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Sample records for high angle normal

  1. Geometry and evolution of low-angle normal faults (LANF) within a Cenozoic high-angle rift system, Thailand: Implications for sedimentology and the mechanisms of LANF development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Chris K.

    2009-10-01

    At least eight examples of large (5-35 km heave), low-angle normal faults (LANFs, 20°-30° dip) occur in the Cenozoic rift basins of Thailand and laterally pass into high-angle extensional fault systems. Three large-displacement LANFs are found in late Oligocene-Miocene onshore rift basins (Suphan Buri, Phitsanulok, and Chiang Mai basins), they have (1) developed contemporaneous with, or after the onset of, high-angle extension, (2) acted as paths for magma and associated fluids, and (3) impacted sedimentation patterns. Displacement on low-angle faults appears to be episodic, marked by onset of lacustrine conditions followed by axial progradation of deltaic systems that infilled the lakes during periods of low or no displacement. The Chiang Mai LANF is a low-angle (15°-25°), high-displacement (15-35 km heave), ESE dipping LANF immediately east of the late early Miocene Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep metamorphic core complexes. Early Cenozoic transpressional crustal thickening followed by the northward motion of India coupled with Burma relative to east Burma and Thailand (˜40-30 Ma) caused migmatization and gneiss dome uplift in the late Oligocene of the core complex region, followed by LANF activity. LANF displacement lasted 4-6 Ma during the early Miocene and possibly transported a late Oligocene-early Miocene high-angle rift system 35 km east. Other LANFs in Thailand have lower displacements and no associated metamorphic core complexes. The three LANFs were initiated as low-angle faults, not by isostatic rotation of high-angle faults. The low-angle dips appear to follow preexisting low-angle fabrics (thrusts, shear zones, and other low-angle ductile foliations) predominantly developed during Late Paleozoic and early Paleogene episodes of thrusting and folding.

  2. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  3. Mechanical basis for slip along low-angle normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Emmanuel; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Lacombe, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    The existence of active low-angle normal faults is much debated because (1) the classical theory of fault mechanics implies that normal faults are locked when the dip is less than 30° and (2) shallow-dipping extensional fault planes do not produce large earthquakes (M > 5.5). However, a number of field observations suggest that brittle deformation occurs on low-angle normal faults at very shallow dip. To reconcile observations and theory, we use an alternative model of fault reactivation including a thick elasto-plastic frictional fault gouge, and test it at large strain by the mean of 2D mechanical modeling. We show that plastic compaction allows reducing the effective friction of faults sufficiently for low-angle normal faults to be active at dip of 20°. As the model predicts that these faults must be active in a slip-hardening regime, it prevents the occurrence of large earthquakes. However, we also evidence the neoformation of Riedel-type shear bands within thick fault zone, which, we believe, may be responsible for repeated small earthquakes and we apply the model to the Gulf of Corinth (Greece).

  4. Opening angles and residual strains in normal rat trachea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳兆荣; 王忆勤; 滕忠照; 徐刚; 汤伟昌

    2002-01-01

    The no-load state and zero-stress state of the normal rat trachea were analyzed. It was found that there exist compressive residual strains in the inner wall region of the rat trachea and tensile residual strains in the outer wall region. The fact that the opening angle of the rat trachea cut at the cartilaginous region is significantly larger than that cut at the muscular portion shows that residual strains exist mainly in the muscular region in the rat trachea. It was also indicated that the opening angles and residual strains expressed by cutting at the muscular portion are basically identical along longitudinal location and those expressed by cutting in the cartilaginous region tend to increase in the longitudinal direction in the normal rat, and that there exists quantitatively positive correlation between the opening angles and residual strains in rat trachea. The results will help to further understand the opening angles and residual strains in the trachea and study tracheal remodeling in response to mechanical environment.

  5. Effect of EMIC Wave Normal Angle Distribution on Relativistic Electron Scattering in Outer RB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.

    2007-01-01

    We present the equatorial and bounce average pitch angle diffusion coefficients for scattering of relativistic electrons by the H+ mode of EMIC waves. Both the model (prescribed) and self consistent distributions over the wave normal angle are considered. The main results of our calculation can be summarized as follows: First, in comparison with field aligned waves, the intermediate and highly oblique waves reduce the pitch angle range subject to diffusion, and strongly suppress the scattering rate for low energy electrons (E less than 2 MeV). Second, for electron energies greater than 5 MeV, the |n| = 1 resonances operate only in a narrow region at large pitch-angles, and despite their greatest contribution in case of field aligned waves, cannot cause electron diffusion into the loss cone. For those energies, oblique waves at |n| greater than 1 resonances are more effective, extending the range of pitch angle diffusion down to the loss cone boundary, and increasing diffusion at small pitch angles by orders of magnitude.

  6. Measurement of Lumbosacral Angle in Normal Radiographs: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    erect position develop a lumbar lordosis to the same degree and at the ... lateral lumbosacral spine radiographs taken in the recumbent ... complaints, low back pain without any radiographically ... radiological report were contained in a film jacket. .... is the angle formed between a line across the plane of superior margin.

  7. Effect of EMIC Wave Normal Angle Distribution on Relativistic Electron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2006-01-01

    The flux level of outer-zone relativistic electrons (above 1 MeV) is extremely variable during geomagnetic storms, and controlled by a competition between acceleration and loss. Precipitation of these electrons due to resonant pitch-angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is considered one of the major loss mechanisms. This mechanism was suggested in early theoretical studies more than three decades ago. However, direct experimental evidence of the wave role in relativistic electrons precipitation is difficult to obtain because of lack of concurrent measurements of precipitating electrons at low altitudes and the waves in a magnetically conjugate equatorial region. Recently, the data from balloon-borne X-ray instruments provided indirect but strong evidence on an efficiency of the EMIC wave induced loss for the outer-zone relativistic electrons. These observations stimulated theoretical studies that, particularly, demonstrated that EMIC wave induced pitch-angle diffusion of MeV electrons can operate in the strong diffusion limit and this mechanism can compete with relativistic electron depletion caused by the Dst effect during the initial and main phases of storm. Although an effectiveness of relativistic electron scattering by EMIC waves depends strongly on the wave spectral properties, the most favorable assumptions regarding wave characteristics has been made in all previous theoretical studies. Particularly, only quasi field-aligned EMIC waves have been considered as a driver for relativistic electron loss. At the same time, there is growing experimental and theoretical evidence that these waves can be highly oblique; EMIC wave energy can occupy not only the region of generation, i.e. the region of small wave normal angles, but also the entire wave normal angle region, and even only the region near 90 degrees. The latter can dramatically change he effectiveness of relativistic electron scattering by EMIC waves. In the present study, we

  8. Impingement-free hip motion: the 'normal' angle alpha after osteochondroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Mirjam; Cui, Quanjun; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Beck, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement is considered a cause of hip osteoarthrosis. In cam impingement, an aspherical head-neck junction is squeezed into the joint and causes acetabular cartilage damage. The anterior offset angle alpha, observed on a lateral crosstable radiograph, reflects the location where the femoral head becomes aspheric. Previous studies reported a mean angle alpha of 42 degrees in asymptomatic patients. Currently, it is believed an angle alpha of 50 degrees to 55 degrees is normal. The aim of this study was to identify that angle alpha which allows impingement-free motion. In 45 patients who underwent surgical treatment for femoroacetabular impingement, we measured the angle alpha preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and 1 year postoperatively. All hips underwent femoral correction and, if necessary, acetabular correction. The correction was considered sufficient when, in 90 degrees hip flexion, an internal rotation of 20 degrees to 25 degrees was possible. The angle alpha was corrected from a preoperative mean of 66 degrees (range, 45 degrees - 79 degrees) to 43 degrees (range, 34 degrees - 60 degrees) postoperatively. Because the acetabulum is corrected to normal first, the femoral correction is tested against a normal acetabulum. We therefore concluded an angle alpha of 43 degrees achieved surgically and with impingement-free motion, represents the normal angle alpha, an angle lower than that currently considered sufficient.

  9. Nutcracker and SMA syndromes: What is the normal SMA angle in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, O J; Mehta, U; Set, P A K

    2012-08-01

    The nutcracker and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndromes are rare conditions where the left renal vein or duodenum may be compressed by an unusually acute angle between the SMA and aorta, although the normal angle in children is unknown. We measured the SMA angle to define the normal range in children. We retrospectively measured SMA angles, left renal vein (LRV) distance, and duodenal distance (DD) in 205 consecutive pediatric abdominal CT. Total and visceral intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus were also assessed. Mean SMA angle was 45.6±19.6° (range 10.6-112.9°), mean LRV distance was 8.6±3.9mm (range 2.0-28.6mm) and mean DD was 11.3±4.8mm (range 3.6-35.3mm). There was a significant but weak correlation between %visceral fat volume (%VF) and SMA angle (R=0.30; pSMA angle, LRV and DD in normal children, which correlated weakly with visceral fat volume. Using a definition of SMA angle SMA compression. Our findings suggest exercising caution when attributing these rare syndromes to an absolute SMA angle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomechanical study of plantar pressures during walking in male soccer players with increased vs. normal hip alpha angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Marco; Abraham, Christoph; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Lahner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is accompanied by increased hip alpha angles, in particular in athletes with high impact sports. The aim of our study was to investigate the dynamic function of the foot during walking in male soccer players with increased versus normal alpha angles. Plantar pressures of 20 injury-free male soccer players were recorded during barefoot walking at 1.6 m/s. Ten subjects had bilaterally increased (>55°) (IA) and ten subjects normal (pressure-time-integrals (-29%; prelative loads (prelative loads are increased under the lateral midfoot (ppressure which indicates a compensatory mechanism of the foot during walking.

  11. Low-angle normal faults-low differential stress at mid crustal levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    A simple model for frictional slip on pre-existing faults that considers the local stress state near the fault and the effect of non-hydrostatic fluid pressures predicts that low-angle normal faulting is restricted to areas of the crust characterized by low differential stress and nearly lithostatic fluid pressures. The model considers frictional slip on a cohesionless low-angle normal fault governed by the failure criterion tau = mu sub f (sigma (*) sub n) =mu sub f (sigma sub n - P sub f) where tau and sigma sub n are the shear and normal stresses across the fault plane, mu sub f is the static coefficient of friction, and P sub f is the pore fluid pressure. As a first approximation, the model considers a vertical greatest principal compressive stress, sigma sub 1. It is apparent that if slip on low-angle normal faults is governed by the avove frictional failure criterion, slip on the low-angle normal fault occurs only if the least effective principal stress, sigma (*) sub 3 = sigma sub 3 - P sub f, is tensile, whenever tan superscrip -1(mu sub f d, where d is the dip of the fault. If detachment faulting occurs at any significant depth in the crust, P sub f sigma sub 3 is required. In light of this conclusion I allow P sub f to vary as necessary to allow slip on the low-angle normal fault.

  12. Estimation Normal Vector of Triangular Mesh Vertex by Angle and Centroid Weights and its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueping Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To compute vertex normal of triangular meshes more accurately, this paper presents an improved algorithm based on angle and centroid weights. Firstly, four representational algorithms are analyzed by comparing their weighting characteristics such as angles, areas and centroids. The drawbacks of each algorithm are discussed. Following that, an improved algorithm is put forward based on angle and centroid weights. Finally, by taking the deviation angle between the nominal normal vector and the estimated one as the error evaluation standard factor, the triangular mesh models of spheres, ellipsoids, paraboloids and cylinders are used to analyze the performance of all these estimation algorithms. The machining and inspection operations of one mould part are conducted to verify the improved algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm is effective.

  13. Nutcracker and SMA syndromes: What is the normal SMA angle in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, O.J., E-mail: oja20@owenarthurs.co.uk [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Mehta, U. [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Set, P.A.K., E-mail: p.set@addenbrookes.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: The nutcracker and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndromes are rare conditions where the left renal vein or duodenum may be compressed by an unusually acute angle between the SMA and aorta, although the normal angle in children is unknown. We measured the SMA angle to define the normal range in children. Methods: We retrospectively measured SMA angles, left renal vein (LRV) distance, and duodenal distance (DD) in 205 consecutive pediatric abdominal CT. Total and visceral intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus were also assessed. Results: Mean SMA angle was 45.6 {+-} 19.6 Degree-Sign (range 10.6-112.9 Degree-Sign ), mean LRV distance was 8.6 {+-} 3.9 mm (range 2.0-28.6 mm) and mean DD was 11.3 {+-} 4.8 mm (range 3.6-35.3 mm). There was a significant but weak correlation between %visceral fat volume (%VF) and SMA angle (R = 0.30; p < 0.001), LRV distance (R = 0.37, p < 0.001) and DD (R = 0.32; p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a wide range of SMA angle, LRV and DD in normal children, which correlated weakly with visceral fat volume. Using a definition of SMA angle <25 Degree-Sign would diagnose 9.3% of asymptomatic children with nutcracker syndrome, and using a DD definition of <8 mm would diagnose 20% with SMA compression. Our findings suggest exercising caution when attributing these rare syndromes to an absolute SMA angle.

  14. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission study of the Fermi surface and the normal-state electronic structure of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.G.; Liu, R.; Lynch, D.W. (Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA (USA) Physics Department, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (USA)); List, R.S.; Arko, A.J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (USA)); Veal, B.W.; Chang, Y.C.; Jiang, P.Z.; Paulikas, A.P. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (USA))

    1990-07-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopic measurements were made of the Fermi edge of a single crystal of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} at 90 K along several directions in the Brillouin zone. The resultant Fermi-level crossings are consistent with local-density band calculations, including a point calculated to be of Bi-O character. Additional measurements were made where bands crossed the Fermi level between 100 and 250 K, along with measurements on an adjacent Pt foil. The Fermi edges of both materials agree to within the noise. Below the Fermi level the spectra show correlation effects in the form of an increased effective mass, but the essence of the single-particle band structure is retained. The shape of the spectra can be explained by a lifetime-broadened photohole and secondary electrons. The effective inverse photohole lifetime is linear in energy.

  15. TAP score: torsion angle propensity normalization applied to local protein structure evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battistutta Roberto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimentally determined protein structures may contain errors and require validation. Conformational criteria based on the Ramachandran plot are mainly used to distinguish between distorted and adequately refined models. While the readily available criteria are sufficient to detect totally wrong structures, establishing the more subtle differences between plausible structures remains more challenging. Results A new criterion, called TAP score, measuring local sequence to structure fitness based on torsion angle propensities normalized against the global minimum and maximum is introduced. It is shown to be more accurate than previous methods at estimating the validity of a protein model in terms of commonly used experimental quality parameters on two test sets representing the full PDB database and a subset of obsolete PDB structures. Highly selective TAP thresholds are derived to recognize over 90% of the top experimental structures in the absence of experimental information. Both a web server and an executable version of the TAP score are available at http://protein.cribi.unipd.it/tap/. Conclusion A novel procedure for energy normalization (TAP has significantly improved the possibility to recognize the best experimental structures. It will allow the user to more reliably isolate problematic structures in the context of automated experimental structure determination.

  16. Unusual low-angle normal fault earthquakes after the 2011 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yuji; Okuwaki, Ryo; Enescu, Bogdan; Fukahata, Yukitoshi

    2015-06-01

    A few low-angle normal fault earthquakes at approximately the depth of the plate interface, with a strike nearly parallel to the trench axis, were detected immediately after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. After that, however, no such normal fault events have been observed until the occurrence of the 2014 M W 6.6 Fukushima-oki earthquake. Here we analyze the teleseismic body waveforms of the 2014 Fukushima-oki earthquake. We first compare the observed teleseismic body waves of the 2014 Fukushima-oki earthquake with those of the largest previous low-angle normal fault aftershock ( M W 6.6), which occurred on 12 March 2011, and then estimate the centroid depth and moment tensor solution of the 2014 Fukushima-oki earthquake. The teleseismic body waves and moment tensor solution of the 2014 Fukushima-oki earthquake are similar to those of the 2011 normal fault aftershock, which suggests that the 2014 Fukushima-oki earthquake occurred at a similar depth and had a similar mechanism to that of the 2011 aftershock. We detected five low-angle normal fault aftershocks at approximately the depth of the plate interface, with a strike nearly parallel to the trench axis, and confirmed that all of them except for the 2014 Fukushima-oki earthquake occurred within 17 days after the mainshock. The occurrence of these low-angle normal fault events is likely to reflect the reversal of shear stress due to overshooting of slip during the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. We speculate that a fast but heterogeneous recovery of stress state at the plate interface may explain why these events preferentially occurred immediately after the megathrust event, while one of them occurred with a significant delay. In order to better understand the characteristics of stress state in the crust, we have to carefully observe the ongoing seismic activity around this region.

  17. Methodology for high accuracy contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, A; David, R; Neumann, A W

    2009-12-15

    A new version of axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) called ADSA-NA (ADSA-no apex) was developed for measuring interfacial properties for drop configurations without an apex. ADSA-NA facilitates contact angle measurements on drops with a capillary protruding into the drop. Thus a much simpler experimental setup, not involving formation of a complete drop from below through a hole in the test surface, may be used. The contact angles of long-chained alkanes on a commercial fluoropolymer, Teflon AF 1600, were measured using the new method. A new numerical scheme was incorporated into the image processing to improve the location of the contact points of the liquid meniscus with the solid substrate to subpixel resolution. The images acquired in the experiments were also analyzed by a different drop shape technique called theoretical image fitting analysis-axisymmetric interfaces (TIFA-AI). The results were compared with literature values obtained by means of the standard ADSA for sessile drops with the apex. Comparison of the results from ADSA-NA with those from TIFA-AI and ADSA reveals that, with different numerical strategies and experimental setups, contact angles can be measured with an accuracy of less than 0.2 degrees. Contact angles and surface tensions measured from drops with no apex, i.e., by means of ADSA-NA and TIFA-AI, were considerably less scattered than those from complete drops with apex. ADSA-NA was also used to explore sources of improvement in contact angle resolution. It was found that using an accurate value of surface tension as an input enhances the accuracy of contact angle measurements.

  18. Retrospective study on the angle of the upper permanent second molars in schoolchildren with normal occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    RABELO,Rodrigo; BASTING, Roberta Tarkany

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the angle of permanent second molars in schoolchildren with a normal occlusion, using panoramic radiographs and plaster models, and to evaluate the correlation between measurements obtained by these two methods. Methods: Thirty Brazilian schoolchildren with a mean age of 14 years and 7 months were selected. These individuals had not previously undergone orthodontic interventions, required a minimum of four of Andrews' six keys of o...

  19. Application of Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS for Differentiation between Normal and Cancerous Breast Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Small angle, between 3° and 10°, X ray scattering is predominantly coherent giving rise to diffraction effects that can be observed as constructive and destructive interferences. These interferences carry information about the molecular structure of the tissue and hence can be used to identify changes that occur due to cancer. Method: In this study an energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method was used. The optimum scattering angle, determined from a series of measurements on adipose breast tissue at several angles from 4 to 7.3 degrees, was found to be 6.5°. Once optimized the system was used to measure the diffraction profiles (corrected scattered intensity versus momentum transfer of a total of 99 breast tissue samples. The samples were both normal and tumour samples. Results: Adipose tissue showed a sharp, high intensity peak at low momentum transfer values of approximately 1.1nm-1. Adipose tissue, mixed tissue (adipose & fibroglandular and tumor have peaks at different values of momentum transfer that can be used to identify the tissue. Benign and malignant breast tissues can also be differentiated by both peak positions and peak heights. It was also observed that the results were reproducible even after the tissue had been preserved at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Conclusion: We were able to differentiate between normal, benign and malignant breast tissues by using energy dispersive small angle x-ray scattering.

  20. Stellar Orbital Studies in Normal Spiral Galaxies I: Restrictions to the Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Villegas, A; Moreno, E

    2013-01-01

    We built a family of non-axisymmetric potential models for normal non-barred or weakly-barred spiral galaxies as defined in the simplest classification of galaxies: the Hubble sequence. For this purpose a three-dimensional self-gravitating model for spiral arms PERLAS is superimposed to the galactic axisymmetric potentials. We analyze the stellar dynamics varying only the pitch angle of the spiral arms, from 4$\\deg$ to 40$\\deg$, for an Sa galaxy, from 8$\\deg$ to 45$\\deg$, for an Sb galaxy, and from 10$\\deg$ to 60$\\deg$, for an Sc galaxy. Self-consistency is indirectly tested through periodic orbital analysis, and through density response studies for each morphological type. Based on ordered behavior, periodic orbits studies show that for pitch angles up to approximately $15\\deg$, $18\\deg$, and $20\\deg$ for Sa, Sb and Sc galaxies, respectively, the density response supports the spiral arms potential, a requisite for the existence of a long-lasting large-scale spiral structure. Beyond those limits, the density ...

  1. On the mechanics of low-angle normal faults: interdisciplinary observations and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collettini, C.

    2016-12-01

    "Standard" frictional fault reactivation predicts that in an extending crust normal faults should cease to slip at dips of 30°. This mechanical prediction is consistent with the absence on continental low-angle normal faults, LANF, of moderate-to-large earthquakes where the rupture plane is unambiguously discriminated. In marked contrast, widespread geological data and seismic reflection profiles show that LANF have played a key-role in crustal extension. In the last 15 years we have tried to address this LANF paradox focusing on the Northern Apennines of Italy by comparing active with ancient-exhumed LANFs of the same fault system. In the active (3 mm/yr) extending area geophysical data define a regional LANF characterized by locked and creeping (1.7 mm/yr) portions with interspersed microseismicity (about 3 events per day, ML seismological records. Although the above conditions can be invoked to explain some aspects of LANF mechanics, they do not represent the solution of the LANF paradox. First, a widespread development of phyllosilicates does not seem to be a common feature in plenty of exhumed LANF. Second, a significant number of LANF formed as gently dipping structures within a brittle crust characterized by a vertical S1 and a well-constrained mechanical explanation for LANF initiation is still lacking. These two points highlight an important gap of knowledge in fault mechanics.

  2. Tip and Torque Angle of Permanent Teeth: A Comparison Between Treated Patients and Normal Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Miresmaeili

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The angle of long axis of tooth crown is called tip in mesiodostal and torque in faciolingual direction. Both have special importance for producing an ideal occlusion. The aim of the present study was determination of the average tip and torque of each permanent tooth in well treated patients with edgewise system compare to control group with normal occlusion. In this study, 19 well treated cases through standard edgewise technique with non extraction strategy and 20 students of pre-university schools with normal occlusion according to IOTN were selected. Reference points and lines were marked on facial surface of each tooth on casts. Special device was designed for measuring the faciolingual and mesiodistal inclination of crowns. After 3 times measuring the tip and torque of teeth, student t-test and Kruskal – Wallis analysis were used for statistical analysis.The mean age of control group was 18.8 ± 0.5 year and in treated group was 20.3 ± 0.8. There was significant difference between mean of torque in control group and treated group for upper lateral incisor (4.75±5.21 , 8.76±5.82 respectively , p<0.03 . Also a significant difference was seen in average torque of lower second premolar between control group and treated one ( -23.48±5.99 , -26.66±4.64 respectively , p<0.05. There were no significant differences in tip of teeth between two groups. In comparison with Andrews study, in normal occlusion group, upper canine & first molar and lower lateral & first premolar had more buccal root torque. Except the torque of upper lateral incisor and lower 2nd premolar, torque and tip of other teeth had no significant difference.

  3. Mandibular advancement surgery in high-angle and low-angle class II patients: different long-term skeletal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, K A; Espeland, L; Krogstad, O; Lyberg, T

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this cephalometric study was to compare skeletal stability and the time course of postoperative changes in high-angle and low-angle Class II patients after mandibular advancement surgery. The subjects were 61 consecutive mandibular retrognathism patients whose treatment included bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and rigid fixation. The patients were divided according to the preoperative mandibular plane angle; the 20 patients with the lowest mandibular plane angle (20.8 degrees +/- 4.9 degrees ) constituted the low-angle group, while the 20 cases with the highest mandibular plane angle (43.0 degrees +/- 4.0 degrees ) represented the high-angle group. Lateral cephalograms were taken on 6 occasions: immediately before surgery, immediately after surgery, 2 and 6 months after surgery, and 1 and 3 years after surgery. Results demonstrated that the high-angle and low-angle groups had different patterns of surgical and postoperative changes. High-angle patients were associated with both a higher frequency and a greater magnitude of horizontal relapse. While 95% of the total relapse took place during the first 2 months after surgery in the low-angle group, high-angle patients demonstrated a more continuous relapse pattern, with a significant proportion (38%) occurring late in the follow-up period. Possible reasons for the different postsurgical response are discussed.

  4. High Pressure Angle Gears: Comparison to Typical Gear Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zabrajsek, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study has been completed to determine the feasibility of using high-pressure angle gears in aeronautic and space applications. Tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Spur Gear Test Facility at speeds up to 10,000 rpm and 73 N*m (648 in.*lb) for 3.18, 2.12, and 1.59 module gears (8, 12, and 16 diametral pitch gears), all designed to operate in the same test facility. The 3.18 module (8-diametral pitch), 28 tooth, 20deg pressure angle gears are the GRC baseline test specimen. Also, 2.12 module (12-diametral pitch), 42 tooth, 25deg pressure angle gears were tested. Finally 1.59 module (16-diametral pitch), 56 tooth, 35deg pressure angle gears were tested. The high-pressure angle gears were the most efficient when operated in the high-speed aerospace mode (10,000 rpm, lubricated with a synthetic turbine engine oil), and produced the lowest wear rates when tested with a perfluoroether-based grease. The grease tests were conducted at 150 rpm and 71 N*m (630 in.*lb).

  5. High contact angle hysteresis of superhydrophobic surfaces: Hydrophobic defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Ming; Hong, Siang-Jie; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2009-08-01

    A typical superhydrophobic surface is essentially nonadhesive and exhibits very low water contact angle (CA) hysteresis, so-called Lotus effect. However, leaves of some plants such as scallion and garlic with an advancing angle exceeding 150° show very serious CA hysteresis. Although surface roughness and epicuticular wax can explain the very high advancing CA, our analysis indicates that the unusual hydrophobic defect, diallyl disulfide, is the key element responsible for contact line pinning on allium leaves. After smearing diallyl disulfide on an extended polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film, which is originally absent of CA hysteresis, the surface remains superhydrophobic but becomes highly adhesive.

  6. High-fidelity angle-modulated analog optical link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Di; Yuan, Feng; Shieh, William

    2016-07-25

    There has long existed a debate over whether analog or digital optical link is more suitable for wireless convergence applications. Digital link achieves the highest fidelity, with the sacrifice of huge bandwidth due to the high resolution of digitization, and large power consumption due to the exhaustive digital data recovery. Analog link avoids these drawbacks, but it inevitably suffers from the SNR degradation. In this paper, we propose the angle modulation for analog optical link, which successfully breaks the SNR ceiling of amplitude modulation, and achieves ultrahigh link fidelity. Using the digital link (CPRI) equivalent bandwidth, angle modulation exhibits around 30-dB SNR advantage over the conventional amplitude modulation. Combined with its high tolerance on link nonlinearity, angle modulation has great potential in the future SNR-hungry analog optical applications.

  7. High Grazing Angle Sea-Clutter Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Optimal and sub-optimal detection .................................................................... 37 7.3 Polarimetry ... polarimetry for target detection from high grazing angles. UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-GD-0736 UNCLASSIFIED 36 7.1 Parametric modelling There have not been...relationships were also found to be intrinsically related to Gaussian detection counterparts. 7.3 Polarimetry Early studies by Stacy et al. [45, 46] and

  8. Multiple exchange and high-energy fixed-angle scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, I G; Orzalesi, C A; Tau, M

    1975-01-01

    The application of the eikonal ansatz to fermion fermion elastic scattering with Abelian vector gluon exchanges is discussed. The behaviours of the elastic scattering amplitude and the elastic form factor are considered and an important mechanism for fixed angle high energy elastic scattering is identified. (6 refs).

  9. Ductile deformation, boudinage and low angle normal faults. An overview of the structural variability at present-day rifted margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Camille; Jolivet, Laurent; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Ballard, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    High quality industrial seismic profiles acquired along most of the world's passive margins present stunningly increased resolution that leads to unravel an unexpected variety of structures. An important benefit of the increased resolution of recent seismic profiles is that they provide an unprecedented access to the processes occurring in the middle and lower continental crust. We present a series of so far unreleased profiles that allow the identification of various rift-related geological processes such as crustal boudinage, ductile shear and low angle detachment faulting. The lower crust in passive margins appears much more intensely deformed than usually represented. At the foot of both magma-rich and magma-poor margins, we observe clear indications of ductile deformation of the deep continental crust along large-scale shallow dipping shear zones. These shear zones generally show a top-to-the-continent sense of shear consistent with the activity of overlying continentward dipping normal faults observed in the upper crust. This pattern is responsible for a migration of the deformation and associated sedimentation and/or volcanic activity toward the ocean. In some cases, low angle shear zones define an anastomosed pattern that delineates boudin-like structures. The interboudins areas seem to localize the maximum of deformation. The lower crust is intensely boudinaged and the geometry of those boudins seems to control the position and dip of upper crustal normal faults. We present some of the most striking examples (Uruguay, West Africa, Barents sea…) and discuss their implications for the time-temperature-subsidence history of the margins.

  10. Non-linear Flight Dynamics at High Angles of Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granasy, P.; Sørensen, C.B.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    The methods of nonlinear dynamics are applied to the longitudinal motion of a vectored thrust aircraft, in particular the behavior at high angles of attack. Our model contains analytic nonlinear aerodynamical coefficients based on NASA windtunnel experiments on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicle...... (HARV). When the aircraft is forced with small thrust deflections whilst in poststall equilibrium, chaotic motion is observed at certain frequencies. At other frequencies, several limiting states coexist....

  11. Angles-only relative navigation in highly elliptical orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-jia; CUI Nai-gang

    2010-01-01

    For angles-only relative navigation system only measures line-of-sight information,there are inherent problems in the ability to determine the range between Chaser and Target.Angles-only relative navigation is an at tractive alternative for inspecting or rendezvous with noncooperative target,if adequate accuracy can be achieved.Angles-only relative navigation model considering J2 perturbation is presented for tracking and rendezvous with nonco operative target in highly elliptical orbit.Impulsive out-of-plane maneuvers of the Chaser axe used to improve the navigation accuracy.The frrst impulse burns in cross-track directions to change the orbit inclination of the Chaser.The second impulse burns after one orbit period to change the orbit of the Chaser back.The simulation results show that the relative navigation system without maneuvers can' t correct the initial state errors,while impulsive out-of plane maneuvers of the Chaser improves the navigation accuracy.Angles-only relative navigation with chaser vehicle maneuvers to improve observability is effective when the spacecrafts are in highly elliptical orbits.

  12. A comparison of the circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in primary phronic angle closure glaucoma, primary open angle glaucoma and normal eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihota Ramanjit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure (IOP in primary chronic angle closure glaucoma (PCACG, primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, and normal eyes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of newly diagnosed patients of POAG (60 eyes, PCACG following laser iridotomy (75 eyes, and age and sex matched normal controls (75 eyes. All subjects underwent applanation tonometry at 7 a.m., 10 a.m., 1 p.m., 4 p.m., 7 p.m., and 10 p.m. by a masked observer. Circadian rhythms were classified based upon the timing and presence of peak pressure. Results: Age and gender in all three groups were comparable. Diurnal IOP fluctuations were significantly higher in PCACG (7.69 + 3.03 mmHg and POAG (8.31 + 2.58 mmHg groups compared to normal controls (4.83 + 2.46 mmHg. PCACG eyes and controls had similarly timed circadian rhythms, with PCACG eyes having a consistently higher IOP. At 7 and 10 a.m., IOP peaked more often in POAG eyes compared to PCACG eyes. A plateau type of circadian rhythm was most common in normal eyes. The timing of peak IOP could be significantly correlated with the type of primary glaucoma examined. Conclusion: Afternoon peaks were more common in postiridotomy PCACG eyes, similar to the rhythm in normal eyes. Morning peaks were more frequent in POAG eyes. Diurnal fluctuation > 6 mmHg, associated with an IOP of 21 mmHg or more was never seen in a normal eye.

  13. Surface pressure model for simple delta wings at high angles of attack

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Pashilkar

    2001-12-01

    A new aerodynamic modelling approach is proposed for the longitudinal static characteristics of a simple delta wing. It captures the static variation of normal force and pitching moment characteristics throughout the angle of attack range. The pressure model is based on parametrizing the surface pressure distribution on a simple delta wing. The model is then extended to a wing/body combination where body-alone data are also available. The model is shown to be simple and consistent with experimental data. The pressure model can be used as a first approximation for the load estimation on the delta wing at high angles of attack.

  14. Prediction of forces and moments on finned bodies at high angle of attack in transonic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, W. L.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes a theoretical method for the prediction of fin forces and moments on bodies at high angle of attack in subsonic and transonic flow. The body is assumed to be a circular cylinder with cruciform fins (or wings) of arbitrary planform. The body can have an arbitrary roll (or bank) angle, and each fin can have individual control deflection. The method combines a body vortex flow model and lifting surface theory to predict the normal force distribution over each fin surface. Extensive comparisons are made between theory and experiment for various planform fins. A description of the use of the computer program that implements the method is given.

  15. High-resolution MR imaging of the normal rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, W D; Kneeland, J B; Carrera, G F; Cates, J D; Kellman, G M; Campagna, N G; Jesmanowicz, A; Froncisz, W; Hyde, J S

    1987-03-01

    The shoulders of six normal volunteers were imaged with high-resolution MR in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. An angled pair of counter-rotating current loop-gap resonators designed specifically for the shoulder was used as a local coil. All images were compared with corresponding cryomicrotome sections from cadaver shoulders. The rotator cuff was analyzed in detail. It appeared as a complex, heterogeneous band to tissue superficial to the humeral head. The areas of low signal intensity corresponded to the central tendons of the four rotator cuff muscles. These tendons could be distinguished from each other as well as from the intervening components of the cuff, which have a moderate intensity. We concluded that MR is capable of imaging the normal rotator cuff and of separating the various components. This may allow for improved precision in the diagnosis of rotator cuff disorders.

