High angle of attack aerodynamics subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows
Rom, Josef
1992-01-01
The aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack is a subject which is being pursued diligently, because the modern agile fighter aircraft and many of the current generation of missiles must perform well at very high incidence, near and beyond stall. However, a comprehensive presentation of the methods and results applicable to the studies of the complex aerodynamics at high angle of attack has not been covered in monographs or textbooks. This book is not the usual textbook in that it goes beyond just presenting the basic theoretical and experimental know-how, since it contains reference material to practical calculation methods and technical and experimental results which can be useful to the practicing aerospace engineers and scientists. It can certainly be used as a text and reference book for graduate courses on subjects related to high angles of attack aerodynamics and for topics related to three-dimensional separation in viscous flow courses. In addition, the book is addressed to the aerodynamicist...
Wing-Alone Aerodynamic Characteristics to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds.
1982-11-01
indicators of symmetry since the wings were unbanked within the limits of tolerances and flow angularity. Longitudinal, spanwise, and vertical... unbanked wings at subsonic and transonic speeds from low to high angles of attack. The wing planforms varied in aspect ratio and taper ratio with
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Li-zhi; GAO Zheng-hong
2005-01-01
A numerical investigation of the structure of the vortical flowfield over delta wings at high angles of attack in longitudinal and with small sideslip angle is presented.Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulations were carried out to predict the complex leeward-side flowfield characteristics that are dominated by the effect of the breakdown of the leading-edge vortices. The methods that analyze the flowfield structure quantitatively were given by using flowfield data from the computational results. In the region before the vortex breakdown, the vortex axes are approximated as being straight line. As the angle of attack increases, the vortex axes are closer to the root chord, and farther away from the wing surface. Along the vortex axes, as the adverse pressure gradients occur, the axial velocity decreases, that is, λ is negative, so the vortex is unstable, and it is possible to breakdown. The occurrence of the breakdown results in the instability of lateral motion for a delta wing, and the lateral moment diverges after a small perturbation occurs at high angles of attack. However,after a critical angle of attack is reached, the vortices breakdown completely at the wing apex, and the instability resulting from the vortex breakdown disappears.
Parametric approximation of airfoil aerodynamic coefficients at high angles of attack
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian
2014-01-01
, and the third method, also utilizing trigonometric functions, was developed with the scope on stall-regulated turbines. The method of the even sine and cosine functions was further developed in the present work by using two independent harmonic approximations in the positive and negative α regions......Three methods for estimating the lift and drag curves in the 360° angle of attack (α) range with harmonic approximation functions were analyzed in the present work. The first method assumes aerodynamic response of a flat plate, the second utilizes even sine and even cosine approximation functions...
Validation of aerodynamic parameters at high angles of attack for RAE high incidence research models
Ross, A. Jean; Edwards, Geraldine F.; Klein, Vladislav; Batterson, James G.
1987-01-01
Two series of free-flight tests have been conducted for combat aircraft configuration research models in order to investigate flight behavior near departure conditions as well as to obtain response data from which aerodynamic characteristics can be derived. The structure of the mathematical model and values for the mathematical derivatives have been obtained through an analysis of the first series, using stepwise regression. The results thus obtained are the bases of the design of active control laws. Flight test results for a novel configuration are compared with predicted responses.
Axelson, J. A.
1977-01-01
The AEROX program estimates lift, induced-drag and pitching moments to high angles (typ. 60 deg) for wings and for wingbody combinations with or without an aft horizontal tail. Minimum drag coefficients are not estimated, but may be input for inclusion in the total aerodynamic parameters which are output in listed and plotted formats. The theory, users' guide, test cases, and program listing are presented.
Non-linear Flight Dynamics at High Angles of Attack
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Granasy, P.; Sørensen, C.B.; Mosekilde, Erik
1998-01-01
The methods of nonlinear dynamics are applied to the longitudinal motion of a vectored thrust aircraft, in particular the behavior at high angles of attack. Our model contains analytic nonlinear aerodynamical coefficients based on NASA windtunnel experiments on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicle...... (HARV). When the aircraft is forced with small thrust deflections whilst in poststall equilibrium, chaotic motion is observed at certain frequencies. At other frequencies, several limiting states coexist....
High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics
1979-01-01
autour du bond d’attaque au voisinage du fuselage rosto attachd, le bord d’attaquo 6tant At Ia fois arrondi ot cambr6. En quittant le fuselage le rayon ...ont Wt obtenus par d~u~l~ration on pallor aux diff~rents contrages . Pour offectuer une comparaison avec Ia soufflerle i1 oat n~cessaire do corriger les...Lo Longueur de l’ogive CL to de moment de roulis r Rayon de 1’Omoussement Cm de moment de tangage S Surface de r~f~rence :maltre - couple Cn de
Surface pressure model for simple delta wings at high angles of attack
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A A Pashilkar
2001-12-01
A new aerodynamic modelling approach is proposed for the longitudinal static characteristics of a simple delta wing. It captures the static variation of normal force and pitching moment characteristics throughout the angle of attack range. The pressure model is based on parametrizing the surface pressure distribution on a simple delta wing. The model is then extended to a wing/body combination where body-alone data are also available. The model is shown to be simple and consistent with experimental data. The pressure model can be used as a ﬁrst approximation for the load estimation on the delta wing at high angles of attack.
Investigation on high angle of attack characteristics of hypersonic space vehicle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Wei; LI ShiBin; LIU Jun; WANG ZhenGuo
2012-01-01
The high angle of attack characteristics play an important role in the aerodynamic performances of the hypersonic space vehicle.The three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the two-equation RNG k-ε turbulence model have been employed to investigate the influence of the high angle of attack on the lift-to-drag ratio and the flow field characteristics of the hypersonic space vehicle,and the contributions of each component to the aerodynamic forces of the vehicle have been discussed as well.At the same time,in order to validate the numerical method,the predicted results have been compared with the available experimental data of a hypersonic slender vehicle,and the grid independency has been analyzed.The obtained results show that the predicted lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment coefficient show very good agreement with the experimental data in the open literature,and the grid system makes only a slight difference to the numerical results.There exists an optimal angle of attack for the aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic space vehicle,and its value is 20°.When the angle of attack is 20°,the high pressure does not leak from around the leading edge to the upper surface.With the further increasing of the angle of attack,the high pressure spreads from the wing tips to the central area of the vehicle,and overflows from the leading edge again.Further,the head plays an important role in the drag performance of the vehicle,and the lift percentage of the flaperon is larger than that of the rudderevator.This illustrates that the optimization of the flaperon configuration is a great work for the improvement of the aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic space vehicle,especially for a high lift-to-drag ratio.
Bifurcation analysis of polynomial models for longitudinal motion at high angle of attack
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shi Zhongke; Fan Li
2013-01-01
To investigate the longitudinal motion stability of aircraft maneuvers conveniently,a new stability analysis approach is presented in this paper.Based on describing longitudinal aerodynamics at high angle-of-attack (α ＜ 50°) motion by polynomials,a union structure of two-order differential equation is suggested.By means of nonlinear theory and method,analytical and global bifurcation analyses of the polynomial differential systems are provided for the study of the nonlinear phenomena of high angle-of-attack flight.Applying the theories of bifurcations,many kinds of bifurcations,such as equilibrium,Hopf,homoclinic (heteroclinic) orbit and double limit cycle bifurcations are discussed and the existence conditions for these bifurcations as well as formulas for calculating bifurcation curves are derived.The bifurcation curves divide the parameter plane into several regions; moreover,the complete bifurcation diagrams and phase portraits in different regions are obtained.Finally,our conclusions are applied to analyzing the stability and bifurcations of a practical example of a high angle-of-attack flight as well as the effects of elevator deflection on the asymptotic stability regions of equilibrium.The model and analytical methods presented in this paper can be used to study the nonlinear flight dynamic of longitudinal stall at high angle of attack.
Study on flow behavior and structure over chined fuselage at high angle of attack
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
A study of leeward vortex structure over chined fuselage and the effects of micro tip perturbation on its vortex flow have been carried out in wind tunnel experiments at Reynolds numbers from 1.26×105 to 5.04×105 with PIV and pressure measurement techniques.Firstly,the experiment results have proved that micro tip perturbation has no effects on the vortex flow and its aerodynamic characteristics over chined fuselage at high angle of attack,in which there are not any non-deterministic flow behaviors.Secondly,the evolution of leeward vortex structure over chined fuselage along the axis of model can be divided into four flow regimes:linear conical developed regime,decay regime of leeward vortex intensity,asymmetric leeward vortex break down regime and completely break down regime.And a correlation between leeward vortex structure and sectional aerodynamic force was also revealed in the present paper.Thirdly,the experiment results show the behavior of leeward vortex core trajectories and zonal characteristics of leeward vortex structure with angles of attack.Finally,the experiment results of Reynolds number effect on the leeward vortex flow have further confirmed research conclusions from previous studies:the flows over chined fuselage at high angles of attack are insensitive to variation of Reynolds number,and there is a little effect on the secondary boundary layer separation and the suction peak induced by leeward vortex.
High Angle-of-Attack Aerodynamics
1982-12-01
of oil-streak lines toward a particular line. Whether this is also a sufficient con- dition is a matter of current debate. Of the many attempts to...ON THE SAAB-VIGGEN CANARD-WING AIRCRAFT AT 30-DEGREE AGA INORTHROP WATER TUNNEL) I ins viiribls flowus interactin al-5 occrs’r’ betwieens 41 ligslY...lead, with the missile mass in mind , to structures with minimal structural stiffness. Consequently, effects of aeroelasticity may play a role. Due to
An experimental study of an airfoil with a bio-inspired leading edge device at high angles of attack
Mandadzhiev, Boris A.; Lynch, Michael K.; Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Wissa, Aimy A.
2017-09-01
Robust and predictable aerodynamic performance of unmanned aerial vehicles at the limits of their design envelope is critical for safety and mission adaptability. Deployable aerodynamic surfaces from the wing leading or trailing edges are often used to extend the aerodynamic envelope (e.g. slats and flaps). Birds have also evolved feathers at the leading edge (LE) of their wings, known as the alula, which enables them to perform high angles of attack maneuvers. In this study, a series of wind tunnel experiments are performed to quantify the effect of various deployment parameters of an alula-like LE device on the aerodynamic performance of a cambered airfoil (S1223) at stall and post stall conditions. The alula relative angle of attack, measured from the mean chord of the airfoil, is varied to modulate tip-vortex strength, while the alula deflection angle is varied to modulate the distance between the tip vortex and the wing surface. Integrated lift force measurements were collected at various alula-inspired device configurations. The effect of the alula-inspired device on the boundary layer velocity profile and turbulence intensity were investigated through hot-wire anemometer measurements. Results show that as alula deflection angle increases, the lift coefficient also increase especially at lower alula relative angles of attack. Moreover, at post stall wing angles of attack, the wake velocity deficit is reduced in the presence of alula device, confirming the mitigation of the wing adverse pressure gradient. The results are in strong agreement with measurements taken on bird wings showing delayed flow reversal and extended range of operational angles of attack. An engineered alula-inspired device has the potential to improve mission adaptability in small unmanned air vehicles during low Reynolds number flight.
Delayed detached eddy simulations of fighter aircraft at high angle of attack
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guoliang Xu; Xiong Jiang; Gang Liu
2016-01-01
The massively separated flows over a realistic air-craft configuration at 40◦, 50◦, and 60◦angles of attack are studied using the delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES). The calculations are carried out at experimental conditions corresponding to a mean aerodynamic chord-based Reynolds number of 8.93 × 105 and Mach number of 0.088. The influ-ence of the grid size is investigated using two grids, 20.0×106 cells and 31.0 × 106 cells. At the selected conditions, the lift, drag, and pitching moment from DDES predictions agree with the experimental data better than that from the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes. The effect of angle of attack on the flow structure over the general aircraft is also studied, and it is found that the dominated frequency associated with the vortex shedding process decreases with increasing angle of attack.
Gilbert, W. P.; Nguyen, L. T.; Vangunst, R. W.
1976-01-01
A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted to study the effectiveness of some automatic control system features designed to improve the stability and control characteristics of fighter airplanes at high angles of attack. These features include an angle-of-attack limiter, a normal-acceleration limiter, an aileron-rudder interconnect, and a stability-axis yaw damper. The study was based on a current lightweight fighter prototype. The aerodynamic data used in the simulation were measured on a 0.15-scale model at low Reynolds number and low subsonic Mach number. The simulation was conducted on the Langley differential maneuvering simulator, and the evaluation involved representative combat maneuvering. Results of the investigation show the fully augmented airplane to be quite stable and maneuverable throughout the operational angle-of-attack range. The angle-of-attack/normal-acceleration limiting feature of the pitch control system is found to be a necessity to avoid angle-of-attack excursions at high angles of attack. The aileron-rudder interconnect system is shown to be very effective in making the airplane departure resistant while the stability-axis yaw damper provided improved high-angle-of-attack roll performance with a minimum of sideslip excursions.
High angle of attack: Forebody flow physics and design emphasizing directional stability
Ravi, R.
A framework for understanding the fundamental physics of flowfields over forebody type shapes at low speed, high angle of attack conditions with special emphasis on sideslip has been established. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to study flowfieids over experimentally investigated forebodies: the Lamont tangent-ogive forebody, the F-5A forebody and the Erickson chine forebody. A modified version of a current advanced code, CFL3D, was used to solve the Euler and thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The Navier-Stokes equations used a form of the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model modified to account for massive crossflow separation. Using the insight provided by the solutions obtained using CFD, together with comparison with limited available data, the aerodynamics of forebodies with positive directional stability has been revealed. An unconventional way of presenting the results is used to illustrate how a positive contribution to directional stability arises. Based on this new understanding, a parametric study was then conducted to determine which shapes promote a positive contribution to directional stability. The effect of cross-sectional shape on directional stability was found to be very significant. Broad chine-shaped cross-sections were found to promote directional stability. Also, directional stability is improved if the chine is placed closer to the top of the cross-section. Planform shapes also played an important role in determining the forebody directional stability characteristics. This initial parametric study has been used to propose some guidelines for aerodynamic design to promote positive directional stability.
Magnus effects at high angles of attack and critical Reynolds numbers
Seginer, A.; Ringel, M.
1983-01-01
The Magnus force and moment experienced by a yawed, spinning cylinder were studied experimentally in low speed and subsonic flows at high angles of attack and critical Reynolds numbers. Flow-field visualization aided in describing a flow model that divides the Magnus phenomenon into a subcritical region, where reverse Magnus loads are experienced, and a supercritical region where these loads are not encountered. The roles of the spin rate, angle of attack, and crossflow Reynolds number in determining the boundaries of the subcritical region and the variations of the Magnus loads were studied.
Rainey, A Gerald
1957-01-01
The oscillating air forces on a two-dimensional wing oscillating in pitch about the midchord have been measured at various mean angles of attack and at Mach numbers of 0.35 and 0.7. The magnitudes of normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients were much higher at high angles of attack than at low angles of attack for some conditions. Large regions of negative damping in pitch were found, and it was shown that the effect of increasing the Mach number 0.35 to 0.7 was to decrease the initial angle of attack at which negative damping occurred. Measurements of the aerodynamic damping of a 10-percent-thick and of a 3-percent-thick finite-span wing oscillating in the first bending mode indicate no regions of negative damping for this type of motion over the range of variables covered. The damping measured at high angles of attack was generally larger than that at low angles of attack. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Acampora, Antonio; Georgakis, Christos T.
2013-01-01
Moderate vibrations continue to be recorded on the Øresund Bridge twin-stay cables. System identification techniques have been applied to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the cables based on ambient vibration measurements. As might be expected, the measured aerodynamic damping ratios...... vary from those estimated through use of aerodynamic coefficients of single circular cylinders, as reported in literature. To address this issue, wind tunnel tests were performed on a 1:2.3 scale section model of the Øresund Bridge cables, with and without the presence of helical fillets. In this paper...
Quasi-periodic dynamics of a high angle of attack aircraft
Rohith, G.; Sinha, Nandan K.
2017-01-01
High angle of attack maneuvers closer to stall is a commonly accessed flight regime especially in case of fighter aircrafts. Stall and post-stall dynamics are dominated by nonlinearities which make the analysis difficult. Presence of external factors such as wind makes the system even more complex. Rich nonlinearities point to the possibility of existence of chaotic solutions. Past studies in this area confirm the development of such solutions. These studies are mainly concentrated on very high angle of attack regimes, which may not be practically easily accessible. This paper examines the possibility of existence of chaotic solutions in the lower, more accessible areas in the post stall domain. The analysis is composed of the study of effect of external wind as an agent to drive the system towards the possibility of a chaotic solution. Investigations reveal presence of quasi-periodic solutions, which are characterized by two incommensurate frequencies. This solution appears in the time simulation by varying the control parameter viz., wind. The solutions correspond to the values in the lower region of the angle of attack versus elevator bifurcation curve in the post-stall region. A steady wind is considered for the analysis and explores the possibility of chaotic motion by increasing the wind in a step wise manner. It is found that wind adds extra energy to the system which in turn drives the system in to chaos. The analysis is done with the help of phase portrait, Poincare map and amplitude spectrum and a quasi-periodic route to chaos via torus doubling is also presented.
Prediction of forces and moments on finned bodies at high angle of attack in transonic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oberkampf, W. L.
1981-04-01
This report describes a theoretical method for the prediction of fin forces and moments on bodies at high angle of attack in subsonic and transonic flow. The body is assumed to be a circular cylinder with cruciform fins (or wings) of arbitrary planform. The body can have an arbitrary roll (or bank) angle, and each fin can have individual control deflection. The method combines a body vortex flow model and lifting surface theory to predict the normal force distribution over each fin surface. Extensive comparisons are made between theory and experiment for various planform fins. A description of the use of the computer program that implements the method is given.
Flight validation of ground-based assessment for control power requirements at high angles of attack
Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Ross, Holly M.; Foster, John V.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Sternberg, Charles A.; Traven, Ricardo; Lackey, James B.; Abbott, Troy D.
1994-01-01
A review is presented in viewgraph format of an ongoing NASA/U.S. Navy study to determine control power requirements at high angles of attack for the next generation high-performance aircraft. This paper focuses on recent flight test activities using the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which are intended to validate results of previous ground-based simulation studies. The purpose of this study is discussed, and the overall program structure, approach, and objectives are described. Results from two areas of investigation are presented: (1) nose-down control power requirements and (2) lateral-directional control power requirements. Selected results which illustrate issues and challenges that are being addressed in the study are discussed including test methodology, comparisons between simulation and flight, and general lessons learned.
Bifurcation analysis and stability design for aircraft longitudinal motion with high angle of attack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Qi
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Bifurcation analysis and stability design for aircraft longitudinal motion are investigated when the nonlinearity in flight dynamics takes place severely at high angle of attack regime. To predict the special nonlinear flight phenomena, bifurcation theory and continuation method are employed to systematically analyze the nonlinear motions. With the refinement of the flight dynamics for F-8 Crusader longitudinal motion, a framework is derived to identify the stationary bifurcation and dynamic bifurcation for high-dimensional system. Case study shows that the F-8 longitudinal motion undergoes saddle node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation, Zero-Hopf bifurcation and branch point bifurcation under certain conditions. Moreover, the Hopf bifurcation renders series of multiple frequency pitch oscillation phenomena, which deteriorate the flight control stability severely. To relieve the adverse effects of these phenomena, a stabilization control based on gain scheduling and polynomial fitting for F-8 longitudinal motion is presented to enlarge the flight envelope. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles
1997-01-01
The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.
ASYMMETRIC VORTICES FLOW OVER SLENDER BODY AND ITS ACTIVE CONTROL AT HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Xueying; WANG Yankui
2004-01-01
The studies of asymmetric vortices flow over slender body and its active control at high angles of attack have significant importance for both academic field and engineering area. This paper attempts to provide an update state of art to the investigations on the fields of forebody asymmetric vortices. This review emphasizes the correlation between micro-perturbation on the model nose and its response and evolution behaviors of the asymmetric vortices. The critical issues are discussed,which include the formation and evolution mechanism of asymmetric multi-vortices; main behaviors of asymmetric vortices flow including its deterministic feature and vortices flow structure; the evolution and development of asymmetric vortices under the perturbation on the model nose; forebody vortex active control especially discussed micro-perturbation active control concept and technique in more detail. However present understanding in this area is still very limited and this paper tries to identify the key unknown problems in the concluding remarks.
Dynamic surface measurements on a model helicopter rotor during blade slap at high angles of attack
Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Harris, W. L.
1982-01-01
The modern helicopter offers a unique operational capability to both the public and private sectors. However, the use of the helicopter may become severely limited due to the radiated noise generated by the rotor system. A description is presented of some of the experimental results obtained with a model helicopter rotor in an anechoic wind tunnel with regard to blade stall as a source mechanism of blade slap. Attention is given to dynamic rotor blade surface phenomena and the resulting far field impulsive noise from the model helicopter rotor at high angles of attack and low tip speed. The results of the investigation strongly implicates the boundary layer as playing an important role in blade slap due to blade/vortex interaction (BVI) in a highly loaded rotor. Intermittent stall cannot be ruled out as a possible source mechanism for blade slap. This implies that blade surface characteristics, airfoil shape and local Reynolds number may now be used as tools to reduce the resultant far-field sound pressure levels in helicopters.
Bifurcation analysis and stability design for aircraft longitudinal motion with high angle of attack
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xin Qi; Shi Zhongke
2015-01-01
Bifurcation analysis and stability design for aircraft longitudinal motion are investigated when the nonlinearity in flight dynamics takes place severely at high angle of attack regime. To pre-dict the special nonlinear flight phenomena, bifurcation theory and continuation method are employed to systematically analyze the nonlinear motions. With the refinement of the flight dynam-ics for F-8 Crusader longitudinal motion, a framework is derived to identify the stationary bifurca-tion and dynamic bifurcation for high-dimensional system. Case study shows that the F-8 longitudinal motion undergoes saddle node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation, Zero-Hopf bifurcation and branch point bifurcation under certain conditions. Moreover, the Hopf bifurcation renders ser-ies of multiple frequency pitch oscillation phenomena, which deteriorate the flight control stability severely. To relieve the adverse effects of these phenomena, a stabilization control based on gain scheduling and polynomial fitting for F-8 longitudinal motion is presented to enlarge the flight envelope. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.
1984-01-01
A six-degree-of-freedom simulation analysis has been performed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry from Mach 10 to 2.5 with realistic off-nominal conditions using the entry flight control system specified in May 1978. The off-nominal conditions included the following: (1) aerodynamic uncertainties, (2) an error in deriving the angle of attack from onboard instrumentation, (3) the failure of two of the four reaction control-system thrusters on each side, and (4) a lateral center-of-gravity offset. With combinations of the above off-nominal conditions, the control system performed satisfactorily with a few exceptions. The cases that did not exhibit satisfactory performance displayed the following main weaknesses. Marginal performance was exhibited at hypersonic speeds with a sensed angle-of-attack error of 4 deg. At supersonic speeds the system tended to be oscillatory, and the system diverged for several cases because of the inability to hold lateral trim. Several system modifications were suggested to help solve these problems and to maximize safety on the first flight: alter the elevon-trim and speed-brake schedules, delay switching to rudder trim until the rudder effectiveness is adequate, and reduce the overall rudder loop gain. These and other modifications were incorporated in a flight-control-system redesign in May 1979.
Low-frequency unsteadiness of vortex wakes over slender bodies at high angle of attack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Baofeng
2014-08-01
Full Text Available A type of flow unsteadiness with low frequencies and large amplitude was investigated experimentally for vortex wakes around an ogive-tangent cylinder. The experiments were carried out at angles of attack of 60–80° and subcritical Reynolds numbers of 0.6–1.8 × 105. The reduced frequencies of the unsteadiness are between 0.038 and 0.072, much less than the frequency of Karman vortex shedding. The unsteady flow induces large fluctuations of sectional side forces. The results of pressure measurements and particle image velocimetry indicate that the flow unsteadiness comes from periodic oscillation of the vortex wakes over the slender body. The time-averaged vortex patterns over the slender body are asymmetric, whose orientation is dependent on azimuthal locations of tip perturbations. Therefore, the vortex oscillation is a type of unsteady oscillation around a time-averaged asymmetric vortex structure.
Lattice Boltzmann Method used for the aircraft characteristics computation at high angle of attack
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Traditional Finite Volume Method(FVM)and Lattice Boltzmann Method(LBM)are both used to compute the high angle attack aerodynamic characteristics of the benchmark aircraft model named CT-1.Even though the software requires flow on the order of Ma<0.4,simulation at Ma=0.5 is run in PowerFLOW after theoretical analysis.The consistency with the wind tunnel testing is satisfied,especially for the LBM which can produce perfect results at high angle attack.PowerFLOW can accurately capture the detail of flows because it is inherently time-dependent and parallel and suits large-scale computation very well.
Harwell, K. E.; Farmer, W. M.; Hornkohl, J. O.; Stallings, E.
1981-03-01
During the past three years, personnel have developed a unique three-component laser velocimeter for the in situ measurement of particle and/or gas velocities in flow fields produced behind bodies at high angles of attack and in jet exhaust plumes. This report describes the development of the laser velocimeter and its subsequent application of the measurement of the velocity distribution and vortex structure in free jets and in flows over missiles at high angles of attack.
Kim, Hyun D.; Frate, Franco C.
2001-01-01
A subscale aerodynamic model of the GTX air-breathing launch vehicle was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 2.0 to 3.5 at various angles-of-attack. The objective of the test was to investigate the effect of angle-of-attack on inlet mass capture, inlet diverter effectiveness, and the flowfield at the cowl lip plane. The flow-through inlets were tested with and without boundary-layer diverters. Quantitative measurements such as inlet mass flow rates and pitot-pressure distributions in the cowl lip plane are presented. At a 3deg angle-of-attack, the flow rates for the top and side inlets were within 8 percent of the zero angle-of-attack value, and little distortion was evident at the cowl lip plane. Surface oil flow patterns showing the shock/boundary-layer interaction caused by the inlet spikes are shown. In addition to inlet data, vehicle forebody static pressure distributions, boundary-layer profiles, and temperature-sensitive paint images to evaluate the boundary-layer transition are presented. Three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics calculations of the forebody flowfield are presented and show good agreement with the experimental static pressure distributions and boundary-layer profiles. With the boundary-layer diverters installed, no adverse aerodynamic phenomena were found that would prevent the inlets from operating at the required angles-of-attack. We recommend that phase 2 of the test program be initiated, where inlet contraction ratio and diverter geometry variations will be tested.
Navy and the HARV: High angle of attack tactical utility issues
Sternberg, Charles A.; Traven, Ricardo; Lackey, James B.
1994-01-01
This presentation will highlight results from the latest Navy evaluation of the HARV (March 1994) and focus primarily on the impressions from a piloting standpoint of the tactical utility of thrust vectoring. Issue to be addressed will be mission suitability of high AOA flight, visual and motion feedback cues associated with operating at high AOA, and the adaptability of a pilot to effectively use the increased control power provided by the thrust vectoring system.
Wang, J.; Hastings, D. E.
1992-01-01
The paper presents the theory and particle simulation results for the ionospheric plasma flow over a large high-voltage space platform at a zero angle of attack and at a large angle of attack. Emphasis is placed on the structures in the large, high-voltage regime and the transient plasma response on the ion-plasma time scale. Special consideration is given to the transient formation of the space-charge wake and its steady-state structure.
BiGlobal linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past an airfoil at high angle of attack
Zhang, Wei
2016-04-04
We perform BiGlobal linear stability analysis on flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at 16° angle of attack and Reynolds number ranging from 400 to 1000. The steady-state two-dimensional base flows are computed using a well-tested finite difference code in combination with the selective frequency damping method. The base flow is characterized by two asymmetric recirculation bubbles downstream of the airfoil whose streamwise extent and the maximum reverse flow velocity increase with the Reynolds number. The stability analysis of the flow past the airfoil is carried out under very small spanwise wavenumber β = 10−4 to approximate the two-dimensional perturbation, and medium and large spanwise wavenumbers (β = 1–8) to account for the three-dimensional perturbation. Numerical results reveal that under small spanwise wavenumber, there are at most two oscillatory unstable modes corresponding to the near wake and far wake instabilities; the growth rate and frequency of the perturbation agree well with the two-dimensional direct numerical simulation results under all Reynolds numbers. For a larger spanwise wavenumber β = 1, there is only one oscillatory unstable mode associated with the wake instability at Re = 400 and 600, while at Re = 800 and 1000 there are two oscillatory unstable modes for the near wake and far wake instabilities, and one stationary unstable mode for the monotonically growing perturbation within the recirculation bubble via the centrifugal instability mechanism. All the unstable modes are weakened or even suppressed as the spanwise wavenumber further increases, among which the stationary mode persists until β = 4.
Moes, Timothy R.; Whitmore, Stephen A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.
1993-01-01
A nonintrusive airdata-sensing system was calibrated in flight and wind-tunnel experiments to an angle of attack of 70 deg and to angles of sideslip of +/- 15 deg. Flight-calibration data have also been obtained to Mach 1.2. The sensor, known as the flush airdata sensor, was installed on the nosecap of an F-18 aircraft for flight tests and on a full-scale F-18 forebody for wind-tunnel tests. Flight tests occurred at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, using the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the 30- by 60-ft wind tunnel at the NASA LaRC, Hampton, Virginia. The sensor consisted of 23 flush-mounted pressure ports arranged in concentric circles and located within 1.75 in. of the tip of the nosecap. An overdetermined mathematical model was used to relate the pressure measurements to the local airdata quantities. The mathematical model was based on potential flow over a sphere and was empirically adjusted based on flight and wind-tunnel data. For quasi-steady maneuvering, the mathematical model worked well throughout the subsonic, transonic, and low supersonic flight regimes. The model also worked well throughout the angles-of-attack and -sideslip regions studied.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 10 deg Sharp Cone at Hypersonic Speeds and High Angles of Attack
1975-06-01
pump arrived at by trial and error. After an ex- and hypodermic needle , served as a self-seal- tensive pretrial period during which several :., Ing...lift and drag coefficients showed good agree- ment with the modified Ncwtonian theory . The ceneli P istributonwsnal the~ ~ ’nelný~(ontiasnuedrl...acceleration, ft/sec Newtonian theory . The centerline K Model geometry and m~iss function distribution was nearly independent of the L Model length, in
Aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils at high angles-of-attack
Timmer, W.A.
2010-01-01
Airfoil characteristics at deep stall angles were investigated. It appeared that the maximum drag coefficient as a function of the airfoil upwind y/c ordinate at x/c=0.0125 can be approximated by a straight line. The lift-drag ratios in deep stall of a number of airfoils with moderate lower surface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Liu; Dongjun Ma; Dejun Sun; Xieyuan Yin
2009-01-01
A numerical study on flows around a slender body of revolution at a high angle of attack is conducted to investigate the influence of strength and circumferential angle of perturbation on flow asymmetry.A source term model is applied to simulate a real geometrical perturbation near the tip of the slender body.It can greatly facilitate the adjustment of perturbation strength.The results show that the bistable phenomenon does not appear any more at a small perturbation strength.For different perturbation strengths,the energy of the asymmetric perturbation flow experiences a similar spatial exponential growth regime with the same growth rate.The appearance of the bistable phenomenon is closely related to nonlinear saturation of the perturbation flow as perturbation strength increases.
Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.
1990-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.
Hess, Ronald A.
1994-01-01
The NASA High-Angle-of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), a modified F-18 aircraft, experienced handling qualities problems in recent flight tests at NASA Dryden Research Center. Foremost in these problems was the tendency of the pilot-aircraft system to exhibit a potentially dangerous phenomenon known as a pilot-induced oscillation (PIO). When they occur, PIO's can severely restrict performance, sharply dimish mission capabilities, and can even result in aircraft loss. A pilot/vehicle analysis was undertaken with the goal of reducing these PIO tendencies and improving the overall vehicle handling qualities with as few changes as possible to the existing feedback/feedforward flight control laws. Utilizing a pair of analytical pilot models developed by the author, a pilot/vehicle analysis of the existing longitudinal flight control system was undertaken. The analysis included prediction of overall handling qualities levels and PIO susceptability. The analysis indicated that improvement in the flight control system was warranted and led to the formulation of a simple control stick command shaping filter. Analysis of the pilot/vehicle system with the shaping filter indicated significant improvements in handling qualities and PIO tendencies could be achieved. A non-real time simulation of the modified control system was undertaken with a realistic, nonlinear model of the current HARV. Special emphasis was placed upon those details of the command filter implementation which could effect safety of flight. The modified system is currently awaiting evaluation in the real-time, pilot-in-the-loop, Dual-Maneuvering-Simulator (DMS) facility at Langley.
Effect of Mean Angle of Attack Modulation on Dynamic Stall
Heintz, Kyle; Corke, Thomas
2016-11-01
Wind tunnel experiments at M = 0 . 2 were conducted on a cambered airfoil instrumented with surface pressure transducers that was oscillated with two independent frequencies. The primary input, f1, corresponds to a range of reduced frequencies, while the slower, secondary input, f2, drives the modulation of the mean angle of attack, thus varying the stall-penetration angle, αpen. Various combinations transitioned different regimes of dynamic stall from "light" to "deep". Results suggest that when αpen is falling between consecutive cycles, the aerodynamic loads do not fully recover to the values seen when αpen is rising, even though the airfoil recedes to αpen load coefficients, aerodynamic damping, and their phase relationships to pitch angle. APS Fellow.
2016-01-01
During the flight of birds, it is often possible to notice that some of the primaries and covert feathers on the upper side of the wing pop-up under critical flight conditions, such as the landing approach or when stalking their prey (see Fig. 1) . It is often conjectured that the feathers pop up plays an aerodynamic role by limiting the spread of flow separation . A combined experimental and numerical study was conducted to shed some light on the physical mechanism determining the feathers s...
Alford, William J; King, Thomas, Jr
1957-01-01
An investigation was made at high subsonic speeds in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the static aerodynamic forces and moments on a missile model during simulated launching from the midsemispan location of a 45 degree sweptback wing-fuselage-pylon combination. The results indicated significant variations in all the aerodynamic components with changes in chordwise location of the missile. Increasing the angle of attack caused increases in the induced effects on the missile model because of the wing-fuselage-pylon combination. Increasing the Mach number had little effect on the variations of the missile aerodynamic characteristics with angle of attack except that nonlinearities were incurred at smaller angles of attack for the higher Mach numbers. The effects of finite wing thickness on the missile characteristics, at zero angle of attack, increase with increasing Mach number. The effects of the pylon on the missile characteristics were to causeincreases in the rolling-moment variation with angle of attack and a negative displacement of the pitching-moment curves at zero angle of attack. The effects of skewing the missile in the lateral direction relative to and sideslipping the missile with the wing-fuselage-pylon combination were to cause additional increments in side force at zero angle of attack. For the missile yawing moments the effects of changes in skew or sideslip angles were qualitatively as would be expected from consideration of the isolated missile characteristics, although there existed differences in theyawing-moment magnitudes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rezaeiha, Abdolrahim; Arjomandi, Maziar; Kotsonis, Marios;
2015-01-01
The current paper investigates the effects of various elements including turbulence, wind shear, yawed inflow, tower shadow, gravity, mass and aerodynamic imbalances on variations of angle of attack and lift coefficient for a large horizontal-axis wind turbine. It will identify the individual...... and the aggregate effect of elements on variations of mean value and standard deviation of the angle of attack and lift coefficient in order to distinguish the major contributing factors. The results of the current study is of paramount importance in the design of active load control systems for wind turbine....
Model order reduction for steady aerodynamics of high-lift configurations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vendl, Alexander; Faßbender, Heike; Goertz, Stefan
2014-01-01
In aerodynamic applications, many model reduction methods use proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). In this work, a POD-based method, called missing point estimation (MPE), is modified and applied to steady-state flows with variation of the angle of attack. The main idea of MPE is to select a su......-element high-lift airfoils, one which is normally adopted during landing and the other during take-off....
DSMC simulation for effects of angles of attack on rarefied hypersonic cavity flows
Jin, Xuhon; Huang, Fei; Shi, Jiatong; Cheng, Xiaoli
2016-11-01
The present work investigates rarefied hypersonic flows over a flat plate with two-dimensional and three-dimensional cavities by employing the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, focusing on the effect of angles of attack (AOAs) on flow structure inside the cavity and aerodynamic surface quantities. It was found that only one primary recirculation structure was formed inside the cavity at the angle of attack (AOA) of 0°, while a second vortex system was produced just beneath the primary one with the angle of attack increased to 30°. As AOAs grow, the freestream flow is able to penetrate deeper into the cavity and attach itself to the cavity base, making the "dead-water" region shrink. Meantime, with the increment in the AOA, both heat transfer and pressure coefficients show a similar and gradual quantitative behavior, and along centerlines of the two side surfaces of the cavity, both pressure and heat transfer coefficients become growing, indicating that the increase in the AOA does enhance momentum and energy transfer to both the two aforementioned surfaces. However, the heat flux over the cavity floor does not keep increasing with the growth of the AOA, while the pressure does, indicating that augmenting AOAs does not enhance momentum to the cavity floor, but does make compressibility stronger and stronger near the cavity base.
Flight Test Techniques for Quantifying Pitch Rate and Angle of Attack Rate Dependencies
Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murri, Daniel G.
2017-01-01
Three different types of maneuvers were designed to separately quantify pitch rate and angle of attack rate contributions to the nondimensional aerodynamic pitching moment coefficient. These maneuvers combined pilot inputs and automatic multisine excitations, and were own with the subscale T-2 and Bat-4 airplanes using the NASA AirSTAR flight test facility. Stability and control derivatives, in particular C(sub mq) and C(sub m alpha(.)) were accurately estimated from the flight test data. These maneuvers can be performed with many types of aircraft, and the results can be used to increase simulation prediction fidelity and facilitate more accurate comparisons with wind tunnel experiments or numerical investigations.
1991-12-01
i. The equilibrium solutions are stable for 1ɘ and- unstable for X>O with a loss of stability at X=O. Using polar coordinates y = rcosO, y2 = sinO...PC(,23)BDE C9 =PC(I,24)*B*A + PC(I,25)*OM’DD + PC(,26)* BDD C10 = PC(,27)’OM*DR + PC(I,28)*DA*OMOM +PC(1,29)*DAA Cll = PC(1,30)’DD*DDB+PC(1,31 )0MOMA...PC(1,32)*OMOM*OM C12 = PC(1,33)ABB +i PC(,34)*B*AOM C13 = PC(,35)BA*DR + PC(,36)A* BDD + PC(1,37)B*BOM C14 = PC(,38)’DD*OMOM + PC(,39)*BDA*OM C15 = PC
High-Alfa Aerodynamics with Separated Flow Modeled as a Single Nascent Vortex
Antony, Samuel B.; Mukherjee, Rinku
2017-04-01
A numerical iterative vortex lattice method is developed to study flow past wing(s) at high angles of attack where the separated flow is modelled using NY nascent vortex filaments. The wing itself is modelled using NX × NY bound vortex rings, where NX and NY are the number of sections along the chord and span of the wing respectively. The strength and position of the nascent vortex along the chord corresponding to the local effective angle of attack are evaluated from the residuals in viscous and potential flow, i.e. (Cl)visc - (Cl)pot and (Cm)visc - (Cm)pot. Hence, the 2D airfoil viscous Cl - α and Cm - α is required as input (from experiment, numerical analysis or CFD). Aerodynamic characteristics and section distribution along span are predicted for 3D wings at a high angle of attack. Effect of initial conditions and existence of multiple solutions in the post-stall region is studied. Results are validated with experiment.
Review of Research On Angle-of-Attack Indicator Effectiveness
Le Vie, Lisa R.
2014-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a literature review to determine the potential benefits of a display of angle-of-attack (AoA) on the flight deck of commercial transport that may aid a pilot in energy state awareness, upset recovery, and/or diagnosis of air data system failure. This literature review encompassed an exhaustive list of references available and includes studies on the benefits of displaying AoA information during all phases of flight. It also contains information and descriptions about various AoA indicators such as dial, vertical and horizontal types as well as AoA displays on the primary flight display and the head up display. Any training given on the use of an AoA indicator during the research studies or experiments is also included for review
Determination of the angle of attack on rotor blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2009-01-01
Two simple methods for determining the angle of attack (AOA) on a section of a rotor blade are proposed. Both techniques consist of employing the Biot-Savart integral to determine the influence of the bound vorticity on the velocity field. In the first technique, the force distribution along...... the blade and the velocity at a monitor point in the vicinity of the blade are assumed to be known from experiments or CFD computations. The AOA is determined by subtracting the velocity induced by the bound circulation, determined from the loading, from the velocity at the monitor point. In the second...... to be located closer to the blade, and thus to determine the AOA with higher accuracy. Data from CFD computations for flows past the Tellus 95 kW wind turbine at different wind speeds are used to test both techniques. Comparisons show that the proposed methods are in good agreement with existing techniques...
Speeding-up the computation of high-lift aerodynamics using a residual-based reduced-order model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mifsud, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Goertz, Stefan
2014-01-01
In this article, we propose a strategy for speeding-up the computation of the aerodynamics of industrial high-lift configurations using a residual-based reduced-order model (ROM). The ROM is based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of a set of solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations...... is augmented with the latest CFD computed flow solution. Using this strategy, a considerable reduction in the total number of iterations to reach the converged steady-state solution is achieved when compared with conventional computational techniques used in industry for a series of computations such as drag...... governing fluid flow at different parameter values, from which a set of orthogonal basis vectors is evaluated. By considering an initial set of few snapshots at different angles of attack, a ROM is constructed which is used to predict a solution at an angle of attack which is just outside the space spanned...
Effects of Sudden Changes in Inflow Conditions on the Angle of Attack on HAWT Blades
Stoevesandt, Bernhard
2010-01-01
In this paper changes in wind speed and wind direction from a measured wind field are being analyzed at high frequencies. This is used to estimate changes in the angle of attack (AOA) on a blade segment over short time periods for different estimated turbine concepts. Here a statistical approach is chosen to grasp the characteristics of the probability distributions to give an over all view of the magnitude and rate of the changes. The main interest is the generation of basic distributions for the calculation of dynamic stall effects and stall flutter due to wind fluctuations.
Vortex-induced vibrations of a DU96-W-180 airfoil at 90° angle of attack
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Sørensen, Niels N.;
2014-01-01
This work presents an analysis of vortex-induced vibrations of a DU96-W-180 airfoil in deep stall at a 90 degrees angle of attack, based on 2D and 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes and 3D Detached Eddy Simulation unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics computations with non-moving, prescribed motion...... and elastically mounted airfoil suspensions. Stationary vortex-shedding frequencies computed in 2D and 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics differed. In the prescribed motion computations, the airfoil oscillated in the direction of the chord line. Negative aerodynamic damping, found in both 2D and 3D Computational...... Fluid Dynamics computations with moving airfoil, showed in the vicinity of the stationary vortex-shedding frequency computed by 2D Computational Fluid Dynamics. A shorter time series was sufficient to verify the sign of the aerodynamic damping in the case of the elastic computations than the prescribed...
Flow Control of the Stingray UAV at Low Angles of Attack
Farnsworth, John; Vaccaro, John; Amitay, Michael
2007-11-01
The effectiveness of active flow control, via synthetic jets and steady blowing jets, on the aerodynamic performance of the Stingray UAV was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. Global flow measurements were conducted using a six component sting balance, static pressure, and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Using active control for trimming the Stingray UAV in pitch and roll at low angles of attack has similar effects to those with conventional control effectors. The synthetic jets were able to alter the local streamlines through the formation of a quasi-steady interaction region on the suction surface of the vehicle's wing. Phase locked data were acquired to provide insight into the growth, propagation, and decay of the synthetic jet impulse and its interaction with the cross-flow. The changes induced on the moments and forces can be proportionally controlled by either changing the momentum coefficient or by driving the synthetic jets with a pulse modulation waveform. This can lead the way for future development of closed-loop control models.
X-29 High Angle-of-Attack Flying Qualities
1991-06-01
flhit and closure rate. Limited military utility tesIs ith thw variable gain capability. Predicted large amplitude increased roll-rate .apability...33 ll! )3l 17, oq jimod [013110 qildmoitmii~pojiro paso 1/OS0 0Jo ( ptio3O5; jad saai1 £ LI 0 Zpuo00S iod sMp 0)qlU)141)1A1 43iq pajli uaaq 0A111 p
Wind Tunnel Corrections for High Angle of Attack Models,
1981-02-01
2) . De telles confrontations sont bien entendu specifiquss des maquettes utilises et en particulier devraient Stre developp^es dans le domaine des...d’essais, il y a lieu de tenir compte des qualitds de l’ecoulement aussi bien stationnaire (ascendance, gradient longitudinal de pression) qu’in...luence des divers parametres ne peut etre etudiee isolement car il n’est pas encore possiblt re les faire varier. L’ONERA a dejä public des travaux
Montoya, E. J.
1973-01-01
Wind-tunnel tests were conducted with three different fixed pressure-measuring hemispherical head sensor configurations which were strut-mounted on a nose boom. The tests were performed at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.2 to 3.6. The boom-angle-of-attack range was -6 to 15 deg, and the angle-of-sideslip range was -6 to 6 deg. The test Reynolds numbers were from 3.28 million to 65.6 million per meter. The results were used to obtain angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip calibration curves for the configurations. Signal outputs from the hemispherical head sensor had to be specially processed to obtain accurate real-time angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip measurements for pilot displays or aircraft systems. Use of the fixed sensors in flight showed them to be rugged and reliable and suitable for use in a high temperature environment.
Adaptive Missile Flight Control for Complex Aerodynamic Phenomena
2017-08-09
e.g., top -right fin at beginning of animation while the vehicle is at a high angle of attack). These data illustrate these complex aerodynamic...optimal controllers. The poor roll control performance of the optimal controller means that the airframe flies at those aerodynamic angles while spinning ...corrected spinning projectile. J Spacecraft Rockets. 1975;12(12):733–738. 2. Chandgadkar S, Costello M, Dano B, Liburdy J, Pence D. Performance of a
Flow around a slotted circular cylinder at various angles of attack
Gao, Dong-Lai; Chen, Wen-Li; Li, Hui; Hu, Hui
2017-10-01
We experimentally investigated the flow characteristics around a circular cylinder with a slot at different angles of attack. The experimental campaign was performed in a wind tunnel at the Reynolds number of Re = 2.67 × 104. The cylindrical test model was manufactured with a slot at the slot width S = 0.075 D ( D is the diameter of the cylinder). The angle of attack α was varied from 0° to 90°. In addition to measuring the pressure distributions around the cylinder surface, a digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was employed to quantify the wake flow characteristics behind the baseline cylinder (i.e., baseline case of the cylinder without slot) and slotted cylinder at various angles of attack. Measurement results suggested that at low angles of attack, the passive jet flow generated by the slot would work as an effective control scheme to modify the wake flow characteristics and contribute to reducing the drag and suppressing the fluctuating lift. The flip-flop phenomenon was also identified and discussed with the slot at 0° angle of attack. As the angle of attack α became 45°, the effects of the slot were found to be minimal. When the angle of attack α of the slot approached 90°, the self-organized boundary layer suction and blowing were realized. As a result, the flow separations on both sides of the test model were found to be notably delayed, the wake width behind the slotted cylinder was decreased and the vortex formation length was greatly shrunk, in comparison with the baseline case. Instantaneous pressure measurement results revealed that the pressure difference between the two slot ends and the periodically fluctuating pressure distributions would cause the alternative boundary layer suction and blowing at α = 90°.
Maslen, S. H.
1974-01-01
A general method developed for the analysis of inviscid hypersonic shock layers is discussed for application to the case of the shuttle vehicle at high (65 deg) angle of attack. The associated extensive subsonic flow region caused convergence difficulties whose resolution is discussed. It is required that the solution be smoother than anticipated.
In-blade angle of attack measurement and comparison with models
Gallant, T. E.; Johnson, D. A.
2016-09-01
The torque generated by a wind turbine blade is dependent on several parameters, one of which is the angle of attack. Several models for predicting the angle of attack in yawed conditions have been proposed in the literature, but there is a lack of experimental data to use for direct validation. To address this problem, experiments were conducted at the University of Waterloo Wind Generation Research Facility using a 3.4 m diameter test turbine. A five-hole pressure probe was installed in a modular 3D printed blade and was used to measure the angle of attack, a, as a function of several parameters. Measurements were conducted at radial positions of r/R = 0.55 and 0.72 at tip speed ratios of λ = 5.0, 3.6, and 3.1. The yaw offset of the turbine was varied from -15° to +15°. Experimental results were compared directly to angle of attack values calculated using a model proposed by Morote in 2015. Modeled values were found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. The angle of attack was shown to vary cyclically in the yawed case while remaining mostly constant when aligned with the flow, as expected. The quality of results indicates the potential of the developed instrument for wind turbine measurements.
Influence of Thickness and Angle of Attack on the Dynamics of Rectangular Cylinder Wakes
Mohebi, Meraj
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements were taken in the turbulent wake of two-dimensional rectangular cylinders. The influence of post-stall angles of attack and Reynolds number on the flow behind a thin at plate, and for the normal case, the effect of thickness to chord (t=d) ratio over a family of rectangular cylinders were investigated. At all cases, quasi-periodic vortex shedding is observed, the normal direction Reynolds stress becomes very large just downstream of the mean recirculation zone, and the spanwise motions were uncorrelated to the main vortex shedding process. The data were processed to obtain the mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, and forces on the body. All terms in the turbulent kinetic energy equations were measured with the exception of dissipation which was found by difference. The pressure-related terms were estimated from the numerical solution of the Poisson equation for the instantaneous velocity field. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition modes are related via mean-field theory to construct generalized phase-averaging and low-order models capturing coherent cycle-to-cycle variations. The advection, production and pressure diffusion were all significant and mostly coherent. It is shown that high, average, and low amplitude vortex shedding cycles are different in terms of vortex street dimensions, vortex topology, circulation, and decay rate. It is also shown that these flows experience irregular significant decreases in the shedding amplitude associated with shedding of disorganized vortices in a large wake. Reynolds number was found to have imperceptible effects on the wake of a normal thin plate. A reduction in the angle of attack caused the wake to decrease in size and increase in shedding frequency but the global characteristics vary non-linearly. An increase in thickness from thin plate (t=d=0.05), caused the wake to shrink, low cycles to diminish, and local turbulence increase to a peak at t=d=1.0, identified as a
Effects of Angle of Attack and Velocity on Trailing Edge Noise
Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.
2006-01-01
Trailing edge (TE) noise measurements for a NACA 63-215 airfoil model are presented, providing benchmark experimental data for a cambered airfoil. The effects of flow Mach number and angle of attack of the airfoil model with different TE bluntnesses are shown. Far-field noise spectra and directivity are obtained using a directional microphone array. Standard and diagonal removal beamforming techniques are evaluated employing tailored weighting functions for quantitatively accounting for the distributed line character of TE noise. Diagonal removal processing is used for the primary database as it successfully removes noise contaminates. Some TE noise predictions are reported to help interpret the data, with respect to flow speed, angle of attack, and TE bluntness on spectral shape and peak levels. Important findings include the validation of a TE noise directivity function for different airfoil angles of attack and the demonstration of the importance of the directivity function s convective amplification terms.
Henderson, W. P.; Abeyounis, W. K.
1985-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport configuration of installing an over-the-wing nacelle-pylon arrangement. The tests are conducted at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.82 and at angles of attack from -2 deg to 4 deg. The configurational variables under study include symmetrical and contoured nacelles and pylons, pylon size, and wing leading-edge extensions. The symmetrical nacelles and pylons reduce the lift coefficient, increase the drag coefficient, and cause a nose-up pitching-moment coefficient. The contoured nacelles significantly reduce the interference drag, though it is still excessive. Increasing the pylon size reduces the drag, whereas adding wing leading-edge extension does not affect the aerodynamic characteristics significantly.
Shaqura, Mohammad
2015-06-01
Fixed wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are an increasingly common sensing platform, owing to their key advantages: speed, endurance and ability to explore remote areas. While these platforms are highly efficient, they cannot easily be equipped with air data sensors commonly found on their larger scale manned counterparts. Indeed, such sensors are bulky, expensive and severely reduce the payload capability of the UAVs. In consequence, UAV controllers (humans or autopilots) have little information on the actual mode of operation of the wing (normal, stalled, spin) which can cause catastrophic losses of control when flying in turbulent weather conditions. In this article, we propose a real-time air parameter estimation scheme that can run on commercial, low power autopilots in real-time. The computational method is based on a hybrid decomposition of the modes of operation of the UAV. A Bayesian approach is considered for estimation, in which the estimated airspeed, angle of attack and sideslip are described statistically. An implementation on a UAV is presented, and the performance and computational efficiency of this method are validated using hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation and experimental flight data and compared with classical Extended Kalman Filter estimation. Our benchmark tests shows that this method is faster than EKF by up to two orders of magnitude. © 2015 IEEE.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Qing; WU Kaiyuan; ZHANG Tianjiao; KONG Yi＇nan; QIAN Weiqi
2012-01-01
Aerodynamic modeling and parameter estimation from quick accesses recorder (QAR) data is an important technical way to analyze the effects of highland weather conditions upon aerodynamic characteristics of airplane.It is also an essential content of flight accident analysis.The related techniques are developed in the present paper,including the geometric method for angle of attack and sideslip angle estimation,the extended Kalman filter associated with modified Bryson-Frazier smoother (EKF-MBF) method for aerodynamic coefficient identification,the radial basis function (RBF) neural network method for aerodynamic modeling,and the Delta method for stability/control derivative estimation.As an application example,the QAR data of a civil airplane approaching a high-altitude airport are processed and the aerodynamic coefficient and derivative estimates are obtained.The estimation results are reasonable,which shows that the developed techniques are feasible.The causes for the distribution of aerodynamic derivative estimates are analyzed.Accordingly,several measures to improve estimation accuracy are put forward.
