it is high time for China to shrink this income gap.

  17. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries presents specific challenges. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016. Studies included randomised and controlled clinical trials comparing psychosocial interventions with waiting list or treatment as usual in adult refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD resettled in high-income countries. PTSD symptoms post-intervention was the primary outcome. We computed standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This study is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42015027843. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD symptoms relative to control groups (SMD -1·03, 95% CI -1·55 to -0·51; number needed to treat 4·4; I2 86%; 95% CI 77 to 91). Narrative exposure therapy, a manualized short-term variant of cognitive behavioural therapy with a trauma focus, was the best-supported intervention (5 RCTs, 187 participants, SMD -0·78, 95% CI -1·18 to -0·38, I2 37%; 95% CI 0 to 77). Methodological quality of the included studies was limited. Overall, psychosocial interventions for asylum seekers and refugees with PTSD resettled in high-income countries were found to provide significant benefits in reducing PTSD symptoms. Yet, the number of studies is small and their methodological quality limited, so that more rigorous trials should be conducted in the future.

  18. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Ballette, Francesca; Bighelli, Irene; Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Tol, Wietse; Priebe, Stefan; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries presents specific challenges. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for this group. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of randomised trials, CINAHL, EMBASE, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science up to July 2016. Studies included randomised and controlled clinical trials comparing psychosocial interventions with waiting list or treatment as usual in adult refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD resettled in high-income countries. PTSD symptoms post-intervention was the primary outcome. We computed standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This study is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42015027843. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD symptoms relative to control groups (SMD -1·03, 95% CI -1·55 to -0·51; number needed to treat 4·4; I2 86%; 95% CI 77 to 91). Narrative exposure therapy, a manualized short-term variant of cognitive behavioural therapy with a trauma focus, was the best-supported intervention (5 RCTs, 187 participants, SMD -0·78, 95% CI -1·18 to -0·38, I2 37%; 95% CI 0 to 77). Methodological quality of the included studies was limited. Overall, psychosocial interventions for asylum seekers and refugees with PTSD resettled in high-income countries were found to provide significant benefits in reducing PTSD symptoms. Yet, the number of studies is small and their methodological quality limited, so that more rigorous trials should be conducted in the future. PMID:28151992

  19. Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program FY 2008 Household Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State-reported annual data collected on the presence of elderly, disabled, and young children in eligible households receiving Low Income Home Energy Assistance...

  20. HIV among immigrants living in high-income countries: a realist review of evidence to guide targeted approaches to behavioural HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Tadgh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrants from developing and middle-income countries are an emerging priority in HIV prevention in high-income countries. This may be explained in part by accelerating international migration and population mobility. However, it may also be due to the vulnerabilities of immigrants including social exclusion along with socioeconomic, cultural and language barriers to HIV prevention. Contemporary thinking on effective HIV prevention stresses the need for targeted approaches that adapt HIV prevention interventions according to the cultural context and population being addressed. This review of evidence sought to generate insights into targeted approaches in this emerging area of HIV prevention. Methods We undertook a realist review to answer the research question: ‘How are HIV prevention interventions in high-income countries adapted to suit immigrants’ needs?’ A key goal was to uncover underlying theories or mechanisms operating in behavioural HIV prevention interventions with immigrants, to uncover explanations as how and why they work (or not for particular groups in particular contexts, and thus to refine the underlying theories. The realist review mapped seven initial mechanisms underlying culturally appropriate HIV prevention with immigrants. Evidence from intervention studies and qualitative studies found in systematic searches was then used to test and refine these seven mechanisms. Results Thirty-four intervention studies and 40 qualitative studies contributed to the analysis and synthesis of evidence. The strongest evidence supported the role of ‘consonance’ mechanisms, indicating the pivotal need to incorporate cultural values into the intervention content. Moderate evidence was found to support the role of three other mechanisms – ‘understanding’, ‘specificity’ and ‘embeddedness’ – which indicated that using the language of immigrants, usually the ‘mother tongue’, targeting (in terms

  1. Tax Bunching, Income Shifting and Self-employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Maire, Christian Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic extension to Saez (2010) bunching formula that allows us to distinguish bunching based on real responses and income shifting. We provide direct evidence of income shifting and pronounced bunching in taxable income for the Danish self-employed. If income shifting...... was neglected in this case, we would estimate a taxable income elasticity in the range of 0.43-0.53 and conclude that taxable incomes were highly sensitive to changes in marginal tax rates. We show, however, that more than half of the bunching in taxable income is driven by intertemporal income shifting...

  2. Income and Trustworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    John Ermisch; Diego Gambetta

    2016-01-01

    We employ a behavioral measure of trustworthiness obtained from a trust game carried out with a sample of the general British population, the individuals of which were extensively interviewed on earlier occasions. Our basic finding is that given past income, higher current income increases trustworthiness and, given current income, higher past income reduces trustworthiness. Past income determines the level of financial aspirations, and whether or not these aspirations are fulfilled by the le...

  3. Atmospheric boundary layer measurements at the 280 m high Hamburg weather mast 1995-2011. Mean annual and diurnal cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Burghard; Lange, Ingo; Konow, Heike [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    2012-08-15

    In this paper, the 280 m high Hamburg weather mast and its instrumentation are introduced. Digital data recorded since 1995 are used to calculate the mean annual and diurnal cycles of the primary climate variables (pressure, temperature, humidity, wind, short- and long-wave radiation, cloud coverage, cloud base, precipitation). The annual average of 2 m temperature is 9.8 C indicating an increase compared to the period 1971-2000 at the Hamburg airport climate station. Absolute humidity follows the temperature cycle with a maximum in July/August. Relative humidity is highest in winter and lowest in April/May. The fraction of received to clear-sky short-wave radiation is between 61 % in May and 34 % in December. Cloud coverage classes of 0-1 octas and 7-8 octas occur most frequently, but have opposite annual cycles. Cloud base distribution is narrow in winter and peaks around 300 m and is distributed over a wide height range in summer. Average annual precipitation amounts to 716 mm and falls in 9.3 % of the time. Monthly mean wind speed is highest (lowest) in January (August). Winds from west are most frequent followed by winds from southeast. A channelling by the Elbe river valley is indicated. The diurnal temperature cycle is weak in winter but strong in summer showing the evening generation and morning rise of the inversion. While relative humidity has a single diurnal cycle, absolute humidity has a double cycle in summer, but not in winter. Short-wave radiation in summer shows a weak asymmetry between forenoon and afternoon. The diurnal cycles of cloud cover and base are small in winter. In summer, cloud bases show a continuous increase from morning to afternoon and a break afterwards simultaneously with the diurnal rain maximum. Wind speed has opposite diurnal cycles at lower and upper levels. The upper-level cycle shows a temporal asymmetry in summer, i.e. the upper-level wind minimum does not occur simultaneously with the lower-level wind maximum. The reversal

  4. Income inequality in Romania: The exponential-Pareto distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Bogdan; Andrei, Tudorel; Pirjol, Dan

    2017-03-01

    We present a study of the distribution of the gross personal income and income inequality in Romania, using individual tax income data, and both non-parametric and parametric methods. Comparing with official results based on household budget surveys (the Family Budgets Survey and the EU-SILC data), we find that the latter underestimate the income share of the high income region, and the overall income inequality. A parametric study shows that the income distribution is well described by an exponential distribution in the low and middle incomes region, and by a Pareto distribution in the high income region with Pareto coefficient α = 2.53. We note an anomaly in the distribution in the low incomes region (∼9,250 RON), and present a model which explains it in terms of partial income reporting.

  5. Analysis of Corporate Income Tax Rate Changes and Earnings Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyadi, Martin Surya; Anwar, Yunita; Yanny, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Özet: It is known that tax is one of the biggest contributor to state income all over the world. For Indonesia, income tax contribute an average of 36% to the state’s income. With the high contribution of tax, government could adjust the income tax rate in order to increase the tax income. However, the high rate of income tax would have an impact to investment decision as tax will reduce the net income. Usually the taxpayer will apply an earnings management in order to avoid high tax payme...

  6. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Fourteenth Annual Report: October 2000 through September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.

    2002-05-16

    The HTML User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting 92 new projects and developing 48 new user agreements. Table 1 presents the breakdown of these statistics. Figure 1 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. You will note that the total number of HTML proposals has now exceeded 1000. Also, the large number of new agreements bodes well for the future. At the end of the report, we present a list of proposals to the HTML and a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are highlighted in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Senior Advisory Committee, and approval by ORNL for the construction of a building to house our new aberration-corrected electron microscope (ACEM) and several other sensitive electron and optical instruments.

  7. Provider payments and patient charges as policy tools for cost-containment: How successful are they in high-income countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanvoravongchai Piya

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we focus on those policy instruments with monetary incentives that are used to contain public health expenditure in high-income countries. First, a schematic view of the main cost-containment methods and the variables in the health system they intend to influence is presented. Two types of instruments to control the level and growth of public health expenditure are considered: (i provider payment methods that influence the price and quantity of health care, and (ii cost-containment measures that influence the behaviour of patients. Belonging to the first type of instruments, we have: fee-for-service, per diem payment, case payment, capitation, salaries and budgets. The second type of instruments consists of patient charges and reference price systems for pharmaceuticals. Secondly, we provide an overview of experience in high-income countries that use or have used these particular instruments. Finally, the paper assesses the overall potential of these instruments in cost-containment policies.

  8. Evaluation of annual efficiencies of high temperature central receiver concentrated solar power plants with thermal energy storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Brian David; Gill, David Dennis

    2013-07-01

    The current study has examined four cases of a central receiver concentrated solar power plant with thermal energy storage using the DELSOL and SOLERGY computer codes. The current state-of-the-art base case was compared with a theoretical high temperature case which was based on the scaling of some input parameters and the estimation of other parameters based on performance targets from the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This comparison was done for both current and high temperature cases in two configurations: a surround field with an external cylindrical receiver and a north field with a single cavity receiver. There is a fairly dramatic difference between the design point and annual average performance, especially in the solar field and receiver subsystems, and also in energy losses due to the thermal energy storage being full to capacity. Additionally, there are relatively small differences (<2%) in annual average efficiencies between the Base and High Temperature cases, despite an increase in thermal to electric conversion efficiency of over 8%. This is due the increased thermal losses at higher temperature and operational losses due to subsystem start-up and shut-down. Thermal energy storage can mitigate some of these losses by utilizing larger thermal energy storage to ensure that the electric power production system does not need to stop and re-start as often, but solar energy is inherently transient. Economic and cost considerations were not considered here, but will have a significant impact on solar thermal electric power production strategy and sizing.

  9. The study on the annual tax declaration of business income tax of enterprise%浅析最新版企业所得税年度申报表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷

    2015-01-01

    By comparing the similarities and differences of new tax declaration about business income tax with the old, the paper summarized some key points, that are basic information, period expense, income tax policy, and remind the taxpayers some important issues.%本文通过比较2014版企业所得税申报表与2008年版的异同,总结出新报表的要点有增加企业基础信息表、期间费用明细表、所得税政策等内容,据此为企业填报所得税报表提出指导建议。

  10. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the declaration of income for 2007. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Regulations (see Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05). ...

  11. Neighborhood income and income distribution and the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Vlahov, David

    2007-06-01

    Evidence about the relationship between contextual variables and substance use is conflicting. Relationships between neighborhood income and income distribution and the prevalence and frequency of substance use in 59 New York City (NYC) neighborhoods were assessed while accounting for individual income and other socio-demographic variables. Measures of current substance use (in the 30 days prior to the survey) were obtained from a random-digit-dial phone survey of adult residents of NYC and data from the 2000 U.S. Census to calculate median neighborhood income and income distribution (assessed using the Gini coefficient). Among 1355 respondents analyzed (female=56.2%, mean age=40.4), 23.9% reported cigarette, 40.0% alcohol, and 5.4% marijuana use in the previous 30 days. In ecologic assessment, neighborhoods with both the highest income and the highest income maldistribution had the highest prevalence of drinking alcohol (69.0%) and of smoking marijuana (10.5%) but not of cigarette use; there was no clear ecologic association between neighborhood income, income distribution, and cigarette use. In multilevel multivariable models adjusting for individual income, age, race, sex, and education, high neighborhood median income and maldistributed neighborhood income were both significantly associated with a greater likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use but not of cigarette use. Both high neighborhood income and maldistributed income also were associated with greater frequency of alcohol use among current alcohol drinkers. These observations suggest that neighborhood income and income distribution may play more important roles in determining population use of alcohol and marijuana than individual income, and that determinants of substance use may vary by potential for drug dependence. Further research should investigate specific pathways that may explain the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and use of different substances.

  12. The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), a collaborative paradigm for institutional and human resources capacity building between high- and low- and middle-income countries: the Mozambique experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgínia Noormahomed, Emília; Carrilho, Carla; Ismail, Mamudo; Noormahomed, Sérgio; Nguenha, Alcido; Benson, Constance A.; Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Schooley, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Collaborations among researchers based in lower and middle income countries (LMICs) and high income countries (HICs) have made major discoveries related to diseases disproportionately affecting LMICs and have been vital to the development of research communities in LMICs. Such collaborations have generally been scientifically and structurally driven by HICs. Objectives: In this report we outline a paradigm shift in collaboration, exemplified by the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), in which the formulation of priorities and administrative infrastructure reside in the LMIC. Methods: This descriptive report outlines the critical features of the MEPI partnership. Results: In the MEPI, LMIC program partners translate broad program goals and define metrics into priorities that are tailored to local conditions. Program funds flow to a LMIC-based leadership group that contracts with peers from HICs to provide technical and scientific advice and consultation in a 'reverse funds flow' model. Emphasis is also placed on strengthening administrative capacity within LMIC institutions. A rigorous monitoring and evaluation process modifies program priorities on the basis of evolving opportunities to maximize program impact. Conclusions: Vesting LMIC partners with the responsibility for program leadership, and building administrative and fiscal capacity in LMIC institutions substantially enhances program relevance, impact and sustainability.

  13. Mediating factors in the relationship between income and mammography use in low-income insured women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Alice N; Buist, Diana S M; Tiro, Jasmin A; Taplin, Stephen H

    2008-10-01

    We used secondary data from a prospective randomized mammography recruitment trial to examine whether attitudinal and facilitating characteristics mediate the observed relationship between annual household income and mammogram receipt among women in an integrated health plan. We compared 1419 women due for a screening mammogram based on the 1995 annual household income poverty definition for a family of four ($15,000). A telephone survey was used to collect information on household income, demographics, health behavior, attitudinal and facilitating variables. Administrative databases were used to document mammography receipt. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of subsequent mammography use separately for women with and without a prior mammogram. Several variables, including employment, living alone, believing that mammograms are unnecessary, having friends supportive of mammography, and ease of arranging transportation, completely mediated the effect of income on mammography use. In multivariable models, the direct predictive effect of income on mammography was reduced to nonsignificance (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.82-1.54 in women with previous mammogram and HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.41-2.00 in women without previous mammogram). Providing insurance does not ensure low-income populations will seek screening mammography. Efficacious interventions that address attitudes and facilitating conditions may motivate mammography use among low-income women with insurance.

  14. Climate drives inter-annual variability in probability of high severity fire occurrence in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Alisa; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy

    2017-05-01

    A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function, leading to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Prior analyses of fire severity in California forests showed that time since last fire and fire weather conditions predicted fire severity very well, while a larger regional analysis showed that topography and climate were important predictors of high severity fire. There has not yet been a large-scale study that incorporates topography, vegetation and fire-year climate to determine regional scale high severity fire occurrence. We developed models to predict the probability of high severity fire occurrence for the western US. We predict high severity fire occurrence with some accuracy, and identify the relative importance of predictor classes in determining the probability of high severity fire. The inclusion of both vegetation and fire-year climate predictors was critical for model skill in identifying fires with high fractional fire severity. The inclusion of fire-year climate variables allows this model to forecast inter-annual variability in areas at future risk of high severity fire, beyond what slower-changing fuel conditions alone can accomplish. This allows for more targeted land management, including resource allocation for fuels reduction treatments to decrease the risk of high severity fire.

  15. Income distribution in the European Union versus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, Maciej; Duczmal, Rafał; Kutner, Ryszard

    2015-09-01

    We prove that the refined approach-our extension of the Yakovenko et al. formalism-is universal in the sense that it describes well both household incomes in the European Union and individual incomes in the United States for all income social classes. This formalism, supplemented in this work by the entropy analysis, allowed the study of the impact of the recent world-wide financial crisis on the annual incomes of different income social classes. Hence, we find the most painful impact of the crisis on incomes of all income social classes. Furthermore, we indicate the existence of a possible market crisis precursor.

  16. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    and poverty dynamics. Poverty incidence and dynamics models including environmental income perform better than those without. Rural poverty studies based on welfare measures excluding environmental income may thus be inaccurate for environmental reliant communities.......Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...

  17. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  18. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  19. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  20. A comparison of annual and seasonal carbon dioxide effluxes between subarctic Sweden and high-arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Mats P.; Morgner, Elke; Björk, Robert G.;

    2010-01-01

    effluxes between snow regimes or vegetation types, indicating that spatial variability in winter soil CO2 effluxes are not directly linked to snow cover thickness or soil temperatures. Total winter emissions (0.004– 0.248 kg CO2 m–2) were found to be in the lower range of those previously described......Recent climate change predictions suggest altered patterns of winter precipitation across the Arctic. It has been suggested that the presence, timing and quantity of snow all affect microbial activity, thus influencing CO2 production in soil. In this study annual and seasonal emissions of CO2 were...... in order to evaluate the effect of snow depth on winter CO2 effluxes. Total annual emissions of CO2 from the sub-Arctic site (0.662–1.487 kg CO2 m–2 yr–1) were found to be more than double the emissions from the High-Arctic site (0.369–0.591 kg CO2 m–2 yr–1). There were no significant differences in winter...