  16. High angle of attack aerodynamics subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rom, Josef

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack is a subject which is being pursued diligently, because the modern agile fighter aircraft and many of the current generation of missiles must perform well at very high incidence, near and beyond stall. However, a comprehensive presentation of the methods and results applicable to the studies of the complex aerodynamics at high angle of attack has not been covered in monographs or textbooks. This book is not the usual textbook in that it goes beyond just presenting the basic theoretical and experimental know-how, since it contains reference material to practical calculation methods and technical and experimental results which can be useful to the practicing aerospace engineers and scientists. It can certainly be used as a text and reference book for graduate courses on subjects related to high angles of attack aerodynamics and for topics related to three-dimensional separation in viscous flow courses. In addition, the book is addressed to the aerodynamicist...

  17. Atomistic aspects of crack propagation along high angle grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The author presents atomistic simulations of the crack tip configuration near a high angle {Sigma} = 5 [001](210) symmetrical tilt grain boundary in NiAl. The simulations were carried out using molecular statics and embedded atom (EAM) potentials. The cracks are stabilized near a Griffith condition involving the cohesive energy of the grain boundary. The atomistic configurations of the tip region are different in the presence of the high angle grain boundary than in the bulk. Three different configurations of the grain boundary were studied corresponding to different local compositions. It was found that in ordered NiAl, cracks along symmetrical tilt boundaries show a more brittle behavior for Al rich boundaries than for Ni-rich boundaries. Lattice trapping effects in grain boundary fracture were found to be more significant than in the bulk.

  18. Cognitive performance of primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bulut

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess cognitive performance differences among primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients, normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients, and healthy control (C subjects. Methods: A total of 60 participants (20 POAG, 20 NTG, and 20 C subjects were included in this study. A detailed ophthalmologic examination was performed on all participants. A spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT system was used to measure the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thicknesses. To assess the cognitive performance of all participants, detailed neurological examinations, including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE, were performed by the same neurologist. Results: There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of age (p =0.348 or gender (p =0.935. The mean RNFL thicknesses were significantly different among the groups (85.2 ± 14.7, 76.8 ± 10.3, and 91.4 ± 7.7 µm in the POAG, NTG, and C subjects, respectively; p <0.001. The mean GC-IPL thicknesses were 77.5 ± 9.7 µm in the POAG group, 73.4 ± 7.8 µm in the NTG group, and 78.8 ± 3.8 µm in the C group. Differences among the groups were not statistically significant (p =0.085. MMSE scores were 26.1 ± 1.4, 25.7 ± 2.3, and 28.8 ± 0.9 in the POAG, NTG, and C groups, respectively. There were significant differences among the three groups (p <0.001. Specifically, there were significant differences between the NTG and C groups (p <0.001, and between the POAG and C groups (p =0.001. There was no significant difference between the POAG and NTG groups (p =0.595. Conclusions: There appear to be similar risk factors in glaucoma and neurodegenerative disorders that cause deterioration in cognitive performance. Comparing the low MMSE scores of the POAG and NTG patients with the scores of healthy C participants supports our hypothesis. Consequently, it is recommended that a neurologist should also examine glaucoma patients.

  19. Role of low angle normal faulting and basement thrusting on the structural architecture of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molli, Giancarlo; Carlini, Mirko; Vescovi, Paolo; Artoni, Andrea; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Camurri, Francesca; Clemenzi, Luca; Storti, Fabrizio; Torelli, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    The Northern Apennines of Italy are a classical site for studying fundamental issues in thrust wedges, such as ophiolite formation and emplacement, interplay between tectonics and sedimentation, role of out-of-sequence thrusting, syn-orogenic versus post-orogenic extension, along strike segmentation, etc. Accordingly, the Northern Apennines have been extensively studied since more than two centuries ago. Despite the huge amount of available data with different resolution, a 3D comprehensive regional view combining in a modern framework all available surface and subsurface information for contiguous sectors of the chain is still lacking. We performed such an attempt in the area framed between the Taro valley to the north and the northern termination of the Alpi Apuane to the south. The region includes the main morphostructural zones of the North-West Apennines from the Tyrrhenian coast West-Northwest of La Spezia, through the main topographic divide of the Apennines, to the external frontal part of the chain. The area has been investigated through a multidisciplinary approach that integrated: 1) surface geological data collected during the last two decades of structural and stratigraphic field works in the internal as well as external sectors of the chain; 2) subsurface geological data including: a) interpretation of 1200 Km of seismic reflection profiles tied to surface geology and b) analysis of 39 boreholes stratigraphies. The construction of two regional NE-SW trending cross-sections (the Levanto-Pontremoli-Parma to the North and the La Spezia-Sarzana-North Apuane-Cerreto to the South), connected by the NW-SE trending Taro River-Lunigiana Area-Alpi Apuane composite section, allowed us to illustrate (i) the role of out-of-sequence blind thrusting in the basement, (ii) the presence of low angle normal faulting and its relationships with recent to active high angle normal faulting. Both extensional and contractional systems have relevant implications for the

  20. Ibsen and Peking Women's High Normal University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at exploring the great influence of Ibsen and especially his play A Doll House on the young Chinese girls studying at Peking Women’s High Normal University established for the first time in China at the beginning of the 20th century to educate girls. In its short history, the girls at the university were exposed widely to the progressive ideas and literature from the West. Ibsen, the most popular writer at that time, inspired the girls tremendously whose performance of A Doll House aroused a heated debate among the well-known scholars on such important issues as women’s rights, women’s liberation, new culture, art and literature. Consequently there appeared at the university first group of modern Chinese women writers who picked up their pens and wrote about themselves and about women in China, describing themselves as “Chinese Noras”.

  1. High-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus V. F.; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2011-10-01

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure rotor loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve by abrading the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other removable plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal loss of pressure for 72 h. As an application example, in situ13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg 2SiO 4) reacted with supercritical CO 2 and H 2O at 150 bar and 50 °C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  2. High-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus V. F.; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2011-10-01

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure rotor loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve by abrading the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other removable plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal loss of pressure for 72 h. Finally, as an application example, in situ13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacted with supercritical CO2 and H2O at 150 bar and 50 °C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  3. Measurement of normal auditory ossicles by high-resolusion CT with application of normal criteria to disease cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Jyoko

    1988-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to define criteria for the normal position of ossicles and to apply them in patients with rhinolaryngologically or pathologically confirmed diseases. Ossicles were measured on high-resolution CT images of 300 middle ears, including 241 normal ears and 59 diseased ears, in a total of 203 subjects. Angles A, B, and C to the baseline between the most lateral margins of bilateral internal auditory canals, and distance ratio b/a were defined as measurement items. Normal angles A, B, and C and distance ratio b/a ranged from 19 deg to 59 deg, 101 deg to 145 deg, 51 deg to 89 deg, and 0.49 to 0.51, respectively. Based on these criteria, all of these items were within the normal range in 30/34 (88.2 %) ears for otitis media and mastoiditis. One or more items showed far abnormal values (standard deviation; more than 3) in 5/7 (71.4 %) ears for cholesteatoma and 4/4 (100 %) ears for external ear anomaly. These normal measurements may aid in evaluating the position of auditory ossicles especially in the case of cholesteatoma and auditory ossicle abnormality. (Namekawa, K.).

  4. Identification of High Angle Structures Controlling the Geothermal System at Rye Patch, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehni, W. J.

    2001-12-01

    The successful completion of a recent well in the Rye Patch Geothermal field, located in Pershing County, Nevada, supports the geologic and geophysical interpretation that high angle structures control this geothermal system. Although lower angle structures are present, hot water migrates up from deeper sources along high angle faults more efficiently than structures with a shallower dip. Earlier attempts to develop the resource focused on structures that dipped at an angle between 60 and 70 degrees from horizontal. Recently acquired geophysical data indicated that numerous high angle structures were present in the area, with dips between 80 and 90 degrees. Original drilling targets focused on the subsurface projection of a surface structure, mapped as the Rye Patch fault, with an erroneously low angle. These early attempts at drilling were discouraging and might have been more successful if additional geology and geophysics were used to evaluate the geothermal system and map the Rye Patch fault more accurately. The successful completion of the most recent well can be attributed to the incorporation of the geology of previous wells with additional geology and geophysics. Temperature gradient holes were used to confirm that the Rye Patch fault provided the primary plumbing for this geothermal system, and 3D seismic data indicated that most of the structures had dips between 80 and 90 degrees. Geothermometry at Rye Patch indicates that the resource has a relatively high quartz equilibrium temperature and it is speculated that the higher the angle of the structural control, the higher the resource temperature. The dip of Basin and Range normal faults varies considerably and the interpretation of these structures for geothermal, fossil geothermal mineral prospects, and or oil and gas prospects is important. At Rye Patch, the high angle structure feeds geothermal fluids into cavernous limestone beds, dipping to the west usually between 40 and 60 degrees, which is a

  5. Weakening mechanisms along Low-Angle Normal Faults in pelagic limestones (Southern Apennine, Italy): insights from microstructural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, R.; Prosser, G.; Viti, C.; Spiess, R.; Agosta, F.; Tavarnelli, E.; Bucci, F.

    2013-12-01

    Low-Angle Normal Faults (LANFs) consist of shallowly-dipping extensional tectonic structures, whose origin relates to a mechanical paradox currently debated by a number of researches. The easy slip along these faults suggests a strain-weakening process active during fault nucleation and growth. Weakening mechanisms may include: i) presence of weak minerals; ii) high fluid pressure which, causing a drastic reduction of the effective stress, and iii) dynamic fault weakening during coseismic rupture. In the Basilicata portion of Southern Apennines, LANFs have been extensively studied by geological mapping and field structural analysis. Differently, a detailed microstructural observations are not hitherto available in the geological literature. For this reason, in this note, we summarize the results of microstructural analysis carried out on fault rock samples collected from a well-exposed mesoscopic LANFs. The present work is aimed at analyzing the weakening mechanisms that took place along the study faults. The incipient study LANFs are characterized by a narrow and discontinuous damage zone surrounding a very thin fault core that include a discrete slip-surface. The offset is in the range of tens of centimeters to few meters. At the microscope scale, the sampled rocks reveal the coexistence of different structural features such as: i) pervasive shape preferred orientation defined by elongated grains of calcite, producing a distinct foliation; ii) Crush Microbreccia (CM), formed of angular clasts locally in contact with each other; iii) several Ultracataclastic Veins (UV), departing from the slip-surfaces and cutting across the slip-zone. TEM investigation reveal the presence of ultrafine to calcite-nanoparticles (dynamic recrystallization. At least, two generation of calcite veins, approximately orthogonal to the slip-surface, show systematic cross-cutting relationships with the above illustrated structural features. Overall, the investigated features form a complex

  6. The effects of lower crustal strength and preexisting midcrustal shear zones on the formation of continental core complexes and low-angle normal faults

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang

    2016-08-22

    To investigate the formation of core complexes and low-angle normal faults, we devise thermomechanical simulations on a simplified wedge-like orogenic hinterland that has initial topography, Moho relief, and a preexisting midcrustal shear zone that can accommodate shear at very low angles (<20°). We mainly vary the strength of the lower crust and the frictional strength of the preexisting midcrustal shear zone. We find that the strength of the lower crust and the existence and strength of a preexisting shear zone significantly affect the formation and evolution of core complexes. With increasing lower crustal strength, we recognize varying extensional features with decreasing exhumation rate: these are characterized by bivergent metamorphic massifs, classic Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes, multiple consecutive core complexes (or boudinage structures), and a flexural core complex underlined by a large subsurface low-angle detachment fault with a small convex curvature. Topographic loading and mantle buoyancy forces, together with divergent boundaries, drive a regional lower crustal flow that leads to the exhumation of the lower crust where intensive upper crustal faulting induces strong unloading. The detachment fault is a decoupling zone that accommodates large displacement and accumulates sustained shear strain at very low angle between upper and lower crust. Though the regional stress is largely Andersonian, we find non-Andersonian stress in regions adjacent to the preexisting shear zone and those with high topographic gradient. Our new models provide a view that is generally consistent with geological and geophysical observations on how core complexes form and evolve.

  7. On the mechanical behaviour of a low-angle normal fault: the Alto Tiberina fault (Northern Apennines, Italy) system case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadacca, Luigi; Casarotti, Emanuele; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Cocco, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    Geological and seismological observations have been used to parameterize 2-D numerical elastic models to simulate the interseismic deformation of a complex extensional fault system located in the Northern Apennines (Italy). The geological system is dominated by the presence of the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF), a large (60 km along strike) low-angle normal fault dipping 20° in the brittle crust (0-15 km). The ATF is currently characterized by a high and constant rate of microseismic activity, and no moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes have been associated with this fault in the past 1000 years. Modelling results have been compared with GPS data in order to understand the mechanical behaviour of this fault and a suite of minor syn- and antithetic normal fault segments located in the main fault hanging wall. The results of the simulations demonstrate the active role played by the Alto Tiberina fault in accommodating the ongoing tectonic extension in this sector of the chain. The GPS velocity profile constructed through the fault system cannot be explained without including the ATF's contribution to deformation, indicating that this fault, although misoriented, has to be considered tectonically active and with a creeping behaviour below 5 km depth. The low-angle normal fault also shows a high degree of tectonic coupling with its main antithetic fault (the Gubbio fault), suggesting that creeping along the ATF may control the observed strain localization and the pattern of microseismic activity.

  8. Wide-angle and high-efficiency achromatic metasurfaces for visible light

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zi-Lan; Wang, Guo Ping

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an achromatic metasurface was successfully demonstrated to deflect light of multiple wavelengths in the same direction and it was further applied to the design of planar lenses without chromatic aberrations [Science, 347, 1342(2015)]. However, such metasurface can only work for normal incidence and exhibit low conversion efficiency. Here, we present an ultrawide-angle and high-efficiency metasurface without chromatic aberration for wavefront shaping in visible range. The metasurface is constructed by multiple metallic nano-groove gratings, which support enhanced diffractions for an ultrawide incident angle range from 10o to 80o due to the excitations of localized gap plasmon modes at different resonance wavelengths. Incident light at these resonance wavelengths can be efficiently diffracted into the same direction with complete suppression of the specular reflection. This approach is applied to the design of an achromatic flat lens for focusing light of different wavelengths into the same position. ...

  9. Assessment of Automated Snow Cover Detection at High Solar Zenith Angles with PROBA-V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Hawotte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the snow cover extent are both a cause and a consequence of climate change. Optical remote sensing with heliosynchronous satellites currently provides snow cover data at high spatial resolution with daily revisiting time. However, high latitude image acquisition is limited because reflective sensors of many satellites are switched off at high solar zenith angles (SZA due to lower signal quality. In this study, the relevance and reliability of high SZA acquisition are objectively quantified in the purpose of high latitude snow cover detection, thanks to the PROBA-V (Project for On-Board Autonomy-Vegetation satellite. A snow cover extent classification based on Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI has been performed for the northern hemisphere on latitudes between 55°N and 75°N during the 2015–2016 winter season. A stratified probabilistic sampling was used to estimate the classification accuracy. The latter has been evaluated among eight SZA intervals to determine the maximum usable angle. The global overall snow classification accuracy with PROBA-V, 82% ± 4%, was significantly larger than the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer snow cover extent product (75% ± 4%. User and producer accuracy of snow are above standards and overall accuracy is stable until 88.5° SZA. These results demonstrate that optical remote sensing data can still be used with large SZA. Considering the relevance of snow cover mapping for ecology and climatology, the data acquisition at high solar zenith angles should be continued by PROBA-V.

  10. The high granularity and large solid angle detection array EXPADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strano, E., E-mail: estrano@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Anastasio, A. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bettini, M. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Boiano, A. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Boiano, C. [INFN – Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cassese, C. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Castellani, L.; Corti, D. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Di Meo, P. [INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Galet, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Glodariu, T. [NIPNE, Str. Reactorului No. 30, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grebosz, J. [IFJ PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Guglielmetti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); La Commara, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Manea, C. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Mazzocco, M.; Molini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nicoletto, M. [INFN – Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We realized a detection array for Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams. • High granularity (32 × 32 pixels 2 × 2 mm wide for 8 telescopes). • High solid angle (8 telescopes 64 × 64 mm wide in a cylindrical configuration covering up to 2.6 sr). • We tested each component of the array by both alpha particles and in-beam environment. • We measured the angular distribution for {sup 17}O elastic scattering on a {sup 58}Ni target. -- Abstract: The EXPADES (EXotic PArticle DEtection System) detector array consists of 16 Double Side Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with active areas of 64 × 64 mm{sup 2}, arranged in 8 ΔE (40/50 μm)–E (300 μm) telescopes. All detector faces are segmented into 32 × 2-mm wide strips, ensuring a 2 × 2 mm{sup 2} pixel configuration. Eight ionization chambers can be alternatively used as ΔE stages or, if needed, as an additional third layer for more complex triple telescopes. The signals from silicon ΔE layers and from ionization chambers are read by standard electronics, while innovative 32-channel ASIC chips are employed for the readout of the E stages. The results of off-line tests with alpha sources and from the first in-beam experiment with a {sup 17}O beam are presented.

  11. EFFECT OF ISOMETRIC QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISE AT MULTIPLE ANGLES IN KNEE JOINT AMONG NORMAL ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JibiPaul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strengthening exercises have been routinely used in persons with orthopaedic problems and athletes to increase force production or minimize muscle imbalance and joint injuries.Many studies have reported that isometric contractions can rapidly increases strength in quadriceps muscle. Objective: Objective of the study was to find out the effect of isometric strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint and also to compare the effect of strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at multiple angles of knee joint among control and experimental group. Methodology: This was a ccomparative experimental study with forty female healthy subjects from physiotherapy department of KPJ Healthcare University College, Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used to select the samples. The subjects were selected by inclusion criteria and randomly divided equally in to two with 20 subjects in each group. Isometric strengthening exercise and squatting exercise were given as intervention program for eight weeks respectively for experimental and control group. Pre and post data of quadriceps muscle strength measured were collected separately at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint using goniometry during resisted extension of knee in multi gym. Result: In experimental group Pre –Post statistical analysis found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.0001.****In control group quadriceps pre-post statistical analysis found no significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.083NS and P<0.055 NS respectively. Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 90 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength with P< 0.001.*** Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 45 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of

  12. The Pinning by Particles of Low and High Angle Grain Boundaries during Grain Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, C.J.; Ralph, B.; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    and coworkers. These estimates of local driving pressures have shown that they are similar for both the low and the high angle boundaries encountered in the samples. The pinning effects by particles at high angle boundaries are in general accord with the model due to Zener whilst those at low angle boundaries...

  13. Comparing the range of μ and β angles in 6-17-year-old children of Isfahan with normal occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sadeghian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Linear and angular measurements such as A point, nasion, B point (ANB angle and Wits appraisal index are not accurate enough to evaluate sagittal relationship of the jaws. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the range of μ and β angles in 6-17-year-old children of Isfahan, having normal occlusion. Materials and Methods: This was an analytical descriptive study. For this study, 235 cephalometric radiographs of patients who didn′t receive orthodontics treatments and based on 13 indexes had normal occlusion, were selected. After tracing of cephalograms, ANB angle, Wits appraisal index, μ angle (resulted from the intersection of AB line and perpendicular line from point A to mandibular plane and β angle (resulted from the intersection of AB line and perpendicular line from point A on CB line were measured. Data was analyzed by t-test, ANOVA and Pierson-Spearman correlation coefficient (P < 0.05. Results: Mean value of μ and β angles were 17.34 ± 3.47 and 31.7 ± 3.31 and ranged from 8-27 to 21.5-39 respectively. According to t-test, there was a significant difference between two sex groups for μ angle (P = 0.02; however, it was not significant for β angle. According to Spearman correlation coefficient, there was no significant difference between age and μ angle; however, β angle was directly and significantly related to age (r = 0.435. There was significant and reverse relationship between μ and β angles with ANB angle and Wits appraisal index. Conclusion: μ and β angles are reliable and can be used to evaluate the anterior-posterior relationship of the jaws.

  14. Expression profile of the matricellular protein osteopontin in primary open-angle glaucoma and the normal human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Uttio Roy; Jea, Seung-Youn; Oh, Dong-Jin; Rhee, Douglas J; Fautsch, Michael P

    2011-08-16

    PURPOSE. To characterize the role of osteopontin (OPN) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal eyes. METHODS. OPN quantification was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in aqueous humor (AH) obtained from human donor eyes (POAG and normal) and surgical samples (POAG and elective cataract removal). OPN expression and localization in whole eye tissue sections and primary normal human trabecular meshwork (NTM) cells were studied by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Latanoprost-free acid (LFA)-treated NTM cells were analyzed for OPN gene and protein expression. Intraocular pressure was measured by tonometry, and central corneal thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography in young OPN(-/-) and wild-type mice. RESULTS. OPN levels were significantly reduced in donor POAG AH compared with normal AH (0.54 ± 0.18 ng/μg [n = 8] vs. 0.77 ± 0.23 ng/μg [n = 9]; P = 0.039). A similar trend was observed in surgical AH (1.05 ± 0.31 ng/μg [n = 20] vs. 1.43 ± 0.88 ng/μg [n = 20]; P = 0.083). OPN was present in the trabecular meshwork, corneal epithelium and endothelium, iris, ciliary body, retina, vitreous humor, and optic nerve. LFA increased OPN gene expression, but minimal change in OPN protein expression was observed. No difference in intraocular pressure (17.5 ± 2.0 mm Hg [n = 56] vs. 17.3 ± 1.9 mm Hg [n = 68]) but thinner central corneal thickness (91.7 ± 3.6 μm [n = 50] vs. 99.2 ± 5.5 μm [n = 70]) was noted between OPN(-/-) and wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS. OPN is widely distributed in the human eye and was found in lower concentrations in POAG AH. Reduction of OPN in young mice does not affect IOP.

  15. Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in Forward Angle Inelastic Electron-Proton Scattering using the Q-Weak Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ., Nuruzzaman [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Q-weak experiment in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has made the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton through the precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer. There is also a parity conserving Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry or transverse asymmetry (B_n) on H_2 with a sin(phi)-like dependence due to two-photon exchange. If the size of elastic B_n is a few ppm, then a few percent residual transverse polarization in the beam, combined with small broken azimuthal symmetries in the detector, would require a few ppb correction to the Q-weak data. As part of a program of B_n background studies, we made the first measurement of B_n in the N-to-Delta(1232) transition using the Q-weak apparatus. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, was found to be B_n = 42.82 ± 2.45 (stat) ± 16.07 (sys) ppm at beam energy E_beam = 1.155 GeV, scattering angle theta = 8.3 deg, and missing mass W = 1.2 GeV. B_n from electron-nucleon scattering is a unique tool to study the gamma^* Delta Delta form factors, and this measurement will help to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process. To help correct false asymmetries from beam noise, a beam modulation system was implemented to induce small position, angle, and energy changes at the target to characterize detector response to the beam jitter. Two air-core dipoles separated by ~10 m were pulsed at a time to produce position and angle changes at the target, for virtually any tune of the beamline. The beam energy was modulated using an SRF cavity. The hardware and associated control instrumentation will be described in this dissertation. Preliminary detector sensitivities were extracted which helped to reduce the width of the measured asymmetry. The beam modulation system

  16. Low Angle Normal Fault System Controls the Structure Evolution of Baiyun Deepwater Basin and Its Lithosphere Thinning, Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Ren, J.; Yang, L.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the transition area from ~30 km to weakly thinned continental crust (<12 km) in Baiyun deepwater basin, Northern South China Sea leads to two questions: What controls extreme crustal thinning and what is the nature of Baiyun basin. The 3D seismic data newly acquired show that Baiyun basin is an asymmetric half graben mainly controlled by a set of north-dipping normal faults converging in deep. By employing the principle of back-stripping, we estimate the fault dips and slip amount would be in the absence of post-rift sediments and seawater loading. Results show these Middle Eocene faults were extremely active, with a high accumulation horizontal displacement (> 10 km) and an initial very low angle (<7°), followed by a rotated into sub-horizontal. A general scenario for extension of the uppermost continental crust probably includes simultaneous operation of low angle normal fault (F1) as well as parallel arrays of step-faults (domino-faults, f2-f9). Under such a scenario, it shows no obvious extension discrepancy in Baiyun basin. Our results indicate that Baiyun sag preserves information recording the continent thinning before the seafloor spreading, and it could be an abandoned inner rifted basin.

  17. Hypothesis for the mechanics and seismic behaviour of low-angle normal faults: the example of the Altotiberina fault Northern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Collettini

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Widespread mapping of low-angle normal faults in areas of former continental extension continues to prompt debate as to whether such structures may be seismically active at very low dips (? <30 °in the upper continental crust.The Northern Apennines provide an example where an active low-angle normal fault (Altotiberina fault, ATFcan be studied.A set of commercial seismic reflection profiles plus deep boreholes have been used to constrain the geometry of the fault at depth.These data have been integrated with a microseismic survey showing that part of the microseismicity (M <3.0is consistent with the geometry of the ATF as imaged by depth converted seismic reflection profiles.Frictional fault mechanics under Byerlee ?s friction coefficient and vertical ? 1 (constrained from the inversion of the focal mechanismsdefines the peculiar condition for reactivation of the ATF:small values of differential stress,? 1 ?? 3 <28 MPa,relatively high value of tensile strength of the fault surrounding rocks (T ~10 MPaand tensile fluid overpressure P f >? 3 (i.e.? v >0.93.The short-lived attainment of P f >? 3 along small fault portions,in an area characterised by large amounts of CO2,account for the microseismic activity located along the ATF,which occurs on rupture surfaces in the range of 10 ??10 ? 3 km 2..

  18. High-resolution NMR of anisotropic samples with spinning away from the magic angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakellariou, Dimitris; Meriles, Carlos A.; Martin, Rachel W.; Pines, Alexander

    2003-03-31

    High-resolution NMR of samples in the solid state is typically performed under mechanical sample spinning around an axis that makes an angle, called the magic angle, of 54.7 degrees with the static magnetic field. There are many cases in which geometrical and engineering constraints prevent spinning at this specific angle. Implementations of in-situ and ex-situ magic angle field spinning might be extremely demanding because of the power requirements or an inconvenient sample size or geometry. Here we present a methodology based on switched angle spinning between two angles, none of which is the magic angle, which provide both isotropic and anisotropic information. Using this method, named Projected Magic Angle Spinning, we were able to obtain resolved isotropic chemical shifts in spinning samples where the broadening is mostly inhomogeneous.

  19. Superconducting gap in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O by high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.G.; Liu, R.; Yang, A.B.; Lynch, D.W. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (USA)); Arko, A.J.; List, R.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Veal, B.W.; Chang, Y.C.; Jiang, P.Z.; Paulikas, A.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1989-08-18

    Detailed studies indicate a superconducting gap in the high-temperature superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Photoemission measurements with high energy and angle resolution isolate the behavior of a single band as it crosses the Fermi level in both the normal and superconducting states, giving support to the Fermi liquid picture. The magnitude of the gap is 24 millielectron volts. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Elevated Plasma Endothelin-1 Levels in Normal Tension Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie; Zhang, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the association between the plasma endothelin-1 level and the risks of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. Relevant publications were collected from three databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science through December 31, 2015. In this study, the terms “(endothelin OR ET) AND glaucoma” were searched. Review Manager 5.2 was used to process the data. Results. Seven studies (212 cases, 164 controls) were included for the NTG analysis. The mean plasma endothelin-1 level in the NTG subjects was 0.60 pg/mL (p = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.17–1.04) higher than that of the healthy controls. Six studies (160 cases, 174 controls) were included for the POAG analysis, and the endothelin-1 level was 0.63 pg/mL (p = 0.007, 95% CI: 0.12–1.15) higher in the POAG subjects than in the healthy controls. Additionally, two studies influenced the meta-analysis results regarding the association of plasma endothelin-1 with POAG by sensitivity analysis, and the probability of publication bias was low. Conclusions. The observation that NTG and POAG subjects showed significantly elevated endothelin-1 plasma concentrations suggests that a higher plasma level of endothelin-1 might increase the risk of NTG and POAG development. PMID:27965889

  1. Knee angle-specific MVIC for triceps surae EMG signal normalization in weight and non weight-bearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2013-08-01

    Varying the degree of weight-bearing (WB) and/or knee flexion (KF) angle during a plantar-flexion maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) has been proposed to alter soleus and/or gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis activation. This study compared the surface EMG signals from the triceps surae of 27 men and 27 women during WB and non weight bearing (NWB) plantar-flexion MVICs performed at 0° and 45° of KF. The aim was to determine which condition was most effective at eliciting the greatest EMG signals from soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively, for subsequent use for the normalization of EMG signals. WB was more effective than NWB at eliciting the greatest signals from soleus (p=0.0021), but there was no difference with respect to gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis (p⩾0.2482). Although the greatest EMG signals during MVICs were more frequently elicited at 0° of KF from gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis, and at 45° from soleus (ptriceps surae muscle.

  2. What can we learn from high precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Mohapatra

    2004-12-01

    Many experiments are being planned to measure the neutrino mixing angles more precisely. In this note, the theoretical significance of a high precision measurement of these parameters is discussed. It is emphasized that they can provide crucial information about different ways to understand the origin of large atmospheric neutrino mixing and move us closer towards determining the neutrino mass matrix. They may also be able to throw light on the question of lepton–quark unification as well as the existence of any leptonic symmetries. For instance if exact ↔ symmetry in the neutrino mass matrix is assumed to be the reason for maximal - mixing, one gets 13 = 0 and 13 ≃ $\\sqrt{ m^{2}_{\\odot} / m^{2}_{{\\text{A}}}$ or 13 ≃ $ m^{2}_{\\odot} / m^{2}_{{\\text{A}}}$ can provide information about the way the ↔ symmetry breaking manifests in the case of normal hierarchy.

  3. Accurate Angle Estimator for High-Frame-rate 2-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for estimating 2-D flow angles using a high-frame-rate ultrasound method. The angle estimator features high accuracy and low standard deviation (SD) over the full 360° range. The method is validated on Field II simulations and phantom measurements using the ex...

  4. Nanometer scale high-aspect-ratio trench etching at controllable angles using ballistic reactive ion etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cybart, Shane; Roediger, Peter; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Wu, Stephen; Wong, Travis; Dynes, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We demonstrate a low pressure reactive ion etching process capable of patterning nanometer scale angled sidewalls and three dimensional structures in photoresist. At low pressure the plasma has a large dark space region where the etchant ions have very large highly-directional mean free paths. Mounting the sample entirely within this dark space allows for etching at angles relative to the cathode with minimal undercutting, resulting in high-aspect ratio nanometer scale angled features. By reversing the initial angle and performing a second etch we create three-dimensional mask profiles.

  5. Note: High precision angle generator using multiple ultrasonic motors and a self-calibratable encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ahn; Kim, Jae Wan; Kang, Chu-Shik; Jin, Jonghan; Bong Eom, Tae

    2011-11-01

    We present an angle generator with high resolution and accuracy, which uses multiple ultrasonic motors and a self-calibratable encoder. A cylindrical air bearing guides a rotational motion, and the ultrasonic motors achieve high resolution over the full circle range with a simple configuration. The self-calibratable encoder can compensate the scale error of a divided circle (signal period: 20″) effectively by applying the equal-division-averaged method. The angle generator configures a position feedback control loop using the readout of the encoder. By combining the ac and dc operation mode, the angle generator produced stepwise angular motion with 0.005″ resolution. We also evaluated the performance of the angle generator using a precision angle encoder and an autocollimator. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) in the angle generation was estimated less than 0.03″, which included the calibrated scale error and the nonlinearity error.

  6. [A challenge to primary open-angle glaucoma including normal-pressure. Clinical problems and their scientific solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2012-03-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), including normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), is reported by the Tajimi Study to afflict 3.9% of the total population, and this represents about 80% of all total glaucoma cases which, in total, afflict 5.0% of the population. We tried to analyze the clinical problems relating to POAG by looking at the pathogenesis, intraocular pressure (IOP), therapy, neuroprotection and surgery of the disease. To elucidate the pathogenesis of glaucoma progression, we measured retinal nerve fiber layer defect (RNFLD) angles', and divided the NTG cases into 2 groups, enlarged RNFLD and stable RNFLD. Disc hemorrhages were found to be significantly more frequent in the enlarged group than in the stable group. RNFLD was enlarged in the direction of disc hemorrhage in over 80% of the eyes. In the majority of the eyes of the enlarged group, the enlargement of RNFLD was toward the fovea. The enlargement of RNFLD in NTG was closely associated with disc hemorrhage and the deterioration of the visual field. We developed a simultaneous structure and function evaluation technique combining spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus-oriented perimeters for the detection of visual field abnormalities in the RNFLD area. We superimposed the ganglion cell complex map obtained by SD-OCT on the fundus-oriented perimeter image. We observed very early or preperimetric normal pressure glaucoma as well as disc hemorrhage adjacent to the borders of the RNFLD. The borderline of the RNFLD seemed to be the thinnest RNFL and had the lowest retinal sensitivity (Active site for RNFLD progression). To clarify the role of the circadian clock genes in the generation of a 24-hour IOP rhythm, we used the microneedle method to measure the IOP at eight time points daily, both in wild type mice and Cry-deficient (Cry 1-/-Cry 2-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice living in light-dark conditions, the pressure measured in the light phase was significantly lower than in

  7. 'Abnormal' angle response curves of TW/Rs for near zero tilt and high tilt channeling implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Baonian; Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Toh, Terry; Colombeau, Benjamin; Todorov, Stan; Sinclair, Frank; Shim, Kyu-Ha; Henry, Todd [Applied Materials - Varian Semiconductor Equipment, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Angle control has been widely accepted as the key requirement for ion implantation in semiconductor device processing. From an ion implanter point of view, the incident ion direction should be measured and corrected by suitable techniques, such as XP-VPS for the VIISta implanter platform, to ensure precision ion placement in device structures. So called V-curves have been adopted to generate the wafer-based calibration using channeling effects as the Si lattice steer ions into a channeling direction. Thermal Wave (TW) or sheet resistance (Rs) can be used to determine the minimum of the angle response curve. Normally it is expected that the TW and Rs have their respective minima at identical angles. However, the TW and Rs response to the angle variations does depend on factors such as implant species, dose, and wafer temperature. Implant damage accumulation effects have to be considered for data interpretation especially for some 'abnormal' V-curve data. In this paper we will discuss some observed 'abnormal' angle responses, such as a) TW/Rs reverse trend for Arsenic beam, 2) 'W' shape of Rs Boron, and 3) apparent TW/Rs minimum difference for high tilt characterization, along with experimental data and TCAD simulations.