Moul, T. M.
1979-01-01
A preliminary wind tunnel investigation was undertaken to determine the flow correction for a vane angle of attack sensor over an angle of attack range from -10 deg to 110 deg. The sensor was mounted ahead of the wing on a 1/5 scale model of a general aviation airplane. It was shown that the flow correction was substantial, reaching about 15 deg at an angle of attack of 90 deg. The flow correction was found to increase as the sensor was moved closer to the wing or closer to the fuselage. The experimentally determined slope of the flow correction versus the measured angle of attack below the stall angle of attack agreed closely with the slope of flight data from a similar full scale airplane.
Aerodynamic Numerical Testing of Megawatt Wind Turbine Blade to Find Optimum Angle of Attack
Sogukpinar, H.; Bozkurt, I.; Pala, M; Turkmenler, H.
2016-01-01
Wind energy is one of the oldest kinds of energy source used by mankind and it is dating back to thousand years. At the beginning of twentieth century, multi blades wind turbines were improved and used for charging in USA. After oil crisis in in the seventies, there was a surge of alternative energy sources in USA, Denmark and Germany. In terms of installed capacity, Germany had the leadership until 2007, then it passed to USA and finally China becomes the leader. Today, 6 MW capacity wind tu...
Satellite Aerodynamics and Density Determination from Satellite Dynamic Response
Karr, G. R.
1972-01-01
The aerodynamic drag and lift properties of a satellite are first expressed as a function of two parameters associated with gas-surface interaction at the satellite surface. The dynamic response of the satellite as it passes through the atmosphere is then expressed as a function of the two gas-surface interaction parameters, the atmospheric density, the satellite velocity, and the satellite orientation to the high speed flow. By proper correlation of the observed dynamic response with the changing angle of attack of the satellite, it is found that the two unknown gas-surface interaction parameters can be determined. Once the gas-surface interaction parameters are known, the aerodynamic properties of the satellite at all angles of attack are also determined.
GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 3: Aerodynamics
Hague, D.
1978-01-01
Aerodynamics calculations are treated in routines which concern moments as they vary with flight conditions and attitude. The subroutines discussed: (1) compute component equivalent flat plate and wetted areas and profile drag; (2) print and plot low and high speed drag polars; (3) determine life coefficient or angle of attack; (4) determine drag coefficient; (5) determine maximum lift coefficient and drag increment for various flap types and flap settings; and (6) determine required lift coefficient and drag coefficient in cruise flight.
Doppler radiation sensing of Shuttle angle of attack and TAS during entry
Foale, C. M.
Space Shuttle true airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip angle are currently derived from inertial guidance information. A new method is proposed which offers a potential improvement in Shuttle safety during entry. Angle of attack, sideslip angle and true airspeed could be measured directly at heights from 120 km down to 20 km by Doppler sensing three independent true airspeeds along the Shuttle body axes. Two types of Doppler measurement sensors, employing either passive detection of atmospheric radiation or coherent detection of scattered laser light are discussed. The proposed technique is essentially solid-state and robust, and is well suited for use in future small hypersonic vehicles that require flight control in the Upper Atmosphere of the earth or in probes destined for the other planets.
Stability Analysis of Hypersonic Boundary Layer over a Cone at Small Angle of Attack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Ji
2014-04-01
Full Text Available An investigation on the stability of hypersonic boundary layer over a cone at small angle of attack has been performed. After obtaining the steady base flow, linear stability theory (LST analysis has been made with local parallel assumption. The growth rates of the first mode and second mode waves at different streamwise locations and different azimuthal angles are obtained. The results show that the boundary layer stability was greatly influenced by small angles of attack. The maximum growth rate of the most unstable wave on the leeward is larger than that on the windward. Moreover, dominating second mode wave starts earlier on the leeward than that on the windward. The LST result also shows that there is a “valley” region around 120°~150° meridian in the maximum growth rates curve.
Evaluation of electrolytic tilt sensors for measuring model angle of attack in wind tunnel tests
Wong, Douglas T.
1992-01-01
The results of a laboratory evaluation of electrolytic tilt sensors as potential candidates for measuring model attitude or angle of attack in wind tunnel tests are presented. The performance of eight electrolytic tilt sensors was compared with that of typical servo accelerometers used for angle-of-attack measurements. The areas evaluated included linearity, hysteresis, repeatability, temperature characteristics, roll-on-pitch interaction, sensitivity to lead-wire resistance, step response time, and rectification. Among the sensors being evaluated, the Spectron model RG-37 electrolytic tilt sensors have the highest overall accuracy in terms of linearity, hysteresis, repeatability, temperature sensitivity, and roll sensitivity. A comparison of the sensors with the servo accelerometers revealed that the accuracy of the RG-37 sensors was on the average about one order of magnitude worse. Even though a comparison indicates that the cost of each tilt sensor is about one-third the cost of each servo accelerometer, the sensors are considered unsuitable for angle-of-attack measurements. However, the potential exists for other applications such as wind tunnel wall-attitude measurements where the errors resulting from roll interaction, vibration, and response time are less and sensor temperature can be controlled.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Guang; YANG Ran-sheng; LIU Yan; ZHAO Peng-fei
2013-01-01
The instantaneous angle of attack on the blade has a significant effect on the hydrodynamic performance of a vertical-axis tidal-current turbine with straight blades.This paper investigates the influence of different preset angles of attack on the hydrodynamic performance of a three-bladed,vertical-axis,tidal-current turbine both experimentally and numerically.Experiments are carried out in a towing tank.This tested turbine's solidity is 0.1146.The preset angles of attack on the blade are-3°,0°,3°,and 5°,in the experiments.Experimental results show that with the increase of the preset angle of attack from-3°,to 5°,the hydrodynamic performance of the turbine is improved significantly with the power coefficients being increased from 15.3％ to 34.8％,respectively.Compared to the result of a 0° preset angle of attack,the performance of the turbine with positive preset angles of attack is experimentally demonstrated to be beneficial.This performance improvement is also shown by numerical simulations based on the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations.In addition,the numerical results show that the optimal positive preset angle of attack is 7° for the turbine studied.The corresponding power coefficient is 38％.Beyond this optimal preset angle of attack,the hydrodynamic performance of the turbine decreases.Therefore,due to the dynamic stall phenomenon,an optimal preset angle of attack exists for any vertical-axis turbine.This value should be considered in the design of a vertical-axis tidal-current turbine.
Mechanism of transition in a hypersonic sharp cone boundary layer with zero angle of attack
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Firstly, the steady laminar flow field of a hypersonic sharp cone boundary layer with zero angle of attack was computed. Then, two groups of finite amplitude T-S wave disturbances were introduced at the entrance of the computational field, and the spatial mode transition process was studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS) method.The mechanism of the transition process was analyzed. It was found that the change of the stability characteristics of the mean flow profile was the key issue. Furthermore, the characteristics of evolution for the disturbances of different modes in the hypersonic sharp cone boundary layer were discussed.
Ramachandran, S.; Wells, W. R.
1974-01-01
This paper is concerned with the estimation of stability and control parameters of a high performance fighter aircraft from data obtained from high angle of attack flight. The estimation process utilizes a maximum likelihood algorithm derived for the case of a nonlinear aerodynamic force and moment model. The aircraft used was a high speed variable sweep heavy weight fighter with twin vertical tails. Comparisons of results from the nonlinear analysis are made with linear theory and wind tunnel results when available.
Transition prediction for supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers on a cone with angle of attack
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU CaiHong; ZHOU Heng
2009-01-01
Transition prediction for boundary layers has always been one of the urgent problems waiting for a solution for the development of aero-space technology, yet there is no reliable and effective method due to the complexity of the problem. The eN method has been regarded as an effective method for the transition prediction of boundary layers. However, it heavily relies on experiment or experience. And in cases with three-dimensional base flow, for instance, the boundary layer on a cone with angle of attack, the result of its application is not satisfactory. The authors have found its cause and proposed the method for its improvement, which did yield the fairly satisfactory result for a given test case, and also did not rely so much on experiment or experience. However, before people can really apply this method to practical problems, more test cases have to be studied. In this paper, more test cases for the appli- cation of the improved eN method to problems of transition prediction of supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers on cones with angle of attack will be studied. The results are compared with those obtained by experiments and/or direct numerical simulations, confirming that the improved eN method is effective and reliable. We also find that there may be more than one ZARF for each meridian plane, and which one should be chosen for the eN method has been clarified.
Evaluation of electrolytic tilt sensors for wind tunnel model angle-of-attack (AOA) measurements
Wong, Douglas T.
1991-01-01
The results of a laboratory evaluation of three types of electrolytic tilt sensors as potential candidates for model attitude or angle of attack (AOA) measurements in wind tunnel tests are presented. Their performance was also compared with that from typical servo accelerometers used for AOA measurements. Model RG-37 electrolytic tilt sensors were found to have the highest overall accuracy among the three types. Compared with the servo accelerometer, their accuracies are about one order of magnitude worse and each of them cost about two-thirds less. Therefore, the sensors are unsuitable for AOA measurements although they are less expensive. However, the potential for other applications exists where the errors resulting from roll interaction, vibration, and response time are less, and sensor temperature can be controlled.
Evaluation of electrolytic tilt sensors for wind tunnel model angle-of-attack (AOA) measurements
Wong, Douglas T.
1991-01-01
The results of a laboratory evaluation of three types of electrolytic tilt sensors as potential candidates for model attitude or angle of attack (AOA) measurements in wind tunnel tests are presented. Their performance was also compared with that from typical servo accelerometers used for AOA measurements. Model RG-37 electrolytic tilt sensors were found to have the highest overall accuracy among the three types. Compared with the servo accelerometer, their accuracies are about one order of magnitude worse and each of them cost about two-thirds less. Therefore, the sensors are unsuitable for AOA measurements although they are less expensive. However, the potential for other applications exists where the errors resulting from roll interaction, vibration, and response time are less, and sensor temperature can be controlled.
Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnels. Part 3: Angle of attack
Lee, George
1992-01-01
A review of optical sensors that are capable of accurate angle of attack measurements in wind tunnels was conducted. These include sensors being used or being developed at NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers, Boeing Airplane Company, McDonald Aircraft Company, Arnold Engineering Development Center, National Aerospace Laboratory of the Netherlands, National Research Council of Canada, and the Royal Aircraft Establishment of England. Some commercial sensors that may be applicable to accurate angle measurements were also reviewed. It was found that the optical sensor systems were based on interferometers, polarized light detector, linear or area photodiode cameras, position sensing photodetectors, and laser scanners. Several of the optical sensors can meet the requirements of the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Two of these, the Boeing interferometer and the Complere lateral effect photodiode sensors are being developed for the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel.
The Aerodynamics of High Speed Aerial Weapons
Prince, Simon A.
1999-01-01
The focus of this work is the investigation of the complex compressible flow phenomena associated with high speed aerial weapons. A three dimen- sional multiblock finite volume flow solver was developed with the aim of studying the aerodynamics of missile configurations and their component structures. The first component of the study involved the aerodynamic investigation of the isolated components used in the design of conventional missile config- urations. The computati...
Numerical Simulation of Airfoil Aerodynamic Penalties and Mechanisms in Heavy Rain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenlong Wu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations that are conducted on a transport-type airfoil, NACA 64-210, at a Reynolds number of 2.6×106 and LWC of 25 g/m3 explore the aerodynamic penalties and mechanisms that affect airfoil performance in heavy rain conditions. Our simulation results agree well with the experimental data and show significant aerodynamic penalties for the airfoil in heavy rain. The maximum percentage decrease in CL is reached by 13.2% and the maximum percentage increase in CD by 47.6%. Performance degradation in heavy rain at low angles of attack is emulated by an originally creative boundary-layer-tripped technique near the leading edge. Numerical flow visualization technique is used to show premature boundary-layer separation at high angles of attack and the particulate trajectories at various angles of attack. A mathematic model is established to qualitatively study the water film effect on the airfoil geometric changes. All above efforts indicate that two primary mechanisms are accountable for the airfoil aerodynamic penalties. One is to cause premature boundary-layer transition at low AOA and separation at high AOA. The other occurs at times scales consistent with the water film layer, which is thought to alter the airfoil geometry and increase the mass effectively.
A computational/experimental study of the flow around a body of revolution at angle of attack
Zilliac, Gregory G.
1986-01-01
The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved for steady flow around an ogive-cylinder (fineness ration 4.5) at angle of attack. The three-dimensional vortical flow is investigated with emphasis on the tip and the near wake region. The implicit, finite-difference computation is performed on the CRAY X-MP computer using the method of pseudo-compressibility. Comparisons of computational results with results of a companion towing tank experiment are presented for two symmetric leeside flow cases of moderate angles of attack. The topology of the flow is discussed and conclusions are drawn concerning the growth and stability of the primary vortices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-01-01
Consideration is given to vortex physics and aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; STOL/VSTOL/rotors; missile and reentry vehicle aerodynamics; CFD as applied to aircraft; unsteady aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; low-speed/high-lift aerodynamics; airfoil/wing aerodynamics; measurement techniques; CFD-solvers/unstructured grid; airfoil/drag prediction; high angle-of-attack aerodynamics; and CFD grid methods. Particular attention is given to transonic-numerical investigation into high-angle-of-attack leading-edge vortex flow, prediction of rotor unsteady airloads using vortex filament theory, rapid synthesis for evaluating the missile maneuverability parameters, transonic calculations of wing/bodies with deflected control surfaces; the static and dynamic flow field development about a porous suction surface wing; the aircraft spoiler effects under wind shear; multipoint inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils, turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows; numerical investigation of tail buffet on the F-18 aircraft; the surface grid generation in a parameter space; and the flip flop nozzle extended to supersonic flows.
Rotor/body aerodynamic interactions
Betzina, M. D.; Smith, C. A.; Shinoda, P.
1985-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in which independent, steady state aerodynamic forces and moments were measured on a 2.24 m diam. two bladed helicopter rotor and on several different bodies. The mutual interaction effects for variations in velocity, thrust, tip-path-plane angle of attack, body angle of attack, rotor/body position, and body geometry were determined. The results show that the body longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of a rotor and hub, and that the hub interference may be a major part of such interaction. The effects of the body on the rotor performance are presented.
Effect of angle of attack on the flow past a harbor seal vibrissa shaped cylinder
Kim, Hyo Ju; Yoon, Hyun Sik
2016-11-01
The present study considered the geometric disturbance inspired by a harbor seal vibrissa of which undulated surface structures are known as a detecting device to capture the water movement induced by prey fish. In addition, this vibrissa plays an important role to suppress vortex-induced vibration, which has been reported by the previous researches. The present study aims at finding the effect of the angle of attack (AOA) on flow characteristics around the harbor seal vibrissa shaped cylinder, since the flow direction facing the harbor seal vibrissa with the elliptic shape can be changed during the harbor seal's movements and surrounding conditions. Therefore, we considered a wide range of AOA varying from 0 to 90 degree. We carried out large eddy simulation (LES) to investigate the flow around inclined vibrissa shaped cylinder for the Reynolds number (Re) of 500 based hydraulic diameter of a harbor seal vibrissa shape. For comparison, the flow over the elliptic cylinder was also simulated according to AOA at the same Re. The vortical structures of both vibrissa shaped and elliptic cylinders have been compared to identify the fundamental mechanism making the difference flow quantities. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "the Chemical Accident Prevention Technology Development Project.", National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant through GCRCSOP (No.20110030013) and (NRF-2015R1D1A3A01020867).
Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of a Micro-CT Based Bio-Realistic Fruit Fly Wing.
Brandt, Joshua; Doig, Graham; Tsafnat, Naomi
2015-01-01
The aerodynamic features of a bio-realistic 3D fruit fly wing in steady state (snapshot) flight conditions were analyzed numerically. The wing geometry was created from high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) of the fruit fly Drosophila virilis. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the wing were conducted at ultra-low Reynolds numbers ranging from 71 to 200, and at angles of attack ranging from -10° to +30°. It was found that in the 3D bio-realistic model, the corrugations of the wing created localized circulation regions in the flow field, most notably at higher angles of attack near the wing tip. Analyses of a simplified flat wing geometry showed higher lift to drag performance values for any given angle of attack at these Reynolds numbers, though very similar performance is noted at -10°. Results have indicated that the simplified flat wing can successfully be used to approximate high-level properties such as aerodynamic coefficients and overall performance trends as well as large flow-field structures. However, local pressure peaks and near-wing flow features induced by the corrugations are unable to be replicated by the simple wing. We therefore recommend that accurate 3D bio-realistic geometries be used when modelling insect wings where such information is useful.
Numerical Analysis of Wind Turbine Airfoil Aerodynamic Performance with Leading Edge Bump
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majid Asli
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance improvement of wind turbine blade is the key process to improve wind turbine performance in electricity generated and energy conversion in renewable energy sources concept. The flow behavior on wind turbine blades profile and the relevant phenomena like stall can be improved by some modifications. In the present paper, Humpback Whales flippers leading edge protuberances model as a novel passive stall control method was investigated on S809 as a thick airfoil. The airfoil was numerically analyzed by CFD method in Reynolds number of 106 and aerodynamic coefficients in static angle of attacks were validated with the experimental data reported by Somers in NREL. Therefore, computational results for modified airfoil with sinusoidal wavy leading edge were presented. The results revealed that, at low angles of attacks before the stall region, lift coefficient decreases slightly rather than baseline model. However, the modified airfoil has a smooth stall trend while baseline airfoil lift coefficient decreases sharply due to the separation which occurred on suction side. According to the flow physics over the airfoils, leading edge bumps act as vortex generator so vortices containing high level of momentum make the flow remain attached to the surface of the airfoil at high angle of attack and prevent it from having a deep stall.
PIV-based study of the gliding osprey aerodynamics in a wind tunnel
Gurka, Roi; Liberzon, Alex; Kopp, Gregory; Kirchhefer, Adam; Weihs, Daniel
2009-11-01
The hunting flight of an osprey consists of periods where the bird glides while foraging for prey. High quality measurements of aerodynamics in this flight mode are needed in order to estimate the daily energy expenditure of the bird accurately. An experimental study of an osprey model in a wind tunnel (BLWTL, UWO) was performed in order to characterize the aerodynamic forces using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The model was a stuffed osprey with mechanical joints allowing control of the the wing (angle of attack, tilt) and tail orientation. Two-dimensional velocity realizations in the streamwise-normal plane were obtained simultaneously in the two fields of view: above the wing and in the wake of the wing. Mean and turbulent flow characteristics are presented as function of angle of attack based on measurements taken at 4 different angles of attack at three different locations over the wingspan. The main outcome is the accurate estimate of the drag from the measurements of momentum thickness in the turbulent boundary layer of the osprey wing. Moreover, the gradient of the momentum thickness method was applied to identify the separation point in the boundary layer. This estimate has been compared to the total drag calculated from measurements in the wake of the wing and with a theoretical prediction.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K Anand; S Sarkar
2015-05-01
Shear layer development over a thick flat plate with a semi-circular leading edge is investigated for a range of angles of attack under different pressure gradients for a Reynolds number of 2.44×105 (based on chord and free-stream velocity). The characteristics of the separated shear layer are very well documented through a combination of surface pressure measurement and smoke flow visualization. The instability of the separated layer occurs because of enhanced receptivity of perturbations leading to the development of significant unsteadiness and three-dimensional motions in the second-half of the bubble. The onset of separation, transition and the point of reattachment are identified for varying angles of attack and pressure gradients imposed by tail flap deflections. The data concerning bubble length, laminar portion and reattachment points agree well with the literature.
Unsteady Thick Airfoil Aerodynamics: Experiments, Computation, and Theory
Strangfeld, C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Mueller-Vahl, H.; Greenblatt, D.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.
2015-01-01
An experimental, computational and theoretical investigation was carried out to study the aerodynamic loads acting on a relatively thick NACA 0018 airfoil when subjected to pitching and surging, individually and synchronously. Both pre-stall and post-stall angles of attack were considered. Experiments were carried out in a dedicated unsteady wind tunnel, with large surge amplitudes, and airfoil loads were estimated by means of unsteady surface mounted pressure measurements. Theoretical predictions were based on Theodorsen's and Isaacs' results as well as on the relatively recent generalizations of van der Wall. Both two- and three-dimensional computations were performed on structured grids employing unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS). For pure surging at pre-stall angles of attack, the correspondence between experiments and theory was satisfactory; this served as a validation of Isaacs theory. Discrepancies were traced to dynamic trailing-edge separation, even at low angles of attack. Excellent correspondence was found between experiments and theory for airfoil pitching as well as combined pitching and surging; the latter appears to be the first clear validation of van der Wall's theoretical results. Although qualitatively similar to experiment at low angles of attack, two-dimensional URANS computations yielded notable errors in the unsteady load effects of pitching, surging and their synchronous combination. The main reason is believed to be that the URANS equations do not resolve wake vorticity (explicitly modeled in the theory) or the resulting rolled-up un- steady flow structures because high values of eddy viscosity tend to \\smear" the wake. At post-stall angles, three-dimensional computations illustrated the importance of modeling the tunnel side walls.
A Synthesis of Hybrid RANS/LES CFD Results for F-16XL Aircraft Aerodynamics
Luckring, James M.; Park, Michael A.; Hitzel, Stephan M.; Jirasek, Adam; Lofthouse, Andrew J.; Morton, Scott A.; McDaniel, David R.; Rizzi, Arthur M.
2015-01-01
A synthesis is presented of recent numerical predictions for the F-16XL aircraft flow fields and aerodynamics. The computational results were all performed with hybrid RANS/LES formulations, with an emphasis on unsteady flows and subsequent aerodynamics, and results from five computational methods are included. The work was focused on one particular low-speed, high angle-of-attack flight test condition, and comparisons against flight-test data are included. This work represents the third coordinated effort using the F-16XL aircraft, and a unique flight-test data set, to advance our knowledge of slender airframe aerodynamics as well as our capability for predicting these aerodynamics with advanced CFD formulations. The prior efforts were identified as Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International, with the acronyms CAWAPI and CAWAPI-2. All information in this paper is in the public domain.
Two-Dimensional High-Lift Aerodynamic Optimization Using Neural Networks
Greenman, Roxana M.
1998-01-01
The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. The 'pressure difference rule,' which states that the maximum lift condition corresponds to a certain pressure difference between the peak suction pressure and the pressure at the trailing edge of the element, was applied and verified with experimental observations for this configuration. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural nets were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 44% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.
Prediction of aerodynamic performance for MEXICO rotor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hong, Zedong; Yang, Hua; Xu, Haoran
2013-01-01
The aerodynamic performance of the MEXICO (Model EXperiments In Controlled cOnditions) rotor at five tunnel wind speeds is predicted by making use of BEM and CFD methods, respectively, using commercial MATLAB and CFD software. Due to the pressure differences on both sides of the blade, the tip...... the reliability of the MEXICO data. Second, the SST turbulence model can better capture the flow separation on the blade and has high aerodynamic performance prediction accuracy for a horizontal axis wind turbine in axial inflow conditions. Finally, the comparisons of the axial and tangential forces as well...... as the contrast of the angle of attack indicate that the prediction accuracy of BEM method is high when the blade is not in the stall condition. However, the airfoil characteristic becomes unstable in the stall condition, and the maximum relative error of tangential force calculated by BEM is -0.471. As a result...
Nonlinear prediction of the aerodynamic loads on lifting surfaces
Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1974-01-01
A numerical procedure is used to predict the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of lifting surfaces of low aspect ratio at high angles of attack for low subsonic Mach numbers. The procedure utilizes a vortex-lattice method and accounts for separation at sharp tips and leading edges. The shapes of the wakes emanating from the edges are predicted, and hence the nonlinear characteristics are calculated. Parallelogram and delta wings are presented as numerical examples. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Aerodynamics of High-Speed Trains
Schetz, Joseph A.
This review highlights the differences between the aerodynamics of high-speed trains and other types of transportation vehicles. The emphasis is on modern, high-speed trains, including magnetic levitation (Maglev) trains. Some of the key differences are derived from the fact that trains operate near the ground or a track, have much greater length-to-diameter ratios than other vehicles, pass close to each other and to trackside structures, are more subject to crosswinds, and operate in tunnels with entry and exit events. The coverage includes experimental techniques and results and analytical and numerical methods, concentrating on the most recent information available.
Wittliff, C. E.
1982-01-01
The aerodynamic heating of a tip-fin controller mounted on a Space Shuttle Orbiter model was studied experimentally in the Calspan Advanced Technology Center 96 inch Hypersonic Shock Tunnel. A 0.0175 scale model was tested at Mach numbers from 10 to 17.5 at angles of attack typical of a shuttle entry. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1 testing a thermographic phosphor technique was used to qualitatively determine the areas of high heat-transfer rates. Based on the results of this phase, the model was instrumented with 40 thin-film resistance thermometers to obtain quantitative measurements of the aerodynamic heating. The results of the phase 2 testing indicate that the highest heating rates, which occur on the leading edge of the tip-fin controller, are very sensitive to angle of attack for alpha or = 30 deg. The shock wave from the leading edge of the orbiter wing impinges on the leading edge of the tip-fin controller resulting in peak values of h/h(Ref) in the range from 1.5 to 2.0. Away from the leading edge, the heat-transfer rates never exceed h/h(Ref) = 0.25 when the control surface, is not deflected. With the control surface deflected 20 deg, the heat-transfer rates had a maximum value of h/h(Ref) = 0.3. The heating rates are quite nonuniform over the outboard surface and are sensitive to angle of attack.
Frassinelli, Mark C.; Carson, George T., Jr.
1990-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of horizontal and vertical tail size reductions on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a modified F-15 model with canards and 2-D convergent-divergent nozzles. Quantifying the drag decrease at low angles of attack produced by tail size reductions was the primary focus. The model was tested at Mach numbers of 0.40, 0.90, and 1.20 over an angle of attack of -2 degree to 10 degree. The nozzle exhaust flow was simulated using high pressure air at nozzle pressure ratios varying from 1.0 (jet off) to 7.5. Data were obtained on the baseline configuration with and without tails as well as with reduced horizontal and/or vertical tail sizes that were 75, 50, and 25 percent of the baseline tail areas.
Experimental Flight Characterization of Spin Stabilized Projectiles at High Angle of Attack
2017-08-07
distribution is unlimited. 25 1 DEFENSE TECHNICAL ( PDF ) INFORMATION CTR DTIC OCA 2 DIRECTOR ( PDF ) US ARMY RSRCH LAB RDRL CIO L IMAL HRA...MAIL & RECORDS MGMT 1 GOVT PRINTG OFC ( PDF ) A MALHOTRA 47 DIR USARL ( PDF ) RDRL WM J S ZABINSKI RDRLWML P J PEREGINO RDRL...2 ARO ( PDF ) S STANTON M MUNSON 2 VTD ( PDF ) C KRONINGER B GLAZ 9 RDECOM AMRDEC ( PDF ) L AUMAN J DOYLE S DUNBAR R MATHUR
Fundamentals and Methods of High Angle-of-Attack Flying Qualities Research
1988-01-01
Solving Equation (6) for the spin Radius, R, and substituting into equation (13), ay can be redefined in terms of fib V as given by equation (17). (T...14) through (16) respectively) are functions of flb/2V, o, and a. Thus there are three equations to solve for three unknowns ( fib /2V, 1, a) in order...January 17,1983, pp. 57-62. 86. Markman, Steven R., "Capabilities of Airborne and Ground Based Flight Simulation," AIAA Paper 85-1944. 87. Knotts
A.A. Pashilkar
2002-01-01
The surface pressure on a pitching delta wing aircraft is estimated from the normal force and the pitching moment characteristics. The pressure model is based on parametrising the surface pressure distribution on a simple delta wing. This model is useful as a first approximation of the load distribution on the aircraft wing. Leeward surface pressure distributions computed by this method are presented.
Drag prediction for blades at high angle of attack using CFD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Michelsen, J.A.
2004-01-01
In the present paper it is first demonstrated that state of the art 3D CFD codes are. capable of predicting the correct dependency of the integrated drag of a flat plate placed perpendicular to the flow. This is in strong contrast to previous 2D investigations of infinite plates, where computations...
Investigation of the High Angle of Attack Dynamics of the F-15B Using Bifurcation Analysis
1990-12-01
region via limit points should not be expected due to asymmetric thrust alone. A large I perturbation may push the F-15 away from the stable branch and...engine thrust setting of 25,000 lbf was then tried in the simu- 3 lation. Fig. 5-16 shows that using the higher thrust asym- metry, the F-15 pushes ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Air Force Institute of Tecnology REPORT NUMBER I WPAFB, OH 45433-6583 AFIT/GAE/ENY/90D-16 9
Surface Pressure Estimates for Pitching Aircraft Model at High Angles-of-attack (Short Communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Pashilkar
2002-10-01
Full Text Available The surface pressure on a pitching delta wing aircraft is estimated from the normal force and the pitching moment characteristics. The pressure model is based on parametrising the surface pressure distribution on a simple delta wing. This model is useful as a first approximation of the load distribution on the aircraft wing. Leeward surface pressure distributions computed by this method are presented.
Prediction of Aerodynamic Coefficients using Neural Networks for Sparse Data
Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip with vehicle lateral symmetry and compressibility effects. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. In this paper a fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network. The training data for the neural network is derived from wind tunnel test and numerical simulations. The coefficients of lift, drag, pitching moment are expressed as a function of alpha (angle of attack) and Mach number. The results produced from preliminary neural network analysis are very good.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘立栋; 张宇文
2012-01-01
In order to master hydrodynamic characteristic of UUV whose cabin door is opened at small angle of attack,based on wind tunnel model experiment firstly, it is proved that numerical computation method used is accurate and effective;then the drag,lift and moment characteristic of UUV whose cabin door is opened are calculated numerically by this method,and the influence of load cabin and cabin door on the surface pressure distribution of UUV is analysed after cabin door is opened. The computation result shows that the high pressure difference between the front end and the back end of the load cabin results in a significant increase of the pressare drag of load cabin dragin UUV's, and the drag about zero angle of attack are not symmetrical,the main reason of which is that the pressure drag of load cabin increases with the increase of absolute value of angle of attack on the condition of negative angle of attack. Because of fluid block function of the average pressure on the canbin door's down surface is higher that the up one when the angle of attack is zero degree,so zero lift of UUV is positive,and zero lift angle of attack is about -3 degrees,besides zero moment is positive. Zero moment angle of attack is about -1 degrees.%为了掌握舱门开启状态下UUV小攻角水动力特性,首先基于风洞模型实验验证了所用数值计算方法的准确性与有效性,进而采用该方法对舱门开启状态UUV阻力、升力及力矩特性进行了数值模拟研究,分析了舱门开启后载荷舱及舱门对UUV表面压力分布的影响.计算结果表明,载荷舱前后端面形成的较大压力差,导致舱门开启状态UUV阻力显著提升,且阻力关于零攻角表现为不对称性,主要原因在于负攻角条件下载荷舱粘压阻力随攻角绝对值的增大而增大;由于载荷舱的流体阻滞作用,零攻角工况下舱门下表面平均压力高于上表面,UUV零攻角升力为正,零升力攻角约为-3.,
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heidarzadeh Habibollah
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent fluid flow and convective heat transfer over the wall mounted cube in different flow angle of attack have been studied numerically using Large Eddy Simulation. Cube faces and plate have a constant heat flux. Dynamic Smagorinsky (DS subgrid scale model were used in this study. Angles were in the range 0≤θ≤45 and Reynolds number based on the cube height and free stream velocity was 4200. The numerical simulation results were compared with the experimental data of Nakamura et al [6, 7]. Characteristics of fluid flow field and heat transfer compared for four angles of attack. Flow around the cube was classified to four regimes. Results was represented in the form of time averaged normalized streamwise velocity and Reynolds stress in different positions, temperature contours, local and average Nusselt number over the faces of cube. Local convective heat transfer on cube faces was affected by flow pattern around the cube. The local convective heat transfer from the faces of the cube and plate are directly related to the complex phenomena such as horse shoe vortex, arch vortexes in behind the cube, separation and reattachment. Results show that overall convective heat transfer of cube and mean drag coefficient have maximum and minimum value at θ=0 deg and θ=25 deg respectively.
Ares I Aerodynamic Testing at the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel
Pinier, Jeremy T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Hanke, Jeremy L.; Tomek, William G.
2011-01-01
Throughout three full design analysis cycles, the Ares I project within the Constellation program has consistently relied on the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel (PSWT) for aerodynamic testing of the subsonic, transonic and supersonic portions of the atmospheric flight envelope (Mach=0.5 to 4.5). Each design cycle required the development of aerodynamic databases for the 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) forces and moments, as well as distributed line-loads databases covering the full range of Mach number, total angle-of-attack, and aerodynamic roll angle. The high fidelity data collected in this facility has been consistent with the data collected in NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at the overlapping condition ofMach=1.6. Much insight into the aerodynamic behavior of the launch vehicle during all phases of flight was gained through wind tunnel testing. Important knowledge pertaining to slender launch vehicle aerodynamics in particular was accumulated. In conducting these wind tunnel tests and developing experimental aerodynamic databases, some challenges were encountered and are reported as lessons learned in this paper for the benefit of future crew launch vehicle aerodynamic developments.
Hypersonic and Supersonic Static Aerodynamics of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle
Dyakonov, Artem A.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Vannorman, John W.
2012-01-01
This paper describes the analysis of continuum static aerodynamics of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV). The method is derived from earlier work for Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars Path Finder (MPF) and the appropriate additions are made in the areas where physics are different from what the prior entry systems would encounter. These additions include the considerations for the high angle of attack of MSL EV, ablation of the heatshield during entry, turbulent boundary layer, and other aspects relevant to the flight performance of MSL. Details of the work, the supporting data and conclusions of the investigation are presented.
EFFECT OF SWEEP ANGLE ON THE VORTICAL FLOW OVER DELTA WINGS AT AN ANGLE OF ATTACK OF 10°
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JAMES BRETT
2014-12-01
Full Text Available CFD simulations have been used to analyse the vortical flows over sharp edged delta wings with differing sweep angles under subsonic conditions at an angle of attack of 10°. RANS simulations were validated against experimental data for a 65° sweep wing, with a flat cross-section, and the steadiness of the flow field was assessed by comparing the results against unsteady URANS and DES simulations. To assess the effect of sweep angle on the flow field, a range of sweep angles from 65° to 43° were simulated. For moderate sweep wings the primary vortex was observed to detach from the leading edge, undergoing vortex breakdown, and a weaker, replacement, "shadow" vortex was formed. The shadow vortex was observed for sweep angles of 50° and less, and resulted in reduced lift production near the wing tips loss of the stronger primary vortex.
Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Wind tunnels use scale models to characterize aerodynamic coefficients, Wind tunnel testing can be slow and costly due to high personnel overhead and intensive power utilization. Although manual curve fitting can be done, it is highly efficient to use a neural network to define the complex relationship between variables. Numerical simulation of complex vehicles on the wide range of conditions required for flight simulation requires static and dynamic data. Static data at low Mach numbers and angles of attack may be obtained with simpler Euler codes. Static data of stalled vehicles where zones of flow separation are usually present at higher angles of attack require Navier-Stokes simulations which are costly due to the large processing time required to attain convergence. Preliminary dynamic data may be obtained with simpler methods based on correlations and vortex methods; however, accurate prediction of the dynamic coefficients requires complex and costly numerical simulations. A reliable and fast method of predicting complex aerodynamic coefficients for flight simulation I'S presented using a neural network. The training data for the neural network are derived from numerical simulations and wind-tunnel experiments. The aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of the flow characteristics and the control surfaces of the vehicle. The basic coefficients of lift, drag and pitching moment are expressed as functions of angles of attack and Mach number. The modeled and training aerodynamic coefficients show good agreement. This method shows excellent potential for rapid development of aerodynamic models for flight simulation. Genetic Algorithms (GA) are used to optimize a previously built Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that reliably predicts aerodynamic coefficients. Results indicate that the GA provided an efficient method of optimizing the ANN model to predict aerodynamic coefficients. The reliability of the ANN using the GA includes prediction of aerodynamic
Analysis of broadband aerodynamic noise from VS45
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dundabin, P. [Renewable Energy Systems Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)
1997-12-31
This paper describes the analysis of acoustic data taken from the VS45 at Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog. The aim was to investigate the dependence of aerodynamic noise on tip speed and angle of attack. In particular, the dependence of noise in individual third octave bands on these variable is examined. The analysis is divided into 3 sections: data selection, data checks and analysis of broadband nacelle noise; analysis of broadband aerodynamic noise and its sensitivity to tip speed and angle of attack. (LN)
Wing kinematics measurement and aerodynamics of a dragonfly in turning flight.
Li, Chengyu; Dong, Haibo
2017-02-03
This study integrates high-speed photogrammetry, 3D surface reconstruction, and computational fluid dynamics to explore a dragonfly (Erythemis Simplicicollis) in free flight. Asymmetric wing kinematics and the associated aerodynamic characteristics of a turning dragonfly are analyzed in detail. Quantitative measurements of wing kinematics show that compared to the outer wings, the inner wings sweep more slowly with a higher angle of attack during the downstroke, whereas they flap faster with a lower angle of attack during the upstroke. The inner-outer asymmetries of wing deviations result in an oval wingtip trajectory for the inner wings and a figure-eight wingtip trajectory for the outer wings. Unsteady aerodynamics calculations indicate significantly asymmetrical force production between the inner and outer wings, especially for the forewings. Specifically, the magnitude of the drag force on the inner forewing is approximately 2.8 times greater than that on the outer forewing during the downstroke. In the upstroke, the outer forewing generates approximately 1.9 times greater peak thrust than the inner forewing. To keep the body aloft, the forewings contribute approximately 64% of the total lift, whereas the hindwings provide 36%. The effect of forewing-hindwing interaction on the aerodynamic performance is also examined. It is found that the hindwings can benefit from this interaction by decreasing power consumption by 13% without sacrificing force generation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Demartino, Cristoforo; Ricciardelli, Francesco; Georgakis, Christos T.
2015-01-01
and Georgakis, measuring roughness and shape deviation of the wind tunnel model, justified the measured aerodynamic coefficients. Flamand et al. [4], using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), measured the spatial and temporal correlation of the pressure pattern along the HDPE tube with surface...... of a full scale yawed bridge cable section model, for varying Reynolds numbers and wind angles-of-attack, using passive dynamic wind tunnel tests. They demonstrated that the in-plane aerodynamic damping of a bridge cable section and the overall dynamic response are strongly affected by changes in the angle...... by an extruded High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) circular sheath [1]. In the last 20 years, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modifications on HDPE sheath in order to reduce the drag and to ensure the aerodynamic stability in all climatic conditions. In the case of plain HDPE sheaths...
1983-12-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect a trailing vortex wake has on an airfoil undergoing a constant rate of change of angle of...When applied to the constant rate - of - change of angle-of-attack problem, the results showed that a trailing vortex wake has a measurable and
Isaev, Sergey; Baranov, Paul; Popov, Igor; Sudakov, Alexander; Usachov, Alexander
2017-03-01
The modified SST model (2005) is verified using Rodi- Leschziner-Isaev's approach and the multiblock computational technologies are validated in the VP2/3 code on different-structure overlapping grids by comparing the numerical predictions with the experimental data on transonic flow around an NACA0012 airfoil at an angle of attack of 4o for M=0.7 and Re=4×106. It is proved that the aerodynamic characteristics of a thick (20% of the chord) MQ airfoil mounted at an angle of attack of 2o for Re=107 and over the Mach number range 0.3-0.55 are significantly improved because an almost circular small-size (0.12) vortex cell with a defined volumetric flow rate coefficient of 0.007 during slot suction has been located on the upper airfoil section and an intense trapped vortex has been formed in it. A detailed analysis of buffeting within the self-oscillatory regime of flow around the MQ airfoil with a vortex cell has demonstrated the periodic changes in local and integral characteristics; the lift and the aerodynamic efficiency remain quite high, but inferior to the similar characteristics at M=0.55. It is found that the vortex cell at M=0.7 is inactive, and the aerodynamic characteristics of the MQ airfoil with a vortex cell are close to those of a smooth airfoil without a cell.
Moreaux, Virginie; Delpierre, Nicolas; Dufrêne, Eric; Joffre, Richard; Klumpp, Katja; Loustau, Denis; Berveiller, Daniel; Darsonville, Olivier; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Piquemal, Karim; Longdoz, Bernard
2017-04-01
The production/absorption of the long lived greenhouse gas (GHG) and the albedo and evapotranspiration fluctuations in forests, grasslands and croplands are responsible of atmospheric radiative forcing but the quantification of these forcings remains uncertain. The CESEC program aims to quantify the impact of climatic drifts or anthropogenic and meteorological events on the ecosystem-atmosphere exchanges of French sites by analysing the long series (at least 9 years between 2003 and 2015) of eddy covariance (EC) fluxes. One part of the CESEC project is to repost-processed homogeneously the raw EC data across the sites and the years to try to reduce the influence of the methodology and experimental design on the temporal and spatial variability. These new processed data are put together with the corresponding climatic and edaphic data and with the carbon stock inventory. A number of French experimental sites have initially used a sonic anemometer from the GILL company, such as the GILL-R3 or the GILL R3-50, coupled with a GHG analyzer to perform EC measurements and deduce GHG exchanges from different ecosystems. Within the data processing procedure of eddy flux measurements, a recent type of correction has raised among the scientific community to account for the angle of attack error due to a distorsion of the flow when the wind approaches these GILL frame-type, resulting in an imperfect sine and cosine response. Nakai and co-authors proposed a correction to compensate for this error, which is expected to improve energy balance closure. No consensus has been clearly made on the application of this correction, but it has mostly been recommanded for recent data processing. The universal flux calculation EddyPro software that we are using in our project, incorporate and recommand this correction. Based on the analysis from two forests ecosystems (FR-Fon and FR-Pue) and a grassland (FR-Lq2) in France, we performed a re-analysis of EC measurements using the corrections
Research on Aerodynamic Noise Reduction for High-Speed Trains
Yadong Zhang; Jiye Zhang; Tian Li; Liang Zhang; Weihua Zhang
2016-01-01
A broadband noise source model based on Lighthill’s acoustic theory was used to perform numerical simulations of the aerodynamic noise sources for a high-speed train. The near-field unsteady flow around a high-speed train was analysed based on a delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) using the finite volume method with high-order difference schemes. The far-field aerodynamic noise from a high-speed train was predicted using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)/Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H)...
Research on Aerodynamic Noise Reduction for High-Speed Trains
Yadong Zhang; Jiye Zhang; Tian Li; Liang Zhang; Weihua Zhang
2016-01-01
A broadband noise source model based on Lighthill’s acoustic theory was used to perform numerical simulations of the aerodynamic noise sources for a high-speed train. The near-field unsteady flow around a high-speed train was analysed based on a delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) using the finite volume method with high-order difference schemes. The far-field aerodynamic noise from a high-speed train was predicted using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)/Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H)...
Hall, Albert W.; Harris, Jack E.
1961-01-01
A simulator study has been made to determine the effectiveness of a single instrument presentation as an aid to the pilot in controlling both rotation and climbout path in take-off. The instrument was basically an angle-of-attack indicator, biased with a total-pressure-rate input as a means of suppressing the phugoid oscillation. Linearized six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion were utilized in simulating a hypothetical supersonic transport as the test vehicle. Each of several experienced pilots performed a number of simulated take-offs, using conventional flight instruments and either an angle-of-attack instrument or the combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument. The pilots were able to rotate the airplane, with satisfactory precision, to the 15 deg. angle of attack required for lift-off when using either an angle-of-attack instrument or the instrument which combined total-pressure-rate with angle of attack. At least 4 to 6 second-S appeared to be required for rotation to prevent overshoot, particularly with the latter instrument. The flight paths resulting from take-offs with simulated engine failures were relatively smooth and repeatable within a reasonably narrow band when the combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument presentation was used. Some of the flight paths resulting from take-offs with the same engine-failure conditions were very oscillatory when conventional instruments and an angle-of-attack instrument were used. The pilots considered the combined angle-of-attack and total- pressure-rate instrument a very effective aid. Even though they could, with sufficient practice, perform satisfactory climbouts after simulated engine failure by monitoring the conventional instruments and making correction based on their readings, it was much easier to maintain a smooth flight path with the single combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matteoni, G.; Georgakis, C.T.
2012-01-01
Theoretical and experimental investigations to date have assumed that bridge cables can be modeled as ideal circular cylinders and the associated aerodynamic coefficients are invariant with the wind angle-of-attack. On the other hand, bridge cables are normally characterized by local alterations...... of their inherent surface roughness and shape, which might present a significant disturbance for the surrounding wind flow. The present study focuses on the experimental determination, based on static wind tunnel tests, of the aerodynamic coefficients of full-scale bridge cable section models both perpendicular...... and inclined to the flow, for varying wind angles-of-attack. The wind tunnel test results demonstrate that the aerodynamic coefficients of bridge cables can be significantly affected by the wind angle-of-attack....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KIM YANGKYUN
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the computational analysis and visualization of flow around the model of a commercial airplane, Boeing 747-400. The geometry was realized through reverse engineering technique based on the photo scanning measurement. The steady three-dimensional viscous compressible governing equations were solved in the unstructured grid system. The basic conditions for computation were chosen as the same to those of Boeing 747-400’s cruising state. The high Reynolds turbulence models are tried. The angle of attack is varied to investigate the effect of the flight conditions to the aerodynamic performance. And flow and aerodynamic characteristics due to the existence of winglet were compared.
Survey of research on unsteady aerodynamic loading of delta wings
Ashley, H.; Vaneck, T.; Katz, J.; Jarrah, M. A.
1991-01-01
For aeronautical applications, there has been recent interest in accurately determining the aerodynamic forces and moments experienced by low-aspect-ratio wings performing transient maneuvers which go to angles of attack as high as 90 deg. Focusing on the delta planform with sharp leading edges, the paper surveys experimental and theoretical investigations dealing with the associated unsteady flow phenomena. For maximum angles above a value between 30 and 40 deg, flow details and airloads are dominated by hysteresis in the 'bursting' instability of intense vortices which emanate from the leading edge. As examples of relevant test results, force and moment histories are presented for a model series with aspect ratios 1, 1.5 and 2. Influences of key parameters are discussed, notably those which measure unsteadiness. Comparisons are given with two theories: a paneling approximation that cannot capture bursting but clarifies other unsteady influences, and a simplified estimation scheme which uses measured bursting data.
Survey of research on unsteady aerodynamic loading of delta wings
Ashley, H.; Vaneck, T.; Katz, J.; Jarrah, M. A.
1991-01-01
For aeronautical applications, there has been recent interest in accurately determining the aerodynamic forces and moments experienced by low-aspect-ratio wings performing transient maneuvers which go to angles of attack as high as 90 deg. Focusing on the delta planform with sharp leading edges, the paper surveys experimental and theoretical investigations dealing with the associated unsteady flow phenomena. For maximum angles above a value between 30 and 40 deg, flow details and airloads are dominated by hysteresis in the 'bursting' instability of intense vortices which emanate from the leading edge. As examples of relevant test results, force and moment histories are presented for a model series with aspect ratios 1, 1.5 and 2. Influences of key parameters are discussed, notably those which measure unsteadiness. Comparisons are given with two theories: a paneling approximation that cannot capture bursting but clarifies other unsteady influences, and a simplified estimation scheme which uses measured bursting data.
Peterson, John B., Jr.
1991-01-01
Two programs were developed to calculate the pitch and roll position of the conventional sting drive and the pitch of a high angle articulated sting to position a wind tunnel model at the desired angle of attack and sideslip and position the model as near as possible to the centerline of the tunnel. These programs account for the effects of sting offset angles, sting bending angles, and wind-tunnel stream flow angles. In addition, the second program incorporates inputs form on-board accelerometers that measure model pitch and roll with respect to gravity. The programs are presented and a description of the numerical operation of the programs with a definition of the variables used in the programs is given.
Aerodynamic flow control of a high lift system with dual synthetic jet arrays
Alstrom, Robert Bruce
Implementing flow control systems will mitigate the vibration and aeroacoustic issues associated with weapons bays; enhance the performance of the latest generation aircraft by reducing their fuel consumption and improving their high angle-of-attack handling qualities; facilitate steep climb out profiles for military transport aircraft. Experimental research is performed on a NACA 0015 airfoil with a simple flap at angle of attack of 16o in both clean and high lift configurations. The results of the active control phase of the project will be discussed. Three different experiments were conducted; they are Amplitude Modulated Dual Location Open Loop Control, Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Direct Sensor Feedback and Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Extremum Seeking Control. All the closed loop experiments are dual location. The analysis presented uses the spatial variation of the root mean square pressure fluctuations, power spectral density estimates, Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs), and time frequency analysis which consists of the application of the Morlet and Mexican Hat wavelets. Additionally, during the course of high speed testing in the wind tunnel, some aeroacoustic phenomena were uncovered; those results will also be presented. A cross section of the results shows that the shape of the RMS pressure distributions is sensitive to forcing frequency. The application of broadband excitation in the case adaptive control causes the flow to select a frequency to lock in to. Additionally, open loop control results in global synchronization via switching between two stable states and closed loop control inhibits the switching phenomena, but rather synchronizes the flow about multiple stable shedding frequencies.
Research on Aerodynamic Noise Reduction for High-Speed Trains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yadong Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A broadband noise source model based on Lighthill’s acoustic theory was used to perform numerical simulations of the aerodynamic noise sources for a high-speed train. The near-field unsteady flow around a high-speed train was analysed based on a delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES using the finite volume method with high-order difference schemes. The far-field aerodynamic noise from a high-speed train was predicted using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD/Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H acoustic analogy. An analysis of noise reduction methods based on the main noise sources was performed. An aerodynamic noise model for a full-scale high-speed train, including three coaches with six bogies, two inter-coach spacings, two windscreen wipers, and two pantographs, was established. Several low-noise design improvements for the high-speed train were identified, based primarily on the main noise sources; these improvements included the choice of the knuckle-downstream or knuckle-upstream pantograph orientation as well as different pantograph fairing structures, pantograph fairing installation positions, pantograph lifting configurations, inter-coach spacings, and bogie skirt boards. Based on the analysis, we designed a low-noise structure for a full-scale high-speed train with an average sound pressure level (SPL 3.2 dB(A lower than that of the original train. Thus, the noise reduction design goal was achieved. In addition, the accuracy of the aerodynamic noise calculation method was demonstrated via experimental wind tunnel tests.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Xiaohu; LI Yinghong; WU Yun; ZHU Tao; LI Yiwen
2012-01-01
To discover the characteristic of separated flows and mechanism of plasma flow control on a highly loaded compressor cascade,numerical investigation is conducted.The simulation method is validated by oil flow visualization and pressure distribution.The loss coefficients,streamline patterns,and topology structure as well as vortex structure are analyzed.Results show thai the numbers of singular points increase and three pairs of additional singular points of topology structure on solid surface generate with the increase of angle of attack,and the total pressure loss increases greatly.There are several principal vortices inside the cascade passage.The pressure side leg of horse-shoe vortex coexists within a specific region together with passage vortex,but finally merges into the latter.Comer vortex exists independently and does not evolve from the suction side leg of horse-shoe vortex.One pair of radial coupling-vortex exists near blade trailing edge and becomes the main part of backflow on the suction surface.Passage vortex interacts with the concentrated shedding vortex and they evolve into a large-scale vortex rotating in the direction opposite to passage vortex.The singular points and separation lines represent the basic separation feature of cascade passage.Plasma actuation has better effect at low freestream velocity,and the relative reductions of pitch-averaged total pressure loss coefficient with different actuation layouts of five and two pairs of electrodes are up to 30.8％ and 26.7％ while the angle of attack is 2°.Plasma actuation changes the local topology structure,but does not change the number relation of singular points.One pair of additional singular point of topology structure generates with plasma actuation and one more reattachment line appears,both of which break the separation line on the suction surface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Popov Sergey
2017-01-01
Full Text Available For the time being, a combat-capable trainer aircraft has already been used as a light attack aircraft. The quality of mission effectiveness evaluation depends on the degree of relevance of mathematical models used. It is known that the mis- sion efficiency is largely determined by maneuvering capabilities of the aircraft which are realized most fully in extreme angle of attack flight modes. The article presents the study of the effect of Reynolds number, angle of attack and position on the external sling on the parameters characterizing the state of separated-vortex flow, which was conducted using soft- ware complexes such as Solid Works and Ansys Fluent. There given the dependences of the observed parameters for sta- tionary and nonstationary cases of light attack aircraft movement. The article considers the influence of time constants, which characterize the response rate and delaying of separated flow development and attached flow recovery on the state of separated-vortex flow. The author mentions how the speed of angle of attack change influences lift coefficient of a light attack aircraft with external slings due to response rate and delaying of separated flow development and attached flow recovery. The article describes the mathematical model invented by the authors. This is the model of the movements of light attack aircraft with external slings within a vertical flight maneuver, considering the peculiarities of separated-vortex flow. Using this model, there has been obtained the parameters of light attack aircraft output path from the pitch using large an- gles of attack. It is demonstrated that not considering the peculiarities of the separated-vortex flow model of light attack aircraft movements leads to certain increase of height loss at the pullout of the maneuver, which accordingly makes it pos- sible to decrease the height of the beginning of the pullout.