  1. Household income is associated with the p53 mutation frequency in human breast tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne M Starks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A study from Scotland reported that the p53 mutation frequency in breast tumors is associated with socio-economic deprivation. METHODS: We analyzed the association of the tumor p53 mutational status with tumor characteristics, education, and self-reported annual household income (HI among 173 breast cancer patients from the greater Baltimore area, United States. RESULTS: p53 mutational frequency was significantly associated with HI. Patients with < $15,000 HI had the highest p53 mutation frequency (21%, followed by the income group between $15,000 and $60,000 (18%, while those above $60,000 HI had the fewest mutations (5%. When dichotomized at $60,000, 26 out of 135 patients in the low income category had acquired a p53 mutation, while only 2 out of 38 with a high income carried a mutation (P < 0.05. In the adjusted logistic regression analysis with 3 income categories (trend test, the association between HI and p53 mutational status was independent of tumor characteristics, age, race/ethnicity, tobacco smoking and body mass. Further analyses revealed that HI may impact the p53 mutational frequency preferentially in patients who develop an estrogen receptor (ER-negative disease. Within this group, 42% of the low income patients (< $15,000 HI carried a mutation, followed by the middle income group (21%, while those above $60,000 HI did not carry mutations (Ptrend < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HI is associated with the p53 mutational frequency in patients who develop an ER-negative disease. Furthermore, high income patients may acquire fewer p53 mutations than other patients, suggesting that lifetime exposures associated with socio-economic status may impact breast cancer biology.

  2. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure— for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  3. 中高收入休闲细分市场研究%The Study of Medium-and-High Income Leisure Market Segment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莹莹; 贾锦田

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining data from the sampling survey about the behavior of Jinan residents' leisure consumption and choosing the segment market of medium-and-high income,this thesis finds that the majority of this segment is the young and middle-aged.They are differen%以抽样调查方法获得济南市市民休闲行为数据,从中选取中高收入细分市场进行分析,发现此市场主要是中青年,在休闲次数、休闲花费、信息渠道上与总体有较明显的差异;影响此市场休闲场所选择的主要因素是安全舒适、形象档次等。

  4. Economic Growth and Climate Change: A Cross-National Analysis of Territorial and Consumption-Based Carbon Emissions in High-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle W. Knight

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An important question in the literature on climate change and sustainability is the relation between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. While the “green growth” paradigm dominates in the policy arena, a growing number of scholars in wealthy countries are questioning the feasibility of achieving required emissions reductions with continued economic growth. This paper explores the relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions over the period 1991–2008 with a balanced data set of 29 high-income countries. We present a variety of models, with particular attention to the difference between territorial emissions and consumption-based (or carbon footprint emissions, which include the impact of international trade. The effect of economic growth is greater for consumption-based emissions than territorial emissions. We also find that over this period there is some evidence of decoupling between economic growth and territorial emissions, but no evidence of decoupling for consumption-based emissions.

  5. New Introductions, Spread of Existing Matrilines, and High Rates of Pyrethroid Resistance Result in Chronic Infestations of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L. in Lower-Income Housing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W Raab

    Full Text Available Infestations of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. have increased substantially in the United States in the past 10-15 years. The housing authority in Harrisonburg, Virginia, conducts heat-treatments after bed bugs are detected in a lower-income housing complex, by treating each infested unit at 60°C for 4-6 hours. However, a high frequency of recurrent infestations called into question the efficacy of this strategy. Genetic analysis using Bayesian clustering of polymorphic microsatellite loci from 123 bed bugs collected from 23 units from May 2012 to April 2013 in one building indicated that (a 16/21 (73% infestations were genetically similar, suggesting ineffective heat-treatments or reintroductions from within the building or from a common external source, followed by local spread of existing populations; and (b up to 5 of the infestations represented new genotypes, indicating that 5 new populations were introduced into this building in one year, assuming they were not missed in earlier screens. There was little to no gene flow among the 8 genetic clusters identified in the building. Bed bugs in the U.S. often possess one or both point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, termed knockdown resistance (kdr, from valine to leucine (V419L and leucine to isoleucine (L925I that confer target-site resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. We found that 48/121 (40% bed bugs were homozygous for both kdr mutations (L419/I925, and a further 59% possessed at least one of the kdr mutations. We conclude that ineffective heat treatments, new introductions, reintroductions and local spread, and an exceptionally high frequency of pyrethroid resistance are responsible for chronic infestations in lower-income housing. Because heat treatments fail to protect from reintroductions, and pesticide use has not decreased the frequency of infestations, preventing new introductions and early detection are the most effective strategies to avoid bed bug

  6. New Introductions, Spread of Existing Matrilines, and High Rates of Pyrethroid Resistance Result in Chronic Infestations of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) in Lower-Income Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Ronald W; Moore, Julia E; Vargo, Edward L; Rose, Lucy; Raab, Julie; Culbreth, Madeline; Burzumato, Gracie; Koyee, Aurvan; McCarthy, Brittany; Raffaele, Jennifer; Schal, Coby; Vaidyanathan, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Infestations of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) have increased substantially in the United States in the past 10-15 years. The housing authority in Harrisonburg, Virginia, conducts heat-treatments after bed bugs are detected in a lower-income housing complex, by treating each infested unit at 60°C for 4-6 hours. However, a high frequency of recurrent infestations called into question the efficacy of this strategy. Genetic analysis using Bayesian clustering of polymorphic microsatellite loci from 123 bed bugs collected from 23 units from May 2012 to April 2013 in one building indicated that (a) 16/21 (73%) infestations were genetically similar, suggesting ineffective heat-treatments or reintroductions from within the building or from a common external source, followed by local spread of existing populations; and (b) up to 5 of the infestations represented new genotypes, indicating that 5 new populations were introduced into this building in one year, assuming they were not missed in earlier screens. There was little to no gene flow among the 8 genetic clusters identified in the building. Bed bugs in the U.S. often possess one or both point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, termed knockdown resistance (kdr), from valine to leucine (V419L) and leucine to isoleucine (L925I) that confer target-site resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. We found that 48/121 (40%) bed bugs were homozygous for both kdr mutations (L419/I925), and a further 59% possessed at least one of the kdr mutations. We conclude that ineffective heat treatments, new introductions, reintroductions and local spread, and an exceptionally high frequency of pyrethroid resistance are responsible for chronic infestations in lower-income housing. Because heat treatments fail to protect from reintroductions, and pesticide use has not decreased the frequency of infestations, preventing new introductions and early detection are the most effective strategies to avoid bed bug

  7. The Effects of College Counseling on High-Achieving, Low-Income Students. NBER Working Paper No. 16359

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study, using a randomized controlled trial to provide college counseling to high-achieving students from relatively poor families. We followed 107 high school seniors through the college admissions process in 2006-2007; we selected 52 of these students at random, offering them ten hours of individualized…

  8. Tax Bunching, Income Shifting and Self-employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Maire, Christian Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    This paper proposes a dynamic extension to Saez (2010) bunching formula that allows us to distinguish bunching based on real responses and income shifting. We provide direct evidence of income shifting and pronounced bunching in taxable income for the case of Danish self-employed. If income...... shifting was neglected in this case, we would conclude that taxable incomes were highly sensitive to changes in marginal tax rates. We show, however, that more than half of the observed bunching in taxable income for the self-employed is driven by intertemporal income shifting, implying a structural...

  9. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  10. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  11. [High energy physics research]: Annual performance report, December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992. [Northwestern Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J; Block, M; Buchholz, D; Gobbi, B; Schellman, H; Buchholz, D; Rosen, J; Miller, D; Braaten, E; Chang, D; Oakes, R; Schellman, H

    1992-01-01

    The various segments of the Northwestern University high energy physics research program are reviewed. Work is centered around experimental studies done primarily at FNAL; associated theoretical efforts are included.

  12. Digitalization of incoming mail and incoming bills

    OpenAIRE

    Huč, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overview of the processes involved in the digitalization of materials and having consideration of legal regulations, restrictions and recommendations, make the digitalization process of incoming mail and incoming bills as a cloud-based service. Having an efficient document management system has a significantly positive effect on an organization. In order for documents to be managed more easily and efficiently, they must be converted into an electron...

  13. The sensitivity of income polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at polarization and its components' sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...

  14. Mental problems and their socio-demographic determinants in young schoolchildren in Sweden, a country with high gender and income equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Helena; Bergström, Erik; Hägglöf, Bruno; Öhman, Ann; Petersen, Solveig

    2016-02-01

    Mental problems and their potential socio-demographic determinants were investigated in young schoolchildren in Sweden, a high-income country in the top of income- and gender-equality rankings. Cross-sectional study of 1465 schoolchildren in grades 3 and 6. Mental health was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self Report (Total problems and 14 specific problem areas). Potential socio-demographic determinants were sex, parental education and occupation, family structure, and immigrant status. Mental problems were present in 14% of the sixth graders and in 7% of the third graders. In grade 3, the mean total problem score was lower in girls than in boys, but the prevalence of problems at a subclinical/clinical level did not differ by sex. Furthermore, in nine to 13 of the 14 specific problem areas, problems were equally distributed by sex, parental education, parental occupation, immigrant status, and family structure. In grade 6, both the total mean score and the overall odds of subclinical/clinical problems were similar in girls and boys. Likewise, in all the specific problem areas, problems were evenly distributed by parental education and occupation, and only independently associated with immigrant status and family structure in one problem area. In five specific problem areas, boys had higher odds of problems than girls. This study shows that also in a relatively wealthy and equal country such as Sweden, mental problems are a significant child public health issue. The association between socio-demographic background and mental problems seems to be rather weak, but differ dependent on the type of mental problem in focus. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. Race, Poverty and SAT Scores: Modeling the Influences of Family Income on Black and White High School Students' SAT Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Roman, Ezekiel J.; Everson, Howard T.; McArdle, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational policy makers and test critics often assert that standardized test scores are strongly influenced by factors beyond individual differences in academic achievement such as family income and wealth. Unfortunately, few empirical studies consider the simultaneous and related influences of family income, parental education, and…

  16. Correlates to Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Status and Willingness to Vaccinate in Low-Income Philadelphia High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah B.; Leader, Amy; Shwarz, Michelle; Greener, Judith; Patterson, Freda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination or willingness to be vaccinated in urban, minority adolescents. Methods: Using responses to the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Philadelphia, a random sample of high schools provided weighted data representing 20,941 9th to 12th graders. Stratified by…

  17. Ethnic Factors in Mental Health Service Utilisation among People with Intellectual Disability in High-Income Countries: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An emerging literature suggests that ethnic and cultural factors influence service utilisation among people with intellectual disability (ID), but this has not previously been reviewed. Aims: To investigate possible ethnic variation in uptake of mental health services in children, adolescents and adults with ID in high-income…

  18. Sleep Quality and Quantity in Low-Income Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jennifer J; Szabo, Aniko; Goyal, Deepika; Babler, Elizabeth

    To describe and explore patterns of postpartum sleep, fatigue, and depressive symptoms in low-income urban women. In this descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental study, participants were recruited from an inpatient postpartum unit. Subjective measures were completed by 132 participants across five time points. Objective sleep/wake patterns were measured by 72-hour wrist actigraphy at 4 and 8 weeks. Mean sample age was 25 years, high school educated with 3.1 children. Over half the sample reported an annual income less than 50% of the federal poverty level. Objectively, total nighttime sleep was 5.5 hours (week 4) and 5.4 hours (week 8). Subjectively, 85% met criteria for "poor sleep quality" at week 4, and nearly half were persistently and severely fatigued through 8 weeks postpartum. The majority (65%) of women in this study met the definition of "short sleep duration," defined as sleeping ≤ 6 hours per night. Adverse effects of this short sleep on physical and mental health as well as safety and functioning, especially within the context of poverty, may be profound. There is an urgent need for further research on sleep in low-income underrepresented women to identify interventions that can improve sleep and fatigue as well as discern the implications of sleep deprivation on the safety and physical and mental health of this population.

  19. Large capacity, multi-fuel, and high temperature working fluid heaters to optimize CSP plant cost, complexity and annual generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, J. H.; Viscuso, L.; Hellwig, U.; McIntyre, P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the potential to optimize high temperature fluid back-up systems for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants by investigating the cost impact of component capacity and the impact of using multiple fuels on annual generation. Until now back-up heaters have been limited to 20MWth capacity but larger units have been realised in other industries. Installing larger units yields economy-of-scale benefits through improved manufacturing, optimised transport, and minimized on-site installation work. Halving the number of back-up boilers can yield cost reduction of 23% while minimizing plant complexity and on-site construction risk. However, to achieve these benefits it is important to adapt the back-up heaters to the plant's requirements (load change, capacity, minimum load, etc.) and design for manufacture, transport and assembly. Despite the fact that biomass availability is decreasing with increasing direct normal irradiance (DNI), some biomass is available in areas suitable for CSP plants. The use of these biomass resources is beneficial to maximise annual renewable energy generation, substitute natural gas, and use locally/seasonally available biomass resources that may not be used otherwise. Even small biomass quantities of only 50,000 t/a can increase the capacity factor of a 50MWe parabolic trough plant with 7h thermal energy storage from 40 to 49%. This is a valuable increase and such a concept is suitable for new plants and retrofit applications. However, similar to the capacity optimisation of back-up heaters, various design criteria have to be considered to ensure a successful project.

  20. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. Annual progress report, September 1, 1991--September 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R & D.

  1. Recruiting underrepresented minority and low-income high school students into dentistry while educating dental and dental hygiene students about academic careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglehart, Marita R; Stefanac, Stephen J; Johnson, Kimberly P; Gwozdek, Anne E; May, Kenneth B; Piskorowski, William; Woolfolk, Marilyn W

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to create a program that would expose underrepresented minority (URM) and low income (LI) high school students to dental professions and provide an opportunity for dental and dental hygiene students from URM/LI groups to be engaged in teaching activities. Data were collected from participants during the school years 2009-10 (high school students: N=23, dental students: N=21, dental hygiene students: N=5) and 2010-11 (N=27, N=11, N=3, respectively). The students participated in fifteen Saturday sessions from October through March each year. The data showed that, from the beginning, mentees and mentors were very interested in participating in the program and getting to know each other. Lectures, general program activities, and patient-related events such as organizing a health fair and shadowing during two outreach clinics were evaluated positively by mentees and mentors. The end of program evaluations showed that the program and the mentee-mentor relationships were rated very positively and that the mentees had an increased interest in oral health-related careers. In conclusion, creating opportunities for URM/LI high school students to explore dental careers and for dental and dental hygiene students to engage in teaching resulted in positive experiences for both groups.

  2. The high-risk recipient: the Eighth Annual American Society of Transplant Surgeons' State-of-the-Art Winter Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Randall S; Pomfret, Elizabeth A; Andreoni, Kenneth A; Baker, Talia B; Peters, Thomas G

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of organ transplantation has produced results so successful that many transplant programs commonly see recipients with medical risks, which in the past, would have prohibited transplantation. The Eighth Annual American Society of Transplant Surgeons State-of-the-Art Winter Symposium focused on the high-risk recipient. The assessment of risk has evolved over time, as transplantation has matured. The acceptance of risk associated with a given candidate today is often made in consideration of the relative value of the organ to other candidates, the regulatory environment, and philosophical notions of utility, equity, and fairness. In addition, transplant programs must balance outcomes, transplant volume, and the costs of organ transplantation, which are impacted by high-risk recipients. Discussion focused on various types of high-risk recipients, such as those with coronary artery disease, morbid obesity, and hepatitis C; strategies to reduce risk, such as down-staging of hepatocellular carcinoma and treatment of pulmonary hypertension; the development of alternatives to transplantation; and the degree to which risk can or should be used to define candidate selection. These approaches can modify the impact of recipient risk on transplant outcomes and permit transplantation to be applied successfully to a greater variety of patients.

  3. Dengue outbreak investigations in a high-income urban setting, Kaohsiung City in Taiwan, 2003-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Schiøler, Karin Linda; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2012-01-01

    Kaohsiung City, a modern metropolis of 1.5 million persons, has been the focus of dengue virus activity in Taiwan for several decades. The aim of this study was to provide a temporal and spatial description of dengue virus epidemiology in Kaohsiung City by using data for all laboratory......-confirmed dengue cases during 2003-2009. We investigated age- and sex-dependent incidence rates and the spatiotemporal patterns of all cases confirmed through passive or active surveillance. Elderly persons were at particularly high risk for dengue virus-related sickness and death. Of all confirmed cases, ˜75...

  4. Annual report Development and characterization of solidified forms for high-level wastes: 1978.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Mendel, J.E.

    1979-12-01

    Development and characterization of solidified high-level waste forms are directed at determining both process properties and long-term behaviors of various solidified high-level waste forms in aqueous, thermal, and radiation environments. Waste glass properties measured as a function of composition were melt viscosity, melt electrical conductivity, devitrification, and chemical durability. The alkali metals were found to have the greatest effect upon glass properties. Titanium caused a slight decrease in viscosity and a significant increase in chemical durability in acidic solutions (pH-4). Aluminum, nickel and iron were all found to increase the formation of nickel-ferrite spinel crystals in the glass. Four multibarrier advanced waste forms were produced on a one-liter scale with simulated waste and characterized. Glass marbles encapsulated in a vacuum-cast lead alloy provided improved inertness with a minimal increase in technological complexity. Supercalcine spheres exhibited excellent inertness when coated with pyrolytic carbon and alumina and put in a metal matrix, but the processing requirements are quite complex. Tests on simulated and actual high-level waste glasses continue to suggest that thermal devitrification has a relatively small effect upon mechanical and chemical durabilities. Tests on the effects radiation has upon waste forms also continue to show changes to be relatively insignificant. Effects caused by decay of actinides can be estimated to saturate at near 10/sup 19/ alpha-events/cm/sup 3/ in homogeneous solids. Actually, in solidified waste forms the effects are usually observed around certain crystals as radiation causes amorphization and swelling of th crystals.