  8. Initiation of a Low-Angle Normal Fault Active Across the Upper Brittle-Plastic Transition, Chemehuevi Mountains, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForge, J.; John, B. E.; Grimes, C. B.; Stunitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Chemehuevi detachment fault system, part of the regionally developed Colorado River extensional corridor, hosts exceptional exposures of a denuded fault system related to Miocene extension. Here, we characterize the early history of extension associated with a small slip (1-2 km) low-angle normal fault, the Mohave Wash fault (MWF), initially active across the brittle-plastic transition. Strain localized in three principal ways across the 23-km down-dip exposure (T 400°C): a brittle fault zone, localized, disseminated quartz mylonites, and syntectonic dikes hosting mylonitic fabrics. Brittle deformation in these crystalline rocks was concentrated into a 10-62-m thick brittle fault zone hosting localized, unmineralized to chlorite-epidote-quartz mineralized zones of cataclasite series fault rocks ≤3 m thick and rare pseudotachylite. Mylonitic deformation played an increased role in deformation down dip (NE), with mylonites increasing in quantity and average thickness. At shallow structural levels, footwall mylonites are absent; at 9-18 km down dip, cm-scale quartz mylonites are common; ≥18 km down dip, meter-scale syntectonic intermediate-felsic dikes are mylonitic, are attenuated into parallelism with the MWF, and host well-developed L-S fabric; 23 km down dip, the footwall hosts meter-thick zones of disseminated mylonitic quartz of varying intensities. These mylonites host microstructures that record progressively higher deformation temperature down dip, with dislocation-creep in quartz indicative of T of 280-400°C to ≥500°C, and diffusion creep with grain boundary sliding in dikes suggestive of even higher T deformation. Dike emplacement in the system is syntectonic with MWF slip; mafic-intermediate composition dikes intruded damage zone fractures and cataclasites, and were in turn fractured; Pb/U zircon ages of intermediate-felsic dikes range from ca. 1.5 ± 1 Ma to 3.8 ± 1 Ma after the onset of regional extension, but predate rapid slip. Cross

  9. Fabrication of surfaces with extremely high contact angle hysteresis from polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Wei, Jingjing; Su, Zhaohui

    2011-12-20

    High contact angle hysteresis on polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) ion-paired with hydrophobic perfluorooctanoate anions is reported. Both the bilayer number of PEMs and the ionic strength of deposition solutions have significant influence on contact angle hysteresis: higher ionic strength and greater bilayer number cause increased contact angle hysteresis values. The hysteresis values of ~100° were observed on smooth PEMs and pinning of the receding contact line on hydrophilic defects is implicated as the cause of hysteresis. Surface roughness can be used to further tune the contact angle hysteresis on the PEMs. A surface with extremely high contact angle hysteresis of 156° was fabricated when a PEM was deposited on a rough substrate coated with submicrometer scale silica spheres. It was demonstrated that this extremely high value of contact angle hysteresis resulted from the penetration of water into the rough asperities on the substrate. The same substrate hydrophobized by chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane exhibits high advancing contact angle and low hysteresis.

  10. Optimum angle-cut of collimator for dense objects in high-energy proton radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Bo; Zheng, Na

    2016-02-01

    The use of minus identity lenses with an angle-cut collimator can achieve high contrast images in high-energy proton radiography. This article presents the principles of choosing the angle-cut aperture of the collimator for different energies and objects. Numerical simulation using the Monte Carlo code Geant4 has been implemented to investigate the entire radiography for the French test object. The optimum angle-cut apertures of the collimators are also obtained for different energies. Supported by NSAF (11176001) and Science and Technology Developing Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (2012A0202006)

  11. High resolution-angle resolved photoemission studies of high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.G.; Liu, R.; Lynch, D.W. (Ames Lab. and Dept. of Physics, Iowa State Univ. (USA)); Veal, B.W.; Chang, Y.C.; Jiang, P.Z.; Liu, J.Z.; Paulikas, A.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Arko, A.J.; List, R.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Recent photoemission studies of Y 123 and Bi 2212 performed with high energy and angular resolution have provided detailed information on the nature of the states near the Fermi level. Measurements of the superconducting gap, band dispersion, and the density of states near the Fermi level in the normal state all support a Fermi liquid description of these materials. (orig.).

  12. High resolution-angle resolved photoemission studies of high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.G.; Liu, R.; Lynch, D.W.; Veal, B.W.; Chang, Y.C.; Jiang, P.Z.; Liu, J.Z.; Paulikas, A.P.; Arko, A.J.; List, R.S. (Ames Lab., IA (USA); Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Recent photoemission studies of Y 123 and Bi 2212 performed with high energy and angular resolution have provided detailed information on the nature of the states near the Fermi level. Measurements of the superconducting gap, band dispersion, and the density of states near the Fermi level in the normal state all support a Fermi liquid description of these materials. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Simulator study of the effectiveness of an automatic control system designed to improve the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of a fighter airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, W. P.; Nguyen, L. T.; Vangunst, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted to study the effectiveness of some automatic control system features designed to improve the stability and control characteristics of fighter airplanes at high angles of attack. These features include an angle-of-attack limiter, a normal-acceleration limiter, an aileron-rudder interconnect, and a stability-axis yaw damper. The study was based on a current lightweight fighter prototype. The aerodynamic data used in the simulation were measured on a 0.15-scale model at low Reynolds number and low subsonic Mach number. The simulation was conducted on the Langley differential maneuvering simulator, and the evaluation involved representative combat maneuvering. Results of the investigation show the fully augmented airplane to be quite stable and maneuverable throughout the operational angle-of-attack range. The angle-of-attack/normal-acceleration limiting feature of the pitch control system is found to be a necessity to avoid angle-of-attack excursions at high angles of attack. The aileron-rudder interconnect system is shown to be very effective in making the airplane departure resistant while the stability-axis yaw damper provided improved high-angle-of-attack roll performance with a minimum of sideslip excursions.

  14. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is a broad-band scanner with four to six bands, depending on the model. The AVHRR senses in the visible, near-, middle-, and thermal- infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This sensor is carried on a series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), beginning with the Television InfraRed Observation Satellite (TIROS-N) in 1978. Since 1989, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has been mapping the vegetation condition of the United States and Alaska using satellite information from the AVHRR sensor. The vegetation condition composites, more commonly called greenness maps, are produced every week using the latest information on the growth and condition of the vegetation. One of the most important aspects of USGS greenness mapping is the historical archive of information dating back to 1989. This historical stretch of information has allowed the USGS to determine a 'normal' vegetation condition. As a result, it is possible to compare the current week's vegetation condition with normal vegetation conditions. An above normal condition could indicate wetter or warmer than normal conditions, while a below normal condition could indicate colder or dryer than normal conditions. The interpretation of departure from normal will depend on the season and geography of a region.

  15. Small-angle X-ray scattering at the ESRF high-brillance beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesecke, P.; Diat, O. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 -Grenoble (France)

    1997-10-01

    The high-brilliance beamline (BL4/ID2) at the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble has been constructed with the emphasis on time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering and macromolecular crystallography. It has been open to users for two years. The beamline has opened up new areas in small-angle scattering research, facilitating (a) small-angle crystallography on structures with unit cells of several hundredths of nanometres, (b) overlap with the light scattering range for the study of optical systems, (c) high photon flux for time-resolved experiments and (d) a high spatial coherence allowing submicrometre imaging with X-rays. The set-up and the detector system of the small-angle scattering station are presented. A method for obtaining absolute scattering intensities is described. The parasitic background at the station is discussed in terms of absolute scattering intensities. (orig.). 22 refs.

  16. The normal state of high temperature oxide superconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Looking back on the experiments about the normal state of thehigh temperature superconductor (HTS), the authors point out nine important experimental results. On the basis of these results, the authors have argued that the two-dimension, two-subsystem Hamiltonian is the appropriate starting point for describing the normal state of HTS. By this Hamiltonian, using the decoupling approximation of Green's function method by Kaga through numerical calculations, the authors have obtained the temperature dependent pseudogap in the density of states (DOS), which is consistent qualitatively with the experimental results by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Theoretically, this Hamiltonian has the superconducting order parameter of d+s symmetry with d-wave as the main component, which is consistent with experiments. Further, the quantum electronic liquid in HTS is a near Fermi liquid in which there is coexistence of the delocalized states and nearly localized states, and there is finite probability for the nearly localized carriers to form the nearly localized carrier pairs at any finite temperature.

  17. Preliminary Results on the Mechanics of the Active Mai'iu Low Angle Normal Fault (Dayman Dome), Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, T. A.; Boulton, C. J.; Mizera, M.; Webber, S. M.; Oesterle, J.; Ellis, S. M.; Norton, K. P.; Wallace, L. M.; Biemiller, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid slip on the Mai'iu low-angle normal fault (LANF) has exhumed a smooth, corrugated fault surface contiguous for >24 km up-dip, rising from near sea level to ~2900 m. The fault emerges from the ground dipping ~21° N and flattens over the crest of the dome to dip south. Geomorphic analysis reveals a progressive back-tilting of the surface during exhumation accompanied by cross-cutting antithetic-sense high-angle faults—features that we attribute to "rolling-hinge" deformation of a once more steeply-dipping fault. Near the scarp base, the footwall exposes mafic mylonites that deformed at ~400-450°C. The younger Mai'iu fault cross-cuts this ductile mylonite zone, with most brittle slip being localized into a ~20 cm-thick, gouge-filled core. Near the range front, active faults bite across both the hangingwall and footwall of the Mai'iu fault and record overprinting across a dying, shallow (<~1 km deep) part of the fault by more optimally oriented, steeper faults. Such depth-dependent locking up of the fault suggests it weakens primarily by friction reduction rather than cohesion loss. Outcrop-scale fractures in the exhumed footwall reflect formation in an Andersonian stress regime. Previous campaign GPS data suggest the fault slips at up to ~1 cm/yr. To improve resolution and test for aseismic creep, we installed 12 GPS sites across the fault trace in 2015. Quantitative XRD indicates the gouges were derived primarily from mafic footwall, containing up to 65% corrensite and saponite. Hydrothermal friction experiments on two gouges from a relict LANF strand were done at varying normal stresses (30-120 MPa), temperatures (50-200oC), and sliding velocities (0.3-100 μm/s). Results reveal very weak frictional strength (μ=0.13-0.15 and 0.20-0.28) and velocity-strengthening behavior conducive to fault creep. At the highest temperatures (T≥150oC) and lowest sliding velocities (<3 μm/s), a transition to velocity-weakening behavior indicates the potential for

  18. Devices and process for high-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, David W; Sears, Jr., Jesse A; Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Rosso, Kevin M; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2014-04-08

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor is detailed that includes a high-pressure sample cell that maintains high pressures exceeding 150 bar. The sample cell design minimizes pressure losses due to penetration over an extended period of time.

  19. Continental Rupture Controlled by Low-Angle Normal Faults in the Northern Gulf of California: Analysis of Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Barajas, A.; González-Escobar, M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Pacheco, M.; Mar-Hernández, E.

    2010-12-01

    The transition from focused continental extension to the rupture of continental lithosphere is imaged in the northern Gulf of California rift system across the obliquely conjugated Tiburon-Delfin basins. Structural mapping on a 5-20 km grid of seismic reflection lines (48 channels, 6s TWTT) of Petroleos Mexicanos indicates that a large amount of extension and subsidence in the Tiburon basin was accommodated on a NNE-striking pattern of normal faults merging at depth into a detachment fault (here named Angel de la Guarda Detachment or AGD). The main AGD break-away fault is a ~70 km-long, listric fault concave to the southeast, which flattens below 3 seconds (TWTT). This detachment fault juxtaposes the late-Neogene marine sequence over thinned, mostly Mesozoic continental crust. The AGD is bounded at both ends by two major NW-striking, dextral-oblique faults, the Tiburon and De Mar faults that shear the continental crust parallel to the tectonic transport on both margins of the Tiburon basin. Additional, yet undetermined, amount of dextral shear was accommodated in a ~30 to 50 km wide belt adjacent to mainland Sonora along the now inactive eastern margin of the rift. The AGD break-away fault is cut by an array of NE-striking, northwest dipping active normal faults that accommodate oblique extension to the northwest into the Lower and Upper Delfin basins. Both Delfin basins form a broad, tectonically active rombochasm that also contains a ˜7 km-thick late Neogene sedimentary fill largely derived from the Colorado river delta. Intermediate to felsic magmatic intrusions with MORB-type geochemical and isotopic signatures along the western margin of the rift strongly indicate the rupture of the continental lithosphere and formation of an hybrid crust formed by thick sedimentary sequences and magmatic intrusions. We speculate that thermal anomaly caused by the rupture of continental lithosphere in Delfin basins caused footwall uplift of the detachment fault and the intra

  20. Angle Tree: Nearest Neighbor Search in High Dimensions with Low Intrinsic Dimensionality

    CERN Document Server

    Zvedeniouk, Ilia

    2010-01-01

    We propose an extension of tree-based space-partitioning indexing structures for data with low intrinsic dimensionality embedded in a high dimensional space. We call this extension an Angle Tree. Our extension can be applied to both classical kd-trees as well as the more recent rp-trees. The key idea of our approach is to store the angle (the "dihedral angle") between the data region (which is a low dimensional manifold) and the random hyperplane that splits the region (the "splitter"). We show that the dihedral angle can be used to obtain a tight lower bound on the distance between the query point and any point on the opposite side of the splitter. This in turn can be used to efficiently prune the search space. We introduce a novel randomized strategy to efficiently calculate the dihedral angle with a high degree of accuracy. Experiments and analysis on real and synthetic data sets shows that the Angle Tree is the most efficient known indexing structure for nearest neighbor queries in terms of preprocessing ...

  1. Tomografia computadorizada de abdome normal: estudo retrospectivo das angulações dos hilos renais Normal abdominal computed tomography: a retrospective study of renal hila angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sakate

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Obter valores da angulação média dos hilos renais em relação ao plano horizontal, traçado sobre músculos eretores da espinha direito e esquerdo, considerando como parâmetro de referência para as medidas das angulações o centro da coluna vertebral lombar. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 250 exames de tomografia computadorizada de abdomes considerados normais de indivíduos de ambos os sexos, sendo 128 masculinos (idade média de 52,45 ± 17,42 anos e 122 femininos (idade média de 54,39 ± 18,27 anos, totalizando 500 hilos renais estudados. A angulação média de cada hilo renal em relação ao plano horizontal foi obtida, sendo considerados sempre os ângulos agudos. RESULTADOS: O estudo comparativo entre os sexos mostrou que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante em relação aos ângulos agudos dos hilos renais. A análise estatística mostrou, com intervalo de confiança de 95%, para média do ângulo direito os limites de 40,40° e 44,54° e para o hilo renal esquerdo os limites de 39,91° e 43,23°. CONCLUSÃO: Os hilos renais, independentemente do sexo, apresentam angulações semelhantes. Valores angulares maiores terão anomalia de hiper-rotação ou hiper-rotação exagerada e valores menores terão anomalia de rotação incompleta ou rotação invertida.OBJECTIVE: To obtain mean angulation values for renal hila in relation to the horizontal plane traced over the right and left spinal erector muscles, considering the center of the lumbar vertebral spine as a parameter for measuring the renal hila angles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors have analyzed 250 abdominal computed tomography studies of both male and female healthy individuals (128 men with mean age 52.45 ± 17.42 years, and 122 women with mean age 54.39 ± 18.27 years, corresponding to 500 renal hila evaluated. The mean angulation of each hilum in relation to the horizontal plane was obtained taking acute angles into consideration

  2. Strong magnetic fields in normal galaxies at high redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Bernet, Martin L; Lilly, Simon J; Kronberg, Philipp P; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    The origin and growth of magnetic fields in galaxies is still something of an enigma. It is generally assumed that seed fields are amplified over time through the dynamo effect, but there are few constraints on the timescale. It has recently been demonstrated that field strengths as traced by rotation measures of distant quasars are comparable to those seen today, but it was unclear whether the high fields were in the exotic environments of the quasars themselves or distributed along the line of sight. Here we demonstrate that the quasars with strong MgII absorption lines are unambiguously associated with larger rotation measures. Since MgII absorption occurs in the haloes of normal galaxies along the sightline to the quasars, this association requires that organized fields of surprisingly high strength are associated with normal galaxies when the Universe was only about one-third of its present age.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann Method used for the aircraft characteristics computation at high angle of attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Finite Volume Method(FVM)and Lattice Boltzmann Method(LBM)are both used to compute the high angle attack aerodynamic characteristics of the benchmark aircraft model named CT-1.Even though the software requires flow on the order of Ma<0.4,simulation at Ma=0.5 is run in PowerFLOW after theoretical analysis.The consistency with the wind tunnel testing is satisfied,especially for the LBM which can produce perfect results at high angle attack.PowerFLOW can accurately capture the detail of flows because it is inherently time-dependent and parallel and suits large-scale computation very well.

  4. Assessment of Automated Snow Cover Detection at High Solar Zenith Angles with PROBA-V

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the snow cover extent are both a cause and a consequence of climate change. Optical remote sensing with heliosynchronous satellites currently provides snow cover data at high spatial resolution with daily revisiting time. However, high latitude image acquisition is limited because reflective sensors of many satellites are switched off at high solar zenith angles (SZA) due to lower signal quality. In this study, the relevance and reliability of high SZA acquisition are objectively q...

  5. Limited Angle Torque Motors Having High Torque Density, Used in Accurate Drive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Obreja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A torque motor is a special electric motor that is able to develop the highest possible torque in a certain volume. A torque motor usually has a pancake configuration, and is directly jointed to a drive system (without a gear box. A limited angle torque motor is a torque motor that has no rotary electromagnetic field — in certain papers it is referred to as a linear electromagnet. The main intention of the authors for this paper is to present a means for analyzing and designing a limited angle torque motor only through the finite element method. Users nowadays require very high-performance limited angle torque motors with high density torque. It is therefore necessary to develop the highest possible torque in a relatively small volume. A way to design such motors is by using numerical methods based on the finite element method.

  6. MIPHENO: data normalization for high throughput metabolite analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Shannon M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High throughput methodologies such as microarrays, mass spectrometry and plate-based small molecule screens are increasingly used to facilitate discoveries from gene function to drug candidate identification. These large-scale experiments are typically carried out over the course of months and years, often without the controls needed to compare directly across the dataset. Few methods are available to facilitate comparisons of high throughput metabolic data generated in batches where explicit in-group controls for normalization are lacking. Results Here we describe MIPHENO (Mutant Identification by Probabilistic High throughput-Enabled Normalization, an approach for post-hoc normalization of quantitative first-pass screening data in the absence of explicit in-group controls. This approach includes a quality control step and facilitates cross-experiment comparisons that decrease the false non-discovery rates, while maintaining the high accuracy needed to limit false positives in first-pass screening. Results from simulation show an improvement in both accuracy and false non-discovery rate over a range of population parameters (p -16 and a modest but significant (p -16 improvement in area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.955 for MIPHENO vs 0.923 for a group-based statistic (z-score. Analysis of the high throughput phenotypic data from the Arabidopsis Chloroplast 2010 Project (http://www.plastid.msu.edu/ showed ~ 4-fold increase in the ability to detect previously described or expected phenotypes over the group based statistic. Conclusions Results demonstrate MIPHENO offers substantial benefit in improving the ability to detect putative mutant phenotypes from post-hoc analysis of large data sets. Additionally, it facilitates data interpretation and permits cross-dataset comparison where group-based controls are missing. MIPHENO is applicable to a wide range of high throughput screenings and the code is

  7. High-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of protons with homonuclear dipolar decoupling schemes under magic-angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, P K

    2009-02-01

    High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of (1)H spins in the solid state is normally rendered difficult due to the strong homonuclear (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings. Even under very high-speed magic-angle spinning (MAS) at ca. 60-70kHz, these couplings are not completely removed. An appropriate radiofrequency pulse scheme is required to average out the homonuclear dipolar interactions in combination with MAS to get high-resolution (1)H NMR spectrum in solid state. Several schemes have been introduced in the recent past with a variety of applications also envisaged. Development of some of these schemes has been made possible with a clear understanding of the underlying spin physics based on bimodal Floquet theory. The utility of these high-resolution pulse schemes in combination with MAS has been demonstrated for spinning speeds of 10-65kHz in a range of (1)H Larmor frequencies from 300 to 800MHz.

  8. COMPUTATION OF FIELD STRUCTURE AND AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF DELTA WINGS AT HIGH ANGLES OF ATTACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-zhi; GAO Zheng-hong

    2005-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the structure of the vortical flowfield over delta wings at high angles of attack in longitudinal and with small sideslip angle is presented.Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulations were carried out to predict the complex leeward-side flowfield characteristics that are dominated by the effect of the breakdown of the leading-edge vortices. The methods that analyze the flowfield structure quantitatively were given by using flowfield data from the computational results. In the region before the vortex breakdown, the vortex axes are approximated as being straight line. As the angle of attack increases, the vortex axes are closer to the root chord, and farther away from the wing surface. Along the vortex axes, as the adverse pressure gradients occur, the axial velocity decreases, that is, λ is negative, so the vortex is unstable, and it is possible to breakdown. The occurrence of the breakdown results in the instability of lateral motion for a delta wing, and the lateral moment diverges after a small perturbation occurs at high angles of attack. However,after a critical angle of attack is reached, the vortices breakdown completely at the wing apex, and the instability resulting from the vortex breakdown disappears.

  9. Development of a phenotyping platform for high throughput screening of nodal root angle in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dinesh C; Singh, Vijaya; Hunt, Colleen; Mace, Emma; van Oosterom, Erik; Sulman, Richard; Jordan, David; Hammer, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    In sorghum, the growth angle of nodal roots is a major component of root system architecture. It strongly influences the spatial distribution of roots of mature plants in the soil profile, which can impact drought adaptation. However, selection for nodal root angle in sorghum breeding programs has been restricted by the absence of a suitable high throughput phenotyping platform. The aim of this study was to develop a phenotyping platform for the rapid, non-destructive and digital measurement of nodal root angle of sorghum at the seedling stage. The phenotyping platform comprises of 500 soil filled root chambers (50 × 45 × 0.3 cm in size), made of transparent perspex sheets that were placed in metal tubs and covered with polycarbonate sheets. Around 3 weeks after sowing, once the first flush of nodal roots was visible, roots were imaged in situ using an imaging box that included two digital cameras that were remotely controlled by two android tablets. Free software (openGelPhoto.tcl) allowed precise measurement of nodal root angle from the digital images. The reliability and efficiency of the platform was evaluated by screening a large nested association mapping population of sorghum and a set of hybrids in six independent experimental runs that included up to 500 plants each. The platform revealed extensive genetic variation and high heritability (repeatability) for nodal root angle. High genetic correlations and consistent ranking of genotypes across experimental runs confirmed the reproducibility of the platform. This low cost, high throughput root phenotyping platform requires no sophisticated equipment, is adaptable to most glasshouse environments and is well suited to dissect the genetic control of nodal root angle of sorghum. The platform is suitable for use in sorghum breeding programs aiming to improve drought adaptation through root system architecture manipulation.

  10. Normal-state nodal electronic structure in underdoped high-Tc copper oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Suchitra E; Harrison, N; Balakirev, F F; Altarawneh, M M; Goddard, P A; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Lonzarich, G G

    2014-07-03

    An outstanding problem in the field of high-transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductivity is the identification of the normal state out of which superconductivity emerges in the mysterious underdoped regime. The normal state uncomplicated by thermal fluctuations can be studied using applied magnetic fields that are sufficiently strong to suppress long-range superconductivity at low temperatures. Proposals in which the normal ground state is characterized by small Fermi surface pockets that exist in the absence of symmetry breaking have been superseded by models based on the existence of a superlattice that breaks the translational symmetry of the underlying lattice. Recently, a charge superlattice model that positions a small electron-like Fermi pocket in the vicinity of the nodes (where the superconducting gap is minimum) has been proposed as a replacement for the prevalent superlattice models that position the Fermi pocket in the vicinity of the pseudogap at the antinodes (where the superconducting gap is maximum). Although some ingredients of symmetry breaking have been recently revealed by crystallographic studies, their relevance to the electronic structure remains unresolved. Here we report angle-resolved quantum oscillation measurements in the underdoped copper oxide YBa2Cu3O6 + x. These measurements reveal a normal ground state comprising electron-like Fermi surface pockets located in the vicinity of the nodes, and also point to an underlying superlattice structure of low frequency and long wavelength with features in common with the charge order identified recently by complementary spectroscopic techniques.

  11. A robust smart window: reversibly switching from high transparency to angle-independent structural color display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Dengteng; Lee, Elaine; Yang, Lili; Cho, Yigil; Li, Min; Gianola, Daniel S; Yang, Shu

    2015-04-17

    A smart window is fabricated from a composite consisting of elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) embedded with a thin layer of quasi-amorphous silica nanoparticles. The smart window can be switched from the initial highly transparent state to opaqueness and displays angle-independent structural color via mechanical stretching. The switchable optical property can be fully recovered after 1000 stretching/releasing cycles.

  12. Bifurcation analysis of polynomial models for longitudinal motion at high angle of attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Zhongke; Fan Li

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the longitudinal motion stability of aircraft maneuvers conveniently,a new stability analysis approach is presented in this paper.Based on describing longitudinal aerodynamics at high angle-of-attack (α < 50°) motion by polynomials,a union structure of two-order differential equation is suggested.By means of nonlinear theory and method,analytical and global bifurcation analyses of the polynomial differential systems are provided for the study of the nonlinear phenomena of high angle-of-attack flight.Applying the theories of bifurcations,many kinds of bifurcations,such as equilibrium,Hopf,homoclinic (heteroclinic) orbit and double limit cycle bifurcations are discussed and the existence conditions for these bifurcations as well as formulas for calculating bifurcation curves are derived.The bifurcation curves divide the parameter plane into several regions; moreover,the complete bifurcation diagrams and phase portraits in different regions are obtained.Finally,our conclusions are applied to analyzing the stability and bifurcations of a practical example of a high angle-of-attack flight as well as the effects of elevator deflection on the asymptotic stability regions of equilibrium.The model and analytical methods presented in this paper can be used to study the nonlinear flight dynamic of longitudinal stall at high angle of attack.

  13. Wing-Alone Aerodynamic Characteristics to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    indicators of symmetry since the wings were unbanked within the limits of tolerances and flow angularity. Longitudinal, spanwise, and vertical... unbanked wings at subsonic and transonic speeds from low to high angles of attack. The wing planforms varied in aspect ratio and taper ratio with

  14. Magnus effects at high angles of attack and critical Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, A.; Ringel, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Magnus force and moment experienced by a yawed, spinning cylinder were studied experimentally in low speed and subsonic flows at high angles of attack and critical Reynolds numbers. Flow-field visualization aided in describing a flow model that divides the Magnus phenomenon into a subcritical region, where reverse Magnus loads are experienced, and a supercritical region where these loads are not encountered. The roles of the spin rate, angle of attack, and crossflow Reynolds number in determining the boundaries of the subcritical region and the variations of the Magnus loads were studied.

  15. Investigation on high angle of attack characteristics of hypersonic space vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; LI ShiBin; LIU Jun; WANG ZhenGuo

    2012-01-01

    The high angle of attack characteristics play an important role in the aerodynamic performances of the hypersonic space vehicle.The three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the two-equation RNG k-ε turbulence model have been employed to investigate the influence of the high angle of attack on the lift-to-drag ratio and the flow field characteristics of the hypersonic space vehicle,and the contributions of each component to the aerodynamic forces of the vehicle have been discussed as well.At the same time,in order to validate the numerical method,the predicted results have been compared with the available experimental data of a hypersonic slender vehicle,and the grid independency has been analyzed.The obtained results show that the predicted lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment coefficient show very good agreement with the experimental data in the open literature,and the grid system makes only a slight difference to the numerical results.There exists an optimal angle of attack for the aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic space vehicle,and its value is 20°.When the angle of attack is 20°,the high pressure does not leak from around the leading edge to the upper surface.With the further increasing of the angle of attack,the high pressure spreads from the wing tips to the central area of the vehicle,and overflows from the leading edge again.Further,the head plays an important role in the drag performance of the vehicle,and the lift percentage of the flaperon is larger than that of the rudderevator.This illustrates that the optimization of the flaperon configuration is a great work for the improvement of the aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic space vehicle,especially for a high lift-to-drag ratio.

  16. A highly accurate dynamic contact angle algorithm for drops on inclined surface based on ellipse-fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z N; Wang, S Y

    2015-02-01

    To improve the accuracy in the calculation of dynamic contact angle for drops on the inclined surface, a significant number of numerical drop profiles on the inclined surface with different inclination angles, drop volumes, and contact angles are generated based on the finite difference method, a least-squares ellipse-fitting algorithm is used to calculate the dynamic contact angle. The influences of the above three factors are systematically investigated. The results reveal that the dynamic contact angle errors, including the errors of the left and right contact angles, evaluated by the ellipse-fitting algorithm tend to increase with inclination angle/drop volume/contact angle. If the drop volume and the solid substrate are fixed, the errors of the left and right contact angles increase with inclination angle. After performing a tremendous amount of computation, the critical dimensionless drop volumes corresponding to the critical contact angle error are obtained. Based on the values of the critical volumes, a highly accurate dynamic contact angle algorithm is proposed and fully validated. Within nearly the whole hydrophobicity range, it can decrease the dynamic contact angle error in the inclined plane method to less than a certain value even for different types of liquids.

  17. Empirical sea ice thickness retrieval during the freeze up period from SMOS high incident angle observations

    OpenAIRE

    Huntemann, M.; G. Heygster; Kaleschke, L.; T. Krumpen; M. Mäkynen; M. Drusch

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice thickness information is important for sea ice modelling and ship operations. Here a method to detect the thickness of sea ice up to 50 cm during the freeze-up season based on high incidence angle observations of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite working at 1.4 GHz is suggested. By comparison of thermodynamic ice growth data with SMOS brightness temperatures, a high correlation to intensity and an anticorrelation to the difference bet...

  18. The Comparison of two models of marker – placement for identifying the rear foot angle in normal people with and without shoes during the stance phase of walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the two models of marker placement for identifying of rear foot angle in normal people with and without shoes during the different stage of stance phase of walking. Methods: Fifteen male students in Birjand University were selected based on Navicular Drop Index. After marker placement based on Clarke and Nigg models, the rear foot angle were recorded with two-dimensional analysis (Panasonic Camera from behind position while subjects walked with 1.7 m/s on a treadmill with and without shoes. For statistical analysis, independent samples t-test was used (p≤0.05. Results: The Results showed a significant difference in rear foot angle during the stance phase between the two models of Clarke and Nigg during walking with and without shoes (p≤0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, due to their specific features care must be considered when using any of these two models to investigate the angular kinematics of the foot.

  19. Empirical sea ice thickness retrieval during the freeze up period from SMOS high incident angle observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntemann, M.; Heygster, G.; Kaleschke, L.; Krumpen, T.; Mäkynen, M.; Drusch, M.

    2013-08-01

    Sea ice thickness information is needed for climate modeling and ship operations. Here a method to detect the thickness of sea ice up to 50 cm during the freezeup season based on high incidence angle observations of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite working at 1.4 GHz is suggested. By comparison of thermodynamic ice growth data with SMOS brightness temperatures, a high correlation to intensity and an anti correlation to the difference between vertically and horizontally polarised brightness temperatures at incidence angles between 40 and 50 ° are found and used to develop an empirical retrieval sensitive to thin sea ice up to 50 cm thickness. It shows high correlations with ice thickness data from airborne measurements and reasonable ice thickness patterns for the Arctic freeze up period.

  20. Empirical sea ice thickness retrieval during the freeze up period from SMOS high incident angle observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huntemann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice thickness information is needed for climate modeling and ship operations. Here a method to detect the thickness of sea ice up to 50 cm during the freezeup season based on high incidence angle observations of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS satellite working at 1.4 GHz is suggested. By comparison of thermodynamic ice growth data with SMOS brightness temperatures, a high correlation to intensity and an anti correlation to the difference between vertically and horizontally polarised brightness temperatures at incidence angles between 40 and 50 ° are found and used to develop an empirical retrieval sensitive to thin sea ice up to 50 cm thickness. It shows high correlations with ice thickness data from airborne measurements and reasonable ice thickness patterns for the Arctic freeze up period.

  1. The head-shaft angle of the hip in early childhood: a comparison of reference values for children with cerebral palsy and normally developing hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der List, J P; Witbreuk, M M; Buizer, A I; van der Sluijs, J A

    2015-09-01

    The recognition of hips at risk of displacement in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a difficult problem for the orthopaedic surgeon. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and head-shaft angle (HSA) are prognostic factors for hip displacement. However, reference values for HSA are lacking. This study describes and compares the development of HSA in normal hips and children with CP. We selected 33 children from a retrospective cohort with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) (five boys, 28 girls) and 50 children (35 boys, 15 girls) with CP with GMFCS levels II to V. HSA of normal developing hips was measured at the contralateral hip of unilateral DDH children (33 hips) and HSA of CP children was measured in both hips (100 hips). Measurements were taken from the radiographs of the children at age two, four and seven years. The normal hip HSA decreased by 2° per year (p GMFCS levels II and III HSA decreased by 0.6° (p = 0.046) and 0.9° (p = 0.049) per year, respectively. The HSA did not alter significantly in GMFCS levels IV and V. Between the ages of two and eight years, the HSA decreases in normal hips and CP children with GMFCS level, II to III but does not change in GMFCS levels IV to V. As HSA has a prognostic value for hip displacement, these reference values may help the orthopaedic surgeon to predict future hip displacement in children with CP.