Peterson, John B., Jr.
1988-01-01
Two programs have been developed to calculate the pitch and roll angles of a wind-tunnel sting drive system that will position a model at the desired angle of attack and and angle of sideslip in the wind tunnel. These programs account for the effects of sting offset angles, sting bending angles and wind-tunnel stream flow angles. In addition, the second program incorporates inputs from on-board accelerometers that measure model pitch and roll with respect to gravity. The programs are presented in the report and a description of the numerical operation of the programs with a definition of the variables used in the programs is given.
Mateer, G. G.
1972-01-01
Tests were conducted on 5 deg and 15 deg half-angle sharp cones at wall-to-total-temperature ratios of 0.08 to 0.4, and angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg. The results indicate that (1) transition Reynolds numbers decrease with decreasing temperature ratio, (2) local transition Reynolds numbers decrease from the windward to the leeward side of the model, and (3) transition data on the windward ray of cones can be correlated in terms of the crossflow velocity gradient, momentum thickness Reynolds number, local Mach number, and cone half-angle.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Barros, E.A. de; Dantas, J.L.D.; Pascoal, A.M.; Desa, E.S.
. In the “PNA model” (Principles of Naval Architecture [27]), the interference between the fin and the bare hull is considered through the ef- fectiveaspect ratio, which is different from the geometric aspect ratio... of Naval Architecture. Jersey City, NJ: SNAME, 1988, vol. III, pp. 291–308. [29] H. J. Allen and E. W. Perkins, “A study on the effects of viscosity on flow over slender inclined bodies of revolution,” NACA Rep. 1048, 1951. [30] M. M. Munk, “The aerodynamic...
Akaydin, H. Dogus; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Nguyen, Nhan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a static aeroelastic analysis of a wind tunnel test model of a wing in high-lift configuration using a viscous flow simulation code. The model wing was tailored to deform during the tests by amounts similar to a composite airliner wing in highlift conditions. This required use of a viscous flow analysis to predict the lift coefficient of the deformed wing accurately. We thus utilized an existing static aeroelastic analysis framework that involves an inviscid flow code (Cart3d) to predict the deformed shape of the wing, then utilized a viscous flow code (Overflow) to compute the aerodynamic loads on the deformed wing. This way, we reduced the cost of flow simulations needed for this analysis while still being able to predict the aerodynamic forces with reasonable accuracy. Our results suggest that the lift of the deformed wing may be higher or lower than that of the non-deformed wing, and the washout deformation of the wing is the key factor that changes the lift of the deformed wing in two distinct ways: while it decreases the lift at low to moderate angles of attack simply by lowering local angles of attack along the span, it increases the lift at high angles of attack by alleviating separation.
Aerodynamic performances of cruise missile flying above local terrain
Ahmad, A.; Saad, M. R.; Che Idris, A.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Sujipto, S.
2016-10-01
Cruise missile can be classified as a smart bomb and also Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) due to its ability to move and manoeuvre by itself without a pilot. Cruise missile flies in constant velocity in cruising stage. Malaysia is one of the consumers of cruise missiles that are imported from other nations, which can have distinct geographic factors including their local terrains compared to Malaysia. Some of the aerodynamic performances of missile such as drag and lift coefficients can be affected by the local geographic conditions in Malaysia, which is different from the origin nation. Therefore, a detailed study must be done to get aerodynamic performance of cruise missiles that operate in Malaysia. The effect of aerodynamic angles such as angle of attack and side slip can be used to investigate the aerodynamic performances of cruise missile. Hence, subsonic wind tunnel testings were conducted to obtain the aerodynamic performances of the missile at various angle of attack and sideslip angles. Smoke visualization was also performed to visualize the behaviour of flow separation. The optimum angle of attack found was at α=21° and side slip, β=10° for optimum pitching and yawing motion of cruise missile.
Istanto, Tri; Danardono, Dominicus; Yaningsih, Indri; Wijayanta, Agung Tri
2016-06-01
In this paper, an experimental study on the effect of angle attack in V-down continuous ribs on heat transfer and friction factor in an artificially roughened air heater duct is presented. The electric heater with a constant heat flux as a simulation of the indoor testing solar air heater is used to heat the roughened part of rectangular duct while other parts were insulated. The system and operating conditions were used to decide the range of parameters for the study. The ratio of the width to height of the duct (W/H) was 12, the relative roughness pitch (p/e) was 10, the relative roughness height (e/Dh) was 0.033 and the angle of attack of flow (α) was 30-80°. The air flow rate corresponded to Reynolds number between 3500 -10,000. The result of heat transfer and friction factor had been compared to those for smooth duct under similar flow and thermal boundary condition. The thermo-hydraulic performance also had been considered. As a result, the maximum enhancement of Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor(f) were 2.34 and 2.45 times, respectively. For each variation of angle attack of flow, the thermo-hydraulic performance has been compared and the result shows that a V-down continuous rib with the angle of attack of flow as 60° gave the best thermo-hydraulic performance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU CaiHong; ZHOU Heng
2009-01-01
The problem of transition prediction for hypersonic boundary layers over a sharp cone has been stud-ied in this work. The Mach number of the oncoming flow is 6, the cone half-angle is 5Ω, and the angle of attack is 1Ω. The conventional eN method is used, but the transition location so obtained is obviously incorrect. The reason is that in the conventional method, only the amplifying waves are taken into ac-count, while in fact, for different meridians the decay processes of the disturbances before they begin to grow are different. Based on our own previous work, new interpretation and essential improvement for the eN method are proposed. Not only the amplification process but also the decay process is con-sidered. The location, where by linear stability theory, the amplitude of disturbance wave is amplified from its initial small value to 1%, is considered to be the transition location. The new result for transi-tion prediction thus obtained is found to be fairly satisfactory. It is also indicated that for the calculation of base flow, boundary layer equations can be used for a small angle of attack. Its computational cost is much smaller than those for DNS.
Aerodynamic optimization of an HSCT configuration using variable-complexity modeling
Hutchison, M. G.; Mason, W. H.; Grossman, B.; Haftka, R. T.
1993-01-01
An approach to aerodynamic configuration optimization is presented for the high-speed civil transport (HSCT). A method to parameterize the wing shape, fuselage shape and nacelle placement is described. Variable-complexity design strategies are used to combine conceptual and preliminary-level design approaches, both to preserve interdisciplinary design influences and to reduce computational expense. Conceptual-design-level (approximate) methods are used to estimate aircraft weight, supersonic wave drag and drag due to lift, and landing angle of attack. The drag due to lift, wave drag and landing angle of attack are also evaluated using more detailed, preliminary-design-level techniques. New, approximate methods for estimating supersonic wave drag and drag due to lift are described. The methodology is applied to the minimization of the gross weight of an HSCT that flies at Mach 2.4 with a range of 5500 n.mi. Results are presented for wing planform shape optimization and for combined wing and fuselage optimization with nacelle placement. Case studies include both all-metal wings and advanced composite wings.
A versatile low-dimensional vortex model for investigating unsteady aerodynamics
Darakananda, Darwin; Eldredge, Jeff D.
2016-11-01
In previous work, we demonstrated a hybrid vortex sheet/point vortex model that captures the non-linear aerodynamics of a plate translating at a high angle of attack. We used vortex sheets to model the shear layers emerging from the plate, and point vortices to capture the effect of the coherent vortex structures. In this work, we introduce modifications that allow the model to work for a larger range of plate kinematics over longer periods of time. First, following the example of Ramesh et al., we relax the Kutta condition at the leading edge and determine vorticity flux based on a suction parameter instead. To prevent the vortex sheet from becoming unstable near the resulting singular edge, we explicitly filter out short-wave disturbances along the sheet while redistributing the sheet's control points. Second, by looking for intersections between the vortex sheets and any repelling Lagrangian coherent structures, the model can detect the formation of new coherent vortices. Trailing portions of the sheets that become dynamically distinct from the shear layers are rolled up into point vortices. We test these modifications on a variety of problems, including pitch-up, impulsive translation at low angles of attack, as well as flow response to pulse actuation near the leading edge. This work has been supported by AFOSR, under award FA9550-14-1-0328.
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition as Surrogate Model for Aerodynamic Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentina Dolci
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A surrogate model based on the proper orthogonal decomposition is developed in order to enable fast and reliable evaluations of aerodynamic fields. The proposed method is applied to subsonic turbulent flows and the proper orthogonal decomposition is based on an ensemble of high-fidelity computations. For the construction of the ensemble, fractional and full factorial planes together with central composite design-of-experiment strategies are applied. For the continuous representation of the projection coefficients in the parameter space, response surface methods are employed. Three case studies are presented. In the first case, the boundary shape of the problem is deformed and the flow past a backward facing step with variable step slope is studied. In the second case, a two-dimensional flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil is considered and the surrogate model is constructed in the (Mach, angle of attack parameter space. In the last case, the aerodynamic optimization of an automotive shape is considered. The results demonstrate how a reduced-order model based on the proper orthogonal decomposition applied to a small number of high-fidelity solutions can be used to generate aerodynamic data with good accuracy at a low cost.
Modulation of leading edge vorticity and aerodynamic forces in flexible flapping wings.
Zhao, Liang; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P
2011-09-01
In diverse biological flight systems, the leading edge vortex has been implicated as a flow feature of key importance in the generation of flight forces. Unlike fixed wings, flapping wings can translate at higher angles of attack without stalling because their leading edge vorticity is more stable than the corresponding fixed wing case. Hence, the leading edge vorticity has often been suggested as the primary determinant of the high forces generated by flapping wings. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary to modulate the size and strength of the leading edge vorticity independently of the gross kinematics while simultaneously monitoring the forces generated by the wing. In a recent study, we observed that forces generated by wings with flexible trailing margins showed a direct dependence on the flexural stiffness of the wing. Based on that study, we hypothesized that trailing edge flexion directly influences leading edge vorticity, and thereby the magnitude of aerodynamic forces on the flexible flapping wings. To test this hypothesis, we visualized the flows on wings of varying flexural stiffness using a custom 2D digital particle image velocimetry system, while simultaneously monitoring the magnitude of the aerodynamic forces. Our data show that as flexion decreases, the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity increases and enhances aerodynamic forces, thus confirming that the leading edge vortex is indeed a key feature for aerodynamic force generation in flapping flight. The data shown here thus support the hypothesis that camber influences instantaneous aerodynamic forces through modulation of the leading edge vorticity.
Aerodynamic control of bridge cables through shape modification: A preliminary study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos
2011-01-01
to suffer from either dry inclined galloping, ‘‘drag crisis’’ or Den Hartog galloping, the shrouded cylinder is found to be stable for all angles of attack, albeit with an increase in drag at typical design wind velocities. Finally, turbulent flow is found to introduce an increased amount of aerodynamic...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Ramezanizadeh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the effects of ice accretion on the pressure distribution and the aerodynamic coefficients in a cascade of stator blades were experimentally investigated. Experiments were conducted on stage 67A type stator Controlled-Diffusion blades, which represent the mid-span of the first stage of the stator for a high-bypass turbofan engine. The measurements were carried out over a range of cascade angle of attack from 20° to 45° at Reynolds number of 500000. Experimental blade surface pressure coefficient distribution, lift and drag force coefficients, and momentum coefficients for clean blades were compared with those of the iced blades and the effects of ice accretion on these parameters were discussed. It is observed that the ice accretion on the blades causes the formation of flow bubble on the pressure side, downstream of the leading edge. By increasing the angle of attack from 20° to 35° , the bubble length decreases and the pressure coefficient increases inside the bubble region, constantly. In addition, for the iced blades the diffusion points at the suction side come closer to the trailing edge. In addition, it is found that by increasing the angle of attack up to 35° , the ice accretion has no significant effect on the lift coefficient but the drag coefficient increases comparing with the clean blades. More over at 40° and 45° , by increasing the flow interference effects between the blades, the iced blades experience higher lift and lower drag in comparison with the clean ones.
Morgan, H. L., Jr.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.
1979-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing transport model equipped with a full-span leading-edge slat and part-span double-slotted trailing-edge flaps. This wide-body transport model was also equipped with spoiler and aileron control surfaces, flow-through nacelles, landing gear, movable horizontal tails, and interchangeable wing tips with aspect ratios of 10 and 12. The model was tested with leading-edge slat and trailing-edge flap combinations representative of cruise, climb, takeoff, and landing wing configurations. The tests were conducted at free-stream conditions corresponding to Reynolds numbers (based on mean geometric chord) of 0.97 to 1.63 x 10 to the 6th power and corresponding Mach numbers of 0.12 to 0.20, through an angle-of-attack range of -2 deg to 24 deg and a sideslip-angle range of -10 deg to 5 deg.
New rotation-balance apparatus for measuring airplane spin aerodynamics in the wind tunnel
Malcolm, G. N.
1978-01-01
An advanced rotation-balance apparatus has been developed for the Ames 12-ft pressure tunnel to study the effects of spin rate, angles of attack and sideslip, and, particularly, Reynolds number on the aerodynamics of fighter and general aviation aircraft in a steady spin. Angles of attack to 100 deg and angles of sideslip to 30 deg are possible with spin rates to 42 rad/sec (400 rpm) and Reynolds numbers to 30 million/m on fighter models with wing spans that are typically 0.7 m. A complete description of the new rotation-balance apparatus, the sting/balance/model assembly, and the operational capabilities is given.
Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.
1982-01-01
A computer program was developed which is capable of calculating the flow field in the supersonic portion of a mixed compression aircraft inlet operating at angle of attack. The supersonic core flow is computed using a second-order three dimensional method-of-characteristics algorithm. The bow shock and the internal shock train are treated discretely using a three dimensional shock fitting procedure. The boundary layer flows are computed using a second-order implicit finite difference method. The shock wave-boundary layer interaction is computed using an integral formulation. The general structure of the computer program is discussed, and a brief description of each subroutine is given. All program input parameters are defined, and a brief discussion on interpretation of the output is provided. A number of sample cases, complete with data listings, are provided.
Aerodynamic Analysis of a Manned Space Vehicle for Missions to Mars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppe Pezzella
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the aerodynamic analysis of a manned braking system entering the Mars atmosphere with the aim to support planetary entry system design studies. The exploration vehicle is an axisymmetric blunt body close to the Apollo capsule. Several fully three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analyses have been performed to address the capsule aerodynamic performance. To this end, a wide range of flow conditions including reacting and nonreacting flow, different angles of attack, and Mach numbers have been investigated and compared. Moreover, nonequilibrium effects on the flow field around the entry vehicle have also been investigated. Results show that real-gas effects, for all the angles of attack considered, increase both the aerodynamic drag and pitching moment whereas the lift is only slighted affected. Finally, results comparisons highlight that experimental and CFD aerodynamic findings available for the Apollo capsule in air adequately represent the static coefficients of the capsule in the Mars atmosphere.
Analysis of Modal and Aerodynamic of High-power Wind Turbine Blade%大功率风力机叶片模态及气动特性分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周丹
2015-01-01
This work attempts to study the modal and aerodynamic of a high-power wind turbine blade.The motion differential e-quation with bending and twisting coupling vibration of the blade airfoil is established,a 3D model of wind turbine blade is presen-ted based on the UG software through coordinate transformation,the first 6 natural modals of the blade are obtained based on the MSC /Patran.The flow field model of blade is built by using Ansys/Workbench,the effects of wind speed and pneumatic angle of attack on the blade vibration are analyzed.The results show that the vibration modes in the tip of the blade are more obvious,and the greater the wind speed and angle of attack,the greater the deformation of blade vibration at the same cross section position.%对大功率海上风力机叶片模态特性和气动特性进行研究。建立了叶片翼型截面弯扭耦合运动微分方程，通过翼型截面坐标变换和旋转拉伸在 UG 中建立了国产某型6MW 风力机叶片三维模型，运用 Ansys／Blocklanczos 法计算了叶片前6阶固有模态。在 Ansys／Workbench 中搭建叶片流场仿真模型，讨论了风速和气动攻角等参数对叶片振动变形的影响。结果表明各阶固有模态中叶尖部位的振型相对明显，随着风速和攻角增大，相同截面位置上的叶片振动变形逐渐增大。
Wing motion measurement and aerodynamics of hovering true hoverflies.
Mou, Xiao Lei; Liu, Yan Peng; Sun, Mao
2011-09-01
Most hovering insects flap their wings in a horizontal plane (body having a large angle from the horizontal), called `normal hovering'. But some of the best hoverers, e.g. true hoverflies, hover with an inclined stroke plane (body being approximately horizontal). In the present paper, wing and body kinematics of four freely hovering true hoverflies were measured using three-dimensional high-speed video. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces of the insects. The stroke amplitude of the hoverflies was relatively small, ranging from 65 to 85 deg, compared with that of normal hovering. The angle of attack in the downstroke (∼50 deg) was much larger that in the upstroke (∼20 deg), unlike normal-hovering insects, whose downstroke and upstroke angles of attack are not very different. The major part of the weight-supporting force (approximately 86%) was produced in the downstroke and it was contributed by both the lift and the drag of the wing, unlike the normal-hovering case in which the weight-supporting force is approximately equally contributed by the two half-strokes and the lift principle is mainly used to produce the force. The mass-specific power was 38.59-46.3 and 27.5-35.4 W kg(-1) in the cases of 0 and 100% elastic energy storage, respectively. Comparisons with previously published results of a normal-hovering true hoverfly and with results obtained by artificially making the insects' stroke planes horizontal show that for the true hoverflies, the power requirement for inclined stroke-plane hover is only a little (<10%) larger than that of normal hovering.
A simple analytical aerodynamic model of Langley Winged-Cone Aerospace Plane concept
Pamadi, Bandu N.
1994-01-01
A simple three DOF analytical aerodynamic model of the Langley Winged-Coned Aerospace Plane concept is presented in a form suitable for simulation, trajectory optimization, and guidance and control studies. The analytical model is especially suitable for methods based on variational calculus. Analytical expressions are presented for lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers and angles of attack up to +/- 20 deg. This analytical model has break points at Mach numbers of 1.0, 1.4, 4.0, and 6.0. Across these Mach number break points, the lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are made continuous but their derivatives are not. There are no break points in angle of attack. The effect of control surface deflection is not considered. The present analytical model compares well with the APAS calculations and wind tunnel test data for most angles of attack and Mach numbers.
Numerical simulations of aerodynamic contribution of flows about a space-plane-type configuration
Matsushima, Kisa; Takanashi, Susume; Fujii, Kozo; Obayashi, Shigeru
1987-01-01
The slightly supersonic viscous flow about the space-plane under development at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) in Japan was simulated numerically using the LU-ADI algorithm. The wind-tunnel testing for the same plane also was conducted with the computations in parallel. The main purpose of the simulation is to capture the phenomena which have a great deal of influence to the aerodynamic force and efficiency but is difficult to capture by experiments. It includes more accurate representation of vortical flows with high angles of attack of an aircraft. The space-plane shape geometry simulated is the simplified model of the real space-plane, which is a combination of a flat and slender body and a double-delta type wing. The comparison between experimental results and numerical ones will be done in the near future. It could be said that numerical results show the qualitatively reliable phenomena.
Luckring, James M.; Rizzi, Arthur; Davis, M. Bruce
2014-01-01
A coordinated project has been underway to improve CFD predictions of slender airframe aerodynamics. The work is focused on two flow conditions and leverages a unique flight data set obtained with an F-16XL aircraft. These conditions, a low-speed high angleof- attack case and a transonic low angle-of-attack case, were selected from a prior prediction campaign wherein the CFD failed to provide acceptable results. In this paper the background, objectives and approach to the current project are presented. The work embodies predictions from multiple numerical formulations that are contributed from multiple organizations, and the context of this campaign to other multi-code, multiorganizational efforts is included. The relevance of this body of work toward future supersonic commercial transport concepts is also briefly addressed.
Nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings
Atta, E. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1977-01-01
Nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings in an incompressible flow are calculated by using an unsteady vortex-lattice model. Examples include flows past fixed wings in unsteady uniform streams and flows past wings undergoing unsteady motions. The unsteadiness may be due to gusty winds or pitching oscillations. The present technique establishes a reliable approach which can be utilized in the analysis of problems associated with the dynamics and aeroelasticity of wings within a wide range of angles of attack.
Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket
Kitamura, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Irikado, Tomoko; Fukuzoe, Moriyasu; Shima, Eiji
The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted with different body configurations, attack angles, and roll angles. A six component balance, oilflow visualization, Schlieren images were used throughout the experiments. It was found that, at zero angle-of-attack, the flow around the body were perturbed and its drag (axial force) characteristics were significantly influenced by protruding body components such as flanges, cable ducts, and attitude control units of SMSJ (Solid Motor Side Jet), while the nozzle had a minor role. With angle-of-attack of five degree, normal force of CNα = 3.50±0.03 was measured along with complex flow features observed in the full-component model; whereas no crossflow separations were induced around the no-protuberance model with CNα = 2.58±0.10. These values were almost constant with respect to the angle-of-attack in both of the cases. Furthermore, presence of roll angle made the flow more complicated, involving interactions of separation vortices. These data provide us with fundamental and important aerodynamic insights of the Advanced Solid Rocket, and they will be utilized as reference data for the corresponding numerical analysis.
Small, high pressure ratio compressor: Aerodynamic and mechanical design
Bryce, C. A.; Erwin, J. R.; Perrone, G. L.; Nelson, E. L.; Tu, R. K.; Bosco, A.
1973-01-01
The Small, High-Pressure-Ratio Compressor Program was directed toward the analysis, design, and fabrication of a centrifugal compressor providing a 6:1 pressure ratio and an airflow rate of 2.0 pounds per second. The program consists of preliminary design, detailed areodynamic design, mechanical design, and mechanical acceptance tests. The preliminary design evaluate radial- and backward-curved blades, tandem bladed impellers, impeller-and diffuser-passage boundary-layer control, and vane, pipe, and multiple-stage diffusers. Based on this evaluation, a configuration was selected for detailed aerodynamic and mechanical design. Mechanical acceptance test was performed to demonstrate that mechanical design objectives of the research package were met.
Scaling of Lift Degradation Due to Anti-Icing Fluids Based Upon the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test
Broeren, Andy P.; Riley, James T.
2012-01-01
In recent years, the FAA has worked with Transport Canada, National Research Council Canada (NRC) and APS Aviation, Inc. to develop allowance times for aircraft operations in ice-pellet precipitation. These allowance times are critical to ensure safety and efficient operation of commercial and cargo flights. Wind-tunnel testing with uncontaminated anti-icing fluids and fluids contaminated with simulated ice pellets had been carried out at the NRC Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel (PIWT) to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects. The percent lift loss on the thin, high-performance wing model tested in the PIWT was determined at 8 angle of attack and used as one of the evaluation criteria in determining the allowance times. Because it was unclear as to how performance degradations measured on this model were relevant to an actual airplane configuration, some means of interpreting the wing model lift loss was deemed necessary. This paper describes how the lift loss was related to the loss in maximum lift of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane through the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test (AAT) performed for fluids qualification. A loss in maximum lift coefficient of 5.24 percent on the B737-200ADV airplane (which was adopted as the threshold in the AAT) corresponds to a lift loss of 7.3 percent on the PIWT model at 8 angle of attack. There is significant scatter in the data used to develop the correlation related to varying effects of the anti-icing fluids that were tested and other factors. A statistical analysis indicated the upper limit of lift loss on the PIWT model was 9.2 percent. Therefore, for cases resulting in PIWT model lift loss from 7.3 to 9.2 percent, extra scrutiny of the visual observations is required in evaluating fluid performance with contamination.
Computational Analysis of the 2415-3S Airfoil Aerodynamic Performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Velázquez-Araque
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the numerical simulation of the two-dimensional, incompressible, steady air flow past an airfoil for a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV with internal propulsion system. This airfoil results from a NACA 2415 four digits family base airfoil modification [7] and has a propulsive outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface. The analysis involved the airfoil's aerodynamic performance which meant obtaining lift, drag and pitching moment coefficient curves as a function of the angle of attack (AOA for the condition where the engine of the UAV is turned off called the gliding condition and also for the blowing propulsive condition by means computational fluid dynamics. The computational domain has been discretised using a structured mesh of 188 x 200 tetrahedral elements. The RNG k-Ε model is utilized to describe the turbulent flow process as it was followed in [5]. The simulations were held at a Reynolds number of 300000. Results allowed obtaining lift and drag forces and pitching moment coefficient and also the location of the separation and reattachment points in some cases by means of the wall shear stress on the suction surface as well as velocity contours and streamlines for both conditions at different angles of attack, from 0 to 16 degrees with the smallest increment of 4 degrees. Finally, results from both cases were compared and the influence of the propulsive flow on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil has been analysed turning out that it improves significantly the performance of the airfoil reaching values up to 1,8 times in terms of lift at high angles of attack. [5] Rhie C.M., Chow W.L., Numerical Study of the Turbulent Flow Past an Airfoil with Trailing Edge Separation, AIAA Journal, Vol. 21, No. 11, 1983. [7] Velazquez L., Nožička J, Kulhanek R., Oil and Smoke Flow Visualization past Two-Dimensional Airfoils for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, in The 11th Asian Symposium of
Smith, C. C., Jr.
1973-01-01
An investigation has been conducted to determine the effects of flap span and wing aspect ratio on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics and chordwise and spanwise pressure distributions on the wing and trailing-edge flap of a straight-wing STOL model having an externally blown jet flap without vertical and horizontal tail surfaces. The force tests were made over an angle-of-attack range for several thrust coefficients and two flap deflections. The pressure data are presented as tabulated and plotted chordwise pressure-distribution coefficients for angles of attack of 1 and 16. Pressure-distribution measurements were made at several spanwise stations.
Zuo, H. M.; Liu, C.; Yang, H.; Wang, F.
2016-09-01
The current situation is that the development of high speed wind energy saturates gradually, therefore, it is highly necessary to develop low speed wind energy. This paper, based on a specific straight blade and by using Isight, a kind of multidiscipline optimization software, which integrates ICEM (Integrated Computer Engineering and Manufacturing) and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software, optimizes the blade stacking line (the centers of airfoil from blade root to tip) and acquires the optimization swept blade shape. It is found that power coefficient Cp of swept blade is 3.2% higher than that of straight blade at the tip speed ratio of 9.82, that the thrust of swept blade receives is obviously less than that of straight blade. Inflow angle of attack and steam line on the suction of the swept and straight blade are also made a comparison.
Landrum, E. J.; Babb, C. D.
1979-01-01
Flow visualization and force data for a series of six bodies of revolution are presented without analysis. The data were obtained in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel for angles of attack from -4 deg to 60 deg. The Reynolds number used for these tests was 6,600,000 per meter.
Zoby, E. V.; Graves, R. A., Jr.
1973-01-01
A method for the rapid calculation of the inviscid shock layer about blunt axisymmetric bodies at an angle of attack of 0 deg has been developed. The procedure is of an inverse nature, that is, a shock wave is assumed and calculations proceed along rays normal to the shock. The solution is iterated until the given body is computed. The flow field solution procedure is programed at the Langley Research Center for the Control Data 6600 computer. The geometries specified in the program are sphores, ellipsoids, paraboloids, and hyperboloids which may conical afterbodies. The normal momentum equation is replaced with an approximate algebraic expression. This simplification significantly reduces machine computation time. Comparisons of the present results with shock shapes and surface pressure distributions obtained by the more exact methods indicate that the program provides reasonably accurate results for smooth bodies in axisymmetric flow. However, further research is required to establish the proper approximate form of the normal momentum equation for the two-dimensional case.
High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design with Transition Prediction Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To enhance aerodynamic design capabilities, Desktop Aeronautics proposes to significantly improve upon the integration (performed in Phase 1) of a new sweep/taper...
High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design with Transition Prediction Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To enhance aerodynamic design capabilities, Desktop Aeronautics proposes to combine a new sweep/taper integrated-boundary-layer (IBL) code that includes transition...
Ghaffari, Farhad
1999-01-01
Unstructured grid Euler computations, performed at supersonic cruise speed, are presented for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration, designated as the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) within the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. The numerical results are obtained for the complete TCA cruise configuration which includes the wing, fuselage, empennage, diverters, and flow through nacelles at M (sub infinity) = 2.4 for a range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. Although all the present computations are performed for the complete TCA configuration, appropriate assumptions derived from the fundamental supersonic aerodynamic principles have been made to extract aerodynamic predictions to complement the experimental data obtained from a 1.675%-scaled truncated (aft fuselage/empennage components removed) TCA model. The validity of the computational results, derived from the latter assumptions, are thoroughly addressed and discussed in detail. The computed surface and off-surface flow characteristics are analyzed and the pressure coefficient contours on the wing lower surface are shown to correlate reasonably well with the available pressure sensitive paint results, particularly, for the complex flow structures around the nacelles. The predicted longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics for the truncated TCA configuration are shown to correlate very well with the corresponding wind-tunnel data across the examined range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The complementary computational results for the longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics for the complete TCA configuration are also presented along with the aerodynamic effects due to empennage components. Results are also presented to assess the computational method performance, solution sensitivity to grid refinement, and solution convergence characteristics.
Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base
Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.
Le Quoc Dinh; Dang Ngock Than; N. V. Semenchikov; O. V. Yakovlevsky
2014-01-01
The results of numerical research of a soft type airship aerodynamic characteristics in subsonic flow of viscous gas are received for the airship locating near to a screen and having the working propellers. The influence of propeller rotation and relative distance of the airship to the screen on values of its aerodynamic normal and longitudinal forces, and also pitching moment is shown at various airship angles of attack.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Demartino, Cristoforo; Koss, Holger; Ricciardelli, Francesco
2013-01-01
In this paper, the effects of ice accretion due to in-cloud icing on the aerodynamics of vertical circular cylinders is examined. Aerodynamic force coefficients with varying angle of attack were found, as a function of the wind speed; ice accretions deriving from different flow velocities and tem...... instability regions is made using the Den Hartog criterion. A short description of the accretion is given as well. A parallel paper deals with the case of circular cylinders in inclined flow....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Le Quoc Dinh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The results of numerical research of a soft type airship aerodynamic characteristics in subsonic flow of viscous gas are received for the airship locating near to a screen and having the working propellers. The influence of propeller rotation and relative distance of the airship to the screen on values of its aerodynamic normal and longitudinal forces, and also pitching moment is shown at various airship angles of attack.
High-temperature gas effects on aerodynamic characteristics of waverider
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Jun; Li Kai; Liu Weiqiang
2015-01-01
This paper focuses on the analysis of high-temperature effect on a conical waverider and it is a typical configuration of near space vehicles. Two different gas models are used in the numerical simulations, namely the thermochemical non-equilibrium and perfect gas models. The non-equilibrium flow simulations are conducted with the usage of the parallel non-equilibrium pro-gram developed by the authors while the perfect gas flow simulations are carried out with the com-mercial software Fluent. The non-equilibrium code is validated with experimental results and grid sensitivity analysis is performed as well. Then, numerical simulations of the flow around the conical waverider with the two gas models are conducted. In the results, differences in the flow structures as well as aerodynamic performances of the conical waverider are compared. It is found that the thermochemical non-equilibrium effect is significant mainly near the windward boundary layer at the tail of the waverider, and the non-equilibrium influence makes the pressure center move forward to about 0.57%of the whole craft’s length at the altitude of 60 km.
High-temperature gas effects on aerodynamic characteristics of waverider
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Jun
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of high-temperature effect on a conical waverider and it is a typical configuration of near space vehicles. Two different gas models are used in the numerical simulations, namely the thermochemical non-equilibrium and perfect gas models. The non-equilibrium flow simulations are conducted with the usage of the parallel non-equilibrium program developed by the authors while the perfect gas flow simulations are carried out with the commercial software Fluent. The non-equilibrium code is validated with experimental results and grid sensitivity analysis is performed as well. Then, numerical simulations of the flow around the conical waverider with the two gas models are conducted. In the results, differences in the flow structures as well as aerodynamic performances of the conical waverider are compared. It is found that the thermochemical non-equilibrium effect is significant mainly near the windward boundary layer at the tail of the waverider, and the non-equilibrium influence makes the pressure center move forward to about 0.57% of the whole craft’s length at the altitude of 60 km.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Morphing Blades
Harris, Caleb; Macphee, David; Carlisle, Madeline
2016-11-01
Interest in morphing blades has grown with applications for wind turbines and other aerodynamic blades. This passive control method has advantages over active control methods such as lower manufacturing and upkeep costs. This study has investigated the lift and drag forces on individual blades with experimental and computational analysis. The goal has been to show that these blades delay stall and provide larger lift-to-drag ratios at various angles of attack. Rigid and flexible airfoils were cast from polyurethane and silicone respectively, then lift and drag forces were collected from a load cell during 2-D testing in a wind tunnel. Experimental data was used to validate computational models in OpenFOAM. A finite volume fluid-structure-interaction solver was used to model the flexible blade in fluid flow. Preliminary results indicate delay in stall and larger lift-to-drag ratios by maintaining more optimal angles of attack when flexing. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbett, M. J.; Fort, R.
1968-09-01
The three-dimensional ideal gas flow in the shock layer of a blunted supersonic cone at an angle of attack is calculated using two asymptotic solutions. The first solution calculates the steady state flow in the subsonic nose region by obtaining a time-dependent solution of the hyperbolic equations using numerical techniques. Internal, nonboundary points are calculated using a Lax-Wendroff numerical type technique. Boundary points, shock and body surface, are computed using a time-dependent method of characteristics. When a steady state solution is reached the flow properties on a surface of constant {theta}, (where the Mach number is everywhere > 1) are used for initial data for the afterbody solution. The afterbody solution, using polar coordinates (r, {theta}, {phi}) assumes at r{sub 0} an arbitrary set of initial conditions provided by the nose region solution and computes the downstream flow as a function of {theta}, {phi}, and r until an asymptotic state independent of r develops. The interior mesh points are again calculated using a Lax- Wendroff type technique and the boundary points by a method of characteristics. This report covers the coupling of the time-dependent and radius (r) dependent solutions. Instructions are given for the operation of the resulting Fortran code. The type of input data required is detailed and sample output is provided. Output data is given in two sets of coordinates. One is wind orientated; the other set is given in body orientated coordinates; The analytical transformation from one coordinate system to the other is given.
High Reynolds number test of a NACA 651-213, a equals 0.5 airfoil at transonic speeds
Burdges, K. P.; Blackwell, J. A., Jr.; Pounds, G. A.
1975-01-01
Wind-Tunnel tests were conducted in the Lockheed-Georgia Company's compressible flow facility to determine the transonic two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA 65 sub 1-213 a = 0.50 airfoil. The results are correlated with data obtained in the NASA-Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel and the NAE high Reynolds number 15x60-inch two-dimensional test facility. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.60 to 0.80 and an angle of attack range from -1 deg to 8 deg. Reynolds numbers, based on the airfoil chord, were varied.
Low Speed Aerodynamics of the X-38 CRV
Komerath, N. M.; Funk, R.; Ames, R. G.; Mahalingam, R.; Matos, C.
1998-01-01
This project was performed in support of the engineering development of the NASA X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV)system. Wind tunnel experiments were used to visualize various aerodynamic phenomena encountered by the CRV during the final stages of descent and landing. Scale models of the CRV were used to visualize vortex structures above and below the vehicle, and in its wake, and to quantify their trajectories. The effect of flaperon deflection on these structures was studied. The structure and dynamics of the CRV's wake during the drag parachute deployment stage were measured. Regions of high vorticity were identified using surveys conducted in several planes using a vortex meter. Periodic shedding of the vortex sheets from the sides of the CRV was observed using laser sheet videography as the CRV reached high angles of attack during the quasi-steady pitch-up prior to parafoil deployment. Using spectral analysis of hot-film anemometer data, the Strouhal number of these wake fluctuations was found to be 0.14 based on the model span. Phenomena encountered in flight test during parafoil operation were captured in scale-model tests, and a video photogrammetry technique was implemented to obtain parafoil surface shapes during flight in the tunnel. Forces on the parafoil were resolved using tension gages on individual lines. The temporal evolution of the phenomenon of leading edge collapse was captured. Laser velocimetry was used to demonstrate measurement of the porosity of the parafoil surface. From these measurements, several physical explanations have been developed for phenomena observed at various stages of the X-38 development program. Quantitative measurement capabilities have also been demonstrated for continued refinement of the aerodynamic technologies employed in the X-38 project. Detailed results from these studies are given in an AIAA Paper, two slide presentations, and other material which are given on a Web-based archival resource. This is the Digital
Jacobs, P. F.; Flechner, S. G.
1976-01-01
A baseline wing and a version of the same wing fitted with winglets were tested. The longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics were determined through an angle-of-attack range from -1 deg to 10 deg at an angle of sideslip of 0 deg for Mach numbers of 0.750, 0.800, and 0.825. The lateral aerodynamic characteristics were determined through the same angle-of-attack range at fixed sideslip angles of 2.5 deg and 5 deg. Both configurations were investigated at Reynolds numbers of 13,000,000, per meter (4,000,000 per foot) and approximately 20,000,000 per meter (6,000,000 per foot). The winglet configuration showed slight increases over the baseline wing in static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic stability throughout the test Mach number range for a model design lift coefficient of 0.53. Reynolds number variation had very little effect on stability.
Finding optimum airfoil shape to get maximum aerodynamic efficiency for a wind turbine
Sogukpinar, Haci; Bozkurt, Ismail
2017-02-01
In this study, aerodynamic performances of S-series wind turbine airfoil of S 825 are investigated to find optimum angle of attack. Aerodynamic performances calculations are carried out by utilization of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method withstand finite capacity approximation by using Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stokes (RANS) theorem. The lift and pressure coefficients, lift to drag ratio of airfoil S 825 are analyzed with SST turbulence model then obtained results crosscheck with wind tunnel data to verify the precision of computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approximation. The comparison indicates that SST turbulence model used in this study can predict aerodynamics properties of wind blade.
The Aerodynamics of Frisbee Flight
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kathleen Baumback
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This project will describe the physics of a common Frisbee in flight. The aerodynamic forces acting on the Frisbee are lift and drag, with lift being explained by Bernoulli‘s equation and drag by the Prandtl relationship. Using V. R. Morrison‘s model for the 2-dimensional trajectory of a Frisbee, equations for the x- and y- components of the Frisbee‘s motion were written in Microsoft Excel and the path of the Frisbee was illustrated. Variables such as angle of attack, area, and attack velocity were altered to see their effect on the Frisbee‘s path and to speculate on ways to achieve maximum distance and height.
类X-37B飞行器气动特性的数值研究%Numerical Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics of an X-37B-like Vehicle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋崇文; 杨加寿; 李克难; 高振勋; 李椿萱
2014-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of an X-37B-like vehicle in different flight conditions were numerically studied under 50km altitude . The CFD results were analyzed with experimental results of the Space Shuttle and the X-34 vehicle . Numerical simulations indicate that the lift-to-drag ratio of the X-37B-like vehicle is slightly different from that of the Space Shuttle under high Mach number and large angle-of-attack reentry conditions , so the lateral maneuverability of the two vehicles is equivalent . Under subsonic and small angle-of-attack conditions , the lift-to-drag ratio of the X-37B-like vehicle is higher than the Space Shuttle and lower than that of the X-34 vehicle which indicates that the maneuverability at low speed and the fixed point landing ability of the X-37B-like vehicle are better than that of the Space Shutter but weaker than that of the X-34 vehicle . Configuration differences of winged reentry vehicles have little influence on the lift-to-drag radio of high Mach number and large angle-of-attack , and have obvious influence on the lift-to-drag radio of subsonic and small angle-of-attack .%对类X-37B飞行器模型在50 k m高度以下不同飞行状态下的气动特性进行了数值模拟研究，将计算结果与航天飞机和X-34飞行器的试验结果进行了对比分析。结果表明，高马赫数大攻角再入飞行时，类X-37B飞行器和航天飞机的飞行升阻比相差不大，再入飞行横向机动能力相当。亚声速小攻角飞行时，类X-37B飞行器的升阻比大于航天飞机，小于X-34飞行器；说明类X-37B飞行器的低速机动和定点着陆能力强于航天飞机，弱于X-34飞行器。有翼再入飞行器气动布局差异对高超声速大攻角升阻比影响较小，对低速小攻角气动特性影响很大。
Effect of compressibility on the nonlinear prediction of the aerodynamic loads on lifting surfaces
Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1975-01-01
The vortex-lattice technique for incompressible flow which accounts for separation at sharp edges is modified to account for compressibility. This is accomplished by extending the Prandtl-Glauert transformation to moderate angles of attack. Thus, the aerodynamic characteristics for the compressible case are obtained from the solution of an equivalent incompressible problem. Numerical results are presented for parallelogram and delta wings to assess the effects of compressibility. The results are in good agreement with available experimental data.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
段中喆; 刘沛清
2012-01-01
A configuration of a semi-span wing combined with a four-bladed propeller on certain conditions(at a free stream velocity of 540km/h,propeller rotation of 1075r/min and advance ratio of 1.86) was numerically simulated by solving unsteady RANS ( Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes) equations in order to research the flow field interactions.The computations were performed with the unstructured mesh (total amount of the mesh was 10 million and sliding mesh was 3 million in each propeller area) and numerical results were analyzed at different angles of attack.It was found that; (1) the thrust of the propeller was influenced by the jam effect of the wing; (2) the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing were influenced by the propeller at different angles of attack.Lift enhancement of the wing by the propeller slipstream was significant at high angles of attack; (3) slipstream increased drag of the wing at different angles of attack.%对某型飞机螺旋桨与机翼巡航构型下的干扰流场进行了非定常流数值模拟,螺旋桨采用四叶桨,螺旋桨直径4.5m,机翼半展长19.32m,飞行速度540km/h,螺旋桨转速1075r/min,前进比λ为1.86.螺旋桨区域采用滑移网格技术,全场网格数为1000万.数值分析了不同迎角下螺旋桨滑流对机翼气动性能的影响规律,结果表明:(1)螺旋桨受到其后机翼的阻塞效应而使拉力改变；(2)在不同迎角下,螺旋桨滑流对机翼的影响规律不同,在较小迎角下机翼的增升效果不明显,但在较大迎角下机翼增升效果明显；(3)不同迎角下,螺旋桨滑流会增加机翼阻力.
Atomic fluorescence study of high temperature aerodynamic levitation
Nordine, P. C.; Schiffman, R. A.; Sethi, D. S.
1982-01-01
Ultraviolet laser induced atomic fluorescence has been used to characterize supersonic jet aerodynamic levitation experiments. The levitated specimen was a 0.4 cm sapphire sphere that was separately heated at temperatures up to 2327 K by an infrared laser. The supersonic jet expansion and thermal gradients in the specimen wake were studied by measuring spatial variations in the concentration of atomic Hg added to the levitating argon gas stream. Further applications of atomic fluorescence in containerless experiments, such as ideal gas fluorescence thermometry and containerless process control are discussed.
Aerodynamics and flight performance of flapping wing micro air vehicles
Silin, Dmytro
Research efforts in this dissertation address aerodynamics and flight performance of flapping wing aircraft (ornithopters). Flapping wing aerodynamics was studied for various wing sizes, flapping frequencies, airspeeds, and angles of attack. Tested wings possessed both camber and dihedral. Experimental results were analyzed in the framework of momentum theory. Aerodynamic coefficients and Reynolds number are defined using a reference velocity as a vector sum of a freestream velocity and a strokeaveraged wingtip velocity. No abrupt stall was observed in flapping wings for the angle of attack up to vertical. If was found that in the presence of a freestream lift of a flapping wing in vertical position is higher than the propulsive thrust. Camber and dihedral increased both lift and thrust. Lift-curve slope, and maximum lift coefficient increased with Reynolds number. Performance model of an ornithopter was developed. Parametric studies of steady level flight of ornithopters with, and without a tail were performed. A model was proposed to account for wing-sizing effects during hover. Three micro ornithopter designs were presented. Ornithopter flight testing and data-logging was performed using a telemetry acquisition system, as well as motion capture technology. The ability of ornithopter for a sustained flight and a presence of passive aerodynamic stability were shown. Flight data were compared with performance simulations. Close agreement in terms of airspeed and flapping frequency was observed.
Aerodynamic comparison of a butterfly-like flapping wing-body model and a revolving-wing model
Suzuki, Kosuke; Yoshino, Masato
2017-06-01
The aerodynamic performance of flapping- and revolving-wing models is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. As wing models, we use (i) a butterfly-like model with a body and flapping-rectangular wings and (ii) a revolving-wing model with the same wings as the flapping case. Firstly, we calculate aerodynamic performance factors such as the lift force, the power, and the power loading of the two models for Reynolds numbers in the range of 50-1000. For the flapping-wing model, the power loading is maximal for the maximum angle of attack of 90°, a flapping amplitude of roughly 45°, and a phase shift between the flapping angle and the angle of attack of roughly 90°. For the revolving-wing model, the power loading peaks for an angle of attack of roughly 45°. In addition, we examine the ground effect on the aerodynamic performance of the revolving-wing model. Secondly, we compare the aerodynamic performance of the flapping- and revolving-wing models at their respective maximal power loadings. It is found that the revolving-wing model is more efficient than the flapping-wing model both when the body of the latter is fixed and where it can move freely. Finally, we discuss the relative agilities of the flapping- and revolving-wing models.
High altitude aerodynamic platform concept evaluation and prototype engine testing
Akkerman, J. W.
1984-01-01
A design concept has been developed for maintaining a 150-pound payload at 60,000 feet altitude for about 50 hours. A 600-pound liftoff weight aerodynamic vehicle is used which operates at sufficient speeds to withstand prevailing winds. It is powered by a turbocharged four-stoke cycle gasoline fueled engine. Endurance time of 100 hours or more appears to be feasible with hydrogen fuel and a lighter payload. A prototype engine has been tested to 40,000 feet simulated altitude. Mismatch of the engine and the turbocharger system flow and problems with fuel/air mixture ratio control characteristics prohibited operation beyond 40,000 feet. But there seems to be no reason why the concept cannot be developed to function as analytically predicted.
Analysis of Low Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar Flow Glove
Bui, Trong T.
2014-01-01
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.
Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove
Bui, Trong T.
2014-01-01
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.
Aerodynamics Investigation of Faceted Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number
Napolillo, Zachary G.
The desire and demand to fly farther and faster has progressively integrated the concept of optimization with airfoil design, resulting in increasingly complex numerical tools pursuing efficiency often at diminishing returns; while the costs and difficulty associated with fabrication increases with design complexity. Such efficiencies may often be necessary due to the power density limitations of certain aircraft such as small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs). This research, however, focuses on reducing the complexity of airfoils for applications where aerodynamic performance is less important than the efficiency of manufacturing; in this case a Hybrid Projectile. By employing faceted sections to approximate traditional contoured wing sections it may be possible to expedite manufacturing and reduce costs. We applied this method to the development of a low Reynolds number, disposable Hybrid Projectile requiring a 4.5:1 glide ratio, resulting in a series of airfoils which are geometric approximations to highly contoured cross-sections called ShopFoils. This series of airfoils both numerically and experimentally perform within a 10% margin of the SD6060 airfoil at low Re. Additionally, flow visualization has been conducted to qualitatively determine what mechanisms, if any, are responsible for the similarity in performance between the faceted ShopFoil sections and the SD6060. The data obtained by these experiments did not conclusively reveal how the faceted surfaces may influence low Re flow but did indicate that the ShopFoil s did not maintain flow attachment at higher angles of attack than the SD6060. Two reasons are provided for the unexpected performance of the ShopFoil: one is related to downwash effects, which are suspected of placing the outer portion of the span at an effective angle of attack where the ShopFoils outperform the SD6060; the other is the influence of the tip vortex on separation near the wing tips, which possibly
Que, Ruiyi; Zhu, Rong
2012-01-01
Air speed, angle of sideslip and angle of attack are fundamental aerodynamic parameters for controlling most aircraft. For small aircraft for which conventional detecting devices are too bulky and heavy to be utilized, a novel and practical methodology by which the aerodynamic parameters are inferred using a micro hot-film flow sensor array mounted on the surface of the wing is proposed. A back-propagation neural network is used to model the coupling relationship between readings of the sensor array and aerodynamic parameters. Two different sensor arrangements are tested in wind tunnel experiments and dependence of the system performance on the sensor arrangement is analyzed. PMID:23112638
Aerodynamics of a translating comb-like plate inspired by a fairyfly wing
Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Daegyoum
2017-08-01
Unlike the smooth wings of common insects or birds, micro-scale insects such as the fairyfly have a distinctive wing geometry, comprising a frame with several bristles. Motivated by this peculiar wing geometry, we experimentally investigated the flow structure of a translating comb-like wing for a wide range of gap size, angle of attack, and Reynolds number, Re = O(10) - O(103), and the correlation of these parameters with aerodynamic performance. The flow structures of a smooth plate without a gap and a comb-like plate are significantly different at high Reynolds number, while little difference was observed at the low Reynolds number of O(10). At low Reynolds number, shear layers that were generated at the edges of the tooth of the comb-like plate strongly diffuse and eventually block a gap. This gap blockage increases the effective surface area of the plate and alters the formation of leading-edge and trailing-edge vortices. As a result, the comb-like plate generates larger aerodynamic force per unit area than the smooth plate. In addition to a quasi-steady phase after the comb-like plate travels several chords, we also studied a starting phase of the shear layer development when the comb-like plate begins to translate from rest. While a plate with small gap size can generate aerodynamic force at the starting phase as effectively as at the quasi-steady phase, the aerodynamic force drops noticeably for a plate with a large gap because the diffusion of the developing shear layers is not enough to block the gap.
Unsteady aerodynamic force mechanisms of a hoverfly hovering with a short stroke-amplitude
Zhu, Hao Jie; Sun, Mao
2017-08-01
Hovering insects require a rather large lift coefficient. Many insects hover with a large stroke amplitude (120°-170°), and it has been found that the high lift is mainly produced by the delayed-stall mechanism. However, some insects hover with a small stroke amplitude (e.g., 65°). The delayed-stall mechanism might not work for these insects because the wings travel only a very short distance in a stroke, and other aerodynamic mechanisms must be operating. Here we explore the aerodynamic mechanisms of a hoverfly hovering with an inclined stroke plane and a small stroke amplitude (65.6°). The Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved to give the flows and forces and the theory of vorticity dynamics used to reveal the aerodynamic mechanisms. The majority of the weight-supporting vertical force is produced in the mid portion of the downstroke, a short period (about 26% of the stroke cycle) in which the vertical force coefficient is larger than 4. The force is produced using a new mechanism, the "paddling mechanism." During the short period, the wing moves rapidly downward and forward at a large angle of attack (about 48°), and strong counter clockwise vorticity is produced continuously at the trailing edge and clockwise vorticity at the leading edge, resulting in a large time rate of change in the first moment of vorticity, hence the large aerodynamic force. It is interesting to note that with the well known delayed stall mechanism, the force is produced by the relative motion of two vortices of opposite sign, while in the "paddling mechanism," it is produced by generating new vortices of opposite sign at different locations.
Longitudinal type-line optimization of high-speed train for low aerodynamic noise
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖友刚; 杨群; 孙亮; 时彧
2014-01-01
The basic head shape of high-speed train is determined by its longitudinal type-line (LTL), so it is crucial to optimize its aerodynamic performance. Based on the parametric modeling of LTL constructed by non-uniform relational B-spline (NURBS) and the fluctuation pressure obtained by large eddy simulation (LES), the Kriging surrogate model (KSM) of LTL was constructed for low aerodynamic noise, and the accuracy of the KSM was improved gradually by adding the sample point with maximum expected improvement (EI) and the optimal point from optimization. The optimal objective was searched with genetic algorithm (GA). The results show that the total fluctuation pressure level (FPL) of the optimal LTL can be 8.7 dB less than that of original one, and the shape optimization method is feasible for low aerodynamic noise design.
Pinkel, I Irving; Serafini, John S; Gregg, John L
1952-01-01
The modifications in the pressure distributions and the aerodynamic coefficients associated with additions of heat to the two-dimensional supersonic in viscid flow field adjacetnt to the lower surface of of a 5-percent-thickness symmetrical circular-arc wing are presented in this report. The pressure distributions are obtained by the use of graphical method which gives the two-dimensional supersonic inviscid flow field obtained with moderate heat addition. The variation is given of the lift-drag ratio and of the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag, and moment with free stream Mach number, angle of attack, and parameters defining extent and amount of heat addition. The six graphical solutions used in this study included Mach numbers of 3.0 and 5.0 and angles of attack of 0 degrees and 2 degrees.
An Aerodynamic Investigation of a Forward Swept Wing
1977-12-01
loads requiring sub- stantial increases in structural weight. With the advent of advanced composites , it is possible to negate these weight penalties...attached flow at higher angles of attack. 59 -. - . -- ~II The use of winglets should-also be considered to determine their effect on the aerodynamic...Advanced Composites , AIAM Paper 76-1009, August, 177T. 5. Lawrence, J.R. Development o± a Half-Span Model Test System For The A FDL-TGF, ContracT F
Effect of Moving Surface on NACA 63218 Aerodynamic Performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yahiaoui Tayeb
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The main subject of this work is the numerical study control of flow separation on a NACA 63218 airfoil by using moving surface. Different numerical cases are considered: the first one is the numerical simulation of non-modified airfoil NACA 63218 according at different angle of attack and the second one a set of moving cylinder is placed on leading edge of the airfoil. The rotational velocity of the cylinder is varied to establish the effect of momentum injection on modified airfoil aerodynamic performances. The turbulence is modeled by two equations k-epsilon model.