  5. LEAF NITROGEN PRODUCTIVITY AS A MECHANISM DRIVING THE SUCCESS OF INVASIVE ANNUAL GRASSES UNDER LOW AND HIGH NITROGEN SUPPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasion of the historically perennial-dominated landscapes in the Great Basin by exotic winter annual grasses is one of the most serious plant invasions in North America. Evidence suggests invasive annuals maintain greater growth and competitive ability than native perennials under N-poor and N-ri...

  6. 14th annual Results and Review Workshop on High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Wolfgang E; Resch, Michael M; Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2011; High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '11

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in simulation on supercomputers. Leading researchers present results achieved on systems of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) for the year 2011. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering, ranging from CFD to computational physics and chemistry, to computer science, with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting results for both vector systems and microprocessor-based systems, the book allows readers to compare the performance levels and usability of various architectures. As HLRS

  7. High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, Scot [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Power electronics that use high-temperature devices pose a challenge for thermal management. With the devices running at higher temperatures and having a smaller footprint, the heat fluxes increase from previous power electronic designs. This project overview presents an approach to examine and design thermal management strategies through cooling technologies to keep devices within temperature limits, dissipate the heat generated by the devices and protect electrical interconnects and other components for inverter, converter, and charger applications. This analysis, validation, and demonstration intends to take a multi-scale approach over the device, module, and system levels to reduce size, weight, and cost.

  8. The Sensitivity of Income Polarization - Time, length of accounting periods, equivalence scales, and income definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain

    This study looks at polarization and its components’ sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...... that polarization has increased over time, regardless of the applied measure, when the last part of the period is compared to the first part of the period. Primary causes being increased inequality (alienation) and faster income growth among high incomes relative to those in the middle of the distribution....... Increasing the accounting period confirms the reduction in inequality found for shorter periods, but polarization is virtually unchanged, because income group identification increases. Applying different equivalence scales does not change polarization ranking for different years, but identification ranks...

  9. Pattern of Ownership and Income Distribution:In View of “Middle-Income Trap”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui Na

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China comes into the ranks of middle-income countries, “middle-income trap” problem become highly attention. Income inequality is the most important factor of fall into this trap. By analyzing the actual information and data, finds out that the main reason for this widening gap between income distributions is the vigorous developments of the private owned company, led to the big gap of the income between owner of the company and normal workers. Then by analyzing and validating the actual mathematical model, and turns out the same result. To solve the problem of “middle-income trap”, we must deal with the income inequality, need to strengthen the guidance and supervision while encourage the development of the private economy. Unswervingly adhere to the public sector of the economy’s dominant position, and continue to develop and perfect the public sector of the economy, along with the corresponding supporting measures.

  10. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  11. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  12. High Temperature Materials Laboratory sixth annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1993-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its sixth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 172 nonproprietary agreements (88 university and 84 industry) and 35 proprietary agreements, (2 university, 33 industry) are now in effect. Six other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-eight states are represented by these interactions. Ninety-four nonproprietary research proposals (44 from universities, 47 from industry, and 3 from other government facilities) and three proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1993 are summarized.

  13. Theory of elementary particles and accelerator theory: Task C: Experimental high energy physics. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, J.E.

    1992-12-31

    The experimental high energy physics group at the University of Oregon broadened its effort during the past year. The SLD effort extends from maintaining and operating the SLD luminosity monitor which was built at Oregon, to significant responsibility in physics analysis, such as event selection and background analysis for the left-right asymmetry measurement. The OPAL work focussed on the luminosity monitor upgrade to a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. Building on the work done at Oregon for SLD, the tungsten for this upgrade was machined by the Oregon shops and shipped to CERN for assembly. The Oregon GEM effort now concentrates on tracking, specifically silicon tracking. Oregon also has developed a silicon strip preradiator prototype, and tested it in a Brookhaven beam.

  14. High Temperature Materials Laboratory fourth annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1991-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its fourth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 118 nonproprietary agreements (62 university and 56 industry) and 28 proprietary agreements (2 university, 26 industry) are now in effect. Five other government facilities have also participated in the user program. Sixty-free nonproprietary research proposals (38 from university, 26 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and four proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1991 are summarized.

  15. High Temperature Materials Laboratory fifth annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1992-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its fifth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy (DOE) User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 145 nonproprietary agreements (77 university and 68 industry) and 30 proprietary agreements (2 university, 28 industry) are now in effect. Five other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-six states are represented by these interactions. Eighty-one nonproprietary research proposals (44 from university, 36 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and six proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1992 are summarized.

  16. NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B. A.; Shah, S.; Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.; Yu, L.; Paradis, D.; Katiraei, F.; Seguin, R.; Costyk, D.; Woyak, J.; Jung, J.; Russell, K.; Broadwater, R.

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed to analyze the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to benefit from the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the installation of 500 megawatts (MW) of utility-scale PV systems (with 1-5 MW typical ratings) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE's service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC). This report provides the findings of the research completed under the project to date.

  17. Income inequality in today’s China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53–0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China’s high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China’s high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role. PMID:24778237

  18. Volunteering, income and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income. PMID:28273163

  19. The role of midlatitude mixing barriers in creating the annual variation of total ozone in high northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, John; Karol, Svetlana; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Yudin, Valery

    2014-08-01

    Data from the HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) are used to investigate the annual variation of total column ozone in high northern latitudes. Downward transport of ozone-rich air by the residual mean circulation during autumn and winter bends ozone isopleths down and increases the high-latitude ozone amounts, leading to an ozone maximum at the end of the winter. During the summer months eddy mixing acts to restore pre-fall distributions of ozone. In this study the large-scale mixing in the lower stratosphere is analyzed using Nakamura's (1996) equivalent length formulation with observed and simulated ozone. The analysis of ozone mixing is performed in the tracer equivalent latitude-potential temperature coordinate system. Steep latitudinal gradients of ozone isopleths below about 500 K occur during the winter, where there are minima in the equivalent length, indicating barriers to mixing at 30°N-40°N. This transport barrier allows large ozone maxima to develop poleward of it. The barrier disappears over the summer, permitting latitudinal mixing of the high ozone air. Above 500 K mixing is more effective during the winter, so a large winter maximum does not occur. In both midlatitude and high latitude the lower stratospheric layer from 330 to 500 K doubles its ozone content from autumn to spring, compared with much smaller changes in the layer from 500 to 650 K. Our results confirm that the presence of the winter transport barrier in the lower stratosphere controls the seasonal variation of total ozone.

  20. A synthesis of recent analyses of human resources for health requirements and labour market dynamics in high-income OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Birch, Stephen; MacKenzie, Adrian; Bradish, Stephanie; Elliott Rose, Annette

    2016-09-29

    Recognition of the importance of effective human resources for health (HRH) planning is evident in efforts by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Health Workforce Alliance (GHWA) to facilitate, with partner organizations, the development of a global HRH strategy for the period 2016-2030. As part of efforts to inform the development of this strategy, the aims of this study, the first of a pair, were (a) to conduct a rapid review of recent analyses of HRH requirements and labour market dynamics in high-income countries who are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and (b) to identify a methodology to determine future HRH requirements for these countries. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature, targeted website searches, and multi-stage reference mining were conducted. To supplement these efforts, an international Advisory Group provided additional potentially relevant documents. All documents were assessed against predefined inclusion criteria and reviewed using a standardized data extraction tool. In total, 224 documents were included in the review. The HRH supply in the included countries is generally expected to grow, but it is not clear whether that growth will be adequate to meet health care system objectives in the future. Several recurring themes regarding factors of importance in HRH planning were evident across the documents reviewed, such as aging populations and health workforces as well as changes in disease patterns, models of care delivery, scopes of practice, and technologies in health care. However, the most common HRH planning approaches found through the review do not account for most of these factors. The current evidence base on HRH labour markets in high-income OECD countries, although large and growing, does not provide a clear picture of the expected future HRH situation in these countries. Rather than HRH planning methods and analyses being guided by explicit HRH policy questions

  1. Impacts of household income and economic recession on participation in colorectal cancer screening in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of household income and economic recession on participation in CRC screening, we estimated annual participating proportions from 2007 to 2009 for different CRC screening modalities according to household income levels. A total of 8,042 subjects were derived from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for CRC screening with household income quartiles by gender in each year. People were less likely to attend a high-cost CRC screening such as a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy independent of the income quartile during the economic recession. Income disparities for participating in opportunistic cancer screening appear to have existed among both males and females during the three years (2007-2009), but were most distinctive in 2009. An increase in mortality of CRC can therefore be expected due to late detection in periods of economic crisis. Accordingly, the government should expand the coverage of CRC screening to prevent excess deaths by reducing related direct and indirect costs during the economic recession.

  2. Income diversification and risk for fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperski, Stephen; Holland, Daniel S

    2013-02-05

    Catches and prices from many fisheries exhibit high interannual variability, leading to variability in the income derived by fishery participants. The economic risk posed by this may be mitigated in some cases if individuals participate in several different fisheries, particularly if revenues from those fisheries are uncorrelated or vary asynchronously. We construct indices of gross income diversification from fisheries at the level of individual vessels and find that the income of the current fleet of vessels on the US West Coast and in Alaska is less diverse than at any point in the past 30 y. We also find a dome-shaped relationship between the variability of individuals' income and income diversification, which implies that a small amount of diversification does not reduce income risk but that higher levels of diversification can substantially reduce the variability of income from fishing. Moving from a single fishery strategy to a 50-25-25 split in revenues reduces the expected coefficient of variation of gross revenues between 24% and 65% for the vessels included in this study. The increasing access restrictions in many marine fisheries through license reductions and moratoriums have the potential to limit fishermen's ability to diversify their income risk across multiple fisheries. Catch share programs often result in consolidation initially and may reduce diversification. However, catch share programs also make it feasible for fishermen to build a portfolio of harvest privileges and potentially reduce their income risk. Therefore, catch share programs create both threats and opportunities for fishermen wishing to maintain diversified fishing strategies.

  3. Smaller Real Regional Income Gap than Nominal Income Gap: A Price-adjusted Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojuan Jiang; Hui Li

    2006-01-01

    Two factors determining the level of living in different areas are income level and price level.Current studies on regional gaps concentrate on the gap in income levels. The present paper studies the impact of the two variables on the real living standards in different regions, with the real gap in the living standards calculated with price adjustment by taking into consideration only the deviations brought about by cash income. The basic conclusion is that, despite China's economy having witnessed rapid growth, the statistics at the macro level cannot disguise the obvious gaps among regions; therefore, as a result of the impact of income and price, the real gap in the living standards among different regions is smaller than the gap indicated by the nominal income level. As people are sensitive to cash income level, they have a low sensitivity to changes in real purchasing power. In other words, in areas that have the same real income levels, people tend to think that people live better when the nominal income and price are both high. The differences in price indices among different regions show that the same cash income can get different goods and services in different regions. This explains the rationale of the existence of floating workers among different regions. On this basis, we predict that people working in high-income areas who enjoy higher levels of social security might prefer to live in low-priceareas after retirement if the social security payment method becomes more flexible.

  4. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction Among 13 year Old Boys and Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    . National income and income inequality were associated with aggregated life satisfaction score and prevalence of high life satisfaction. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction existed even after adjustment for family structure. This relationship was curvilinear and varied cross...

  5. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory high digestive bleeding hospital income / Ingresos hospitalarios por hemorragia digestiva alta por antiinflamatorios no esteroidicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valls MD

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available From year 1997 the Requena Hospital Pharmacy Service maintain a program of detection and prevention of drugs-related problems hospital income (DRPI. The program is coordinated with the Primary Care Pharmacy Service for the establishment of the preventive measures. The DRPI program establishes feedback, collective and/or individualized, on the agents of health of the Health Area and on the population in general, according to the cases, as it bases for the prevention of DRPIs. Methods: The detection of IDRP is made by means of revision of the diagnoses gathered in the admission book of the Emergency Department and the HIGIA database. Clinical records of the patients are retrospectively analyzed. Medical criteria, specifically gathered in clinical history, are accepted for the imputability establishment. Results: In period 1997-2003, 195 drug-related high digestive hemorrhage hospital income (HDH have been detected: 188 by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID, in two cases the NSAID could not settle down cause, 3 by ticlopidine, 3 by metamizole and 1 by clopidogrel. In 45 cases (23% the involved medicine was over the counter (OTC, 58 cases were related to low doses aspirin (AAS, 15 cases related to the association of NSAIDs or NSAIDs with low doses AAS and 70 cases were produced by non-aspirin-NSAIDs or non-OTC-AAS to doses of 500mg. 80% of the cases of HDH by AAS to low doses took place in patients of 69 years old or older. In 85% of the cases of HDH by non-aspirin- NSAID or non-OTC-AAS of 500mg with gastro-protection criteria this had not been used. In the three cases of HDH by metamizole patients were older than 80 years and with HDH antecedents. Conclusions: The low use of gastroprotection between the affected population of HDH by NSAIDs in spite of the existence of clear factors of risk concludes. Gastroprotection in patients dealt with low doses AAS and equal or greater age about 69 years although the age were the only factor of risk

  6. The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brocklehurst Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation.

  7. The role of public law-based litigation in tobacco companies’ strategies in high-income, FCTC ratifying countries, 2004–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sarah L.; Gilmore, Anna B.; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies use a host of strategies to undermine public health efforts directed to reduce and eliminate smoking. The success, failure and trends in domestic litigation used by tobacco companies to undermine tobacco control are not well understood, with commentators often assuming disputes are trade related or international in nature. We analyse domestic legal disputes involving tobacco companies and public health actors in high-income countries across the last decade to ascertain the types of action and the success or failure of cases, develop effective responses. Methods WorldLii, a publicly available online law repository, was used to identify domestic court cases involving tobacco companies from 2004 to 2014, while outcome data from LexisNexis and Westlaw databases were used to identify appeals and trace case history. Results We identified six domestic cases in the UK, Australia and Canada, noting that the tobacco industry won only one of six cases; a win later usurped by legislative reform and a further court case. Nevertheless, we found cases involve significant resource costs for governments, often progressing across multiple jurisdictional levels. Discussion We suggest that, in light of our results, while litigation takes up significant time and incurs legal costs for health ministries, policymakers must robustly fend off suggestions that litigation wastes taxpayers' money, pointing to the good prospects of winning such legal battles. PMID:26036703

  8. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  9. Speed and income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...

  10. Income, leisure, and happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, A.A.J. van

    2008-01-01

    The income-leisure trade-off, whilst prominent in textbooks, is largely absent in the incomehappiness debate. Multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling is introduced and used to investigate the income-leisure-happiness nexus. Leisure has a positive effect on happiness, but lowers the effect of

  11. Income Elasticity Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income grow...

  12. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  13. Factor Determining Income Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractSince the phrase income distribution covers a large number of different concepts, it is necessary to define these and to indicate the choice made in this article. Income for a given recipient may cover lists of items which are not always the same. Apart from popular misunderstandings abo

  14. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...

  15. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution of r...

  16. Income distribution: Second thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractAs a follow-up of his book on income distribution the author reformulates his version on the scarcity theory of income from productive contributions. The need to introduce into an earnings theory several job characteristics, non-cognitive as well as cognitive, and the corresponding perso

  17. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...

  18. Forests beyond income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2013-01-01

    , depth and severity on the one hand, and the dependency of rural poor and non-poor households on forest and environmental resources on the other. The three variants of the FGT poverty index, with and without forest and environmental income, and the relative shares of each livelihood activities...... to the total income accounting of the poor and the non-poor were estimated. The results indicate that forest and environmental income was the second important livelihood activity to both poor and non-poor households next to crop production - contributing about 22.46 and 24.14 percent to the poor and non......-poor sample households respectively. With regard to the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty, dramatic increase in the incidence, depth and severity of poverty were observed when forest and environmental income was excluded from sample households' total income accounting...

  19. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...

  20. Analysis of Income Inequality Based on Income Mobility for Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has achieved sustained high-speed growth. However, the widening gaps in income, especially for rural China, seem to be a dark lining to these extraordinary achievements. Taking the duration of poverty into the consideration, this article analyzes the income inequality of rural per capita net income (RPCNI based on income mobility in rural China. Analysis results showed that Gini coefficient of RPCNI declined, but that income mobility was mainly limited in the interior for low- and high-income groups. Income inequalities rose sharply within eastern and western China from 1990 to 2010. Benefiting from the developed economy, the upward mobility was universal in eastern China. The spillover effect on neighboring poor counties was feeble in western China, which directly caused long-term rich and poor. The Gini coefficient of RPCNI in central China was always at a low level, corresponding to the phenomenon of short-term rich and long-term poor. In northeastern China, the Gini coefficient sharply decreased and the large body of income mobility between non-neighboring groups was quite remarkable. The spatial pattern of intra-provincial Gini coefficient and income mobility of RPCNI has been divided by the “HU line”, which is a “geo-demographic demarcation line” discovered by Chinese population geographer HU Huanyong in 1935. In southeastern China, the characteristics of income mobility of each county depended on the distance between the county and the capital city. The spatial pattern of income mobility of RPCNI in agricultural provinces was different from that in non-agricultural provinces. According to the income inequality and income mobility, appropriate welfare and development policies was proposed to combat rural poverty at both regional and provincial scales.

  1. "Tracking the Middle-income Trap: What Is It, Who Is in It, and Why?"

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe, Jesus; Abdon, Arnelyn; Kumar, Utsav

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a working definition of what the middle-income trap is. We start by defining four income groups of GDP per capita in 1990 PPP dollars: low-income below $2,000; lower-middle-income between $2,000 and $7,250; upper-middle-income between $7,250 and $11,750; and high-income above $11,750. We then classify 124 countries for which we have consistent data for 1950–2010. In 2010, there were 40 low-income countries in the world, 38 lower-middle-income, 14 upper-middle-income, and 3...

  2. "Tracking the Middle-income Trap: What Is It, Who Is in It, and Why?"