  2. Low Voltage Electrowetting on Ferroelectric PVDF-HFP Insulator with Highly Tunable Contact Angle Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawane, Yogesh B; Ogale, Satishchandra B; Banpurkar, Arun G

    2016-09-14

    We demonstrate a consistent electrowetting response on ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) insulator covered with a thin Teflon AF layer. This bilayer exhibits a factor of 3 enhancement in the contact angle modulation compared to that of conventional single-layered Teflon AF dielectric. On the basis of the proposed model the enhancement is attributed to the high value of effective dielectric constant (εeff ≈ 6) of the bilayer. Furthermore, the bilayer dielectric exhibits a hysteresis-free contact angle modulation over many AC voltage cycles. But the contact angle modulation for DC voltage shows a hysteresis because of the field-induced residual polarization in the ferroelectric layer. Finally, we show that a thin bilayer exhibits contact angle modulation of Δθ (U) ≈ 60° at merely 15 V amplitude of AC voltage indicating a potential dielectric for practical low voltage electrowetting applications. A proof of concept confirms electrowetting based rapid mixing of a fluorescent dye in aqueous glycerol solution for 15 V AC signal.

  3. Polarization measurement analysis III. Analysis of the polarization angle dispersion function with high precision polarization data

    CERN Document Server

    Alina, D; Ristorcelli, I; Bernard, J -P; Levrier, F; Abdikamalov, E

    2016-01-01

    High precision polarization measurements open new opportunities for the study of the magnetic field structure as traced by polarimetric measurements of the interstellar dust emission. Polarization parameters suffer from bias in the presence of measurement noise. It is critical to take into account all the information available in the data in order to accurately derive these parameters. The goal of this paper is to characterize the bias on the polarization angle dispersion function that is used to study the spatial coherence of the polarization angle. We characterize, for the first time, the bias on the conventional estimator of the polarization angle dispersion function (S hereafter) and show that it can be positive or negative depending on the true value. Monte Carlo simulations are performed in order to explore the impact of the noise properties of the polarization data, as well as the impact of the distribution of the true polarization angles on the bias. We show that in the case where the ellipticity of t...

  4. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  5. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Garrett

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and aspect ratio. From a selection of the photographed hydrometeors, an illustration is provided for how the instrument might be used for making improved microwave scattering calculations. Complex, aggregated snowflake shapes appear to be more strongly forward scattering, at the expense of reduced back-scatter, than heavily rimed graupel particles of similar size.

  6. High resolution iridocorneal angle imaging system by axicon lens assisted gonioscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Shinde, Anant; Fu, Chan Yiu; Jeesmond Hong, Xun Jie; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-07-01

    Direct visualization and assessment of the iridocorneal angle (ICA) region with high resolution is important for the clinical evaluation of glaucoma. However, the current clinical imaging systems for ICA do not provide sufficient structural details due to their poor resolution. The key challenges in achieving high quality ICA imaging are its location in the anterior region of the eye and the occurrence of total internal reflection due to refractive index difference between cornea and air. Here, we report an indirect axicon assisted gonioscopy imaging probe with white light illumination. The illustrated results with this probe shows significantly improved visualization of structures in the ICA including TM region, compared to the current available tools. It could reveal critical details of ICA and expected to aid management by providing information that is complementary to angle photography and gonioscopy.

  7. Modelling of tension stiffening for normal and high strength concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Bo; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1998-01-01

    Accurate calculations of the stiffness of concrete members are rare. Only in the uncracked state and the fully cracked state, where the reinforcement is near yielding, the stiffness calculations are relatively easy. The difficulties are due to the fact that concrete between cracks may give...... a substantial contribution to the stiffness, a phenomenon which is generally referred to as tension stiffening. The present paper describes a new theory of tension stiffening. It is based on a simple physical model for pure tension, which works with three different stages of crack generation. In a simplified...... form the model is extended to apply to biaxial stress fields as well. To determine the biaxial stress field, the theorem of minimum complementary elastic energy is used. The theory has been compared with tests on rods, disks, and beams of both normal and high strength concrete, and very good results...

  8. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HRMAS NMR) for Studies of Reactive Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic Resonance (HRMAS NMR) for Studies of Reactive Fabrics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911SR-11-C-0047 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...ECBC-TR-1326 HIGH RESOLUTION MAGIC ANGLE SPINNING NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (HRMAS NMR) FOR STUDIES OF REACTIVE FABRICS David J. McGarvey...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT An analytical chemistry method is described for measuring the reactivity and permeation of

  9. Avoiding vacuum arcs in high gradient normal conducting RF structures

    CERN Document Server

    Sjøbæk, Kyrre Ness; Adli, Erik; Grudiev, Alexej; Wuensch, Walter

    In order to build the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), accelerating structures reaching extremely high accelerating gradients are needed. Such structures have been built and tested using normal-conducting copper, powered by X-band RF power and reaching gradients of 100 MV/m and above. One phenomenon that must be avoided in order to reliably reach such gradients, is vacuum arcs or “breakdowns”. This can be accomplished by carefully designing the structure geometry such that high surface fields and large local power flows are avoided. The research presented in this thesis presents a method for optimizing the geometry of accelerating structures so that these breakdowns are made less likely, allowing the structure to operate reliably at high gradients. This was done primarily based on a phenomenological scaling model, which predicted the maximum gradient as a function of the break down rate, pulse length, and field distribution in the structure. The model is written in such a way that it allows direct comparis...

  10. Lamina cribrosa defects and optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma with high myopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugo Kimura

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate whether lamina cribrosa (LC defects are associated with optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG eyes with high myopia. METHODS: A total of 129 POAG patients and 55 age-matched control subjects with high myopia were evaluated. Three-dimensional scan images obtained by swept source optical coherence tomography were used to detect LC defects. Radial B-scans and infrared images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were used to measure β-peripapillary atrophy (PPA lengths with and without Bruch's membrane (BM (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior, tilt angle (vertical and horizontal, and disc diameter (transverse and longitudinal. Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs, disc area, ovality index, and cyclotorsion of the optic disc were analyzed as well. RESULTS: LC defects were found in 70 of 129 (54.2% POAG eyes and 1 of 55 (1.8% control eyes (P < 0.001. Age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among POAG eyes with LC defects, POAG eyes without LC defects, and control eyes. Temporal PPA lengths without BM in all three groups correlated significantly with vertical and horizontal tilt angles, although no PPA length with BM correlated significantly with any tilt angle. PICCs were detected more frequently in POAG eyes with LC defects than those without LC defects (P = 0.01 and control eyes (P = 0.02. POAG eyes with LC defects showed a smaller ovality index (P = 0.004, longer temporal PPA without BM (P < 0.001, and larger vertical/horizontal tilt angles (vertical, P < 0.001; horizontal, P = 0.01, and transverse diameter (P = 0.01. In multivariate analysis for the presence of LC defects, presence of POAG (P < 0.001 and vertical tilt angle (P < 0.001 were identified as significant. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of LC defects was associated with myopic optic disc morphology in POAG eyes with high

  11. High coronary artery calcium score affects clinical outcome despite normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging and normal left ventricular ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Juul; Andersen, Kim F; Zerahn, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Normal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) indicates a low risk for cardiac death and new ischaemic events. However, the impact of normal MPI combined with a high coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is not clear. The aims of this study were to evaluate the risk of severely elevated CACS...

  12. A novel approach for evaluating acceptable intra-operative correction of lower limb alignment in femoral and tibial malunion using the deviation angle of the normal contralateral knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2014-03-01

    A simple and appropriate approach for evaluating an acceptable alignment of bone around the knee during operation has not yet been reported. Thirty-five men and 35 women presenting with nonunion or malunion of the unilateral femoral shaft were included in the first study. Using the standing scanograph, the contralateral normal lower extremity was measured to determine the normal deviation angle (DA) of the medial malleolus when the medial aspect of the knee was placed in the midline of the body. In the second study, the normal DA from individual patients was used as a reference to evaluate knee alignment during operation in 40 other patients presenting with distal femoral or proximal tibial nonunion or malunion. The clinical and knee functional outcomes of these 40 patients were investigated. The average normal DA was 4.2° in men and 6.0° in women (p<0.001). Thirty-four of the 40 patients presenting with disorders around the knee were followed up for an average of 3.6 years (range, 1.1-6.5 years). Thirty fractures healed with a union rate of 88% and an average union period of 4.2 months (range, 2.5-6.5 months). Ideal knee alignment was maintained in all 30 patients with fracture union. Satisfactory function of the knee was achieved in 28 patients (82%, p<0.001). Using a normal DA as a reference may be a feasible and effective technique for evaluating an acceptable alignment of bone around the knee during operation. Level IV, Case series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on flow behavior and structure over chined fuselage at high angle of attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A study of leeward vortex structure over chined fuselage and the effects of micro tip perturbation on its vortex flow have been carried out in wind tunnel experiments at Reynolds numbers from 1.26×105 to 5.04×105 with PIV and pressure measurement techniques.Firstly,the experiment results have proved that micro tip perturbation has no effects on the vortex flow and its aerodynamic characteristics over chined fuselage at high angle of attack,in which there are not any non-deterministic flow behaviors.Secondly,the evolution of leeward vortex structure over chined fuselage along the axis of model can be divided into four flow regimes:linear conical developed regime,decay regime of leeward vortex intensity,asymmetric leeward vortex break down regime and completely break down regime.And a correlation between leeward vortex structure and sectional aerodynamic force was also revealed in the present paper.Thirdly,the experiment results show the behavior of leeward vortex core trajectories and zonal characteristics of leeward vortex structure with angles of attack.Finally,the experiment results of Reynolds number effect on the leeward vortex flow have further confirmed research conclusions from previous studies:the flows over chined fuselage at high angles of attack are insensitive to variation of Reynolds number,and there is a little effect on the secondary boundary layer separation and the suction peak induced by leeward vortex.

  14. Measurement of tibial slope angle after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hideki Yanasse

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In the past, changes in tibial slope were not considered when planning or evaluating osteotomies, and success in high tibial osteotomy was related to the alignment and amount of femorotibial angular correction. The aim here was to measure changes in tibial slope after medial opening wedge tibial osteotomy and investigate the effect of tibial slope angle on the clinical results. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective review study on a series of cases, at the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculdade de Medicina de Marília (Famema, Marília, Brazil. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients were studied, and a total of thirty-one knees. Lateral roentgenograms of the tibia were used pre and postoperatively to measure the tibial slope based on the proximal tibial anatomical axis. The clinical results were measured using the Lysholm knee score. RESULTS: There was an average increase in tibial slope angle after surgery of 2.38° (95% confidence interval: ± 0.73°. There was no correlation (r = -0.28 between the postoperative Lysholm knee score and the difference in tibial slope angle from before to after surgery (P = 0.13. CONCLUSION: Medial opening wedge tibial osteotomy led to a small increase in tibial slope. No significant correlation was found between increased tibial slope and short-term clinical results after high tibial osteotomy. Other clinical studies are needed in order to establish whether extension or flexion osteotomy could benefit patients with medial compartment gonarthrosis.

  15. Development of a high resolution laser based angle-resolving time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Berntsen, M H; Tjernberg, O

    2011-01-01

    We present the design and performance of a novel Laser-based Angle-Resolving Time-of-Flight (LARTOF) system for photoemission from solids in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) energy range. A pulsed laser provides photons which through a third harmonic generation (THG) process performed in a xenon filled gas cell generates VUV photons of energy 10.5 eV. The time-of-flight analyzer is able to collect all electrons that are emitted from the sample within a circular cone of up to +/-15 degrees. By simultaneously measuring the energy and emission angle along two spatial directions for the electrons the analyzer provides three-dimensional detection capability. Data from a test measurement performed on the Au(111) surface state is presented along with some more advanced measurements of the Fermi surface of the high-temperature superconductor Bi2212.

  16. Effects of angling and manual handling on pike behaviour investigated by high-resolution positional telemetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Aarestrup, Kim; Berg, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Human disturbances such as angling and manual handling may have long-term effects on the behaviour of pike, Esox lucius L., an ecologically important species. Using continuous high-resolution positional telemetry, this study compared the swimming activity of handled and unhandled pike in a small...... lake. Pike pre-equipped with acoustic transmitters were angled and exposed to a handling protocol including measurements of length and mass. Pike not recaptured constituted an unhandled control group. Results demonstrated that the handling protocol caused temperature-dependent changes in pike activity......, with higher temperatures leading to lower activity of the recaptured pike. The effects, however, were transitory and not detectable after 48-h post-release. These findings indicate that pike are relatively resilient to handling and quickly resume pre-handling activity...

  17. High-pressure, high-temperature magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance devices and processes for making and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Hu, Mary Y.; Townsend, Mark R.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2015-10-06

    Re-usable ceramic magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR rotors constructed of high-mechanic strength ceramics are detailed that include a sample compartment that maintains high pressures up to at least about 200 atmospheres (atm) and high temperatures up to about least about 300.degree. C. during operation. The rotor designs minimize pressure losses stemming from penetration over an extended period of time. The present invention makes possible a variety of in-situ high pressure, high temperature MAS NMR experiments not previously achieved in the prior art.

  18. High-pressure, high-temperature magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance devices and processes for making and using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Hu, Mary Y.; Townsend, Mark R.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2015-10-06

    Re-usable ceramic magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR rotors constructed of high-mechanic strength ceramics are detailed that include a sample compartment that maintains high pressures up to at least about 200 atmospheres (atm) and high temperatures up to about least about 300.degree. C. during operation. The rotor designs minimize pressure losses stemming from penetration over an extended period of time. The present invention makes possible a variety of in-situ high pressure, high temperature MAS NMR experiments not previously achieved in the prior art.

  19. High-frequency impedance of small-angle tapers and collimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Stupakov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Collimators and transitions in accelerator vacuum chambers often include small-angle tapering to lower the wakefields generated by the beam. While the low-frequency impedance is well described by Yokoya’s formula (for axisymmetric geometry, much less is known about the behavior of the impedance in the high-frequency limit. In this paper we develop an analytical approach to the high-frequency regime for round collimators and tapers. Our analytical results are compared with computer simulations using the code ECHO.

  20. Film Cooling from Two Staggered Rows of Compound Angle Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of two staggered rows of film-cooling holes with compound angle orientations at high blowing ratios. These film cooling configurations are important because they are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 3d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 0.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes which becomes more pronounced as blowing ratio increases.

  1. High-frequency (1000 Hz) tympanometry in normal neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kei, Joseph; Allison-Levick, Julie; Dockray, Jacqueline; Harrys, Rachel; Kirkegard, Christina; Wong, Janet; Maurer, Marion; Hegarty, Jayne; Young, June; Tudehope, David

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of high frequency (1000 Hz) acoustic admittance results obtained from normal neonates were described in this study. Participants were 170 healthy neonates (96 boys and 74 girls) aged between 1 and 6 days (mean = 3.26 days, SD = 0.92). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and 226 Hz and 1000 Hz probe tone tympanograms were obtained from the participants using a Madsen Capella OAE/middle ear analyser. The results showed that of the 170 neonates, 34 were not successfully tested in both ears, 14 failed the TEOAE screen in one or both ears, and 122 (70 boys, 52 girls) passed the TEOAE screen in both ears and also maintained an acceptable probe seal during tympanometry. The 1000 Hz tympanometric data for the 122 neonates (244 ears) showed a single-peaked tympanogram in 225 ears (92.2%), a flat-sloping tympanogram in 14 ears (5.7%), a double-peaked tympanogram in 3 ears (1.2%) and other unusual shapes in 2 ears (0.8%). There was a significant ear effect, with right ears showing significantly higher mean peak compensated static admittance and tympanometric width, but lower mean acoustic admittance at +200 daPa and gradient than left ears. No significant gender effects or its interaction with ear were found. The normative tympanometric data derived from this cohort may serve as a guide for detecting middle ear dysfunction in neonates.

  2. Assessment of the nasolabial angle in young Brazilian black subjects with normal occlusion Verificação do ângulo nasolabial em jovens brasileiros melanodermas com oclusão normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Borges de Araújo Magnani

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Black individuals present craniofacial characteristics which differ from those of other races, especially the white race, whose cephalometric analyses are usually considered as the standard in routine orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Further studies are therefore needed to enable more accurate and specific diagnoses for this ethnic group. The present study was conducted in order to assess average values for the nasolabial angle in young Brazilian black individuals with normal occlusion, and to assess the occurence of sexual dimorphism. Thirty-six lateral skull, extraoral radiographs from Brazilian black individuals were selected from the archives of the Scientific Recordings Department, Orthodontics Graduate Program, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP. The patients' ages varied from 10 to 14 years, they presented normal occlusion upon clinical examination, and had not been submitted to orthodontic treatment. The cephalometric landmarks from which the nasolabial angle was obtained and measured were traced by a single researcher. Statistical analysis and evaluation of the results led to the conclusion that the nasolabial angle of young Brazilian black individuals is sharper, i.e., the soft tissue profile is more protruded. The average value for the whole sample was 88.14º ± 12.52º. The nasolabial angle was statistically smaller among females (p Os indivíduos melanodermas possuem características craniofaciais diferentes das apresentadas pelas demais raças, principalmente por leucodermas que, normalmente, são considerados como padrão nas análises cefalométricas utilizadas rotineiramente no diagnóstico e planejamento dos tratamentos ortodônticos. São, portanto, necessárias novas pesquisas que permitam um diagnóstico mais acurado e específico para esse grupo étnico. Os pesquisadores desenvolveram esta pesquisa com o objetivo de verificar valores médios do ângulo nasolabial em jovens

  3. Enhancing Condensers for Geothermal Systems: the Effect of High Contact Angles on Dropwise Condensation Heat Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, John M.; Kim, Sunwoo; Kim, Kwang J.

    2009-10-06

    Phase change heat transfer is notorious for increasing the irreversibility of, and therefore decreasing the efficiency of, geothermal power plants. Its significant contribution to the overall irreversibility of the plant makes it the most important source of inefficiency in the process. Recent studies here have shown the promotion of drop wise condensation in the lab by means of increasing the surface energy density of a tube with nanotechnology. The use of nanotechnology has allowed the creation of surface treatments which discourage water from wetting a tube surface during a static test. These surface treatments are unique in that they create high- contact angles on the condensing tube surfaces to promote drop wise condensation.

  4. High zenith angle observations of PKS 2155-304 with the MAGIC-I telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puerto Gimenez, I.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. The high frequency peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 with a redshift of z = 0.116 was discovered in 1997 in the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray range by the University of Durham Mark VI γ-ray Cherenkov telescope in Australia with a flux corresponding to 20% of the Crab Nebula flux. It was later observed and detected with high significance by the southern Cherenkov observatory H.E.S.S. establishing this source as the best studied southern TeV blazar. Detection from the northern hemisphere is difficult due to challenging observation conditions under large zenith angles. In July 2006, the H.E.S.S. collaboration reported an extraordinary outburst of VHE γ-emission. During the outburst, the VHE γ-ray emission was found to be variable on the time scales of minutes and with a mean flux of ~7 times the flux observed from the Crab Nebula. Follow-up observations with the MAGIC-I standalone Cherenkov telescope were triggered by this extraordinary outburst and PKS 2155-304 was observed between 28 July to 2 August 2006 for 15 h at large zenith angles. Aims: We studied the behavior of the source after its extraordinary flare. Furthermore, we developed an analysis method in order to analyze these data taken under large zenith angles. Methods: Here we present an enhanced analysis method for data taken at high zenith angles. We developed improved methods for event selection that led to a better background suppression. Results: The quality of the results presented here is superior to the results presented previously for this data set: detection of the source on a higher significance level and a lower analysis threshold. The averaged energy spectrum we derived has a spectral index of (-3.5 ± 0.2) above 400 GeV, which is in good agreement with the spectral shape measured by H.E.S.S. during the major flare on MJD 53 944. Furthermore, we present the spectral energy distribution modeling of PKS 2155-304. With our observations we increased the duty cycle of the source

  5. A hemispherical, high-solid-angle optical micro-cavity for cavity-QED studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Guoqiang; Hannigan, J. M.; Loeckenhoff, R.; Matinaga, F. M.; Raymer, M. G.; Bhongale, S.; Holland, M.; Mosor, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Gibbs, H. M.; Khitrova, G.

    2006-01-01

    We report a novel hemispherical micro-cavity that is comprised of a planar integrated semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror, and an external, concave micro-mirror having a radius of curvature $50\\mathrm{\\mu m}$. The integrated DBR mirror containing quantum dots (QD), is designed to locate the QDs at an antinode of the field in order to maximize the interaction between the QD and the cavity. The concave micro-mirror, with high-reflectivity over a large solid-angle, creates a d...

  6. Open Globe Injuries Presenting With Normal or High Intraocular Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Jordan A; Feldman, Samantha; Addis, Hampton; Bodanapally, Uttam K; Ellish, Nancy; Saeedi, Osamah

    2016-07-01

    To determine the frequency, clinical characteristics, and visual outcomes of patients who present with high or normal intraocular pressure (IOP) and open globe injuries. Retrospective chart review. University of Maryland Medical Center, a level 1 trauma center. All cases of open globe injury presenting to The University of Maryland Medical Center from July 2005 to January 2014. Demographics, initial physical examination, computed tomography findings, IOP of the affected and unaffected eyes, and follow-up evaluations. (1) IOP 10 mm Hg or greater and (2) visual acuity. Of 132 eyes presenting with open globe injury, IOP was recorded in 38 (28%). Mean IOP for the affected and unaffected eyes was 14±10.3 mm Hg and 16.6±4.1 mm Hg, respectively. Twenty-three (59.4%) eyes had IOP greater than 10 mm Hg. Six eyes (16.2%) had IOP greater than 21 mm Hg. Using bivariate analysis, IOP greater than 10 mm Hg was associated with posterior open globe injury (P=0.01), posterior hemorrhage (P=0.04), and intraconal retrobulbar hemorrhage (P=0.05). Adjusting for age, sex, and race, IOP greater than 10 mm Hg was associated with the presence of posterior open globe injury on clinical examination (P=0.04). Higher presenting IOP was found to predict light perception or worse vision (P=0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that poor presenting vision was the best predictor of poor final vision (Pglobe injury. It is a frequent finding in patients with open globe injuries and may be associated with posterior injury and poor visual prognosis.

  7. High zenith angle observations of PKS 2155-304 with the MAGIC-I telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadamek, A; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Huber, B; Jankowski, F; Jogler, T; Kadenius, V; Klepser, S; Knoetig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Niedzwiecki, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Persic, M; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R

    2012-01-01

    The high frequency peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 with a redshift of z=0.116 was discovered in 1997 in the very high energy (VHE, E >100GeV) gamma-ray range by the University of Durham Mark VI gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope in Australia with a flux corresponding to 20% of the Crab Nebula flux. It was later observed and detected with high significance by the Southern Cherenkov observatory H.E.S.S. Detection from the Northern hemisphere is difficult due to challenging observation conditions under large zenith angles. In July 2006, the H.E.S.S. collaboration reported an extraordinary outburst of VHE gamma-emission. During the outburst, the VHE gamma-ray emission was found to be variable on the time scales of minutes and with a mean flux of ~7 times the flux observed from the Crab Nebula. Follow-up observations with the MAGIC-I standalone Cherenkov telescope were triggered by this extraordinary outburst and PKS 2155-304 was observed between 28 July to 2 August 2006 for 15 hours at large zenith angles. Here we present ...

  8. Quasi-periodic dynamics of a high angle of attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohith, G.; Sinha, Nandan K.

    2017-01-01

    High angle of attack maneuvers closer to stall is a commonly accessed flight regime especially in case of fighter aircrafts. Stall and post-stall dynamics are dominated by nonlinearities which make the analysis difficult. Presence of external factors such as wind makes the system even more complex. Rich nonlinearities point to the possibility of existence of chaotic solutions. Past studies in this area confirm the development of such solutions. These studies are mainly concentrated on very high angle of attack regimes, which may not be practically easily accessible. This paper examines the possibility of existence of chaotic solutions in the lower, more accessible areas in the post stall domain. The analysis is composed of the study of effect of external wind as an agent to drive the system towards the possibility of a chaotic solution. Investigations reveal presence of quasi-periodic solutions, which are characterized by two incommensurate frequencies. This solution appears in the time simulation by varying the control parameter viz., wind. The solutions correspond to the values in the lower region of the angle of attack versus elevator bifurcation curve in the post-stall region. A steady wind is considered for the analysis and explores the possibility of chaotic motion by increasing the wind in a step wise manner. It is found that wind adds extra energy to the system which in turn drives the system in to chaos. The analysis is done with the help of phase portrait, Poincare map and amplitude spectrum and a quasi-periodic route to chaos via torus doubling is also presented.

  9. Flight validation of ground-based assessment for control power requirements at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Ross, Holly M.; Foster, John V.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Sternberg, Charles A.; Traven, Ricardo; Lackey, James B.; Abbott, Troy D.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented in viewgraph format of an ongoing NASA/U.S. Navy study to determine control power requirements at high angles of attack for the next generation high-performance aircraft. This paper focuses on recent flight test activities using the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which are intended to validate results of previous ground-based simulation studies. The purpose of this study is discussed, and the overall program structure, approach, and objectives are described. Results from two areas of investigation are presented: (1) nose-down control power requirements and (2) lateral-directional control power requirements. Selected results which illustrate issues and challenges that are being addressed in the study are discussed including test methodology, comparisons between simulation and flight, and general lessons learned.

  10. Experimental study on hydrodynamic coefficients for high-incidence-angle maneuver of a submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yong Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snap rolling during hard turning and instability during emergency rising are important features of submarine operation. Hydrodynamics modeling using a high incidence flow angle is required to predict these phenomena. In the present study, a quasi-steady dynamics model of a submarine suitable for high-incidence-angle maneuvering applications is developed. To determine the hydrodynamic coefficients of the model, static tests, dynamic tests, and control surface tests were conducted in a towing tank and wind tunnel. The towing tank test is conducted utilizing a Reynolds number of 3.12 × 106, and the wind tunnel test is performed utilizing a Reynolds number of 5.11 × 106. In addition, least squares, golden section search, and surface fitting using polynomial models were used to analyze the experimental results. The obtained coefficients are presented in tabular form and can be used for various purposes such as hard turning simulation, emergency rising simulation, and controller design.

  11. Angle-dependent magnetoresistance and quantum oscillations in high-mobility semimetal LuPtBi

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Guizhou

    2017-03-14

    The recent discovery of ultrahigh mobility and large positive magnetoresistance in topologically non-trivial Half-Heusler semimetal LuPtBi provides a unique playground for studying exotic physics and significant perspective for device applications. As an fcc-structured electron-hole-compensated semimetal, LuPtBi theoretically exhibits six symmetrically arranged anisotropic electron Fermi pockets and two nearly-spherical hole pockets, offering the opportunity to explore the physics of Fermi surface with a simple angle-related magnetotransport properties. In this work, through the angle-dependent transverse magnetoresistance measurements, in combination with high-field SdH quantum oscillations, we achieved to map out a Fermi surface with six anisotropic pockets in the high-temperature and low-field regime, and furthermore, identify a possible magnetic field driven Fermi surface change at lower temperatures. Reasons account for the Fermi surface change in LuPtBi are discussed in terms of the field-induced electron evacuation due to Landau quantization.

  12. Estudo comparativo cefalométrico dos padrões dentofaciais de indivíduos portadores de oclusão normal e de más oclusões de Angle Comparative cephalometric study of dentofacial patterns of individuals with normal occlusion and Angle malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Mota Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os padrões dentofaciais de pacientes portadores de oclusão normal e más oclusões de Angle quanto a possíveis diferenças entre as grandezas estudadas, em relação ao sexo, dentro de cada grupo e entre os grupos. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de 200 telerradiografias cefalométricas laterais obtidas de jovens brasileiros, de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária de 11 anos e 2 meses a 19 anos e 10 meses, apresentando dentição permanente. O material foi dividido, quanto ao tipo de oclusão, em cinco grupos: um de pacientes portadores de oclusão normal, e quatro de pacientes portadores de más oclusões de Angle, sendo cada grupo dividido igualmente quanto ao sexo. Foram avaliadas grandezas cefalométricas angulares e lineares. RESULTADOS: na grande maioria das grandezas, os sexos masculino e feminino não diferiram; entre os grupos, a posição da maxila não mostrou diferença significativa, o retrognatismo mandibular foi marcante nos grupos de Classe II divisões 1ª e 2ª e foram observados alguns desequilíbrios verticais com diferenças significativas; o padrão foi hipodivergente para os grupos de oclusão normal e Classe II, divisão 2ª, e neutro para os grupos de Classe I; Classe II, divisão 1ª; e Classe III; a compensação dentoalveolar foi evidente nos grupos de Classe III e de Classe II, divisão 2ª; o grupo de oclusão normal apresentou perfil mais convexo que os padrões americanos. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível configurar, de forma geral, algumas características da morfologia facial para alguns tipos de más oclusões. Entretanto, existe a necessidade de avaliar a face individualmente, pois algumas características permeiam entre os diferentes tipos de oclusão.OBJECTIVE: To determine the dentofacial patterns in patients presenting normal occlusion and Angle malocclusions, evaluating the possible differences in the studied measurements, considering the gender, the differences within each group and the

  13. Bifurcation analysis and stability design for aircraft longitudinal motion with high angle of attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bifurcation analysis and stability design for aircraft longitudinal motion are investigated when the nonlinearity in flight dynamics takes place severely at high angle of attack regime. To predict the special nonlinear flight phenomena, bifurcation theory and continuation method are employed to systematically analyze the nonlinear motions. With the refinement of the flight dynamics for F-8 Crusader longitudinal motion, a framework is derived to identify the stationary bifurcation and dynamic bifurcation for high-dimensional system. Case study shows that the F-8 longitudinal motion undergoes saddle node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation, Zero-Hopf bifurcation and branch point bifurcation under certain conditions. Moreover, the Hopf bifurcation renders series of multiple frequency pitch oscillation phenomena, which deteriorate the flight control stability severely. To relieve the adverse effects of these phenomena, a stabilization control based on gain scheduling and polynomial fitting for F-8 longitudinal motion is presented to enlarge the flight envelope. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  14. Applications of high-resolution magic angle spinning MRS in biomedical studies II-Human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Christopher; Ehret, Felix; Palmas, Francesco; Vandergrift, Lindsey A; Jiang, Yanni; Schmitt, Vanessa; Dufner, Vera; Habbel, Piet; Nowak, Johannes; Cheng, Leo L

    2017-09-15

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) MRS is a powerful method for gaining insight into the physiological and pathological processes of cellular metabolism. Given its ability to obtain high-resolution spectra of non-liquid biological samples, while preserving tissue architecture for subsequent histopathological analysis, the technique has become invaluable for biochemical and biomedical studies. Using HRMAS MRS, alterations in measured metabolites, metabolic ratios, and metabolomic profiles present the possibility to improve identification and prognostication of various diseases and decipher the metabolomic impact of drug therapies. In this review, we evaluate HRMAS MRS results on human tissue specimens from malignancies and non-localized diseases reported in the literature since the inception of the technique in 1996. We present the diverse applications of the technique in understanding pathological processes of different anatomical origins, correlations with in vivo imaging, effectiveness of therapies, and progress in the HRMAS methodology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Robust, high-throughput solution structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hura, Greg L.; Menon, Angeli L.; Hammel, Michal; Rambo, Robert P.; Poole II, Farris L.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Jenney Jr, Francis E.; Classen, Scott; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Yang, Sungjae; Scott, Joseph W.; Dillard, Bret D.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Tainer, John A.

    2009-07-20

    We present an efficient pipeline enabling high-throughput analysis of protein structure in solution with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our SAXS pipeline combines automated sample handling of microliter volumes, temperature and anaerobic control, rapid data collection and data analysis, and couples structural analysis with automated archiving. We subjected 50 representative proteins, mostly from Pyrococcus furiosus, to this pipeline and found that 30 were multimeric structures in solution. SAXS analysis allowed us to distinguish aggregated and unfolded proteins, define global structural parameters and oligomeric states for most samples, identify shapes and similar structures for 25 unknown structures, and determine envelopes for 41 proteins. We believe that high-throughput SAXS is an enabling technology that may change the way that structural genomics research is done.