Aerodynamic simulation of high-speed trains based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Aerodynamic simulation of high-speed trains has been carried out by using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). Non-simplified train model was used and the number of space grids reached tens of millions. All results under different working conditions reflected the actual situation.
A high-rate shape memory alloy actuator for aerodynamic load control on wind turbines
Lara-Quintanilla, A.; Hulskamp, A.W.; Bersee, H.E.N.
2013-01-01
This paper discusses the development of a high rate shape memory alloy (SMA) driven actuator. The concept of the actuator was developed to act as aerodynamic load control surface on wind turbines. It was designed as a plate or beam-like structure with prestrained SMA wires embedded off its neutral a
Thermal lift generation and drag reduction in rarefied aerodynamics
Pekardan, Cem; Alexeenko, Alina
2016-11-01
With the advent of the new technologies in low pressure environments such as Hyperloop and helicopters designed for Martian applications, understanding the aerodynamic behavior of airfoils in rarefied environments are becoming more crucial. In this paper, verification of rarefied ES-BGK solver and ideas such as prediction of the thermally induced lift and drag reduction in rarefied aerodynamics are investigated. Validation of the rarefied ES-BGK solver with Runge-Kutta discontinous Galerkin method with experiments in transonic regime with a Reynolds number of 73 showed that ES-BGK solver is the most suitable solver in near slip transonic regime. For the quantification of lift generation, A NACA 0012 airfoil is studied with a high temperature surface on the bottom for the lift creation for different Knudsen numbers. It was seen that for lower velocities, continuum solver under predicts the lift generation when the Knudsen number is 0.00129 due to local velocity gradients reaching slip regime although lift coefficient is higher with the Boltzmann ES-BGK solutions. In the second part, the feasibility of using thermal transpiration for drag reduction is studied. Initial study in drag reduction includes an application of a thermal gradient at the upper surface of a NACA 0012 airfoil near trailing edge at a 12-degree angle of attack and 5 Pa pressure. It was seen that drag is reduced by 4 percent and vortex shedding frequency is reduced due to asymmetry introduced in the flow due to temperature gradient causing reverse flow due to thermal transpiration phenomena.
Surrogate Based Optimization of Aerodynamic Noise for Streamlined Shape of High Speed Trains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenxu Sun
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Aerodynamic noise increases with the sixth power of the running speed. As the speed increases, aerodynamic noise becomes predominant and begins to be the main noise source at a certain high speed. As a result, aerodynamic noise has to be focused on when designing new high-speed trains. In order to perform the aerodynamic noise optimization, the equivalent continuous sound pressure level (SPL has been used in the present paper, which could take all of the far field observation probes into consideration. The Non-Linear Acoustics Solver (NLAS approach has been utilized for acoustic calculation. With the use of Kriging surrogate model, a multi-objective optimization of the streamlined shape of high-speed trains has been performed, which takes the noise level in the far field and the drag of the whole train as the objectives. To efficiently construct the Kriging model, the cross validation approach has been adopted. Optimization results reveal that both the equivalent continuous sound pressure level and the drag of the whole train are reduced in a certain extent.
A NEW GENERAL 3DOF QUASI-STEADY AERODYNAMIC INSTABILITY MODEL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gjelstrup, Henrik; Larsen, Allan; Georgakis, Christos;
2008-01-01
but can generally be applied for aerodynamic instability prediction for prismatic bluff bodies. The 3DOF, which make up the movement of the model, are the displacements in the XY-plane and the rotation around the bluff body’s rotational axis. The proposed model incorporates inertia coupling between...... the three degrees of freedom and is capable of estimating the onset of aerodynamic instability for changes in drag, lift and moment, which is a function of wind angle of attack in relation to the x-axis of the bluff body, Reynolds number and wind angle in relation to the length axis of the bluff body...
Atmospheric testing of wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, L.S. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Migliore, P.G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Quandt, G.A.
1997-12-31
An experimental investigation was conducted using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable span trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. A primary goal was to directly compare study results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were utilized to define effective changes in the aerodynamic coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans and configurations. Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (<70%) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with characteristic vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.
Effects of ice accretion on the aerodynamics of bridge cables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Demartino, C.; Koss, Holger; Georgakis, Christos T.;
2015-01-01
Undesirable wind induced vibrations of bridge cables can occur when atmospheric conditions are such to generate ice accretion. This paper contains the results of an extensive investigation of the effects of ice accretion due to in-cloud icing, on the aerodynamic characteristics of bridge hangers...... and stay cables. The aim of this paper is twofold; first, it was investigated the ice accretion process and the final shape of the ice accreted; then the aerodynamics of the ice accreted bridge cables was characterized, and related to the ice shape. Different climatic conditions, i.e. combinations...... of the ice accretions is given in the paper. Only for the bridge hanger case, a short description of the evolution of the ice accretions is given. The aerodynamic force coefficients were then measured with varying yaw angle, angle of attack and wind speed, and are presented and discussed in the paper...
Yongfeng, DENG; Jian, JIANG; Xianwei, HAN; Chang, TAN; Jianguo, WEI
2017-04-01
The problem of flow active control by low temperature plasma is considered to be one of the most flourishing fields of aerodynamics due to its practical advantages. Compared with other means, the electron beam plasma is a potential flow control method for large scale flow. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a multi-fluid plasma model is established to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics induced by electron beam plasma. The results demonstrate that the electron beam strongly influences the flow properties, not only in the boundary layers, but also in the main flow. A weak shockwave is induced at the electron beam injection position and develops to the other side of the wind tunnel behind the beam. It brings additional energy into air, and the inducing characteristics are closely related to the beam power and increase nonlinearly with it. The injection angles also influence the flow properties to some extent. Based on this research, we demonstrate that the high energy electron beam air plasma has three attractive advantages in aerodynamic applications, i.e. the high energy density, wide action range and excellent action effect. Due to the rapid development of near space hypersonic vehicles and atmospheric fighters, by optimizing the parameters, the electron beam can be used as an alternative means in aerodynamic steering in these applications.
Numerical simulation of a delta wing at high angles of attack%三角翼大迎角绕流的数值模拟
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
康顺; 杜永乐; 祁明旭
2005-01-01
采用FINETM/HEXA非结构网格流场计算软件包对三角翼飞行器的低速大迎角绕流进行了数值模拟.结果表明,计算值与实验数据符合较好,采用Agglomeration 方法能大幅度提高收敛速度,而网格自适应方法用总体不大的网格单元数可较精细地模拟流场.本文还分析了前缘分离涡破裂前后的流动现象和旋涡横截面流线图谱的变化规律.
Subsonic Indicial Aerodynamics for Aerofoil's Unsteady Loads via Numerical and Analytical Methods
Berci, Marco
2016-01-01
This study deals with generating aerodynamic indicial-admittance functions for predicting the unsteady lift of two-dimensional aerofoils in subsonic flow, using approximate numerical and analytical formulations. Both a step-change in the angle of attack and a sharp-edge gust are suitably considered as small perturbations. Novel contributions concern both a systematic analysis of the computational simulations process and an effective theoretical synthesis of its outcome, providing with sound cross-validation. Good practice for generating the indicial-admittance functions via computational fluid dynamics is first investigated for several Mach numbers, angles of attack and aerofoil profiles. Convenient analytical approximations of such indicial functions are then obtained by generalising those available for incompressible flow, taking advantage of acoustic wave theory for the non-circulatory airload and Prandtl-Glauert's scalability rule for the circulatory airload. An explicit parametric formula is newly propos...
Experimental Study of Effects of Tail Wings on Submunition Aerodynamic Characteristics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王海福; 李向荣
2004-01-01
Aimed at the needs of deceleration of submunitions dispensed from the ballistic missile, wind tunnel tests were performed on the submunitions with different tail wing sizes at the Mach number range from 0.7 to 3.0 and the angle of attack range from 0° to 14°. Experimental data about the variance of aerodynamic coefficients with the Mach number and angle of attack were obtained systemically. The effects of the tail wing sizes on the drag coefficients and the center of pressure coefficients were discussed. Analyzed results show the arc tail wings designed are beneficial to both the deceleration effect and static stability. These results are significant to the tail wing design and its applications to the submunitions deceleration.
Berrino, M.; Satta, F.; Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Bertini, F.
2014-02-01
The present paper reports the results of an experimental investigation aimed at comparing aerodynamic performance of three low-pressure turbine cascades for several Reynolds numbers under steady and unsteady inflows. This study is focused on finding design criteria useful to reduce both profile and secondary losses in the aero-engine LP turbine for the different flight conditions. The baseline blade cascade, characterized by a standard aerodynamic loading (Zw=1.03), has been compared with two Ultra-High-Lift profiles with the same Zweifel number (Zw=1.3 for both cascades), but different velocity peak positions, leading to front and mid-loaded blade cascade configurations. The aerodynamic flow fields downstream of the cascades have been experimentally investigated for Reynolds numbers in the range 70000plane downstream of the cascade for both inflow conditions. The analysis of the results allows the evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of the blade cascades in terms of profile and secondary losses and the understanding of the effects of loading distribution and Zweifel number on secondary flows. When operating under unsteady inflow, contrarily to the steady case, the mid-loaded cascade has been found to be characterized by the lowest profile and secondary losses, making it the most attractive solution for the design of blades working in real conditions where unsteady inflow effects are present.
Jacobs, P. F.
1978-01-01
The effects of winglets on the static aerodynamic stability characteristics of a KC-135A jet transport model at high subsonic speeds are presented. The investigation was conducted in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel using 0.035-scale wing panels mounted on a generalized research fuselage. Data were taken over a Mach number range from 0.50 to 0.95 at angles of attack ranging from -12 deg to 20 deg and sideslip angles of 0 deg, 5 deg, and -5 deg. The model was tested at two Reynolds number ranges to achieve a wide angle of attack range and to determine the effect of Reynolds number on stability. Results indicate that adding the winglets to the basic wing configuration produces small increases in both lateral and longitudinal aerodynamic stability and that the model stability increases slightly with Reynolds number. The winglets do increase the wing bending moments slightly, but the buffet onset characteristics of the model are not affected by the winglets.
Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control.
Taylor, G K
2001-11-01
Insects have evolved sophisticated fight control mechanisms permitting a remarkable range of manoeuvres. Here, I present a qualitative analysis of insect flight control from the perspective of flight mechanics, drawing upon both the neurophysiology and biomechanics literatures. The current literature does not permit a formal, quantitative analysis of flight control, because the aerodynamic force systems that biologists have measured have rarely been complete and the position of the centre of gravity has only been recorded in a few studies. Treating the two best-known insect orders (Diptera and Orthoptera) separately from other insects, I discuss the control mechanisms of different insects in detail. Recent experimental studies suggest that the helicopter model of flight control proposed for Drosophila spp. may be better thought of as a facultative strategy for flight control, rather than the fixed (albeit selected) constraint that it is usually interpreted to be. On the other hand, the so-called 'constant-lift reaction' of locusts appears not to be a reflex for maintaining constant lift at varying angles of attack, as is usually assumed, but rather a mechanism to restore the insect to pitch equilibrium following a disturbance. Differences in the kinematic control mechanisms used by the various insect orders are related to differences in the arrangement of the wings, the construction of the flight motor and the unsteady mechanisms of lift production that are used. Since the evolution of insect flight control is likely to have paralleled the evolutionary refinement of these unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, taxonomic differences in the kinematics of control could provide an assay of the relative importance of different unsteady mechanisms. Although the control kinematics vary widely between orders, the number of degrees of freedom that different insects can control will always be limited by the number of independent control inputs that they use. Control of the moments
Uncertainty Quantification in Numerical Aerodynamics
Litvinenko, Alexander
2017-05-16
We consider uncertainty quantification problem in aerodynamic simulations. We identify input uncertainties, classify them, suggest an appropriate statistical model and, finally, estimate propagation of these uncertainties into the solution (pressure, velocity and density fields as well as the lift and drag coefficients). The deterministic problem under consideration is a compressible transonic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Strokes flow around an airfoil with random/uncertain data. Input uncertainties include: uncertain angle of attack, the Mach number, random perturbations in the airfoil geometry, mesh, shock location, turbulence model and parameters of this turbulence model. This problem requires efficient numerical/statistical methods since it is computationally expensive, especially for the uncertainties caused by random geometry variations which involve a large number of variables. In numerical section we compares five methods, including quasi-Monte Carlo quadrature, polynomial chaos with coefficients determined by sparse quadrature and gradient-enhanced version of Kriging, radial basis functions and point collocation polynomial chaos, in their efficiency in estimating statistics of aerodynamic performance upon random perturbation to the airfoil geometry [D.Liu et al \\'17]. For modeling we used the TAU code, developed in DLR, Germany.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mulugeta Biadgo Asress; Jelena Svorcan
2014-01-01
Increasing velocity combined with decreasing mass of modern high-speed trains poses a question about the influence of strong crosswinds on its aerodynamics. Strong crosswinds may affect the running stability of high-speed trains via the amplified aerodynamic forces and moments. In this study, a simulation of turbulent crosswind flows over the leading and end cars of ICE-2 high-speed train was performed at different yaw angles in static and moving ground case scenarios. Since the train aerodynamic problems are closely associated with the flows occurring around train, the flow around the train was considered as incompressible and was obtained by solving the incom-pressible form of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations combined with the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. Important aerodynamic coef-ficients such as the side force and rolling moment coeffi-cients were calculated for yaw angles ranging from-30? to 60? and compared with the results obtained from wind tunnel test. The dependence of the flow structure on yaw angle was also presented. The nature of the flow field and its structure depicted by contours of velocity magnitude and streamline patterns along the train’s cross-section were presented for different yaw angles. In addition, the pressure coefficient around the circumference of the train at dif-ferent locations along its length was computed for yaw angles of 30? and 60?. The computed aerodynamic coef-ficient outcomes using the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model were in good agreement with the wind tunnel data. Both the side force coefficient and rolling moment coeffi-cients increase steadily with yaw angle till about 50? before starting to exhibit an asymptotic behavior. Contours of velocity magnitude were also computed at different cross-sections of the train along its length for different yaw angles. The result showed that magnitude of rotating vortex in the lee ward side increased with increasing yaw angle, which
Moving Model Test of High-Speed Train Aerodynamic Drag Based on Stagnation Pressure Measurements.
Yang, Mingzhi; Du, Juntao; Li, Zhiwei; Huang, Sha; Zhou, Dan
2017-01-01
A moving model test method based on stagnation pressure measurements is proposed to measure the train aerodynamic drag coefficient. Because the front tip of a high-speed train has a high pressure area and because a stagnation point occurs in the center of this region, the pressure of the stagnation point is equal to the dynamic pressure of the sensor tube based on the obtained train velocity. The first derivation of the train velocity is taken to calculate the acceleration of the train model ejected by the moving model system without additional power. According to Newton's second law, the aerodynamic drag coefficient can be resolved through many tests at different train speeds selected within a relatively narrow range. Comparisons are conducted with wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations, and good agreement is obtained, with differences of less than 6.1%. Therefore, the moving model test method proposed in this paper is feasible and reliable.
Crawford, Ben; Grimmond, Sue; Kent, Christoph; Gabey, Andrew; Ward, Helen; Sun, Ting; Morrison, William
2017-04-01
Remotely sensed data from satellites have potential to enable high-resolution, automated calculation of urban surface energy balance terms and inform decisions about urban adaptations to environmental change. However, aerodynamic resistance methods to estimate sensible heat flux (QH) in cities using satellite-derived observations of surface temperature are difficult in part due to spatial and temporal variability of the thermal aerodynamic resistance term (rah). In this work, we extend an empirical function to estimate rah using observational data from several cities with a broad range of surface vegetation land cover properties. We then use this function to calculate spatially and temporally variable rah in London based on high-resolution (100 m) land cover datasets and in situ meteorological observations. In order to calculate high-resolution QH based on satellite-observed land surface temperatures, we also develop and employ novel methods to i) apply source area-weighted averaging of surface and meteorological variables across the study spatial domain, ii) calculate spatially variable, high-resolution meteorological variables (wind speed, friction velocity, and Obukhov length), iii) incorporate spatially interpolated urban air temperatures from a distributed sensor network, and iv) apply a modified Monte Carlo approach to assess uncertainties with our results, methods, and input variables. Modeled QH using the aerodynamic resistance method is then compared to in situ observations in central London from a unique network of scintillometers and eddy-covariance measurements.
Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics for Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong
To analyse the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine rotors, the main tool in use today is the 1D-Blade Element Momentum (BEM) technique combined with 2D airfoil data. Because of its simplicity, the BEM technique is employed by industry when designing new wind turbine blades. However, in order...... variables (velocity-pressure formulation) are employed as the basic governing equations. However, since fluid mechanical problems essentially are governed by vortex dynamics, it is sometimes advantageous to use the concept of vorticity (defined as the curl of velocity). In vorticity form the Navier...... or actuator/Navier-Stokes computations. A simple and efficient technique for determining the angle of attack for flow past a wind turbine rotor was developed in [11], and in [12] tunnel wall corrections for wind tunnels with closed or open test sections were developed. The second part of the thesis deals...
Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics for Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong
or actuator/Navier-Stokes computations. A simple and efficient technique for determining the angle of attack for flow past a wind turbine rotor was developed in [11], and in [12] tunnel wall corrections for wind tunnels with closed or open test sections were developed. The second part of the thesis deals...... with Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA). With the spread of wind turbines near urban areas, there is an increasing need for accurate predictions of aerodynamically generated noise. Indeed, noise has become one of the most important issues for further development of wind power, and the ability of controlling......=U/c), it is difficult to resolve them together at the same time. Hardin and Pope proposed a non-linear two-step (viscous incompressible flow and inviscid acoustic perturbation) splitting procedure for computational aero-acoustics that is suitable for both generation and propagation. The advantage of the splitting...
Huang, Ximing
1994-01-01
A variable-complexity design strategy with combined aerodynamic and structural optimization procedures is presented for the high speed civil transport design (HSCT). Variable-complexity analysis methods are used to reduce the computational expense. A finite element-model based structural optimization procedure with flexible loads is implemented to evaluate the wing bending material weight. Static aeroelastic effects, evaluated through the comparison of rigid and flexible win...
IEA joint action. Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maribo Pedersen, B. [ed.
1997-12-31
In the period 1992-1997 the IEA Annex XIV `Field Rotor Aerodynamics` was carried out. Within its framework 5 institutes from 4 different countries participated in performing detailed aerodynamic measurements on full-scale wind turbines. The Annex was successfully completed and resulted in a unique database of aerodynamic measurements. The database is stored on an ECN disc (available through ftp) and on a CD-ROM. It is expected that this base will be used extensively in the development and validation of new aerodynamic models. Nevertheless at the end of IEA Annex XIV, it was recommended to perform a new IEA Annex due to the following reasons: In Annex XIV several data exchange rounds appeared to be necessary before a satisfactory result was achieved. This is due to the huge amount of data which had to be supplied, by which a thorough inspection of all data is very difficult and very time consuming; Most experimental facilities are still operational and new, very useful, measurements are expected in the near future; The definition of angle of attack and dynamic pressure in the rotating environment is less straightforward than in the wind tunnel. The conclusion from Annex XIV was that the uncertainty which results from these different definitions is still too large and more investigation in this field is required. (EG)
Aerodynamics and flow characterisation of multistage rockets
Srinivas, G.; Prakash, M. V. S.
2017-05-01
The main objective of this paper is to conduct a systematic flow analysis on single, double and multistage rockets using ANSYS software. Today non-air breathing propulsion is increasing dramatically for the enhancement of space exploration. The rocket propulsion is playing vital role in carrying the payload to the destination. Day to day rocket aerodynamic performance and flow characterization analysis has becoming challenging task to the researchers. Taking this task as motivation a systematic literature is conducted to achieve better aerodynamic and flow characterization on various rocket models. The analyses on rocket models are very little especially in numerical side and experimental area. Each rocket stage analysis conducted for different Mach numbers and having different flow varying angle of attacks for finding the critical efficiency performance parameters like pressure, density and velocity. After successful completion of the analysis the research reveals that flow around the rocket body for Mach number 4 and 5 best suitable for designed payload. Another major objective of this paper is to bring best aerodynamics flow characterizations in both aero and mechanical features. This paper also brings feature prospectus of rocket stage technology in the field of aerodynamic design.
Effect of the Backward-Facing Step Location on the Aerodynamics of a Morphing Wing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fadi Mishriky
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Over the last decade, aircraft morphing technology has drawn a lot of attention in the aerospace community, because it is likely to improve the aerodynamic performance and the versatility of aircraft at different flight regimes. With the fast paced advancements in this field, a parallel stream of research is studying different materials and designs to develop reliable morphing skins. A promising candidate for a viable morphing skin is the sliding skin, where two or more rigid surfaces remain in contact and slide against each other during morphing. The overlapping between each two panels create a backward-facing step on the airfoil surface which has a critical effect on the aerodynamics of the wing. This paper presents a numerical study of the effect of employing a backward-facing step on the suction side of a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA 2412 airfoil at a high Reynolds number of 5.9 × 106. The effects of the step location on the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and critical angle of attack are studied to find a favorable location for the step along the chord-wise direction. Results showed that employing a step on the suction side of the NACA 2412 airfoil can adversely affect the aforementioned aerodynamic properties. A drop of 21.1% in value of the lift coefficient and an increase of 120.8% in the drag coefficient were observed in case of a step located at 25% of the chord length. However, these effects are mitigated by shifting the step location towards the trailing edge. Introducing a step on the airfoil caused the airfoil’s thickness to change, which in turn has affected the transition point of the viscous boundary layer from laminar to turbulent. The location of the step, prior or post the transition point, has a noteworthy effect on the pressure and shear stress distribution, and consequently on the values of the lift and drag coefficients.
Phillips, W. P.; Fournier, R. H.
1979-01-01
Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics are presented for the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter configuration (0.010 scale) and for the configuration modified to incorporate geometry changes in the wing planform fillet region. The modifications designed to extend the orbiter's longitudinal trim capability to more forward center-of-gravity locations, included reshaping of the baseline wing planform fillet and adding canards. The investigation was made in the high Mach number test section of the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 2.2 million based on fuselage reference length. The angle-of-attack range for the investigation extended from -1 deg to 31 deg. Data were obtained with the elevators and body flap deflected at appropriate negative and positive conditions to assess the trim limits.
Numerical investigation on the aerodynamics of a simplified high-speed train under crosswinds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yueqing Zhuang
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The yaw effect of the side flow around a high-speed train is studied by means of large eddy simulation at two typical yaw angles of φ=30° and 60°, respectively. Both the mean and fluctuating values of lift force and side force coefficients increase obviously as the yaw angle increases. The spectral analysis indicates that the time-dependent aerodynamic forces are dominated by several energetic frequencies and the frequency range is broadened to a higher extent for the large yaw angle. To have a better understanding of the train aerodynamic behaviors, the dedicate three-dimensional vortical structures are analyzed for the flow at the two yaw angles. Moreover, the time-averaged flow patterns, turbulent statistics and the surface forces are also studied on sectional planes along the train.
Variable-complexity aerodynamic-structural design of a high-speed civil transport wing
Hutchison, M. G.; Huang, X.; Mason, W. H.; Haftka, R. T.; Grossman, B.
1992-01-01
A variable-complexity strategy of combining simple and detailed analysis methods is presented for the design optimization of a high-speed civil transport (HSCT) wing. Two sets of results are shown: the aerodynamic design of the wing using algebraic weight equations for structural considerations, and optimization results of the internal wing structure for a fixed wing configuration. We show example results indicating that using simple analysis methods alone for the calculation of a critical constraint can allow an optimizer to exploit weaknesses in the analysis. The structural optimization results provide a valuable check for the weight equations used in the aerodynamic design. In addition, these results confirm the need for using simple, algebraic models in conjunction with more detailed analysis methods. A strategy of interlaced aerodynanic-structural design is proposed.
Simulation and analysis of aerodynamics for high speed face milling cutters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In high speed face milling,noise can be broadly categorized as idling noise and cutting noise.Idling noise mainly consists of aerodynamic noise.A mathematical model is developed based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Equation.The noise predicted with the mathematical model compares well with the experimental observations.The characteristics of aerodynamic noise with the different model parameters (number of teeth,tooth spacing) and locations of observation points are investigated.The directivity of noise is found and the peak value of sound power can be moved from the rotating frequency to higher frequency.This investigation can provide theoretical foundation for the design of face milling cutters with low noise.
Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2
Richardson, Annie Catherine
2016-01-01
In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.
Shahzad, Aamer; Tian, Fang-Bao; Young, John; Lai, Joseph C. S.
2016-11-01
This numerical study is focused on assessing the effect on the aerodynamic hovering performance of wing shapes defined by the radius of the first moment of the wing area ( r 1 ¯ ) and aspect ratio (AR). In addition, the effect of introducing a deviation angle in the kinematics is examined. The performance of r 1 ¯ = 0 . 43 , 0.53, and 0.63 wings with AR of 1.5, 2.96, 4.5, and 6.0 is investigated at Reynolds numbers (Re) = 12, 400, and 13 500. The performance trends of the wing shapes have been observed to be independent of Re for both 2-angle and 3-angle kinematics. This is because high suction pressures associated with the leading-edge vortex are predominantly spread in the distal (away from the wing root) and leeward regions (towards the trailing-edge) of high flapping velocities for all the cases. While the deviation angle is detrimental to the production of lift and power economy (PE, defined as the ratio of the mean lift coefficient to the mean aerodynamic power coefficient) at Re = 12 due to strong viscous effects, it improves PE at Re = 400 and 13 500. A high instantaneous angle of attack at the stroke reversal results in high lift peak for 3-angle kinematics but its effect at Re = 400 and 13 500 is attenuated by strong vortical structures on the underside of the wing. Maximum PE is achieved at AR = 2.96, as a low AR wing does not produce enough lift and high AR wings consume more aerodynamic power. Although the lift is maximized using high r 1 ¯ and AR wings, our results show that low r 1 ¯ and high AR wings are best for maximizing PE for a given lift in insects.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergami, Leonardo; Riziotis, Vasilis A.; Gaunaa, Mac
2015-01-01
–inviscid interaction method and an engineering dynamic stall model suitable for implementation in aeroelastic codes based on blade element momentum theory. The aerodynamic integral forces and pitching moment coefficients are first determined in steady conditions, at angles of attack spanning from attached flow...... generated by the airfoil undergoing harmonic pitching motions and harmonic flap deflections. The unsteady aerodynamic coefficients exhibit significant variations over the corresponding steady-state values. The dynamic characteristics of the unsteady response are predicted with an excellent agreement among...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Rubio Forero
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The present paper describes two conceptual wing designs that maintain equals the wing area, the aspect ratio, the wing span and the aerodynamic profiles, varying wing shape by changing the length of the root and tip chord of each model, in order to determinate the most efficient wing geometry design of an aerodynamic nacelle than could be implemented in a recoverable and reusable radio probe. The lift and drag coefficients are analyzed in function of the angle of attack, as a comparative parameter, finding an improvement on the lift when the tip chord has more length.
SIMULATION STUDY OF AERODYNAMIC FORCE FOR HIGH-SPEED MAGNETICALLY-LEVITATED TRAINS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Renxian; LIU Yingqing; ZHAI Wanming
2006-01-01
Based on Reynolds average Navier-Storkes equations of viscous incompressible fluid and k-ε two equations turbulent model, the aerodynamic forces of high-speed magnetically-levitated(maglev) trains in transverse and longitudinal wind are investigated by finite volume method. Near 80 calculation cases for 2D transverse wind fields and 20 cases for 3D longitudinal wind fields are and lyzed. The aerodynamic side force, yawing, drag, lift and pitching moment for different types of maglev trains and a wheel/rail train are compared under the different wind speeds. The types of maglev train models for 2D transverse wind analysis included electromagnetic suspension (EMS) type train,electrodynamic suspension (EDS) type train, EMS type train with shelter wind wall in one side or two sides of guideway and the walls, which are in different height or/and different distances from train body. The situation of maglev train running on viaduct is also analyzed. For 3D longitudinal wind field analysis, the model with different sizes of air clearances beneath maglev train is examined for the different speeds. Calculation result shows that: ① Different transverse effects are shown in different types of maglev trains. ② The shelter wind wall can fairly decrease the transverse effect on the maglev train. ③ When the shelter wall height is 2 m, there is minimum side force on the train.When the shelter wall height is 2.5 m, there is minimum yawing moment on the train. ④ When the distance between inside surfaces of the walls and center of guideway is 4.0 m, there is minimum transverse influence on the train. ⑤ The size of air clearance beneath train body has a small influence on aerodynamic drag of the train, but has a fairly large effect on aerodynamic lift and pitching moment of the train. ⑥ The calculating lift and pitching moment for maglev train models are minus values.
Component-based model to predict aerodynamic noise from high-speed train pantographs
Latorre Iglesias, E.; Thompson, D. J.; Smith, M. G.
2017-04-01
At typical speeds of modern high-speed trains the aerodynamic noise produced by the airflow over the pantograph is a significant source of noise. Although numerical models can be used to predict this they are still very computationally intensive. A semi-empirical component-based prediction model is proposed to predict the aerodynamic noise from train pantographs. The pantograph is approximated as an assembly of cylinders and bars with particular cross-sections. An empirical database is used to obtain the coefficients of the model to account for various factors: incident flow speed, diameter, cross-sectional shape, yaw angle, rounded edges, length-to-width ratio, incoming turbulence and directivity. The overall noise from the pantograph is obtained as the incoherent sum of the predicted noise from the different pantograph struts. The model is validated using available wind tunnel noise measurements of two full-size pantographs. The results show the potential of the semi-empirical model to be used as a rapid tool to predict aerodynamic noise from train pantographs.
AN INVESTIGATION ON THE AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF 2-D AIRFIOL IN GROUND COLLISION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AK KARTIGESH A/L KALAI CHELVEN
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Near ground operation of airplanes represents a critical and an important aerodynamic practical problem due to the wing-ground collision. The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing are subjected to dramatic changes due to the flow field interference with the ground. In the present paper, the wing-ground collision was investigated experimentally and numerically. The investigation involved a series of wind tunnel measurements of a 2-D wing model having NACA4412 airfoil section. An experimental set up has been designed and constructed to simulate the collision phenomena in a low speed wind tunnel. The investigations were carried out at different Reynolds numbers ranging from 105 to 4×105, various model heights to chord ratios, H/C ranging from 0.1 to 1, and different angles of attack ranging from -4o to 20o. Numerical simulation of the wing-ground collision has been carried out using FLUENT software. The results of the numerical simulation have been validated by comparison with previous and recent experimental data and it was within acceptable agreement. The results have shown that the aerodynamic characteristics are considerably influenced when the wing is close to the ground, mainly at angles of attacks 4o to 8o. The take off and landing speeds are found to be very influencing parameters on the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing in collision status, mainly the lift.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李媛; 康顺; 范忠瑶; 李杰
2012-01-01
采用NUMECA的FINE/Turbo及FINE/Hexa软件包,对风力机翼型NREL S825和DU97-W-300在全迎角0.～ 360.范围内的气动特性进行定常数值模拟研究.通过与实验数据进行比较,确定了定常CFD模拟全迎角翼型绕流气动特性的方法,并对比分析二维翼型全迎角绕流的特点,讨论了预估翼型气动特性的半经验公式.
INVESTIGATION OF AERODYNAMIC PRESSURE DURING THE HIGH-SPEED TRAIN PASSAGE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. T. Djabbarov
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific paper highlights research of aerodynamic pressure and distribution of airflow velocity field along the moving high-speed train. Methodology. The study of velocity field distribution around the moving high-speed train is produced by simulating its movement as axially symmetric body with the ogive-shaped head and tail parts in compressible (acoustic environment. Findings. The values of the absolute velocity (theoretical of air flow generated by the body movement is determined (for the case when the body moves at a constant speed (200, 250, 350, 400 km / h at a certain height from the ground, for the points located at different distances from the axis of the moving body (high-speed train. The calculations results allowed building the graphs of the air flow velocity in the acoustic environment along the moving body at different distances from it. Using the Bernoulli law (pressure change dependences on the flow velocity, the values of the overpressure generated by the air stream from the moving body were determined. Originality. This is the first theoretical study of the aerodynamics of the high-speed train as axially symmetric body with the ogive-shaped head and tail parts in compressible (acoustic environment, moving with steady speed. The research results allow us to establish the distribution of the excess air flow pressure generated along the moving high-speed train. Practical value. The obtained results allows determining of the following parameters: 1 requirements for physical-mechanical and strength characteristics of the individual elements of the railway infrastructure in the areas of high-speed train movement, subject to aerodynamic pressure; 2 minimum distance from the track safe for people location during high-speed train passage.
Aerodynamics of ski jumping: experiments and CFD simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meile, W.; Reisenberger, E.; Brenn, G. [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Graz (Austria); Mayer, M. [VRVis GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Schmoelzer, B.; Mueller, W. [Medical University of Graz, Department for Biophysics, Graz (Austria)
2006-12-15
The aerodynamic behaviour of a model ski jumper is investigated experimentally at full-scale Reynolds numbers and computationally applying a standard RANS code. In particular we focus on the influence of different postures on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. The experimental results proved to be in good agreement with full-scale measurements with athletes in much larger wind tunnels, and form a reliable basis for further predictions of the effects of position changes on the performance. The comparison of CFD results with the experiments shows poor agreement, but enables a clear outline of simulation potentials and limits when accurate predictions of effects from small variations are required. (orig.)
TRO-2D - A code for rational transonic aerodynamic optimization
Davis, W. H., Jr.
1985-01-01
Features and sample applications of the transonic rational optimization (TRO-2D) code are outlined. TRO-2D includes the airfoil analysis code FLO-36, the CONMIN optimization code and a rational approach to defining aero-function shapes for geometry modification. The program is part of an effort to develop an aerodynamically smart optimizer that will simplify and shorten the design process. The user has a selection of drag minimization and associated minimum lift, moment, and the pressure distribution, a choice among 14 resident aero-function shapes, and options on aerodynamic and geometric constraints. Design variables such as the angle of attack, leading edge radius and camber, shock strength and movement, supersonic pressure plateau control, etc., are discussed. The results of calculations of a reduced leading edge camber transonic airfoil and an airfoil with a natural laminar flow are provided, showing that only four design variables need be specified to obtain satisfactory results.
Numerical investigation of the aerodynamics of the REX-Free Flyer in the rarefied gas regime
Nizenkov, P.; Noeding, P.; Konopka, M.; Reimann, B.; Fasoulas, S.
2016-11-01
The REX-Free Flyer is a concept study by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in an effort to develop an orbital experimental platform to fill the gap between short duration experimental facilities and long-term missions at the International Space Station. The envisioned reusable vehicle shall enable day- and week-long experiments in high-quality weightlessness. The unique sharp-edged geometry promises improved aerodynamic properties. A soft and controlled re-entry shall guarantee a recovery of the experimental setup. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to simulate a Mach 20 nitrogen flow around a scaled-down model of REX in the rarefied gas regime. First, a brief overview of the implemented numerical and phenomenological models in the in-house code DSMC code PICLas is given. Simulation parameters ensuring physical results are presented. Consequently, the code is used to investigate the lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients at five different angles of attack: 0°, 14°, 28°, 40°, and 52°. Simulation results are compared to an approximate method, where acceptable agreement with a deviation of less than 44% can be found considering the underlying assumptions, and to dsmcFoam, where excellent agreement with a deviation of less than 3% between the different DSMC implementations is found. Furthermore, the complex three-dimensional flow environment is investigated and presented in detail for the 52° case.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
屈亮; 张登成; 张艳华; 胡孟权; 李达
2013-01-01
为研究内装式空中发射运载火箭在箭机分离过程中的气动特性尤其是大迎角情况下的气动变化规律,应用计算流体力学(CFD)软件中的k-w模型对火箭气动特性进行了仿真研究,得到火箭气动特性随马赫数和迎角的变化规律,同时对改进后的火箭模型进行气动特性分析.仿真结果表明:发现火箭尾部改进成收敛-扩张型喷管可使火箭下落初期有一个抬头力矩,有利于运载火箭初期快速调整姿态；当快到达预期点火姿态时,由于气动力作用点后移产生的与角速度方向相反的力矩,可迫使运载火箭稳定,从而更容易地捕捉到点火角度,并保证点火时的姿态稳定.%For studying the aerodynamic characteristics of rocket in the process of the rocket separating from the plane internally carried air-launched launch vehicle,especially when the rocket is at high angle of attack,CFD is applied to the simulation of rocket aerodynamic characteristics.Based on the improvement of rocket shape,the rocket aerodynamic characteristics with Mach number and angle of attack can be obtained.The analysis of the aerodynamic characteristics of the improved rocket model shows that the rocket tail improved into a convergent nozzle is of great benefit to the attitude adjustment.These analyses provide a theoretical foundation for the further research on rocket attitude stabilization and track design.
ELGAMMI, MOUTAZ; SANT, TONIO
2016-09-01
This paper investigates a new approach to model the stochastic variations in the aerodynamic loads on yawed wind turbines experienced at high angles of attack. The method applies the one-dimensional Langevin equation in conjunction with known mean and standard deviation values for the lift and drag data. The method is validated using the experimental data from the NREL Phase VI rotor in which the mean and standard deviation values for the lift and drag are derived through the combined use of blade pressure measurements and a free-wake vortex model. Given that direct blade pressure measurements are used, 3D flow effects arising from the co-existence of dynamic stall and stall delay are taken into account. The model is an important step towards verification of several assumptions characterized as the estimated standard deviation, Gaussian white noise of the data and the estimated drift and diffusion coefficients of the Langevin equation. The results using the proposed assumptions lead to a good agreement with measurements over a wide range of operating conditions. This provides motivation to implement a general fully independent theoretical stochastic model within a rotor aerodynamics model, such as the free-wake vortex or blade-element momentum code, whereby the mean lift and drag coefficients can be estimated using 2D aerofoil data with correction models for 3D dynamic stall and stall delay phenomena, while the corresponding standard derivations are estimated through CFD.
Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship
Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.
2012-06-01
The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.
Aerodynamic and engineering design of a 1.5 s high quality microgravity drop tower facility
Belser, Valentin; Breuninger, Jakob; Reilly, Matthew; Laufer, René; Dropmann, Michael; Herdrich, Georg; Hyde, Truell; Röser, Hans-Peter; Fasoulas, Stefanos
2016-12-01
Microgravity experiments are essential for research in space science, biology, fluid mechanics, combustion, and material sciences. One way to conduct microgravity experiments on Earth is by using drop tower facilities. These facilities combine a high quality of microgravity, adequate payload masses and have the advantage of virtually unlimited repeatability under same experimental conditions, at a low cost. In a collaboration between the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart and Baylor University (BU) in Waco, Texas, a new drop tower is currently under development at the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER). The design parameters of the drop tower ask for at least 1.5 s in free fall duration while providing a quality of at least 10-5 g. Previously, this quality has only been achieved in vacuum drop tower facilities where the capsule experiences virtually zero aerodynamic drag during its free fall. Since this design comes at high costs, a different drop tower design concept, which does not require an evacuated drop shaft, was chosen. It features a dual-capsule system in which the experiment capsule is shielded from aerodynamic forces by surrounding it with a drag shield during the drop. As no other dual-capsule drop tower has been able to achieve a quality as good as or better than 10-5 g previous work optimized the design with an aerodynamic perspective by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to determine the ideal shape and size of the outer capsule and to specify the aerodynamically crucial dimensions for the overall system. Experiments later demonstrated that the required quality of microgravity can be met with the proposed design. The main focus of this paper is the mechanical realization of the capsule as well as the development and layout of the surrounding components, such as the release mechanism, the deceleration device and the drop shaft. Because the drop tower facility is a
Macris, C. A.; Badro, J.; Eiler, J. M.; Stolper, E. M.
2016-12-01
The aerodynamic levitation laser apparatus is an instrument in which spherical samples are freely floated on top of a stream of gas while being heated with a CO2laser to temperatures up to about 3500 °C. Laser heated samples, ranging in size from 0.5 to 3.5 mm diameter, can be levitated in a variety of chemically active or inert atmospheres in a gas-mixing chamber (e.g., Hennet et al. 2006; Pack et al. 2010). This allows for containerless, controlled-atmosphere, high temperature experiments with potential for applications in earth and planetary science. A relatively new technique, aerodynamic levitation has been used mostly for studies of the physical properties of liquids at high temperatures (Kohara et al. 2011), crystallization behavior of silicates and oxides (Arai et al. 2004), and to prepare glasses from compositions known to crystallize upon quenching (Tangeman et al. 2001). More recently, however, aerodynamic levitation with laser heating has been used as an experimental technique to simulate planetary processes. Pack et al. (2010) used levitation and melting experiments to simulate chondrule formation by using Ar-H2 as the flow gas, thus imposing a reducing atmosphere, resulting in reduction of FeO, Fe2O3, and NiO to metal alloys. Macris et al. (2015) used laser heating with aerodynamic levitation to reproduce the textures and diffusion profiles of major and minor elements observed in impact ejecta from the Australasian strewn field, by melting a powdered natural tektite mixed with 60-100 μm quartz grains on a flow of pure Ar gas. These experiments resulted in quantitative modeling of Si and Al diffusion, which allowed for interpretations regarding the thermal histories of natural tektites and their interactions with the surrounding impact vapor plume. Future experiments will employ gas mixing (CO, CO2, H2, O, Ar) in a controlled atmosphere levitation chamber to explore the range of fO2applicable to melt-forming impacts on other rocky planetary bodies
Design of low noise airfoil with high aerodynamic performance for use on small wind turbines
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Taehyung; KIM; Seungmin; LEE; Hogeon; KIM; Soogab; LEE
2010-01-01
Wind power is one of the most reliable renewable energy sources and internationally installed capacity is increasing radically every year.Although wind power has been favored by the public in general,the problem with the impact of wind turbine noise on people living in the vicinity of the turbines has been increased.Low noise wind turbine design is becoming more and more important as noise is spreading more adverse effect of wind turbine to public.This paper demonstrates the design of 10 kW class wind turbines,each of three blades,a rotor diameter 6.4 m,a rated rotating speed 200 r/min and a rated wind speed 10 m/s.The optimized airfoil is dedicated for the 75% spanwise position because the dominant source of a wind turbine blade is trailing edge noise from the outer 25% of the blade.Numerical computations are performed for incompressible flow and for Mach number at 0.145 and for Reynolds numbers at 1.02×106 with a lift performance,which is resistant to surface contamination and turbulence intensity.The objectives in the design process are to reduce noise emission,while sustaining high aerodynamic efficiency.Dominant broadband noise sources are predicted by semi-empirical formulas composed of the groundwork by Brooks et al.and Lowson associated with typical wind turbine operation conditions.During the airfoil redesign process,the aerodynamic performance is analyzed to reduce the wind turbine power loss.The results obtained from the design process show that the design method is capable of designing airfoils with reduced noise using a commercial 10 kW class wind turbine blade airfoil as a basis.Therefore,the new optimized airfoil showing 2.9 dB reductions of total sound pressure level(SPL) and higher aerodynamic performance are achieved.
Control of a high beta maneuvering reentry vehicle using dynamic inversion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watts, Alfred Chapman
2005-05-01
The design of flight control systems for high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles presents a significant challenge to the control systems designer. These vehicles typically have a much higher ballistic coefficient than crewed vehicles like as the Space Shuttle or proposed crew return vehicles such as the X-38. Moreover, the missions of high performance vehicles usually require a steeper reentry flight path angle, followed by a pull-out into level flight. These vehicles then must transit the entire atmosphere and robustly perform the maneuvers required for the mission. The vehicles must also be flown with small static margins in order to perform the required maneuvers, which can result in highly nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics that frequently transition from being aerodynamically stable to unstable as angle of attack increases. The control system design technique of dynamic inversion has been applied successfully to both high performance aircraft and low beta reentry vehicles. The objective of this study was to explore the application of this technique to high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles, including the basic derivation of the dynamic inversion technique, followed by the extension of that technique to the use of tabular trim aerodynamic models in the controller. The dynamic inversion equations are developed for high performance vehicles and augmented to allow the selection of a desired response for the control system. A six degree of freedom simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the dynamic inversion approach, and results for both nominal and off nominal aerodynamic characteristics are presented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘光; 王培; 杜晓旭
2012-01-01
通过对AUV(Autonomous Underwater Vehicle)回收过程中运动规律的研究和对纳维—斯托克斯方程(Navier-Stokes equations)及其求解方法的分析,基于CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics)理论建立了AUV回收运动的三维计算模型,并使用CFD软件完成其物理模型的建立、网格的划分及求解设置.在此基础上对AUV回收过程中的阻力、升力干扰进行分析计算,得到不同攻角下AUV所受到的水动力干扰与AUV和回收平台之间距离的相互联系.%By studying the law of motion of AUV recovery process and analyzing Navier-Stokes equations (Navier-Stokes equations) and its solution.the three-dimensional model of the AUV recovery movement is established based on CFD Theory,and then CFD software is used to finish the build of the physical model,the partition of the mesh and solution set. On this basis, drag and lift interference have been calculated in the process of the AUV recovery. The relationship between AUV hydrodynamic interference suffered by different angle of attack and the distance between recovery platform and AUV is obtained.
2016-01-01
Results of numerical simulation of flow and calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of an airship with and without rotating propellers during motion through the atmospheric jet streams of various types are presented. Research was carried out during motion of the airship for constant angle of attack а = 0…30°, as well as angle characterizing the position of the airship relatively the axis of the jet flow in the horizontal plane, В = 0…175°, velocity of translational motion of air- ship V = ...
Minimum-fuel aerodynamic orbital plane change maneuvers. [for Space Shuttle Orbiters
Joosten, B. K.; Pierson, B. L.
1981-01-01
Several minimum-fuel, aerodynamically controlled, orbital plane change problems are formulated and solved as optimal control problems. A gradient projection algorithm is used to iteratively modify both the control functions, angle of attack and bank angle, and two control parameters to obtain the optimal trajectory. The atmospheric flight profile is combined with two Keplerian (two-body vacuum flight) arcs so that a complete orbit-to-orbit analysis results. The vehicle used in this investigation is the Space Transportation System Shuttle Orbiter. The effects of heat load constraint level and plane change angle are analysed.
Spearman, M. L.; Sawyer, W. W.
1977-01-01
Effects of wing planform modifications on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a fixed span, maneuverable cruciform missile configuration were determined. A basic delta planform and two alternate trapezoidal planforms having progressively increasing tip chords were included. Data were obtained for angles of attack up to approximately -32 deg, model roll angles of 0 deg to 45 deg, and tail control deflections of 0 deg and -20 deg. The experimental drag due to lift was compared with linear values.
Training Data Requirement for a Neural Network to Predict Aerodynamic Coefficients
Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor); Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge
2003-01-01
Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angle of attack, speed brake deflection angle, Mach number, and side slip angle. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. We previously demonstrated that a neural network is a fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients. We encountered few under fitted and/or over fitted results during prediction. The training data for the neural network are derived from wind tunnel test measurements and numerical simulations. The basic questions that arise are: how many training data points are required to produce an efficient neural network prediction, and which type of transfer functions should be used between the input-hidden layer and hidden-output layer. In this paper, a comparative study of the efficiency of neural network prediction based on different transfer functions and training dataset sizes is presented. The results of the neural network prediction reflect the sensitivity of the architecture, transfer functions, and training dataset size.
Rajkumar, T.; Aragon, Cecilia; Bardina, Jorge; Britten, Roy
2002-01-01
A fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network optimized by a genetic algorithm. Basic aerodynamic coefficients (e.g. lift, drag, pitching moment) are modelled as functions of angle of attack and Mach number. The neural network is first trained on a relatively rich set of data from wind tunnel tests of numerical simulations to learn an overall model. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. A new set of data, which can be relatively sparse, is then supplied to the network to produce a new model consistent with the previous model and the new data. Because the new model interpolates realistically between the sparse test data points, it is suitable for use in piloted simulations. The genetic algorithm is used to choose a neural network architecture to give best results, avoiding over-and under-fitting of the test data.
Aerodynamic Study on Supersonic Flows in High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hiroshi KATANODA; Takeshi MATSUOKA; Seiji KURODA; Jin KAWAKITA; Hirotaka FUKANUMA; Kazuyasu MATSUO
2005-01-01
@@ To clarify the characteristics of gas flow in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun, aerodynamic research is performed using a special gun. The gun has rectangular cross-sectional area and sidewalls of optical glass to visualize the internal flow. The gun consists of a supersonic nozzle with the design Mach number of 2.0 followed by a straight passage called barrel. Compressed dry air up to 0.78 MPa is used as a process gas instead of combustion gas which is used in a commercial HVOF gun. The high-speed gas flows with shock waves in the gun and jets are visualized by schlieren technique. Complicated internal and external flow-fields containing various types of shock wave as well as expansion wave are visualized.
Comparative Analysis of Uninhibited and Constrained Avian Wing Aerodynamics
Cox, Jordan A.
The flight of birds has intrigued and motivated man for many years. Bird flight served as the primary inspiration of flying machines developed by Leonardo Da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal, and even the Wright brothers. Avian flight has once again drawn the attention of the scientific community as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are not only becoming more popular, but smaller. Birds are once again influencing the designs of aircraft. Small UAVs operating within flight conditions and low Reynolds numbers common to birds are not yet capable of the high levels of control and agility that birds display with ease. Many researchers believe the potential to improve small UAV performance can be obtained by applying features common to birds such as feathers and flapping flight to small UAVs. Although the effects of feathers on a wing have received some attention, the effects of localized transient feather motion and surface geometry on the flight performance of a wing have been largely overlooked. In this research, the effects of freely moving feathers on a preserved red tailed hawk wing were studied. A series of experiments were conducted to measure the aerodynamic forces on a hawk wing with varying levels of feather movement permitted. Angle of attack and air speed were varied within the natural flight envelope of the hawk. Subsequent identical tests were performed with the feather motion constrained through the use of externally-applied surface treatments. Additional tests involved the study of an absolutely fixed geometry mold-and-cast wing model of the original bird wing. Final tests were also performed after applying surface coatings to the cast wing. High speed videos taken during tests revealed the extent of the feather movement between wing models. Images of the microscopic surface structure of each wing model were analyzed to establish variations in surface geometry between models. Recorded aerodynamic forces were then compared to the known feather motion and surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Shantha Kumar
1999-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation related to the estimation of lateral-directional aerodynamic derivatives of highly augmented and advanced fighter aircraft from the flight like response data. Different types of pilot inputs are used to generate aircraft response data in the engineer-in-loop flight simulator to determine which input excitation flight provide the most accurate estimates of aircraft stability and control derivatives. Also, MATILABI SIMULINK-based simulation platform is used to generate aircraft response with single-surface excitation to evaluate the usefulness of the method for stability and control derivatives estimation. The maximum likelihood estimation, based on output error utilisation technique is used to estimate the derivatives from the aircraft simulation response data. The results indicate that accuracy of the estimated derivatives improve with persistence excitation and single-surface excitation.
Integration effects of pylon geometry on a high-wing transport airplane
Carlson, John R.; Lamb, Milton
1989-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the installation effects of a series of pylons that had differing cross-sectional shapes on the pressure distributions and aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/24-scale high wing transport. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers at 0.70 and 0.80 at angles of attack from -3 degrees to 4 degrees with the pylons tested at various toe angles between 5 degrees inboard and 5 degrees outboard. Results of this study indicate that the installed drag was lowest for the pylons with a compression pylon type design which kept the flow under the wing in the pylon/wing junction comparable to the clean wing velocities.
Ferreira, C.; Gonzalez, A.; Baldacchino, D.; Aparicio, M.; Gómez, S.; Munduate, X.; Garcia, N. R.; Sørensen, J. N.; Jost, E.; Knecht, S.; Lutz, T.; Chassapogiannis, P.; Diakakis, K.; Papadakis, G.; Voutsinas, S.; Prospathopoulos, J.; Gillebaart, T.; van Zuijlen, A.
2016-09-01
The FP7 AdVanced Aerodynamic Tools for lArge Rotors - Avatar project aims to develop and validate advanced aerodynamic models, to be used in integral design codes for the next generation of large scale wind turbines (10-20MW). One of the approaches towards reaching rotors for 10-20MW size is the application of flow control devices, such as flaps. In Task 3.2: Development of aerodynamic codes for modelling of flow devices on aerofoils and, rotors of the Avatar project, aerodynamic codes are benchmarked and validated against the experimental data of a DU95W180 airfoil in steady and unsteady flow, for different angle of attack and flap settings, including unsteady oscillatory trailing-edge-flap motion, carried out within the framework of WP3: Models for Flow Devices and Flow Control, Task 3.1: CFD and Experimental Database. The aerodynamics codes are: AdaptFoil2D, Foil2W, FLOWer, MaPFlow, OpenFOAM, Q3UIC, ATEFlap. The codes include unsteady Eulerian CFD simulations with grid deformation, panel models and indicial engineering models. The validation cases correspond to 18 steady flow cases, and 42 unsteady flow cases, for varying angle of attack, flap deflection and reduced frequency, with free and forced transition. The validation of the models show varying degrees of agreement, varying between models and flow cases.
Aerodynamic roughness of glacial ice surfaces derived from high-resolution topographic data
Smith, Mark W.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Dixon, Timothy; Bingham, Robert G.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Rippin, David M.