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe, Jesus; Abdon, Arnelyn; Kumar, Utsav

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a working definition of what the middle-income trap is. We start by defining four income groups of GDP per capita in 1990 PPP dollars: low-income below $2,000; lower-middle-income between $2,000 and $7,250; upper-middle-income between $7,250 and $11,750; and high-income above $11,750. We then classify 124 countries for which we have consistent data for 1950–2010. In 2010, there were 40 low-income countries in the world, 38 lower-middle-income, 14 upper-middle-income, and 3...

  3. Elderly poverty and Supplemental Security Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, poverty is generally assessed on the basis of income, as reported in the Current Population Survey's (CPS's) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), using an official poverty standard established in the 1960s. The prevalence of receipt of means-tested transfers is underreported in the CPS, with uncertain consequences for the measurement of poverty rates by both the official standard and by using alternative "relative" measures linked to the contemporaneous income distribution. The article reports results estimating the prevalence of poverty in 2002. We complete this effort by using a version of the 2003 CPS/ASEC for which a substantial majority (76 percent) of respondents have individual records matching administrative data from the Social Security Administration on earnings and receipt of income from the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. Adjustment of the CPS income data with administrative data substantially improves coverage of SSI receipt. The consequence for general poverty is sensitive to the merge procedures employed, but under both sets of merge procedures considered, the estimated poverty rate among all elderly persons and among elderly SSI recipients is substantially less than rates estimated using the unadjusted CPS. The effect of the administrative adjustment is less significant for perception of relative poverty than for absolute poverty. We emphasize the effect of these adjustments on perception of poverty among the elderly in general and elderly SSI recipients in particular.

  4. How much does it cost to improve access to voluntary medical male circumcision among high-risk, low-income communities in Uganda?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Larson

    Full Text Available The Ugandan Ministry of Health has endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy and has set ambitious goals (e.g., 4.2 million circumcisions by 2015. Innovative strategies to improve access for hard to reach, high risk, and poor populations are essential for reaching such goals. In 2009, the Makerere University Walter Reed Project began the first facility-based VMMC program in Uganda in a non-research setting. In addition, a mobile clinic began providing VMMC services to more remote, rural locations in 2011. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the average cost of performing VMMCs in the mobile clinic compared to those performed in health facilities (fixed sites. The difference between such costs is the cost of improving access to VMMC.A micro-costing approach was used to estimate costs from the service provider's perspective of a circumcision. Supply chain and higher-level program support costs are not included.The average cost (US$2012 of resources used per circumcision was $61 in the mobile program ($72 for more remote locations compared to $34 at the fixed site. Costs for community mobilization, HIV testing, the initial medical exam, and staff for performing VMMC operations were similar for both programs. The cost of disposable surgical kits, the additional upfront cost for the mobile clinic, and additional costs for staff drive the differences in costs between the two programs. Cost estimates are relatively insensitive to patient flow over time.The MUWRP VMMC program improves access for hard to reach, relatively poor, and high-risk rural populations for a cost of $27-$38 per VMMC. Costs to patients to access services are almost certainly less in the mobile program, by reducing out-of-pocket travel expenses and lost time and associated income, all of which have been shown to be barriers for accessing treatment.

  5. Income dynamics and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-12-01

    To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Income and poverty in a developing economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Ackland, G. J.; Mallick, S. K.

    2010-09-01

    We present a stochastic agent-based model for the distribution of personal incomes in a developing economy. We start with the assumption that incomes are determined both by individual labour and by stochastic effects of trading and investment. The income from personal effort alone is distributed about a mean, while the income from trade, which may be positive or negative, is proportional to the trader's income. These assumptions lead to a Langevin model with multiplicative noise, from which we derive a Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the income probability density function (IPDF) and its variation in time. We find that high earners have a power law income distribution while the low-income groups have a Levy IPDF. Comparing our analysis with the Indian survey data (obtained from the world bank website: http://go.worldbank.org/SWGZB45DN0) taken over many years we obtain a near-perfect data collapse onto our model's equilibrium IPDF. Using survey data to relate the IPDF to actual food consumption we define a poverty index (Sen A. K., Econometrica., 44 (1976) 219; Kakwani N. C., Econometrica, 48 (1980) 437), which is consistent with traditional indices, but independent of an arbitrarily chosen "poverty line" and therefore less susceptible to manipulation.

  7. Design Study for a Low-enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    This report documents progress made during fiscal year 2007 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium fuel (LEU). Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. A high volume fraction U/Mo-in-Al fuel could attain the same neutron flux performance as with the current, HEU fuel but materials considerations appear to preclude production and irradiation of such a fuel. A diffusion barrier would be required if Al is to be retained as the interstitial medium and the additional volume required for this barrier would degrade performance. Attaining the high volume fraction (55 wt. %) of U/Mo assumed in the computational study while maintaining the current fuel plate acceptance level at the fuel manufacturer is unlikely, i.e. no increase in the percentage of plates rejected for non-compliance with the fuel specification. Substitution of a zirconium alloy for Al would significantly increase the weight of the fuel element, the cost of the fuel element, and introduce an as-yet untried manufacturing process. A monolithic U-10Mo foil is the choice of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preliminary calculations indicate that with a modest increase in reactor power, the flux performance of the reactor can be maintained at the current level. A linearly-graded, radial fuel thickness profile is preferred to the arched profile currently used in HEU fuel because the LEU fuel media is a metal alloy foil rather than a powder. Developments in analysis capability and nuclear data processing techniques are underway with the goal of verifying the preliminary calculations of LEU flux performance. A conceptual study of the operational cost of an LEU fuel fabrication facility yielded the conclusion that the annual fuel cost to the HFIR would increase significantly from the current, HEU fuel cycle. Though manufacturing can be accomplished with existing technology

  8. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  9. INCOMING TOURISM IN TRANSNISTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia BAR-KOŁELIS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Incoming tourism is a valuable source of revenues, creating jobs and bringing wealth, whilst contributing to a sustainable development in a widely range of areas. It is a perfect choice for developing Transnistria, with great benefits for local economy and minimum negative impact on the environment, unfortunately unexplored by population and ignored by the government. The following paper makes a short radiography of incoming tourism in Transnistria, also mentions the two main trends of incoming tourism development in Transnistria, one based on Soviet heritance and second on historical artifacts, landscape and folklore.

  10. Tax Bunching, Income Shifting and Self-employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Maire, Christian Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    shifting was neglected in this case, we would conclude that taxable incomes were highly sensitive to changes in marginal tax rates. We show, however, that more than half of the observed bunching in taxable income for the self-employed is driven by intertemporal income shifting, implying a structural...

  11. Nuclear Physics Department annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents articles and abstracts published in foreign journals, covering the following subjects: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, applied physics, instrumentation, nonlinear phenomena and high energy physics

  12. Challenges and facilitators for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers in high-income countries: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertshaw, Luke; Dhesi, Surindar; Jones, Laura L

    2017-08-04

    To thematically synthesise primary qualitative studies that explore challenges and facilitators for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers in high-income countries. Systematic review and qualitative thematic synthesis. Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science. Search terms were combined for qualitative research, primary healthcare professionals, refugees and asylum seekers, and were supplemented by searches of reference lists and citations. Study selection was conducted by two researchers using prespecified selection criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool was conducted by the first author. A thematic synthesis was undertaken to develop descriptive themes and analytical constructs. Twenty-six articles reporting on 21 studies and involving 357 participants were included. Eleven descriptive themes were interpreted, embedded within three analytical constructs: healthcare encounter (trusting relationship, communication, cultural understanding, health and social conditions, time); healthcare system (training and guidance, professional support, connecting with other services, organisation, resources and capacity); asylum and resettlement. Challenges and facilitators were described within these themes. A range of challenges and facilitators have been identified for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers that are experienced in the dimensions of the healthcare encounter, the healthcare system and wider asylum and resettlement situation. Comprehensive understanding of these challenges and facilitators is important to shape policy, improve the quality of services and provide more equitable health services for this vulnerable group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  13. Mobile Technology, Cancer Prevention, and Health Status among Diverse, Low-Income Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q.; Griffith, Julia; Eddens, Katherine S.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Characterize mobile technology ownership, use, and relationship to self-reported cancer prevention behaviors and health status in a diverse, low-income sample of callers to 2-1-1. Design Secondary analyses of cross-sectional survey data from a larger trial collected from June 2010 to December 2012. Setting United Way Missouri 2-1-1 serves 99 of 114 counties and received 166,000 calls in 2011. Subjects The respondents (baseline n = 1,898; 4-month n = 1,242) were predominantly female, non-Hispanic Black, under 50, with ≤ high school education and annual income < $20,000. Measures Cell phone ownership and use and its relationship to cancer prevention services and health status were assessed via telephone-based survey using items adapted from previous research and the BRFSS. Smartphone ownership and use were also assessed. Analysis Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate associations between cell phone ownership and prevention and health status are reported. Results Three-fourths (74%) of study participants owned a cell phone and 19% owned a smartphone. Text messaging was the most popular use. Ownership was significantly associated with good to excellent health status and presence of smoke-free home policies in multivariate models. Conclusion Cell phone ownership is growing and has potential to deliver health information to low-income populations. With 16 million calls annually, the national 2-1-1 system may be a promising model and platform. PMID:24200336

  14. Income and Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We find that cognitive abilities, educational attainment, and some personality traits indirectly affect ideological preferences through changes in income. The effects of changes in personality traits on ideology directly and indirectly through income are in the same direction. However, the indirect...... effects of cognitive abilities and education often offset the direct effects of these variables on ideological preferences. That is, increases in cognitive abilities and education significantly increase income, which reduces the tendency of individuals to express leftist preferences. These indirect...... effects are in some cases sizeable relative to direct effects. The indirect effects of cognitive abilities through income overwhelm the direct effects such that increasing IQ increases rightwing preferences. For ideological preferences over economic policy the indirect effects of advanced education also...

  15. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  16. Filling the Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Income distribution has become one of the people’s main concerns in China where more than 30 years of reform and opening up have also resulted in an ever-expanding wealth gap. But narrowing down the

  17. Who is affected by neighbourhood income mix? gender, age, family, employment and income differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galster, G.; Andersson, R.; Musterd, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the degree to which the mixture of low-, middle- and high-income males in the neighbourhood affects the subsequent earnings of individuals, and aims to test explicitly the degree to which these impacts vary across gender, age, presence of children, employment status or income at

  18. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G; Walker, Susan P; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Christian, Parul; de Onis, Mercedes; Ezzati, Majid; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Katz, Joanne; Martorell, Reynaldo; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity. Low body-mass index, indicative of maternal undernutrition, has declined somewhat in the past two decades but continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa. Prevalence of maternal overweight has had a steady increase since 1980 and exceeds that of underweight in all regions. Prevalence of stunting of linear growth of children younger than 5 years has decreased during the past two decades, but is higher in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere and globally affected at least 165 million children in 2011; wasting affected at least 52 million children. Deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc result in deaths; deficiencies of iodine and iron, together with stunting, can contribute to children not reaching their developmental potential. Maternal undernutrition contributes to fetal growth restriction, which increases the risk of neonatal deaths and, for survivors, of stunting by 2 years of age. Suboptimum breastfeeding results in an increased risk for mortality in the first 2 years of life. We estimate that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011. Maternal overweight and obesity result in increased maternal morbidity and infant mortality. Childhood overweight is becoming an increasingly important contributor to adult obesity, diabetes, and non-communicable diseases. The high present and future disease burden caused by malnutrition in women of reproductive age, pregnancy, and children in the first 2 years of life should lead to interventions focused on these groups.

  19. Powerful Partnerships: Independent Colleges Share High-Impact Strategies for Low-Income Students' Success. New Agenda Series. Volume 5, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumina Foundation for Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Colleges and universities face financial and educational challenges in educating low-income students. The challenges arise not only from the students' more limited financial resources, but also from often related factors that affect students' preparation for and motivation to pursue higher education. To address this problem in keeping with…

  20. School Counselors' Experiences with a Summer Group Curriculum for High-Potential Children from Low-Income Families: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2013-01-01

    School counselors facilitated group guidance for children from low-income families and assisted in classrooms with a full economic range during a summer academic program for young gifted children in order to increase knowledge about giftedness. This qualitative study explored how the counselors experienced being immersed with gifted children. The…

  1. School Counselors' Experiences with a Summer Group Curriculum for High-Potential Children from Low-Income Families: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2013-01-01

    School counselors facilitated group guidance for children from low-income families and assisted in classrooms with a full economic range during a summer academic program for young gifted children in order to increase knowledge about giftedness. This qualitative study explored how the counselors experienced being immersed with gifted children. The…

  2. Regional energy consumption and income differences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Internationally a debate on the distributional impact of energy taxation has focused on the tax burden relative to income. The general conclusion is that taxes are regressive, but at a varying degree for different countries. This study examines the relationship between location, income, heating...... of energy taxation, is higher in rural areas. Furthermore, the low-income households in rural areas consume much more energy than low-income households in urban areas. Low-income households in rural areas are, therefore, a group that is specifically exposed to increased energy taxation. Households living...... and transport taxes might be more uneven. In such cases, the environmental tax structure should compensate the low-income rural households. For countries with a high proportion of low-income households living in urban areas and little income inequality, this issue might, as in the Danish case, not be a problem...

  3. The implications of selective attrition for estimates of intergenerational elasticity of family income

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeni, Robert F.; Wiemers, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have estimated a high intergenerational correlation in economic status. Such studies do not typically attend to potential biases that may arise due to survey attrition. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics – the data source most commonly used in prior studies – we demonstrate that attrition is particularly high for low-income adult children with low-income parents and particularly low for high-income adult children with high-income parents. Because of this pattern of attr...

  4. Income inequality, individual income, and mortality in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten

    2002-01-01

    To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors.......To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors....

  5. 78 FR 64065 - Discontinuance of Annual Financial Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... defined priority group. Veterans enrolled in the VA health care system are placed in priority groups based... computer matching of income reported to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and Social Security... need for current enrollees to submit the annual financial assessment. VA will use the income matching...

  6. Decrease of morbidity in road traffic accidents in a high income country - an analysis of 24,405 accidents in a 21 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstberger, Antonio; Joeris, Alexander; Daigl, Monica; Kiss, Miklos; Angerpointner, Katharina; Nerlich, Michael; Schmucker, Uli

    2015-10-01

    The WHO initiated the "Decade of Action for Road Safety" because the fatality on road traffic accidents could become the fifth leading cause of death in 2030. On the contrary, fatalities continue to decrease in high income countries. The aim of the study was to find evidence for changes in injury severity of passenger car occupants after road traffic accidents in Germany over time, and to find contributing factors. Data from the German In Depth Accident Study (GIDAS), representative for Germany, was used. A total of 24.405 accidents, reported from 1991 until 2011. 44.503 adult passenger car occupants were examined. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to find reasons for observed trends over time. The relative decrease in mortality was 68.8% from 1991 until 2011. Between 2006 and 2011, the percentage of severely injured traffic victims was less than half, both in terms of the whole body and individual body regions. For injuries with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 2, the percentage of persons with lower leg injuries declined by 72.5%, followed by the percentage of persons with pelvic injuries (61.5%), upper extremity injuries (57.7%), head injuries (54.3%), thorax injuries (50.0%), and abdomen injuries (40.0%). The multivariable regression model found 13 independent variables associated with injury prevention (e.g. seat belt use: OR 0.41, CI 95% 0.32-0.49; airbag: OR 0.86, CI 95% 0.75-0.99). The implementation of protective factors increased over time while accident constellations with a high probability for severe injury decreased over time. The decrease of severe injuries after road traffic accidents can be only attributed to a comprehensive approach including the enforcement of road safety policies and innovations in car engineering and emergency medicine. Traffic related measures and alcohol level control, and seat belt usage enforcement next to other technical advances are considered especially important. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Annual cyclicity in high-resolution stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in the wood of the mangrove tree Rhizophora mucronata

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyden, A.; Gerhard Helle; G. H. Schleser; F. Dehairs; BEECKMAN, H.; Koedam, N.;  

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the high-resolution stable carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) isotope ratio profiles in the wood of the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata Lam., a tropical tree species lacking distinct growth rings, were investigated. Variations of both isotope ratios revealed a remarkable annual cyclicity with lowest values occurring at the latewood/earlywood boundary (April–May) and highest values during the transition from earlywood to latewood (October–November). Based on the current ...

  8. Annual cyclicity in high-resolution stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in the wood of the mangrove tree Rhizophora mucronata

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyden, A.; Helle, G.; G. H. Schleser; F. Dehairs; BEECKMAN, H.; Koedam, N.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the high-resolution stable carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and oxygen ((18)O/(16)O) isotope ratio profiles in the wood of the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata Lam., a tropical tree species lacking distinct growth rings, were investigated. Variations of both isotope ratios revealed a remarkable annual cyclicity with lowest values occurring at the latewood/earlywood boundary (April-May) and highest values during the transition from earlywood to latewood (October-November). Based on the ...

  9. Improved nonhuman animal welfare is related more to income equality than it is to income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    The link between nonhuman animal welfare, income, and income inequality (Gini coefficient) was tested using consumption of animal products, laws protecting animals on the farm from the worst abuses, and animals used in experimentation as indicators. Experimentation on all animals and on rodents significantly increased in high-income European countries, although there was some evidence that the increase in experimentation on cats and dogs started to flatten out for the highest income countries. Consumption of all flesh products in high-income countries declined in more equal societies. More equal high-income countries also had stricter regulations protecting animals, although the same correlation was not seen between U.S. states. In New Zealand, there was some evidence that testing on cats and dogs declined during years when equality was improving. The results provide little evidence for a Kuznets effect of income on animal welfare, with the possible exception of companion animal treatment. They do, however, suggest that greater equality can be a predictor for better treatment of animals. Previous research has strongly suggested that social conditions for humans improve with greater equality. The same may be true for nonhuman animals. Alternatively, conditions conducive to improving human income equality may also lead to better animal welfare outcomes.