  16. High energy x-ray phase contrast CT using glancing-angle grating interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapata, A., E-mail: adrian.sarapata@tum.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 and Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Stayman, J. W.; Siewerdsen, J. H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Pfeiffer, F. [Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The authors present initial progress toward a clinically compatible x-ray phase contrast CT system, using glancing-angle x-ray grating interferometry to provide high contrast soft tissue images at estimated by computer simulation dose levels comparable to conventional absorption based CT. Methods: DPC-CT scans of a joint phantom and of soft tissues were performed in order to answer several important questions from a clinical setup point of view. A comparison between high and low fringe visibility systems is presented. The standard phase stepping method was compared with sliding window interlaced scanning. Using estimated dose values obtained with a Monte-Carlo code the authors studied the dependence of the phase image contrast on exposure time and dose. Results: Using a glancing angle interferometer at high x-ray energy (∼45 keV mean value) in combination with a conventional x-ray tube the authors achieved fringe visibility values of nearly 50%, never reported before. High fringe visibility is shown to be an indispensable parameter for a potential clinical scanner. Sliding window interlaced scanning proved to have higher SNRs and CNRs in a region of interest and to also be a crucial part of a low dose CT system. DPC-CT images of a soft tissue phantom at exposures in the range typical for absorption based CT of musculoskeletal extremities were obtained. Assuming a human knee as the CT target, good soft tissue phase contrast could be obtained at an estimated absorbed dose level around 8 mGy, similar to conventional CT. Conclusions: DPC-CT with glancing-angle interferometers provides improved soft tissue contrast over absorption CT even at clinically compatible dose levels (estimated by a Monte-Carlo computer simulation). Further steps in image processing, data reconstruction, and spectral matching could make the technique fully clinically compatible. Nevertheless, due to its increased scan time and complexity the technique should be thought of not as

  17. High energy x-ray phase contrast CT using glancing-angle grating interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapata, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Finkenthal, M.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Pfeiffer, F.; Stutman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present initial progress toward a clinically compatible x-ray phase contrast CT system, using glancing-angle x-ray grating interferometry to provide high contrast soft tissue images at estimated by computer simulation dose levels comparable to conventional absorption based CT. Methods: DPC-CT scans of a joint phantom and of soft tissues were performed in order to answer several important questions from a clinical setup point of view. A comparison between high and low fringe visibility systems is presented. The standard phase stepping method was compared with sliding window interlaced scanning. Using estimated dose values obtained with a Monte-Carlo code the authors studied the dependence of the phase image contrast on exposure time and dose. Results: Using a glancing angle interferometer at high x-ray energy (∼45 keV mean value) in combination with a conventional x-ray tube the authors achieved fringe visibility values of nearly 50%, never reported before. High fringe visibility is shown to be an indispensable parameter for a potential clinical scanner. Sliding window interlaced scanning proved to have higher SNRs and CNRs in a region of interest and to also be a crucial part of a low dose CT system. DPC-CT images of a soft tissue phantom at exposures in the range typical for absorption based CT of musculoskeletal extremities were obtained. Assuming a human knee as the CT target, good soft tissue phase contrast could be obtained at an estimated absorbed dose level around 8 mGy, similar to conventional CT. Conclusions: DPC-CT with glancing-angle interferometers provides improved soft tissue contrast over absorption CT even at clinically compatible dose levels (estimated by a Monte-Carlo computer simulation). Further steps in image processing, data reconstruction, and spectral matching could make the technique fully clinically compatible. Nevertheless, due to its increased scan time and complexity the technique should be thought of not as

  18. Estudo das dimensões transversais da face, em telerradiografias póstero-anteriores em indivíduos respiradores bucais com oclusão normal e má oclusão classe I de angle A study of facial transverse dimensions, in postero-anterior teleradiography in mouth breather individuals with normal occlusion and malloclusion classe I of angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemári Fistarol Daniel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A respiração bucal vem sendo estudada há mais de 100 anos, na tentativa de entender os reais envolvimentos com as más oclusões. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar as dimensões transversais da face em 60 crianças, 32 do gênero feminino e 28 do masculino, com idades entre 6 anos e 1 mês e 8 anos e 2 meses, com má oclusão Classe I de Angle, com respiração nasal ou bucal. Foram selecionadas aleatoriamente 60 telerradiografias em norma frontal póstero-anterior e realizados os traçados cefalométricos para a obtenção das 26 variáveis de interesse. A avaliação do padrão respiratório de cada criança foi realizada por meio de um exame clínico específico. Após o diagnóstico do modo respiratório, a amostra foi dividida em subgrupos de oclusão normal e respiração nasal (14 crianças, oclusão normal e respiração bucal (11 crianças, Classe I de Angle e respiração nasal (6 crianças, Classe I de Angle e respiração bucal (29 crianças. Os resultados encontrados indicam que não existem diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas dimensões transversais da face entre os grupos. Além disso, não foi encontrada correlação entre o modo respiratório bucal e a mordida cruzada dentária posterior.Mouth breathing has been studied for more than 100 years, trying to search the real relationship with the malocclusions. The aim of this study is to assess the transversal facial dimensions of 60 children: 32 females and 28 males, whose had Angle Class I malocclusion with mouth and nasal breathing. 60 teleradiographies were outlined and selected in posteroanterior frontal norm to attainment of the 26 variables to the study. The evaluation of the respiratory pattern of each child was realized by a visual examination, to register the labial posture and, by a questionnaire answered by the parents of the child, which had data concerning medical history and respiratory pattern. After the diagnosis of respiratory mode, the sample

  19. Change detection from very high resolution satellite time series with variable off-nadir angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, Luigi; Brumana, Raffaella; Cuca, Branka; Previtali, Mattia

    2015-06-01

    Very high resolution (VHR) satellite images have the potential for revealing changes occurred overtime with a superior level of detail. However, their use for metric purposes requires accurate geo-localization with ancillary DEMs and GCPs to achieve sub-pixel terrain correction, in order to obtain images useful for mapping applications. Change detection with a time series of VHS images is not a simple task because images acquired with different off-nadir angles have a lack of pixel-to-pixel image correspondence, even after accurate geo-correction. This paper presents a procedure for automatic change detection able to deal with variable off-nadir angles. The case study concerns the identification of damaged buildings from pre- and post-event images acquired on the historic center of L'Aquila (Italy), which was struck by an earthquake in April 2009. The developed procedure is a multi-step approach where (i) classes are assigned to both images via object-based classification, (ii) an initial alignment is provided with an automated tile-based rubber sheeting interpolation on the extracted layers, and (iii) change detection is carried out removing residual mis-registration issues resulting in elongated features close to building edges. The method is fully automated except for some thresholds that can be interactively set to improve the visualization of the damaged buildings. The experimental results proved that damages can be automatically found without additional information, such as digital surface models, SAR data, or thematic vector layers.

  20. Superfluid and normal fluid density in high- Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, D. B.; Liu, H. L.; Quijada, M. A.; Zibold, A. M.; Berger, H.; Kelley, R. J.; Onellion, M.; Chou, F. C.; Johnston, D. C.; Rice, J. P.; Ginsberg, D. M.; Markert, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    The electronic properties of the cuprate superconductors have been studied by measuring the reflectance over the frequency range from the far-infrared to the near-ultraviolet(roughly, 10 meV-5 eV). There is an interesting behavior in both the normal state and the superconducting state. In the normal state, there is the well-known non-Drude distribution of the doping-induced spectral weight. In the superconducting state, the spectral weight of the superconducting condensate correlates with Tc in a variety of materials. Remarkably, in optimally doped superconductors, only about 20% of the doping-induced carriers joins the superfluid; the rest of the spectral weight remains at finite frequencies.

  1. The crustal structure of Beira High, central Mozambique-Combined investigation of wide-angle seismic and potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian Olaf; Jokat, Wilfried; Schreckenberger, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    The timing and geometry of the initial Gondwana break-up between Africa and East Antarctica is still poorly known due to missing information about the continent-ocean boundaries along the rifted margins. In this context, the Beira High off central Mozambique forms a critical geological feature of uncertain crustal fabric. Based on new wide-angle seismic and potential field data across Beira High a P-wave velocity model, supported by amplitude and gravity modelling, provides constraints on the crustal composition of this area. In the Mozambique Basin mainly normal oceanic crust of 5.5-7 km thickness with velocities of 6.5-7.0 km/s in the lower crust is present. A sharp transition towards Beira High marks the continent-ocean boundary. Here the crust thickens to 23 km at maximum. A small velocity-depth gradient and a constant increase in velocity with basal velocities of maximum 7.0 km/s are in good agreement with typical velocities of continental crust and continental fragments. The density model indicates the existence of felsic material in greater depths and supports a fabric of stretched, but highly intruded continental crust below Beira High. A gradual decrease in crustal thickness characterizes the transition towards the Mozambican shelf area. Here, in the Zambezi Delta Depression 12 km of sediments cover the underlying 7 km thick crust. The presence of a high-velocity lower crustal body with velocities of 7.1-7.4 km/s indicates underplated, magmatic material in this part of the profile. However, the velocity structure in the shelf area allows no definite interpretation because of the experimental setup. Thus, the crustal nature below the Zambezi Delta and consequently the landward position of the continent-ocean boundary remains unknown. The difference in stretching below the margins of Beira High suggests the presence of different thinning directions and a rift jump during the early rifting stage.

  2. ASYMMETRIC VORTICES FLOW OVER SLENDER BODY AND ITS ACTIVE CONTROL AT HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xueying; WANG Yankui

    2004-01-01

    The studies of asymmetric vortices flow over slender body and its active control at high angles of attack have significant importance for both academic field and engineering area. This paper attempts to provide an update state of art to the investigations on the fields of forebody asymmetric vortices. This review emphasizes the correlation between micro-perturbation on the model nose and its response and evolution behaviors of the asymmetric vortices. The critical issues are discussed,which include the formation and evolution mechanism of asymmetric multi-vortices; main behaviors of asymmetric vortices flow including its deterministic feature and vortices flow structure; the evolution and development of asymmetric vortices under the perturbation on the model nose; forebody vortex active control especially discussed micro-perturbation active control concept and technique in more detail. However present understanding in this area is still very limited and this paper tries to identify the key unknown problems in the concluding remarks.

  3. Forensic examination of electrical tapes using high resolution magic angle spinning ¹H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberger, Torsten; Simmross, Ulrich; Poppe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The application of high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) (1)H NMR spectroscopy is ideally suited for the differentiation of plastics. In addition to the actual material composition, the different types of polymer architectures and tacticity provide characteristic signals in the fingerprint of the (1)H NMR spectra. The method facilitates forensic comparison, as even small amounts of insoluble but swellable plastic particles are utilized. The performance of HR-MAS NMR can be verified against other methods that were recently addressed in various articles about forensic tape comparison. In this study samples of the 90 electrical tapes already referenced by the FBI laboratory were used. The discrimination power of HR-MAS is demonstrated by the fact that more tape groups can be distinguished by NMR spectroscopy than by using the combined evaluation of several commonly used analytical techniques. An additional advantage of this robust and quick method is the very simple sample preparation.

  4. A hemispherical, high-solid-angle optical micro-cavity for cavity-QED studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guoqiang; Hannigan, J. M.; Loeckenhoff, R.; Matinaga, F. M.; Raymer, M. G.; Bhongale, S.; Holland, M.; Mosor, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Gibbs, H. M.; Khitrova, G.

    2006-03-01

    We report a novel hemispherical micro-cavity that is comprised of a planar integrated semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror, and an external, concave micro-mirror having a radius of curvature 50 µm. The integrated DBR mirror containing quantum dots (QD), is designed to locate the QDs at an antinode of the field in order to maximize the interaction between the QD and cavity. The concave micro-mirror, with high-reflectivity over a large solid-angle, creates a diffraction-limited (sub-micron) mode-waist at the planar mirror, leading to a large coupling constant between the cavity mode and QD. The half-monolithic design gives more spatial and spectral tuning abilities, relatively to fully monolithic structures. This unique micro-cavity design will potentially enable us to both reach the cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) strong coupling regime and realize the deterministic generation of single photons on demand.

  5. High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission Studies on Quasi-Particle Dynamics in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, C.S.

    2010-06-02

    We obtained the spectral function of the graphite H point using high resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The extracted width of the spectral function (inverse of the photo-hole lifetime) near the H point is approximately proportional to the energy as expected from the linearly increasing density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy. This is well accounted by our electron-phonon coupling theory considering the peculiar electronic DOS near the Fermi level. And we also investigated the temperature dependence of the peak widths both experimentally and theoretically. The upper bound for the electron-phonon coupling parameter is 0.23, nearly the same value as previously reported at the K point. Our analysis of temperature dependent ARPES data at K shows that the energy of phonon mode of graphite has much higher energy scale than 125K which is dominant in electron-phonon coupling.

  6. Towards weighing individual atoms by high-angle scattering of electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Argentero, G; Kotakoski, J; Eder, F R; Meyer, J C

    2015-01-01

    We consider theoretically the energy loss of electrons scattered to high angles when assuming that the primary beam can be limited to a single atom. We discuss the possibility of identifying the isotopes of light elements and of extracting information about phonons in this signal. The energy loss is related to the mass of the much heavier nucleus, and is spread out due to atomic vibrations. Importantly, while the width of the broadening is much larger than the energy separation of isotopes, only the shift in the peak positions must be detected if the beam is limited to a single atom. We conclude that the experimental case will be challenging but is not excluded by the physical principles as far as considered here. Moreover, the initial experiments demonstrate the separation of gold and carbon based on a signal that is related to their mass, rather than their atomic number.

  7. Fast computation of high energy elastic collision scattering angle for electric propulsion plume simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Samuel J.

    2016-11-01

    In the plumes of Hall thrusters and ion thrusters, high energy ions experience elastic collisions with slow neutral atoms. These collisions involve a process of momentum exchange, altering the initial velocity vectors of the collision pair. In addition to the momentum exchange process, ions and atoms can exchange electrons, resulting in slow charge-exchange ions and fast atoms. In these simulations, it is particularly important to accurately perform computations of ion-atom elastic collisions in determining the plume current profile and assessing the integration of spacecraft components. The existing models are currently capable of accurate calculation but are not fast enough such that the calculation can be a bottleneck of plume simulations. This study investigates methods to accelerate an ion-atom elastic collision calculation that includes both momentum- and charge-exchange processes. The scattering angles are pre-computed through a classical approach with ab initio spin-orbit free potential and are stored in a two-dimensional array as functions of impact parameter and energy. When performing a collision calculation for an ion-atom pair, the scattering angle is computed by a table lookup and multiple linear interpolations, given the relative energy and randomly determined impact parameter. In order to further accelerate the calculations, the number of collision calculations is reduced by properly defining two cut-off cross-sections for the elastic scattering. In the MCC method, the target atom needs to be sampled; however, it is confirmed that initial target atom velocity does not play a significant role in typical electric propulsion plume simulations such that the sampling process is unnecessary. With these implementations, the computational run-time to perform a collision calculation is reduced significantly compared to previous methods, while retaining the accuracy of the high fidelity models.

  8. Electromyography normalization methods for high-velocity muscle actions: review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nick; Scurr, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    Electromyograms used to assess neuromuscular demand during high-velocity tasks require normalization to aid interpretation. This paper posits that, to date, methodological approaches to normalization have been ineffective and have limited the application of electromyography (EMG). There is minimal investigation seeking alternative normalization methods, which must be corrected to improve EMG application in sports. It is recognized that differing normalization methods will prevent cross-study comparisons. Users of EMG should aim to identify normalization methods that provide good reliability and a representative measure of muscle activation. The shortcomings of current normalization methods in high-velocity muscle actions assessment are evident. Advances in assessing alternate normalization methods have been done in cycling and sprinting. It is advised that when normalizing high-intensity muscle actions, isometric methods are used with caution and a dynamic alternative, where the muscle action is similar to that of the task is preferred. It is recognized that optimal normalization methods may be muscle and task dependent.

  9. Fabrication of nanoelectromechanical systems via the integration of high surface area glancing angle deposition thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, J. N.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Kwan, J. K.; Hiebert, W. K.; Sit, J. C.

    2014-06-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) coated with a high surface area thin film are fabricated. Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) is used to uniformly deposit high surface area, nanostructured SiO2 films on top of released NEMS. The resonance frequencies and quality factors are measured to assess the potential of the high surface area NEMS for sensing experiments. Resonance frequencies of coated cantilevers, although reduced by mass loading, can be predicted accurately using our derived model. Compressive stress makes the resonance frequencies of coated doubly-clamped beams difficult to predict. The quality factors of the coated NEMS are reduced by one order of magnitude by a quasi-continuous layer at the base of the GLAD film, which also introduces an estimated compressive stress of 5.3-9.3 MPa. The limit of detection is demonstrated to be ˜2 pg cm-2. With this successful proof-of-concept demonstration, we anticipate the future use of these devices as high surface area gravimetric mass sensors for applications such as gas chromatography.

  10. High resolution triple resonance micro magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy of nanoliter sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauckmann, J Ole; Janssen, J W G Hans; Kentgens, Arno P M

    2016-02-14

    To be able to study mass-limited samples and small single crystals, a triple resonance micro-magic angle spinning (μMAS) probehead for the application of high-resolution solid-state NMR of nanoliter samples was developed. Due to its excellent rf performance this allows us to explore the limits of proton NMR resolution in strongly coupled solids. Using homonuclear decoupling we obtain unprecedented (1)H linewidths for a single crystal of glycine (Δν(CH2) = 0.14 ppm) at high field (20 T) in a directly detected spectrum. The triple channel design allowed the recording of high-resolution μMAS (13)C-(15)N correlations of [U-(13)C-(15)N] arginine HCl and shows that the superior (1)H resolution opens the way for high-sensitivity inverse detection of heteronuclei even at moderate spinning speeds and rf-fields. Efficient decoupling leads to long coherence times which can be exploited in many correlation experiments.

  11. High frequency of labral pathology in dysplastic hips with a CE angle between 20-25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Hartig-Andreasen, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Lone Rømer

    Background: Hip dysplasia becomes symptomatic due to labral pathology and secondary muscular pain. A CE angle CE angle between 20 and 25 is borderline. Purpose / Aim of Study: We aimed...... to investigate the degree of labral pathology in symptomatic patients with CE between 20 and 25 compared with patients with CE ... with CE angle between 20 and 25 (n=41) 80% had labral pathology (Czerny 1A:2, 1B:1, 2A:7, 2B:3, 3A:15, 3B:5), whereas in the the group with CE angle

  12. Correlation Between Humphrey Visual Field, Optical Coherence Tomography and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph Parameters in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma, Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Ayhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation of Humphrey visual field (VF parameters (MD and PSD with Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT 3 and Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT parameters in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, normal-tension glaucoma (NTG and ocular hypertension (OHT. Material and Method: Fifty-five eyes of 29 POAG patients, 32 eyes of 16 OHT patients and 26 eyes of 13 NTG patients were enrolled in the study prospectively. Humphrey visual field test as well as optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness analysis with HRT 3 and Stratus OCT were performed in all patients; the measurements were repeated every 6 months. Results: The mean age of the patients was 66.4±10.0 years and the mean follow-up time was 22±2.2 months. In POAG and NTG groups, MD and PSD correlated with all analyzed parameters in HRT, except for the height variation contour (HVC. In POAG group, MD and PSD values correlated with all analyzed parameters in OCT, except for the rim area (RA. In NTG group, correlation was found between MD values and all parameters in OCT. In NTG group, PSD correlated with all parameters in OCT, except for the RNFL thickness. In OHT group, no correlation was found between MD, PSD values and HRT parameters. In OHT group, only RA values in OCT correlated with MD and PSD. In all groups, there was no statistically significant difference between the first and last examinations for MD and PSD values and for the mean RNFL thickness measured with OCT and HRT. Discussion: In our study, it was found that in POAG and NTG patients, there was a general correlation of Humphrey VF parameters with HRT 3 and Stratus OCT parameters. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 143-50

  13. Progress in small-angle scattering from biological solutions at high-brilliance synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T. Tuukkanen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS is an established technique that provides low-resolution structural information on macromolecular solutions. Recent decades have witnessed significant progress in both experimental facilities and in novel data-analysis approaches, making SAXS a mainstream method for structural biology. The technique is routinely applied to directly reconstruct low-resolution shapes of proteins and to generate atomistic models of macromolecular assemblies using hybrid approaches. Very importantly, SAXS is capable of yielding structural information on systems with size and conformational polydispersity, including highly flexible objects. In addition, utilizing high-flux synchrotron facilities, time-resolved SAXS allows analysis of kinetic processes over time ranges from microseconds to hours. Dedicated bioSAXS beamlines now offer fully automated data-collection and analysis pipelines, where analysis and modelling is conducted on the fly. This enables SAXS to be employed as a high-throughput method to rapidly screen various sample conditions and additives. The growing SAXS user community is supported by developments in data and model archiving and quality criteria. This review illustrates the latest developments in SAXS, in particular highlighting time-resolved applications aimed at flexible and evolving systems.

  14. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of microtubule structures by quantitative multi-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Luhong; Wu, Jian; Xiu, Peng; Fan, Jiannan; Hu, Miao; Kuang, Cuifang; Xu, Yingke; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Xu

    2017-07-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) has been widely used in biomedical research to visualize cellular processes near the cell surface. In this study, a novel multi-angle ring-illuminated TIRFM system, equipped with two galvo mirrors that are on conjugate plan of a 4f optical system was developed. Multi-angle TIRFM generates images with different penetration depths through the controlled variation of the incident angle of illuminating laser. We presented a method to perform three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of microtubules from multi-angle TIRFM images. The performance of our method was validated in simulated microtubules with variable signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and the axial resolution and accuracy of reconstruction were evaluated in selecting different numbers of illumination angles or in different SNR conditions. In U373 cells, we reconstructed the 3-D localization of microtubules near the cell surface with high resolution using over a hundred different angles. Theoretically, the presented TIRFM setup and 3-D reconstruction method can achieve 40 nm axial resolution in experimental conditions where SNR is as low as 2, with 35 different illumination angles. Moreover, our system and reconstruction method have the potential to be used in live cells to track membrane dynamics in 3-D.

  15. MIPHENO: Data normalization for high throughput metabolic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High throughput methodologies such as microarrays, mass spectrometry and plate-based small molecule screens are increasingly used to facilitate discoveries from gene function to drug candidate identification. These large-scale experiments are typically carried out over the course...

  16. Mercury's radius change estimates revisited using high incidence angle MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Popa, C.; Massironi, M.; Ferrari, S.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Zusi, M.; Cremonese, G.; Palumbo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Estimates of Mercury's radius decrease obtained using the amount of strain recorded by tectonics on the planet range from 0.5 km to 2 km. These latter figures appear too low with respect to the radius contraction (up to 5-6 km) predicted by the most accredited studies based on thermo-mechanical evolution models. For this reason, it has been suggested that there may be hidden strain accommodated by features yet unseen on Mercury. Indeed, as it has been already cautioned by previous studies, the identification of tectonic features on Mercury might be largely biased by the lighting geometry of the used basemaps. This limitation might have affected the results of the extrapolations for estimating the radius change. In this study, we mapped tectonic features at the terminator thus using images acquired at high sun incidence angle (>50°) that represents the optimal condition for their observation. In fact, images with long shadows enhance the topography and texture of the surface and are ideal to detect tectonic structures. This favorable illumination conditions allowed us to infer reliable measurements of spatial distribution (i.e. frequency, orientation, and areal density) of tectonic features which can be used to estimate the average contractional strain and planetary radius decrease. We digitized tectonic structures within a region extending for an area of about 12 million sq. km (~16% of planet's surface). More than 1300 tectonic lineaments were identified and interpreted to be compressional features (i.e. lobate scarps, wrinkle ridges, and high relief ridges) with a total length of more than 12300 km. Assuming that the extensional strain is negligible within the area, the average contractional strain calculated for the survey area is ~0.21-0.28% (~0.24% for θ=30°). This strain, extrapolated to the entire surface, corresponds to a contraction in radius of about 2.5-3.4 km (~2.9 km for θ=30°). Interestingly, the values of contractional strain and radius decrease

  17. Differences of optic disc appearance between normal tension and high tension glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojčić Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term glaucoma is used to cover a wide range of diseases, whose main feature is optic neuropathy. According to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP, the open angle glaucoma is arbitrarily divided into high tension glaucoma (HTG and normal tension glaucoma (NTG. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of optic disc cup appearance between patients with NTG and HTG. Methods. Prospective study included 30 patients (60 eyes with NTG and 30 patients (60 eyes with HTG. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Examination of optic disc head was performed by indirect ophthalmoscopy with Volk 90 D superfield lens through a dilated pupil to observe qualitative and quantitative parameters. Visual fields were examined in all patients with the Octopus program G1, full threshold strategy (Octopus 500 EZ, Interzeag, Switzerland. Results. Vertical form of optic disc cup was present in 11 eyes with NTG (18.3% and three eyes with HTG (5% (p<0.05. A disc with localized tissue loss (polar notching on the inferior pole was observed in eight eyes with NTG (13.3% and in one eye with HTG (1.7% (p<0.01. Uniformly enlarged, round cup was more frequent in patients with HTG than NTG: 93.3% and 68.3% respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion. The perceived differences indicate a complex multifactorial nature of glaucoma disease and a possible existence of two pathophysiological ways of optic disc changes within the same basic disease.

  18. Rotor Design for High Pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcu, Romulus VF; Hoyt, David W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sears, Jesse A.; Loring, John S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-01-01

    High pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a sample spinning rate exceeding 2.1 kHz and pressure greater than 165 bar has never been realized. In this work, a new sample cell design is reported, suitable for constructing cells of different sizes. Using a 7.5 mm high pressure MAS rotor as an example, internal pressure as high as 200 bar at a sample spinning rate of 6 kHz is achieved. The new high pressure MAS rotor is re-usable and compatible with most commercial NMR set-ups, exhibiting low 1H and 13C NMR background and offering maximal NMR sensitivity. As an example of its many possible applications, this new capability is applied to determine reaction products associated with the carbonation reaction of a natural mineral, antigorite ((Mg,Fe2+)3Si2O5(OH)4), in contact with liquid water in water-saturated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 150 bar and 50 deg C. This mineral is relevant to the deep geologic disposal of CO2, but its iron content results in too many sample spinning sidebands at low spinning rate. Hence, this chemical system is a good case study to demonstrate the utility of the higher sample spinning rates that can be achieved by our new rotor design. We expect this new capability will be useful for exploring solid-state, including interfacial, chemistry at new levels of high-pressure in a wide variety of fields.

  19. Rotor design for high pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcu, Romulus V. F.; Hoyt, David W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sears, Jesse A.; Loring, John S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2013-01-01

    High pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a sample spinning rate exceeding 2.1 kHz and pressure greater than 165 bar has never been realized. In this work, a new sample cell design is reported, suitable for constructing cells of different sizes. Using a 7.5 mm high pressure MAS rotor as an example, internal pressure as high as 200 bar at a sample spinning rate of 6 kHz is achieved. The new high pressure MAS rotor is re-usable and compatible with most commercial NMR set-ups, exhibiting low 1H and 13C NMR background and offering maximal NMR sensitivity. As an example of its many possible applications, this new capability is applied to determine reaction products associated with the carbonation reaction of a natural mineral, antigorite ((Mg,Fe2+)3Si2O5(OH)4), in contact with liquid water in water-saturated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 150 bar and 50 °C. This mineral is relevant to the deep geologic disposal of CO2, but its iron content results in too many sample spinning sidebands at low spinning rate. Hence, this chemical system is a good case study to demonstrate the utility of the higher sample spinning rates that can be achieved by our new rotor design. We expect this new capability will be useful for exploring solid-state, including interfacial, chemistry at new levels of high-pressure in a wide variety of fields.

  20. The normal state of high temperature oxide superconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Liyuan

    2001-01-01

    [1]Ying, C.F., Truell, R., Scattering of plane longitudinal wave by a spherical obstacle in an isotropically elastic solid, J.Appl.Phys., 1956, 27(9): 1086.[2]Norris, A.N., Yang, Y., Shear wave scattering from a debonded fiber, in Elastic Waves and Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation (eds.Datta, S.K., Achenbach, J.D., Rajapakes, Y.S.), Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1990, 437-440.[3]Sinclair, A.N., Anddison, R.C., Acoustic diffraction spectrum of a SiC fiber in a solid elastic medium, J.Acoust.Soc.Am., 1993, 94(2): 1126.[4]Huang, W., Brisuda, S., Rokhlin, S.I., Ultrasonic wave scattering from fiber_matrix interphases, J.Acoust.Soc.Am., 1995, 97(2): 807.[5]Huang, W., Wang, Y.J., Rokhlin, S.I., Oblique scattering of an elastic wave from a mutilayered cylinder in a solid: Transfer_matrix approach, J.Acoust.Soc.Am., 1996, 99(5): 2742.[6]Lu, Y., Guided antiplane shear wave propagation in layers reinforced by periodically spaced cylinders, J.Acoust.Soc.Am., 1996, 99(4): 1937.[7]Rokhlin, S.I., Diffraction of Lamb waves by a finite crack in an elastic layer, J.Acoust.Soc.Am., 1980, 67(4): 1157.[8]Rokhlin, S.I., Resonance phenomena of Lamb waves scattering by a finite crack in a solid layer, J.Acoust.Soc.Am., 1981, 69(4): 922.[9]Abduljabbar, Z., Datta, S.K., Shah, A.H., Diffraction of horizontally polarized shear waves by normal cracks in a plate, J.Appl.Phys., 1983, 54(2): 461.[10]Rokhlin, S.I., Lamb wave interaction with lap_shear adhesive joints: theory and experiment, J.Acoust.Soc.Am., 1991, 89(6): 2758.[11]Al_Nassar, Y.N., Datta, S.K., Shah, A.H., Scattering of Lamb waves by a normal rectangular strip of weldment, Ultrasonics, 1991, 29(2): 125.[12]Alleyne, D.N., Cawley, P., The interaction of Lamb waves with defects, IEEE Trans.Ultrason Ferroelectr.Frequency Control, 1992, 39(3): 381.[13]Nielsen, E.D., Scattering by a cylindrical post of complex permittivity in a waveguide, IEEE Trans.on Microwave Theory and

  1. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Shen, Zhi-Xun [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liu, Zhongkai [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zong, Alfred [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Jefferson, C. Michael; Merriam, Andrew J. [Lumeras LLC, 207 McPherson St, Santa Cruz, California 95060 (United States); Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S. [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10{sup 12} photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å{sup −1}, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å{sup −1}, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  2. High-energy spectrum and zenith-angle distribution of atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sinegovsky, S I; Sinegovskaya, T S

    2011-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons produced through the collisions of cosmic ray particles with air nuclei, form the background in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. An ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. We present results of the calculation of the energy spectrum and zenith-angle distribution of the muon and electron atmospheric neutrinos in the energy range 10 GeV to 10 PeV. The calculation was performed with usage of known hadronic models (QGSJET-II-03, SIBYLL 2.1, Kimel & Mokhov) for two of the primary spectrum parametrizations, by Gaisser & Honda and by Zatsepin & Sokolskaya. The comparison of the calculated muon neutrino spectrum with the IceCube40 experiment data make it clear that even at energies above 100 TeV the prompt neutrino contribution is not so apparent because of tangled uncertainties of the strange (kaons) and charm...

  3. High-resolution proton scattering off {sup 70}Zn under extreme forward angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Andreas; Martin, Dirk; Neumann-Cosel, Peter von; Pietralla, Norbert [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Tamii, Atsushi [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka (Japan); Collaboration: E377-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    A high-resolution scattering experiment was performed with a 295 MeV proton beam at the Research Center of Nuclear Physics in Osaka, Japan. The nucleus {sup 70}Zn has been measured under scattering angles of 0 {sup circle}, 3 {sup circle} and 4.5 {sup circle}. From the angular distributions it is possible to distinguish spin-M1 and E1 response. The spin-M1 response is assumed to be affected by the shell evolution due to the tensor force towards the exotic neutron-rich doubly magic nuclei {sup 78}Ni. The experiments will also provide important information on the evolution of the pygmy dipole resonance with neutron excess by comparison with unstable neutron-rich isotones {sup 68}Ni discovered recently at GSI. During the analysis procedure, ion optical correction methods, drift time to distance conversion, high-resolution corrections and an energy calibration are applied. After the background subtraction, double differential cross sections can be extracted.

  4. Influence of spatial and temporal coherences on atomic resolution high angle annular dark field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas; Belz, Jürgen; Knaub, Nikolai; Jandieri, Kakhaber; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) has become a widely used technique when information on the chemical composition is sought on an atomic scale. To extract the desired information, complementary simulations of the scattering process are inevitable. Often the partial spatial and temporal coherences are neglected in the simulations, although they can have a huge influence on the high resolution images. With the example of binary gallium phosphide (GaP) we elucidate the influence of the source size and shape as well as the chromatic aberration on the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) intensity. We achieve a very good quantitative agreement between the frozen phonon simulation and experiment for different sample thicknesses when a Lorentzian source distribution is assumed and the effect of the chromatic aberration is considered. Additionally the influence of amorphous layers introduced by the preparation of the TEM samples is discussed. Taking into account these parameters, the intensity in the whole unit cell of GaP, i.e. at the positions of the different atomic columns and in the region between them, is described correctly. With the knowledge of the decisive parameters, the determination of the chemical composition of more complex, multinary materials becomes feasible.

  5. Dynamic surface measurements on a model helicopter rotor during blade slap at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Harris, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    The modern helicopter offers a unique operational capability to both the public and private sectors. However, the use of the helicopter may become severely limited due to the radiated noise generated by the rotor system. A description is presented of some of the experimental results obtained with a model helicopter rotor in an anechoic wind tunnel with regard to blade stall as a source mechanism of blade slap. Attention is given to dynamic rotor blade surface phenomena and the resulting far field impulsive noise from the model helicopter rotor at high angles of attack and low tip speed. The results of the investigation strongly implicates the boundary layer as playing an important role in blade slap due to blade/vortex interaction (BVI) in a highly loaded rotor. Intermittent stall cannot be ruled out as a possible source mechanism for blade slap. This implies that blade surface characteristics, airfoil shape and local Reynolds number may now be used as tools to reduce the resultant far-field sound pressure levels in helicopters.

  6. Bifurcation analysis and stability design for aircraft longitudinal motion with high angle of attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Qi; Shi Zhongke

    2015-01-01

    Bifurcation analysis and stability design for aircraft longitudinal motion are investigated when the nonlinearity in flight dynamics takes place severely at high angle of attack regime. To pre-dict the special nonlinear flight phenomena, bifurcation theory and continuation method are employed to systematically analyze the nonlinear motions. With the refinement of the flight dynam-ics for F-8 Crusader longitudinal motion, a framework is derived to identify the stationary bifurca-tion and dynamic bifurcation for high-dimensional system. Case study shows that the F-8 longitudinal motion undergoes saddle node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation, Zero-Hopf bifurcation and branch point bifurcation under certain conditions. Moreover, the Hopf bifurcation renders ser-ies of multiple frequency pitch oscillation phenomena, which deteriorate the flight control stability severely. To relieve the adverse effects of these phenomena, a stabilization control based on gain scheduling and polynomial fitting for F-8 longitudinal motion is presented to enlarge the flight envelope. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  7. Effects of GFF Bands on Normal and High Strength Concrete Cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaprakash, J; Abdul Aziz Abdul Samad; Noridah Mohamad; K.K. Choong; M.J. Megat Azmi; H.A.B. Badorul

    2010-01-01

    This paper exemplifies the effects of externally confined Glass Fibre Fabric (GFF) bands on normal and high strength concrete cylinders. Twelve normal and high strength concrete cylinders were cast and tested in the laboratory environment under axial compression to failure. The experimental results show that the degree of confinement of discrete GFF confined high strength concrete cylinders was significantly better than normal strength concrete cylinders with GFF bands, however...