2016-04-01
This paper presents new methods of estimating the aerodynamic roughness (z0) of glacier ice directly from three-dimensional point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs), examines temporal variability of z0, and presents the first fully distributed map of z0 estimates across the ablation zone of an Arctic glacier. The aerodynamic roughness of glacier ice surfaces is an important component of energy balance models and meltwater runoff estimates through its influence on turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat. In a warming climate these fluxes are predicted to become more significant in contributing to overall melt volumes. Ice z0 is commonly estimated from measurements of ice surface microtopography, typically from topographic profiles taken perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Recent advances in surveying permit rapid acquisition of high-resolution topographic data allowing revision of assumptions underlying conventional z0 measurement. Using Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry with Multi-View Stereo (MVS) to survey ice surfaces with millimeter-scale accuracy, z0 variation over 3 orders of magnitude was observed. Different surface types demonstrated different temporal trajectories in z0 through 3 days of intense melt. A glacier-scale 2 m resolution DEM was obtained through terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and subgrid roughness was significantly related to plot-scale z0. Thus, we show for the first time that glacier-scale TLS or SfM-MVS surveys can characterize z0 variability over a glacier surface potentially leading to distributed representations of z0 in surface energy balance models.
Yang, Lei; Ye, Zheng-Yin; Wu, Jie
2016-11-01
The separation between the carrier and store is one of the most important and difficult phases in Air-launch-to-orbit technology. Based on the previous researches, the interference aerodynamic forces of the store caused by the carrier are obvious in the earlier time during the separation. And the interference aerodynamics will be more complex when considering the elastic deformation of the carrier. Focusing on the conditions that in the earlier time during the separation, the steady and unsteady interference aerodynamic forces of the store are calculated at different angle of attacks and relative distances between the carrier and store. During the calculation, the elastic vibrations of the carrier are considered. According to the cause of formations of the interference aerodynamics, the interference aerodynamic forces of the store are divided into several components. The relative magnitude, change rule, sphere of influence and mechanism of interference aerodynamic forces components of the store are analyzed quantitatively. When the relative distance between the carrier and store is small, the interference aerodynamic forces caused by the elastic vibration of the carrier is about half of the total aerodynamic forces of the store. And as the relative distance increases, the value of interference aerodynamic forces decrease. When the relative distance is larger than twice the mean aerodynamic chord of the carrier, the values of interference aerodynamic forces of the store can be ignored. Besides, under the influence of the steady interference aerodynamic forces, the lift characteristics of the store are worse and the static stability margin is poorer.
Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.
1951-01-01
An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat hull of a length-beam ratio of 15 in the presence of a wing. The investigation was an extension of previous tests made on hulls of length-beam ratios of 6, 9, and 12; these hulls were designed to have approximately the same hydrodynamic performance with respect to spray and resistance characteristics. Comparison with the previous investigation at lower length-beam ratios indicated a reduction in minimum drag coefficients of 0.0006 (10 peroent)with fixed transition when the length-beam ratio was extended from 12 to 15. As with the hulls of lower length-beam ratio, the drag reduction with a length-beam ratio of 15 occurred throughout the range of angle of attack tested and the angle of attack for minimum drag was in the range from 2deg to 3deg. Increasing the length-beam ratio from 12 to 15 reduced the hull longitudinal instability by an mount corresponding to an aerodynamic-center shift of about 1/2 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord of the hypothetical flying boat. At an angle of attack of 2deg, the value of the variation of yawing-moment coefficient with angle of yaw for a length-beam ratio of 15 was 0.00144, which was 0.00007 larger than the value for a length-beam ratio of 12.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weipeng Yue
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Damp air with high humidity combined with foggy, rainy weather, and icing in winter weather often is found to cause turbine performance degradation, and it is more concerned with offshore wind farm development. To address and understand the high humidity effects on wind turbine performance, our study has been conducted with spread sheet analysis on damp air properties investigation for air density and viscosity; then CFD modeling study using Fluent was carried out on airfoil and blade aerodynamic performance effects due to water vapor partial pressure of mixing flow and water condensation around leading edge and trailing edge of airfoil. It is found that the high humidity effects with water vapor mixing flow and water condensation thin film around airfoil may have insignificant effect directly on airfoil/blade performance; however, the indirect effects such as blade contamination and icing due to the water condensation may have significant effects on turbine performance degradation. Also it is that found the foggy weather with microwater droplet (including rainy weather may cause higher drag that lead to turbine performance degradation. It is found that, at high temperature, the high humidity effect on air density cannot be ignored for annual energy production calculation. The blade contamination and icing phenomenon need to be further investigated in the next study.
McGowan, Gregory Z.
Current interests in Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) technologies call for the development of aerodynamic-design tools that will aid in the design of more efficient platforms that will also have adequate stability and control for flight in gusty environments. Influenced largely by nature MAVs tend to be very small, have low flight speeds, and utilize flapping motions for propulsion. For these reasons the focus is, specifically, on high-frequency motions at low Reynolds numbers. Toward the goal of developing design tools, it is of interest to explore the use of elementary flow solutions for simple motions such as pitch and plunge oscillations to predict aerodynamic performance for more complex motions. In the early part of this research, a validation effort was undertaken. Computations from the current effort were compared with experiments conducted in a parallel, collaborative effort at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). A set of pure-pitch and pure-plunge sinusoidal oscillations of the SD7003 airfoil were examined. Phase-averaged measurements using particle image velocimetry in a water tunnel were compared with computations using two flow solvers: (i) an incompressible Navier-Stokes Immersed Boundary Method and (ii) an unsteady compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The motions were at a reduced frequency of k = 3.93, and pitch-angle amplitudes were chosen such that a kinematic equivalence in amplitudes of effective angle of attack (from plunge) was obtained. Plunge cases showed good qualitative agreement between computation and experiment, but in the pitch cases, the wake vorticity in the experiment was substantially different from that predicted by both computations. Further, equivalence between the pure-pitch and pure-plunge motions was not attained through matching effective angle of attack. With the failure of pitch/plunge equivalence using equivalent amplitudes of effective angle of attack, the effort shifted to include pitch-rate and
Mechanism of unconventional aerodynamic characteristics of an elliptic airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sun Wei
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of elliptic airfoil are quite different from the case of conventional airfoil for Reynolds number varying from about 104 to 106. In order to reveal the fundamental mechanism, the unsteady flow around a stationary two-dimensional elliptic airfoil with 16% relative thickness has been simulated using unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations and the γ-Reθt‾ transition turbulence model at different angles of attack for flow Reynolds number of 5 × 105. The aerodynamic coefficients and the pressure distribution obtained by computation are in good agreement with experimental data, which indicates that the numerical method works well. Through this study, the mechanism of the unconventional aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil is analyzed and discussed based on the computational predictions coupled with the wind tunnel results. It is considered that the boundary layer transition at the leading edge and the unsteady flow separation vortices at the trailing edge are the causes of the case. Furthermore, a valuable insight into the physics of how the flow behavior affects the elliptic airfoil’s aerodynamics is provided.
Passive flow control by membrane wings for aerodynamic benefit
Timpe, Amory; Zhang, Zheng; Hubner, James; Ukeiley, Lawrence
2013-03-01
The coupling of passive structural response of flexible membranes with the flow over them can significantly alter the aerodynamic characteristic of simple flat-plate wings. The use of flexible wings is common throughout biological flying systems inspiring many engineers to incorporate them into small engineering flying systems. In many of these systems, the motion of the membrane serves to passively alter the flow over the wing potentially resulting in an aerodynamic benefit. In this study, the aerodynamic loads and the flow field for a rigid flat-plate wing are compared to free trailing-edge membrane wings with two different pre-tensions at a chord-based Reynolds number of approximately 50,000. The membrane was silicon rubber with a scalloped free trailing edge. The analysis presented includes load measurements from a sting balance along with velocity fields and membrane deflections from synchronized, time-resolved particle image velocimetry and digital image correlation. The load measurements demonstrate increased aerodynamic efficiency and lift, while the synchronized flow and membrane measurements show how the membrane motion serves to force the flow. This passive flow control introduced by the membranes motion alters the flows development over the wing and into the wake region demonstrating how, at least for lower angles of attack, the membranes motion drives the flow as opposed to the flow driving the membrane motion.
Subsonic Aerodynamics of Spinning and Non-Spinning Type 200 Lightcraft: Progress Report
Kenoyer, David A.; Myrabo, Leik N.
2010-05-01
A combined experimental and numerical investigation of subsonic aerodynamics for Type 200 laser lightcraft is underway for both spinning and non-spinning cases. A 12.2 cm diameter aluminum model with a "closed" annular airbreathing inlet was fitted to a sting balance in RPI's 61 cm by 61 cm subsonic wind tunnel. Aerodynamic forces and moments were measured first for the non-spinning case vs. angle of attack, at several freestream flow velocities (e.g., 30, 45, and 60 m/s) to assess Reynolds number effects. The CFD analysis was performed for 0-180° angles of attack for a fixed coordinate system (i.e., non-spinning Type 200 model), and predictions compared favorably with the experimental data. In the near future, for the spinning case, a brushless electric motor has been installed to rotate the wind tunnel model at 3000 to 13,000 RPM; Magnus force effects upon the coefficients (Cd, Cl, and Cm) are expected to reveal interesting departures from the non-spinning database in forthcoming experiments.
Evaluation of Aerodynamic Drag and Torque for External Tanks in Low Earth Orbit.
Stone, William C; Witzgall, Christoph
2006-01-01
A numerical procedure is described in which the aerodynamic drag and torque in low Earth orbit are calculated for a prototype Space Shuttle external tank and its components, the "LO2" and "LH2" tanks, carrying liquid oxygen and hydrogen, respectively, for any given angle of attack. Calculations assume the hypersonic limit of free molecular flow theory. Each shell of revolution is assumed to be described by a series of parametric equations for their respective contours. It is discretized into circular cross sections perpendicular to the axis of revolution, which yield a series of ellipses when projected according to the given angle of attack. The drag profile, that is, the projection of the entire shell is approximated by the convex envelope of those ellipses. The area of the drag profile, that is, the drag area, and its center of area moment, that is, the drag center, are then calculated and permit determination of the drag vector and the eccentricity vector from the center of gravity of the shell to the drag center. The aerodynamic torque is obtained as the cross product of those vectors. The tanks are assumed to be either evacuated or pressurized with a uniform internal gas distribution: dynamic shifting of the tank center of mass due to residual propellant sloshing is not considered.
Aerodynamic study on wing and tail small UAV without runways
Soetanto, Maria F.; R., Randy; Alfan M., R.; Dzaldi
2016-06-01
This paper consists of the design and analysis of the aerodynamics of the profiles of wing and tail of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). UAV is a remote-controlled aircraft that can carry cameras, sensors and even weapons on an area that needed aerial photography or aerial video [1]. The aim of this small UAV is for used in situations where manned flight is considered too risky or difficult, such as fire fighting or surveillance, while the term 'small means the design of this UAV has to be relatively small and portable so that peoples are able to carry it during their operations [CASR Part 101.240: it is a UAV which is has a launch mass greater than 100 grams but less than 100 kilograms] [2]. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) method was used to analyze the fluid flow characteristics around the aerofoil's profiles, such as the lift generation for each angle of attack and longitudinal stability caused by vortex generation on trailing edge. Based on the analysis and calculation process, Clark-Y MOD with aspect ratio, AR = 4.28 and taper ratio, λ = 0.65 was chosen as the wing aerofoil and SD 8020 with AR = 4.8 and λ = 0.5 was chosen as the horizontal tail, while SD 8020 with AR = 1.58 and λ = 0.5 was chosen as the vertical tail. The lift and drag forces generated for wing and tail surfaces can be determined from the Fluent 6.3 simulation. Results showed that until angle of attack of 6 degrees, the formation of flow separation is still going on behind the trailing edge, and the stall condition occurs at 14 degrees angle of attack which is characterized by the occurrence of flow separation at leading edge, with a maximum lift coefficient (Cl) obtained = 1.56. The results of flight tests show that this small UAV has successfully maneuvered to fly, such as take off, some acrobatics when cruising and landing smoothly, which means that the calculation and analysis of aerodynamic aerofoil's profile used on the wing and tail of the Small UAV were able to be validated.
Aerodynamics in arbitrarily accelerating frames: application to high-g turns
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Gledhill, Irvy MA
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Fifth-generation missilies accelerate up to 100 g in turns, and higher accelerations are expected as agility increases. The authors have developed the theory of aerodynamics for arbitrary accelerations, and have validated modelling in a...
Aerodynamics in arbitrarily accelerating frames: application to high-g turns
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Gledhill, Irvy MA
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Fifth-generation missiles accelerate up to 100 g in turns, and higher accelerations are expected as agility increases. The auhtors have developed the theory of aerodynamics for arbitrary accelerations, and have validated modelling in a Computational...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邱亚松; 白俊强; 李亚林; 周涛
2012-01-01
By numerical simulation, the influence of the main-wing root geometry details, wing-mounted engine nacelle, slat tracks and flap track fairings on the aerodynamic performance of a high-lift system is investigated. The results show that a separated low-power vortex is generated by the wing-root fairing which is left at the main-wing root when the slat is cut, and the aerodynamic performance of the lift system is damaged seriously by this vortex. Cutting most of the wing-root fairing as part of the slat can eliminate the condition needed to generate the separated low-power vortex. Remarkable decrease of the stall angle and maxim lift coefficient is caused by a large size wing-mounted engine nacelle. This is mainly because of the flow mechanism that a large space filled with low-speed fluid above the upper surface of the main wing is generated by the separated fluid which comes from the nacelle upper surface, pylon and the gaps between the pylon and slat. Strong vortices generated by the nacelle strake with proper shape and setting at proper positions can eliminate most of the low-speed fluid and recover part of the aerodynamic performance loss. Low-momentum wake flow generated by the slat tracks mixed with the boundary layer of the main wing causes the loss of the lift. Large fluid separation may be caused by the slat track at high angles of attack, which will result in a remarkable loss of the aerodynamic performance. The flap slot section area may be diminished as a result of the blockage effect of the large size geometry the of flap track fairings, which may cause the high speed flow of the flap slot to move faster, thus blowing away the separation flow on the flap surface.%采用数值模拟的方法研究了主翼翼根几何形状、翼吊发动机短舱、缝翼滑轨及襟翼滑轨舱等几何细节对增升装置气动性能的影响.研究结果表明:切割前缘缝翼时,将大部分翼根整流包留在主翼上会在大迎角下产生低能量的分离
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
耿建中; 姚海林; 段卓毅
2013-01-01
由于螺旋桨滑流的影响,某运输机起飞构型在小迎角时纵向稳定性裕度不足,甚至不稳定,给飞机带来安全隐患.分析了某运输机起飞构型纵向力矩特性,讨论了螺旋桨滑流对纵向静稳定性的影响、影响飞机起飞时的安全因素和进入小迎角飞行的条件,建立了飞机起飞的数学仿真模型,通过大量的仿真计算,研究了突风和驾驶员误操纵对飞机起飞安全性的影响,给出了起飞时飞机所能抗御的最大突风速度.研究结果表明,某运输机小迎角稳定裕度不足,不稳定对飞机安全起飞的影响可以不予考虑.%The propeller slipstream result in longitudinal stability margin insufficient,even static instability at low angles of attack of an aircraft,which may cause potential problem. In order to study the effect of the static instability on take-off safety,the effect of propeller slipstream on longitudinal static stability was discussed. The pitching moment characteristic,the factor which has effect on safe take-off,and the con-ditons which may cause an aircraft flying at low angles attack were analyzed. Building dynamic model,the influence of gust and the pilot misoperation on the take-off safety were studied through computation and simulation. The maximum velocity of gust that an aircraft can resist was given. The result indicates the effect of the static instability on the take-off safety can be neglected.
Bacon, Barton J.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Davidson, John B.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Messina, Michael D.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Yeager, Jessie C.;
1996-01-01
Specifications for a flight control law are delineated in sufficient detail to support coding the control law in flight software. This control law was designed for implementation and flight test on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which is an F/A-18 aircraft modified to include an experimental multi-axis thrust-vectoring system and actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). The control law, known as the HARV ANSER Control Law, was designed to utilize a blend of conventional aerodynamic control effectors, thrust vectoring, and actuated nose strakes to provide increased agility and good handling qualities throughout the HARV flight envelope, including angles of attack up to 70 degrees.
Redesigned rotor for a highly loaded, 1800 ft/sec tip speed compressor fan stage 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design
Halle, J. E.; Ruschak, J. T.
1975-01-01
A highly loaded, high tip-speed fan rotor was designed with multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections as a replacement for a marginally successful rotor which had precompression airfoil sections. The substitution of airfoil sections was the only aerodynamic change. Structural design of the redesigned rotor blade was guided by successful experience with the original blade. Calculated stress levels and stability parameters for the redesigned rotor are within limits demonstrated in tests of the original rotor.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Abdallah; en Mosbah; Ruxandra Mihaela; otez; Thien My; ao
2016-01-01
A new approach for the prediction of lift, drag, and moment coefficients is presented. This approach is based on the support vector machines (SVMs) methodology and an optimization meta-heuristic algorithm called extended great deluge (EGD). The novelty of this approach is the hybridization between the SVM and the EGD algorithm. The EGD is used to optimize the SVM parameters. The training and validation of this new identification approach is realized using the aerodynamic coefficients of an ATR-42 wing model. The aerodynamic coefficients data are obtained with the XFoil software and experimental tests using the Price–Paıdoussis wind tunnel. The predicted results with our approach are compared with those from the XFoil software and experimental results for different flight cases of angles of attack and Mach numbers. The main pur-pose of this methodology is to rapidly predict aircraft aerodynamic coefficients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdallah Ben Mosbah
2016-02-01
Full Text Available A new approach for the prediction of lift, drag, and moment coefficients is presented. This approach is based on the support vector machines (SVMs methodology and an optimization meta-heuristic algorithm called extended great deluge (EGD. The novelty of this approach is the hybridization between the SVM and the EGD algorithm. The EGD is used to optimize the SVM parameters. The training and validation of this new identification approach is realized using the aerodynamic coefficients of an ATR-42 wing model. The aerodynamic coefficients data are obtained with the XFoil software and experimental tests using the Price–Païdoussis wind tunnel. The predicted results with our approach are compared with those from the XFoil software and experimental results for different flight cases of angles of attack and Mach numbers. The main purpose of this methodology is to rapidly predict aircraft aerodynamic coefficients.
Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Symmetric NACA Section with Simulated Ice Shapes
Tabatabaei, N.; Cervantes, M. J.; Trivedi, C.; Aidanpää, Jan-Olof
2016-09-01
To develop a numerical model of icing on wind turbine blades, a CFD simulation was conducted to investigate the effect of critical ice accretions on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.610 m chord NACA 0011 airfoil section. Aerodynamic performance coefficients and pressure profile were calculated and compared with the available measurements for a chord Reynolds number of 1.83x106. Ice shapes were simulated with flat plates (spoiler-ice) extending along the span of the wing. Lift, drag, and pressure coefficients were calculated in zero angle of attack through the steady state and transient simulations. Different approaches of numerical studies have been applied to investigate the icing conditions on the blades. The simulated separated flow over the sharp spoilers is challenging and can be seen as a worst test case for validation. It allows determining a reliable strategy to simulate real ice shapes [1] for which the detailed validation cannot easily be provided.
Xu, Gang; Liang, Xifeng; Yao, Shuanbao; Chen, Dawei; Li, Zhiwei
2017-01-01
Minimizing the aerodynamic drag and the lift of the train coach remains a key issue for high-speed trains. With the development of computing technology and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the engineering field, CFD has been successfully applied to the design process of high-speed trains. However, developing a new streamlined shape for high-speed trains with excellent aerodynamic performance requires huge computational costs. Furthermore, relationships between multiple design variables and the aerodynamic loads are seldom obtained. In the present study, the Kriging surrogate model is used to perform a multi-objective optimization of the streamlined shape of high-speed trains, where the drag and the lift of the train coach are the optimization objectives. To improve the prediction accuracy of the Kriging model, the cross-validation method is used to construct the optimal Kriging model. The optimization results show that the two objectives are efficiently optimized, indicating that the optimization strategy used in the present study can greatly improve the optimization efficiency and meet the engineering requirements.
The influence of aerodynamic coefficients on the elements of classic projectile paths
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damir D. Jerković
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the results of the research on the influence of aerodynamic coefficient values on the trajectory elements and the stability parameters of classic axisymmetric projectiles. It presents the characteristic functions of aerodynamic coefficients with regard to aerodynamic parameters and the projectile body shape. The trajectory elements of the model of classic axisymmetric projectiles and the analyses of their changes were presented with respect to the aerodynamic coefficient values. Introduction Classic axisymmetric projectiles fly through atmosphere using muzzle velocity as initial energy resource, so the aerodynamic force and moment have the most significant influence on the motion of projectiles. The aerodynamic force and moment components represented as aerodynamic coefficients depend on motion velocity i. e. flow velocity, the flow features produced by projectile shape and position in the flow, and angular velocity (rate of the body. The functional dependence of aerodynamic coefficients on certain influential parameters, such as angle of attack and angular velocity components is expressed by the derivative of aerodynamic coefficients. The determination of aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives enables complete definition of the aerodynamic force and moment acting on the classic projectile. The projectile motion problem is considered in relation to defining the projectile stability parameters and the conditions under which the stability occurs. The comparative analyses of aerodynamic coefficient values obtained by numerical methods, semi empirical calculations and experimental research give preliminary evaluation of the quality of the determined values. The flight simulation of the motion of a classic axisymetric projectile, which has the shape defined by the aerodynamic coefficient values, enables the comparative analyses of the trajectory elements and stability characteristics. The model of the classic projectile
Numerical study on the aerodynamic performance and safe running of high-speed trains in sandstorms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hong-bing XIONG; Wen-guang YU; Da-wei CHEN; Xue-ming SHAO
2011-01-01
The influence of sandstorms on train aerodynamic performance and safe running was studied in response to the frequent occurrence of sandstorm weather in north China.An Eulerian two-phase model in the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software FLUENT,validated with published data,was used to solve the gas-solid multiphase flow of a sandstorm around a train.The train aerodynamic performance under different sandstorm levels and no sand conditions was then simulated.Results showed that in sandstorm weather,the drag,lift,side forces and overturning moment increase by variable degrees.Based on a numerical analysis of aerodynamic characteristics,an equation of train stability was also derived using the theory of moment balance from the view of dynamics.A recommended speed limit of a train under different sandstorm levels was calculated based on the stability analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kosyna, G.; Krasmann, H. (Technische Univ. Braunschweig, Pfleiderer-Inst. fuer Stroemungsmaschinen (Germany))
1992-08-01
When installing blowers, it is not always possible to ensure an optimum fluidic afflux, which can thus produce a change in the operating behaviour compared with the design. Using as an example an axial blower blade with small hub ratio and high aerodynamic blade load, under simulated non-rotation symmetrical allflux conditions, it was possible to show that with the examined distrubance configuration no extreme worsening was produced with regard to the achievable pressure increases and efficiencies of the blower stage. (orig.).
Allen, H Julian; Eggers, A J , Jr
1958-01-01
A simplified analysis of the velocity and deceleration history of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds is presented. The results of this motion analysis are employed to indicate means available to the designer for minimizing aerodynamic heating. The heating problem considered involves not only the total heat transferred to a missile by convection, but also the maximum average and local time rates of convective heat transfer.
Convective heat transfer and experimental icing aerodynamics of wind turbine blades
Wang, Xin
The total worldwide base of installed wind energy peak capacity reached 94 GW by the end of 2007, including 1846 MW in Canada. Wind turbine systems are being installed throughout Canada and often in mountains and cold weather regions, due to their high wind energy potential. Harsh cold weather climates, involving turbulence, gusts, icing and lightning strikes in these regions, affect wind turbine performance. Ice accretion and irregular shedding during turbine operation lead to load imbalances, often causing the turbine to shut off. They create excessive turbine vibration and may change the natural frequency of blades as well as promote higher fatigue loads and increase the bending moment of blades. Icing also affects the tower structure by increasing stresses, due to increased loads from ice accretion. This can lead to structural failures, especially when coupled to strong wind loads. Icing also affects the reliability of anemometers, thereby leading to inaccurate wind speed measurements and resulting in resource estimation errors. Icing issues can directly impact personnel safety, due to falling and projected ice. It is therefore important to expand research on wind turbines operating in cold climate areas. This study presents an experimental investigation including three important fundamental aspects: (1) heat transfer characteristics of the airfoil with and without liquid water content (LWC) at varying angles of attack; (2) energy losses of wind energy while a wind turbine is operating under icing conditions; and (3) aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil during a simulated icing event. A turbine scale model with curved 3-D blades and a DC generator is tested in a large refrigerated wind tunnel, where ice formation is simulated by spraying water droplets. A NACA 63421 airfoil is used to study the characteristics of aerodynamics and convective heat transfer. The current, voltage, rotation of the DC generator and temperature distribution along the airfoil
Horstman, Raymond H.
1992-01-01
Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xue-ming SHAO; Jun WAN; Da-wei CHEN; Hong-bing XIONG
2011-01-01
With the development of high-speed train,it is considerably concerned about the aerodynamic characteristics and operation safety issues of the high-speed train under extreme weather conditions.The aerodynamic performance of a high-speed train under heavy rain and strong crosswind conditions are modeled using the Eulerian two-phase model in this paper.The impact of heavy rainfall on train aerodynamics is investigated,coupling heavy rain and a strong crosswind.Results show that the lift force,side force,and rolling moment of the train increase significantly with wind speed up to 40 m/s under a rainfall rate of 60 mm/h.when considering the rain and wind conditions.The increases of the lift force,side force,and rolling moment may deteriorate the train operating safety and cause the train to overturn.A quasi-static stability analysis based on the moment balance is used to determine the limit safety speed of a train under different rain and wind levels.The results can provide a frame of reference for the train safe operation under strong rain and crosswind conditions.
Design Of An Aerodynamic Measurement System For Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Airfoils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Velázquez-Araque
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design and validation of a measurement system for aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles. An aerodynamic balance was designed in order to measure the lift, drag forces and pitching moment for different airfoils. During the design process, several aspects were analyzed in order to produce an efficient design, for instance the range of changes of the angle of attack with and a small increment and the versatility of being adapted to different type of airfoils, since it is a wire balance it was aligned and calibrated as well. Wind tunnel tests of a two dimensional NACA four digits family airfoil and four different modifications of this airfoil were performed to validate the aerodynamic measurement system. The modification of this airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface. Therefore, four different locations along the cord line for this blowing outlet were analyzed. This analysis involved the aerodynamic performance which meant obtaining lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients curves as a function of the angle of attack experimentally for the situation where the engine of the aerial vehicle is turned off, called the no blowing condition, by means of wind tunnel tests. The experiments were performed in a closed circuit wind tunnel with an open test section. Finally, results of the wind tunnel tests were compared with numerical results obtained by means of computational fluid dynamics as well as with other experimental references and found to be in good agreement.
Effects of Nose Radius and Aerodynamic Loading on Leading Edge Receptivity
Hammerton, P. W.; Kerschen, E. J.
1998-01-01
An analysis is presented of the effects of airfoil thickness and mean aerodynamic loading on boundary-layer receptivity in the leading-edge region. The case of acoustic free-stream disturbances, incident on a thin cambered airfoil with a parabolic leading edge in a low Mach number flow, is considered. An asymptotic analysis based on large Reynolds number is developed, supplemented by numerical results. The airfoil thickness distribution enters the theory through a Strouhal number based on the nose radius of the airfoil, S = (omega)tau(sub n)/U, where omega is the frequency of the acoustic wave and U is the mean flow speed. The influence of mean aerodynamic loading enters through an effective angle-of-attack parameter ti, related to flow around the leading edge from the lower surface to the upper. The variation of the receptivity level is analyzed as a function of S, mu, and characteristics of the free-stream acoustic wave. For an unloaded leading edge, a finite nose radius dramatically reduces the receptivity level compared to that for a flat plate, the amplitude of the instability waves in the boundary layer being decreased by an order of magnitude when S = 0.3. Modest levels of aerodynamic loading are found to further decrease the receptivity level for the upper surface of the airfoil, while an increase in receptivity level occurs for the lower surface. For larger angles of attack close to the critical angle for boundary layer separation, a local rise in the receptivity level occurs for the upper surface, while for the lower surface the receptivity decreases. The effects of aerodynamic loading are more pronounced at larger values of S. Oblique acoustic waves produce much higher receptivity levels than acoustic waves propagating downstream parallel to the airfoil chord.
Bayesian inference of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics from aeroelastic limit cycle oscillations
Sandhu, Rimple; Poirel, Dominique; Pettit, Chris; Khalil, Mohammad; Sarkar, Abhijit
2016-07-01
A Bayesian model selection and parameter estimation algorithm is applied to investigate the influence of nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic loads on the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) of a pitching airfoil in the transitional Reynolds number regime. At small angles of attack, laminar boundary layer trailing edge separation causes negative aerodynamic damping leading to the LCO. The fluid-structure interaction of the rigid, but elastically mounted, airfoil and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics is represented by two coupled nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equations containing uncertain parameters and model approximation errors. Several plausible aerodynamic models with increasing complexity are proposed to describe the aeroelastic system leading to LCO. The likelihood in the posterior parameter probability density function (pdf) is available semi-analytically using the extended Kalman filter for the state estimation of the coupled nonlinear structural and unsteady aerodynamic model. The posterior parameter pdf is sampled using a parallel and adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The posterior probability of each model is estimated using the Chib-Jeliazkov method that directly uses the posterior MCMC samples for evidence (marginal likelihood) computation. The Bayesian algorithm is validated through a numerical study and then applied to model the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads using wind-tunnel test data at various Reynolds numbers.
Bayesian inference of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics from aeroelastic limit cycle oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sandhu, Rimple [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Poirel, Dominique [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Pettit, Chris [Department of Aerospace Engineering, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Khalil, Mohammad [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Sarkar, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit.sarkar@carleton.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)
2016-07-01
A Bayesian model selection and parameter estimation algorithm is applied to investigate the influence of nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic loads on the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) of a pitching airfoil in the transitional Reynolds number regime. At small angles of attack, laminar boundary layer trailing edge separation causes negative aerodynamic damping leading to the LCO. The fluid–structure interaction of the rigid, but elastically mounted, airfoil and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics is represented by two coupled nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equations containing uncertain parameters and model approximation errors. Several plausible aerodynamic models with increasing complexity are proposed to describe the aeroelastic system leading to LCO. The likelihood in the posterior parameter probability density function (pdf) is available semi-analytically using the extended Kalman filter for the state estimation of the coupled nonlinear structural and unsteady aerodynamic model. The posterior parameter pdf is sampled using a parallel and adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The posterior probability of each model is estimated using the Chib–Jeliazkov method that directly uses the posterior MCMC samples for evidence (marginal likelihood) computation. The Bayesian algorithm is validated through a numerical study and then applied to model the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads using wind-tunnel test data at various Reynolds numbers.
Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Welch, Gerard E.; Skoch, Gary J.; Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.
2015-01-01
The measured aerodynamic performance of a compact, high work-factor, single-stage centrifugal compressor, comprising an impeller, diffuser, 90deg-bend, and exit guide vane is reported. Performance levels are based on steady-state total-pressure and total-temperature rake and angularity-probe data acquired at key machine rating planes during recent testing at NASA Glenn Research Center. Aerodynamic performance at the stage level is reported for operation between 70 to 105 percent of design corrected speed, with subcomponent (impeller, diffuser, and exit-guide-vane) flow field measurements presented and discussed at the 100 percent design-speed condition. Individual component losses from measurements are compared with pre-test CFD predictions on a limited basis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. T. Schobeiri
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This article deals with the aerodynamic and performance behavior of a three-stage high pressure research turbine with 3-D curved blades at its design and off-design operating points. The research turbine configuration incorporates six rows beginning with a stator row. Interstage aerodynamic measurements were performed at three stations, namely downstream of the first rotor row, the second stator row, and the second rotor row. Interstage radial and circumferential traversing presented a detailed flow picture of the middle stage. Performance measurements were carried out within a rotational speed range of 75% to 116% of the design speed. The experimental investigations have been carried out on the recently established multi-stage turbine research facility at the Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory, TPFL, of Texas A&M University.
Experimental Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Oblique Wing for the F-8 OWRA
Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Carmichael, Ralph L.; Smith, Stephen C.; Strong, James M.; Kroo, Ilan M.
1999-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted during June-July 1987 in the NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel to study the aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics of a 0.087-scale model of an F-8 airplane fitted with an oblique wing. This effort was part of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA) program performed in conjunction with Rockwell International. The Ames-designed, aspect ratio 10.47, tapered wing used specially designed supercritical airfoils with 0.14 thickness/chord ratio at the root and 0.12 at the 85% span location. The wing was tested at two different mounting heights above the fuselage. Performance and longitudinal stability data were obtained at sweep angles of 0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg, and 65deg at Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 1.40. Reynolds number varied from 3.1 x 10(exp 6)to 5.2 x 10(exp 6), based on the reference chord length. Angle of attack was varied from -5deg to 18deg. The performance of this wing is compared with that of another oblique wing, designed by Rockwell International, which was tested as part of the same development program. Lateral-directional stability data were obtained for a limited combination of sweep angles and Mach numbers. Sideslip angle was varied from -5deg to +5deg. Landing flap performance was studied, as were the effects of cruise flap deflections to achieve roll trim and tailor wing camber for various flight conditions. Roll-control authority of the flaps and ailerons was measured. A novel, deflected wing tip was evaluated for roll-control authority at high sweep angles.
Bryson, Christopher; Hussain, Fazle; Barhorst, Alan
2015-11-01
Optimization of wind turbine torque as a function of angle of attack - over the entire speed range from start-up to cut-off - is studied by considering the full trigonometric relations projecting lift and drag to thrust and torque. Since driving force and thrust are geometrically constrained, one cannot be changed without affecting the other. Increasing lift to enhance torque simultaneously increases thrust, which subsequently reduces the inflow angle with respect to the rotor plane via an increased reduction in inflow velocity. Reducing the inflow angle redirects the lift force away from the driving force generating the torque, which may reduce overall torque. Similarly, changes in the tip-speed ratio (TSR) affect the inflow angle and thus the optimal torque. Using the airfoil data from the NREL 5 MW reference turbine, the optimal angle of attack over the operational TSR range (4 to 15) was computed using a BEM model to incorporate the dynamic coupling, namely the interdependency of blade loading and inflow angle. The optimal angle of attack is close to minimum drag during start-up phase (high TSR) and continuously increases toward maximum lift at high wind speeds (low TSR).
Brown, C. A., Jr.; Campbell, J. F.; Tudor, D. H.
1971-01-01
An investigation was conducted to obtain flow properties in the wake of the Viking '75 entry vehicle at Mach numbers from 1.60 to 3.95 and at angles of attack of 0 deg and 5 deg. The wake flow properties were calculated from total and static pressures measured with a pressure rake at longitudinal stations varying from 1.0 to 8.39 body diameters and lateral stations varying from -0.42 to 3.0 body diameters. These measurements showed a a consistent trend throughout the range of Mach numbers and longitudinal distances and an increase in dynamic pressure with increasing downstream position.
Theoretical and Experimental Aerodynamic Analysis for High-Speed Ground Vehicles
Farhan, Ismail Haider
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis investigates the air flow around a proposed geometry for a high-speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) train. A numerical technique called the panel method has been applied to the representation of the body shape and the prediction of the potential flow and pressure distribution. Two computer programmes have been written, one for a single vehicle in the presence of the ground at different yaw angles, and the second for two-body problems, e.g. a train passing a railway station or a train passing the central part of another train. Two methods based on the momentum integral equations for three-dimensional boundary layer flow have been developed for use with the potential flow analysis; these predict the development of the three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer on the central section (for the analysis of crosswind conditions) and on the nose of the train. Extensive wind tunnel tests were performed on four models of the high-speed train to measure aerodynamic forces, moments and pressures to establish ground effect characteristics. Flow visualisation showed that the wake vortices were stronger and larger in the presence of a ground. At small yaw angles ground clearance had little effect, but as yaw increased, larger ground clearance led to substantial increase in lift and side force coefficients. The tests also identified the differences between a moving and a fixed ground plane. Data showed that the type of ground simulation was significant only in the separated region. A comparison of the results predicted using potential flow theory for an EMS train model and the corresponding results from wind tunnel tests indicated good agreement in regions where the flow is attached. The turbulent boundary layer calculations for the train in a crosswind condition showed that the momentum thickness along the crosswind surface distance co-ordinate increased slowly at the beginning of the development of the
Aerodynamic data of space vehicles
Weiland, Claus
2014-01-01
The capacity and quality of the atmospheric flight performance of space flight vehicles is characterized by their aerodynamic data bases. A complete aerodynamic data base would encompass the coefficients of the static longitudinal and lateral motions and the related dynamic coefficients. In this book the aerodynamics of 27 vehicles are considered. Only a few of them did really fly. Therefore the aerodynamic data bases are often not complete, in particular when the projects or programs were more or less abruptly stopped, often due to political decisions. Configurational design studies or the development of demonstrators usually happen with reduced or incomplete aerodynamic data sets. Therefore some data sets base just on the application of one of the following tools: semi-empirical design methods, wind tunnel tests, numerical simulations. In so far a high percentage of the data presented is incomplete and would have to be verified. Flight mechanics needs the aerodynamic coefficients as function of a lot of var...
Research on effective aerodynamic configuration of row inflatable wings%排式充气机翼的高效气动布局研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
华如豪; 叶正寅
2012-01-01
为了提高充气机翼的刚度特性,需要采用较大厚度的翼型,但厚翼型气动效率整体上又不太高.探讨一种适用于低速充气类飞行器的排式双翼布局方案,并尝试给予后翼一定的初始安装偏转角,同时还研究了双翼相对位置以及翼型特性对该排式双翼布局方案的影响.数值模拟结果表明,后翼前缘驻点附近的高压区增大了前翼下表面的压力,使此种布局较普通单翼布局在中小迎角范围内可以明显提高飞行器的升力和升阻比,其中迎角4°时可将升阻比提高62.8％,而给后翼2°的偏转角可使将升阻比提高幅度达到70.5％.同时,双翼相对位置对飞行器气动性能的影响较为敏感.此外,翼型厚度越大,弯度越小,所提出的排式双翼布局方案提高升阻比的效果越明显.综合效果来看,文中探讨的布局可为充气飞机的设计提供一个新思路.%Airfoils of larger thickness are needed to improve the rigidity of the inflatable wing, while their aerodynamic efficiency is generally not great. A new aerodynamic configuration of double row wings applied to low-speed aircraft is discussed in this paper, and based on this, a new configuration which adds proper installation angle to the posterior wing is discussed. Moreover, the effect of the relative location of the double wings as well as the airfoil thickness on the row double-wing configuration is also studied. Numerical simulation result indicates that high-pressure zone around stagnation point at the leading edge of the posterior wing increases the pressure under the anterior wing, which will improve the lift and lift-drag ratio of aircraft obviously at a range of small and middle angles of attack. At a 4° angle of attack, the lift-drag ratio is improved by an extent of 62. 8% , while 2° installation angle to the posterior wing is able to further improves the lift-drag ratio of the wing-body by 70. 5%. Meanwhile, aerodynamic performance of the
Zheng, Yonghui; Sun, Huayan; Zhao, Yanzhong; Chen, Jianbiao
2015-10-01
Active laser detection technique has a broad application prospect in antimissile and air defense, however the aerodynamic flow field around the planes and missiles cause serious distortion effect on the detecting laser beams. There are many computational fluid dynamics(CFD) codes that can predict the air density distribution and also the density fluctuations of the flow field, it's necessary for physical optics to be used to predict the distortion properties after propagation through the complex process. Aiming at the physical process of laser propagation in "Cat-eye" lenses and aerodynamic flow field for twice, distortion propagation calculation method is researched in this paper. In the minds of dividing the whole process into two parts, and tread the aero-optical optical path difference as a phase distortion, the incidence and reflection process are calculated using Collins formula and angular spectrum diffraction theory respectively. In addition, turbulent performance of the aerodynamic flow field is estimated according to the electromagnetic propagation theory through a random medium, the rms optical path difference and Strehl ratio of the turbulent optical distortion are obtained. Finally, Computational fluid mechanics and aero-optical distortion properties of the detecting laser beams are calculated with the hemisphere-on-cylinder turret as an example, calculation results are showed and analysed.
Aerodynamic performance enhancement of a flying wing using nanosecond pulsed DBD plasma actuator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Menghu
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Experimental investigation of aerodynamic control on a 35° swept flying wing by means of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD plasma was carried out at subsonic flow speed of 20–40 m/s, corresponding to Reynolds number of 3.1 × 105–6.2 × 105. In control condition, the plasma actuator was installed symmetrically on the leading edge of the wing. Lift coefficient, drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment coefficient were tested with and without control for a range of angles of attack. The tested results indicate that an increase of 14.5% in maximum lift coefficient, a decrease of 34.2% in drag coefficient, an increase of 22.4% in maximum lift-to-drag ratio and an increase of 2° at stall angle of attack could be achieved compared with the baseline case. The effects of pulsed frequency, amplitude and chord Reynolds number were also investigated. And the results revealed that control efficiency demonstrated strong dependence on pulsed frequency. Moreover, the results of pitching moment coefficient indicated that the breakdown of leading edge vortices could be delayed by plasma actuator at low pulsed frequencies.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Lizhen; Wang Xiaoming; Miguel A.González Hernández; Wang Jun
2008-01-01
This paper was to validate the effects of airfoil thickness ratio on the characteristics of a family of airfoils.Re-search was carried out in different ways.First,tests were conducted in the wind tunnel.And numerical simulation was performed on the basis of tests.Results from calculation were consistent with tests,indicating that numerical method could help evaluate characteristics of airfoils.Then the results were confirmed by compared with empirical data.The study also showed that the determining factor of lift is not only the thickness ratio,but the angle of attack,the relative camber and the camber line.The thickness ratio appears to have little effect on lift coefficient at zero angle of attack,since the angle of zero llft is largely determined by the airfoil camber.According to the research,numerical simulation can be used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils in different environment such as in the dusty or hu-mid air.
Computational aerodynamics and aeroacoustics for wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen, W.Z.
2009-10-15
The present thesis consists of 19 selected papers dealing with the development and use of CFD methods for studying the aerodynamics and aero-acoustics of wind turbines. The papers are written in the period from 1997 to 2008 and numbered according to the list in page v. The work consists of two parts: an aerodynamic part based on Computational Fluid Dynamics and an aero-acoustic part based on Computational Aero Acoustics for wind turbines. The main objective of the research was to develop new computational tools and techniques for analysing flows about wind turbines. A few papers deal with applications of Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory to wind turbines. In most cases the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables (velocity-pressure formulation) are employed as the basic governing equations. However, since fluid mechanical problems essentially are governed by vortex dynamics, it is sometimes advantageous to use the concept of vorticity (defined as the curl of velocity). In vorticity form the Navier-Stokes equations may be formulated in different ways, using a vorticity-stream function formulation, a vorticity-velocity formulation or a vorticity-potential-stream function formulation. In [1] - [3] two different vorticity formulations were developed for 2D and 3D wind turbine flows. In [4] and [5] numerical techniques for avoiding pressure oscillations were developed when solving the velocity-pressure coupling system in the in-house EllipSys2D/3D code. In [6] - [8] different actuator disc techniques combined with CFD are presented. This includes actuator disc, actuator line and actuator surface techniques, which were developed to simulate flows past one or more wind turbines. In [9] and [10] a tip loss correction method that improves the conventional models was developed for use in combination with BEM or actuator/Navier-Stokes computations. A simple and efficient technique for determining the angle of attack for flow past a wind turbine rotor
CFD Simulations of the Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) Ballistic Range Tests
Brock, Joseph; Stern, Eric; Wilder, Michael
2017-01-01
A series of ballistic range tests were performed on a scaled model of the Supersonic Flight Demonstration Test (SFDT) intended to test the Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) geometry. The purpose of these experiments were to provide aerodynamic coefficients of the vehicle to aid in mission and vehicle design. The experimental data spans the moderate Mach number range, $3.8-2.0$, with a total angle of attack ($alpha_T$) range, $10o-20o$. These conditions are intended to span the Mach-$alpha$ space for the majority of the SFDT experiment. In an effort to validate the predictive capabilities of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for free-flight aerodynamic behavior, numerical simulations of the ballistic range experiment are performed using the unstructured finite volume Navier-Stokes solver, US3D. Comparisons to raw vehicle attitude, and post-processed aerodynamic coefficients are made between simulated results and experimental data. The resulting comparisons for both raw model attitude and derived aerodynamic coefficients show good agreement with experimental results. Additionally, near body pressure field values for each trajectory simulated are investigated. Extracted surface and wake pressure data gives further insights into dynamic flow coupling leading to a potential mechanism for dynamic instability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergami, L.; Gaunaa, M.
2012-02-15
The report presents the ATEFlap aerodynamic model, which computes the unsteady lift, drag and moment on a 2D airfoil section equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap. The model captures the unsteady response related to the effects of the vorticity shed into the wake, and the dynamics of flow separation a thin-airfoil potential flow model is merged with a dynamic stall model of the Beddoes-Leishmann type. The inputs required by the model are steady data for lift, drag, and moment coefficients as function of angle of attack and flap deflection. Further steady data used by the Beddoes- Leishmann dynamic stall model are computed in an external preprocessor application, which gives the user the possibility to verify, and eventually correct, the steady data passed to the aerodynamic model. The ATEFlap aerodynamic model is integrated in the aeroelastic simulation tool HAWC2, thus al- lowing to simulate the response of a wind turbine with trailing edge flaps on the rotor. The algorithms used by the preprocessor, and by aerodynamic model are presented, and modifications to previous implementations of the aerodynamic model are briefly discussed. The performance and the validity of the model are verified by comparing the dynamic response computed by the ATEFlap with solutions from CFD simulations. (Author)
Ultra high tip speed (670.6 m/sec) fan stage with composite rotor: Aerodynamic and mechanical design
Halle, J. E.; Burger, G. D.; Dundas, R. E.
1977-01-01
A highly loaded, single-stage compressor having a tip speed of 670.6 m/sec was designed for the purpose of investigating very high tip speeds and high aerodynamic loadings to obtain high stage pressure ratios at acceptable levels of efficiency. The design pressure ratio is 2.8 at an adiabatic efficiency of 84.4%. Corrected design flow is 83.4 kg/sec; corrected design speed is 15,200 rpm; and rotor inlet tip diameter is 0.853 m. The rotor uses multiple-circular-arc airfoils from 0 to 15% span, precompression airfoils assuming single, strong oblique shocks from 21 to 43% span, and precompression airfoils assuming multiple oblique shocks from 52% span to the tip. Because of the high tip speeds, the rotor blades are designed to be fabricated of composite materials. Two composite materials were investigated: Courtaulds HTS graphite fiber in a Kerimid 601 polyimide matrix and the same fibers in a PMR polyimide matrix. In addition to providing a description of the aerodynamic and mechanical design of the 670.0 m/sec fan, discussion is presented of the results of structural tests of blades fabricated with both types of matrices.
McLean, Christopher Elliot
Modern gas turbine engines operate with mainstream gas temperatures exceeding 1450°C in the high-pressure turbine stage. Unlike turbine blades, rotor disks and other internal components are not designed to withstand the extreme temperatures found in mainstream flow. In modern gas turbines, cooling air is pumped into the wheelspace cavities to prevent mainstream gas ingestion and then exits through a seal between the rotor and the nozzle guide vane (NGV) thereby mixing with the mainstream flow. The primary purpose for the wheelspace cooling air is the cooling of the turbine wheelspace. However, secondary effects arise from the mixing of the spent cooling air with the mainstream flow. The exiting cooling air is mixed with the hot mainstream flow effecting the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of the turbine stage. The physics underlying this mixing process and its effects on stage performance are not yet fully understood. The relative aerodynamic and performance effects associated with rotor - NGV gap coolant injections were investigated in the Axial Flow Turbine Research Facility (AFTRF) of the Center for Gas Turbines and Power of The Pennsylvania State University. This study quantifies the secondary effects of the coolant injection on the aerodynamic and performance character of the turbines main stream flow for root injection, radial cooling, and impingement cooling. Measurement and analysis of the cooling effects were performed in both stationary and rotational frames of reference. The AFTRF is unique in its ability to perform long duration cooling measurements in the stationary and rotating frames. The effects of wheelspace coolant mixing with the mainstream flow on total-to-total efficiency, energy transport, three dimensional velocity field, and loading coefficient were investigated. Overall, it was found that a small quantity (1%) of cooling air can have significant effects on the performance character and exit conditions of the high pressure stage
Brown, C. A., Jr.; Campbell, J. F.
1973-01-01
An investigation was conducted to obtain flow properties in the wake of a preliminary configuration of the Viking '75 Entry Vehicle at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.20 and at angles of attack of 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg. The wake flow properties were calculated from total and static pressures measured with a pressure rake at longitudinal stations varying from 1.50 to 11.00 body diameters, and are presented in tabulated and plotted form. The wake properties were essentially symmetrical about the X-axis at alpha = 0 deg and the profiles were shifted away from the X-axis at angles of attack. An unexpected reduction in wake property ratios occurred as the Mach number increased from 0.60 to 1.00; these ratios then increased as the Mach number increased to 1.20. The reduction was present for all the longitudinal stations of the tests and decreased with increased longitudinal distance.
Blair, A. B., Jr.
1990-01-01
Wind tunnel investigations were conducted on a generic cruciform canard-controlled missile configuration. The model featured fixed or free-rolling tail-fin afterbodies to provide an expanded aerodynamic data base with particular emphasis on alleviating large induced rolling moments and/or for providing canard roll control throughout the entire test angle-of-attack range. The tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers from 2.50 to 3.50 at a constant Reynolds number per foot of 2.00 x 10 to the 6th. Selected test results are presented to show the effects of a fixed or free-rolling tail-fin afterbody on the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of a canard-controlled missile with pitch, yaw, and roll control at model roll angles of 0 deg and 45 deg.
Morgan, H. L., Jr.
1981-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel to determine the static longitudinal and lateral directional aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced aspect ratio 10 supercritical wing transport model equipped with a full span leading edge slat as well as part span and full span trailing edge flaps. This wide body transport model was also equipped with spoiler and aileron roll control surfaces, flow through nacelles, landing gear, and movable horizontal tails. Six basic wing configurations were tested: (1) cruise (slats and flaps nested), (2) climb (slats deflected and flaps nested), (3) part span flap, (4) full span flap, (5) full span flap with low speed ailerons, and (6) full span flap with high speed ailerons. Each of the four flapped wing configurations was tested with leading edge slat and trailing edge flaps deflected to settings representative of both take off and landing conditions. Tests were conducted at free stream conditions corresponding to Reynolds number of 0.97 to 1.63 x 10 to the 6th power and corresponding Mach numbers of 0.12 to 0.20, through an angle of attack range of 4 to 24, and a sideslip angle range of -10 deg to 5 deg. The part and full span wing configurations were also tested in ground proximity.
Design of a high performance low aerodynamic noise axial flow fan
2007-01-01
The project starts with a description of the main sources of noise in an axial flow fan for concluding that the thing we should avoid is the trailing edge noise. After that the formulas for designing a fan and an aerodynamics background are presented. Once we get the results of these formulas a low noise optimization is carried on for leading us to a table of results where the main characteristics of design for our fan are obtained. After these tables the design of the fan is obtained with Pr...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖光明; 冯毅; 唐伟; 桂业伟
2012-01-01
根据德国宇航中心设计的ATLLAS-M6运输机的气动布局特点,利用基于类型函数和形状函数的CST方法对其进行了参数化建模,并初步计算分析了该外形的主要气动特性,包括配平特性、静/动稳定性以及控制面的控制效率等.研究结果表明,类ATLLAS-M6的气动性能基本满足高超声速运输机的设计要求,其气动布局方案是可以借鉴的.在此基础上,将进一步考虑运输机结构重量、热防护性能等对布局的约束,对其外形进行多学科优化设计.%The aerodynamic configuration study of ATLLAS-M6 transport aircraft proposed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is presented and discussed. The ATLLAS-M6 has a turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion system, and it's aerodynamic configuration has the following characteristics: double delta-wing with low-aspect ratio, axial vertical tail, high-set horizontal tail and lifting body with high-fineness ratio. In this paper, a parameterized configuration is proposed via the "class function and shape function transformation technique" (CST) method. The aerodynamic characteristics are investigated, such as the trim characteristic, static/dynamic stability and control efficiency of control surfaces. The detail research indicated that the ATLLAS-M6 analog has a high hypersonic lift to drag ratio at the cruise state of low trimming angle of attack. The hypersonic stability derivatives predicted by the " dahlem-buck" method and the "prandtl-meyer" method shown that the transporter is static and dynamic stable in both lateral and directional directions and the proposed configuration is one of the feasible transporter choices. Yet, the aerodynamic configuration conceptual design of the hypersonic transport aircraft is a highly integrated project, several disciplines involved must be considered farther, such as structured materials and thermal protection system. Therefore, the "multidisciplinary design optimization" (MDO) method
Baecher, Juergen; Bandte, Oliver; DeLaurentis, Dan; Lewis, Kemper; Sicilia, Jose; Soboleski, Craig
1995-01-01
This report documents the efforts of a Georgia Tech High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aerospace student design team in completing a design methodology demonstration under NASA's Advanced Design Program (ADP). Aerodynamic and propulsion analyses are integrated into the synthesis code FLOPS in order to improve its prediction accuracy. Executing the integrated product and process development (IPPD) methodology proposed at the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL), an improved sizing process is described followed by a combined aero-propulsion optimization, where the objective function, average yield per revenue passenger mile ($/RPM), is constrained by flight stability, noise, approach speed, and field length restrictions. Primary goals include successful demonstration of the application of the response surface methodolgy (RSM) to parameter design, introduction to higher fidelity disciplinary analysis than normally feasible at the conceptual and early preliminary level, and investigations of relationships between aerodynamic and propulsion design parameters and their effect on the objective function, $/RPM. A unique approach to aircraft synthesis is developed in which statistical methods, specifically design of experiments and the RSM, are used to more efficiently search the design space for optimum configurations. In particular, two uses of these techniques are demonstrated. First, response model equations are formed which represent complex analysis in the form of a regression polynomial. Next, a second regression equation is constructed, not for modeling purposes, but instead for the purpose of optimization at the system level. Such an optimization problem with the given tools normally would be difficult due to the need for hard connections between the various complex codes involved. The statistical methodology presents an alternative and is demonstrated via an example of aerodynamic modeling and planform optimization for a HSCT.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moutaz Elgammi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomenon on wind turbines is challenging and still subject to considerable uncertainty. Under yawed rotor conditions, the wind turbine blades are subjected to unsteady flow conditions as a result of the blade advancing and retreating effect and the development of a skewed vortical wake created downstream of the rotor plane. Blade surface pressure measurements conducted on the NREL Phase VI rotor in yawed conditions have shown that dynamic stall causes the wind turbine blades to experience significant cycle-to-cycle variations in aerodynamic loading. These effects were observed even though the rotor was subjected to a fixed speed and a uniform and steady wind flow. This phenomenon is not normally predicted by existing dynamic stall models integrated in wind turbine design codes. This paper couples blade pressure measurements from the NREL Phase VI rotor to a free-wake vortex model to derive the angle of attack time series at the different blade sections over multiple rotor rotations and three different yaw angles. Through the adopted approach it was possible to investigate how the rotor self-induced aerodynamic load fluctuations influence the unsteady variations in the blade angles of attack and induced velocities. The hysteresis loops for the normal and tangential load coefficients plotted against the angle of attack were plotted over multiple rotor revolutions. Although cycle-to-cycle variations in the angles of attack at the different blade radial locations and azimuth positions are found to be relatively small, the corresponding variations in the normal and tangential load coefficients may be significant. Following a statistical analysis, it was concluded that the load coefficients follow a normal distribution at the majority of blade azimuth angles and radial locations. The results of this study provide further insight on how existing engineering models for dynamic stall may be improved through
Aerocapture Guidance and Performance at Mars for High-Mass Systems
Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Sostaric, Ronald r.; Westhelle, Carlos H.