  10. The management of adult psychiatric emergencies in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Hanlon, Charlotte; Bhatia, Urvita; Fuhr, Daniela; Ragoni, Celina; de Azevedo Perocco, Sérgio Luiz; Fortes, Sandra; Shidhaye, Rahul; Kinyanda, Eugene; Rangaswamy, Thara; Patel, Vikram

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this Review is to identify effective interventions and treatment guidelines to manage common types of psychiatric emergencies in non-specialist settings in low-income and middle-income countries. Mental health specialist services in low-income and middle-income countries are scarce. We did a systematic review of interventions for psychiatric emergencies and a literature search for low-income and middle-income-specific treatment guidelines for psychiatric emergencies. A dearth of high-quality guidelines and contextualised primary evidence for management of psychiatric emergencies in low-income and middle-income countries exists. Filling these gaps in present guidelines needs to be an urgent research priority in view of the adverse health and social consequences of such presentations and the present drive to scale up mental health care.

  11. Earnings, employment and income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,

  12. 26 CFR 1.6038-1 - Information returns required of domestic corporations with respect to annual accounting periods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporation or foreign subsidiary regularly computes its income in keeping its books. The term “annual..., managerial, engineering, construction, scientific, or like services; (iv) Commissions paid and...

  13. High annual radon concentration in dwellings and natural radioactivity content in nearby soil in some rural areas of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulan Ljiljana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some previous studies on radon concentration in dwellings of some areas of Kosovo and Metohija have revealed a high average radon concentration, even though the detectors were exposed for three months only. In order to better design a larger study in this region, the annual measurements in 25 houses were carried out as a pilot study. For each house, CR-39-based passive devices were exposed in two rooms for the two consecutive six-month periods to account for seasonal variations of radon concentration. Furthermore, in order to correlate the indoor radon with radium in nearby soil and to improve the knowledge of the natural radioactivity in the region, soil samples near each house were collected and 226Ra, 232Th, 40K activity concentration were measured. The indoor radon concentration resulted quite high from the average (163 Bq/m3 and generally it did not differ considerably between the two rooms and the two six-month periods. The natural radionuclides in soil resulted to be distributed quite uniformly. Moreover, the correlation between the226Ra content in soil and radon concentration in dwellings resulted to be low (R2=0.26. The annual effective dose from radon and its short-lived progeny (5.5 mSv, in average was calculated by using the last ICRP dose conversion factors. In comparison, the contribution to the annual effective dose of outdoor gamma exposure from natural radionuclides in soil is nearly negligible (66 mSv. In conclusion, the observed high radon levels are only partially correlated with radium in soil; moreover, a good estimate of the annual average of radon concentration can be obtained from a six-month measurement with a proper choice of exposure period, which could be useful when designing large surveys.

  14. 77 FR 17004 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... in need and are revised annually to account for changes in the Consumer Price Index. DATES: Effective... defined by the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601-612) and thus is exempt from the provisions of... deductions such as income taxes, Social Security taxes, insurance premiums, charitable contributions and...

  15. Spatial models for probabilistic prediction of wind power with application to annual-average and high temporal resolution data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzi, Amanda; Pinson, Pierre; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder;

    2016-01-01

    Producing accurate spatial predictions for wind power generation together with a quantification of uncertainties is required to plan and design optimal networks of wind farms. Toward this aim, we propose spatial models for predicting wind power generation at two different time scales: for annual...... that our method makes it possible to obtain fast and accurate predictions from posterior marginals for wind power generation. The proposed method is applicable in scientific areas as diverse as climatology, environmental sciences, earth sciences and epidemiology....

  16. Environmental income and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsen, Arild; Jagger, Pamela; Babigumira, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    comes from natural forests. Environmental income shares are higher for low-income households, but differences across income quintiles are less pronounced than previously thought. The poor rely more heavily on subsistence products such as wood fuels and wild foods, and on products harvested from natural...... areas other than forests. In absolute terms environmental income is approximately five times higher in the highest income quintile, compared to the two lowest quintiles....

  17. 12 CFR 346.7 - Annual reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as the Internal Revenue Service Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax on Form 990, or any other Internal Revenue Service form, state tax form, report to members or shareholders, audited or unaudited financial statements, audit report, or other report, so long as the annual report filed by...

  18. CSIR Annual report 1955-56

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the eleventh annual report of the CSIR, for the year ended October 4th 1956. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1956, certified by the Controller and Auditor general...

  19. CSIR Annual report 1949-50

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the fifth annual report of the CSIR for the year ended October 4th, 1950. In accordance with the requirements of the Scientific Research Council Act, the report also presents the balance sheet and statement of income expenditure certified...

  20. CSIR Annual report 1954-55

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the tenth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. For the year ended October 4th, 1955. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March, 1955...

  1. CSIR Annual report 1947-48

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1948-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the third annual report of the CSIR for the year ended October 5th, 1948. In accordance with the requirements of the Scientific Research Council Act, the report also presents the balance sheet and statement of income expenditure certified...

  2. CSIR Annual report 1952-53

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1953-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the eighth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. For the year ended October 4th, 1953. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March, 1953...

  3. CSIR Annual report 1951-52

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1952-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the seventh annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. For the year ended October 4th, 1952. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March, 1952...

  4. CSIR Annual report 1957-58

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the thirteen annual report of the CSIR. This report covers the period from the 1st April, 1957, to the 31st March, 1958, which coincides with the end of the Council’s financial year. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure...

  5. CSIR Annual report 1945-46

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first annual report of the CSIR for the year ended October 5th, 1946. In accordance with the requirements of the Scientific Research Council Act, the report also presents the balance sheet and statement of income expenditure certified...

  6. CSIR Annual report 1950-51

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1951-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the sixth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. For the year ended October 4th, 1951. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March, 1951...

  7. 5 CFR 2636.304 - The 15 percent limitation on outside earned income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ETHICS LIMITATIONS ON OUTSIDE EARNED INCOME, EMPLOYMENT AND AFFILIATIONS FOR CERTAIN NONCAREER EMPLOYEES Outside Earned Income Limitation and Employment and Affiliation Restrictions Applicable to Certain... calendar year which exceeds 15 percent of the annual rate of basic pay for level II of the...

  8. Filling the Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Income distribution has become one of the people's main concerns in China where more than 30years of reform and opening up have also resulted in an ever-expanding wealth gap.But narrowing down the rich-poor disparity will prove to be no easy task.Wei Zhong,a researcher with the Institute of Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,elaborated on the origins and trends of China's widening income gap,and discussed solutions to curb the gap,in a recent article.Edited excerpts follow:

  9. Income and wealth distribution of the richest Norwegian individuals: An inequality analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Maciej; Kutner, Ryszard; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Using the empirical data from the Norwegian tax office, we analyse the wealth and income of the richest individuals in Norway during the period 2010--2013. We find that both annual income and wealth level of the richest individuals are describable using the Pareto law. We find that the robust mean Pareto exponent over the four-year period to be $\\approx 2.3$ for income and $\\approx 1.5$ for wealth.

  10. Screening for ovarian cancer in women with varying levels of risk, using annual tests, results in high recall for repeat screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobbenhuis Marielle AE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed ovarian cancer screening outcomes in women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer divided into a low-, moderate- or high-risk group for development of ovarian cancer. Methods 545 women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer referred to the Ovarian Screening Service at the Royal Marsden Hospital, London from January 2000- December 2008 were included. They were stratified into three risk-groups according to family history (high-, moderate- and low-risk of developing ovarian cancer and offered annual serum CA 125 and transvaginal ultrasound screening. The high-risk group was offered genetic testing. Results The median age at entry was 44 years. The number of women in the high, moderate and low-risk groups was 397, 112, and 36, respectively. During 2266 women years of follow-up two ovarian cancer cases were found: one advanced stage at her fourth annual screening, and one early stage at prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO. Prophylactic BSO was performed in 138 women (25.3%. Forty-three women had an abnormal CA125, resulting in 59 repeat tests. The re-call rate in the high, moderate and low-risk group was 14%, 3% and 6%. Equivocal transvaginal ultrasound results required 108 recalls in 71 women. The re-call rate in the high, moderate, and low-risk group was 25%, 6% and 17%. Conclusion No early stage ovarian cancer was picked up at annual screening and a significant number of re-calls for repeat screening tests was identified.

  11. The end of decent social protection for the poor? The dynamics of low wages, minimum income packages and median household incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Cantillon; Diego Collado; Natascha Van Mechelen

    2015-01-01

    Why is it that, in almost three decades and despite growth of income, employment and high levels of social spending, even the most developed welfare states in the world failed to improve minimum income protection for families with children? To what extent the erosion of minimum income protection for the working age population compared to median household incomes has been occasioned by exogenous changes either in median household incomes or in gross low wages? Or, has the erosion been associat...

  12. Cash Transfers, Basic Income and Community Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn L. Forget

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The austerity movement in high-income countries of Europe and North America has renewed calls for a guaranteed Basic Income. At the same time, conditional and unconditional cash transfers accompanied by rigorous impact evaluations have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries with the explicit support of the World Bank. Both Basic Income and cash transfer programs are more confidently designed when based on empirical evidence and social theory that explain how and why cash transfers to citizens are effective ways of encouraging investment in human capital through health and education spending. Are conditional cash transfers more effective and/or more efficient than unconditional transfers? Are means-tested transfers effective? This essay draws explicit parallels between Basic Income and unconditional cash transfers, and demonstrates that cash transfers to citizens work in remarkably similar ways in low-, middle- and high-income countries. It addresses the theoretical foundation of cash transfers. Of the four theories discussed, three explicitly acknowledge the interdependence of society and are based, in increasingly complex ways, on ideas of social inclusion. Only if we have an understanding of how cash transfers affect decision-making can we address questions of how best to design cash transfer schemes.

  13. Effect of childhood victimization on occupational prestige and income trajectories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Fernandez

    Full Text Available Violence toward children (childhood victimization is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent's educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood.A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18-28 surveyed between 1999-2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999-2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models.Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1 childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2 mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims.Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the growth in prosperity due to lower

  14. Down With Income Taxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China increases its income tax exemption threshold to reduce tax burdens on low-wage earners As a company clerk, 32-year-old Ren Jun doesn’t make a lot of money.Of his meager paycheck, he needs to pay about 250 yuan ($39) in taxes each month. From September,

  15. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    , past partners, upbringing) and household characteristics (household income, duration of marriage, location of residence and the existence of public goods, including children). However, when all variables are evaluated in a common model, only the duration of marriage and the existence of children...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6655-2 - Annualized income installment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... period ending March 31, 2008 (as well as one quarter of any additional bonus liability properly... installment payments for its 2008 and 2009 taxable years. ABC is in the business of giving dancing lessons and... section 5.02 of Rev. Proc. 2004-34 for the advance payments it receives for dance lessons. On November...

  17. 24 CFR 92.216 - Income targeting: Tenant-based rental assistance and rental units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income targeting: Tenant-based... Requirements Income Targeting § 92.216 Income targeting: Tenant-based rental assistance and rental units. Each... prevailing levels of construction cost or fair market rent, or unusually high or low family income) at...

  18. Capturing the Correlations of Fixed-income Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Mulvey; Stavros A. Zenios (Editor of the Focused Issue)

    1994-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for managing portfolios of fixed income instruments based on traditional principles from the equities market, i.e., based on diversification. It shows, through an analysis of the high-yield bond market over the period 1987 to 1991, that fixed-income prices could be highly correlated. These correlations can be quantified and integrated, in a systematic way, in an asset/liability management framework. For vanishing fixed income securities, however, we cannot reso...

  19. Factors Affecting the Income of Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of factors affecting the income level of farmers in China,a total of 31 provinces,autonomous regions and municipality cities are taken as samples to select 13 factors affecting the income level of farmers,which are arable land area(X1),disaster area(X2),effective irrigation area(X3),fertilizer application(X4),mobile phone(X5),personal computer(X6),people joining in the new rural cooperative medical care(X7),rural investment(X8),household-use machine(X9),agricultural product price(X10),proportion of labor force with above junior high school education(X11),rural delivery route(X12),and rural electricity consumption(X13).At the same time,factor analysis method is used to analyze the factors affecting the income level of farmers.Result shows that common factors affecting the income of farmers are the agricultural production factor F1,the expanded reproduction factor F2,the information use factor F3,and the output reduction factor F4.At present,education degree of farmers and ability of farmers in grasping information have relatively great impact on the income of farmers,and can effectively promote the income growth of farmers.Scores of F1 in Henan,Shandong and Hebei are generally higher;Jiangsu,Guangdong,Zhejiang and Shandong Provinces have relatively high scores of F2;Shanghai,Beijing and Guangdong have relatively high scores of F3;and Hunan,Hubei and Xinjiang have relatively high scores of F4.Finally,countermeasures are put forward to improve the income of farmers based on empirical study.

  20. Adults and Children in Low-Income Households That Participate in Cost-Offset Community Supported Agriculture Have High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Karla L.; Kolodinsky, Jane; Wang, Weiwei; Morgan, Emily H.; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Ammerman, Alice S.; Sitaker, Marilyn; Seguin, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in low-income households that participated in a cost-offset (CO), or 50% subsidized, community-supported agriculture (CSA) program. CSA customers paid farms upfront for a share of the harvest, and received produce weekly throughout the growing season. A cohort of adults and children 2–12 y in a summer CO-CSA were surveyed online twice: August 2015 (n = 41) and February 2016 (n = 23). FVI was measured by the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Fruit and Vegetable Screener (FVS) and an inventory of locally grown fruits and vegetables. FVI relative to United States (US) recommendations and averages, and across seasons, were tested with non-parametric tests and paired t-tests (p < 0.05). Both adults and children in the CO-CSA had higher FVI than the US averages, and more often met recommendations for vegetables. Some summer fruits and vegetables were more often eaten when locally in-season. The CO-CSA model warrants further examination as an avenue for improving vegetable consumption among adults and children in low-income households. However, causality between CO-CSA participation and FVI cannot be inferred, as CO-CSA participants may be positive deviants with respect to FVI. A multi-state randomized controlled trial is currently underway to evaluate impacts of CO-CSAs on FVI and related outcomes. PMID:28698460

  1. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that elevate cardiovascular risk: an examination of sales and essential medicines lists in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McGettigan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs (e.g., rofecoxib [Vioxx] increase the risk of heart attack and stroke and should be avoided in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. Rates of cardiovascular disease are high and rising in many low- and middle-income countries. We studied the extent to which evidence on cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs has translated into guidance and sales in 15 countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on the relative risk (RR of cardiovascular events with individual NSAIDs were derived from meta-analyses of randomised trials and controlled observational studies. Listing of individual NSAIDs on Essential Medicines Lists (EMLs was obtained from the World Health Organization. NSAID sales or prescription data for 15 low-, middle-, and high-income countries were obtained from Intercontinental Medical Statistics Health (IMS Health or national prescription pricing audit (in the case of England and Canada. Three drugs (rofecoxib, diclofenac, etoricoxib ranked consistently highest in terms of cardiovascular risk compared with nonuse. Naproxen was associated with a low risk. Diclofenac was listed on 74 national EMLs, naproxen on just 27. Rofecoxib use was not documented in any country. Diclofenac and etoricoxib accounted for one-third of total NSAID usage across the 15 countries (median 33.2%, range 14.7-58.7%. This proportion did not vary between low- and high-income countries. Diclofenac was by far the most commonly used NSAID, with a market share close to that of the next three most popular drugs combined. Naproxen had an average market share of less than 10%. CONCLUSIONS: Listing of NSAIDs on national EMLs should take account of cardiovascular risk, with preference given to low risk drugs. Diclofenac has a risk very similar to rofecoxib, which was withdrawn from worldwide markets owing to cardiovascular toxicity. Diclofenac should be removed from EMLs.

  2. Assessment of a high resolution annual WRF-BEP/CMAQ simulation for the urban area of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Paz, David; Borge, Rafael; Martilli, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Urban air quality has become one of the main environmental issues worldwide and there is an increasing need for modelling tools able to accurately reproduce the complex atmospheric phenomena that determine pollutant concentrations within cities. Eulerian 3D mesoscale models can consistently describe a wide range of spatial scales. However, urban areas present features that are usually missed by land-surface and PBL modules commonly implemented in such models. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) incorporates urban parameterizations to take into account changes in albedo, roughness length and thermal properties imposed by buildings. In this study, a model configuration based on the multi-layer Building Effect Parameterization (BEP) scheme is tested over the city of Madrid with the primarily aim of understanding the effect that the use of this urban canopy model may have on routinely (annual) air quality modelling activities in this urban area using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. To do so, the results for the main meteorological variables (temperature, planetary boundary layer height and wind fields) are compared with those from the WRF reference configuration (based on the BULK simple scheme) that has been used in the past for practical applications in this urban area. Both model outputs are compared with observations to assess changes in model performance. It was found that the BEP-based configuration improved significantly wind speed results over built areas, with an annual average bias of -0.3 m s-1 in comparison with the 1.6 m s-1 yielded by the reference WRF run. Meteorological outputs from the two alternative configurations were used to feed the CMAQ model to assess the influence of this urban parameterization on air quality predictions. The effect was a clear improvement of the model performance regarding the most relevant pollutants, reducing NO2 underestimation to only 1.6 μg m-3. Model skills to reproduce O3 and PM2

  3. Labor Income Dynamics in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cristóbal Huneeus L.; Andrea Repetto L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of individual earnings using data from the personal income survey Encuesta Suplementaria de Ingresos. We find that the predictable component of income is humpshaped over the life-cycle, and that there are strong effects from education. The unpredictable component of income can be described by a very persistent permanent shock and a transitory shock. Our estimates are built from a panel of cohorts, so we use US data from the Panel Study of Income Dynam...

  4. 26 CFR 1.408-5 - Annual reports by trustees or issuers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408-5 Annual reports... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual reports by trustees or issuers. 1.408-5... of an individual retirement annuity shall make annual calendar year reports concerning the status...