  8. Nodal Quasiparticle Meltdown in Ultra-High Resolution Pump-Probe Angle-Resolved Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Jeff; Jozwiak, Chris; Smallwood, Chris L.; Eisaki, H.; Kaindl, Robert A.; Lee, Dung-Hai; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2011-06-03

    High-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors are characterized by a strong momentum-dependent anisotropy between the low energy excitations along the Brillouin zone diagonal (nodal direction) and those along the Brillouin zone face (antinodal direction). Most obvious is the d-wave superconducting gap, with the largest magnitude found in the antinodal direction and no gap in the nodal direction. Additionally, while antin- odal quasiparticle excitations appear only below T{sub c}, superconductivity is thought to be indifferent to nodal excitations as they are regarded robust and insensitive to T{sub c}. Here we reveal an unexpected tie between nodal quasiparticles and superconductivity using high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission on optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} . We observe a suppression of the nodal quasiparticle spectral weight following pump laser excitation and measure its recovery dynamics. This suppression is dramatically enhanced in the superconducting state. These results reduce the nodal-antinodal dichotomy and challenge the conventional view of nodal excitation neutrality in superconductivity. The electronic structures of high-Tc cuprates are strongly momentum-dependent. This is one reason why the momentum-resolved technique of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been a central tool in the field of high-temperature superconductivity. For example, coherent low energy excitations with momenta near the Brillouin zone face, or antinodal quasiparticles (QPs), are only observed below T{sub c} and have been linked to superfluid density. They have therefore been the primary focus of ARPES studies. In contrast, nodal QPs, with momenta along the Brillouin zone diagonal, have received less attention and are usually regarded as largely immune to the superconducting transition because they seem insensitive to perturbations such as disorder, doping, isotope exchange, charge ordering, and temperature. Clearly

  9. Nodal Quasiparticle Meltdown in Ultra-High Resolution Pump-Probe Angle-Resolved Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Jeff; Jozwiak, Chris; Smallwood, Chris L.; Eisaki, H.; Kaindl, Robert A.; Lee, Dung-Hai; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2011-06-03

    High-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors are characterized by a strong momentum-dependent anisotropy between the low energy excitations along the Brillouin zone diagonal (nodal direction) and those along the Brillouin zone face (antinodal direction). Most obvious is the d-wave superconducting gap, with the largest magnitude found in the antinodal direction and no gap in the nodal direction. Additionally, while antin- odal quasiparticle excitations appear only below T{sub c}, superconductivity is thought to be indifferent to nodal excitations as they are regarded robust and insensitive to T{sub c}. Here we reveal an unexpected tie between nodal quasiparticles and superconductivity using high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission on optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} . We observe a suppression of the nodal quasiparticle spectral weight following pump laser excitation and measure its recovery dynamics. This suppression is dramatically enhanced in the superconducting state. These results reduce the nodal-antinodal dichotomy and challenge the conventional view of nodal excitation neutrality in superconductivity. The electronic structures of high-Tc cuprates are strongly momentum-dependent. This is one reason why the momentum-resolved technique of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been a central tool in the field of high-temperature superconductivity. For example, coherent low energy excitations with momenta near the Brillouin zone face, or antinodal quasiparticles (QPs), are only observed below T{sub c} and have been linked to superfluid density. They have therefore been the primary focus of ARPES studies. In contrast, nodal QPs, with momenta along the Brillouin zone diagonal, have received less attention and are usually regarded as largely immune to the superconducting transition because they seem insensitive to perturbations such as disorder, doping, isotope exchange, charge ordering, and temperature. Clearly

  10. High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission with Tabletop 11eV Laser

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yu; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, Michael; Moore, Robert; Kirchmann, Patrick; Merriam, Andrew; Shen, Zhixun

    2015-01-01

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with $113.778$nm wavelength (10.897eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10MHz, provides a flux of 2$\\times$10$^{12}$ photons/second, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2meV and 0.012\\AA$^{-1}$, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2\\AA$^{-1}$, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source, and sho...

  11. Towards weighing individual atoms by high-angle scattering of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argentero, G.; Mangler, C.; Kotakoski, J.; Eder, F.R.; Meyer, J.C., E-mail: Jannik.Meyer@univie.ac.at

    2015-04-15

    We consider theoretically the energy loss of electrons scattered to high angles when assuming that the primary beam can be limited to a single atom. We discuss the possibility of identifying the isotopes of light elements and of extracting information about phonons in this signal. The energy loss is related to the mass of the much heavier nucleus, and is spread out due to atomic vibrations. Importantly, while the width of the broadening is much larger than the energy separation of isotopes, only the shift in the peak positions must be detected if the beam is limited to a single atom. We conclude that the experimental case will be challenging but is not excluded by the physical principles as far as considered here. Moreover, the initial experiments demonstrate that the separation of gold and carbon based on a signal that is related to their mass, rather than their atomic number. - Highlights: • We explore how energy loss spectroscopy could be used to obtain information about the mass, rather than the charge, of atoms. • The dose and precision that would be needed to distinguish between the two isotopes of carbon, C12 and C13, is estimated. • Signal broadening due to phonons is included in the calculation. • Initial experiments show the separation between gold and carbon based on their mass rather than charge.

  12. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission investigation of potassium and phosphate tungsten bronzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Sanhita; Kumari, Spriha; Raj, Satyabrata, E-mail: raj@iiserkol.ac.in

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Electronic structure of potassium and phosphate tungsten bronzes. • Origin of transport anomalies in bronzes. • Flat segments of Fermi surfaces are connected by a nesting vector, q. • Nesting driven charge-density wave is responsible for the anomalies. - Abstract: We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and density functional ab initio theoretical calculation to study the electronic structure of potassium (K{sub 0.25}WO{sub 3}) and phosphate (P{sub 4}W{sub 12}O{sub 44}) tungsten bronzes. We have experimentally determined the band dispersions and Fermi surface topology of these bronzes and compared with our theoretical calculations and a fair agreement has been seen between them. Our experimental as well as theoretical investigation elucidates the origin of transport anomalies in these bronzes. The Fermi surfaces of these bronzes consist of flat patches, which can be connected with each other by a constant nesting wave vector, q. The scattering wave vectors found from diffraction measurements match with these nesting vectors and the anomalies in the transport properties of these bronzes can be well explained by the evolution of charge-density wave with a partial nesting between the flat segments of the Fermi surfaces.

  13. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and superconductivity of strained high-c films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davor Pavuna; Daniel Ariosa; Dominique Cloetta; Claudia Cancellieri; Mike Abrecht

    2008-02-01

    Since 1997 we systematically perform direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on in-situ grown thin (< 30 nm) cuprate films. Specifically, we probe low-energy electronic structure and properties of high-c superconductors (HTSC) under different degrees of epitaxial (compressive vs. tensile) strain. In overdoped and underdoped in-plane compressed (the strain is induced by the choice of substrate) ≃ 15 nm thin La2-SrCuO4 (LSCO) films we almost double c to 40 K, from 20 K and 24 K, respectively. Yet the Fermi surface (FS) remains essentially two-dimensional. In contrast, ARPES data under tensile strain exhibit the dispersion that is three-dimensional, yet c drastically decreases. It seems that the in-plane compressive strain tends to push the apical oxygen far away from the CuO2 plane, enhances the two-dimensional character of the dispersion and increases c, while the tensile strain acts in the opposite direction and the resulting dispersion is three-dimensional. We have established the shape of the FS for both cases, and all our data are consistent with other ongoing studies, like EXAFS. As the actual lattice of cuprates is like a `Napoleon-cake', i.e. rigid CuO2 planes alternating with softer `reservoir', that distort differently under strain, our data rule out all oversimplified two-dimensional (rigid lattice) mean field models. The work is still in progress on optimized La-doped Bi-2201 films with enhanced c.

  14. High angle of attack: Forebody flow physics and design emphasizing directional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, R.

    A framework for understanding the fundamental physics of flowfields over forebody type shapes at low speed, high angle of attack conditions with special emphasis on sideslip has been established. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to study flowfieids over experimentally investigated forebodies: the Lamont tangent-ogive forebody, the F-5A forebody and the Erickson chine forebody. A modified version of a current advanced code, CFL3D, was used to solve the Euler and thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The Navier-Stokes equations used a form of the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model modified to account for massive crossflow separation. Using the insight provided by the solutions obtained using CFD, together with comparison with limited available data, the aerodynamics of forebodies with positive directional stability has been revealed. An unconventional way of presenting the results is used to illustrate how a positive contribution to directional stability arises. Based on this new understanding, a parametric study was then conducted to determine which shapes promote a positive contribution to directional stability. The effect of cross-sectional shape on directional stability was found to be very significant. Broad chine-shaped cross-sections were found to promote directional stability. Also, directional stability is improved if the chine is placed closer to the top of the cross-section. Planform shapes also played an important role in determining the forebody directional stability characteristics. This initial parametric study has been used to propose some guidelines for aerodynamic design to promote positive directional stability.

  15. High tip angle approximation based on a modified Bloch-Riccati equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulant, Nicolas; Hoult, David I

    2012-02-01

    When designing a radio-frequency pulse to produce a desired dependence of magnetization on frequency or position, the small flip angle approximation is often used as a first step, and a Fourier relation between pulse and transverse magnetization is then invoked. However, common intuition often leads to linear scaling of the resulting pulse so as to produce a larger flip angle than the approximation warrants--with surprisingly good results. Starting from a modified version of the Bloch-Riccati equation, a differential equation in the flip angle itself, rather than in magnetization, is derived. As this equation has a substantial linear component that is an instance of Fourier's equation, the intuitive approach is seen to be justified. Examples of the accuracy of this higher tip angle approximation are given for both constant- and variable-phase pulses.

  16. Syn-Extensional Constrictional Folding of the Gwoira Rider Block, a Large Fault-Bounded Slice Atop the Mai'iu Low-Angle Normal Fault, Woodlark Rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, T. A.; Webber, S. M.; Norton, K. P.; Mizera, M.; Oesterle, J.; Ellis, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Mai'iu Fault is an active and corrugated low-angle normal fault (LANF) in Woodlark Rift, Eastern Papua New Guinea, which dips 21° NNE, accommodating rapid N-S extension. The Gwoira rider block is a large fault-bounded sedimentary slice comprising the Gwoira Conglomerate, located within a large synformal megamullion in the Mai'iu Fault surface. The Gwoira Conglomerate was originally deposited on the Mai'iu Fault hanging wall concurrent with extension, and has since been buried to a maximum depth of 1600-2100 m (evidenced by vitrinite reflectance data), back-tilted, and synformally folded. Both the Gwoira Conglomerate (former hanging wall) and mylonitic foliation (footwall) of the Mai'iu Fault have been shortened E-W, perpendicular to the extension direction. We show that E-W synformal folding of the Gwoira Conglomerate was concurrent with ongoing sedimentation and extension on the Mai'iu Fault. Structurally shallower Gwoira Conglomerate strata are folded less than deeper strata, indicating that folding was progressively accrued concurrent with N-S extension. We also show that abandonment of the inactive strand of the Mai'iu Fault in favor of the Gwoira Fault, which resulted in formation of the Gwoira rider block, occurred in response to progressive megamullion amplification and resultant misorientation of the inactive strand of the Mai'iu Fault. We attribute E-W folding to extension-perpendicular constriction. This is consistent with observations of outcrop-scale conjugate strike-slip faults that deform the footwall and hanging wall of the Mai'iu Fault, and accommodate E-W shortening. Constrictional folding remains active in the near-surface as evidenced by synformal tilting of inferred Late Quaternary fluvial terraces atop the Gwoira rider block. This sequence of progressive constrictional folding is dated using 26Al/10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide burial dating of the Gwoira Conglomerate. Finally, because rider block formation records abandonment of the

  17. Methods for calculating the transonic boundary layer separation for V/STOL inlets at high incidence angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, D. C.; Lee, H. C.; Luidens, R. W.; Stockman, N. O.

    1978-01-01

    A semi-empirical scheme for the prediction of transonic pressure distribution on the surface of V/STOL inlets at high incidence angles has been developed. The investigation is intended to improve the boundary layer calculation and separation prediction by including the effects of shock wave-boundary layer interaction into the Lewis Inlet Viscous Computer Program. Wind-tunnel results and theoretical pressure calculation for critical cases are used in constructing the transonic pressure distribution. The program, which describes the development of the boundary layer and predicts the possible flow separation, can handle the cases of inlets at high incidence angles where local supersonic region may occur in the flow.

  18. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and superconductivity of strained high-Tc films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuna, Davor; Ariosa, Daniel; Cloetta, Dominique; Cancellieri, Claudia; Abrecht, Mike

    2008-02-01

    Since 1997 we systematically perform direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on in-situ grown thin (<30 nm) cuprate films. Specifically, we probe low-energy electronic structure and properties of high-T_{c} superconductors (HTSC) under different degrees of epitaxial ({compressive vs. tensile}) strain. In overdoped and underdoped in-plane compressed (the strain is induced by the choice of substrate) ≈15 nm thin La_{2-x}Sr_{x}CuO_{4} (LSCO) films we almost double T_{c} to 40 K, from 20 K and 24 K, respectively. Yet the Fermi surface (FS) remains essentially two-dimensional. In contrast, ARPES data under {tensile} strain exhibit the dispersion that is three-dimensional, yet T_{c} drastically decreases. It seems that the in-plane compressive strain tends to push the apical oxygen far away from the CuO_{2} plane, enhances the two-dimensional character of the dispersion and increases T_{c}, while the tensile strain acts in the opposite direction and the resulting dispersion is three-dimensional. We have established the shape of the FS for both cases, and all our data are consistent with other ongoing studies, like EXAFS. As the actual lattice of cuprates is like a `Napoleon-cake', i.e. rigid CuO_{2 } planes alternating with softer `reservoir', that distort differently under strain, our data rule out all oversimplified two-dimensional (rigid lattice) mean field models. The work is still in progress on optimized La-doped Bi-2201 films with enhanced T_{c}.

  19. An experimental study of an airfoil with a bio-inspired leading edge device at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandadzhiev, Boris A.; Lynch, Michael K.; Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Wissa, Aimy A.

    2017-09-01

    Robust and predictable aerodynamic performance of unmanned aerial vehicles at the limits of their design envelope is critical for safety and mission adaptability. Deployable aerodynamic surfaces from the wing leading or trailing edges are often used to extend the aerodynamic envelope (e.g. slats and flaps). Birds have also evolved feathers at the leading edge (LE) of their wings, known as the alula, which enables them to perform high angles of attack maneuvers. In this study, a series of wind tunnel experiments are performed to quantify the effect of various deployment parameters of an alula-like LE device on the aerodynamic performance of a cambered airfoil (S1223) at stall and post stall conditions. The alula relative angle of attack, measured from the mean chord of the airfoil, is varied to modulate tip-vortex strength, while the alula deflection angle is varied to modulate the distance between the tip vortex and the wing surface. Integrated lift force measurements were collected at various alula-inspired device configurations. The effect of the alula-inspired device on the boundary layer velocity profile and turbulence intensity were investigated through hot-wire anemometer measurements. Results show that as alula deflection angle increases, the lift coefficient also increase especially at lower alula relative angles of attack. Moreover, at post stall wing angles of attack, the wake velocity deficit is reduced in the presence of alula device, confirming the mitigation of the wing adverse pressure gradient. The results are in strong agreement with measurements taken on bird wings showing delayed flow reversal and extended range of operational angles of attack. An engineered alula-inspired device has the potential to improve mission adaptability in small unmanned air vehicles during low Reynolds number flight.

  20. Delayed detached eddy simulations of fighter aircraft at high angle of attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang Xu; Xiong Jiang; Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    The massively separated flows over a realistic air-craft configuration at 40◦, 50◦, and 60◦angles of attack are studied using the delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES). The calculations are carried out at experimental conditions corresponding to a mean aerodynamic chord-based Reynolds number of 8.93 × 105 and Mach number of 0.088. The influ-ence of the grid size is investigated using two grids, 20.0×106 cells and 31.0 × 106 cells. At the selected conditions, the lift, drag, and pitching moment from DDES predictions agree with the experimental data better than that from the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes. The effect of angle of attack on the flow structure over the general aircraft is also studied, and it is found that the dominated frequency associated with the vortex shedding process decreases with increasing angle of attack.

  1. Size and shape of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight wheat gluten proteins. 1. Small angle neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egelhaaf, SU; van Swieten, E; Bosma, T; de Boef, E; van Dijk, AA; Robillard, GT; Egelhaaf, Stefan U.

    2003-01-01

    The solution structure of the central repetitive domain of high molecular weight (HMW) wheat gluten proteins has been investigated for a range of concentrations and temperatures using mainly small-angle neutron scattering. A representative part of the repetitive domain (dBl) was studied as well as a

  2. High-normal blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kamide, Kei

    2009-08-01

    The guidelines of the Joint National Committee 7 from the USA on hypertension have unified the normal and high-normal blood pressure categories into a single entity termed ;prehypertension'. In contrast, The European Guidelines for the management of hypertension in 2007 considered ;prehypertensive' to be divided into normal and high-normal blood pressure. These patients with high-normal blood pressure or prehypertension might progress to hypertension over time. Previous studies have shown that high-normal blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Western countries and Japan. The combination of high-normal blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors increases the risks of CVD. Recently, metabolic syndrome has also been shown to be a risk factor for CVD. In Japan, the association between metabolic syndrome and CVD was also found to be significant. The risks for CVD incidence were similar among participants who had the same number of components, regardless of the presence of abdominal obesity. In the Japanese guidelines for the management of hypertension published in 2009, patients are considered to be in a high-risk group if they have diabetes, chronic kidney disease, 3 or more risk factors, target organ damage or CVD, even if they have only high-normal blood pressure, and appropriate antihypertensive therapy should be initiated.

  3. Statistical Contact Angle Analyses with the High-Precision Drop Shape Analysis (HPDSA Approach: Basic Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface science, which includes the preparation, development and analysis of surfaces and coatings, is essential in both fundamental and applied as well as in engineering and industrial research. Contact angle measurements using sessile drop techniques are commonly used to characterize coated surfaces or surface modifications. Well-defined surfaces structures at both nanoscopic and microscopic level can be achieved but the reliable characterization by means of contact angle measurements and their interpretation often remains an open question. Thus, we focused our research effort on one main problem of surface science community, which is the determination of correct and valid definitions and measurements of contact angles. In this regard, we developed the high-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA, which involves a complex transformation of images from sessile drop experiments to Cartesian coordinates and opens up the possibility of a physically meaningful contact angle calculation. To fulfill the dire need for a reproducible contact angle determination/definition, we developed three easily adaptable statistical analyses procedures. In the following, the basic principles of HPDSA will be explained and applications of HPDSA will be illustrated. Thereby, the unique potential of this analysis approach will be illustrated by means of selected examples.

  4. Midcourse Guidance Law Based on High Target Acquisition Probability Considering Angular Constraint and Line-of-Sight Angle Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Random disturbance factors would lead to the variation of target acquisition point during the long distance flight. To acquire a high target acquisition probability and improve the impact precision, missiles should be guided to an appropriate target acquisition position with certain attitude angles and line-of-sight (LOS angle rate. This paper has presented a new midcourse guidance law considering the influences of random disturbances, detection distance restraint, and target acquisition probability with Monte Carlo simulation. Detailed analyses of the impact points on the ground and the random distribution of the target acquisition position in the 3D space are given to get the appropriate attitude angles and the end position for the midcourse guidance. Then, a new formulation biased proportional navigation (BPN guidance law with angular constraint and LOS angle rate control has been derived to ensure the tracking ability when attacking the maneuvering target. Numerical simulations demonstrates that, compared with the proportional navigation guidance (PNG law and the near-optimal spatial midcourse guidance (NSMG law, BPN guidance law demonstrates satisfactory performances and can meet both the midcourse terminal angular constraint and the LOS angle rate requirement.

  5. Production of Structural Colors with High Contrast and Wide Viewing Angles from Assemblies of Polypyrrole Black Coated Polystyrene Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoming; Ge, Dengteng; Wu, Gaoxiang; Liao, Zhiwei; Yang, Shu

    2016-06-29

    Structural color with wide viewing angles has enormous potential applications in pigment, ink formulation, displays, and sensors. However, colors obtained from colloidal assemblies with low refractive index contrast or without black additives typically appear pale. Here, we prepare polypyrrole (PPy) black coated polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles and demonstrate well-defined colors with high color contrast and wide viewing angles under ambient light. Depending on the loading of pyrrole during polymerization, PPy nanogranules of different sizes and coverages are grafted to the surface of PS nanoparticles. The bumpy particles can self-assemble into quasi-amorphous arrays, resulting in low angle dependent structure colors under ambient light. The color can be tuned by the size of the PS nanoparticles, and the presence of the PPy black on PS nanoparticles enhances the color contrast by suppressing incoherent and multiple scattering.

  6. Quasi-isometric classification of some high dimensional right-angled Artin groups

    CERN Document Server

    Behrstock, Jason A; Neumann, Walter D

    2009-01-01

    In this note we give the quasi-isometry classification for a class of right angled Artin groups. In particular, we obtain the first such classification for a class of Artin groups with dimension larger than 2; our families exist in every dimension.

  7. Aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils at high angles-of-attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Airfoil characteristics at deep stall angles were investigated. It appeared that the maximum drag coefficient as a function of the airfoil upwind y/c ordinate at x/c=0.0125 can be approximated by a straight line. The lift-drag ratios in deep stall of a number of airfoils with moderate lower surface

  8. Treatment of Class II high angle malocclusions with the Herbst appliance: a cephalometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavoni, R; Grenga, V; Macri, V

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of treatment of Class II malocclusions by using two different designs of the Herbst appliance. Cephalometric records from lateral headplates of 19 consecutively treated Class II cases were evaluated. The headplates were taken before and after the treatment stage in which the Herbst appliance was used. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group, normohypodivergent, was treated with the Herbst appliance attached to bands; the second group, hyperdivergent, was treated with the Herbst appliance attached to acrylic splints in which a high-pull headgear was also used. The results were compared between these groups and with a control group age-matched from Bolton standards to match the changes in the Herbst samples against what might be expected in case of normal growth during similar periods of time. The results of the investigation revealed the following: (1) 9 months of treatment resulted in Class I dental arch relationships in all 19 cases; (2) the Herbst appliance attached to bands did not significantly modify the vertical growth pattern of the normohypodivergent patients; and (3) in hyperdivergent patients, the use of a Herbst appliance attached to acrylic splints in conjunction with the use of a high-pull headgear allowed a better control of the vertical dimension, as assessed by the cephalometric parameters (FA, FMA, Go-Gn-SN). The clinician should be aware of the different dentofacial changes induced in the vertical plane by different designs of the Herbst appliance to better program treatment strategy.

  9. Formation of coastline features by large-scale instabilities induced by high-angle waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, A; Murray, A B; Arnault, O

    2001-11-15

    Along shore sediment transport that is driven by waves is generally assumed to smooth a coastline. This assumption is valid for small angles between the wave crest lines and the shore, as has been demonstrated in shoreline models. But when the angle between the waves and the shoreline is sufficiently large, small perturbations to a straight shoreline will grow. Here we use a numerical model to investigate the implications of this instability mechanism for large-scale morphology over long timescales. Our simulations show growth of coastline perturbations that interact with each other to produce large-scale features that resemble various kinds of natural landforms, including the capes and cuspate forelands observed along the Carolina coast of southeastern North America. Wind and wave data from this area support our hypothesis that such an instability mechanism could be responsible for the formation of shoreline features at spatial scales up to hundreds of kilometres and temporal scales up to millennia.

  10. Large zenith angle observations with the high-resolution GRANITE III camera

    CERN Document Server

    Petry, D

    2001-01-01

    The GRANITE III camera of the Whipple Cherenkov Telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona (2300 m a.s.l.) has the highest angular resolution of all cameras used on this telescope so far. The central region of the camera has 379 pixels with an individual angular diameter of 0.12 degrees. This makes the instrument especially suitable for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at large zenith angles since the increase in average distance to the shower maximum leads to smaller shower images in the focal plane of the telescope. We examine the performance of the telescope for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at zenith angles up to 63 degrees based on observations of Mkn 421 and using Monte Carlo Simulations. An improvement to the standard data analysis is suggested.

  11. CT测量成人正常耳廓相关 夹角的研究%A study of measurement of normal adult ear angles with CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷之平; 李国良

    2001-01-01

    目的探索一种客观、准确地测量耳廓夹角的方法。方法于30例成人正常耳廓(共60只),采用CT作经眶—耳平面的断层扫描,绘制成图后测量常用的3个夹角的角度,并进行统计分析。结果显示成年人正常耳廓的颅—耳角为(45±14)度,颅—耳甲角为(83±13)度,耳甲—耳舟角为(92±4)度。左右对称。男女之间,女性的颅—耳角大于男性,颅—耳甲角、耳甲—耳舟角无显著差异。结论用CT测量人类耳廓的相关夹角是一种无干扰、方便、准确的方法,对指导临床有一定的实际意义。%Objective To explore an objective and precise method of measuring the angles of human ears.Methods Thirty cases (60 ears) were measured by CT.They were performed in position of Frankfort horizontal plane.Results Auriculo-cranial is 45±14 degrees,cephaloconchal is 83±13 degrees,scaphaconchal is 92±4 degrees,and they are symmetric on both sides.The differences of the angles between men and women are not obvious,except auriculo-cranial angle.Conclusion The measurement of human auricular angles with CT is a useful and practical method in anthropology and aesthetic medicine.

  12. A Near-linear Time Approximation Algorithm for Angle-based Outlier Detection in High-dimensional Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Ninh Dang; Pagh, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Outlier mining in d-dimensional point sets is a fundamental and well studied data mining task due to its variety of applications. Most such applications arise in high-dimensional domains. A bottleneck of existing approaches is that implicit or explicit assessments on concepts of distance or nearest...... neighbor are deteriorated in high-dimensional data. Following up on the work of Kriegel et al. (KDD '08), we investigate the use of angle-based outlier factor in mining high-dimensional outliers. While their algorithm runs in cubic time (with a quadratic time heuristic), we propose a novel random...... projection-based technique that is able to estimate the angle-based outlier factor for all data points in time near-linear in the size of the data. Also, our approach is suitable to be performed in parallel environment to achieve a parallel speedup. We introduce a theoretical analysis of the quality...

  13. Empirical sea ice thickness retrieval during the freeze-up period from SMOS high incident angle observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huntemann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice thickness information is important for sea ice modelling and ship operations. Here a method to detect the thickness of sea ice up to 50 cm during the freeze-up season based on high incidence angle observations of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS satellite working at 1.4 GHz is suggested. By comparison of thermodynamic ice growth data with SMOS brightness temperatures, a high correlation to intensity and an anticorrelation to the difference between vertically and horizontally polarised brightness temperatures at incidence angles between 40 and 50° are found and used to develop an empirical retrieval algorithm sensitive to thin sea ice up to 50 cm thickness. The algorithm shows high correlation with ice thickness data from airborne measurements and reasonable ice thickness patterns for the Arctic freeze-up period.

  14. Relationship between boundary misorientation angle and true strain during high temperature deformation of 7050 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui-e; YANG Li; ZHEN Liang; SHAO Wen-zhu; ZHANG Bao-you

    2008-01-01

    Tensile tests of solid solution treated 7050 aluminum alloy were conducted to different strain degrees (0.1, 0.4, 0.6 and failure) at 460 ℃ with the strain rate of 1.0×10-4-1.0×10-1s-1. The boundary misorientation angle evolution during hot deformation of the 7050 aluminum alloy was studied by EBSD technique and the fracture surfaces were observed using SEM. A linear relationship between the increase in the average boundary misorientation angle and the true strain at different strain rates is assumed when aluminum alloy is deformed at 460 ℃. The increasing rate of average boundary misorientation angle is 15.1-, 15.7- and -0.75- corresponding to the strain rate of 1.0×10-4, 1.0×10-2 and 0.1 s-1, respectively. The main softening mechanism is continuous dynamic recrystallization when the strain rates are 1.0×10-4 and 1.0×10-2 s-1, and it is dynamic recovery when strain rate is 0.1 s-1.

  15. Normal-conducting RF cavity of high current photoinjector for high power CW FEL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S. (Sergey); Schrage, D. L. (Dale L.); Wood R. L. (Richard L.); Schultheiss, T. (Thomas); Rathke, J. (John); Young, L. M. (Lloyd M.)

    2004-01-01

    An RF photoinjector capable of producing high continuous average current with low emittance and energy spread is a key enabling technology for high power CW FEL. The design of a 2.5-cell, {pi}-mode, 700-MHz normal-conducting RF photoinjector cavity with magnetic emittance compensation is completed. With the electric field gradients of 7.7, and 5 MV/m in the three cells, the photoinjector will produce a 2.5-MeV electron beam with 3-nC charge per bunch and the transverse rms emittance 7 mm-mrad. Electromagnetic modeling was used extensively to optimize ridge-loaded tapered waveguides and RF couplers, which led to a new, improved coupler iris design. The results, combined with a thermal and stress analysis, show that the challenging problem of cavity cooling can be successfully solved. The manufacturing of a demo 100-mA (at 35 MHz bunch repetition rate) photoinjector is underway. The design is scalable to higher power levels by increasing the electron bunch repetition rate, and provides a path to a MW-class amplifier FEL. This paper presents the cavity design and details of RF coupler modeling.

  16. Normal conducting RF cavity of high current photoinjector for high power CW FEL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S. (Sergey); Schrage, D. L. (Dale L.); Wood R. L. (Richard L.); Schultheiss, T. (Thomas); Rathke, J. (John); Christina, V.; Young, L. M. (Lloyd M.)

    2004-01-01

    An RF photoinjector capable of producing high continuous average current with low emittance and energy spread is a key enabling technology for high power CW FEL. The design of a 2.5-cell {pi}-mode 700-MHz normal-conducting RF photoinjector cavity with magnetic emittance compensation is completed. With the electric field gradients of 7, 7, and 5 MV/m in the three cells, the photoinjector will produce a 2.5-MeV electron beam with 3-nC charge per bunch and 7 mm-mrad transverse rms emittance. Electromagnetic modeling was used extensively to optimize ridge-loaded tapered waveguides and RF couplers, which led to a new improved coupler-iris design. The results, combined with a thermal/stress analysis, show that the challenging problem of cavity cooling can be successfully solved. A demo 100-mA (at 35-MHz bunch-repetition rate) photoinjector is being manufactured. The design is scalable to higher power levels by increasing the bunch repetition rate, and provides a path to a MW-class amplifier FEL. The cavity design and details of RF coupler modeling are presented.

  17. Normal-Conducting High Current RF Photoinjector for High Power CW FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, Sergey; Nguyen, Dinh C; Rathke, John; Schrage, Dale L; Schultheiss, Tom; Wood, Richard L; Young, Lloyd M

    2005-01-01

    An RF photoinjector capable of producing high average current with low emittance and energy spread is a key enabling technology for high power CW FEL. The design of a 2.5-cell, pi-mode, 700-MHz normal-conducting RF photoinjector cavity with magnetic emittance compensation is completed. With average gradients of 7, 7, and 5 MV/m in its three accelerating cells, the photoinjector will produce a 2.5-MeV electron beam with 3-nC charge per bunch and transverse rms emittance below 7 mm-mrad. Electromagnetic modeling has been used extensively to optimize ridge-loaded tapered waveguides and RF couplers, and led to a new, improved coupler iris design. The results, combined with a thermal and stress analysis, show that the challenging problem of cavity cooling can be successfully solved. Fabrication of a demo 100-mA (at 35 MHz bunch repetition rate) photoinjector is underway. The design is scalable to higher average currents by increasing the electron bunch repetition rate, and provides a path to a MW-class FEL. This p...

  18. Which markers of subclinical organ damage to measure in individuals with high normal blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Medical treatment of healthy individuals with high normal blood pressure (BP) is recommended if there is subclinical organ damage (SOD). We examined which markers of SOD to use based on their supplementary prognostic value. METHODS: In a population sample of 1968 individuals, aged 41, 51....... RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.8 years, the composite endpoint (CEP) of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke occurred in 153 individuals, of whom 32 had high normal BP. Presence of high normal BP was associated with increased risk of CEP [hazard ratio, 1.8 (95......% confidence interval, 1.0-3.1; P = 0.046), optimal BP as reference group, adjusted for age and sex]. In the 337 individuals with high normal BP, using all four markers of SOD increased the sensitivity (number of CEPs in the group in which antihypertensive treatment was indicated divided by total number...

  19. Inherent predominance of high chiral angle metallic carbon nanotubes in continuous fibers grown from a molten catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, B.; Bernal, M. Mar; Mas, B.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Reguero, V.; Xu, G.; Cui, Y.; Vilatela, Juan J.