2009-01-01
The Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing System Analysis (EDL-SA) project has been tasked with performing systems analysis to identify the optimal technologies required to land a 20-50 MT Exploration-class mission on Mars. It has been shown that it is not possible to safely land these large systems using heritage Mars EDL systems, or analogous Earth or Moon EDL systems. In 2007, NASA conducted a Mars Exploration Architecture Study which included an in depth review of the science motivations and engineering technology requirements for a human Mars mission campaign. This study resulted in an update to the Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA 5.0). Among the primary findings and recommendations was the conclusion that landing of large payloads (greater than 1 MT) on the surface of Mars remains a key architectural challenge. Additionally, research and system studies of fundamental EDL technologies were highly recommended. The EDL-SA project identified the candidate technologies and assembled them into full capture and EDL sequences so that simulations could be developed to evaluate them. The chosen architectures combine the various technologies of interest in eight different ways. For aerocapture, only two scenarios were considered. The first is a rigid mid-L/D aeroshell (AS), which is represented in architectures 1, 4, 5, and 7. This scenario calls for a vehicle that flies at a 55-degree angle of attack, resulting in ballistic coefficient and L/D values of 490 kg/m 2 and 0.43, respectively. The second is a lifting hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD), which is represented in architectures 2, 6, and 8. This scenario requires the vehicle to fly at a 22.2- degree angle of attack, which correlates to an L/D of 0.3 and was sized to provide a ballistic coefficient of 165 kg/m 2 . Architecture 3 is an all-propulsive sequence, and is not considered in this study.
Wing Warping and Its Impact on Aerodynamic Efficiency
Loh, Ben; Jacob, Jamey
2007-11-01
Inflatable wings have been demonstrated in many applications such as UAVs, airships, and missile stabilization surfaces. A major concern presented by the use of an inflatable wing has been the lack of traditional roll control surfaces. This leaves the designer with several options in order to have control about the roll axis. Since inflatable wings have a semi-flexible structure, wing warping is the obvious solution to this problem. The current method is to attach servos and control linkages to external surface of the wing that results in variation of profile chamber and angle of attack from leading edge or trailing edge deflection. Designs using internal muscles will also be discussed. This creates a lift differential between the half-spans, resulting in a roll moment. The trailing edge on the other half-span can also be deflected in the opposite direction to increase the roll moment as well as to reduce roll-yaw coupling. Comparisons show that higher L/D ratios are possible than using traditional control surfaces. An additional benefit is the ability to perform symmetric warping to achieve optimum aerodynamic performance. Via warping alone, an arbitrary span can be warped such that it has the same aerodynamic characteristics as an elliptical planform. Comparisons between lifting line theory and test results will be presented.
An aerodynamic performance analysis of a perforated wind turbine blade
Didane, D. H.; Mohd, S.; Subari, Z.; Rosly, N.; Ghafir, M. F. Abdul; Mohd Masrom, M. F.
2016-11-01
Wind power is one of the important renewable energy sources. Currently, many researches are focusing on improving the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades through simulations and wind tunnel testing. In the present study, the aerodynamic performance of the perforated Eqwin blade (shell type blade) is investigated by using numerical simulation. Three types of slots namely circular, horizontal rectangular and vertical rectangular were evaluated. It was found that the optimum angle of attack for a perforated shell type blade was 12° with maximum Cl/Cd value of 6.420. In general, for all the perforated blade cases, Cl/Cd tended to decrease as the slot size increased except for the circular slot with 5 mm diameter. This was due to the disturbance of the airflow in lower side region which passed through the bigger slot size. Among the modified slots; the circular slot with diameter of 5 mm would be the best slot configuration that can be considered for blade fabrication. The Cl/Cd obtained was 6.46 which is about 5% more than the value of the reference blade. Moreover, the introduced slot would also reduce the overall weight of the blade by 1.3%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nomura, T. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1999-01-10
In recent years, the construction of long-span bridges is on the increase. Prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges are dynamically very efficient structures of relatively low cost that blend in well with the landscape. Maintenance is also easy. Consequently, the adoption of edge box girders for cable-stayed bridges is increasing worldwide, but problems related to the aerodynamic stability of the structure have emerged. The aerodynamic stability of edge box girders for a prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge was investigated under uniform flow conditions by conducting several wind tunnel experiments. As a result, the section of the bridge deck was optimized to prevent torsional flutter within an angle of attack varying from -5 to +5 degrees. It is therefore possible to guarantee the aerodynamic stability of long-span prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. (author)
Chan, David T.; Hooker, John R.; Wick, Andrew; Plumley, Ryan W.; Zeune, Cale H.; Ol, Michael V.; DeMoss, Joshua A.
2017-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation of a 0.04-scale model of the Lockheed Martin Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) with Over Wing Nacelles (OWN) air mobility transport configuration was conducted in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center under a collaborative partnership between NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company. The wind tunnel test sought to validate the transonic aerodynamic performance of the HWB and to validate the efficiency benefits of the OWN installation as compared to the traditional under-wing installation. The semispan HWB model was tested in a clean wing configuration and also tested with two different nacelles representative of a modern turbofan engine and a future advanced high bypass ratio engine. The nacelles were installed in three different locations with two over-wing positions and one under-wing position. Five-component force and moment data, surface static pressure data, and aeroelastic deformation data were acquired. For the cruise configuration, the model was tested in an angle-of-attack range between -2 and 10 degrees at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.9 and at unit Reynolds numbers between 8 and 39 million per foot, achieving a maximum of 80% of flight Reynolds numbers across the Mach number range. The test results validated pretest computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the HWB performance including the OWN benefit and the results also exhibited excellent transonic drag data repeatability to within +/-1 drag count. This paper details the experimental setup and model overview, presents some sample data results, and describes the facility improvements that led to the success of the test.
Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses the critical aerodynamic technologies needed to support the development of a class of aircraft represented by the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The air-breathing, single-stage-to-orbit mission presents a severe challenge to all of the aeronautical disciplines and demands an extension of the state-of-the-art in each technology area. While the largest risk areas are probably advanced materials and the development of the scramjet engine, there remains a host of design issues and technology problems in aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and propulsion integration. The paper presents an overview of the most significant propulsion integration problems, and defines the most critical fluid flow phenomena that must be evaluated, defined, and predicted for the class of aircraft represented by the Aero-Space Plane.
Maldonado, Victor Hugo
with a 24-grit abrasive sheet. The role of turbulence and surface roughness on the aerodynamic performance of the wind turbine blade was investigated utilizing the following experimental techniques: (i) static pressure measurements around the blade, (ii) constant temperature anemometry (CTA) hot-wire and pitottube measurements of the velocity deficit at the wake, and (iii) two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (2-D PIV) measurements of the mean global flow. Results indicate that turbulence significantly increases the blade's lift coefficient for moderate to post-stall angles of attack (where the range tested was from zero to 18 degrees). This was accompanied without an increase in the drag coefficient for angles of attack below 14 degrees (prior to stall) and a significant reduction in drag for post-stall angles of attack at 16 and 18 degrees. This resulted in considerable increases to the aerodynamic efficiency of the blade, as quantified by the lift to drag ratio, L/D for all angles of attack except zero degrees. Conversely, surface roughness had a detrimental effect on the aerodynamic performance, as verified by 2-D PIV measurements of the mean flow which indicates that surface roughness promotes flow separation. Vortex generators (which are a form of passive flow control and sometimes utilized in wind turbine blades to mitigate the adverse effects of surface roughness) were demonstrated to be very effective in restoring aerodynamic performance. There was a significant increase in the lift coefficient of the blade (while marginally reducing the drag coefficient) thereby increasing the L/D ratio drastically from 1.076 to 2.791 at 18 degrees angle of attack. Finally, earlier work focused on the feasibility of synthetic jets (active flow control) to improve the aerodynamic and aeroelastic performance of wind turbine blades without free stream turbulence or surface roughness. Wind turbine models (including S809 airfoil-based) demonstrated a re-attachment of the
Aerodynamic Configuration Design of Gliding Extended Range Guided Bomb%滑翔增程制导航弹气动外形设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
雷娟棉; 吴甲生
2011-01-01
To improve the range of guided bomb, the scheme of aerodynamic configuration of extended range GPS guided bomb was put forward based on the gliding extended range technique. The designed aerodynamic configuration was the tail control configuration having great span-chord ratio up-wing and the tail/rudder with " X " form. By aerodynamic characteristics calculation and analysis, the parameters of configuration geometry were determined. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted for two models of wing stretch-out and wing folded model, respectively. The experiment conditions were as follows. The rolling angles are (ψ)=0(wing is horizontal, tail is" X "form) , 22. 5° and 45. 0°. The Mach number are Ma = 0.6, 0. 8 and 1. 0. The angles of attack are a = 0 ~ 12°. The rudder deflection angles are δz - 0; δs = - 5°, - 10° (pitching control); δy = - 5°, - 10° (yawing control); δX = - 5°, - 10° (rolling control). Experiment results indicate that the designed GPS guided bomb' s longitudinal stability and controllability match well, and the controlling efficiency of tail rudder is very high. The angle of attack being propitious to gliding flight is from 4° to 6° and the maximal lift-drag ratio is greater than 10. From the experiment result, it could be concluded that the effective range of the guided bomb would over 120 km while it is released at 12 km altitude.%为了提高制导航弹的射程,在滑翔增程技术研究基础上提出了远程卫星制导炸弹的气动布局方案,即采取大展弦比上弹翼、“×”形全动尾舵的正常式气动布局,通过计算选择了外形参数.对所提出的外形方案进行了风洞测力实验.实验条件为:滚转角(φ)=0(弹翼水平,尾翼呈“×”形),22.5°,45.0°;马赫数Ma=0.6,0.8,1.0;攻角α=0～12°;舵偏角δ=0,δz=-5°,-10°(俯仰控制),δy=-5°,-10°(偏航控制),δr=-5°,-10°(滚转控制).模型有弹翼张开与折叠两种状态.实验结果表明,所设计的卫星制导炸弹
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
舒桃; 杨国伟; 陆夕云; 庄礼贤
2002-01-01
通过数值求解三维非定常可压缩雷诺平均Navier-Stokes方程,研究了三维机翼大迎角低速绕流及其带表面周期性吹吸气的流动控制,并探讨了非定常质量引射作为外激发手段对机翼气动力特性的影响.计算表明,在机翼前缘附近的小区域内施加周期性吹吸气进行流动控制,这类外激发手段对三维机翼的大迎角分离流动的控制是可行的,通过选择适当的控制参数,尤其是合适的周期性激振频率,可以有效地改善气动力特性.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shabudin Mat
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents wind tunnel experiment on two delta wing configurations which are differentiated by their leading edge profiles: sharp and round-edged wings. The experiments were performed as a part of the delta wing aerodynamics research development in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, low speed tunnel (UTM-LST. Steady load balance and flow visualization tests were conducted at Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 × 106, respectively. The flow measurement at low Reynolds number was also performed at as low as speed of 5 m/s. During the experiments, laser with smoke flow visualizations test was performed on both wings. The study has identified interesting features of the interrelationship between the conventional leading edge primary vortex and the occurrence and development of the vortex breakdown above the delta wings. The results conclude the vortex characteristics are largely dependent on the Reynolds number, angle of attack, and leading-edge radii of the wing.
Carlson, H. W.; Walkley, K. B.
1982-01-01
Numerical methods incorporated into a computer program to provide estimates of the subsonic aerodynamic performance of twisted and cambered wings of arbitrary planform with attainable thrust and vortex lift considerations are described. The computational system is based on a linearized theory lifting surface solution which provides a spanwise distribution of theoretical leading edge thrust in addition to the surface distribution of perturbation velocities. The approach used relies on a solution by iteration. The method also features a superposition of independent solutions for a cambered and twisted wing and a flat wing of the same planform to provide, at little additional expense, results for a large number of angles of attack or lift coefficients. A previously developed method is employed to assess the portion of the theoretical thrust actually attainable and the portion that is felt as a vortex normal force.
Flutter Derivatives Identification and Aerodynamic Performance of an Optimized Multibox Bridge Deck
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhida Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The bridge deck sections used for long-span suspension bridges have evolved through the years, from the compact box deck girders geometrical configurations to twin-box and three-box bridge decks sections. The latest generation of split and multiple-box bridge decks proved to have better aerodynamic behavior; thus further optimization methods are sought for such geometrical configurations. A new type of multibox bridge deck, consisting of four aerodynamically shaped deck boxes, two side decks for the traffic lanes and two middle decks for the railway traffic, connected between them by stabilizing beams, was tested in the wind tunnel for identifying the flutter derivatives and to verify the aerodynamic performance of the proposed multibox deck. Aerodynamic static force coefficients were measured for the multibox bridge deck model, scaled 1 : 80, for Reynolds numbers up to 5.1 × 105, under angles of attack between −8° and 8°. Iterative Least Squares (ILS method was employed for identifying the flutter derivatives of the multibox bridge deck model, based on the results obtained from the free vibration tests and based on the frequency analysis the critical flutter wind speed for the corresponding prototype of the multibox bridge was estimated at 188 m/s.
Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.
1999-01-01
In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dejean, F.
1995-12-01
The purpose of this paper is an aerodynamic simulation of the bucket root and diaphragm packing leakage flow within an impulse steam turbine HP cylinder. Calculations were undertaken in order to accurately compute both the steam temperature and steam-metal heat transfer coefficients. In order to perform this study, a compressible and turbulent finite elements Navier-Stokes code was used. Inlet and exit conditions were computed using an axisymmetrical through flow computer code and a thermal boundary layer modelling, based on classical wall function laws, was used in order to compute heat transfer coefficients. This computational study has underlined the capability of our computer codes to deal with a complex industrial problem and thermal wall boundary conditions were accurately obtained. Moreover, a complex leakage flow problem, with many recirculation zones was solves and interesting results are available. (author) 9 refs.
Gaonkar, G. H.; Subramanian, S.; Chunduru, Srinivas
1994-01-01
The predictions of regressive lag-mode damping levels are correlated with the database of an isolated, soft-inplane, three-blade rotor operated untrimmed. The database was generated at the Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate at Ames. The correlation covers a broad range of data, from near-zero thrust conditions in hover to high-thrust and highly stalled conditions in forward flight with advance ratio as high as 0.55 and shaft angle as high as 20 degrees. In the experimental rotor, the airfoil or blade portion has essentially uniform mass and stiffness distributions, but the root flexure has highly nonuniform mass and stiffness distributions. Accordingly, the structural approximations refer to four models of root-flexure-blade assembly. They range from a rigid flap-lag model to three elastic flap-lag-torsion models, which differ in modeling the root flexure. The three models of root-flexure are: three root springs in which the bending-torsion couplings are fully accounted for; a finite-length beam element with some average mass and stiffness distributions such that the fundamental frequencies match those of the experimental model; and accurate modal representation in which the actual mass and stiffness distributions of the experimental root-flexure-blade assembly are used in calculating the nonrotating mode shapes. The four models of root-flexure-blade assembly are referred to as the rigid flap-lag model, spring model, modified model and modal model. For each of these four models of the root-flexure-blade assembly, the predictions are based on the following five aerodynamic theories: ear theory, which accounts for large angle-of-attack and reverse-flow effects on lift, and has constant drag and pitching moment; quasisteady stall theory, which includes quasisteady stall lift, drag and pitching moment characteristics of the airfoil section, dynamics stall theory, which uses the ONERA dynamic stall models of lift, drag and pitching moment; dynamic wake theory, which is
Gagnon, Hugo
This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height
Aerodynamic Impact of an Aft-Facing Slat-Step on High Re Airfoils
Kibble, Geoffrey; Petrin, Chris; Jacob, Jamey; Elbing, Brian; Ireland, Peter; Black, Buddy
2016-11-01
Typically, the initial aerodynamic design and subsequent testing and simulation of an aircraft wing assumes an ideal wing surface without imperfections. In reality, however the surface of an in-service aircraft wing rarely matches the surface characteristics of the test wings used during the conceptual design phase and certification process. This disconnect is usually deemed negligible or overlooked entirely. Specifically, many aircraft incorporate a leading edge slat; however, the mating between the slat and the top surface of the wing is not perfectly flush and creates a small aft-facing step behind the slat. In some cases, the slat can create a step as large as one millimeter tall, which is entirely submerged within the boundary layer. This abrupt change in geometry creates a span-wise vortex behind the step and in transonic flow causes a shock to form near the leading edge. This study investigates both experimentally and computationally the implications of an aft-facing slat-step on an aircraft wing and is compared to the ideal wing surface for subsonic and transonic flow conditions. The results of this study are useful for design of flow control modifications for aircraft currently in service and important for improving the next generation of aircraft wings.
Hybrid CFD/FEM-BEM simulation of cabin aerodynamic noise for vehicles traveling at high speed
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; YiPing; ZHEN; Xin; WU; Jing; GU; ZhengQi; XIAO; ZhenYi; YANG; Xue
2013-01-01
Flow passing a vehicle may lead to the increase of the cabin interior noise level through a variety of mechanisms. These mechanisms include vibrations caused by aerodynamic excitations and reradiation from the glass panels, exterior noise trans-mitted and leaked through door seals including gaps and glass edge, and transmission of airborne noise generated by the interaction of flow with body panels. It is of vital importance to predict both the flow fields and the acoustic sources around the ve-hicle to accurately assess the impact of wind induced noise inside the cabin. In the present study, an unstructured segregated finite volume model was used to calculate the flow fields in which a hexahedron grid is used to simplify the vehicle geometry.A large eddy simulation coupled with a wall function model was applied to predict the exterior transient flow fields. The mean flow quantities were thus calculated along the symmetry plane and the vehicle’s side windows. A coupled FEM/BEM method was used to compute the vehicle’s interior noise level. The total contribution of the interior noise level due to the body panels of the vehicle was subsequently analyzed.
Scorer, R S
1958-01-01
Natural Aerodynamics focuses on the mathematics of any problem in air motion.This book discusses the general form of the law of fluid motion, relationship between pressure and wind, production of vortex filaments, and conduction of vorticity by viscosity. The flow at moderate Reynolds numbers, turbulence in a stably stratified fluid, natural exploitation of atmospheric thermals, and plumes in turbulent crosswinds are also elaborated. This text likewise considers the waves produced by thermals, transformation of thin layer clouds, method of small perturbations, and dangers of extra-polation.Thi
Discrete vortex method simulations of aerodynamic admittance in bridge aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Larsen, Allan;
, and to determine aerodynamic forces and the corresponding ﬂutter limit. A simulation of the three-dimensional bridge responseto turbulent wind is carried out by quasi steady theory by modelling the bridge girder as a line like structure [2], applying the aerodynamic load coefﬁcients found from the current version...... of DVMFLOW in a strip wise fashion. Neglecting the aerodynamic admittance, i.e. the correlation of the instantaneous lift force to the turbulent ﬂuctuations in the vertical velocities, leads to higher response to high frequency atmospheric turbulence than would be obtained from wind tunnel tests....
An experimental investigation of a Mach 3.0 high-speed civil transport at supersonic speeds
Hernandez, Gloria; Covell, Peter F.; Mcgraw, Marvin E., Jr.
1993-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a proposed high speed civil transport. This configuration was designed to cruise at Mach 3.0 and sized to carry 250 passengers for 6500 n.mi. The configuration consists of a highly blended wing body and features a blunt parabolic nose planform, a highly swept inboard wing panel, a moderately swept outboard wing panel, and a curved wingtip. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel on a 0.0098-scale model. Force, moment, and pressure data were obtained for Mach numbers ranging from 1.6 to 3.6 and at angles of attack ranging from -4 to 10 deg. Extensive flow visualization studies (vapor screen and oil flow) were obtained in the experimental program. Both linear and advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) theoretical comparisons are shown to assess the ability to predict forces, moments, and pressures on configurations of this type. In addition, an extrapolation of the wind tunnel data, based on empirical principles, to full-scale conditions is compared with the theoretical aerodynamic predictions.
Katz, Joseph
2006-01-01
Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guoyu Luo; Mao Sun
2005-01-01
The effects of corrugation and wing planform (shape and aspect ratio) on the aerodynamic force production of model insect wings in sweeping (rotating after an initial start) motion at Reynolds number 200 and 3500 at angle of attack 40° are investigated, using the method of computational fluid dynamics. A representative wing corrugation is considered. Wing-shape and aspect ratio (AR) of ten representative insect wings are considered; they are the wings of fruit fly, cranefly, dronefly, hoverfly, ladybird, bumblebee, honeybee, lacewing (forewing), hawkmoth and dragonfly (forewing), respectively (AR of these wings varies greatly,from 2.84 to 5.45). The following facts are shown.(1) The corrugated and flat-plate wings produce approximately the same aerodynamic forces. This is because for a sweeping wing at large angle of attack, the length scale of the corrugation is much smaller than the size of the separated flow region or the size of the leading edge vortex (LEV). (2) The variation in wing shape can have considerable effects on the aerodynamic force; but it has only minor effects on the force coefficients when the velocity at r2 (the radius of the second moment of wing area) is used as the reference velocity; i.e.the force coefficients are almost unaffected by the variation in wing shape. (3) The effects of AR are remarkably small:when AR increases from 2.8 to 5.5, the force coefficients vary only slightly; flowfield results show that when AR is relatively large, the part of the LEV on the outer part of the wings sheds during the sweeping motion. As AR is increased, on one hand,the force coefficients will be increased due to the reduction of 3-dimensional flow effects; on the other hand, they will be decreased due to the shedding of pan of the LEV; these two effects approximately cancel each other, resulting in only minor change of the force coefficients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somashekar V
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A Micro air vehicle (MAV is defined as class of unmanned air vehicle (UAV having a linear dimension of less than 15 centimeters and a mass of less than 100 grams with flight speeds of 6 to 12 meters per second. MAVs fall within a Reynolds number (Re range of 50,000 and 120,000, in which many causes of unsteady aerodynamic effects are not fully understood. The research field of low Reynolds number aerodynamics is currently an active one, with many defence organizations, universities, and corporations working towards a better understanding of the physical processes of this aerodynamic regime. In the present work, it is proposed to study the unsteady aerodynamic analysis of 2D airfoil using CFD software and Xfoil panel code method. The various steps involved in this work are geometric modelling using CATIA V5R17, meshing using ICEM CFD, and solution and postprocessing through FLUENT. The finite control volume analysis and Xfoil panel code method has been carried out to predict aerodynamic characteristics such as lift coefficients, drag coefficients, moment coefficients, pressure coefficients, and flow visualization. The lift and drag coefficients were compared for all the simulations with experimental results. It was observed that for the 2D airfoil, lift and drag both compared well for the midrange angle of attack from −10 to 15 degree AOA.
Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.
2013-01-01
A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.
Woodward, Richard P.
1987-01-01
A high speed advanced counterrotation propeller, was tested in the NASA-Lewis 9 x 15 foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel at simulated takeoff/approach conditions of 0.2 Mach number. Acoustic measurements were taken with fixed floor microphones, an axially translating microphone probe, and with a polar microphone probe which was fixed to the propeller nacelle and could take both sideline and circumferential acoustic surveys. Aerodynamic measurements were also made to establish the propeller operating conditions. The propeller was run over a range of blade setting angles from 36.4/36.5 to 41.1/39.4 deg, tip speeds from 165 to 259 m/sec, rotor spacings from 1.56 to 3.63 based on forward rotor tip chord to aerodynamic separation, and angles of attack to + or - 16 deg. First order rotor alone tones showed highest directivity levels near the propeller plane, while interaction tone showed high levels throughout sideline directivity, especially toward the propeller rotation axis. Interaction tone levels were sensitive to propeller row spacing while rotor alone tones showed little spacing effect. There is a decreased noise level associated with higher propeller blade numbers for the same overall propeller thrust.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
白俊强; 张晓亮; 刘南; 董建鸿; 董强; 周林
2014-01-01
为满足现代大型运输机增升系统高效、稳定的设计需求，以某型运输机增升构型为研究对象，通过数值模拟方法研究了动力因素对全机气动特性的影响。数值模拟结果表明：在动力因素影响下，全机最大升力系数增加46．2％，失速迎角增加11°；全机静安定度降低30．89％。通过流场机理分析可知：动力因素不仅对短舱后方襟翼当地流场有较大改善，而且对短舱和主翼上表面流场以及平尾当地迎角也有显著影响。基于以上结论，在运输机增升构型设计过程中，要充分考虑动力因素对各个部件当地流场的影响以提高升力特性；同时要权衡动力因素使机翼低头力矩增加、平尾低头力矩降低这两种趋势相反的影响结果以改善俯仰力矩特性。%To satisfy the design request of efficiency and stability of high-lift system of large transport plane,by the method of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic),the research of aerodynamic characteristics of high-lift configuration of large transport plane with the effect of engine jet has been done.The result of nu-merical simulation demonstrates that with the effect of engine jet,the maximum lift coefficient increases by 46.2%,and the stall angle increases by 11 degrees,longitudinal stability factor decreases by 30.89%.Con-clusion can be obtained by analyzing the physics characteristics of flow that the engine jet not only changes local flow fluid of flap after the engine but also changes the local flow fluid on the upper surface of nacelle and main wing and the local angle of attack of horizontal tail.Given the conclusion obtained above,during the procession of designing high-lift configuration of STOL transport airplane,for the lift characteristics the effect of engine jet on the local flow fluid of each part has to be considered;for the pitch moment characteris-tics the reverse effect of engine jet increasing nose-down pitching moment of
Estimation of morphing airfoil shapes and aerodynamic loads using artificial hair sensors
Butler, Nathan Scott
An active area of research in adaptive structures focuses on the use of continuous wing shape changing methods as a means of replacing conventional discrete control surfaces and increasing aerodynamic efficiency. Although many shape-changing methods have been used since the beginning of heavier-than-air flight, the concept of performing camber actuation on a fully-deformable airfoil has not been widely applied. A fundamental problem of applying this concept to real-world scenarios is the fact that camber actuation is a continuous, time-dependent process. Therefore, if camber actuation is to be used in a closed-loop feedback system, one must be able to determine the instantaneous airfoil shape, as well as the aerodynamic loads, in real time. One approach is to utilize a new type of artificial hair sensors (AHS) developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to determine the flow conditions surrounding deformable airfoils. In this study, AHS measurement data will be simulated by using the flow solver XFoil, with the assumption that perfect data with no noise can be collected from the AHS measurements. Such measurements will then be used in an artificial neural network (ANN) based process to approximate the instantaneous airfoil camber shape, lift coefficient, and moment coefficient at a given angle of attack. Additionally, an aerodynamic formulation based on the finite-state inflow theory has been developed to calculate the aerodynamic loads on thin airfoils with arbitrary camber deformations. Various aerodynamic properties approximated from the AHS/ANN system will be compared with the results of the finite-state inflow aerodynamic formulation in order to validate the approximation approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paolo Gaetani
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The need of a continuous improvement in gas turbine efficiency for propulsion and power generation, as well as the more demanding operating conditions and power control required to these machines, still ask for great efforts in the design and analysis of the high pressure section of the turbo-expander. To get detailed insights and improve the comprehension of the flow physics, a wide experimental campaign has been performed in the last ten years at Politecnico di Milano on the unsteady aerodynamics of a high-pressure turbine stage considering several operating conditions. This paper presents and discusses the experimental results obtained for the stage operating with different expansion ratios and rotor loading. The turbine stage under study is representative of a modern high-pressure turbine and can be operated in both subsonic and transonic conditions. The experimental tools applied for the current research represents the state of the art when unsteady investigations are foreseen. The detailed flow field, the blade–rows interaction and the overall performance are described and discussed; efforts have been devoted to the discussion of the various contribution to the overall stage efficiency. The direct effects of the expansion ratio, affecting the Reynolds and the Mach numbers, have been highlighted and quantified; similarly, the indirect effects, accounting for a change in the rotor loading, have been commented and quantified as well, thanks to a dedicated set of experiments where different rotor loadings at the same expansion ratio have been prescribed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Results of numerical simulation of flow and calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of an airship with and without rotating propellers during motion through the atmospheric jet streams of various types are presented. Research was carried out during motion of the airship for constant angle of attack а = 0…30°, as well as angle characterizing the position of the airship relatively the axis of the jet flow in the horizontal plane, В = 0…175°, velocity of translational motion of air- ship V = 18.056 m/s, velocity of the jet area with constant velocity Um = 10.67 m/s, propeller revolutions - n = 3000 rev/min, Reynolds number Re = 5.3×106. It was found that while airship passing the jet stream, the absolute val- ues of the coefficients of aerodynamic forces and moments of the airship, both without and as well as with rotating propel- lers depend considerably on the position of the airship in the jet stream and type of jet stream, the angles а and В, and are several times higher than the coefficient values for the airship, located in the space free of the jet stream. It is demonstratedthat during the airship’s motion through transverse stream its influence on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airship with propellers is more considerable than during motion through updraft.
Numerical Calculation of Effect of Elastic Deformation on Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Rocket
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laith K. Abbas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The application and workflow of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD/Computational Structure Dynamics (CSD on solving the static aeroelastic problem of a slender rocket are introduced. To predict static aeroelastic behavior accurately, two-way coupling and inertia relief methods are used to calculate the static deformations and aerodynamic characteristics of the deformed rocket. The aerodynamic coefficients of rigid rocket are computed firstly and compared with the experimental data, which verified the accuracy of CFD output. The results of the analysis for elastic rocket in the nonspinning and spinning states are compared with the rigid ones. The results highlight that the rocket deformation aspects are decided by the normal force distribution along the rocket length. Rocket deformation becomes larger with increasing the flight angle of attack. Drag and lift force coefficients decrease and pitching moment coefficients increase due to rocket deformations, center of pressure location forwards, and stability of the rockets decreases. Accordingly, the flight trajectory may be affected by the change of these aerodynamic coefficients and stability.
Estimation of morphing airfoil shape and aerodynamic load using artificial hair sensors
Butler, Nathan S.; Su, Weihua; Thapa Magar, Kaman S.; Reich, Gregory W.
2016-04-01
An active area of research in adaptive structures focuses on the use of continuous wing shape changing methods as a means of replacing conventional discrete control surfaces and increasing aerodynamic efficiency. Although many shape-changing methods have been used since the beginning of heavier-than-air flight, the concept of performing camber actuation on a fully-deformable airfoil has not been widely applied. A fundamental problem of applying this concept to real-world scenarios is the fact that camber actuation is a continuous, time-dependent process. Therefore, if camber actuation is to be used in a closed-loop feedback system, one must be able to determine the instantaneous airfoil shape as well as the aerodynamic loads at all times. One approach is to utilize a new type of artificial hair sensors developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory to determine the flow conditions surrounding deformable airfoils. In this work, the hair sensor measurement data will be simulated by using the flow solver XFoil, with the assumption that perfect data with no noise can be collected from the hair sensor measurements. Such measurements will then be used in an artificial neural network based process to approximate the instantaneous airfoil camber shape, lift coefficient, and moment coefficient at a given angle of attack. Various aerodynamic and geometrical properties approximated from the artificial hair sensor and artificial neural network system will be compared with the results of XFoil in order to validate the approximation approach.
Numerical Investigation on Aerodynamic Force of Streamlined Box Girder with Uniform Air Suction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tang Ke
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In the present study, the flow around a streamlined box girder with uniform air suction has been investigated numerically. Two-dimensional incompressible unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS equations are solved in conjunction with the SST k −ω turbulence model in simulations. Taking the Great Belt Bridge girder as an example, cases of different suction positions on the girder section were discussed. The effect of the suction ratio and the angle of attack (AOA of wind also were investigated. The result showed that the aerodynamic drag force was influenced by the uniform suction through either upper surface or lower surface of the box girder. The larger the suction ratio was, the more the drag-reducing could be. The suction position and AOA had a comprehensive effect on the drag force. The vortex shedding frequency was also affected by air suction. For the aerodynamic lift force and moment, air suction showed no obvious influence. If necessary, using a combined suction scheme to reduce the aerodynamic drag force or to control the flow wake would be more efficient in engineering design.
Aerodynamic mechanism of forces generated by twisting model-wing in bat flapping flight
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
管子武; 余永亮
2014-01-01
The aerodynamic mechanism of the bat wing membrane along the lateral border of its body is studied. The twist-morphing that alters the angle of attack (AOA) along the span-wise direction is observed widely during bat flapping flight. An assumption is made that the linearly distributed AOA is along the span-wise direction. The plate with the aspect ratio of 3 is used to model a bat wing. A three-dimensional (3D) unsteady panel method is used to predict the aerodynamic forces generated by the flapping plate with leading edge separation. It is found that, relative to the rigid wing flapping, twisting motion can increase the averaged lift by as much as 25% and produce thrust instead of drag. Furthermore, the aerodynamic forces (lift/drag) generated by a twisting plate-wing are similar to those of a pitching rigid-wing, meaning that the twisting in bat flight has the same function as the supination/pronation motion in insect flight.
Aerodynamic characteristics of anemometer cups
Brevoort, M J; Joyner, U T
1934-01-01
The static lift and drag forces on three hemispherical and two conical cups were measured over a range of angles of attack from 0 degrees to 180 degrees and a range of Reynolds Numbers from very small up to 400,000. The problems of supporting the cup for measurement and the effect of turbulence were also studied. The results were compared with those of other investigators.
DeLuca, Anthony M.
Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of
Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics
Shang, Joseph J S
2016-01-01
Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils with Blunt Trailing Edge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alejandro Gómez
2006-11-01
Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo estudia de manera computacional el comportamiento de las características aerodinámicas de perfiles NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, hoy conocido como NASA, con modificaciones en el borde de salida. Las modificaciones consisten en remover secciones del borde de fuga del perfil. La investigación realizada estudia 39 perfiles diferentes de la familia NACA de 4 dígitos, con modelos teóricos sencillos para explicar los fenómenos. Los resultados muestran los cambios en las características de sustentación y arrastre del perfil, y cambios en cuanto a la entrada en pérdida del mismo./ This paper is a computational study of the behaviour of aerodynamic characteristics of NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, today known as NASA profiles with tailored trailing edges. 39 different profiles 4-digit NACA family were studied during the research. A computational research was made, using simple theoretical models to explain and to understand the results. The results describe the changes in lift and drag characteristics and changes in stall angle of attack.
Visser, K. D.; Nelson, R. C.; Ng, T. T.
1989-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation has been performed to quantify the effects of a jet on the leading-edge vortices generated by a 70-deg-sweep sharp-edged delta wing at low Reynolds numbers. Efforts were made ot optimize the jet nozzle position with respect to maximum lift increments. Both half-span force-balance testing and half- and full-span flow visualization tests were conducted. Two angles of attack were investigated, 30 and 35 deg, at Reynolds numbers of 150,000 and 200,000. Aerodynamic enhancement, including lift and drag gains of about 20 and 17 percent respectively, were measured. Results indicate an optimum jet nozzle location to be close to the leading edge, tangent to the upper wing surface, and in a direction aligned parallel to the leading edge. Nozzle interference effects, especially near the apex, were not negligible.
Ellison, J. C.
1977-01-01
An investigation was conducted to determine the supersonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of 0.015 scale models of the Rockwell International 089B and 139B space shuttle orbiter configurations and the 139B orbiter with a modifier forebody. The models each had a 45 deg swept delta wing that was blended into the body with an 81 deg swept fillet to form a double delta planform. The vertical tail had a split rudder deflected 27.5 deg on each side to form a speed brake. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.9, and 4.6 at a Reynolds number, based on the body length of the 089B model, of 4,150,000. Angles of attack varied from -4 deg to 44 deg at 0 deg sideslip.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
De Paolis P
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper a computational aerodynamic prediction to support the aeromechanical integration of an advanced reconnaissance pod on a 5th generation fighter type aircraft is presented. The aim of the activity was to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of the new pod to a previous one already cleared on the same aircraft fleet, given verified inertial and structural similarity. Verifying the aforementioned aerodynamic similarity without involving extensive flight test activity was a must, to save time and to reduce costs. A two steps approach was required by the Certification Authority to verify, initially, the performance data compatibility in terms of aerodynamic coefficients of the old pod with the new one, in order to allow performance flight manual data interchangeability (a quantitative comparison was required; afterwards, a qualitative assessment was conducted to verify the absence of unsteadiness induced by the introduction in the external structure of the new pod of an auxiliary antenna case. Computational results are presented both for Straight and Level Un-accelerated Flight and SteadySideslip flight conditions at different Angles of Attack.
Menthe, R. W.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.
1991-01-01
The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) code calculates the airloads on a single rotation prop-fan, or propeller, and couples these airloads with an acoustic radiation theory, to provide estimates of near-field or far-field noise levels. The steady airloads can also be used to calculate the nonuniform velocity components in the propeller wake. The airloads are calculated using a three dimensional compressible panel method which considers the effects of thin, cambered, multiple blades which may be highly swept. These airloads may be either steady or unsteady. The acoustic model uses the blade thickness distribution and the steady or unsteady aerodynamic loads to calculate the acoustic radiation. The users manual for the UAAP code is divided into five sections: general code description; input description; output description; system description; and error codes. The user must have access to IMSL10 libraries (MATH and SFUN) for numerous calls made for Bessel functions and matrix inversion. For plotted output users must modify the dummy calls to plotting routines included in the code to system-specific calls appropriate to the user's installation.
Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Benmore, C. J.; Alderman, O. L. G.; Sendelbach, S.; Hebden, A.; Williamson, M. A.
2016-07-01
An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.
Advancements in adaptive aerodynamic technologies for airfoils and wings
Jepson, Jeffrey Keith
required for the airfoil-aircraft matching. Examples are presented to illustrate the flapped-airfoil design approach for a general aviation aircraft and the results are validated by comparison with results from post-design aircraft performance computations. Once the airfoil is designed to incorporate a TE flap, it is important to determine the most suitable flap angles along the wing for different flight conditions. The second part of this dissertation presents a method for determining the optimum flap angles to minimize drag based on pressures measured at select locations on the wing. Computational flow simulations using a panel method are used "in the loop" for demonstrating closed-loop control of the flaps. Examples in the paper show that the control algorithm is successful in correctly adapting the wing to achieve the target lift distributions for minimizing induced drag while adjusting the wing angle of attack for operation of the wing in the drag bucket. It is shown that the "sense-and-adapt" approach developed is capable of handling varying and unpredictable inflow conditions. Such a capability could be useful in adapting long-span flexible wings that may experience significant and unknown atmospheric inflow variations along the span. To further develop the "sense-and-adapt" approach, the method was tested experimentally in the third part of the research. The goal of the testing was to see if the same results found computationally can be obtained experimentally. The North Carolina State University subsonic wind tunnel was used for the wind tunnel tests. Results from the testing showed that the "sense-and-adapt" approach has the same performance experimentally as it did computationally. The research presented in this dissertation is a stepping stone towards further development of the concept, which includes modeling the system in the Simulink environment and flight experiments using uninhabited aerial vehicles.
Sarver, D.; Mulkey, T. L.; Lindahl, R. H.
1975-01-01
The performance, stability, and control characteristics of various carrier aircraft configurations are presented. Aerodynamic characteristics of the carrier mated with the Orbiter, carrier alone, and Orbiter alone were investigated. Carrier support system tare and interference effects were determined. Six-component force and moment data were recorded for the carrier and Orbiter. Buffet onset characteristics of the carrier vertical tail and horizontal tail were recorded. Angles of attack from -3 deg through 26 deg and angles of slideslip between +12 deg and -12 deg were investigated at Mach numbers from 0.15 through 0.70. Photographs are included.
1958-03-01
3RD Symposium Cooý " HIGH-SPEED AERODYNAMICS AND STRUCTURES SAN DIEGO., CALIF DTIC Fft EELECTE ti"tSAUG0 419 F 1ThIU~~4 do ume hat be~ aapm p ubi...waves as shown in Fig. 19. 1-0 £ - 45 rnsee -. 5 rnsec t, t ime Fig. 19. The 5-Millisecond Buildup, Finite Rise Time Wave Form 155 The distance at which a
GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND GAME THEORY FOR HIGH LIFT DESIGN PROBLEMS IN AERODYNAMICS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PériauxJacques; WangJiangfeng; WuYizhao
2002-01-01
A multi-objective evolutionary optimization method (combining genetic algorithms(GAs)and game theory(GT))is presented for high lift multi-airfoil systems in aerospace engineering.Due to large dimension global op-timization problems and the increasing importance of low cost distributed parallel environments,it is a natural idea to replace a globar optimization by decentralized local sub-optimizations using GT which introduces the notion of games associated to an optimization problem.The GT/GAs combined optimization method is used for recon-struction and optimization problems by high lift multi-air-foil desing.Numerical results are favorably compared with single global GAs.The method shows teh promising robustness and efficient parallel properties of coupled GAs with different game scenarios for future advanced multi-disciplinary aerospace techmologies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ferreira, C.; Gonzalez, A.; Baldacchino, D.;
2016-01-01
The FP7 AdVanced Aerodynamic Tools for lArge Rotors - Avatar project aims to develop and validate advanced aerodynamic models, to be used in integral design codes for the next generation of large scale wind turbines (10-20MW). One of the approaches towards reaching rotors for 10-20MW size...... is the application of flow control devices, such as flaps. In Task 3.2: Development of aerodynamic codes for modelling of flow devices on aerofoils and, rotors of the Avatar project, aerodynamic codes are benchmarked and validated against the experimental data of a DU95W180 airfoil in steady and unsteady flow......, for different angle of attack and flap settings, including unsteady oscillatory trailing-edge-flap motion, carried out within the framework of WP3: Models for Flow Devices and Flow Control, Task 3.1: CFD and Experimental Database. The aerodynamics codes are: AdaptFoil2D, Foil2W, FLOWer, MaPFlow, OpenFOAM, Q3UIC...
Jones, R. T. (Compiler)
1979-01-01
A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.
Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filippone, Antonino
1999-01-01
"Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature...
Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filippone, Antonino
1999-01-01
"Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature...
Norton, J. M.; Tari, U.; Weber, R. M.
1979-01-01
A quasi three dimensional design system and multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections were used to design a fan rotor. An axisymmetric intrablade flow field calculation modeled the shroud of an isolated splitter and radial distribution. The structural analysis indicates that the design is satisfactory for evaluation of aerodynamic performance of the fan stage in a test facility.
Progress on a Taylor weak statement finite element algorithm for high-speed aerodynamic flows
Baker, A. J.; Freels, J. D.
1989-01-01
A new finite element numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) algorithm has matured to the point of efficiently solving two-dimensional high speed real-gas compressible flow problems in generalized coordinates on modern vector computer systems. The algorithm employs a Taylor Weak Statement classical Galerkin formulation, a variably implicit Newton iteration, and a tensor matrix product factorization of the linear algebra Jacobian under a generalized coordinate transformation. Allowing for a general two-dimensional conservation law system, the algorithm has been exercised on the Euler and laminar forms of the Navier-Stokes equations. Real-gas fluid properties are admitted, and numerical results verify solution accuracy, efficiency, and stability over a range of test problem parameters.
High-Tip-Speed, Low-Loading Transonic Fan Stage. Part 1: Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design
Wright, L. C.; Vitale, N. G.; Ware, T. C.; Erwin, J. R.
1973-01-01
A high-tip-speed, low-loading transonic fan stage was designed to deliver an overall pressure ratio of 1.5 with an adiabatic efficiency of 86 percent. The design flow per unit annulus area is 42.0 pounds per square foot. The fan features a hub/tip ratio of 0.46, a tip diameter of 28.74 in. and operates at a design tip speed of 1600 fps. For these design conditions, the rotor blade tip region operates with supersonic inlet and supersonic discharge relative velocities. A sophisticated quasi-three-dimensional characteristic section design procedure was used for the all-supersonic sections and the inlet of the midspan transonic sections. For regions where the relative outlet velocities are supersonic, the blade operates with weak oblique shocks only.
Flow Analysis By High Speed Photography And Pictures
Werle, H.
1985-02-01
At the ONERA hydrodynamic visualization laboratory, high-speed photography and cinematography are used for analysing flow-phenomena around fixed or mobile models in the test section of three vertical water tunnels, operating by gravity draining. These studies in water are based on the hydraulic analogy of aerodynamic incompressible flows. Flow visualization is archieved by liquid tracers (dye emissions) or gaseous tracers (fine air bubbles in suspension in water). In many cases, the pictures at normal speed or long exposure time are insufficient, for they do not permit to distinguish all the details of the phenomena, due to an averaging or motion effect. Furthermore they must be completed with high speed pictures. This is illustrated by a few visua-lization examples recently obtained on following themes - two dimensional flow around a fixed cylinder, first at the start of the flow (symmetrical vortex), then in steady regime (periodic vortex street) ; - laminar-turbulent transition in a boundary layer along a cylindrical body at zero angle of attack ; - flow separation around a sphere and wake in steady regime at small and high Reynolds numbers; - flow separation around a profile, first with fixed incidence, then with harmonic oscillations in pitch ; - core structure of a longitudinal vortex issued from a wing first organized, then disintegrated under the effect of a lengthwise pressure gradient (vortex breakdown) ; - mixing zone around a turbulent axisymmetric jet, characterized by the formation of large vortex struc-tures ; - hovering tests of an helicopter rotor, first at the start of the rotation, then in established regime, finally in cruise flight ; - case of a complete helicopter model in cruise-flight, with air-intake simulation, gas exhaust and tail rotor ; - flow around a complete delta-wing aircraft model at mean or high angle of attack, first in steady regime, then with harmonic oscillations in yaw or pitch. These results illustrate the contribution of
High-Lift Optimization Design Using Neural Networks on a Multi-Element Airfoil
Greenman, Roxana M.; Roth, Karlin R.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag, and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural networks were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 83% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.
Discrete vortex method simulations of aerodynamic admittance in bridge aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Larsen, Allan
, and to determine aerodynamic forces and the corresponding ﬂutter limit. A simulation of the three-dimensional bridge responseto turbulent wind is carried out by quasi steady theory by modelling the bridge girder as a line like structure [2], applying the aerodynamic load coefﬁcients found from the current version...... of DVMFLOW in a strip wise fashion. Neglecting the aerodynamic admittance, i.e. the correlation of the instantaneous lift force to the turbulent ﬂuctuations in the vertical velocities, leads to higher response to high frequency atmospheric turbulence than would be obtained from wind tunnel tests....... In the present work we have extended the laminar oncoming ﬂow in DVMFLOW to a turbulent one, modelled by seeding the upstream ﬂow with vortex particles synthesized from prescribed atmospheric turbulence velocity spectra [3] . The discrete spectrum is sampled from the continuous spectrum subject to a lower cutoff...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Juanmian; Zhao Shuai; Wang Suozhu
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the influence of forward-swept wing (FSW) positions on the aero-dynamic characteristics of aircraft under supersonic condition (Ma=1.5). The numerical method based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations, Spalart–Allmaras (S–A) turbu-lence model and implicit algorithm is utilized to simulate the flow field of the aircraft. The aerody-namic parameters and flow field structures of the horizontal tail and the whole aircraft are presented. The results demonstrate that the spanwise flow of FSW flows from the wingtip to the wing root, generating an upper wing surface vortex and a trailing edge vortex nearby the wing root. The vortexes generated by FSW have a strong downwash effect on the tail. The lower the vertical position of FSW, the stronger the downwash effect on tail. Therefore, the effective angle of attack of tail becomes smaller. In addition, the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and lift–drag ratio of tail decrease, and the center of pressure of tail moves backward gradually. For the whole aircraft, the lower the vertical position of FSW, the smaller lift, drag and center of pressure coefficients of aircraft. The closer the FSW moves towards tail, the bigger pitching moment and center of pres-sure coefficients of the whole aircraft, but the lift and drag characteristics of the horizontal tail and the whole aircraft are basically unchanged. The results have potential application for the design of new concept aircraft.
Experimental study of ice accretion effects on aerodynamic performance of an NACA 23012 airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sohrab Gholamhosein Pouryoussefi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of icing on an NACA 23012 airfoil have been studied. Experiments were applied on the clean airfoil, runback ice, horn ice, and spanwise ridge ice at a Reynolds number of 0.6 × 106 over angles of attack from −8° to 20°, and then results are compared. Generally, it is found that ice accretion on the airfoil can contribute to formation of a flow separation bubble on the upper surface downstream from the leading edge. In addition, it is made clear that spanwise ridge ice provides the greatest negative effect on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil. In this case, the stall angle drops about 10° and the maximum lift coefficient reduces about 50% which is hazardous for an airplane. While horn ice leads to a stall angle drop of about 4° and a maximum lift coefficient reduction to 21%, runback ice has the least effect on the flow pattern around the airfoil and the aerodynamic coefficients so as the stall angle decreases 2° and the maximum lift reduces about 8%.
Blissit, J. A.
1986-01-01
Using analysis results from the post trajectory optimization program, an adaptive guidance algorithm is developed to compensate for density, aerodynamic and thrust perturbations during an atmospheric orbital plane change maneuver. The maneuver offers increased mission flexibility along with potential fuel savings for future reentry vehicles. Although designed to guide a proposed NASA Entry Research Vehicle, the algorithm is sufficiently generic for a range of future entry vehicles. The plane change analysis provides insight suggesting a straight-forward algorithm based on an optimized nominal command profile. Bank angle, angle of attack, and engine thrust level, ignition and cutoff times are modulated to adjust the vehicle's trajectory to achieve the desired end-conditions. A performance evaluation of the scheme demonstrates a capability to guide to within 0.05 degrees of the desired plane change and five nautical miles of the desired apogee altitude while maintaining heating constraints. The algorithm is tested under off-nominal conditions of + or -30% density biases, two density profile models, + or -15% aerodynamic uncertainty, and a 33% thrust loss and for various combinations of these conditions.
Experimental study of ice accretion effects on aerodynamic performance of an NACA 23012 airfoil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Masoud Mirzaei; Mohammad-Mahdi Nazemi; Mojtaba Fouladi; Alireza Doostmahmoudi
2016-01-01
In this paper, the effects of icing on an NACA 23012 airfoil have been studied. Exper-iments were applied on the clean airfoil, runback ice, horn ice, and spanwise ridge ice at a Reynolds number of 0.6 ? 106 over angles of attack from ? 8? to 20?, and then results are compared. Gener-ally, it is found that ice accretion on the airfoil can contribute to formation of a flow separation bubble on the upper surface downstream from the leading edge. In addition, it is made clear that spanwise ridge ice provides the greatest negative effect on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil. In this case, the stall angle drops about 10? and the maximum lift coefficient reduces about 50%which is hazardous for an airplane. While horn ice leads to a stall angle drop of about 4? and a maximum lift coefficient reduction to 21%, runback ice has the least effect on the flow pattern around the airfoil and the aerodynamic coefficients so as the stall angle decreases 2? and the maximum lift reduces about 8%.
Aerodynamic Testing of the Orion Launch Abort Tower Separation with Jettison Motor Jet Interactions
Rhode, Matthew N.; Chan, David T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Wilson, Thomas M.