  5. 26 CFR 1.442-1 - Change of annual accounting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of annual accounting period. 1.442-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Accounting Periods § 1.442-1 Change of annual accounting period. (a) Approval of the Commissioner. A taxpayer that has adopted an annual accounting period (as defined in § 1...

  6. Income, Ideology, and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Tausanovitch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Do legislators represent the rich better than they represent the poor? Recent work provides mixed support for this proposition. I test the hypothesis of differential representation using a data set on the political preferences of 318,537 individuals. Evidence of differential representation in the House of Representatives is weak. Support for differential representation is stronger in the Senate. In recent years, representation has occurred primarily through the selection of a legislator from the appropriate party. Although the preferences of higher-income constituents account for more of the variation in legislator voting behavior, higher-income constituents also account for much more of the variation in district preferences. In light of the low level of overall responsiveness, differential responsiveness appears small.

  7. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  8. 20 CFR 627.450 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definition of program income. (1) Program income means income received by the recipient or subrecipient that... for copyrighted material, patents, patent applications, trademarks, and inventions developed by...

  9. Launching Low-Income Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Kahliah

    2013-01-01

    With middle-income jobs in decline, entrepreneurship offers an increasingly promising pathway out of poverty; but few low-income New Yorkers are currently taking this route to economic self-sufficiency. This report provides the most comprehensive examination of low-income entrepreneurship in New York. The report documents current self-employment…

  10. Differences in healthcare expenditures for inflammatory bowel disease by insurance status, income, and clinical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michelle D; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, Kt

    2014-01-01

    Background. Socioeconomic factors and insurance status have not been correlated with differential use of healthcare services in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aim. To describe IBD-related expenditures based on insurance and household income with the use of inpatient, outpatient, emergency, and office-based services, and prescribed medications in the United States (US). Methods. We evaluated the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 1996 to 2011 of individuals with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Nationally weighted means, proportions, and multivariate regression models examined the relationships between income and insurance status with expenditures. Results. Annual per capita mean expenditures for CD, UC, and all IBD were $10,364 (N = 238), $7,827 (N = 95), and $9,528, respectively, significantly higher than non-IBD ($4,314, N = 276, 372, p 19.47]), with increased odds for inpatient and emergency care. Private insurance had higher costs associated with outpatient care, office-based care, and prescribed medicines. Low-income patients had lower costs associated with outpatient (OR 0.38, CI [0.15-0.95]) and office-based care (OR 0.21, CI [0.07-0.62]). Conclusions. In the US, high inpatient utilization among publicly insured patients is a previously unrecognized driver of high IBD costs. Bridging this health services gap between SES strata for acute care services may curtail direct IBD-related costs.

  11. Lifetime income patterns and alcohol consumption: investigating the association between long- and short-term income trajectories and drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki D; Galea, Sandro

    2011-10-01

    Lifetime patterns of income may be an important driver of alcohol use. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between long-term and short-term measures of income and the relative odds of abstaining, drinking lightly-moderately and drinking heavily. We used data from the US Panel Study on Income Dynamics (PSID), a national population-based cohort that has been followed annually or biannually since 1968. We examined 3111 adult respondents aged 30-44 in 1997. Latent class growth mixture models with a censored normal distribution were used to estimate income trajectories followed by the respondent families from 1968 to 1997, while repeated measures multinomial generalized logit models estimated the odds of abstinence (no drinks per day) or heavy drinking (at least 3 drinks a day), relative to light/moderate drinking (lifetime income patterns and alcohol use decreased in magnitude and became non-significant once we controlled for past-year income, education and occupation. Lifetime income patterns may have an indirect association with alcohol use, mediated through current socioeconomic conditions.

  12. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...... in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87...

  13. Parental Income and College Opportunity. DSC Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Charles F.

    This paper describes recent patterns of income stratification in American colleges. Data from the Current Population Survey provide estimates of college enrollment stratification by income during the period 1970-1988. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 and the High School and Beyond survey provide data for two cohorts…

  14. Increase of Income of Farmers and Herdsmen in Tibet in the New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelin; YAO; Gonggajiabu; Xinjian; ZHANG; Lianjiu; SONG; Qianlu; SUN

    2015-01-01

    The disposable income per capita of rural residents in Tibet was 7471 yuan in 2014. There is a high gap with the national average disposable income per capita of rural residents( 10489 yuan). Thus,it is urgent to increase income of farmers and herdsmen in Tibet. On the basis of literature in recent years,this paper analyzed methods for increasing income of farmers and herdsmen in Tibet,major factors restricting increase of their income,and approaches for increasing their income. It is expected to provide certain reference for further expanding ideas of increase of their income in the new period.

  15. Relating annual migration from high tuberculosis burden country of origin to changes in foreign-born tuberculosis notification rates in low-medium incidence European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanway, Aidan; Comiskey, Catherine M; Tobin, Katy; O'Toole, Ronan F

    2016-12-01

    The level of immigration from high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries (HBCs) which impacts on the foreign-born TB notification rate is largely unknown. In this work, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological data from 2000 to 2013 from nine European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Crude notification rates were calculated for foreign- and native-born populations and a multiple-linear regression model predicting notification rates with HBC population data was generated. From 2000 to 2013, the population percentage with a foreign birthplace increased on average each year in all nine countries, ranging from +0.11%/year in the Netherlands to +0.66%/year in Spain. An annual increase in HBC migrants above +0.43% per year (95% Confidence Interval: 0.24%-0.63%) corresponded with higher TB notification rates in the foreign-born population of the countries analyzed. This indicates that migration from HBCs can exert a measurable effect on the foreign-born TB notification rate. However, an increase in the foreign-born TB notification rate coincided with an average annual rise in national TB notification rates only in countries, Norway (+3.85%/year) and Sweden (+2.64%/year), which have a high proportion (>80%) of TB cases that are foreign-born.

  16. Energy consumption and income. A semiparametric panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Van, Phu [BETA, CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, 61 avenue de la Foret Noire, F-67085 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-05-15

    This paper proposes a semiparametric analysis for the study of the relationship between energy consumption per capita and income per capita for an international panel dataset. It shows little evidence for the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for energy consumption. Energy consumption increases with income for a majority of countries and then stabilizes for very high income countries. Neither changes in energy structure nor macroeconomic cycle/technological change have significant effect on energy consumption. (author)

  17. Regional income inequality and happiness: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how regional income inequality is associated with the individual assessment of happiness based on micro data from nationwide surveys in Japan. Our multilevel analysis using logit and ordered logit models confirmed that individuals who live in areas of high inequality tend to report themselves as less happy, even after controlling for various individual and regional factors. Notably, the fact that happiness depends on not only income but also income inequality indicates the imp...

  18. Amundsen Sea sector ice shelf thickness, melt rates, and inland response from annual high-resolution DEM mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, D. E.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.; Alexandrov, O.; Moratto, Z.; Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Significant grounding line retreat, acceleration, and thinning have occurred along the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica in recent decades. These changes are driven primarily by ice-ocean interaction beneath ice shelves, but existing observations of the spatial distribution, timing, and magnitude of ice shelf melt are limited. Using the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline, we generated digital elevation models (DEMs) with ~2 m posting from all ~450 available WorldView-1/2 along-track stereopairs for the Amundsen Sea sector. A novel iterative closest point algorithm was used to coregister DEMs to filtered Operation IceBridge ATM/LVIS data and ICESat-1 GLAS data, offering optimal sub-meter horizontal/vertical accuracy. The corrected DEMs were used to produce annual mosaics for the entire ~500x700 km region with focused, sub-annual products for ice shelves and grounding zones. These mosaics provide spatially-continuous measurements of ice shelf topography with unprecedented detail. Using these data, we derive estimates of ice shelf thickness for regions in hydrostatic equilibrium and map networks of sub-shelf melt channels for the Pine Island (PIG), Thwaites, Crosson, and Dotson ice shelves. We also document the break-up of the Thwaites ice shelf and PIG rift evolution leading up to the 2013 calving event. Eulerian difference maps document 2010-2014 thinning over fast-flowing ice streams and adjacent grounded ice. These data reveal the greatest thinning rates over the Smith Glacier ice plain and slopes beyond the margins of the fast-flowing PIG trunk. Difference maps also highlight the filling of at least two subglacial lakes ~30 km upstream of the PIG grounding line in 2011. Lagrangian difference maps reveal the spatial distribution of ice shelf thinning, which can primarily be attributed to basal melt. Preliminary results show focused ice shelf thinning within troughs and large basal channels, especially along the western margin of the Dotson ice shelf. These new data

  19. High-efficiency thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, January 20, 1995--January 19, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A D; Bohn, R G; Contreras-Puente, G [Toledo Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1996-05-01

    This annual report covers the second year of a 3-year NREL subcontract with the University of Toledo that is focused on improvements in efficiency for radio frequency (rf)-sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells. In earlier work supported by NREL, the University of Toledo established the viability of two new deposition methods for CdS/CdTe solar cells by fabricating cells with efficiencies greater than 10% at air mass (AM) 1.5 on soda lime glass for all-sputtered cells and also for all-laser-deposited cells. Most of the effort has been placed on radio frequency sputtering (RFS) because it was judged to be more economical and more easily scaled to large-area deposition. However, laser physical vapor deposition (LPVD) has remained the method of choice for the deposition of CdCl{sub 2} layers and also for the exploration of new materials such as the ternary alloys including CdS{sub x} Te{sub 1{minus}x} and dopants such as Cu in ZnTe.

  20. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  1. 40 CFR 31.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  2. 13 CFR 143.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  3. 15 CFR 24.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  4. 38 CFR 43.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  5. 28 CFR 66.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  6. 45 CFR 2541.250 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  7. 45 CFR 92.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  8. 14 CFR 1273.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  9. 29 CFR 1470.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  10. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  11. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  12. Life cycle management on Swiss fruit farms. Relating environmental and income indicators for apple-growing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouron, Patrik; Scholz, Roland W.; Weber, Olaf [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute for Human-Environment Systems, ETH Zentrum, HAD, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Nemecek, Thomas [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station of Agroecology and Agriculture, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-06-25

    Integrated fruit production (IFP) has been practiced in Switzerland on a large scale basis since the late 1980s, with the aim of improving sustainable farming. The guidelines of IFP emphasise an ecosystem approach that is based on scientific knowledge about self-regulatory mechanisms at the tree and orchard level. Empirical studies at the farm level are rare. An understanding of the relationship between income and environmental impacts at the farm level is a prerequisite for devising a robust system for orchard portfolio management. An income analysis based on full cost principle and environmental life cycle assessment were applied to 445 annual data sets of apple orchards, recorded on 12 specialised fruit farms over a period of 4 years. The main result was that environmental impacts such as ecotoxicity, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use did not necessarily increase when farms increased their income. A higher input level of pesticides, fertilisers and machinery did not lead to increased yields and receipts. In contrast, the choice of apple cultivars and high investment in pre-harvest labour hours were significantly correlated with high eco-efficiency and high farm income. The results of this study were summarised in a pyramid-shaped management model, providing key issues of successful orchard farming and attributing management rules to master them. The management pyramid indicates that cognitive competences such as distributional, conditional and non-linear thinking are crucial when knowledge from tree and orchard management is integrated at the farm level. A main recommendation is that more attention should be paid to improving management competence in order to contribute to sustainable farming. (author)

  13. Annual surveillance by CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound for ovarian cancer in both high-risk and population risk women is ineffective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodward, E R; Sleightholme, H V; Considine, A M

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of annual CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) scan as surveillance for ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Retrospective audit. SETTING: NHS Trust. POPULATION: Three hundred and forty-one asymptomatic women enrolled for ovarian cancer screening: 179 were in a high-risk...... group (>10% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer), 77 in a moderate risk group (4-10% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer) and 71 in a near population risk group (risk). METHODS: Retrospective audit of case records, laboratory CA125 results, radiology reports, histology records...... endometrial cancer. Twenty-eight women (93.3%) had no malignancy. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for TVU in the whole cohort were 33.3, 85.8, 0.6 and 99.8%, respectively. For high-risk individuals, the figures for TVU were 33.3, 84.5, 1.1 and 99.6, respectively. Combining both modalities for the whole...

  14. Surplus Value & Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa,Masayasu

    1993-01-01

    Introduction 1. Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 1.1. Use-Value and Exchange-Value 1.2. Surplus-Value 1.3. Variable Capital and Constant Capital 2. Implications of Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 2.1. First Implication-Exploitation 2.2. Second Implication-Deviation of Price from Value 2.3. Third Implication-Capitalist Corporation 3. Capital Accumulation and Income Distribution 3.1. The Effect of Capital Accumulation 3.2. Fall in the Rate of Profit 4. Conclusion 

  15. Container productivity, daily survival rates and dispersal of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in a high income dengue epidemic neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro: presumed influence of differential urban structure on mosquito biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rocha David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Different urban structures might affect the life history parameters of Aedes aegypti and, consequently, dengue transmission. Container productivity, probability of daily survival (PDS and dispersal rates were estimated for mosquito populations in a high income neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro. Results were contrasted with those previously found in a suburban district, as well as those recorded in a slum. After inspecting 1,041 premises, domestic drains and discarded plastic pots were identified as the most productive containers, collectively holding up to 80% of the total pupae. In addition, three cohorts of dust-marked Ae. aegypti females were released and recaptured daily using BGS-Traps, sticky ovitraps and backpack aspirators in 50 randomly selected houses; recapture rate ranged from 5-12.2% within cohorts. PDS was determined by two models and ranged from 0.607-0.704 (exponential model and 0.659-0.721 (non-linear model, respectively. Mean distance travelled varied from 57-122 m, with a maximum dispersal of 263 m. Overall, lower infestation indexes and adult female survival were observed in the high income neighbourhood, suggesting a lower dengue transmission risk in comparison to the suburban area and the slum. Since results show that urban structure can influence mosquito biology, specific control strategies might be used in order to achieve cost-effective Ae. aegypti control.

  16. Container productivity, daily survival rates and dispersal of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in a high income dengue epidemic neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro: presumed influence of differential urban structure on mosquito biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mariana Rocha; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Freitas, Rafael Maciel de

    2009-09-01

    Different urban structures might affect the life history parameters of Aedes aegypti and, consequently, dengue transmission. Container productivity, probability of daily survival (PDS) and dispersal rates were estimated for mosquito populations in a high income neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro. Results were contrasted with those previously found in a suburban district, as well as those recorded in a slum. After inspecting 1,041 premises, domestic drains and discarded plastic pots were identified as the most productive containers, collectively holding up to 80% of the total pupae. In addition, three cohorts of dust-marked Ae. aegypti females were released and recaptured daily using BGS-Traps, sticky ovitraps and backpack aspirators in 50 randomly selected houses; recapture rate ranged from 5-12.2% within cohorts. PDS was determined by two models and ranged from 0.607-0.704 (exponential model) and 0.659-0.721 (non-linear model), respectively. Mean distance travelled varied from 57-122 m, with a maximum dispersal of 263 m. Overall, lower infestation indexes and adult female survival were observed in the high income neighbourhood, suggesting a lower dengue transmission risk in comparison to the suburban area and the slum. Since results show that urban structure can influence mosquito biology, specific control strategies might be used in order to achieve cost-effective Ae. aegypti control.

  17. A look at income and wealth in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, R H

    1997-01-01

    Diverse forces in the U.S. economy have led to a tendency for increased concentration of income and wealth in the upper income brackets. Some mobility within classes helps to mitigate the problem, but sluggish growth of real incomes has heightened awareness of this trend. Even though the vast majority of Americans continue to identify themselves as "middle class," this slowed growth contributes to the concerns about the shrinking size of this group. Between 1975 and 1995 the highest quintile of households was the only one to experience a growing share of money income, with virtually all of the increase occurring within the top 5 percent. Education and training in our high-technology society are two key elements in improving income. Demographic forces may also change income and wealth dynamics in the future particularly as the population ages and the ratio of workers to the elderly retired affects the supply demand forces in the labor markets.

  18. Neighborhood effects on the long-term well-being of low-income adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jens; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa

    2012-09-21

    Nearly 9 million Americans live in extreme-poverty neighborhoods, places that also tend to be racially segregated and dangerous. Yet, the effects on the well-being of residents of moving out of such communities into less distressed areas remain uncertain. Using data from Moving to Opportunity, a unique randomized housing mobility experiment, we found that moving from a high-poverty to lower-poverty neighborhood leads to long-term (10- to 15-year) improvements in adult physical and mental health and subjective well-being, despite not affecting economic self-sufficiency. A 1-standard deviation decline in neighborhood poverty (13 percentage points) increases subjective well-being by an amount equal to the gap in subjective well-being between people whose annual incomes differ by $13,000--a large amount given that the average control group income is $20,000. Subjective well-being is more strongly affected by changes in neighborhood economic disadvantage than racial segregation, which is important because racial segregation has been declining since 1970, but income segregation has been increasing.

  19. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  20. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Nikolov, Pavel N; Georgieva, Darina D; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D; Green, Andy J

    2013-05-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4-45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27-72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  1. High-resolution past environmental reconstruction in East Asia using annually laminated lake sediments of Lake Megata in northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K.; Gotanda, K.; Yonenobu, H.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kitagawa, J.; Makohonienko, M.; Schwab, M.; Haraguchi, T.; Yasuda, Y.