    2016-02-01

    We present evidence that high temperature CVD growth of SWNTs under conditions of continuous spinning of macroscopic fibers leads to an inherent predominance of high chiral angle CNTs, peaking at the armchair end. Raman, UV-vis-NIR absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show the prevalence of metallic SWNTs. The complete chiral angle distribution is obtained by electron diffraction of over 390 CNTs. It is biased towards high chiral angles and peaks at the armchair end (30°), in good agreement with the established atomistic models for SWNT growth from a liquid catalyst. Based on the Fe-C-S constituent binary and ternary phase diagrams, thermodynamic calculations of phase compositions from fast cooling and experimental evidence of a post-synthesis catalyst, the proposed thermodynamic path of the catalyst is to form a solid FCC Fe core and a liquid Fe-S shell. S in the outer liquid shell first stabilizes the edge of the nascent CNT, but once a graphitic wall forms it is rejected due to the high interfacial energy of the Fe-C-S alloy.We present evidence that high temperature CVD growth of SWNTs under conditions of continuous spinning of macroscopic fibers leads to an inherent predominance of high chiral angle CNTs, peaking at the armchair end. Raman, UV-vis-NIR absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show the prevalence of metallic SWNTs. The complete chiral angle distribution is obtained by electron diffraction of over 390 CNTs. It is biased towards high chiral angles and peaks at the armchair end (30°), in good agreement with the established atomistic models for SWNT growth from a liquid catalyst. Based on the Fe-C-S constituent binary and ternary phase diagrams, thermodynamic calculations of phase compositions from fast cooling and experimental evidence of a post-synthesis catalyst, the proposed thermodynamic path of the catalyst is to form a solid FCC Fe core and a liquid Fe-S shell. S in the outer liquid shell first

  20. Combustion of Gaseous Fuels with High Temperature Air in Normal- and Micro-gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Gupta, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is determine the effect of air preheat temperature on flame characteristics in normal and microgravity conditions. We have obtained qualitative (global flame features) and some quantitative information on the features of flames using high temperature combustion air under normal gravity conditions with propane and methane as the fuels. This data will be compared with the data under microgravity conditions. The specific focus under normal gravity conditions has been on determining the global flame features as well as the spatial distribution of OH, CH, and C2 from flames using high temperature combustion air at different equivalence ratio.

  1. Parametric approximation of airfoil aerodynamic coefficients at high angles of attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian

    2014-01-01

    , and the third method, also utilizing trigonometric functions, was developed with the scope on stall-regulated turbines. The method of the even sine and cosine functions was further developed in the present work by using two independent harmonic approximations in the positive and negative α regions......Three methods for estimating the lift and drag curves in the 360° angle of attack (α) range with harmonic approximation functions were analyzed in the present work. The first method assumes aerodynamic response of a flat plate, the second utilizes even sine and even cosine approximation functions...

  2. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus and process for high-resolution in situ investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Sears, Jr., Jesse A.; Hoyt, David W.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2015-11-24

    A continuous-flow (CF) magic angle sample spinning (CF-MAS) NMR rotor and probe are described for investigating reaction dynamics, stable intermediates/transition states, and mechanisms of catalytic reactions in situ. The rotor includes a sample chamber of a flow-through design with a large sample volume that delivers a flow of reactants through a catalyst bed contained within the sample cell allowing in-situ investigations of reactants and products. Flow through the sample chamber improves diffusion of reactants and products through the catalyst. The large volume of the sample chamber enhances sensitivity permitting in situ .sup.13C CF-MAS studies at natural abundance.

  3. AEROX: Computer program for transonic aircraft aerodynamics to high angles of attack. Volume 1: Aerodynamic methods and program users' guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The AEROX program estimates lift, induced-drag and pitching moments to high angles (typ. 60 deg) for wings and for wingbody combinations with or without an aft horizontal tail. Minimum drag coefficients are not estimated, but may be input for inclusion in the total aerodynamic parameters which are output in listed and plotted formats. The theory, users' guide, test cases, and program listing are presented.

  4. Phacoemulsification using iris-hooks for capsular support in high myopic patient with subluxated lens and secondary angle closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Brid

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of angle closure glaucoma in a 78-year-old highly myopic female patient. The patient did not show any preoperative signs of subluxation of lens. However, the capsular bag was noted to be unstable during surgery. The patient was managed with phacoemulsification of lens using a novel method of iris hooks for stabilization of capsular bag during surgery.

  5. Difference in blood microcirculation recovery between normal frostbite and high-altitude frostbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-ke JIAO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the difference in blood microcirculation recovery between normal frostbite and high-altitude frostbite during the wound healing. Methods Twenty four male rats were randomly divided into control group (n=8, normal frostbite group (n=8, and high-altitude group (n=8. The normal frostbite group rats were frozen to produce mid-degree frostbite models by controlling the freezing time with liquid nitrogen penetration equipment. The high-altitude frostbite group rats were acclimated to a hypoxic and low-pressure environment for 1 week, and then the high-altitude frostbite models were constructed by the same way with liquid nitrogen penetration apparatus. On days 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, and 23 after modeling, the recovery situation of blood circulation of each group was observed with contrast ultrasonography by injecting SonoVue micro-bubble into rats' tail. Finally, the micro-bubble concentration (MC was calculated to confirm the blood circulation recovery with software Image Pro. Results At different time points, the wound area of the high-altitude frostbite group was bigger than that of the normal frostbite group, and the MC of control group was always about (27±0.2×109/ml. On day 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, and 23, the MC was significantly lower in the high-altitude frostbite group than in the control group and normal frostbite group (P<0.05. The MC of normal frostbite group was significantly lower than that of the control group on day 3, 7, 11, 15 and 19 (P<0.05. In addition, no obvious difference in MC was found between normal group and control group on the 23th day (P<0.05. Conclusion The blood microcirculation recovery after high-altitude frostbite is significantly slower than the normal frostbite. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.13

  6. A 3% Measurement of the Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in Forward Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering using the Qweak Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidyawansa, Dinayadura Buddhini [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The beam normal single spin asymmetry generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nucleons is an observable of the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange process. Moreover, it is a potential source of false asymmetry in parity violating electron scattering experiments. The Q{sub weak} experiment uses parity violating electron scattering to make a direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton. The targeted 4% measurement of the weak charge of the proton probes for parity violating new physics beyond the Standard Model. The beam normal single spin asymmetry at Q{sub weak} kinematics is at least three orders of magnitude larger than 5 ppb precision of the parity violating asymmetry. To better understand this parity conserving background, the Q{sub weak} Collaboration has performed elastic scattering measurements with fully transversely polarized electron beam on the proton and aluminum. This dissertation presents the analysis of the 3% measurement (1.3% statistical and 2.6% systematic) of beam normal single spin asymmetry in electronproton scattering at a Q2 of 0.025 (GeV/c)2. It is the most precise existing measurement of beam normal single spin asymmetry available at the time. A measurement of this precision helps to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process.

  7. Solutions on a high-speed wide-angle zoom lens with aspheric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Takanori

    2012-10-01

    Recent development in CMOS and digital camera technology has accelerated the business and market share of digital cinematography. In terms of optical design, this technology has increased the need to carefully consider pixel pitch and characteristics of the imager. When the field angle at the wide end, zoom ratio, and F-number are specified, choosing an appropriate zoom lens type is crucial. In addition, appropriate power distributions and lens configurations are required. At points near the wide end of a zoom lens, it is known that an aspheric surface is an effective means to correct off-axis aberrations. On the other hand, optical designers have to focus on manufacturability of aspheric surfaces and perform required analysis with respect to the surface shape. Centration errors aside, it is also important to know the sensitivity to aspheric shape errors and their effect on image quality. In this paper, wide angle cine zoom lens design examples are introduced and their main characteristics are described. Moreover, technical challenges are pointed out and solutions are proposed.

  8. Surface Pressure Estimates for Pitching Aircraft Model at High Angles-of-attack (Short Communication)

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Pashilkar

    2002-01-01

    The surface pressure on a pitching delta wing aircraft is estimated from the normal force and the pitching moment characteristics. The pressure model is based on parametrising the surface pressure distribution on a simple delta wing. This model is useful as a first approximation of the load distribution on the aircraft wing. Leeward surface pressure distributions computed by this method are presented.

  9. High Yield of GaAs Nanowire Arrays on Si Mediated by the Pinning and Contact Angle of Ga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Averchi, Eleonora; Vukajlovic Plestina, Jelena; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Matteini, Federico; Dalmau-Mallorquí, Anna; de la Mata, Maria; Rüffer, Daniel; Potts, Heidi A; Arbiol, Jordi; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna

    2015-05-13

    GaAs nanowire arrays on silicon offer great perspectives in the optoelectronics and solar cell industry. To fulfill this potential, gold-free growth in predetermined positions should be achieved. Ga-assisted growth of GaAs nanowires in the form of array has been shown to be challenging and difficult to reproduce. In this work, we provide some of the key elements for obtaining a high yield of GaAs nanowires on patterned Si in a reproducible way: contact angle and pinning of the Ga droplet inside the apertures achieved by the modification of the surface properties of the nanoscale areas exposed to growth. As an example, an amorphous silicon layer between the crystalline substrate and the oxide mask results in a contact angle around 90°, leading to a high yield of vertical nanowires. Another example for tuning the contact angle is anticipated, native oxide with controlled thickness. This work opens new perspectives for the rational and reproducible growth of GaAs nanowire arrays on silicon.

  10. Vascular and metabolic comorbidities in open-angle glaucoma with low- and high-teen intraocular pressure: a cross-sectional study from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Wonseok; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2017-07-05

    To assess the associations between vascular and metabolic comorbidities and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) in Korea. Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012 were analysed. Participants diagnosed with OAG with normal IOP were further classified into low-teen IOP (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen IOP (15 mmHg teen IOP groups. The prevalences of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher among subjects with low-teen OAG compared with normal subjects, while only the prevalences of hypertension and stroke were higher among subjects with high-teen OAG compared with normal subjects. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for confounding factors, low-teen OAG was significantly associated with hypertension (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.30-2.18), hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.07-2.08), ischaemic heart disease (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.07-3.11), stroke (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.12-3.25) and metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.12-1.90). High-teen OAG was only associated with stroke (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.20-5.53). Various vascular and metabolic comorbidities were significantly associated with low-teen OAG, but not with high-teen OAG. These data support the hypothesis that vascular factors play a more significant role in the pathogenesis of OAG with low-teen baseline IOP. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hypothesis-independent pathway analysis implicates GABA and acetyl-CoA metabolism in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-pressure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Yaspan, Brian L; Pasquale, Louis R; Hauser, Michael A; Kang, Jae H; Loomis, Stephanie J; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L; Christen, William G; Fingert, John; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K; Lichter, Paul R; Liu, Yutao; McCarty, Catherine A; Moroi, Sayoko E; Richards, Julia E; Realini, Tony; Schuman, Joel S; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Vollrath, Douglas; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Allingham, R Rand; Weinreb, Robert N; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2014-10-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Using genome-wide association single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment study and National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration comprising 3,108 cases and 3,430 controls, we assessed biologic pathways as annotated in the KEGG database for association with risk of POAG. After correction for genic overlap among pathways, we found 4 pathways, butanoate metabolism (hsa00650), hematopoietic cell lineage (hsa04640), lysine degradation (hsa00310) and basal transcription factors (hsa03022) related to POAG with permuted p glaucoma (NPG), the butanoate metabolism pathway was also significantly associated (p glaucoma pathogenesis, and suggest new potential therapeutic targets.

  12. Low-frequency unsteadiness of vortex wakes over slender bodies at high angle of attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Baofeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A type of flow unsteadiness with low frequencies and large amplitude was investigated experimentally for vortex wakes around an ogive-tangent cylinder. The experiments were carried out at angles of attack of 60–80° and subcritical Reynolds numbers of 0.6–1.8 × 105. The reduced frequencies of the unsteadiness are between 0.038 and 0.072, much less than the frequency of Karman vortex shedding. The unsteady flow induces large fluctuations of sectional side forces. The results of pressure measurements and particle image velocimetry indicate that the flow unsteadiness comes from periodic oscillation of the vortex wakes over the slender body. The time-averaged vortex patterns over the slender body are asymmetric, whose orientation is dependent on azimuthal locations of tip perturbations. Therefore, the vortex oscillation is a type of unsteady oscillation around a time-averaged asymmetric vortex structure.

  13. A simple method for measuring the superhydrophobic contact angle with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yi-Lin; Chang, Yao-Yuan; Wang, Meng-Jiy; Lin, Shi-Yow

    2010-06-01

    A modified selected-plane method for contact angle (θ) measurement is proposed in this study that avoids the difficulty of finding the real contact point and image-distortion effects adjacent to the contact point. This method is particularly suitable for superhydrophobic surfaces. The sessile-drop method coupled with the tangent line is the most popular method to find the contact angle in literature, but it entails unavoidable errors in determining the air-solid base line due to the smoothness problem and substrate tilting. In addition, the tangent-line technique requires finding the actual contact point. The measurement error due to the base line problem becomes more profound for superhydrophobic surfaces. A larger θ deviation results from a more superhydrophobic surface with a fixed base line error. The proposed modified selected-plane method requires only four data points (droplet apex, droplet height, and two interfacial loci close to the air-solid interface), avoiding the problem of the sessile-drop-tangent method in finding the contact point and saving the trouble of the sessile-drop-fitting method for best fitting of the numerous edge points with the theoretical profile. A careful error analysis was performed, and a user-friendly program was provided in this work. This method resulted in an accurate θ measurement and a method that was much improved over the classical selected plane and the sessile-drop-tangent methods. The θ difference between this method and the sessile-drop-fitting method was found to be less than three degrees.

  14. Angle-dependent hard X-ray photoemission study of Nb hydride formation in high-pressure supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soda, Kazuo, E-mail: j45880a@cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Kanta; Kato, Masahiko [Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shiraki, Tatsuhito; Niwa, Ken; Kusaba, Keiji; Hasegawa, Masashi [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Xeniya, Kozina; Ikenaga, Eiji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nb hydrides in 10-GPa supercritical water are studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. • The hydride components of the Nb 3d core-level spectra are increased with the depth. • The bulk valence-band spectrum shows a split band due to the Nb–H bond formation. • The hydrides are formed in the bulk and their surfaces are covered with Nb oxides. - Abstract: Nb hydrides formation in 10-GPa supercritical water has been investigated by angle-dependent micro-beam hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. In the Nb 3d core-level spectra, Nb hydride components are found in the slightly high binding energy side of the metallic components, and the oxide ones are observed even though little oxides are recognized in X-ray diffraction patterns. Obtained emission-angle dependence of the Nb 3d core-level spectra of Nb hydride specimens shows that the Nb hydride components increase with the emission angle decreased i.e. the sampling depth increased, while the oxide ones decrease. The bulk valence-band spectrum is obtained by decomposing the measured valence-band spectra into a bulk and surface components with use of the emission-angle dependence of the core-level and valence-band spectra; it consists of two bands. This implies the Nb–H chemical bond formation and Nb in an oxidation state, consistent with reported band structure calculations and the observed core-level chemical shifts. Thus it is confirmed by valence-band and core-level photoelectron spectroscopy that the Nb hydrides are formed inside the specimen, irrespective to the well-known high oxidation ability of supercritical water.

  15. Facile Synthesis of Monodispersed Polysulfide Spheres for Building Structural Colors with High Color Visibility and Broad Viewing Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feihu; Tang, Bingtao; Wu, Suli; Zhang, Shufen

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis and assembly of monodispersed colloidal spheres are currently the subject of extensive investigation to fabricate artificial structural color materials. However, artificial structural colors from general colloidal crystals still suffer from the low color visibility and strong viewing angle dependence which seriously hinder their practical application in paints, colorimetric sensors, and color displays. Herein, monodispersed polysulfide (PSF) spheres with intrinsic high refractive index (as high as 1.858) and light-absorbing characteristics are designed, synthesized through a facile polycondensation and crosslinking process between sodium disulfide and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Owing to their high monodispersity, sufficient surface charge, and good dispersion stability, the PSF spheres can be assembled into large-scale and high-quality 3D photonic crystals. More importantly, high structural color visibility and broad viewing angle are easily achieved because the unique features of PSF can remarkably enhance the relative reflectivity and eliminate the disturbance of scattering and background light. The results of this study provide a simple and efficient strategy to create structural colors with high color visibility, which is very important for their practical application.

  16. 安氏Ⅱ1高角及低角错牙合病例颅面部生长发育的研究%The research of craniofacial growth and development of the patients with Angle Class II divislon I malocclu-sion patients and high and low angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高冬玲; 金鈁; 李扬

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation between the characteristics of craniofacial growth and development , molar inclination and not adjusted vertical direction of craniofacial growth and development in Angle class Ⅱ division Ⅰmalocclusion with high and low angle. Method:The analysis of X cephalometrics of 80 cases with Angle class Ⅱ divisionⅠmalocclusion and high and low angle. Result:①.In the cases with high angle,∠SNA and∠SNB reduced,∠ANB slight-ly increased,NP-FH reduced,and the length of the mandible was too short. In the cases with low angle,∠SNA and ∠SNB were normal,∠ANB slightly increased,NP-FH was also normal,the length of the mandible was normal. ②.In cases with high angle,Ar-Go was significantly shorter,leading to S-Go was too small and N-Me,N-ANS,ANS-Me were normal. In cases with low angle,S-Go is relatively large,N-Me and ANS-Me reduced.③U6-OP,U6-SN°,L6-MP° U6-L6°(P<0.01). Conclusion:①.In the cases with high angle,the sagittal relationship between maxilla,mandible and the cranial base was ret-rognathia,the length of the mandible was too small,and the mandibular retrusion was more obvious. In the cases with low angle,the sagittal relationship between maxilla,mandible and the cranial base was normal. ②.In cases with high angle,the sagittal imbalance leads to the trend of opening bite,because the lower jaw backward and rotate. In cases with low angle,the sagittal imbalance leads to the trend of deep overbite,because the lower jaw forward and rotate. ③.Maxillary Molars inclina-tion in cases with high angle was greater than in cases with low angle at occlusal plane and anterior cranial base plane. Mandibular molar inclination in cases with high angle was greater than in cases with low angle at the mandibular plane. Mo-lar inclination certainly reflected the trend of craniofacial development,Especially to the vertical imbalance of craniofacial structures.%目的:研究安氏Ⅱ1错牙合高角、低角病例颅面部生长

  17. Tailoring Directive Gain for High-Contrast, Wide-Viewing-Angle Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Speckle Image Holograpy Metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Ou, Qing-Dong; Shen, Su; Zhou, Yun; Fan, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Jun; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2016-08-31

    Holography metasurfaces have been used to control the propagation of light to an unprecedented level, exhibiting the immense potential for light steering in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, a new approach to tailoring directive gain for high contrast, wide-viewing-angle OLEDs is proposed by implementing a spcekle image holography (SIH) metasurface. The experimental and theoretical results provide the direct proofs that the SIH metasurface can play very important roles not only in releasing the trapped energy flow insides the devices but also in tailoring the wavefronts to the preferred patterns due to its "regional orientation" k-vectors patterns. The resulting power efficiency and external quantum efficiency of the OLEDs using a SIH metasurface are 1.97 and 1.95 times that of the reference device with a standard architecture. Furthermore, the wavefronts of emitted light are delicately modulated in a polarization-independent manner, yielding 2.5 times higher contrast ratio compared to the reference device. This unique engineered directive gain property is also well-retained for the viewing angles varing from normal to titled ±60° without spectral distortion. These results enrich the understanding of light wavefronts control in OLEDs and highlight its potential application in display as well as light steering for other optoelectronics.

  18. Surface Pressure Estimates for Pitching Aircraft Model at High Angles-of-attack (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pashilkar

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The surface pressure on a pitching delta wing aircraft is estimated from the normal force and the pitching moment characteristics. The pressure model is based on parametrising the surface pressure distribution on a simple delta wing. This model is useful as a first approximation of the load distribution on the aircraft wing. Leeward surface pressure distributions computed by this method are presented.

  19. Continental Dynamics in High Tibetan Plateau: Normal Faulting Type Earthquake Activities and Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jiren; Zhao Zhixin

    2009-01-01

    Various earthquake fault types were analyzed for this study on the crust movement in the high region of the Tibetan plateau by analyzing mechanism solutions and stress fields. The results show that a lot of normal faulting type earthquakes are concentrated in the central High Tibetan plateau. Many of them are nearly perfect normal fault events. The strikes of the fault planes of normal faulting earthquakes are almost in an N-S direction based on the analyses of the Wulff stereonet diagrams of fault plane solutions. It implies that the dislocation slip vectors of the normal faulting type events have quite great components in the E-W direction. The extensions probably are an eastward extensional motion, being mainly a tectonic active regime in the plateau altitudes. The tensional stress in the E-W or NWW-SEE direction predominates earthquake occurrences in the normal event region of the central plateau. The eastward extensional motion in the high Tibetan plateau is attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and the eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the east boundary of the plateau. Extensional motions from the relaxation of the topography and/or gravitational collapse in the high plateau hardly occurred along the N-S direction. The obstruction for the plateau to move eastward is rather weak.

  20. Structural alterations of the retinal microcirculation in the "prehypertensive" high- normal blood pressure state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Buzzi, Silvia; Dell'Oro, Raffaella; Mineo, Claudia; Dimitriadis, Kyriakos; Seravalle, Gino; Lonati, Laura; Cuspidi, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    The high-normal blood pressure (also known as prehypertension) is a clinical condition characterized by an increased cardiovascular risk as well as by the presence of target organ damage. This include an increased left ventricular mass, an endothelial dysfunction and an early renal functional and structural damage. Whether this is the case also for alterations of retinal vessels network, which are frequently detectable in established hypertension, is still largey undefined. The present paper, after discussing the main characteristics of the high-normal blood pressure state, will review the different approaches used throughout the years for assessing retinal microcirculatory network. Data collected by our group in subjects with high normal blood pressure will be also discussed, showing that arterial venular ratio values are reduced in this individuals with high-normal blood pressure and more so in established hypertension. These data indicate that retinal microvascular alterations 1) are of early appearance in the clinical course of hypertension and 2) are of frequent detection in the high-normal blood pressure state. The possible hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic mechanisms resposible for these structural alteations of the retinal microcirculation will be also discussed.

  1. Depositing High-T(sub c) Superconductors On Normal-Conductor Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlin, Peter S.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments have demonstrated feasibility of depositing thin layers of high-T(sub c) superconductor on normally electrically conductive wires. Superconductivity evident at and below critical temperature (T{sub c}) of 71 K. OMCVD, organometallic vapor deposition, apparatus coats Ag wire with layer high-T(sub c) superconductor. Superconductive phase of this material formed subsequently by annealing under controlled conditions.

  2. High Performance of Space Vector Modulation Direct Torque Control SVM-DTC Based on Amplitude Voltage and Stator Flux Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Farhan Rashag

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects related to controlling induction motor are investigated. Direct torque control is an original high performance control strategy in the field of AC drive. In this proposed method, the control system is based on Space Vector Modulation (SVM, amplitude of voltage in direct- quadrature reference frame (d-q reference and angle of stator flux. Amplitude of stator voltage is controlled by PI torque and PI flux controller. The stator flux angle is adjusted by rotor angular frequency and slip angular frequency. Then, the reference torque and the estimated torque is applied to the input of PI torque controller and the control quadrature axis voltage is determined. The control d-axis voltage is determined from the flux calculator. These q and d axis voltage are converted into amplitude voltage. By applying polar to Cartesian on amplitude voltage and stator flux angle, direct voltage and quadratures voltage are generated. The reference stator voltages in d-q are calculated based on forcing the stator voltage error to zero at next sampling period. By applying inverse park transformation on d-q voltages, the stator voltages in &alpha and &beta frame are generated and apply to SVM. From the output of SVM, the motor control signal is generated and the speed of the induction motor regulated toward the rated speed. The simulation Results have demonstrated exceptional performance in steady and transient states and shows that decrease of torque and flux ripples is achieved in a complete speed range.

  3. Comparison of diagnostic capability of macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer among primary open angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and normal population using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and determining their functional correlation in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Barua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Analysis of diagnostic ability of macular ganglionic cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in glaucoma. Aim: To correlate functional and structural parameters and comparing predictive value of each of the structural parameters using Fourier-domain (FD optical coherence tomography (OCT among primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OHT versus normal population. Setting and Design: Single centric, cross-sectional study done in 234 eyes. Materials and Methods: Patients were enrolled in three groups: POAG, ocular hypertensive and normal (40 patients in each group. After comprehensive ophthalmological examination, patients underwent standard automated perimetry and FD-OCT scan in optic nerve head and ganglion cell mode. The relationship was assessed by correlating ganglion cell complex (GCC parameters with mean deviation. Results were compared with RNFL parameters. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with SPSS, analysis of variance, t-test, Pearson′s coefficient, and receiver operating curve. Results: All parameters showed strong correlation with visual field (P 0.5 when compared with other parameters. None of the parameters showed significant diagnostic capability to detect OHT from normal population. In diagnosing early glaucoma from OHT and normal population, only inferior GCC had statistically significant AUC value (0.715. Conclusion: In this study, GCC and RNFL parameters showed equal predictive capability in perimetric versus normal group. In early stage, inferior GCC was the best parameter. In OHT population, single day cross-sectional imaging was not valuable.

  4. High resolution magic angle spinning 1H NMR of childhood brain and nervous system tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Nigel P

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain and nervous system tumours are the most common solid cancers in children. Molecular characterisation of these tumours is important for providing novel biomarkers of disease and identifying molecular pathways which may provide putative targets for new therapies. 1H magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS is a powerful tool for determining metabolite profiles from small pieces of intact tissue and could potentially provide important molecular information. Methods Forty tissue samples from 29 children with glial and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours were analysed using HR-MAS (600 MHz Varian gHX nanoprobe. Tumour spectra were fitted to a library of individual metabolite spectra to provide metabolite values. These values were then used in a two tailed t-test and multi-variate analysis employing a principal component analysis and a linear discriminant analysis. Classification accuracy was estimated using a leave-one-out analysis and B632+ bootstrapping. Results Glial tumours had significantly (two tailed t-test p Conclusion HR-MAS identified key differences in the metabolite profiles of childhood brain and nervous system improving the molecular characterisation of these tumours. Further investigation of the underlying molecular pathways is required to assess their potential as targets for new agents.

  5. Joint-Angle Specific Strength Adaptations Influence Improvements in Power in Highly Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Matthew R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of training at different ranges of motion during the squat exercise on joint-angle specific strength adaptations. Methods. Twenty eight men were randomly assigned to one of three training groups, differing only in the depth of squats (quarter squat, half squat, and full squat performed in 16-week training intervention. Strength measures were conducted in the back squat pre-, mid-, and post-training at all three depths. Vertical jump and 40-yard sprint time were also measured. Results. Individuals in the quarter and full squat training groups improved significantly more at the specific depth at which they trained when compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05. Jump height and sprint speed improved in all groups (p < 0.05; however, the quarter squat had the greatest transfer to both outcomes. Conclusions. Consistently including quarter squats in workouts aimed at maximizing speed and jumping power can result in greater improvements.

  6. Effect of glycemic control on microalbuminuria development among type 2 diabetes with high-normal albuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Zhi; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Wen; Ning, Hsiao-Chen; Gau, Bing-Ru; Huang, Yu-Yao

    2014-03-01

    This study was aimed at revealing the factors and the interrelationships between factors on microalbuminuria development among type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Between 2004 and 2011, 461 T2D patients with a baseline urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of 60 mL/min were evaluated retrospectively. Sixty-eight (14.8%) subjects had developed microalbuminuria in a mean follow-up of 6.82 years. Statistical analysis had revealed that the higher baseline UACR (10 mg/g; sensitivity, 80.9%, specificity, 63.6%; AUC = 0.774) and glycohemoglobin level (HbA1c) (8%; sensitivity, 72.1%, specificity, 61.6%; AUC = 0.698) were the two independent microalbuminuria risk factors. When considering the risk of microalbuminuria, the data were normalized with respect to subjects with low-normal UACR ( 8%, high-normal UACR/HbA1c 8% were 2.59 (p = 0.107), 6.15 (p = 0.001), and 16.96 (p 10%) showed a progressively increase of the hazard risk in baseline high-normal UACR group. But the same correlation was not shown in the low-normal UACR group. This study identified the relationships of high-normal albuminuria and glycemic control on microalbuminuria development among T2D patients. Glycemic control is especially beneficial for T2D patients with baseline high-normal UACR in preventing microalbuminuria development.

  7. A high-precision calculation method for interface normal and curvature on an unstructured grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kei; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Ohno, Shuji; Kamide, Hideki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    In the volume-of-fluid algorithm, the calculations of the interface normal and curvature are crucially important for accurately simulating interfacial flows. However, few methods have been proposed for the high-precision interface calculation on an unstructured grid. In this paper, the authors develop a height function method that works appropriately on an unstructured grid. In the process, the definition of the height function is discussed, and the high-precision calculation method of the interface normal is developed to meet the necessary condition for a second-order method. This new method has highly reduced computational cost compared with a conventional high-precision method because the interface normal calculation is completed by solving relatively simple algebraic equations. The curvature calculation method is also discussed and the approximated quadric curve of an interface is employed to calculate the curvature. Following a basic verification, the developed height function method is shown to successfully provide superior calculation accuracy and highly reduced computational cost compared with conventional calculation methods in terms of the interface normal and curvature. In addition, the height function method succeeds in calculating accurately the slotted-disk revolution problem and the oscillating drop on unstructured grids. Therefore, the developed height function method is confirmed to be an efficient technique for the high-precision numerical simulation of interfacial flows on an unstructured grid.

  8. Normalization of High Dimensional Genomics Data Where the Distribution of the Altered Variables Is Skewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfors, Mattias; Philip, Philge; Rydén, Patrik; Stenberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis of gene expression or protein binding patterns using different array or sequencing based technologies is now routinely performed to compare different populations, such as treatment and reference groups. It is often necessary to normalize the data obtained to remove technical variation introduced in the course of conducting experimental work, but standard normalization techniques are not capable of eliminating technical bias in cases where the distribution of the truly altered variables is skewed, i.e. when a large fraction of the variables are either positively or negatively affected by the treatment. However, several experiments are likely to generate such skewed distributions, including ChIP-chip experiments for the study of chromatin, gene expression experiments for the study of apoptosis, and SNP-studies of copy number variation in normal and tumour tissues. A preliminary study using spike-in array data established that the capacity of an experiment to identify altered variables and generate unbiased estimates of the fold change decreases as the fraction of altered variables and the skewness increases. We propose the following work-flow for analyzing high-dimensional experiments with regions of altered variables: (1) Pre-process raw data using one of the standard normalization techniques. (2) Investigate if the distribution of the altered variables is skewed. (3) If the distribution is not believed to be skewed, no additional normalization is needed. Otherwise, re-normalize the data using a novel HMM-assisted normalization procedure. (4) Perform downstream analysis. Here, ChIP-chip data and simulated data were used to evaluate the performance of the work-flow. It was found that skewed distributions can be detected by using the novel DSE-test (Detection of Skewed Experiments). Furthermore, applying the HMM-assisted normalization to experiments where the distribution of the truly altered variables is skewed results in considerably higher

  9. Normalization of high dimensional genomics data where the distribution of the altered variables is skewed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Landfors

    Full Text Available Genome-wide analysis of gene expression or protein binding patterns using different array or sequencing based technologies is now routinely performed to compare different populations, such as treatment and reference groups. It is often necessary to normalize the data obtained to remove technical variation introduced in the course of conducting experimental work, but standard normalization techniques are not capable of eliminating technical bias in cases where the distribution of the truly altered variables is skewed, i.e. when a large fraction of the variables are either positively or negatively affected by the treatment. However, several experiments are likely to generate such skewed distributions, including ChIP-chip experiments for the study of chromatin, gene expression experiments for the study of apoptosis, and SNP-studies of copy number variation in normal and tumour tissues. A preliminary study using spike-in array data established that the capacity of an experiment to identify altered variables and generate unbiased estimates of the fold change decreases as the fraction of altered variables and the skewness increases. We propose the following work-flow for analyzing high-dimensional experiments with regions of altered variables: (1 Pre-process raw data using one of the standard normalization techniques. (2 Investigate if the distribution of the altered variables is skewed. (3 If the distribution is not believed to be skewed, no additional normalization is needed. Otherwise, re-normalize the data using a novel HMM-assisted normalization procedure. (4 Perform downstream analysis. Here, ChIP-chip data and simulated data were used to evaluate the performance of the work-flow. It was found that skewed distributions can be detected by using the novel DSE-test (Detection of Skewed Experiments. Furthermore, applying the HMM-assisted normalization to experiments where the distribution of the truly altered variables is skewed results in

  10. In Vivo Detection of the Cyclic Osmoregulated Periplasmic Glucan of Ralstonia solanacearum by High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieruszeski, J.-M.; Bohin, A.; Bohin, J.-P.; Lippens, G.

    2001-07-01

    We investigate the mobility of the osmoregulated periplasmic glucans of Ralstonia solanacearum in the bacterial periplasm through the use of high-resolution (HR) NMR spectroscopy under static and magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions. Because the nature of periplasm is far from an isotropic aqueous solution, the molecules could be freely diffusing or rather associated to a periplasmic protein, a membrane protein, a lipid, or the peptidoglycan. HR MAS NMR spectroscopy leads to more reproducible results and allows the in vivo detection and characterization of the complex molecule.

  11. Multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning: high-resolution solid state NMR spectroscopy of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Goldbourt, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of the multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning experiment (MQMAS) are discussed in this review. The significance of this experiment, introduced by Frydman and Harwood, is in its ability to provide high-resolution NMR spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei (I /geq 3/2). This technique has proved to be useful in various systems ranging from inorganic materials to biological samples. This review addresses the development of various pulse schemes aimed at improving the signal-to-noise ratio and anisotropic lineshapes. Representative spectra are shown to underscore the importance and applications of the MQMAS experiment. Refs. 97 (author)

  12. An Experimental Study on 3—D Flow in an Annular Cascade of High Turning Angle Turbine Blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangWensheng; LiangXizhi; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the three-dimensional turbulent flow fields in a lowspeed annular cascade of high turning angle turbine blades.Detailed measurements were performed on the blade surfaces and mid-streamsurface in the passage and at three axial planes downstream of the cascade by using wall static pressure taps,a five-hole probe and a hot-wire anemometer,The test data include static pressure distribution on blade surfaces,total pressure loss cofeeicient,mean flow velocity components.radial flow angle,turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress.Analyses of the three-dimensional cascade flow characteristics were made on the noset location of high loss vortices.the variation of pressure gradient inside the cascade passage and the properties of endwall boundary layers total pressure loss distributions,secondary vortex turbulent dissipation and wake decay downtream of the cascade.These experimental results are valuable for revealing the details of the complex vortex flow structure in modern highly loaded axial turbomachines and validating the three-dimensional flow numerical computation codes.