2011-01-01
The aerodynamic database for the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) was developed largely from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The LAS contains three solid rocket motors used in various phases of an abort to provide propulsion, steering, and Launch Abort Tower (LAT) jettison from the Crew Module (CM). This paper describes a pair of wind tunnel experiments performed at transonic and supersonic speeds to determine the aerodynamic effects due to proximity and jet interactions during LAT jettison from the CM at the end of an abort. The tests were run using two different scale models at angles of attack from 150deg to 200deg , sideslip angles from -10deg to +10deg , and a range of powered thrust levels from the jettison motors to match various jet simulation parameters with flight values. Separation movements between the CM and LAT included axial and vertical translations as well as relative pitch angle between the two bodies. The paper details aspects of the model design, nozzle scaling methodology, instrumentation, testing procedures, and data reduction. Sample data are shown to highlight trends seen in the results.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Deep-Stepped Planing-Tail Flying-Boat Hulls
Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.
1947-01-01
An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of three deep-stepped planing-tail flying-boat hulls differing only in the amount of step fairing. The hulls were derived by increasing the unfaired step depth of a planing-tail hull of a previous aerodynamic investigation to a depth about 92 percent of the hull beam. Tests were also made on a transverse-stepped hull with an extended afterbody for the purpose of comparison and in order to extend and verify the results of a previous investigation. The investigation indicated that the extended afterbody hull had a minimum drag coefficient about the same as a conventional hull, 0.0066, and an angle-of-attack range for minimum drag coefficient of 0.0057 which was 14 percent less than the transverse stepped hull with extended afterbody; the hulls with step fairing had up to 44 percent less minimum drag coefficient than the transverse-stepped hull, or slightly more drag than a streamlined body having approximately the same length and volume. Longitudinal and lateral instability varied little with step fairing and was about the same as a conventional hull.
Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove
Hartshorn, Fletcher
2011-01-01
Aerodynamic analysis on a business jet with a wing glove attached to one wing is presented and discussed. If a wing glove is placed over a portion of one wing, there will be asymmetries in the aircraft as well as overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to make sure the wing glove does not have a drastic effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver was used to analyze a full aircraft, with and without a glove, at a variety of flight conditions and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag and side force, along with roll, pitch and yawing moment are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove and its fairing are discussed. Results show that the glove used here does not present a drastic change in forces and moments on the aircraft, but an added torsional moment around the quarter-chord of the wing may be a cause for some structural concerns.
Pezzella, Giuseppe; Richiello, Camillo; Russo, Gennaro
2011-05-01
This paper deals with the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic trade-off analysis carried out with the aim to design a hypersonic flying test bed (FTB), namely USV3. Such vehicle will have to be launched with a small expendable launcher and shall re-enter the Earth atmosphere allowing to perform several experiments on critical re-entry phenomena. The demonstrator under study is a re-entry space glider characterized by a relatively simple vehicle architecture able to validate hypersonic aerothermodynamic design database and passenger experiments, including thermal shield and hot structures. Then, a summary review of the aerodynamic characteristics of two FTB concepts, compliant with a phase-A design level, has been provided hereinafter. Indeed, several design results, based both on engineering approach and computational fluid dynamics, are reported and discussed in the paper.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Niranjan Sahoo; S Saravanan; G Jagadeesh; K P J Reddy
2006-10-01
Aerodynamic forces and fore-body convective surface heat transfer rates over a 60° apex-angle blunt cone have been simultaneously measured at a nominal Mach number of 5·75 in the hypersonic shock tunnel HST2. An aluminum model incorporating a three-component accelerometer-based balance system for measuring the aerodynamic forces and an array of platinum thin-ﬁlm gauges deposited on thermally insulating backing material ﬂush mounted on the model surface is used for convective surface heat transfer measurement in the investigations. The measured value of the drag coefﬁcient varies by about $\\pm 6$% from the theoretically estimated value based on the modiﬁed Newtonian theory, while the axi-symmetric Navier–Stokes computations overpredict the drag coefﬁcient by about 9%. The normalized values of measured heat transfer rates at 0° angle of attack are about 11% higher than the theoretically estimated values. The aerodynamic and the heat transfer data presented here are very valuable for the validation of CFD codes used for the numerical computation of ﬂow ﬁelds around hypersonic vehicles.
Han, Jong-Seob; Kim, Joong-Kwan; Chang, Jo Won; Han, Jae-Hung
2015-07-30
A quasi-steady aerodynamic model in consideration of the center of pressure (C.P.) was developed for insect flight. A dynamically scaled-up robotic hawkmoth wing was used to obtain the translational lift, drag, moment and rotational force coefficients. The translational force coefficients were curve-fitted with respect to the angles of attack such that two coefficients in the Polhamus leading-edge suction analogy model were obtained. The rotational force coefficient was also compared to that derived by the standard Kutta-Joukowski theory. In order to build the accurate pitching moment model, the locations of the C.Ps. and its movements depending on the pitching velocity were investigated in detail. We found that the aerodynamic moment model became suitable when the rotational force component was assumed to act on the half-chord. This implies that the approximation borrowed from the conventional airfoil concept, i.e., the 'C.P. at the quarter-chord' may lead to an incorrect moment prediction. In the validation process, the model showed excellent time-course force and moment estimations in comparison with the robotic wing measurement results. A fully nonlinear multibody flight dynamic simulation was conducted to check the effect of the traveling C.P. on the overall flight dynamics. This clearly showed the importance of an accurate aerodynamic moment model.
Rao, Chen; Ikeda, Teruaki; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao
2017-07-04
Owls are widely known for silent flight, achieving remarkably low noise gliding and flapping flights owing to their unique wing morphologies, which are normally characterized by leading-edge serrations, trailing-edge fringes and velvet-like surfaces. How these morphological features affect aerodynamic force production and sound suppression or noise reduction, however, is still not well known. Here we address an integrated study of owl-inspired single feather wing models with and without leading-edge serrations by combining large-eddy simulations (LES) with particle-image velocimetry (PIV) and force measurements in a low-speed wind tunnel. With velocity and pressure spectra analysis, we demonstrate that leading-edge serrations can passively control the laminar-turbulent transition over the upper wing surface, i.e. the suction surface at all angles of attack (0° leading-edges reduce aerodynamic performance at lower AoAs leading-edges but are capable of achieving both noise reduction and aerodynamic performance at higher AoAs > 15° where owl wings often reach in flight. Our results indicate that the owl-inspired leading-edge serrations may be a useful device for aero-acoustic control in biomimetic rotor designs for wind turbines, aircrafts, multi-rotor drones as well as other fluid machinery.
Mennell, R. C.
1973-01-01
Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on an 0.0405 scale representation of the Rockwell -89A Light Weight Space Shuttle Orbiter. The test purpose was to obtain pressure loads data in the presence of the ground for orbiter structural strength analysis. Aerodynamic force data was also recorded to allow correlation with all pressure loads information. Angles of attack from minus 3 deg to 18 deg and angles of sideslip of 0 deg, plus or minus 50 deg, and plus or minus 10 deg were tested in the presence of the NAAL ground plane. Static pressure bugs were used to obtain a pressure loads survey of the basic configuration, elevon deflections of 5 deg, 10 deg, 15 deg, and minus 20 deg and a rudder deflection of minus 15 deg, at a tunnel dynamic pressure of 40 psi. The test procedure was to locate a maximum of 30 static pressure bugs on the model surface at various locations calculated to prevent aerodynamic and physical interference. Then by various combinations of location the pressure bugs output was to define a complete pressure survey for the fuselages, wing, vertical tail, and main landing gear door.
Mehta, R. D.
1985-01-01
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林玉祥; 王琦; 李卫; 杜琪
2015-01-01
The lift-fan aircraft in flying wing configuration not only can be capable of short distance/vertical takeoff and landing ( S/VTOL) ,but also have the aerodynamics advantages of the flying wing. In order to obtain the effect laws of the opening on the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing,the aerodynamics performance of the longitudinal center section of wing opening is studied by the aerodynamic simulation in horizontal flight. Moreover, the characteristics of lift coefficient,drag coefficient and moment coefficient changing with the change of flow velocity and angle of attack are also analyzed. The study shows that under the same angle of attack, with the increase of flow velocity,drag coefficient and moment coefficient are risen. Under the same flow velocity, with the increase of angle of attack,the lift coefficient is increased,the drag coefficient is decreased first and then increased,the moment coefficient is decreased, and always produce nose-down moment. The study results provide a basis for the further optimization of the opening position and shape.%带升力风扇飞翼布局飞机不仅可实现垂直/短距起降,还拥有飞翼布局飞机的气动优点. 为获得开口对机翼气动特性的影响规律,对平飞状态下机翼开口中心处的纵向剖面进行气动仿真,分析升力系数、阻力系数和力矩系数随来流速度和迎角的改变而变化的特性. 结果表明:在迎角一定的情况下,随着来流速度的增大,阻力系数和力矩系数呈上升趋势;来流速度一定时,随迎角加大,升力系数增大,阻力系数先减小后增大;力矩系数随之减小,且一直都产生低头力矩. 研究结果对开口位置和形状的进一步优化提供了依据.
高速列车车头的气动噪声数值分析%Numerical Analysis on Aerodynamic Noise of the High-speed Train Head
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘加利; 张继业; 张卫华
2011-01-01
Along with the raising of the train speed, aerodynamic noise of the high-speed train are generated more and more significantly and their reduction has become one of the key factors to control noises of the highspeed train. In this paper, aerodynamic noise radiated from the high-speed train head surface are analyzed numerically. The mathematical and physical models of the three dimensional flow field of the high-speed train are established and the external steady and unsteady flow fields of the high-speed train are calculated by using the standard k-e turbulence model and large eddy simulation (LES) respectively. On the basis of the steady flow field, aerodynamic noise sources on the car body surface of the high-speed train are calculated by using the broadband noise source model. On the basis of the unsteady flow field, the time domain and frequency domain characteristics of fluctuating pressures on the car body surface are analyzed. The far-field aerodynamic noise of the high-speed train are calculated by applying the Lighthill acoustic analogue theory and the time domain and frequency domain characteristics of aerodynamic noise in the far-field are analyzed. The computational research is significant to study and control of aerodynamic noise of the high-speed train.%随着列车运行速度的提高,列车气动噪声变得越来越明显,降低气动噪声已成为控制高速列车噪声的关键之一.本文对高速列车车头气动噪声进行数值分析.首先,建立高速列车三维绕流流场的数学物理模型,分别利用标准k-ε湍流模型和大涡模拟计算高速列车的外部稳态和瞬态流场.然后,基于稳态流场,利用宽频带噪声源模型计算高速列车车身表面气动噪声源；基于瞬态流场,分析车身表面脉动压力的时域及频域特性；利用Lighthill声学比拟理论,计算高速列车远场气动噪声,分析远场气动噪声的时域及频域特性.本文对研究和控制高速列车气动噪声具有一定意义.
Three-dimensional effects on airfoil measurements at high Reynolds numbers
Kiefer, Janik; Miller, Mark; Hultmark, Marcus; Hansen, Martin
2016-11-01
Blade Element Momentum codes (BEM) are widely used in the wind turbine industry to determine a turbine's operational range and its limits. Empirical two-dimensional airfoil data serve as the primary and fundamental input to the BEM code. Consequently, the results of BEM simulations are strongly dependent on the accuracy of these data. In this presentation, an experimental study is described in which airfoils of different aspect ratios were tested at identical Reynolds numbers. A high-pressure wind tunnel facility is used to achieve large Reynolds numbers of Rec = 3 ×106 , even with small chord lengths. This methodology enables testing of very high aspect ratio airfoils to characterize 3-D effects on the lift and drag data. The tests were performed over a large range of angles of attack, which is especially important for wind turbines. The effect of varying aspect ratio on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil is discussed with emphasis on the outcome of a BEM simulation. The project was partially funded by NSF CBET-1435254 (program manager Dr. Gregory Rorrer).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱信尧; 宋保维; 毛昭勇; 吴文辉
2011-01-01
Based on the status that the speed and range of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) can not be greatly improved at the same time, this paper advances the conception of high-altitude gliding unmanned underwater vehicle and makes a simple design on the overall layout of it. On this basis, in order to analyze its aerodynamic performance, we estimate its lift coefficient, drag coefficient, pitching moment coefficient, heading static derivative, dynamic derivatives and manipulation derivatives, and draw their curves with the method used on plane and missile design.After this, the lift-drag ratio and stability was analyzed. The results show that this UUV is stable and it has a large lift-drag ratio. We can draw a conclusion that this UUV has a good aerodynamic performance.%研究水下航行器,针对无人水下航行器无法同时大幅度提高航速和航程的现状,为优化无人水下航行器气动特性,增强系统的稳定性,提出了高空滑翔无人水下航行器(UUV)总体气动布局进行设计.对气动特性进行分析,根据飞机和导弹气动参数的估算方法,通过类比的方式,对升力系数、阻力系数、俯仰力矩系数、航向静导数、动导数和操纵导数等主要气动参数进行了仿真,结果得出了相应的变化曲线.利用计算出的参数对其升阻比和稳定性进行了分析.分析结果表明,高空滑翔UUV气动效率高、稳定性好,总体气动特性满足系统精度要求.
The effect of foam on waves and the aerodynamic roughness of the water surface at high winds
Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vdovin, Maxim; Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexander
2017-04-01
Air-sea coupling at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of explanation of the sea surface drag saturation at the wind speed exceeding 30 m/s. The idea on saturation (and even reduction) of the coefficient of aerodynamic resistance of the sea surface at hurricane wind speed first suggested in [1] on the basis of theoretical analysis of sensitivity of maximum wind speed in a hurricane to the ratio of the enthalpy and momentum exchange coefficients was then confirmed by a number of field (e.g.[2]) and laboratory [3] experiments, which showed that the sea surface drag coefficient was significantly reduced in comparison with the parameterization obtained at moderate to strong wind conditions. The theoretical explanations of the effect of the sea surface drag reduction exploit either peculiarities of the air flow over breaking waves (e.g.[4,5]) or the effect of sea drops and spray on the wind-wave momentum exchange (e.g. [6,7]). Recently an alternative hypothesis was suggested in [8], where the surface drag reduction in hurricanes was explained by the influence of foam covering sea surface on its aerodynamic roughness. This paper describes a series of laboratory experiments in Thermostratified Wind-Wave Tank (TSWiWaT) of IAP directed to investigation of the foam impact on the short-wave part of the surface waves and the momentum exchange in the atmospheric boundary layer at high winds in the range of equivalent 10-m wind speed from 12 to 38 m/s. A special foam generator was designed for these experiments. The air flow parameters were retrieved from measurements of the velocity profiles. The frequency-wavenumber spectra of surface waves were retrieved from the measurements of water surface elevation by the array 3-channel wave gauge. Foam coverage of water surface was controlled by video filming of the water surface. The results of measurements were compared with predictions of the quasi-linear model of atmospheric boundary layer over
Optimal Aerodynamic Design of Conventional and Coaxial Helicopter Rotors in Hover and Forward Flight
Giovanetti, Eli B.
This dissertation investigates the optimal aerodynamic performance and design of conventional and coaxial helicopters in hover and forward flight using conventional and higher harmonic blade pitch control. First, we describe a method for determining the blade geometry, azimuthal blade pitch inputs, optimal shaft angle (rotor angle of attack), and division of propulsive and lifting forces among the components that minimize the total power for a given forward flight condition. The optimal design problem is cast as a variational statement that is discretized using a vortex lattice wake to model inviscid forces, combined with two-dimensional drag polars to model profile losses. The resulting nonlinear constrained optimization problem is solved via Newton iteration. We investigate the optimal design of a compound vehicle in forward flight comprised of a coaxial rotor system, a propeller, and optionally, a fixed wing. We show that higher harmonic control substantially reduces required power, and that both rotor and propeller efficiencies play an important role in determining the optimal shaft angle, which in turn affects the optimal design of each component. Second, we present a variational approach for determining the optimal (minimum power) torque-balanced coaxial hovering rotor using Blade Element Momentum Theory including swirl. We show that the optimal hovering coaxial rotor generates only a small percentage of its total thrust on the portion of the lower rotor operating in the upper rotor's contracted wake, resulting in an optimal design with very different upper and lower rotor twist and chord distributions. We also show that the swirl component of induced velocity has a relatively small effect on rotor performance at the disk loadings typical of helicopter rotors. Third, we describe a more refined model of the wake of a hovering conventional or coaxial rotor. We approximate the rotor or coaxial rotors as actuator disks (though not necessarily uniformly loaded
Walton, Karl; Fleming, Leigh; Goodhand, Martin; Racasan, Radu; Zeng, Wenhan
2016-06-01
This paper details, assesses and validates a technique for the replication of a titanium wind tunnel test aerofoil in polyurethane resin. Existing resin replication techniques are adapted to overcome the technical difficulties associated with casting a high aspect ratio component. The technique is shown to have high replication fidelity over all important length-scales. The blade chord was accurate to 0.02%, and the maximum blade thickness was accurate to 2.5%. Important spatial and amplitude areal surface texture parameter were accurate to within 2%. Compared to an existing similar system using correlation areal parameters the current technique is shown to have lower fidelity and this difference is discussed. The current technique was developed for the measurement of boundary layer flow ‘laminar to turbulent’ transition for gas turbine compressor blade profiles and this application is illustrated.
Wornom, Dewey E.
1959-01-01
An investigation of a model of a standard size body in combination with a representative 45 deg swept-wing-fuselage model has been conducted in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.80 to 1.43. The body, with a fineness ratio of 8.5, was tested with and without fins, and was pylon-mounted beneath the fuselage or wing. Force measurements were obtained on the wing-fuselage model with and without the body, for an angle-of-attack range from -2 deg to approximately 12 deg and an angle-of-sideslip range from -8 deg to 8 deg. In addition, body loads were measured over the same angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip range. The Reynolds number for the investigation, based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord, varied from 1.85 x 10(exp 6) to 2.85 x 10(exp 6). The addition of the body beneath the fuselage or the wing increased the drag coefficient of the complete model over the Mach number range tested. On the basis of the drag increase per body, the under-fuselage position was the more favorable. Furthermore, the bodies tended to increase the lateral stability of the complete model. The variation of body loads with angle of attack for the unfinned bodies was generally small and linear over the Mach number range tested with the addition of fins causing large increases in the rates of change of normal-force coefficient and nose-down pitching-moment coefficient. The variation of body side-force coefficient with sideslip for the unfinned body beneath the fuselage was at least twice as large as the variation of this load for the unfinned body beneath the wing. The addition of fins to the body beneath either the fuselage or the wing approximately doubled the rate of change of body side-force coefficient with sideslip. Furthermore, the variation of body side-force coefficient with sideslip for the body beneath the wing was at least twice as large as the variation of this load with angle of attack.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李辉; 肖新标; 金学松
2015-01-01
The neural network method was used to predict exterior aerodynamic noise of high-speed trains. Based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy theory, an aerodynamic noise computation model of the high-speed train was built. Then, a neural network model for aerodynamic noise prediction was built up using Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. The prediction model was trained by the sample data of the external aerodynamic noise signal, and the trained neural network model was used to predict the external aerodynamic noise. The results show that the neural network method for aerodynamic noise prediction is a quite accurate algorithm and can be used for exterior aerodynamic noise prediction of high-speed trains.%利用神经网络进行高速列车车外气动噪声预测研究。基于Lighthill声学类比理论，建立高速列车气动噪声计算模型。在此基础上采用Levenberg-Marquardt (LM)算法建立车外气动噪声的神经网络预测模型，选取车外气动噪声样本点对预测模型进行训练，用训练好的神经网络预测模型预测车外气动噪声。结果表明，建立的神经网络模型对车外噪声具有较好的预测效果，可以用来进行高速列车车外噪声预测。
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Otto Laver
Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis Wind...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...
INTEGRATED AERODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS
SCHUTTE, HK
1992-01-01
The myoelastic-aerodynamic model of phonation implies that aerodynamic factors are crucial to the evaluation of voice function, Subglottal pressure and mean flow rate represent the vocal power source. If they can be related to the magnitude of the radiated sound power, they may provide an index of v
Reinforced aerodynamic profile
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic...
Test Capability Enhancements to the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel
Harvin, S. F.; Cabell, K. F.; Gallimore, S. D.; Mekkes, G. L.
2006-01-01
The NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel produces true enthalpy environments simulating flight from Mach 4 to Mach 7, primarily for airbreathing propulsion and aerothermal/thermo-structural testing. Flow conditions are achieved through a methane-air heater and nozzles producing aerodynamic Mach numbers of 4, 5 or 7 and have exit diameters of 8 feet or 4.5 feet. The 12-ft long free-jet test section, housed inside a 26-ft vacuum sphere, accommodates large test articles. Recently, the facility underwent significant upgrades to support hydrocarbon fueled scramjet engine testing and to expand flight simulation capability. The upgrades were required to meet engine system development and flight clearance verification requirements originally defined by the joint NASA-Air Force X-43C Hypersonic Flight Demonstrator Project and now the Air Force X-51A Program. Enhancements to the 8-Ft. HTT were made in four areas: 1) hydrocarbon fuel delivery; 2) flight simulation capability; 3) controls and communication; and 4) data acquisition/processing. The upgrades include the addition of systems to supply ethylene and liquid JP-7 to test articles; a Mach 5 nozzle with dynamic pressure simulation capability up to 3200 psf, the addition of a real-time model angle-of-attack system; a new programmable logic controller sub-system to improve process controls and communication with model controls; the addition of MIL-STD-1553B and high speed data acquisition systems and a classified data processing environment. These additions represent a significant increase to the already unique test capability and flexibility of the facility, and complement the existing array of test support hardware such as a model injection system, radiant heaters, six-component force measurement system, and optical flow field visualization hardware. The new systems support complex test programs that require sophisticated test sequences and precise management of process fluids. Furthermore, the new systems, such
Kunz, Robert F.
2014-01-01
This document represents the evolving formal documentation of the NPHASE-PSU computer code. Version 3.15 is being delivered along with the software to NASA in 2013.Significant upgrades to the NPHASE-PSU have been made since the first delivery of draft documentation to DARPA and USNRC in 2006. These include a much lighter, faster and memory efficient face based front end, support for arbitrary polyhedra in front end, flow-solver and back-end, a generalized homogeneous multiphase capability, and several two-fluid modelling and algorithmic elements. Specific capability installed for the NASA Gearbox Windage Aerodynamics NRA are included in this version: Hybrid Immersed Overset Boundary Method (HOIBM) [Noack et. al (2009)] Periodic boundary conditions for multiple frames of reference, Fully generalized immersed boundary method, Fully generalized conjugate heat transfer, Droplet deposition, bouncing, splashing models, and, Film transport and breakup.
Dziubala, T.; Esparza, V.; Gillins, R. L.; Petrozzi, M.
1975-01-01
A Rockwell built 0.030-scale 45-0 modified Space Shuttle Orbiter Configuration 14?A/B model and a Boeing built 0.030-scale 747 carrier model were tested to provide six component force and moment data for each vehicle in proximity to the other at a matrix of relative positions, attitudes and test conditions (angles of attack and sideslip were varied). Orbiter model support system tare effects were determined for corrections to obtain support-free aerodynamics. In addition to the balance force data, pressures were measured. Pressure orifices were located at the base of the Orbiter, on either side of the vertical blade strut, and at the mid-root chord on either side of the vertical tail. Strain gages were installed on the Boeing 747 vertical tail to indicate buffet onset. Photographs of aerodynamic configurations tested are shown.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Bauer
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses wind tunnel test results aimed at advancing active flow control technology to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of an aircraft during take-off. A model of the outer section of a representative civil airliner wing was equipped with two-stage fluidic actuators between the slat edge and wing tip, where mechanical high-lift devices fail to integrate. The experiments were conducted at a nominal take-off Mach number of M = 0.2. At this incidence velocity, separation on the wing section, accompanied by increased drag, is triggered by the strong slat edge vortex at high angles of attack. On the basis of global force measurements and local static pressure data, the effect of pulsed blowing on the complex flow is evaluated, considering various momentum coefficients and spanwise distributions of the actuation effort. It is shown that through local intensification of forcing, a momentum coefficient of less than c μ = 0.6 % suffices to offset the stall by 2.4°, increase the maximum lift by more than 10% and reduce the drag by 37% compared to the uncontrolled flow.
Ghaffari, Farhad
1999-01-01
Unstructured grid Euler computations, performed at supersonic cruise speed, are presented for a proposed high speed civil transport configuration, designated as the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) within the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. The numerical results are obtained for the complete TCA cruise configuration which includes the wing, fuselage, empennage, diverters, and flow through nacelles at Mach 2.4 for a range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The computed surface and off-surface flow characteristics are analyzed and the pressure coefficient contours on the wing lower surface are shown to correlate reasonably well with the available pressure sensitive paint results, particularly, for the complex shock wave structures around the nacelles. The predicted longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics are shown to correlate very well with the measured data across the examined range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The results from the present effort have been documented into a NASA Controlled-Distribution report which is being presently reviewed for publication.
高速列车受电弓非定常气动特性研究%Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics of High-speed Pantograph
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭迪龙; 姚拴宝; 刘晨辉; 杨国伟
2012-01-01
The current collection performance of pantograph is critical to safe operation of high-speed trains. The unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of pantograph influence the stitus of current collection of the pantograph system severely. In this paper, unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of high-speed train pantograph were studied with detached eddy simulation (DES). The research results indicates as follows: The aerodynamic lift coefficient of pantograph was strongly affected by the strength and shedding frequency of the detached eddy; when without the cross wind,the lift of pantograph is negative, and when the train runs at the speed of 350 km/h, the fluctuating amplitude of the lift is 110%, and the fluctuating implitude and frequency of pantograph increases with further speed raising and the side force applied on the pantograph remains very small; when with the cross wind, the vibration frequency of the pantograph lift differs from that in absence of the cross wind greatly whereas the lift coefficient changes little, and the side force applied on the pantograph increases as the cross wind speed increases. The results are helpful to optimized design of high-speed pantographs.%受电弓系统的受流特性对高速列车的安全运行至关重要,受电弓的非定常气动特性严重影响受电弓系统的受流状态.本文采用脱体涡模拟(DES),对高速列车受电弓的非定常气动特性进行深入研究.研究表明:受电弓脱体涡的强度、脱落频率对受电弓气动升力系数影响很大.无横风条件下,受电弓受到的升力为负升力,列车运行速度为350 km/h时,其升力的波动幅度达110％,速度增加,其波动幅度增大,频率增大,受电弓的横向受力很小；横风条件下,受电弓的升力振动频率与无横风时有很大不同,升力系数变比不大,侧向力随横风速度的增大而增大.研究结果为高速受电弓的优化设计提供了依据.
Yamauchi, G.; Johnson, W.
1984-01-01
A computationally efficient body analysis designed to couple with a comprehensive helicopter analysis is developed in order to calculate the body-induced aerodynamic effects on rotor performance and loads. A modified slender body theory is used as the body model. With the objective of demonstrating the accuracy, efficiency, and application of the method, the analysis at this stage is restricted to axisymmetric bodies at zero angle of attack. By comparing with results from an exact analysis for simple body shapes, it is found that the modified slender body theory provides an accurate potential flow solution for moderately thick bodies, with only a 10%-20% increase in computational effort over that of an isolated rotor analysis. The computational ease of this method provides a means for routine assessment of body-induced effects on a rotor. Results are given for several configurations that typify those being used in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel and in the rotor-body aerodynamic interference tests being conducted at Ames. A rotor-hybrid airship configuration is also analyzed.
Latorre Iglesias, E.; Thompson, D. J.; Smith, M. G.
2016-01-01
Vortex shedding from cylinders has been extensively studied due to its occurrence in many engineering fields. Many experimental studies reported in the literature focus on the aerodynamics of the vortex shedding process but the literature about the radiated noise is more scarce. The aim of the work presented here is to extend the available noise data. Aero-acoustic wind tunnel tests were carried out using cylinders with different cross-sections: circular, square, rectangular and elliptical. Flow speeds between 20 and 50 m/s were used, corresponding to Reynolds numbers in the range from 1.6×104 to 1.2×105. The dependence of the noise on the yaw angle, flow speed, cross-sectional shape, angle of attack and radiation angle (directivity) is assessed. The results obtained are compared, where possible, with those found in the literature for similar cases. It is intended that the results can be used for the validation and calibration of numerical and empirical aerodynamic noise prediction models.
Prediction of aerodynamic performance for MEXICO rotor%MEXICO风轮的气动性能预测
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
洪泽东; 杨华; 徐浩然; 沈文忠
2013-01-01
a word, the experimental data are in good agreement with the results calculated by BEM and CFD, confirming the reliability of the MEXICO data. Second, the SST turbulence model can better capture the flow separation on the blade and has high aerodynamic performance prediction accuracy for a horizontal axis wind turbine in axial inflow conditions. Finally, the comparisons of the axial and tangential forces as well as the contrast of the angle of attack indicate that the prediction accuracy of BEM method is high when the blade is not in the stall condition. However, the airfoil characteristic becomes unstable in the stall condition, and the maximum relative error of tangential force calculated by BEM is-0.471. As a result, prediction accuracy of the BEM method needs to be further improved.
Amiet, R. K.
1991-01-01
A unified theory for aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops is presented. The theory and a computer code developed for evaluation at the shielding benefits that might be expected by an aircraft wing in a wing-mounted propeller installation are presented. Several computed directivity patterns are presented to demonstrate the theory. Recently with the advent of the concept of using the wing of an aircraft for noise shielding, the case of diffraction by a surface in a flow has been given attention. The present analysis is based on the case of diffraction of no flow. By combining a Galilean and a Lorentz transform, the wave equation with a mean flow can be reduced to the ordinary equation. Allowance is also made in the analysis for the case of a swept wing. The same combination of Galilean and Lorentz transforms lead to a problem with no flow but a different sweep. The solution procedures for the cases of leading and trailing edges are basically the same. Two normalizations of the solution are given by the computer program. FORTRAN computer programs are presented with detailed documentation. The output from these programs compares favorably with the results of other investigators.
Tweedt, Daniel L.
2014-01-01
Computational Aerodynamic simulations of a 1484 ft/sec tip speed quiet high-speed fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating points simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, which includes a core duct and a bypass duct that merge upstream of the fan system nozzle. As a result, only fan rotational speed and the system bypass ratio, set by means of a translating nozzle plug, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. Computed blade row flow fields at all fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive or critical boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems, with the exception of the hub boundary layer at the core duct entrance. At that location a significant flow separation is present. The region of local flow
Aerodynamic performance of an airfoil with a prescribed wall protuberance at low Reynolds numbers
Duque-Daza, Carlos; Mejia, Cristian; Camacho, Diego; Lockerby, Duncan
2016-11-01
Numerical simulations of flow around a modified NACA0012 airfoil, featuring a small surface perturbation on the upper wall, were performed at two low Reynolds numbers. The aerodynamic performance was examined under conditions of incompressible steady state flow. Simulations at different angles of attack (AOA) were performed: 0, 6, 9.25 and 12 degrees for Re =5000, and 6, 9.25 and 12 for Re =50000. The effect of the wall-perturbation was assessed in terms of changes of drag and lift coefficients, and alterations of the upper wall turbulent boundary layer. Examination of mean velocity profiles reveals that the wall perturbation promotes boundary-layer separation near the leading edge and increase of the skin friction drag. An arguably improvement of the effectiveness, i.e. ratio of lift to drag, was observed for the modified profile for Re = 5000, especially at AOA of 6 degrees. This effect seems to be caused by a double effect: boundary layer separation approaching the leading edge and an increase of the lift coefficient caused by the larger pressure drop on the upper surface. The effect of the perturbation was always negative for the airfoil operating at Re =50000, independently of AOA.
Ground effect on the aerodynamics of a two-dimensional oscillating airfoil
Lu, H.; Lua, K. B.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.
2014-07-01
This paper reports results of an experimental investigation into ground effect on the aerodynamics of a two-dimensional elliptic airfoil undergoing simple harmonic translation and rotational motion. Ground clearance ( D) ranging from 1 c to 5 c (where c is the airfoil chord length) was investigated for three rotational amplitudes ( α m) of 30°, 45° and 60° (which respectively translate to mid-stroke angle of attack of 60°, 45° and 30°). For the lowest rotational amplitude of 30°, results show that an airfoil approaching a ground plane experiences a gradual decrease in cycle-averaged lift and drag coefficients until it reaches D ≈ 2.0 c, below which they increase rapidly. Corresponding DPIV measurement indicates that the initial force reduction is associated with the formation of a weaker leading edge vortex and the subsequent force increase below D ≈ 2.0 c may be attributed to stronger wake capture effect. Furthermore, an airfoil oscillating at higher amplitude lessens the initial force reduction when approaching the ground and this subsequently leads to lift distribution that bears striking resemblance to the ground effect on a conventional fixed wing in steady translation.
Analytical observations on the aerodynamics of a delta wing with leading edge flaps
Oh, S.; Tavella, D.
1986-01-01
The effect of a leading edge flap on the aerodynamics of a low aspect ratio delta wing is studied analytically. The separated flow field about the wing is represented by a simple vortex model composed of a conical straight vortex sheet and a concentrated vortex. The analysis is carried out in the cross flow plane by mapping the wing trace, by means of the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation into the real axis of the transformed plane. Particular attention is given to the influence of the angle of attack and flap deflection angle on lift and drag forces. Both lift and drag decrease with flap deflection, while the lift-to-drag ratioe increases. A simple coordinate transformation is used to obtain a closed form expression for the lift-to-drag ratio as a function of flap deflection. The main effect of leading edge flap deflection is a partial suppression of the separated flow on the leeside of the wing. Qualitative comparison with experiments is presented, showing agreement in the general trends.
Humphreys, A. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Kemmerly, G. T.
1988-01-01
Previous wind tunnel tests of fighter configurations have shown that thrust reverser jets can induce large, unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments during operation in ground proximity. This is a concern for STOL configurations using partial reversing to spoil the thrust while keeping the engine output near military (MIL) power during landing approach. A novel test technique to simulate approach and landing was developed under a cooperative Northrop/NASA/USAF program. The NASA LaRC Vortex Research Facility was used for the experiments in which a 7-percent F-18 model was moved horizontally at speeds of up to 100 feet per second over a ramp simulating an aircraft to ground rate of closure similar to a no-flare STOL approach and landing. This paper presents an analysis of data showing the effect of reverser jet orientation and jet dynamic pressure ratio on the transient forces for different angles of attack, and flap and horizontal tail deflection. It was found, for reverser jets acting parallel to the plane of symmetry, that the jets interacted strongly with the ground, starting approximately half a span above the ground board. Unsteady rolling moment transients, large enough to cause the probable upset of an aircraft, and strong normal force and pitching moment transients were measured. For jets directed 40 degrees outboard, the transients were similar to the jet-off case, implying only minor interaction.
Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a powered NASP-like configuration in ground effect
Gatlin, Gregory M.
1989-01-01
Results are presented on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified NASP (for National Aerospace Plane Program)-like configuration, obtained in the NASA-Langley 14-by-22-foot subsonic tunnel. The model consisted of a triangular wedge forebody, a rectangular midsection housing the propulsion simulation system, and a rectangular wedge aftbody; it also included a delta wing, exhaust flow deflectors, and aftbody fences. Flow visualization was obtained by injecting water into the engine simulator inlets and using a laser light sheet to illuminate the resulting exhaust flow. It was found that power-on ground effects for NASP-like configuration can be substantial; these effects can be reduced by increasing the angle-of-attack to the value of the aftbody ramp angle. Power-on lift losses in ground effect increased with increasing thrust, but could be reduced by the addition of a delta wing to the configuration. Power-on lift losses also increased with use of aftbody fences.
Phillips, W. P.
1984-01-01
Aerodynamic characteristics at M=5.97 for the 140 A/B Space Shuttle Orbiter configuration and for the configuration modified by geometric changes in the wing planform fillet region and the fuselage forebody are presented. The modifications, designed to extend the orbiter's longitudinal trim capability to more forward center of gravity locations, include reshaping the baseline wing fillet, changing the fuselage forebody camber, and adding canards. The Langley 20 inch Mach 6 Tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 6 million based on fuselage reference length was used. The angle of attack range of the investigation varied from about 15 deg to 35 deg at 0 deg and -5 deg sideslip angles. Data are obtained with the elevators and body flap deflected at appropriate negative and positive conditions to assess the trim limits.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun;
2014-01-01
model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils...... with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient...... characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase...
Aerodynamics of wings at low Reynolds numbers: Boundary layer separation and reattachment
McArthur, John
the drag increase is really caused by the formation of a laminar separation bubble. The results clearly indicate that the reverse is true, and that the subsequent drag decrease is caused by the laminar separation bubble. Part III. The leading edge vortex. Four wings with different sweep angles were studied at Reynolds number 5x104: sweep angles of 0, 20, 40, and 60 degrees. The wings had a simple cambered plate airfoil similar to the cambered airfoil of part I above. Each wing was built to have the same aspect ratio, wing area, and streamwise airfoil shape. Previous studies on bird wings speculate that simply sweeping the wings can cause a leading edge vortex to form, which could cause substantial improvements in performance. However, these studies were not well controlled, and were conducted from a biological perspective. Qualitative and quantitative flow field measurements were combined with force measurements to conduct a well controlled engineering experiment on the formation and effect of a leading edge vortex on simple swept wings. A stable vortex was found to form over the 60 degree swept wing at one particular angle of attack, but it was not similar to the traditional notion of a leading edge vortex. The vortex has a small radius, and extends over little of the span. Force measurements indicate that the vortex has no significant impact on the forces measured. Thus, simply sweeping a wing is not sufficient to form a significant leading edge vortex, and other effects must be considered.
Subsonic loads on wings having sharp leading edges and tips
Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1976-01-01
A vortex-lattice method for predicting the aerodynamics of wings having separation at the sharp edges in incompressible flows is extended to compressible subsonic flows using a modified Prandtl-Glauert transformation. Numerical results showing the effect of freestream Mach number on the aerodynamic coefficients are compared with available experimental data for several planforms. It is shown that the proposed method is suitable for predicting the aerodynamic loads on low-aspect wings at moderate angles of attack for high subsonic freestream Mach number. The method is limited to angles of attack up to 12 deg for high subsonic freestream Mach number and to angles of attack up to 20 deg for Mach number not exceeding 0.5.
Temperature decline thermography for laminar-turbulent transition detection in aerodynamics
von Hoesslin, Stefan; Stadlbauer, Martin; Gruendmayer, Juergen; Kähler, Christian J.
2017-09-01
Detailed knowledge about laminar-turbulent transition and heat transfer distribution of flows around complex aerodynamic components are crucial to achieve highest efficiencies in modern aerodynamical systems. Several measurement techniques have been developed to determine those parameters either quantitatively or qualitatively. Most of them require extensive instrumentation or give unreliable results as the boundary conditions are often not known with the required precision. This work introduces the simple and robust temperature decline method to qualitatively detect the laminar-turbulent transition and the respective heat transfer coefficients on a surface exposed to an air flow, according to patent application Stadlbauer et al. (Patentnr. WO2014198251 A1, 2014). This method provides results which are less sensitive to control parameters such as the heat conduction into the blade material and temperature inhomogeneities in the flow or blade. This method was applied to measurements with NACA0018 airfoils exposed to the flow of a calibration-free jet at various Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. For data analysis, a post-processing method was developed and qualified to determine a quantity proportional to the heat transfer coefficient into the flow. By plotting this quantity for each pixel of the surface, a qualitative, two-dimensional heat transfer map was obtained. The results clearly depicted the areas of onset and end of transition over the full span of the model and agreed with the expected behavior based on the respective flow condition. To validate the approach, surface hotfilm measurements were conducted simultaneously on the same NACA profile. Both techniques showed excellent agreement. The temperature decline method allows to visualize laminar-turbulent transitions on static or moving parts and can be applied on a very broad range of scales—from tiny airfoils up to large airplane wings.
LARGE AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A SWEEPING WING AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Mao; WU Jianghao
2004-01-01
The aerodynamic forces and flow structure of a model insect wing is studied by solving the Navier-Stokes equations numerically. After an initial start from rest, the wing is made to execute an azimuthal rotation (sweeping) at a large angle of attack and constant angular velocity. The Reynolds number (Re) considered in the present note is 480 (Re is based on the mean chord length of the wing and the speed at 60% wing length from the wing root). During the constant-speed sweeping motion, the stall is absent and large and approximately constant lift and drag coefficients can be maintained. The mechanism for the absence of the stall or the maintenance of large aerodynamic force coefficients is as follows. Soon after the initial start, a vortex ring, which consists of the leading-edge vortex (LEV), the starting vortex, and the two wing-tip vortices, is formed in the wake of the wing. During the subsequent motion of the wing, a base-to-tip spanwise flow converts the vorticity in the LEV to the wing tip and the LEV keeps an approximately constant strength. This prevents the LEV from shedding. As a result,the size of the vortex ring increases approximately linearly with time, resulting in an approximately constant time rate of the first moment of vorticity, or approximately constant lift and drag coefficients.The variation of the relative velocity along the wing span causes a pressure gradient along the wingspan. The base-to-tip spanwise flow is mainly maintained by the pressure-gradient force.
The Aerodynamics of Hovering Insect Flight. III. Kinematics
Ellington, C. P.
1984-02-01
Insects in free flight were filmed at 5000 frames per second to determine the motion of their wings and bodies. General comments are offered on flight behaviour and manoeuvrability. Changes in the tilt of the stroke plane with respect to the horizontal provides kinematic control of manoeuvres, analogous to the type of control used for helicopters. A projection analysis technique is described that solves for the orientation of the animal with respect to a camera-based coordinate system, giving full kinematic details for the longitudinal wing and body axes from single-view films. The technique can be applied to all types of flight where the wing motions are bilaterally symmetrical: forward, backward and hovering flight, as well as properly banked turns. An analysis of the errors of the technique is presented, and shows that the reconstructed angles for wing position should be accurate to within 1-2^circ in general. Although measurement of the angles of attack was not possible, visual estimations are given. Only 11 film sequences show flight velocities and accelerations that are small enough for the flight to be considered as `hovering'. Two sequences are presented for a hover-fly using an inclined stroke plane, and nine sequences of hovering with a horizontal stroke plane by another hover-fly, two crane-flies, a drone-fly, a ladybird beetle, a honey bee, and two bumble bees. In general, oscillations in the body position from its mean motion are within measurement error, about 1-2% of the wing length. The amplitudes of oscillation for the body angle are only a few degrees, but the phase relation of this oscillation to the wingbeat cycle could be determined for a few sequences. The phase indicates that the pitching moments governing the oscillations result from the wing lift at the ends of the wingbeat, and not from the wing drag or inertial forces. The mean pitching moment of the wings, which determines the mean body angle, is controlled by shifting the centre of lift
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖友刚; 张平
2013-01-01
将大涡模拟法与Lighthill-Curle声学比拟理论相结合,计算了高速列车纵向对称面的气动噪声,探明了纵向对称面气动噪声的频谱特性及其变化规律,得出了车辆连接处的优化外形.结果表明,低频时,气动噪声幅值较大,随着频率升高,幅值下降.当列车运行速度一定时,距离气动噪声源越远,声压的衰减幅度越少.随着列车运行速度增加,距离气动噪声源越远,声压的增幅越小.脉动压力是气动噪声的源,在车辆连接处采用平滑的Nurbs曲线过渡,以减少列车运行过程中产生的脉动压力,能有效降低气动噪声.%The aerodynamic noise spectra of longitudinal symmetric plane of high-speed train were calculated and clarified by large eddy simulation and Lighthill-Curle acoustic theory. The optimal aerodynamic shape at vehicle junctions was got. The results show that the noise level of the aerodynamic noises is reduced greatly with the increase of frequency. When the train velocity is unchanged, the farther away from the aerodynamic noise sources, the less the attenuation rate of total noise level. With increase of the train velocity, the farther away from noise sources, the less the noise level increase. The fluctuation pressure is the source of aerodynamic noise, which can be reduced by using nurbs curve at vehicle junctions.
Aerodynamics of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains
Schetz, Joseph A.; Marchman, James F., III
1996-01-01
High-speed (500 kph) trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. One area of many that will need advanced research is the aerodynamics of such MAGLEV (Magnetic Levitation) vehicles. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. This talk will deal with the aerodynamic design of MAGLEV vehicles with emphasis on wind tunnel testing. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft. Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. Test results for a variety of MAGLEV vehicle configurations will be presented. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics, structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robin Faivre
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The parameterization of heat transfer based on remote sensing data, and the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS scheme to retrieve turbulent heat fluxes, already proved to be very appropriate for estimating evapotranspiration (ET over homogeneous land surfaces. However, the use of such a method over heterogeneous landscapes (e.g., semi-arid regions or agricultural land becomes more difficult, since the principle of similarity theory is compromised by the presence of different heat sources at various heights. This study aims to propose and evaluate some models based on vegetation geometry partly developed by Colin and Faivre, to retrieve the surface aerodynamic roughness length for momentum transfer ( z 0 m , which is a key parameter in the characterization of heat transfer. A new approach proposed by the authors consisted in the use of a Digital Surface Model (DSM as boundary condition for experiments with a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model to reproduce 3D wind fields, and to invert them to retrieve a spatialized roughness parameter. Colin and Faivre also applied the geometrical Raupach’s approach for the same purpose. These two methods were evaluated against two empirical ones, widely used in Surface Energy Balance Index (SEBI based algorithms (Moran; Brutsaert, and also against an alternate geometrical model proposed by Menenti and Ritchie. The investigation was carried out in the Yingke oasis (China using very-high resolution remote sensing data (VNIR, TIR & LIDAR, for a precise description of the land surface, and a fine evaluation of estimated heat fluxes based on in-situ measurements. A set of five numerical experiments was carried out to evaluate each roughness model. It appears that methods used in experiments 2 (based on Brutsaert and 4 (based on Colin and Faivre are the most accurate to estimate the aerodynamic roughness length, according to the estimated heat fluxes. However, the formulation used in experiment 2 allows to
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kleissl, Kenneth
to a categorization of the different control technics together with an identification of two key mechanisms for reduction of the design drag force. During this project extensive experimental work examining the aerodynamics of the currently used cable surface modifications together with new innovative proposals have...
Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig;
2016-01-01
An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
High lift generation of low-aspect-ratio wings
Devoria, Adam; Mohseni, Kamran
2016-11-01
The time-averaged flow field in the center-span of low-aspect-ratio rectangular wings is experimentally measured. It is shown that lift stall is preceded by shedding of strong trailing-edge vorticity. The induced downwash of the tip vortices delays the growth of the attached boundary layer as well as leading-edge separation. Reattached flow occurs for sufficiently low aspect ratios and results in a smooth merging of the flow at the trailing edge thus assisting in satisfying a Kutta condition there. As a consequence, the strength of vorticity shed from the trailing edge is decreased and allows for continued lift generation at high angles of attack. When the reattachment point passes beyond the trailing edge, a strong shear layer is generated there and represents negative lift, leading to stall with a slight increase in angle of attack or aspect ratio.
High-Lift Propeller Noise Prediction for a Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator
Nark, Douglas M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Jones, William T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.
2017-01-01
Over the past several years, the use of electric propulsion technologies within aircraft design has received increased attention. The characteristics of electric propulsion systems open up new areas of the aircraft design space, such as the use of distributed electric propulsion (DEP). In this approach, electric motors are placed in many different locations to achieve increased efficiency through integration of the propulsion system with the airframe. Under a project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR), NASA is designing a flight demonstrator aircraft that employs many "high-lift propellers" distributed upstream of the wing leading edge and two cruise propellers (one at each wingtip). As the high-lift propellers are operational at low flight speeds (take-off/approach flight conditions), the impact of the DEP configuration on the aircraft noise signature is also an important design consideration. This paper describes efforts toward the development of a mulit-fidelity aerodynamic and acoustic methodology for DEP high-lift propeller aeroacoustic modeling. Specifically, the PAS, OVERFLOW 2, and FUN3D codes are used to predict the aerodynamic performance of a baseline high-lift propeller blade set. Blade surface pressure results from the aerodynamic predictions are then used with PSU-WOPWOP and the F1A module of the NASA second generation Aircraft NOise Prediction Program to predict the isolated high-lift propeller noise source. Comparisons of predictions indicate that general trends related to angle of attack effects at the blade passage frequency are captured well with the various codes. Results for higher harmonics of the blade passage frequency appear consistent for the CFD based methods. Conversely, evidence of the need for a study of the effects of increased azimuthal grid resolution on the PAS based results is indicated and will be pursued in future work. Overall, the results indicate that the computational
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. I. Khlupnov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Ecology and security clearance of cargo into Earth orbit space considered in unsteadyaerodynamics of the separated parts of of launch vehicles for space applications, which directly involves the definition of the shape and size of fields separated by falling parts, fragmentation issues and software problems aeroballistic reusable space systems (such as "Baikal" (Russian Federation, Falcon - Task 1 (USA and others..To resolve the methodological issues determining the value of the aerodynamic damping (and / or anti-damping separable parts as the object of study was chosen cylindrical model as a bluff body for which there are no systematic dependence of unsteady aerodynamic coefficients pitch moment of defining the parameters of the problem (the Mach number, angle of attack, Reynolds number, etc..The value of the derivative of pitching moment coefficient of the angular velocitydetermined numerically for the most intense stress of supersonic flight mode as the method of curved bodies, and direct numerical simulation of unsteady motion of the body in the air flow within the full Navier-Stokes equations.Comparison of these two approaches implemented as a tool for scientific research in theform of a software package FineOpen (products of the Company Numeca and programs for solving the Navier-Stokes equations (the author's version helped establish the limits of applicability of the curved bodies in the implementation of the marked change in the form of slots defining parameters of the problem.
Shape modification of bridge cables for aerodynamic vibration control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos
2010-01-01
and faceted cylinders are found to suffer from either dry inclined galloping, ”drag crisis” or Den Hartog galloping, the shrouded cylinder is found to be completely stable for all wind angles of attack, albeit with a slight increase in drag at traditional design wind velocities. The wavy cylinder is found...
Hanson, D. B.
1991-01-01
A unified theory for the aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops are presented. Aerodynamic topics include calculation of performance, blade load distribution, and non-uniform wake flow fields. Blade loading can be steady or unsteady due to fixed distortion, counter-rotating wakes, or blade vibration. The aerodynamic theory is based on the pressure potential method and is therefore basically linear. However, nonlinear effects associated with finite axial induction and blade vortex flow are included via approximate methods. Acoustic topics include radiation of noise caused by blade thickness, steady loading (including vortex lift), and unsteady loading. Shielding of the fuselage by its boundary layer and the wing are treated in separate analyses that are compatible but not integrated with the aeroacoustic theory for rotating blades.
Perching aerodynamics and trajectory optimization
Wickenheiser, Adam; Garcia, Ephrahim
2007-04-01
Advances in smart materials, actuators, and control architecture have enabled new flight capabilities for aircraft. Perching is one such capability, described as a vertical landing maneuver using in-flight shape reconfiguration in lieu of high thrust generation. A morphing, perching aircraft design is presented that is capable of post stall flight and very slow landing on a vertical platform. A comprehensive model of the aircraft's aerodynamics, with special regard to nonlinear affects such as flow separation and dynamic stall, is discussed. Trajectory optimization using nonlinear programming techniques is employed to show the effects that morphing and nonlinear aerodynamics have on the maneuver. These effects are shown to decrease the initial height and distance required to initiate the maneuver, reduce the bounds on the trajectory, and decrease the required thrust for the maneuver. Perching trajectories comparing morphing versus fixed-configuration and stalled versus un-stalled aircraft are presented. It is demonstrated that a vertical landing is possible in the absence of high thrust if post-stall flight capabilities and vehicle reconfiguration are utilized.
Free-flight measurement technique in the free-piston high-enthalpy shock tunnel.
Tanno, H; Komuro, T; Sato, K; Fujita, K; Laurence, S J
2014-04-01
A novel multi-component force-measurement technique has been developed and implemented at the impulse facility JAXA-HIEST, in which the test model is completely unrestrained during the test and thus experiences free-flight conditions for a period on the order of milliseconds. Advantages over conventional free-flight techniques include the complete absence of aerodynamic interference from a model support system and less variation in model position and attitude during the test itself. A miniature on-board data recorder, which was a key technology for this technique, was also developed in order to acquire and store the measured data. The technique was demonstrated in a HIEST wind-tunnel test campaign in which three-component aerodynamic force measurement was performed on a blunted cone of length 316 mm, total mass 19.75 kg, and moment of inertia 0.152 kgm(2). During the test campaign, axial force, normal forces, and pitching moment coefficients were obtained at angles of attack from 14° to 32° under two conditions: H0 = 4 MJ/kg, P0 = 14 MPa; and H0 = 16 MJ/kg, P0 = 16 MPa. For the first, low-enthalpy condition, the test flow was considered a perfect gas; measurements were thus directly compared with those obtained in a conventional blow-down wind tunnel (JAXA-HWT2) to evaluate the accuracy of the technique. The second test condition was a high-enthalpy condition in which 85% of the oxygen molecules were expected to be dissociated; high-temperature real-gas effects were therefore evaluated by comparison with results obtained in perfect-gas conditions. The precision of the present measurements was evaluated through an uncertainty analysis, which showed the aerodynamic coefficients in the HIEST low enthalpy test agreeing well with those of JAXA-HWT2. The pitching-moment coefficient, however, showed significant differences between low- and high-enthalpy tests. These differences are thought to result from high-temperature real-gas effects.