    2007-12-01

    37 m-long non-glacial varved sequences were taken from Ichi-no-Megata maar in Oga Peninsula, Akita, northern part of Japan. Ichi-no-Megata maar occupies 0.25 km2 with a maximum water depth of ca. 45.1 m. The shape of lake is a kettle-type basin and the deepest bottom basin is very flat. We took core samples (named IMG06 core) at the center of the lake in November to December in 2006. In order to take completely continuous maar sediment, we drilled three holes and take every sample from each hole which apart only few meters. In this drilling campaign, we can 37 m-long continuous maar sediment except thick volcanic deposits from 26.5 to 31.7m in core. The sedimentological feature of IMG06 core is dominated by thin lamination clay/silt from most top part up to 37 m with turbidites characterized upward fining structure. The SEM image observation of lamination reveals that sponge-like lamina consists of diatom assemblage against dark colored lamina consists of mixture of detritus minerals, clay minerals, and diatom. It means sponge-like lamina deposits during spring season, and later one deposits during another three seasons, and then these thin lamination of IMG06 core could be identified as annual lamination (varves). This interpretation is supported by the correlation of historic event as earthquake and tunnel construction. In this IMG06 core, six volcanic ashes are found and we have also analyzed radiocarbon dating from 38 horizons of the core to use leaf and seeds inter-bedded varves. As the results, the IMG06 core covers from 25,000 to 4,000 14C yr BP with stable sedimentation rates (0.71mm/year).

  2. Labor supply response to personal income taxation in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge N. Valero-Gil

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of marginal income tax rates on labor supply in Mexico using a modified version of Rosen´s (1976 personal income taxation model. The study analyzes how salaried workers of the formal sector react to changes in the marginal income tax rate. Special attention is given to the sample, in order to control the problem of the high level of tax evasion in Mexico in our estimation. We find evidence that hours of work diminish when marginal income tax rates increase.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Income Inequality and Income Polarization between Rural and Urban Areas:1988-2010%城乡内部收入不平等与收入极化的对比分析:1988-2010年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙莹; 谢静文

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses the Chinese nutrition and health survey database ( CHNS) 1988-2010 microscopic survey data of household annual per capital income data to estimate the income inequality and income polarization index of China′s ur-ban and rural areas. Meanwhile, the article explains the features of income inequality and income polarization index sepa-rately between different years from another point by estimating the proportion of the population share in low, medium and high income groups over the years. The results show that the degree of income inequality and polarization within rural areas is higher than that of urban areas, aggregate income of rural income groups tend to low and high levels, while the town is gathered to middle-income levels. The phenomenon indicates that the internal distribution of urban income is more reason-able, the income gap within rural areas is to be improved and the problem of adjustment is more severe.%本文利用中国营养健康调查数据库( CHNS)1988-2010年的家庭人均年收入微观调查数据,测算我国城镇与农村内部的收入不平等和收入极化指数,并通过估算历年低、中、高收入群体所占人口的比重,从另一个角度解释不同年份间收入不平等指数和收入极化指数各自变动的特点。测算结果表明农村内部的收入不平等和极化程度要高于城镇,农村各收入群体趋向于向低、高收入水平聚集,中等收入群体比重减小,而城镇各收入群体则向中等收入水平聚集。这说明城镇内部的收入分配更加合理,农村内部的收入差距还有待改善,收入调节政策所面临的问题也更加严峻。

  4. Farmer Income Differential in Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qian; MIAO Shanshan

    2006-01-01

    China's success in reform and opening up policy for twenty years is regarded as China's miracles in the world,whereas the income differential widening phenomenon has been the focus of the policymakers and researchers. This article researches 1994-2003 China's rural regions income differential and its decomposition. The method this paper used to measure the disparity is Gini Index. There are many ways to compute it, so the easiest way to decompose Gini Index-Matrix method is adopted. And based on it, farmer's income could be divided into wage income, farming income,transfer income and property income according to its composition. The conclusion is that all of the indexes are between 0.2 and 0.3, at the comparatively average level. From the fluctuation trend, it increased from 1994 to 1995, while reduced from 1995 to 1996, fluctuated in 1997, and then diminished again. In general, farmer's regions income differential stays at comparatively average level, but it has the widening trend with time. Through decomposing Gini Index, wage income is the most important increasing factor, while farming income is the reducing factor.

  5. Concern for Lost Income Following Donation Deters Some Patients From Talking to Potential Living Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Schold, Jesse D; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Taber, David J; Phan, Van; Baliga, Prabhakar K

    2016-12-01

    Some living kidney donors report lost income during recovery from surgery. Little is known about whether concern for living donor's lost income affects the decision to undergo donation evaluation and the willingness of transplant candidates to discuss living kidney donation (LKD) with others. To examine whether transplant patients were told by potential donors about lost income concerns and whether patients chose not to discuss LKD with others due to lost income concerns. Kidney transplant patients (185 wait-listed candidates, 171 deceased donor recipients, and 100 live donor recipients) at 2 centers completed a questionnaire to assess whether concern about donor's lost income was a consideration in discussion about LKD with others. One-third (32%) were told by a family member/friend that they were willing to donate but were concerned about potential lost income. The majority of those who expressed financial concern (64%) did not initiate donation evaluation. Many patients (42%) chose not to discuss living donation with a family member/friend due to concern about the impact of lost income on the donor. In the multivariable model, lower annual household income was the only statistically significant predictor of both having a potential donor expressing lost income concern and choosing not to talk to someone because of lost income concern. Findings from the current study underscore how concern about income loss for living donors may affect decision-making by both transplant candidates and potential donors.

  6. Income inequality in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravallion, Martin

    2014-05-23

    Should income inequality be of concern in developing countries? New data reveal less income inequality in the developing world than 30 years ago. However, this is due to falling inequality between countries. Average inequality within developing countries has been slowly rising, though staying fairly flat since 2000. As a rule, higher rates of growth in average incomes have not put upward pressure on inequality within countries. Growth has generally helped reduce the incidence of absolute poverty, but less so in more unequal countries. High inequality also threatens to stall future progress against poverty by attenuating growth prospects. Perceptions of rising absolute gaps in living standards between the rich and the poor in growing economies are also consistent with the evidence.

  7. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia has hitherto been considered the key cause of the high respiratory morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (under-5s) in low-income countries, while asthma has not been stated as a significant reason. This paper explores the definitions and concepts...

  8. Health insurance and household income associated with mammography utilization among American women, 2000-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-hai; ZHANG Zhi-ruo; RAO Ke-qin

    2011-01-01

    Background National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) has provided free or low-costmammograms to low-income or no health insurance women in all of the states of the United States (US) since 1997.The objective of this study was to understand whether health insurance and annual household income impacted the mammography utilization since the implementation of NBCCEDP,in order to evaluate how the implementation of NBCCEDP impacted mammography utilization among American women.Methods Data were from the database of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) of the CDC in US.Mammography utilization was measured by whether the American woman aged 40 to 64 years had the mammography within the last two years.The chi square test and multivariate Logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between mammography utilization and health insurance,annual household income,and other factors for any given year.Results From 2000 to 2008,the rate of mammography utilization among participants had a steady decrease on the whole from 86.7% to 83.8%.The results showed that the mammography utilization correlated significantly with health insurance and annual household income for any given year.The results also showed that compared with participants who were uninsured,those who were insured had a greater times higher rate of mammography in 2008 than any other year from 2000 to 2008,and compared with participants whose annual household income was below $15 000,those whose annual household income was above $50 000 had a greater times higher rate of mammography in 2008 than in 2004 and 2006.Conclusions Health insurance and annual household income impacted the mammography utilization for any given year from 2000 to 2008,and the implementation of NBCCEDP has not achieved its original goal on breast cancer screening.

  9. NERSC 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John (ed.)

    1999-03-01

    This 1998 annual report from the National Scientific Energy Research Computing Center (NERSC) presents the year in review of the following categories: Computational Science; Computer Science and Applied Mathematics; and Systems and Services. Also presented are science highlights in the following categories: Basic Energy Sciences; Biological and Environmental Research; Fusion Energy Sciences; High Energy and Nuclear Physics; and Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Other Projects.

  10. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

  11. In search of annual legumes to improve forage sorghum yield and nutritive value in the southern high plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock production is significant in the Southern High Plains of the USA and demand is increasing for greater forage dry matter (DM) yield with increased nutritive value. Forage sorghum (FS)[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is commonly used, although, it is low in crude protein (CP) and high in fiber....

  12. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Technology Development Program: Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.E.,Jr.; Kasten, P.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Sanders, J.P.

    1989-03-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Program being carried out under the US Department of Energy (DOE) continues to emphasize the development of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs) possessing a high degree of inherent safety. The emphasis at this time is to develop the preliminary design of the reference MHTGR and to develop the associated technology base and licensing infrastructure in support of future reactor deployment. A longer-term objective is to realize the full high-temperature potential of HTGRs in gas turbine and high-temperature, process-heat applications. This document summarizes the activities of the HTGR Technology Development Program for the period ending December 31, 1987.

  13. Temporal Variability and Annual Fluxes of Water, Sediment and Particulate Phosphorus from a Headwater River in the Tropical Andes: Results from a High-frequency Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemple, B. C.; Schloegel, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Mazar River Project, a high-frequency hydrological monitoring program, aims to generate ecohydrological information to inform watershed management in high-mountain areas of southern Ecuador. Rapid development of hydropower, accompanied by new and improved road networks, has resulted in swift changes in land-use and land cover in Ecuador's tropical Andes, all of which underscore the need for detailed information on flow and sediment production from these river systems. National and regional payment for the protection of ecosystem services (PES) programs seek to target critical areas, such as these, for watershed conservation, but are often informed by minimal information on sustainable flows and impacts of land use activities. As part of a program to inform conservation and sustainable water management in the region, we established a hydrological monitoring station in southern Ecuador on the Mazar River, a tributary of the Paute River Basin, situated on the eastern Andean cordillera. The station is equipped with sensors to continuously monitor stream stage and turbidity and an automated sampler for event-based collection of stream water samples, providing high frequency data that reduces the uncertainty of observations. Here, we report observations of continuous runoff and turbidity over the first year of observation, present relationships between turbidity and concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) and total particulate phosphorus (TP), and provide estimates of annual loads of TSS and TP. Runoff was highly variable over the monitoring period with flows ranging from less than 3 m3/s during baseflow to nearly 80 m3/s during the flood of record. During measured storm events, TSS exceeded 1000 mg/l with maximum measured concentrations exceeding 13 g/l during storm peaks. Turbidity was highly correlated with TSS, which was in turn highly correlated with TP, providing a robust data set for load estimation. We compare our results to other montane rivers in the

  14. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  15. Global income related health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health

  16. "The Kids Still Come First": Creating Family Stability during Partnership Instability in Rural, Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Manoogian, Margaret M.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the nature of partnerships among 28 rural low-income mothers who experienced partnership transitions across three waves of annual interviews. Guided by "lens of uncertainty" and "boundary ambiguity theory," the authors specifically explored (a) how low-income mothers in rural communities experience partnership…

  17. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  18. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes i...

  19. Factors Affecting Maternal Care in an Income Breeder, the European Roe Deer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reidar Andersen; Jean-Michel Gaillard; John D. C. Linnell; Patrick Duncan

    2000-01-01

    ...), which rely heavily on body reserves to raise their young. Roe deer, in contrast, are close to the income breeder end of the capital-income breeder continuum, and show high levels of maternal care. 2...

  20. Income Inequality in Rural India: Decomposing the Gini by Income Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtabul Azam; Abusaleh Shariff

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines income inequality in rural India in 1993 and 2005. It attempts to ascertain the contribution of different income sources to overall income inequality, and change in their relative importance between 1993 and 2005 through decomposition of Gini coefficient. The paper finds that income inequality has increased between 1993 and 2005. Agriculture income continues to contribute majorly in total income and income inequality; however its share in total income and total income ineq...

  1. Regional differences in rates of HIV-1 viral load monitoring in Canada: Insights and implications for antiretroviral care in high income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Curtis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral load (VL monitoring is an essential component of the care of HIV positive individuals. Rates of VL monitoring have been shown to vary by HIV risk factor and clinical characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences among regions in Canada in the rates of VL testing of HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, where the testing is available without financial barriers under the coverage of provincial health insurance programs. Methods The Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC is a collaboration of nine Canadian cohorts of HIV-positive individuals who initiated cART after January 1, 2000. The study included participants with at least one year of follow-up. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE regression models were used to determine the effect of geographic region on (1 the occurrence of an interval of 9 months or more between two consecutive recorded VL tests and (2 the number of days between VL tests, after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Overall and regional annual rates of VL testing were also reported. Results 3,648 individuals were included in the analysis with a median follow-up of 42.9 months and a median of 15 VL tests. In multivariable GEE logistic regression models, gaps in VL testing >9 months were more likely in Quebec (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.72, p Conclusions Significant variation in rates of VL testing and the probability of a significant gap in testing were related to geographic region, HIV risk factor, age, year of cART initiation, type of cART regimen, being in the first year of cART, AIDS-defining illness and whether or not the previous VL was below the limit of detection.

  2. Policy Recommendations for Balancing Income Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪同三; 蔡跃洲

    2007-01-01

    Currently,the economic growth of China is mainly driven by investment and net export.The reason behind this is the distortion of our income distribution mechanism.The expansion of income gap and the uncertainty of expectation lead to a high savings rate,while the high savings rate should be balanced by investment and high export.As a matter of fact,the situation of high profit and tow wage in first the distribution induce the fast growth of investment and export.This will definitely bring excess capacity,an adverse selection of industries and affect the sustainable development of economy.To support the above argument,quantitative analysis is made with macro-economy indices.and suggestions to improve economy are provided.

  3. Basic studies of 3-5 high efficiency cell components. Annual subcontract report, 15 August 1989--14 August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Pierret, R.F.; Carpenter, M.S.; Chuang, H.L.; Dodd, P.E.; Keshavarzi, A.; Klausmeier-Brown, M.E.; Lush, G.B.; Stellwag, T.B. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This project`s objective is to improve our understanding of the generation, recombination, and transport of carriers within III-V homo- and heterostructures. The research itself consists of fabricating and characterizing solar cell ``building blocks`` such as junctions and heterojunctions as well as basic measurements of material parameters. A significant effort is also being directed at characterizing loss mechanisms in high-quality, III-V solar cells fabricated in industrial research laboratories throughout the United States. The project`s goal is to use our understanding of the device physics of high-efficiency cell components to maximize cell efficiency. A related goal is the demonstration of new cell structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The development of measurement techniques and characterization methodologies is also a project objective. This report describes our progress during the fifth and final year of the project. During the past five years, we`ve teamed a great deal about heavy doping effects in p{sup +} and n{sup +} GaAs and have explored their implications for solar cells. We have developed an understanding of the dominant recombination losses in present-day, high-efficiency cells. We`ve learned to appreciated the importance of recombination at the perimeter of the cell and have developed techniques for chemically passivating such edges. Finally, we`ve demonstrated that films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are suitable for high-efficiency cell research.

  4. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities. Semi-annual progress report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norem, J.; Bajt, D.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period July 1, 1995 - December 31, 1995. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  5. Annual variation of methane emissions from forested bogs in West Siberia (2005–2009: a case of high CH4 and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fofonov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have been conducting continuous measurements of CH4 and CO2 on a network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan–Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network located in taiga, steppe, and wetland biomes of Siberia. Here we describe measurements from two forested bog sites, Karasevoe (KRS; 58°15′ N, 82°25′ E and Demyanskoe (DEM; 59°47′ N, 70°52′ E, in West Siberia from 2005 to 2009. Although both CH4 and CO2 accumulation (ΔCH4 and ΔCO2 during nighttime (duration of 7 h beginning 21:30 LST at KRS in July 2007 showed an anomalously high concentration, the higher ratios of ΔCH4/ΔCO2 compared with those in other years indicate that a considerably more CH4 flux occurred relative to the CO2 flux in response to large precipitation recorded in 2007 (~2.7 mm d−1 higher than the climatological 1979–1998 base. Estimated seasonal CH4 fluxes based on the ratio of ΔCH4/ΔCO2 and the CASA 3-hourly CO2 flux for the 2005–2009 period exhibited a seasonal variation with a maximum in July at both sites. Annual values of the CH4 emission from the forested bogs around KRS (approx. 7.8×104 km2 calculated from a process-based ecosystem model, Vegetation Integrative Simulator for Trace gases (VISIT, showed inter-annual variation of 0.54, 0.31, 0.94, 0.44, and 0.41 Tg CH4 yr−1 from 2005 to 2009, respectively, with the highest values in 2007. It was assumed in the model that the area flooded with water is proportional to the cumulative anomaly in monthly precipitation rate.

  6. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O.

  7. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income g

  8. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income

  9. Income Gap Widens in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The income gap between the highest-and lowestincome groups in Beijing, China's capital city, grew to 4:1 in 2004, up from 3:1 in 2003, according to a sampling survey of 2,000 urban households conducted by the Beijing Municipal Statistics Bureau.Among the most important factors affecting income levels were education and profession, the survey indicated.

  10. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual report for FY 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Guida, Tracey [University of Pittsburgh; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2010-02-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2009 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Studies are reported of the application of a silicon coating to surrogates for spheres of uranium-molybdenum alloy. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. A description of the progress in developing a finite element thermal hydraulics model of the LEU core is provided.

  11. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-03-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2008 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Scoping experiments with various manufacturing methods for forming the LEU alloy profile are presented.

  12. High-energy electron irradiation of annual plants (bagasse) for an efficient production of chemi-mechanical pulp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shailesh; Ray, A. K.; Großmann, Harald; Kleinert, Rene

    2015-12-01

    The paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and energy consumption has been increased several times in last few decades. Bagasse chemical pulping has very low yield about 45-55% and also generates high pollution load in the effluent as compared to mechanical pulping, g. Thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand,-->e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand, the specific energy consumption is very high for TMP pulps. ETMP (Energy efficient Thermo-Mechanical Pulping) or ECTMP (Energy efficient Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping) is an innovative idea for reducing the energy demand in TMP refining. In the present investigation, energy efficient mechanical pulping potential of bagasse was studied using TMP, CTMP and ECTMP pulping methodology with electron irradiation pretreatment. It is evident from the results that more than 50% energy saving potential of irradiation pre-treatment was achieved.

  13. DESIGN STUDY FOR A LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM CORE FOR THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR, ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2010 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current level. Studies are reported of support to a thermal hydraulic test loop design, the implementation of finite element, thermal hydraulic analysis capability, and infrastructure tasks at HFIR to upgrade the facility for operation at 100 MW. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. Continuing development in the definition of the fuel fabrication process is described.

  14. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology development program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Bartine, D.E.; Sanders, J.P.

    1983-06-01

    During 1982 the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Technology Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) continued to develop experimental data required for the design and licensing of cogeneration HTGRs. The program involves fuels and materials development (including metals, graphite, ceramic, and concrete materials), HTGR chemistry studies, structural component development and testing, reactor physics and shielding studies, performance testing of the reactor core support structure, and HTGR application and evaluation studies.

  15. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology development program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Bartine, D.E.; Sanders, J.P.

    1983-06-01

    During 1982 the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Technology Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) continued to develop experimental data required for the design and licensing of cogeneration HTGRs. The program involves fuels and materials development (including metals, graphite, ceramic, and concrete materials), HTGR chemistry studies, structural component development and testing, reactor physics and shielding studies, performance testing of the reactor core support structure, and HTGR application and evaluation studies.

  16. Magnetic Microcalorimeter Gamma Detectors for High-Precision Non-Destructive Analysis, FY14 Extended Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-06

    Cryogenic gamma (γ) detectors with operating temperatures of ~0.1 K or below offer 10× better energy resolution than conventional high-purity germanium detectors that are currently used for non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. This can greatly increase the accuracy of NDA, especially at low-energies where gamma rays often have similar energies and cannot be resolved by Ge detectors. We are developing cryogenic γ–detectors based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs), which have the potential of higher resolution, faster count rates and better linearity than other cryogenic detector technologies. High linearity is essential to add spectra from different pixels in detector arrays that are needed for high sensitivity. Here we discuss the fabrication of a new generation of MMC γ–detectors in FY2014, and the resulting improvements in energy resolution and linearity of the new design. As an example of the type of NDA that cryogenic detectors enable, we demonstrate the direct detection of Pu-242 emissions with our MMC γ–detectors in the presence of Pu-240, and show that a quantitative NDA analysis agrees with the mass spectrometry

  17. 破除农民工低学历高收入的认识误区和实践藩篱%Breaking Misunderstanding and Practical Barrier of Low-educated Migrant Workers with High Incomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国荣

    2014-01-01

    文章以破除“农民工低学历高收入”的认识误区为逻辑起点,详细剖析了农民工特别是从事建筑、装修等工种的农民工所谓的“高收入”是由长劳动时间、高劳动强度、高劳动风险和牺牲发展前途为代价换来的,其小时工资并不比社会其他行业同层次人员高。在此基础上,实证分析了农民工收入与其受教育程度的正相关性;从正反两方面确立了关于农民工教育和收入问题上的价值评价标准和价值导向;最后,从切实提高农村义务教育质量、真正发挥职业教育在农村人才培养的作用、优化职业教育专业结构和课程设置、切实提高农民工接受职业培训机会和效果四个方面提出了提高农民工教育程度和收入水平的实践举措。%In this paper,we use “breaking misunderstanding of low-educated migrant workers with high incomes” as the logical starting point,and make a detailed analysis on migrant workers with so-called high incomes by long working hours, high labor intensity, high labor risk and sacrifice of future development, especially in construction, decoration and other similar industries, and their hourly wage is not higher than staffs of the same level in other sectors of the society. On this basis, we empirically analyze the positive correlation between the income of migrant workers and their educational level, establish the value evaluation criteria and the value orientation on the relationship between educational level and income lev⁃el of migrant workers from both the positive and negative sides. Finally,we propose the measures to improve the level of ed⁃ucation and income of migrant workers from four aspects: effectively enhancing the quality of rural compulsory education, making vocational education truly effective in rural talents cultivation,optimizing the professional structure of vocational ed⁃ucation and effectively improving vocational training

  18. What money can buy: family income and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between family income and childhood obesity. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), I report three new findings. First, family income and childhood obesity are generally negatively correlated, but for children in very low-income families, they are positively correlated. Second, the negative association between family income and Body Mass Index (BMI) is especially strong and significant among high-BMI children. Third, the difference in obesity rates between children from low- and high-income families increases as children age. This study further investigates potential factors that might contribute to a rapid increase in the obesity rate among low-income children. I find that their faster weight gain, rather than slower height growth, is a greater contributor to the rapid increase in their BMI over time. On the other hand, I also find that the faster weight gain by low-income children cannot be attributed to any single factor, such as participation in school meal programs, parental characteristics, or individual characteristics. These findings add to the current obesity debate by demonstrating that the key to curbing childhood obesity may lie in factors generating different obesity rates across income levels.

  19. A Polynomial Distribution Applied to Income and Wealth Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Oltean

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Income and wealth distribution affect stability of a society to a large extent and high inequality affects it negatively. Moreover, in the case of developed countries, recently has been proven that inequality is closely related to all negative phenomena affecting society. So far, Econophysics papers tried to analyse income and wealth distribution by employing distributions such as Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, Maxwell-Boltzmann, lognormal (Gibrat, and exponential. Generally, distributions describe mostly income and less wealth distribution for low and middle income segment of population, which accounts about 90% of the population. Our approach is based on a totally new distribution, not used so far in the literature regarding income and wealth distribution. Using cumulative distribution method, we find that polynomial functions, regardless of their degree (first, second, or higher, can describe with very high accuracy both income and wealth distribution. Moreover, we find that polynomial functions describe income and wealth distribution for entire population including upper income segment for which traditionally Pareto distribution is used.

  20. 20 CFR 404.1086 - Community income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community income. 404.1086 Section 404.1086...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1086 Community income. If community property laws apply to income that an individual derives from a trade or...

  1. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Griffin, Frederick P [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  2. High Energy Physics Program at Texas A and M University. Annual report, November 1, 1991--October 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The high energy physics program has continued its experimental activities over. In CDF, the Texas A&M group has led an effort to design an upgrade for the silicon vertex detector, and is currently working with the rest of the collaboration on the next major data taking run. In MACRO, work was done on the development of the final version of the wave form digitizing system being implemented for the entire scintillator system. This work is nearing completion, and the system is expected to be up and running on the detector by summer 1993. Work was done within the SDC group to develop gas microstrip chambers for use in precision tracking at the SSC, and in the GEM group, toward the development of a suitable forward calorimeter design. The theoretical high energy physics program has continued the study of a very successful string-derived model that unifies all known interactions: flipped SU(5), which is the leading candidate for a TOE. Work has also continued on some generalizations of the symmetries of string theory, known as W algebras. These are expected to have applications in two-dimensional conformal field theory, two-dimensional extensions of gravity and topological gravity and W-string theory.

  3. Farm Household Well-Being: Comparing Consumption- and Income-Based Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Carol Adaire; Milkove, Daniel; Paszkiewicz, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Household economic well-being can be gauged by the financial resources (income/ wealth) available to the household or by the standard of living enjoyed by household members (consumption). Based on responses to USDA’s annual Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), a joint effort by the Economic Research Service (ERS) and the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, ERS has long published estimates of farm household income and wealth. This report presents, for the first time, esti...

  4. Population health in an era of rising income inequality: USA, 1980-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob; Cohen, Gregory H; Galea, Sandro

    2017-04-08

    Income inequality in the USA has increased over the past four decades. Socioeconomic gaps in survival have also increased. Life expectancy has risen among middle-income and high-income Americans whereas it has stagnated among poor Americans and even declined in some demographic groups. Although the increase in income inequality since 1980 has been driven largely by soaring top incomes, the widening of survival inequalities has occurred lower in the distribution-ie, between the poor and upper-middle class. Growing survival gaps across income percentiles since 2001 reflect falling real incomes among poor Americans as well as an increasingly strong association between low income and poor health. Changes in individual risk factors such as smoking, obesity, and substance abuse play a part but do not fully explain the steeper gradient. Distal factors correlated with rising inequality including unequal access to technological innovations, increased geographical segregation by income, reduced economic mobility, mass incarceration, and increased exposure to the costs of medical care might have reduced access to salutary determinants of health among low-income Americans. Having missed out on decades of income growth and longevity gains, low-income Americans are increasingly left behind. Without interventions to decouple income and health, or to reduce inequalities in income, we might see the emergence of a 21st century health-poverty trap and the further widening and hardening of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of Farmers’ Income and Selection of Model ARIMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the research technology of scholars’ prediction of farmers’ income and the data of per capita annual net income in rural households in Henan Statistical Yearbook from 1979 to 2009,it is found that time series of farmers’ income is in accordance with I(2)non-stationary process.The order-determination and identification of the model are achieved by adopting the correlogram-based analytical method of Box-Jenkins.On the basis of comparing a group of model properties with different parameters,model ARIMA(4,2,2)is built up.The testing result shows that the residual error of the selected model is white noise and accords with the normal distribution,which can be used to predict farmers’ income.The model prediction indicates that income in rural households will continue to increase from 2009 to 2012 and will reach the value of 2 282.4,2 502.9,2 686.9 and 2 884.5 respectively.The growth speed will go down from fast to slow with weak sustainability.

  6. DOE-DARPA High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM), Annual HPCRM Team Meeting & Technical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Brown, B; Bayles, B; Lemieux, T; Choi, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Branagan, D; Blue, C; Peter, B; Beardsley, B; Graeve, O; Aprigliano, L; Yang, N; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-21

    The overall goal is to develop high-performance corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous-metal coatings for prolonged trouble-free use in very aggressive environments: seawater & hot geothermal brines. The specific technical objectives are: (1) Synthesize Fe-based amorphous-metal coating with corrosion resistance comparable/superior to Ni-based Alloy C-22; (2) Establish processing parameter windows for applying and controlling coating attributes (porosity, density, bonding); (3) Assess possible cost savings through substitution of Fe-based material for more expensive Ni-based Alloy C-22; (4) Demonstrate practical fabrication processes; (5) Produce quality materials and data with complete traceability for nuclear applications; and (6) Develop, validate and calibrate computational models to enable life prediction and process design.

  7. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells: Phase I, Annual Technical Report, October 2005 - September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2007-04-01

    The focus of this project is the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin-film solar cell. CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, but the efficiency of the CdTe solar cell has been stagnant for the last few years. At the manufacturing front, the CdTe technology is fast paced and moving forward with U.S.-based First Solar LLC leading the world in CdTe module production. To support the industry efforts and continue the advancement of this technology, it will be necessary to continue improvements in solar cell efficiency. A closer look at the state-of-the-art performance levels puts the three solar cell efficiency parameters of short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), and fill factor (FF) in the 24-26 mA/cm2, 844?850 mV, and 74%-76% ranges respectively. During the late 1090s, efforts to improve cell efficiency were primarily concerned with increasing JSC, simply by using thinner CdS window layers to enhance the blue response (<510 nm) of the CdTe cell. These efforts led to underscoring the important role 'buffers' (or high-resistivity transparent films) play in CdTe cells. The use of transparent bi-layers (low-p/high-p) as the front contact is becoming a 'standard' feature of the CdTe cell.

  8. High energy physics program at Texas A and M University. Annual report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Texas A&M experimental high energy physics program continued to reach significant milestones in each of its research initiatives during the course of the past year. We are participating in two major operating experiments, CDF and MACRO. In CDF, the Texas A&M group has spearheaded the test beam program to recalibrate the Forward Hadron Calorimeter for the upcoming CDF data run, as well as contributing to the ongoing analysis work on jets and b-quarks. In MACRO, we have assisted in the development of the final version of the wave form digitizing system being implemented for the entire scintillator system. The construction of the first six supermodules of the detector has been completed and all six are currently taking data with streamer chambers while four have the completed scintillator counter system up and running. We have built and tested prototypes of a liquid-scintillator fiber calorimeter system, in which internally reflecting channels are imbedded in a lead matrix and filled with liquid scintillator. This approach combines the performance features of fiber calorimetry and the radiation hardness of liquid scintillator, and is being developed for forward calorimetry at the SSC. The microstrip chamber is a new technology for precision track chambers that offers the performance required for future hadron colliders. The theoretical high energy physics program has continued to develop during the past funding cycle. We have continued the study of their very successful string-derived model that unifies all known interactions; flipped SU(5), which is the leading candidate for a TOE. Work has continued on some generalizations of the symmetries of string theory, known as W algebras. These are expected to have applications in two-dimensional conformal field theory, two-dimensional extensions of gravity and topological gravity and W-string theory.

  9. Evaluating the present annual water budget of a Himalayan headwater river basin using a high-resolution atmosphere-hydrology model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Gochis, David J.; Sobolowski, Stefan; Mesquita, Michel D. S.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the present water budget in Himalayan Basins is a challenge due to poor in situ coverage, incomplete or unreliable records, and the limitations of coarse resolution gridded data set. In the study, a two-way coupled implementation of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and the WRF-Hydro hydrological modeling extension package (WRF/WRF-Hydro) was employed in its offline configuration, over a 10 year simulation period for a mountainous river basin in North India. A triple nest is employed, in which the innermost domain had 3 km for atmospheric model grids and 300 m for hydrological components. Two microphysical parameterization (MP) schemes are quantitatively evaluated to reveal how differently MP influences orographic-related precipitation and how it impacts hydrological responses. The WRF-Hydro modeling system shows reasonable skill in capturing the spatial and temporal structure of high-resolution precipitation, and the resulting stream flow hydrographs exhibit a good correspondence with observation at monthly timescales, although the model tends to generally underestimate streamflow amounts. The Thompson Scheme fits better to the observations in the study. More importantly, WRF shows that for high-altitude precipitation, a high "bias" is exhibited in winter precipitation from WRF, which is about double to triple that as estimated from valley-sited rain gauges and remotely sensed precipitation estimates from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation. Given the full annual cycle pattern and amount in high-altitude precipitation and the statistical correspondence in discharge, it is concluded that the WRF-Hydro modeling system shows potential for explicitly predicting potential changes in the atmospheric-hydrology cycle of ungauged or poorly gauged basins.

  10. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Yang, N; Headley, T; Lucadamo, G; Yio, J; Chames, J; Gardea, A; Clift, M; Blue, G; Peters, W; Rivard, J; Harper, D; Swank, D; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Brown, R; Wolejsza, T; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Graeve, O; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-20

    New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to be difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer

  11. Pion and kaon correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. Annual report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    Data analysis is in progress for recent experiments performed by the NA44 collaboration with the first running of 160 A GeV {sup 208}Pb-induced reactions at the CERN SPS. Identified singles spectra were taken for pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, antiprotons and antideuterons. Two-pion interferometry measurements were made for semi-central-triggered {sup 208}Pb + Pb collisions. An upgraded multiple-particle spectrometer allows high statistics data sets of identified particles to be collected near mid-rapidity. A second series of experiments will be performed in the fall of 1995 with more emphasis on identical kaon interferometry and on the measurement of rare particle spectra and correlations. Modest instrumentation upgrades by TAMU are designed to increase the trigger function for better impact parameter selection and improved collection efficiency of valid events. An effort to achieve the highest degree of projectile-target stopping is outlined and it is argued that an excitation function on the SPS is needed to better understand reaction mechanisms. Analysis of experimental results is in the final stages at LBL in the EOS collaboration for two-ion interferometry in the 1.2 A GeV Au+Au reaction, taken with full event characterization.

  12. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  13. Income and risk of ischaemic heart disease in men and women in a Nordic welfare country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Osler, Merete; Petersen, Liselotte;

    2003-01-01

    similar for both sexes. Median IHD-free life expectancy for low-income versus high-income groups was reduced by 9.4 and 7.0 years in men and women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of household income on risk of IHD was graded and similar for men and women. The difference between high and low income......BACKGROUND: The inverse relation between ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and income is well known among men, but it remains to be clarified whether the relationship between social gradient and IHD is similar for men and women. The present study explores the associations between income and IHD in men......, taking traditional cardiovascular risk factors into account, and estimated IHD-free life expectancy by household income in men and women. RESULTS: During follow-up, 1803 men and 1258 women experienced an event of IHD (21% fatal). The hazards by deciles of income showed a non-linear graded inverse effect...

  14. Who Supports Redistribution? Subjective Income Inequality in Japan and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN; TAY

    2015-01-01

    Governments reduce income inequality with redistribution policies. These policies are often contentious because people who live in the same country have different preferences for redistribution. Some prefer the government to do more while others prefer the government to do less. Hence what explains the difference in preferences? Using the methodologically suitable cases of Japan and China, this paper contributes to the redistributive preference literature by proposing an alternative theory of how a person’s subjective evaluation of and experiences with income inequality—subjective income inequality—affect his/her redistributive preferences. Specifically, a person who feels that his/her country’s level of income inequality is too high is more likely to support government redistribution. But contrary to extant studies, this paper finds that a spatial locality’s level of objective income inequality does not systematically affect its citizens’ preference for redistribution. This finding has implications for redistribution policies because government policies in Japan and China—as with other countries—narrowly frame income inequality in the objective dimensions by pegging it to "objective" income inequality indices(e.g., Gini ratio), thereby ignoring the more important subjective dimensions of income inequality.

  15. 32 CFR 33.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by... royalties and license fees for copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee...

  16. 36 CFR 1207.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interest earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income... royalties and license fees for copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee...

  17. 43 CFR 12.65 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interest earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income... royalties and license fees for copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee...

  18. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    ’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards......We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  19. Does How You Measure Income Make a Difference to Measuring Poverty? Evidence from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirstine; Kneale, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    Income is regarded as one of the clearest indicators of socioeconomic status and wellbeing in the developed world and is highly correlated with a wide range of outcomes. Despite its importance, there remains an issue as to the best way to collect income as part of surveys. This paper examines differences in how income is collected in a nationally…

  20. Does How You Measure Income Make a Difference to Measuring Poverty? Evidence from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirstine; Kneale, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    Income is regarded as one of the clearest indicators of socioeconomic status and wellbeing in the developed world and is highly correlated with a wide range of outcomes. Despite its importance, there remains an issue as to the best way to collect income as part of surveys. This paper examines differences in how income is collected in a nationally…