Swihert, John M
1958-01-01
A brief investigation of a target-type thrust reverser on a single-engine fighter model has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.05.At Mach numbers of 0.80, 0.92, and 1.05, a hydrogen peroxide turbojet-engine simulator was operated with the thrust reverser extended. The angle of attack was varied from 0 degrees to 5 degrees at these Mach numbers. The Reynolds number of the free stream, based on the mean aerodynamic chord, was about 5 x 10(6). It was estimated that reversed jet operations separated the model boundary-layer flow over the upper surface of the horizontal tail and upper part of the afterbody. This resulted in a positive pitch increment due to reversed jet operation. Jet-on operation also tended to stabilize the severe lateral oscillations which occurred with the reverser extended and the jet off. It appeared that these jet-off oscillations were the result of an alternating separation and reattachment of the flow on the rearmost portions of the fuselage afterbody.
Nasir, Rizal E. M.; Ali, Zurriati; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Wisnoe, Wirachman
2012-06-01
Previous wind tunnel test has proven the improved aerodynamic charasteristics of Baseline-II E-2 Blended Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft studied in Universiti Teknologi Mara. The E-2 is a version of Baseline-II BWB with modified outer wing and larger canard, solely-designed to gain favourable longitudinal static stability during flight. This paper highlights some results from current investigation on the said aircraft via computational fluid dynamics simulation as a mean to validate the wind tunnel test results. The simulation is conducted based on standard one-equation turbulence, Spalart-Allmaras model with polyhedral mesh. The ambience of the flight simulation is made based on similar ambience of wind tunnel test. The simulation shows lift, drag and moment results to be near the values found in wind tunnel test but only within angles of attack where the lift change is linear. Beyond the linear region, clear differences between computational simulation and wind tunnel test results are observed. It is recommended that different type of mathematical model be used to simulate flight conditions beyond linear lift region.
Capone, Francis J.; Carson, George T., Jr.
1985-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of empennage surface location and vertical tail cant angle on the aft-end aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine fighter-type configuration. The configuration featured two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles and twin-vertical tails. The investigation was conducted with different empennage locations that included two horizontal and three vertical tail positions. Vertical tail cant angle was varied from -10 deg to 20 deg for one selected configuration. Tests were conducted at Mach number 0.60 to 1.20 and at angles of attack -3 to 9 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off to approximately 9, depending upon Mach number. Tail interference effects were present throughout the range of Mach numbers tested and found to be either favorable or adverse, depending upon test condition and model configuration. At a Mach number of 0.90, adverse interference effects accounted for a significant percentage of total aft-end drag. Interference effects on the nozzle were generally favorable but became adverse as the horizontal tails were moved from a mid to an aft position. The configuration with nonaxisymmetric nozzles had lower total aft-end drag with tails-off than a similar configuration with axisymmetric nozzles at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.90.
Aerodynamic Leidenfrost effect
Gauthier, Anaïs; Bird, James C.; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David
2016-12-01
When deposited on a plate moving quickly enough, any liquid can levitate as it does when it is volatile on a very hot solid (Leidenfrost effect). In the aerodynamic Leidenfrost situation, air gets inserted between the liquid and the moving solid, a situation that we analyze. We observe two types of entrainment. (i) The thickness of the air gap is found to increase with the plate speed, which is interpreted in the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin frame: Air is dynamically dragged along the surface and its thickness results from a balance between capillary and viscous effects. (ii) Air set in motion by the plate exerts a force on the levitating liquid. We discuss the magnitude of this aerodynamic force and show that it can be exploited to control the liquid and even to drive it against gravity.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils. Volume 4.
1927-01-01
8-6-4 -2 02a46 a 10 12 14 16is 20 2Angie of Attack in Degrees. Angle of Attack in Deprese . I~r xi N . A rxi (\\I ) M ITTll IK’ FORi AERONAUT~ICS RFM...8217 ~ 86--20a2 46 a10 12 14 163826 D Aogle of Attack in Deprese . Angle of it tak in Deprese . A II~ il A CHC ARACTERIISTICS OF Al RFOILS-i V 205 nzmuRRCS
Hypervelocity Aerodynamics and Control
1990-06-06
Report: Hypervelocity Aerodynamics and Control 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) T. C. Adamson, Jr. and R. IA. Howe 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE...6] pulse applied. If the Mxyz system as shown is Fig. 3 r 3. , is used, then we have R21= k costo -t4 ksin yot 1 6r= ro 1 (4) -- (6k 2 - 5 -30k 2 sin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian;
2015-01-01
The aim of this work is to investigate and characterize the high-frequency surface pressure fluctuations on a full-scale wind turbine blade and in particular the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. As these fluctuations are highly correlated to the sources of both turbulent inflow noise...... wind turbine with a 80 m diameter rotor as well as measurements of an airfoil section tested in a wind tunnel. The turbine was extensively equipped in order to monitor the local inflow onto the rotating blades. Further a section of the 38 m long blade was instrumented with 50 microphones flush......-mounted relative to the blade surface. The measurements of surface pressure spectra are compared with the results of two engineering models for trailing edge noise and for turbulent inflow noise. The measured pressure fluctuations are related to the local inflow angle and are also compared to measurements...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王妍; 周春桂; 王志军
2015-01-01
反坦克智能雷是一种依托高精度探测器件的新型智能反坦克炸弹。智能雷实现高效捕获、毁伤目标时，应考虑风阻系数等因素其飞行特性的影响。本文基于智能雷的三维模型，分析了亚、跨音速智能雷流场以及气动力因数随迎角的增长规律。应用计算流体力学软件对智能雷外流场进行数值计算，得到智能雷压心位置的变化规律。结果显示阻力系数的值比较大，有利于智能雷维持稳定扫描状态。智能雷附近剧烈的流场变化可能导致其扫描运动失效。仿真结果能够作为智能雷扫描稳定性分析、总体性能优化和外形改良的参照。%Anti-tank intelligent mine is a kind of new intelligent anti-tank bomb relying on high precision detector.It can effec-tively capture and damage targets with wind resistance coefficient and other factors affecting its flight characteristics under con-sideration.This article is based on the three-dimensional model of intelligent mine.To analyze its subsonic and transonic flow fields and the change law of aerodynamic force factor with the growth of the angle of attack,computational fluid dynamics soft-ware is used for intelligent mine flow field numerical calculation and the change law of pressure center.The results show that the large drag coefficient is conducive to the stability of scanning.Drastic changes of the flow field near the intelligent mine will disable its scanning movement.The simulation results can provide a reference for scanning stability analysis,overall perform-ance optimization and appearance improvement.
高速列车气动阻力地板效应数值研究%Numerical study of ground effects on high speed train aerodynamic drag
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周健; 欧平; 刘沛清; 郭昊
2016-01-01
Based on wind tunnel tests of aerodynamic drag on two kinds of 1/25th scale CRH2 models,research of aerodynamic drag with different experimental ground planes was carried out by numerical simulation.The reliability of the numerical methods was verified by comparing the results of simulation and tests.By analyzing the variation of the flow field and resistance distribu-tion on the train body with the usage of the wind tunnel wall,the stationary ground plane,and the moving ground plane in simulation,it is found that:ground effects of different planes have a great influence on the drag measurement of the high speed train;the moving ground plane gives the best simulation performance;the results of drag computed with the other two ground planes are less than that with the moving plane and the difference increases with the increase of the body length,therefore,it is almost impossible to simulate the flow field of the real train operation.Fi-nally the mechanism of influence by ground planes is analyzed and references are provided for drag measurement of high speed train on different ground planes.%针对CRH2型动车组外形，在2种1∶25缩比模型风洞试验基础上，展开基于数值模拟的明线情况高速列车不同地板试验条件阻力测量影响研究。通过与风洞试验结果对比，确定数值方法的可靠性；通过数值模拟风洞壁地板、固定地板、移动地板下高速列车流场分布与阻力变化情况表明，不同试验地板的地面效应对高速列车阻力测量结果影响很大，移动地板模拟效果最佳，固定地板与风洞壁地板阻力测量值小于移动地板情况，且差距随车身长度的增加而增加，很难模拟真实列车运行的流场；通过深入分析不同地板条件的影响机理，为高速列车不同地板条件风洞阻力测量结果提供参考意见。
Coupled-Mode Flutter of Bending-Bending Type in Highly-Flexible Uniform Airfoils
Pourazarm, Pariya; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya
2016-11-01
We study the behavior of a highly flexible uniform airfoil placed in wind both numerically and experimentally. It is shown that for a non-rotating highly-flexible cantilevered airfoil, placed at very small angles of attack (less than 1 degree), the airfoil loses its stability by buckling. For slightly higher angles of attack (more than 1 degree) a coupled-mode flutter in which the first and the second flapwise modes coalesce toward a flutter mode is observed, and thus the observed flutter has a bending-bending nature. The flutter onset and frequency found experimentally matched the numerical predictions. If the same airfoil is forced to rotate about its fixed end, the static deflection decreases and the observed couple-mode flutter becomes of flapwise-torsional type, same as what has already been observed for flutter of rotating wind turbine blades. The support provided by the National Science Foundation, CBET-1437988, is greatly acknowledged.
Effect of a wing-tip mounted pusher turboprop on the aerodynamic characteristics of a semi-span wing
Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Bartlett, G. R.
1985-01-01
An exploratory investigation has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the installed performance of a wing tip-mounted pusher turboprop. Tests were conducted using a semispan model having an unswept, untapered wing with a air-driven motor located on the tip of the wing, with an SR-2 design high speed propeller installed on the rear shaft of the motor. All tests were conducted at a Mach number of 0.70, at angles of attack of approximately -2 to +4 deg, and at a Reynolds number of 3.82 million based on the wing chord of 13 inches. The data indicate that, as a result of locating the propeller behind the wing trailing edge, at the wingtip, in the cross flow of the tip vortex, it is possible to recover part of the vortex energy as an increase in propeller thrust and, therefore, a reduction in the lift-induced drag as well.
Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang I. A.; Meneveau, Charles; Mittal, Rajat
2017-05-01
We examine the effect of varying roughness-element aspect ratio on the mean velocity distributions of turbulent flow over arrays of rectangular-prism-shaped elements. Large-eddy simulations (LES) in conjunction with a sharp-interface immersed boundary method are used to simulate spatially-growing turbulent boundary layers over these rough surfaces. Arrays of aligned and staggered rectangular roughness elements with aspect ratio >1 are considered. First the temporally- and spatially-averaged velocity profiles are used to illustrate the aspect-ratio effects. For aligned prisms, the roughness length (z_o) and the friction velocity (u_*) increase initially with an increase in the roughness-element aspect ratio, until the values reach a plateau at a particular aspect ratio. The exact value of this aspect ratio depends on the coverage density. Further increase in the aspect ratio changes neither z_o, u_* nor the bulk flow above the roughness elements. For the staggered cases, z_o and u_* continue to increase for the surface coverage density and the aspect ratios investigated. To model the flow response to variations in roughness aspect ratio, we turn to a previously developed phenomenological volumetric sheltering model (Yang et al., in J Fluid Mech 789:127-165, 2016), which was intended for low to moderate aspect-ratio roughness elements. Here, we extend this model to account for high aspect-ratio roughness elements. We find that for aligned cases, the model predicts strong mutual sheltering among the roughness elements, while the effect is much weaker for staggered cases. The model-predicted z_o and u_* agree well with the LES results. Results show that the model, which takes explicit account of the mutual sheltering effects, provides a rapid and reliable prediction method of roughness effects in turbulent boundary-layer flows over arrays of rectangular-prism roughness elements.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王林; 刘雄伟
2012-01-01
使用ANSYS FLUENT软件对风力发电机叶片翼型DU-93-W-210和S809的空气动力性能进行定常数值模拟和仿真分析,并和实验数据进行对比与分析.鉴于阻力系数的数值模拟结果与实验数据相比误差较大,通过分析其原因,发现在攻角较小时,翼型表面上有相当一部分流动属于层流流动,若对整个计算域使用湍流模型,显然会增大阻力系数.在此基础上,对CFD模型进行修改,在FLUENT模型里设置翼型转折点前为层流区域,从而能精确预测小攻角时的阻力系数.%The steady numerical simulation was investigated and the aerodynamics performance of wind turbine airfoils DU-93-W-210 and S809 was analyzed using ANSYS Fluent based on wind tunnel testing data. There is considerable inconsistence of the drag coefficients between the simulations and the experimentally measured data because the simulations are based on a turbulence model for the entire computational domain, particularly at small angles of attack where a considerable portion of the flow upon the suction side of the airfoil is laminar flow. The CFD model was re-addressed by defining turning points of laminar and turbulence flows on both pressure and suction sides of the airfoil and the prediction accuracy of the drag coefficients was improved at small angles of attack.
Development of research on aerodynamics of high-speed rails in China%中国高速轨道交通空气动力学研究进展及发展思考
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田红旗
2015-01-01
总结了中国高速轨道交通空气动力学研究进程的起步、积累、发展、深化、提升和引领等六个阶段。论述了提出的以列车空气动力学、列车/线桥隧空气动力学、车/风/沙/雨/雪环境空气动力学、弓网空气动力学、人体空气动力学为主要内容的高速轨道交通空气动力学研究进展。包括发现探明了相关的形成机理、激化过程、响应特性、影响规律、减缓途径、改善措施，提炼出了一套基础理论，突破了系列关键技术，以及全面的工程应用。解决了空气动力制约高速铁路发展、恶劣风环境影响行车安全等关键科学技术问题。介绍了高速轨道交通空气动力学专用实验平台群，包括动模型实验系统、交变气动压力下人体舒适性/车体刚度/气密性综合实验装置、风/沙/雨/雪气动实验平台群、视觉检测系统、在线实车实验系统、兼用风洞群、数值仿真平台。最后讨论了正在开展的研究和进一步发展的思考。%The paper summarizes start,growth,accumulation,development,improvement, and leadership of the research on aerodynamics of high-speed rails in China,which focuses on train aerodynamics,vehicle-track-bridge-tunnel coupling aerodynamics,vehicle-wind-sand-rain-snow environmental aerodynamics,pantograph-catenary aerodynamic and body aerodynamics. It is devoted to finding the mechanism of formation,building fundamental theorem,creating technical breakthrough,proposing measures to tackle aero dynamical problems which pose a threat to development of high-speed railways and safety of operation,and realizing their engi-neering application. The paper introduces a series of experimental platforms for testing aerody-namics of high-speed rails and novel experiments we have accomplished,including moving ve-hicle model tests,human comfort/vehicle body stiffness/air tightness tests under alternating pressure,aero dynamical experiments in wind
Hansen, Martin O L
2015-01-01
Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W
An Experimntal Investigation of the 30P30N Multi-Element High-Lift Airfoil
Pascioni, Kyle A.; Cattafesta, Louis N.; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2014-01-01
High-lift devices often generate an unsteady flow field producing both broadband and tonal noise which radiates from the aircraft. In particular, the leading edge slat is often a dominant contributor to the noise signature. An experimental study of a simplified unswept high-lift configuration, the 30P30N, has been conducted to understand and identify the various flow-induced noise sources around the slat. Closed-wall wind tunnel tests are performed in the Florida State Aeroacoustic Tunnel (FSAT) to characterize the slat cove flow field using a combination of surface and off-body measurements. Mean surface pressures compare well with numerical predictions for the free-air configuration. Consistent with previous measurements and computations for 2D high-lift configurations, the frequency spectra of unsteady surface pressures on the slat surface display several narrowband peaks that decrease in strength as the angle of attack is increased. At positive angles of attack, there are four prominent peaks. The three higher frequency peaks correspond, approximately, to a harmonic sequence related to a feedback resonance involving unstable disturbances in the slat cove shear layer. The Strouhal numbers associated with these three peaks are nearly insensitive to the range of flow speeds (41-58 m/s) and the angles of attack tested (3-8.5 degrees). The first narrow-band peak has an order of magnitude lower frequency than the remaining peaks and displays noticeable sensitivity to the angle of attack. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements provide supplementary information about the shear layer characteristics and turbulence statistics that may be used for validating numerical simulations.
Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles
Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.
1987-01-01
Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.
Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data
Morelli, Eugene A.
2012-01-01
A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.
Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.
2014-01-01
The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At
Hollis, Brian R.; Hollingsworth, Kevin E.
2017-01-01
A wind tunnel test program was conducted to obtain aeroheating environment data on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator aeroshells with flexible thermal protection systems. Data were obtained on a set of rigid wind tunnel models with surface deflection patterns of various heights that simulated a range of potential in-flight aeroshell deformations. Wind tunnel testing was conducted at Mach 6 at unit Reynolds numbers from 2.1 × 10(exp 6)/ft to 8.3 × 10(exp 6)/ft and angles of attack from 0 deg to 18 deg. Boundary-layer transition onset and global surface heating distribution measurements were performed using phosphor thermography and flow field images were obtained through schlieren photography. Surface deflections were found to both promote early transition of the boundary layer and to augment heating levels for both laminar and turbulent flows. A complimentary computational flow field study was also performed to provide heating predictions for comparison with the measurements as well as boundary layer flow field properties for use in correlating the data. Correlations of the wind tunnel data were developed to predict deflection effects on boundary layer transition and surface heating and were applied to both the wind tunnel test conditions and to the trajectory of NASA's successful IRVE-3 flight test. In general, the correlations produced at least qualitative agreement with the wind tunnel data, although the heating levels were underpredicted for some of the larger surface deflections. For the flight conditions, the correlations suggested that peak heating levels on the leeward side conical flank of the IRVE-3 vehicle may have exceeded those at nose for times late in the trajectory after the peak heating time point. However, the flight estimates were based on a conservative assumption of surface deflection magnitude (i.e., larger) than likely was produced in flight.
Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert
2016-02-09
An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戚振宕; 李人宪
2011-01-01
基于三维粘性非稳态可压缩Navier-Stokes方程和k-ε两方程紊流模型,采用有限体积法对高速列车通过时声屏障上气体压力和气动作用力进行计算。分析了两种高度、三种形式声屏障和四种列车运行速度条件下,单车通过与会车过程中的声屏障气动特性。结果表明：列车通过时,直立板型声屏障所受单位长度气动力最小,倒L型声屏障最大,内倾45°型居中;不同类型声屏障单位长度上气动力与列车运行速度均成2次方函数关系。会车过程中作用在声屏障上气动作用力大于单车通过时相应的气动作用力。%Based on three-dimensional viscous unstable compressible Navier-Stokes equation and k-ε two-equation turbulence model,air pressure and aerodynamic force on sound barrier when high-speed train passing are calculated using finite volume method.Aerodynamic characteristics of three different sound barriers at two heights and under four train speeds when single train passing and during train crossing are separately analyzed.The results show that when train passing,aerodynamic force per unit length of vertical barrier is the minimum,that of inverted L barrier is the maximum,and that of 45° inclined barrier is intermediate.Aerodynamic force per unit length of different sound barriers is quadratic to train speed.Aerodynamic force applied on sound barrier during train crossing is larger than that when single train passing.
Zahm, A F
1924-01-01
This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.
High speed turboprop aeroacoustic study (single rotation). Volume 1: Model development
Whitfield, C. E.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mani, R.; Mungur, P.
1989-01-01
A frequency-domain noncompact-source theory for the steady loading and volume-displacement (thickness) noise of high speed propellers has been developed and programmed. Both near field and far field effects have been considered. The code utilizes blade surface pressure distributions obtained from three-dimensional nonlinear aerodynamic flow field analysis programs as input for evaluating the steady loading noise. Simplified mathematical models of the velocity fields induced at the propeller disk by nearby wing and fuselage surfaces and by angle-of-attack operation have been developed to provide estimates of the unsteady loading imposed on the propeller by these potential field type interactions. These unsteady blade loadings have been coupled to a chordwise compact propeller unsteady loading noise model to provide predictions of unsteady loading noise caused by these installation effects. Finally, an analysis to estimate the corrections to be applied to the free-field noise predictions in order to arrive at the measurable fuselage sound pressure levels has been formulated and programmed. This analysis considers the effects of fuselage surface reflection and diffraction together with surface boundary layer refraction. The steady loading and thickness model and the unsteady loading model have been verified using NASA-supplied data for the SR-2 and SR-3 model propfans. In addition, the steady loading and thickness model has been compared with data from the SR-6 model propfan. These theoretical models have been employed in the evaluation of the SR-7 powered Gulfstream aircraft in terms of noise characteristics at representative takeoff, cruise, and approach operating conditions. In all cases, agreement between theory and experiment is encouraging.
Hanson, D. B.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Klatte, R. J.
1991-01-01
Results of the program for the generation of a computer prediction code for noise of advanced single rotation, turboprops (prop-fans) such as the SR3 model are presented. The code is based on a linearized theory developed at Hamilton Standard in which aerodynamics and acoustics are treated as a unified process. Both steady and unsteady blade loading are treated. Capabilities include prediction of steady airload distributions and associated aerodynamic performance, unsteady blade pressure response to gust interaction or blade vibration, noise fields associated with thickness and steady and unsteady loading, and wake velocity fields associated with steady loading. The code was developed on the Hamilton Standard IBM computer and has now been installed on the Cray XMP at NASA-Lewis. The work had its genesis in the frequency domain acoustic theory developed at Hamilton Standard in the late 1970s. It was found that the method used for near field noise predictions could be adapted as a lifting surface theory for aerodynamic work via the pressure potential technique that was used for both wings and ducted turbomachinery. In the first realization of the theory for propellers, the blade loading was represented in a quasi-vortex lattice form. This was upgraded to true lifting surface loading. Originally, it was believed that a purely linear approach for both aerodynamics and noise would be adequate. However, two sources of nonlinearity in the steady aerodynamics became apparent and were found to be a significant factor at takeoff conditions. The first is related to the fact that the steady axial induced velocity may be of the same order of magnitude as the flight speed and the second is the formation of leading edge vortices which increases lift and redistribute loading. Discovery and properties of prop-fan leading edge vortices were reported in two papers. The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) capabilites are demonstrated and the theory verified by comparison with the
Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory
Reuther, James
1996-01-01
Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.
Wind turbines. Unsteady aerodynamics and inflow noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riget Broe, B.
2009-12-15
Aerodynamical noise from wind turbines due to atmospheric turbulence has the highest emphasis in semi-empirical models. However it is an open question whether inflow noise has a high emphasis. This illustrates the need to investigate and improve the semi-empirical model for noise due to atmospheric turbulence. Three different aerodynamical models are investigated in order to estimate the lift fluctuations due to unsteady aerodynamics. Two of these models are investigated to find the unsteady lift distribution or pressure difference as function of chordwise position on the aerofoil. An acoustic model is investigated using a model for the lift distribution as input. The two models for lift distribution are used in the acoustic model. One of the models for lift distribution is for completely anisotropic turbulence and the other for perfectly isotropic turbulence, and so is also the corresponding models for the lift fluctuations derived from the models for lift distribution. The models for lift distribution and lift are compared with pressure data which are obtained by microphones placed flush with the surface of an aerofoil. The pressure data are from two experiments in a wind tunnel, one experiment with a NACA0015 profile and a second with a NACA63415 profile. The turbulence is measured by a triple wired hotwire instrument in the experiment with a NACA0015 profile. Comparison of the aerodynamical models with data shows that the models capture the general characteristics of the measurements, but the data are hampered by background noise from the fan propellers in the wind tunnel. The measurements are in between the completely anisotropic turbulent model and the perfectly isotropic turbulent model. This indicates that the models capture the aerodynamics well. Thus the measurements suggest that the noise due to atmospheric turbulence can be described and modeled by the two models for lift distribution. It was not possible to test the acoustical model by the measurements
The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains
Orellano, Alexander
2016-01-01
This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future. This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007. The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.
Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.
2003-01-01
The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....
Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.
2003-01-01
The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....
Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles
Mueller, Thomas J.
In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.
Introduction to transonic aerodynamics
Vos, Roelof
2015-01-01
Written to teach students the nature of transonic flow and its mathematical foundation, this book offers a much-needed introduction to transonic aerodynamics. The authors present a quantitative and qualitative assessment of subsonic, supersonic, and transonic flow around bodies in two and three dimensions. The book reviews the governing equations and explores their applications and limitations as employed in modeling and computational fluid dynamics. Some concepts, such as shock and expansion theory, are examined from a numerical perspective. Others, including shock-boundary-layer interaction, are discussed from a qualitative point of view. The book includes 60 examples and more than 200 practice problems. The authors also offer analytical methods such as Method of Characteristics (MOC) that allow readers to practice with the subject matter. The result is a wealth of insight into transonic flow phenomena and their impact on aircraft design, including compressibility effects, shock and expansion waves, sho...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴文华; 范召林; 陈德华; 覃宁; 孟德虹
2012-01-01
After decades of studies, the potentialities of traditional wing-body configuration are almost exhausted. So, it is difficult to improve the performance of the traditional aerodynamic shape of transonic civil aircraft by conventional design method. In this paper we develop ADJOINT method based on aerodynamics optimization software-ADJOPT, and the software is used to optimize the wing of a transonic civil aircraft with fuselage and nacelle, which is already optimized by traditional way. The optimization is multi-parameter, high precise and taking the influence of the fuselage and nacelle into account. The software performs well and gets obvious performance improvement. The research shows that multi-parameter optimization has the ability to exploit potentialities of a high-performance shape and increases the aerodynamic performance of it.%发展了基于伴随算子的气动布局优化设计软件-ADJOPT,并将该软件用于经过传统设计方法优化的大飞机布局上,开展全机状态下的机翼多参数、高精度优化设计,计入了短舱和机身对机翼气动特性的影响,取得了明显的优化效果.研究结果表明,多参数优化设计能够充分挖掘一个优良布局的设计潜力,进一步提高布局性能.
兆瓦级风电机组叶片气动外形技术研究%Aerodynamic Shape Study of a MW- sized Wind Turbine Blade with Horizontal Axis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘文芝; 齐向东; 周洁; 巩勇智; 张富海
2011-01-01
针对大型风电机组叶片最佳设计攻角、升力系数呈非线性变化问题,基于叶素-动量理论,通过改进Wilson优化算法,从结构及加工角度修正翼型,设计了1.2 MW风电机组叶片的气动外形.通过片条理论进行气动性能的计算,求出不同风速下改变的变化桨距角,得到其功率曲线,证明了用改进的Wilson算法的合理性和以之设计大型风电机组叶片气动外形的可行性.%The optimum design angle of attack for large - scale wind turbine blade and the lift coefficient assumes the nonlinearities change. For such problem, 1.2 MW wind turbine blade's profile is designed based on BEM theory through improving on the Wilson algorithm and correcting the airfoil from the structure and processing angle. By strip theory and the calculation for the aerodynamic performance, the changeable pitch angle varied with different wind speed is solved and the power curve is gotten, which proves the rationality of improving on the Wilson algorithm and the feasibility of designing Aerodynamic shape of large - scale wind turbine blade with horizontal axis.
Aerodynamic sound of flow past an airfoil
Wang, Meng
1995-01-01
The long term objective of this project is to develop a computational method for predicting the noise of turbulence-airfoil interactions, particularly at the trailing edge. We seek to obtain the energy-containing features of the turbulent boundary layers and the near-wake using Navier-Stokes Simulation (LES or DNS), and then to calculate the far-field acoustic characteristics by means of acoustic analogy theories, using the simulation data as acoustic source functions. Two distinct types of noise can be emitted from airfoil trailing edges. The first, a tonal or narrowband sound caused by vortex shedding, is normally associated with blunt trailing edges, high angles of attack, or laminar flow airfoils. The second source is of broadband nature arising from the aeroacoustic scattering of turbulent eddies by the trailing edge. Due to its importance to airframe noise, rotor and propeller noise, etc., trailing edge noise has been the subject of extensive theoretical (e.g. Crighton & Leppington 1971; Howe 1978) as well as experimental investigations (e.g. Brooks & Hodgson 1981; Blake & Gershfeld 1988). A number of challenges exist concerning acoustic analogy based noise computations. These include the elimination of spurious sound caused by vortices crossing permeable computational boundaries in the wake, the treatment of noncompact source regions, and the accurate description of wave reflection by the solid surface and scattering near the edge. In addition, accurate turbulence statistics in the flow field are required for the evaluation of acoustic source functions. Major efforts to date have been focused on the first two challenges. To this end, a paradigm problem of laminar vortex shedding, generated by a two dimensional, uniform stream past a NACA0012 airfoil, is used to address the relevant numerical issues. Under the low Mach number approximation, the near-field flow quantities are obtained by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically at chord
Numerical study of Wavy Blade Section for Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kobæk, C. M.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver
2016-01-01
relevant for modern wind turbines. The findings in the literature from geometries similar to the hump back whale flipper indicate that the aerodynamic performance can be improved at high angles of attack, but sometimes at the expense of a lower lift slope and increased drag before stall. The numerical...... results for a blade section based on the S809 airfoil are, however, not as promising as some of the findings reported in the literature for the whale flipper at high angles of attack. These first CFD computations using a thicker airfoil and a higher Reynolds number than the whale flipper indicate...
Theoretical and applied aerodynamics and related numerical methods
Chattot, J J
2015-01-01
This book covers classical and modern aerodynamics, theories and related numerical methods, for senior and first-year graduate engineering students, including: -The classical potential (incompressible) flow theories for low speed aerodynamics of thin airfoils and high and low aspect ratio wings. - The linearized theories for compressible subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics. - The nonlinear transonic small disturbance potential flow theory, including supercritical wing sections, the extended transonic area rule with lift effect, transonic lifting line and swept or oblique wings to minimize wave drag. Unsteady flow is also briefly discussed. Numerical simulations based on relaxation mixed-finite difference methods are presented and explained. - Boundary layer theory for all Mach number regimes and viscous/inviscid interaction procedures used in practical aerodynamics calculations. There are also four chapters covering special topics, including wind turbines and propellers, airplane design, flow analogies and h...
Validation and comparison of aerodynamic modelling approaches for wind turbines
Blondel, F.; Boisard, R.; Milekovic, M.; Ferrer, G.; Lienard, C.; Teixeira, D.
2016-09-01
The development of large capacity Floating Offshore Wind Turbines (FOWT) is an interdisciplinary challenge for the design solvers, requiring accurate modelling of both hydrodynamics, elasticity, servodynamics and aerodynamics all together. Floating platforms will induce low-frequency unsteadiness, and for large capacity turbines, the blade induced vibrations will lead to high-frequency unsteadiness. While yawed inflow conditions are still a challenge for commonly used aerodynamic methods such as the Blade Element Momentum method (BEM), the new sources of unsteadiness involved by large turbine scales and floater motions have to be tackled accurately, keeping the computational cost small enough to be compatible with design and certification purposes. In the light of this, this paper will focus on the comparison of three aerodynamic solvers based on BEM and vortex methods, on standard, yawed and unsteady inflow conditions. We will focus here on up-to-date wind tunnel experiments, such as the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) database and the MexNext international project.
Peterson, Victor L.; Menees, Gene P.
1961-01-01
Tabulated results of a wind-tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic loads on a canard airplane model with twin vertical tails are presented for Mach numbers from 0.70 to 2.22. The Reynolds number for the measurements was 2.9 x 10(exp 6) based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. The results include local static-pressure coefficients measured on the wing, body, and one of the vertical tails for angles of attack from -4 degrees to 16 degree angles of sideslip of 0 degrees and 5.3 degrees, and nominal canard deflections of O degrees and 10 degrees. Also included are section force and moment coefficients obtained from integrations of the local pressures and model-component force and moment coefficients obtained from integrations of the section coefficients. Geometric details of the model are shown and the locations of the pressure orifices are shown. An index to the data contained herein is presented and definitions of nomenclature are given. Detailed descriptions of the model and experiments and a brief discussion of some of the results are given. Tabulated results of measurements of the aerodynamic loads on the same canard model but having a single vertical tail instead of twin vertical tails are presented.
Haldeman, Charles Waldo, IV
2003-10-01
This research uses a modern 1 and 1/2 stage high-pressure (HP) turbine operating at the proper design corrected speed, pressure ratio, and gas to metal temperature ratio to generate a detailed data set containing aerodynamic, heat-transfer and aero-performance information. The data was generated using the Ohio State University Gas Turbine Laboratory Turbine Test Facility (TTF), which is a short-duration shock tunnel facility. The research program utilizes an uncooled turbine stage for which all three airfoils are heavily instrumented at multiple spans and on the HPV and LPV endwalls and HPB platform and tips. Heat-flux and pressure data are obtained using the traditional shock-tube and blowdown facility operational modes. Detailed examination show that the aerodynamic (pressure) data obtained in the blowdown mode is the same as obtained in the shock-tube mode when the corrected conditions are matched. Various experimental conditions and configurations were performed, including LPV clocking positions, off-design corrected speed conditions, pressure ratio changes, and Reynolds number changes. The main research for this dissertation is concentrated on the LPV clocking experiments, where the LPV was clocked relative to the HPV at several different passage locations and at different Reynolds numbers. Various methods were used to evaluate the effect of clocking on both the aeroperformance (efficiency) and aerodynamics (pressure loading) on the LPV, including time-resolved measurements, time-averaged measurements and stage performance measurements. A general improvement in overall efficiency of approximately 2% is demonstrated and could be observed using a variety of independent methods. Maximum efficiency is obtained when the time-average pressures are highest on the LPV, and the time-resolved data both in the time domain and frequency domain show the least amount of variation. The gain in aeroperformance is obtained by integrating over the entire airfoil as the three
Rivers, Melissa; Hunter, Craig; Vatsa, Veer
2017-01-01
Two Navier-Stokes codes were used to compute flow over the High-Lift Common Research Model (HL-CRM) in preparation for a wind tunnel test to be performed at the NASA Langley Research Center 14-by-22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel in fiscal year 2018. Both flight and wind tunnel conditions were simulated by the two codes at set Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers over a full angle-of-attack range for three configurations: cruise, landing and takeoff. Force curves, drag polars and surface pressure contour comparisons are shown for the two codes. The lift and drag curves compare well for the cruise configuration up to 10deg angle of attack but not as well for the other two configurations. The drag polars compare reasonably well for all three configurations. The surface pressure contours compare well for some of the conditions modeled but not as well for others.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Usherwood, James R [Structure and Motion Lab., Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts AL9 7TA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jusherwood@rvc.ac.uk
2009-03-01
Predictions from aerodynamic theory often match biological observations very poorly. Many insects and several bird species habitually hover, frequently flying at low advance ratios. Taking helicopter-based aerodynamic theory, wings functioning predominantly for hovering, even for quite small insects, should operate at low angles of attack. However, insect wings operate at very high angles of attack during hovering; reduction in angle of attack should result in considerable energetic savings. Here, I consider the possibility that selection of kinematics is constrained from being aerodynamically optimal due to the inertial power requirements of flapping. Potential increases in aerodynamic efficiency with lower angles of attack during hovering may be outweighed by increases in inertial power due to the associated increases in flapping frequency. For simple hovering, traditional rotary-winged helicopter-like micro air vehicles would be more efficient than their flapping biomimetic counterparts. However, flapping may confer advantages in terms of top speed and manoeuvrability. If flapping-winged micro air vehicles are required to hover or loiter more efficiently, dragonflies and mayflies suggest biomimetic solutions.
Naval Aerodynamics Test Facility (NATF)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NATF specializes in Aerodynamics testing of scaled and fullsized Naval models, research into flow physics found on US Navy planes and ships, aerosol testing and...
Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence
Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.
1984-01-01
The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.
Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics
Gülçat, Ülgen
2010-01-01
This introduction to the principles of unsteady aerodynamics covers all the core concepts, provides readers with a review of the fundamental physics, terminology and basic equations, and covers hot new topics such as the use of flapping wings for propulsion.
Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics
Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter
2014-01-01
Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.
Particle Methods in Bluff Body Aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj
Fluid-structure interaction is studied numerically in academics and the industry. Shear computational power alone is insufficient to accurately resolve the complex dynamics of high Reynolds number fluid flow. Therefore the development of more efficient and applicable computational algorithms...... is important. This dissertation focuses on the use of vortex particle methods and computational efficiency. The work is divided into three parts. A novel method for the simulation of the aerodynamic admittance in bluff body aerodynamics is presented. The method involves a model for describing oncoming...... turbulence in two-dimensional discrete vortex method simulations by seeding the upstream flow with vortex particles. The turbulence is generated prior to the simulations and is based on analytic spectral densities of the atmospheric turbulence and a coherence function defining the spatial correlation...
CFD research, parallel computation and aerodynamic optimization
Ryan, James S.
1995-01-01
Over five years of research in Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications are covered in this report. Using CFD as an established tool, aerodynamic optimization on parallel architectures is explored. The objective of this work is to provide better tools to vehicle designers. Submarine design requires accurate force and moment calculations in flow with thick boundary layers and large separated vortices. Low noise production is critical, so flow into the propulsor region must be predicted accurately. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) has been the subject of recent work. This vehicle is to be a passenger vehicle with the capability of cutting overseas flight times by more than half. A successful design must surpass the performance of comparable planes. Fuel economy, other operational costs, environmental impact, and range must all be improved substantially. For all these reasons, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer and other disciplines.
Vortical sources of aerodynamic force and moment
Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the aerodynamic force and moment can be expressed in terms of vorticity distribution (and entropy variation for compressible flow) on near wake plane, or in terms of boundary vorticity flux on the body surface. Thus the vortical sources of lift and drag are clearly identified, which is the real physical basis of optimal aerodynamic design. Moreover, these sources are highly compact, hence allowing one to concentrate on key local regions of the configuration, which have dominating effect to the lift and drag. A detail knowledge of the vortical low requires measuring or calculating the vorticity and dilatation field, which is however still a challenging task. Nevertheless, this type of formulation has some unique advantages; and how to set up a well-posed problem, in particular how to establish vorticity-dilatation boundary conditions, is addressed.
Aerodynamics of badminton shuttlecocks
Verma, Aekaansh; Desai, Ajinkya; Mittal, Sanjay
2013-08-01
A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.
Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.
Tucker, Paul G
2007-10-15
The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used.
High performance forward swept wing aircraft
Koenig, David G. (Inventor); Aoyagi, Kiyoshi (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor); Schmidt, Susan B. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A high performance aircraft capable of subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds employs a forward swept wing planform and at least one first and second solution ejector located on the inboard section of the wing. A high degree of flow control on the inboard sections of the wing is achieved along with improved maneuverability and control of pitch, roll and yaw. Lift loss is delayed to higher angles of attack than in conventional aircraft. In one embodiment the ejectors may be advantageously positioned spanwise on the wing while the ductwork is kept to a minimum.
Aerodynamics of a rigid curved kite wing
Maneia, Gianmauro; Tordella, Daniela; Iovieno, Michele
2013-01-01
A preliminary numerical study on the aerodynamics of a kite wing for high altitude wind power generators is proposed. Tethered kites are a key element of an innovative wind energy technology, which aims to capture energy from the wind at higher altitudes than conventional wind towers. We present the results obtained from three-dimensional finite volume numerical simulations of the steady air flow past a three-dimensional curved rectangular kite wing (aspect ratio equal to 3.2, Reynolds number equal to 3x10^6). Two angles of incidence -- a standard incidence for the flight of a tethered airfoil (6{\\deg}) and an incidence close to the stall (18{\\deg}) -- were considered. The simulations were performed by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes flow model using the industrial STAR-CCM+ code. The overall aerodynamic characteristics of the kite wing were determined and compared to the aerodynamic characteristics of the flat rectangular non twisted wing with an identical aspect ratio and section (Clark Y profil...
Fisher, David F.; Banks, Daniel W.; Richwine, David M.
1990-01-01
Pressure distributions measured on the forebody and the leading-edge extensions (LEX's) of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) were reported at 10 and 50 degree angles of attack and at Mach 0.20 to 0.60. The results were correlated with HARV flow visualization and 6-percent scale F-18 wind-tunnel-model test results. The general trend in the data from the forebody was for the maximum suction pressure peaks to first appear at an angle of attack (alpha) of approximately 19 degrees and increase in magnitude with angle of attack. The LEX pressure distribution general trend was the inward progression and increase in magnitude of the maximum suction peaks up to vortex core breakdown and then the decrease and general flattening of the pressure distribution beyond that. No significant effect of Mach number was noted for the forebody results. However, a substantial compressibility effect on the LEX's resulted in a significant reduction in vortex-induced suction pressure as Mach number increased. The forebody primary and the LEX secondary vortex separation lines, from surface flow visualization, correlated well with the end of pressure recovery, leeward and windward, respectively, of maximum suction pressure peaks. The flight to wind-tunnel correlations were generally good with some exceptions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王红波; 祝小平; 周洲; 许晓平
2015-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristic on solar powered aircraft affected by propeller slipstream flows was inves⁃tigated based on the structured / unstructured hybrid grid method. The effect of Propeller slipstreams was simulated with Multiple Reference Frames quasi steady method firstly in order to provide an initial flow field for the unsteady numerical simulation using sliding mesh methods. An experimental ducted propeller model belonging to NASA was used to verify the present methods and numerical results with a 5 3% error indicate a high level of agreement with experimental data; this demonstrates that the above methods have good accuracy to numerically simulate the aerody⁃namics of the solar powered aircraft at different propeller rotational speeds and angles of attack. According to the re⁃sults, propeller slipstreams lead to notable lift and drag increments: the maximum lift increment and drag increment are respectively 26 7% and 34 7%. However, lift-to-drag ratio values for solar powered airplanes are reduced and the maximum decrement is 26 26%. The position where propeller slipstreams affect the chordwise pressure distribu⁃tion mainly locates at the leading edge of the wing; this induces opposite pressure changes at the two sides of the propeller rotation shaft. However, the effect of the propeller slipstreams on the chordwise pressure distribution be⁃come little at the trailing edge of the wing.%针对螺旋桨滑流对太阳能无人机气动性能的影响，基于结构／非结构混合网格，首先使用多重参考系方法对螺旋桨滑流进行准定常计算以获得初始流场，再使用滑移网格方法对螺旋桨的真实转动进行非定常数值模拟。采用 NASA 涵道螺旋桨进行算例验证，其计算结果与实验值误差仅为53％，证明了计算方法的可靠性和准确性，在此基础上数值模拟了滑流在不同转速和来流迎角下对全机气动力的影响。结果表明：螺旋桨滑流具有增
Thompson, Robert F.; Vogler, Raymond D.; Moseley, William C., Jr.
1959-01-01
Jet-powered model tests were made to determine the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical-take-off and-landing supersonic bomber configuration. The configuration has an unique engine-wing arrangement wherein six large turbojet engines (three on each side of the fuselage) are buried in a low-aspect-ratio wing which is tilted into the vertical plane for take-off. An essentially two-dimensional variable inlet, spanning the leading edge of each wing semispan, provides air for the engines. Jet flow conditions were simulated for a range of military (nonafterburner) and afterburner turbojet-powered flight at subsonic speeds. Three horizontal tails were tested at a station down-stream of the jet exit and at three heights above the jet axes. A semi-span model was used and test parameters covered wing-fuselage incidence angles from 0 deg to 15 deg, wing angles of attack from -4 deg to 36 deg, a variable range of horizontal-tail incidence angles, and some variations in power simulation conditions. Results show that, with all horizontal tails tested, there were large variations in static stability throughout the lift range. When the wing and fuselage were alined, the model was statically stable throughout the test range only with the largest tail tested (tail span of 1.25 wing span) and only when the tail was located in the low test position which placed the tail nearest to the undeflected jet. For transition flight conditions, none of the tail configurations provided satisfactory longitudinal stability or trim throughout the lift range. Jet flow was destabilizing for most of the test conditions, and varying the jet-exit flow conditions at a constant thrust coefficient had little effect on the stability of this model. Wing leading-edge simulation had some important effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics.
Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics
Gülçat, Ülgen
2016-01-01
In this book, the author introduces the concept of unsteady aerodynamics and its underlying principles. He provides the readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamental physics of free and forced unsteadiness, the terminology and basic equations of aerodynamics ranging from incompressible flow to hypersonics. The book also covers modern topics related to the developments made in recent years, especially in relation to wing flapping for propulsion. The book is written for graduate and senior year undergraduate students in aerodynamics and also serves as a reference for experienced researchers. Each chapter includes ample examples, questions, problems and relevant references. The treatment of these modern topics has been completely revised end expanded for the new edition. It now includes new numerical examples, a section on the ground effect, and state-space representation.
Experiments of effects of inlet-air distortion on aerodynamic performance in transonic compressor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Mao-yi; YUAN Wei; LU Ya-jun; SONG Xi-zhen; LU Li-peng
2013-01-01
The inlet-air distortion which was caused by high angle-of-attack flight was simulated by plugboard.Experiments were conducted on a transonic axial-flow compressor's rotor at 98％ rotating speed.The flow field characteristics and mechanism of performance degradation were analyzed in detail.The compressor inlet was divided into four sectors at circumference under inlet-air distortion.They were undistorted sector,transition sector A where the rotor was rotating into the distortion sector,distorted sector and transition sector B where the rotor was rotating out of the distortion sector.The experimental results show that compared with undistorted sector,there is a subsonic flow in transition sector A,so the pressure ratio is decreased by a large margin in this sector.However,the shock wave is enhanced in distortion sector and transition sector B,and thus the pressure ratio increases in these sectors.Because of the different works at circumference,the phase angle of total pressure changes 90° when the inlet total pressure distortion passes through compressor rotor.In addition,the frequency and amplitude of disturbances in front of the rotor strengthenes under inlet distortion,so the unstable flow would take place in advance.In addition,the position of stall inception is in one of the transition sectors.
Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design
2008-01-01
During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.
The aerodynamics of wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels
2013-01-01
In the paper we present state-of-the-art of research in wind turbine aerodynamics. We start be giving a brief historical review and a survey over aerodynamic research in wind energy. Next, we focus on some recent research results obtained by our wind energy group at Department of Mechanical...... Engineering at DTU. In particular, we show some new results on the classical problem of the ideal rotor and present a series of new results from an on-going research project dealing with the modelling and simulation of turbulent flow structures in the wake behind wind turbines....
Schepers, J.G.
2012-01-01
The subject of aerodynamics is of major importance for the successful deployment of wind energy. As a matter of fact there are two aerodynamic areas in the wind energy technology: Rotor aerodynamics and wind farm aerodynamics. The first subject considers the flow around the rotor and the second
Schepers, J.G.
2012-01-01
The subject of aerodynamics is of major importance for the successful deployment of wind energy. As a matter of fact there are two aerodynamic areas in the wind energy technology: Rotor aerodynamics and wind farm aerodynamics. The first subject considers the flow around the rotor and the second subj
Maximum orbit plane change with heat-transfer-rate considerations
Lee, J. Y.; Hull, D. G.
1990-01-01
Two aerodynamic maneuvers are considered for maximizing the plane change of a circular orbit: gliding flight with a maximum thrust segment to regain lost energy (aeroglide) and constant altitude cruise with the thrust being used to cancel the drag and maintain a high energy level (aerocruise). In both cases, the stagnation heating rate is limited. For aeroglide, the controls are the angle of attack, the bank angle, the time at which the burn begins, and the length of the burn. For aerocruise, the maneuver is divided into three segments: descent, cruise, and ascent. During descent the thrust is zero, and the controls are the angle of attack and the bank angle. During cruise, the only control is the assumed-constant angle of attack. During ascent, a maximum thrust segment is used to restore lost energy, and the controls are the angle of attack and bank angle. The optimization problems are solved with a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. Numerical results for the Maneuverable Re-entry Research Vehicle with a heating-rate limit of 100 Btu/ft(2)-s show that aerocruise gives a maximum plane change of 2 deg, which is only 1 deg larger than that of aeroglide. On the other hand, even though aerocruise requires two thrust levels, the cruise characteristics of constant altitude, velocity, thrust, and angle of attack are easy to control.
Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application
Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan
2012-02-01
In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.
Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qing Wang; Kai-Feng He; Wei-Qi Qian; Tian-Jiao Zhang; Yan-Qing Cheng; Kai-Yuan Wu
2012-01-01
In view of engineering application,it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components:the static aerodynamics,the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations,and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow.The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms,while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration,the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch,yaw,roll,and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations.The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics,respectively.The results show that:(1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points,but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence,stability,and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously.Furthermore,the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected.It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft.Finally,the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.
Unsteady Aerodynamics of Flapping Wing of a Bird
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Agoes Moelyadi
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The unsteady flow behavior and time-dependent aerodynamic characteristics of the flapping motion of a bird’s wing were investigated using a computational method. During flapping, aerodynamic interactions between bird wing surfaces and surrounding flow may occur, generating local time-dependent flow changes in the flow field and aerodynamic load of birds. To study the effect of flapping speed on unsteady aerodynamic load, two kinds of computational simulations were carried out, namely a quasi-steady and an unsteady simulation. To mimic the movement of the down-stroke and the upstroke of a bird, the flapping path accorded to a sinus function, with the wing attitude changing in dihedral angle and time. The computations of time-dependent viscous flow were based on the solution of the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by applying the k-e turbulence model. In addition, the discretization for the computational domain around the model used multi-block structured grid to provide more accuracy in capturing viscous flow, especially in the vicinity of the wing and body surfaces, to obtain a proper wing-body geometry model. For this research, the seagull bird was chosen, which has high aspect ratio wings with pointed wing-tips and a high camber wing section. The results include mesh movement, velocity contours as well as aerodynamic coefficients of the flapping motion of the bird at various flapping frequencies.
Aerodynamically forced vibration analysis of turbomachines
Elchuri, V.; Pamidi, P. R.
1987-01-01
An account is given of theoretical considerations for the determination of turbomachine response under aerodynamic excitation, as in the cases of advanced turboprop rotors with highly swept blades and axial flow compressors. Dynamic response is characterized in terms of the normal modal coordinates of tuned rotating cyclic structures for both rigid and flexible hubs/disks. Implementation of the scheme is in NASTRAN; coriolis and centripetal accelerations are included, together with differential stiffness effects. Analytically predicted vibratory stresses for the blades of two different advanced turboprops are compared to those determined by wind tunnel tests conducted by NASA-Lewis.
Aerodynamics profile not in stationary flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
А.А. Загорулько
2006-02-01
Full Text Available Consider the question about influence of unsteady flight on the size of drag and lift coefficients of theaerodynamic profile. Distinctive features of this investigation are obtaining data about aerodynamic drag chancing in process unsteady on high angle at attack and oscillation profile in subsonic and transonic flight. Given analysis of oscillation profile show, that dynamic loops accompany change of lift and dray force. The researches show that it is necessary to clarity the mathematic model of the airplane flight dynamics by introducing numbers, with take into account unsteady effects.
Aerodynamic design trends for commercial aircraft
Hilbig, R.; Koerner, H.
1986-01-01
Recent research on advanced-configuration commercial aircraft at DFVLR is surveyed, with a focus on aerodynamic approaches to improved performance. Topics examined include transonic wings with variable camber or shock/boundary-layer control, wings with reduced friction drag or laminarized flow, prop-fan propulsion, and unusual configurations or wing profiles. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of predicted performance are provided, and the need for extensive development efforts using powerful computer facilities, high-speed and low-speed wind tunnels, and flight tests of models (mounted on specially designed carrier aircraft) is indicated.
Aerodynamic design via control theory
Jameson, Antony
1988-01-01
The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.
POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum
Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita
2010-01-01
The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…
POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum
Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita
2010-01-01
The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…
Potential impacts of advanced aerodynamic technology on air transportation system productivity
Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor)
1994-01-01
Summaries of a workshop held at NASA Langley Research Center in 1993 to explore the application of advanced aerodynamics to airport productivity improvement are discussed. Sessions included discussions of terminal area productivity problems and advanced aerodynamic technologies for enhanced high lift and reduced noise, emissions, and wake vortex hazard with emphasis upon advanced aircraft configurations and multidisciplinary solution options.
AERODYNAMIC IMPROVEMENT OF KhADI 33 RACING CAR RADIATOR COMPARTMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Avershyn
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Aerodynamic characteristics of radiator compartment of KhADI 33 racing car on the basis of the decision of the interfaced problem of internal and external aerodynamics are numerically investigated. The rational variant of radiator compartment which is characterized by high throughput and low level of non-uniformity of speed field at the input is offered.
Aerodynamic Size Classification of Glass Fibers.
Laosmaa, Pekka J. J.
The objective of this research was to examine a technique by which fibers may be aerodynamically classified by diameter and/or length. In this study a system for fiber preparation and generation as well as an in situ fiber classifier were constructed and evaluated. A recently developed technique, the size classification of particles by opposing jets, was modified. The research set-up consisted of (1) a vibrating bed fiber generator, which also functioned as a preselector, (2) an opposing-jet classifier equipped with electrodes and high voltage power supplies to create fiber-aligning electric fields inside the classifier and (3) an optoelectric fiber sensor to measure the concentration and length of fibers. The classified fibers were also collected on filters for the counting and dimensional analysis of the fibers. Some flow instability problems were found during the initial tests of the classifier. They were attributed to random flow fluctuations in the nozzles caused by very small perturbations upstream of the nozzles. Within a critical range of flow Reynolds numbers the flow becomes "intermittent", i.e. it alternates in time between being laminar and turbulent in a random sequence. Small disturbances upstream of the point of consideration can "trigger" the changes from laminar to turbulent flow and the initial disturbance may be "amplified", sending a turbulent flash through the flow system. The classifier performed well with test aerosols after the nozzle flowrate had been decreased to correspond to a lower and less critical Reynolds number and after some modifications had been made to smooth the flow inside the classifier inlet chambers. The cut-off of test aerosols was sharp, but the loss of particles greater than 2.5 (mu)m in aerodynamic diameter was unsatisfactorily high. The classifier was able to classify fibers by aerodynamic diameter, but not as predicted through calculations. The results were difficult to interpret because of the high loss of fibers