  13. Normalizing the Educated Subject: A Foucaultian Analysis of High-Stakes Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I use concepts from Michel Foucault to analyze the ways in which the high-stakes accountability movement has appropriated the technology of the examination to redefine the educated subject as a normalized case. Partly this has become possible because of the role that educational research has played in laying out the conditions for…

  14. High-normal thyroid function and risk of atrial fibrillation: the Rotterdam study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, J.; Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Deure, WM van der; Hofman, A.; Peeters, R.P.; Hop, W.C.J.; Heijer, M. den; Visser, T.J.; Witteman, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism are both well-known independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation. We aimed to investigate the association of high-normal thyroid function with the development of atrial fibrillation in a prospective population-based study in the elderly. METHODS:

  15. Normalizing the Educated Subject: A Foucaultian Analysis of High-Stakes Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I use concepts from Michel Foucault to analyze the ways in which the high-stakes accountability movement has appropriated the technology of the examination to redefine the educated subject as a normalized case. Partly this has become possible because of the role that educational research has played in laying out the conditions for…

  16. First observation of angle-dependent Stark cyclotron resonance in bulk crystals: High-electric-field interlayer magnetotransport in a layered organic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, A.; Konoike, T.; Uchida, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Osada, T., E-mail: osada@issp.u-tokyo.ac.j [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    We report a novel angle-dependent magnetotransport phenomenon in layered conductors under strong interlayer electric fields. Interlayer conduction shows the Stark cyclotron resonance (SCR) when electron orbital motion becomes periodic in k-space. The SCR amplitude oscillates depending on magnetic field orientations. The conventional angle-dependent magnetoresistance oscillation (AMRO) switches to the angle-dependent SCR in high electric fields. We predict angle-dependent SCR due to electron orbital motion in layered conductors with coherent interlayer coupling. In addition, we demonstrate the expected switching from conventional AMRO to angle-dependent SCR in high electric fields using an organic conductor {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}NH{sub 4}Hg(SCN){sub 4}. This is the first observation of the SCR with orbital origin in bulk crystals.

  17. Corner strength enhancement of high strength cold-formed steel at normal room and elevated temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju CHEN; Wei-liang JIN

    2008-01-01

    In this study,the suitability of current design methods for the 0.2% proof yield strength of the comer regions for high strength cold-formed steel at norrnal room temperature was investigated.The current standard predictions are generally accurate for outer comer specimen but conservative for inner comer specimen.Based on the experimental results,an analytical model to predict the comer strength of high strength cold-formed steel at normal room temperature was also proposed.The comparison indicated that the proposed model predicted well the comer strength of high strength cold-formed steel not only at normal room temperature but also at elevated temperatures.It is shown that the predictions obtained from the proposed model agree well with the test results.Generally the comer strength enhancement of high strength cold-formed steel decreases when the temperature increases.

  18. Navy and the HARV: High angle of attack tactical utility issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Charles A.; Traven, Ricardo; Lackey, James B.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will highlight results from the latest Navy evaluation of the HARV (March 1994) and focus primarily on the impressions from a piloting standpoint of the tactical utility of thrust vectoring. Issue to be addressed will be mission suitability of high AOA flight, visual and motion feedback cues associated with operating at high AOA, and the adaptability of a pilot to effectively use the increased control power provided by the thrust vectoring system.

  19. High dose intravenous iron, mineral homeostasis and intact FGF23 in normal and uremic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eva; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Mace, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    High iron load might have a number of toxic effects in the organism. Recently intravenous (iv) iron has been proposed to induce elevation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia in iron deficient subjects. High levels of FGF23 are associated with increased......, iron isomaltoside 1000 (IIM) and ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), on plasma levels of FGF23 and phosphate was examined in normal and uremic iron repleted rats....

  20. Behavior of crystal defects in synthetic type-IIa single-crystalline diamond at high temperatures under normal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Natsuo; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ito, Toshimichi; Sumiya, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of dislocation lines (DLs) and stacking faults (SFs) in synthetic type-IIa single-crystalline diamond at high temperatures under normal pressure has been investigated. After annealing the diamond at 1500 °C for 60 min in pure N2 atmosphere, straight DLs were bent to converge to fewer curved dislocation bundles, so that some of the stacking faults were extinct while new DLs appeared at the edges of the removed SFs. These results indicate that SFs in the diamond examined belong to the Shockley type, and that the Shockley partials changed to a perfect dislocation. From this result, the following generation mechanism has been proposed for SFs in diamond. On one hand, because [112] dislocations in the (111) growth sector are contained in the slip plane labelled as (1 ̅ 1 ̅ 1), one perfect dislocation tends to be split into two Shockley partials and a SF when an appropriate stress is applied. On the other hand, the angle between the {111} slip plane and the direction of bundled dislocations in the (001) growth sector is as high as 54.7°, so that a perfect dislocation can hardly slip into partial dislocations. Thus, SFs exist only in the (111) growth sector of type IIa diamond.

  1. Small angle neutron diffraction studies of vortex structures in high temperature superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubitt, R.; Forgan, E.M.; Wylie, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    We have used neutron scattering to provide direct information about flux structures in the bulk of crystals of the superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. Its extremely high effective mass anisotropy, makes the flux lattice susceptable to melting and also to decomposition into 'pancake' vortices, which would...

  2. Stability of High Slope Interbedded Strata with Low Dip Angle Constituted by Soft and Hard Rock Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓荣贵; 周德培; 张倬元

    2002-01-01

    Slopes consisting of interbedded strata of soft and hard rock mass, such as purplish red mudstone and grey-brown arkosic sandstone of Jurassic age, are very common in Sichuan basin of China. The mudstone is soft while the sandstone is hard and contains many opening or closing joints with a high dip angle. Some are nearly parallel and the others are nearly decussated with the trend of the slopes. Many natural slopes are in deformation or sliding because of those reasons. The stability of cutting slopes and supporting method to be taken for their stability in civil engineering are important. In this paper, the stability and deformation of the slopes are studied. The methods of analysis and support design principle are analyzed also. Finally, the method put forward is applied to study Fengdian high cutting slope in Sichuan section of the express way from Chengdu to Shanghai. The results indicate that the method is effective.

  3. Reaffirming normal: the high risk of pathologizing healthy adults when interpreting the MMPI-2-RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, Anthony P; Lammy, Andrew B; Perle, Jonathan G; Martin, Phillip K; Grote, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to determine the proportion of the normal population expected to have scale elevations on the MMPI-2-RF when multiple scores are interpreted. Results showed that when all 40 MMPI-2-RF scales are simultaneously considered, approximately 70% of normal adults are likely to have at least one scale elevation at or above 65 T, and as many as 20% will have five or more elevated scales. When the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales are under consideration, 34% of normal adults have at least one elevated score. Interpretation of the Specific Problem Scales and Personality Psychopathology Five Scales--Revised also yielded higher than expected rates of significant scores, with as many as one in four normal adults possibly being miscategorized as having features of a personality disorder by the latter scales. These findings are consistent with the growing literature on rates of apparently abnormal scores in the normal population due to multiple score interpretation. Findings are discussed in relation to clinical assessment, as well as in response to recent work suggesting that the MMPI-2-RF's multiscale composition does not contribute to high rates of elevated scores.

  4. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules.

  5. Crack formation and fracture energy of normal and high strength concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F H Wittmann

    2002-08-01

    The crack path through composite materials such as concrete depends on the mechanical interaction of inclusions with the cement-based matrix. Fracture energy depends on the deviations of a real crack from an idealized crack plane. Fracture energy and strain softening of normal, high strength, and self-compacting concrete have been determined by means of the wedge splitting test. In applying the numerical model called “numerical concrete” crack formation in normal and high strength concrete is simulated. Characteristic differences of the fracture process can be outlined. Finally results obtained are applied to predict shrinkage cracking under different boundary conditions. Crack formation of high strength concrete has to be seriously controlled in order to achieve the necessary durability of concrete structures.

  6. Measurement of carbon condensates using small-angle x-ray scattering during detonation of the high explosive hexanitrostilbene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagge-Hansen, M.; Lauderbach, L.; Hodgin, R.; Bastea, S.; Fried, L.; Jones, A.; Buuren, T. van; Hansen, D.; Benterou, J.; May, C.; Willey, T. M., E-mail: willey1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Graber, T. [Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States); Jensen, B. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ilavsky, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    The dynamics of carbon condensation in detonating high explosives remains controversial. Detonation model validation requires data for processes occurring at nanometer length scales on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds. A new detonation endstation has been commissioned to acquire and provide time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from detonating explosives. Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) was selected as the first to investigate due to its ease of initiation using exploding foils and flyers, vacuum compatibility, high thermal stability, and stoichiometric carbon abundance that produces high carbon condensate yields. The SAXS data during detonation, collected with 300 ns time resolution, provide unprecedented signal fidelity over a broad q-range. This fidelity permits the first analysis of both the Guinier and Porod/power-law regions of the scattering profile during detonation, which contains information about the size and morphology of the resultant carbon condensate nanoparticles. To bolster confidence in these data, the scattering angle and intensity were additionally cross-referenced with a separate, highly calibrated SAXS beamline. The data show that HNS produces carbon particles with a radius of gyration of 2.7 nm in less than 400 ns after the detonation front has passed, and this size and morphology are constant over the next several microseconds. These data directly contradict previous pioneering work on RDX/TNT mixtures and TATB, where observations indicate significant particle growth (50% or more) continues over several microseconds. The power-law slope is about −3, which is consistent with a complex disordered, irregular, or folded sp{sup 2} sub-arrangement within a relatively monodisperse structure possessing radius of gyration of 2.7 nm after the detonation of HNS.

  7. Measurement of carbon condensation using small-angle x-ray scattering during detonation of the high explosive hexanitrostilbene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagge-Hansen, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lauderbach, L. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hodgin, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bastea, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); van Buuren, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hansen, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benterou, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); May, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Graber, T. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Jensen, B. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ilavsky, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Willey, T. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The dynamics of carboncondensation in detonating high explosives remains controversial. Detonation model validation requires data for processes occurring at nanometer length scales on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds. A new detonation endstation has been commissioned to acquire and provide time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from detonating explosives. Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) was selected as the first to investigate due to its ease of initiation using exploding foils and flyers, vacuum compatibility, high thermal stability, and stoichiometric carbon abundance that produces high carbon condensate yields. The SAXS data during detonation, collected with 300 ns time resolution, provide unprecedented signal fidelity over a broad q-range. This fidelity permits the first analysis of both the Guinier and Porod/power-law regions of the scattering profile during detonation, which contains information about the size and morphology of the resultant carbon condensate nanoparticles. To bolster confidence in these data, the scattering angle and intensity were additionally cross-referenced with a separate, highly calibrated SAXS beamline. The data show that HNS produces carbon particles with a radius of gyration of 2.7 nm in less than 400 ns after the detonation front has passed, and this size and morphology are constant over the next several microseconds. These data directly contradict previous pioneering work on RDX/TNT mixtures and TATB, where observations indicate significant particle growth (50% or more) continues over several microseconds. As a result, the power-law slope is about –3, which is consistent with a complex disordered, irregular, or folded sp2 sub-arrangement within a relatively monodisperse structure possessing radius of gyration of 2.7 nm after the detonation of HNS.

  8. Modelling of AlAs/GaAs interfacial structures using high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) image simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Paul D; Finnie, Michael; Craven, Alan J

    2012-07-01

    High angle annular dark field (HAADF) image simulations were performed on a series of AlAs/GaAs interfacial models using the frozen-phonon multislice method. Three general types of models were considered-perfect, vicinal/sawtooth and diffusion. These were chosen to demonstrate how HAADF image measurements are influenced by different interfacial structures in the technologically important III-V semiconductor system. For each model, interfacial sharpness was calculated as a function of depth and compared to aberration-corrected HAADF experiments of two types of AlAs/GaAs interfaces. The results show that the sharpness measured from HAADF imaging changes in a complicated manner with thickness for complex interfacial structures. For vicinal structures, it was revealed that the type of material that the probe projects through first of all has a significant effect on the measured sharpness. An increase in the vicinal angle was also shown to generate a wider interface in the random step model. The Moison diffusion model produced an increase in the interface width with depth which closely matched the experimental results of the AlAs-on-GaAs interface. In contrast, the interface width decreased as a function of depth in the linear diffusion model. Only in the case of the perfect model was it possible to ascertain the underlying structure directly from HAADF image analysis.

  9. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  10. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  11. Development of microprocessor-based laser velocimeter and its application to measurement of jet exhausts and flows over missiles at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, K. E.; Farmer, W. M.; Hornkohl, J. O.; Stallings, E.

    1981-03-01

    During the past three years, personnel have developed a unique three-component laser velocimeter for the in situ measurement of particle and/or gas velocities in flow fields produced behind bodies at high angles of attack and in jet exhaust plumes. This report describes the development of the laser velocimeter and its subsequent application of the measurement of the velocity distribution and vortex structure in free jets and in flows over missiles at high angles of attack.

  12. Data-driven normalization strategies for high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Harukazu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is a widely used technique in experiments where expression patterns of genes are to be profiled. Current stage technology allows the acquisition of profiles for a moderate number of genes (50 to a few thousand, and this number continues to grow. The use of appropriate normalization algorithms for qPCR-based data is therefore a highly important aspect of the data preprocessing pipeline. Results We present and evaluate two data-driven normalization methods that directly correct for technical variation and represent robust alternatives to standard housekeeping gene-based approaches. We evaluated the performance of these methods against a single gene housekeeping gene method and our results suggest that quantile normalization performs best. These methods are implemented in freely-available software as an R package qpcrNorm distributed through the Bioconductor project. Conclusion The utility of the approaches that we describe can be demonstrated most clearly in situations where standard housekeeping genes are regulated by some experimental condition. For large qPCR-based data sets, our approaches represent robust, data-driven strategies for normalization.

  13. A robust derivation of the tight relationship of radio core dominance to inclination angle in high redshift 3CRR sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that, in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN), the core radio flux density can be normalized to the flux density of the extended lobe emission to infer the orientation of a radio source. However very little is known about the reliability and precision of this method, and we are unaware of any robust conversion recipe to infer the inclination from the core dominance. Investigating whether or not the radio core dominance parameter R separates the quasars from the radio-galaxies in the $z \\ge$~1 3CRR catalog, we found excellent agreement of R with optical type, infrared flux ratios and optical polarization. This indicates that probably both R and optical classification are very good orientation indicators, and the unified model is strongly predictive for these objects. The relative number densities indicate half-opening angles close to 60$^\\circ$, as expected from large surveys. The separations of optical types according to radio core dominance as well as NIR/MIR ratios, which are essentially p...

  14. Comparative study of rare earth hexaborides using high resolution angle-resolved photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramankutty, S.V., E-mail: s.v.ramankutty@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jong, N. de; Huang, Y.K.; Zwartsenberg, B. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Massee, F. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bay, T.V. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Golden, M.S., E-mail: m.s.golden@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Frantzeskakis, E., E-mail: e.frantzeskakis@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • ARPES electronic structure study of rare-earth (RE) hexaborides SmB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6} and YbB{sub 6}. • Increasing RE valence Yb[II], Sm[II/III], Ce[III] increases d-band occupancy. • YbB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6} posses 2D states at E{sub F}, whereas the Fermi surface of CeB{sub 6} is 3D. • ARPES, LEED and STM data prove structural relaxation of the SmB{sub 6}(001) surface. - Abstract: Strong electron correlations in rare earth hexaborides can give rise to a variety of interesting phenomena like ferromagnetism, Kondo hybridization, mixed valence, superconductivity and possibly topological characteristics. The theoretical prediction of topological properties in SmB{sub 6} and YbB{sub 6} has rekindled the scientific interest in the rare earth hexaborides, and high-resolution ARPES has been playing a major role in the debate. The electronic band structure of the hexaborides contains the key to understand the origin of the different phenomena observed, and much can be learned by comparing the experimental data from different rare earth hexaborides. We have performed high-resolution ARPES on the (001) surfaces of YbB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6}. On the most basic level, the data show that the differences in the valence of the rare earth element are reflected in the experimental electronic band structure primarily as a rigid shift of the energy position of the metal 5d states with respect to the Fermi level. Although the overall shape of the d-derived Fermi surface contours remains the same, we report differences in the dimensionality of these states between the compounds studied. Moreover, the spectroscopic fingerprint of the 4f states also reveals considerable differences that are related to their coherence and the strength of the d–f hybridization. For the SmB{sub 6} case, we use ARPES in combination with STM imaging and electron diffraction to reveal time dependent changes in the structural symmetry of the highly debated SmB{sub 6

  15. Air cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle using high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.W.

    1984-05-01

    While high-resolution CT/air cisternography is considered the preferred method of investigating non-enhancing or small acoustic neuromas, it is not without pitfalls. Eight such studies were reviewed, emphasizing procedural problems and sources of interpretive error. Two patients presented difficulty in transporting the air bolus due to a spinal cord tumor coexisting with bilaterial acoustic neuromas; spinal cord decompression was required in one case. Three potential false positives were avoided by persistent efforts to fill the internal auditory canal. Of 4 patients thought to have a tiny acoustic neuroma, elective vestibular nerve section in 2 revealed no evidence of tumor.

  16. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission studies of high Tc superconductor Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rong.

    1990-09-21

    An angle-resolved photoemission study of the normal and superconducting states in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} was performed. Measurements in the normal state show bands dispersing through the Fermi level from at least 350 meV below E{sub F}. The Fermi level crossings are consistant with local-density band calculation, including a point calculated to be of Bi-O character. Additional measurements were made where bands crossed the Fermi level between 100 and 250K, along with measurements on an adjacent Pt foil. The Fermi edges of both materials agree to within the noise. Below the Fermi level, the spectra show correlation effects on the form of an increased effective mass. The shape of the spectra can be explained by a lifetime-broadened photohole and secondary electrons. The effective inverse photohole lifetime is linear in energy. A superconducting gap has been measured at a number of points where there is density at the Fermi level in the normal state. By proper modeling, a gap of 24 meV was obtained for all these points, including points of Cu-O and Bi-O character respectively, according to band calculation. The lack of gap anisotropy in the basal plane suggests that pinning in this material is not d-wave pairing.

  17. Electronic structure of ion arsenic high temperature superconductors studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present thesis is to present our ARPES results on the iron arsenic superconductors. As revealed by a series of ARPES measurements on both the AEFe2As2 and the RFeAs(O,F) families (parent compound and carrier-doped systems), the electronic structures of the pnictides are complicated, three dimensional, and closely linked to their superconducting behavior (13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 19). Parent compounds of these materials exhibit the basic hole-electron pocket dual plus an apparent Fermi surface reconstruction caused by long range antiferromagnetism (13; 15). When carriers are introduced, the chemical potential shifts in accordance with the Luttinger theorem and the rigid band shifting picture (13). Importantly, both the appearance and disappearance of the superconducting dome at low and high doping levels have intimate relation with topological changes at the Fermi surfaces, resulting in a specific Fermi topology being favored by superconductivity (15; 16). On the low doping side, superconductivity emerges in the phase diagram once the antiferromagnetic reconstruction disappears below the Fermi level, returning the Fermi surface to its paramagnetic-like appearance. On the high doping side, superconductivity disappears around a doping level at which the central hole pocket vanishes due to increasing electron concentration. Such phenomena are evidence for the governing role the electronic structure plays in their superconducting behavior.

  18. Elective single blastocyst transfer is more suitable for normal responders than for high responders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ke-liang; ZHAO Hai-bin; LIU Hui; ZHONG Wan-xia; YU Guan-ling; CHEN Zi-jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Embryo quality and receptivity of the endometrium are two factors that determine the results of in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET).There is no consensus of the optimal transfer strategy for normal responders or high responders.The current study aimed to find the optimal transfer strategy for different subgroups of patients.Methods From April 2010 to December 2010,patients who meet the following criteria were included in this study; primary infertility,female age ≤35 years,FSH level on female cycle day 2-3 ≤12 mlU/ml,at least six good quality embryos available on day three.The clinical outcomes using different transfer strategies between normal responders and high responders were reviewed and compared.Results For the normal responders,the clinical pregnancy rate of day three double-embryo transfer (DET) was comparable to that of day five elective single blastocyst transfer (eSBT),64.04% vs.60.33% (P>0.05).For the high responders,the clinical pregnancy rate of day five eSBT was significantly lower than that of day three DET,43.35% vs.57.21% (P<0.05).For the high responders,the rates of clinical pregnancy and implantation in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles were notably higher than in eSBT cycles (64.56% vs.43.35% and 62.11% vs.43.35% respectively) (P<0.05).Conclusions For normal responders,eSBT might be an applicable strategy to reduce multiple pregnancy rates while maintaining acceptable overall pregnancy rates.And in order to reduce multiple pregnancies and increase the chance of pregnancy of high responders,FET may be a preferable strategy.

  19. High resolution energy-angle correlation measurement of hard x rays from laser-Thomson backscattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, A; Irman, A; Bussmann, M; Couperus, J P; Cowan, T E; Debus, A D; Kuntzsch, M; Ledingham, K W D; Lehnert, U; Sauerbrey, R; Schlenvoigt, H P; Seipt, D; Stöhlker, Th; Thorn, D B; Trotsenko, S; Wagner, A; Schramm, U

    2013-09-13

    Thomson backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright x-ray pulses but also for the investigation of the complex particle dynamics at the interaction point. For this purpose a complete spectral characterization of a Thomson source powered by a compact linear electron accelerator is performed with unprecedented angular and energy resolution. A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to 3D simulations enables, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for the future high brightness hard x-ray source PHOENIX (photon electron collider for narrow bandwidth intense x rays) and potential gamma-ray sources.

  20. Pair normalized channel feature and statistics-based learning for high-performance pedestrian detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bobo; Wang, Guijin; Ruan, Zhiwei; Lin, Xinggang; Meng, Long

    2012-07-01

    High-performance pedestrian detection with good accuracy and fast speed is an important yet challenging task in computer vision. We design a novel feature named pair normalized channel feature (PNCF), which simultaneously combines and normalizes two channel features in image channels, achieving a highly discriminative power and computational efficiency. PNCF applies to both gradient channels and color channels so that shape and appearance information are described and integrated in the same feature. To efficiently explore the formidably large PNCF feature space, we propose a statistics-based feature learning method to select a small number of potentially discriminative candidate features, which are fed into the boosting algorithm. In addition, channel compression and a hybrid pyramid are employed to speed up the multiscale detection. Experiments illustrate the effectiveness of PNCF and its learning method. Our proposed detector outperforms the state-of-the-art on several benchmark datasets in both detection accuracy and efficiency.

  1. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the patellar retinaculum: normal anatomy, common injury patterns, and pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thawait, Shrey K. [Yale University - Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Soldatos, Theodoros; Thawait, Gaurav K.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.; Carrino, John A. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The medial patellar retinaculum (MPR) and the lateral patellar retinaculum (LPR) are vital structures for the stability of the patella. Failure to identify or treat injury to the patellar retinaculum is associated with recurrent patellar instability and contributes to significant morbidity. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) readily depicts the detailed anatomy of various components (layers) of the retinacula. In this review article, we discuss normal anatomy, important landmarks, common injury patterns, and other pathologies encountered in patellar retinacula. High field strength MRI is an excellent noninvasive tool for evaluation of patellar retinaculum anatomy and pathology. This article will help the reader become familiar with normal imaging findings and the most commonly occurring injuries/pathologies in MPR and LPR. (orig.)

  2. Normalizing for individual cell population context in the analysis of high-content cellular screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-content, high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi offers unprecedented possibilities to elucidate gene function and involvement in biological processes. Microscopy based screening allows phenotypic observations at the level of individual cells. It was recently shown that a cell's population context significantly influences results. However, standard analysis methods for cellular screens do not currently take individual cell data into account unless this is important for the phenotype of interest, i.e. when studying cell morphology. Results We present a method that normalizes and statistically scores microscopy based RNAi screens, exploiting individual cell information of hundreds of cells per knockdown. Each cell's individual population context is employed in normalization. We present results on two infection screens for hepatitis C and dengue virus, both showing considerable effects on observed phenotypes due to population context. In addition, we show on a non-virus screen that these effects can be found also in RNAi data in the absence of any virus. Using our approach to normalize against these effects we achieve improved performance in comparison to an analysis without this normalization and hit scoring strategy. Furthermore, our approach results in the identification of considerably more significantly enriched pathways in hepatitis C virus replication than using a standard analysis approach. Conclusions Using a cell-based analysis and normalization for population context, we achieve improved sensitivity and specificity not only on a individual protein level, but especially also on a pathway level. This leads to the identification of new host dependency factors of the hepatitis C and dengue viruses and higher reproducibility of results.

  3. Effect of EMIC Wave Normal Angle Distribution on Relativistic Electron Scattering Based on the Newly Developed Self-consistent RC/EMIC Waves Model by Khazanov et al. [2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gallagher, D. L.; Gamayunov, K.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the effects of EMIC waves on RC ion and RB electron dynamics strongly depend on such particle/wave characteristics as the phase-space distribution function, frequency, wave-normal angle, wave energy, and the form of wave spectral energy density. Therefore, realistic characteristics of EMIC waves should be properly determined by modeling the RC-EMIC waves evolution self-consistently. Such a selfconsistent model progressively has been developing by Khaznnov et al. [2002-2006]. It solves a system of two coupled kinetic equations: one equation describes the RC ion dynamics and another equation describes the energy density evolution of EMIC waves. Using this model, we present the effectiveness of relativistic electron scattering and compare our results with previous work in this area of research.

  4. All-angle negative refraction of highly squeezed plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Yang, Yi; Rivera, Nicholas; López, Josué J; Shen, Yichen; Kaminer, Ido; Chen, Hongsheng; Zhang, Baile; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2017-06-27

    A fundamental building block for nanophotonics is the ability to achieve negative refraction of polaritons, because this could enable the demonstration of many unique nanoscale applications such as deep-subwavelength imaging, superlens, and novel guiding. However, to achieve negative refraction of highly squeezed polaritons, such as plasmon polaritons in graphene and phonon polaritons in boron nitride (BN) with their wavelengths squeezed by a factor over 100, requires the ability to flip the sign of their group velocity at will, which is challenging. Here we reveal that the strong coupling between plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene-BN heterostructures can be used to flip the sign of the group velocity of the resulting hybrid (plasmon-phonon-polariton) modes. We predict all-angle negative refraction between plasmon and phonon polaritons and, even more surprisingly, between hybrid graphene plasmons and between hybrid phonon polaritons. Graphene-BN heterostructures thus provide a versatile platform for the design of nanometasurfaces and nanoimaging elements.

  5. All-angle negative refraction of highly squeezed plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Xiao; Rivera, Nicholas; Lopez, Josue J; Shen, Yichen; Kaminer, Ido; Chen, Hongsheng; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental building block for nanophotonics is the ability to achieve negative refraction of polaritons, because this could enable the demonstration of many unique nanoscale applications such as deep-subwavelength imaging, superlens, and novel guiding. However, to achieve negative refraction of highly squeezed polaritons, such as plasmon polaritons in graphene and phonon polaritons in boron nitride (BN) with their wavelengths squeezed by a factor over 100, requires the ability to flip the sign of their group velocity at will, which is challenging. Here we reveal that the strong coupling between plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene-BN heterostructures can be used to flip the sign of the group velocity of the resulting hybrid (plasmon-phonon-polariton) modes. We predict all-angle negative refraction between plasmon and phonon polaritons, and even more surprisingly, between hybrid graphene plasmons, and between hybrid phonon polaritons. Graphene-BN heterostructures thus provide a versatile platform for t...

  6. Seasonal Variations of Polarization Diversity Gain in a Vegetated Area considering High Elevation Angles and a Nomadic User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kvicera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations of the polarization diversity gain are addressed for a nomadic user in a vegetated area taking high elevation angles and nongeostationary satellites into consideration. Corresponding experimental data were obtained at a frequency of 2.0 GHz at Stromovka Park in Prague, the Czech Republic, within the full in-leaf and out-of-leaf periods of 2013 and 2014, respectively. By detecting copolarized and cross-polarized components of the transmitted left- and right-handed circularly polarized signals, the corresponding diversity gain was obtained for multiple-input single-output (MISO, single-input multiple-output (SIMO, and combined MISO/SIMO cases. It was found that tree defoliation results in a significant decrease of the polarization diversity gain achieved for low time percentages in particular scenarios.

  7. [Restless legs syndrome in patients with high serum ferritin and normal iron levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Duque-Ramírez, Luis G; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    To document the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and high ferritin levels in five patients. The five patients were male, mean age: 59 years (range: 36-73 years). The patients were referred for RLS (two of them blood donors), in two cases associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Patients underwent a video-PSG recording. Serum iron and serum ferritin were determined. All patients fulfilled the clinical criteria for RLS: leg paresthesias associated with an urge to move, motor restless-ness, worsening of symptoms during the evening and night, and partial relief with activity, difficulty falling asleep, and presence of nocturnal awakenings due to RLS. Neurological examination, EEGs, EMGs and MRIs were normal. Video-PSGs recordings showed a disturbed and fragmented sleep with a reduction in total sleep time, low sleep efficiency, respiratory abnormalities with an apnea-hipopnea index > 10/h in two cases, and in all of them a periodic leg movements index > 5/h. The serum iron levels were within the normal range in all cases, whereas those in serum ferritin levels were high. To our knowledge the association of normal serum iron with high serum ferritin levels in patients diagnosed clinically and polygraphically as having RLS with periodic leg movements has not been described before. The notion of an involvement of a dopaminergic mechanism in the pathophysiology of RLS is supported by the decrease in the values of serum ferritin concentration observed in one patient during follow-up while being treated with dopaminergic agents.

  8. High-angle triple-axis specimen holder for three-dimensional diffraction contrast imaging in transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, S., E-mail: hata.satoshi.207@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Miyazaki, H. [Mel-Build, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0052 (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan); Mitsuhara, M. [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Kaneko, K.; Higashida, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Ikeda, K.; Nakashima, H. [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Matsumura, S. [Department of Applied Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Barnard, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Sharp, J.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Midgley, P.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Electron tomography requires a wide angular range of specimen-tilt for a reliable three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Although specimen holders are commercially available for tomography, they have several limitations, including tilting capability in only one or two axes at most, e.g. tilt-rotate. For amorphous specimens, the image contrast depends on mass and thickness only and the single-tilt holder is adequate for most tomographic image acquisitions. On the other hand, for crystalline materials where image contrast is strongly dependent on diffraction conditions, current commercially available tomography holders are inadequate, because they lack tilt capability in all three orthogonal axes needed to maintain a constant diffraction condition over the whole tilt range. We have developed a high-angle triple-axis (HATA) tomography specimen holder capable of high-angle tilting for the primary horizontal axis with tilting capability in the other (orthogonal) horizontal and vertical axes. This allows the user to trim the specimen tilt to obtain the desired diffraction condition over the whole tilt range of the tomography series. To demonstrate its capabilities, we have used this triple-axis tomography holder with a dual-axis tilt series (the specimen was rotated by 90{sup o} ex-situ between series) to obtain tomographic reconstructions of dislocation arrangements in plastically deformed austenitic steel foils. -- Highlights: {yields} A double tilt-rotate specimen holder for diffraction contrast imaging in electron tomography. {yields} Precise alignment of a diffraction condition for tilt-series acquisition of TEM/STEM images. {yields} Complete visualization of 3D dislocation arrangements by dual-axis STEM tomography.

  9. High Resolution Wide Angle Seismics of A Mud Volcano - Crimea, Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, J.; Broser, A.; Zillmer, M.; M52-1 Shipboard Party, The

    Gashydrates in marine sediments have been identified in the Black Sea first (Yefre- mova and Zhizchenko, 1974). Since russian researchers frequently reported gashy- drate findings near the seafloor from sediment cores (Soliviev and Ginsburg, 1994; Ivanov et al., 1998). Additional indications for emplacements of gas hydrates near the surface are observations of gas plumes by acoustic systems (Polikarpov et al., 1999) as well as direct observations of the ocean floor by video systems (Limonov et al., 1997). The existence of a Bottom-Simulating-Reflector (BSR) is used to identify gashydrate layers in seismic sections. These negative polarized reflector indicates the base of the hydrate stability zone (BHSZ) and generally cuts stratigraphic sequences. Still in dis- cussion is the question whether this reflection is caused by a velocity increase above the BHSZ or a velocity decrease due to free gas below the BHSZ (Pecher et al., 1996). Knowledge about gas and gashydrate concentrations in the sediments will be neces- sary to answer these questions. In January 2002 an interdisciplinary team of researches from Germany (Kiel and Bre- men), the Ukraine and Russia is going to carry out detailed investigations across a mud volcano in the waters offshore Crimea. Besides ocean floor video observations and geological sampling high resolution seismic data acquisition will be done. Record- ings of a multichannel streamer adopted to the alternating shot sequences (University of Bremen) will be accompanied by Ocean-Bottom-Hydrophones (OBH) and Ocean- Bottom-Seismometers (OBS) from GEOMAR, Kiel. During data acquisition three dif- ferent seismic sources (water gun, 2 GI gun) will be shot in alternating mode. There- fore three profiles of different frequency content will be achieved simultaneously. The corresponding resolution and depth of signal penetration will allow to study different sediment layers with increased resolution near the seafloor. It is planned to observe the shots with

  10. Quantitative comparison of myocardial blood flow in normal and infarcted hearts by high resolution scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C.Y.; Burow, R.D.; Scherlag, B.J.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Lazzara, R.

    1984-01-01

    The standard method for measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) with radioactive microspheres requires processing of selected tissue samples and consequent loss of exact relation to myocardial morphology. Also, in myocardial infarction (MI) there are inaccuracies due to overlap of tissues from borders of normal and MI. A new method uses Tc-99m labeled microspheres (20..mu..) which were injected into the left atrium in 18 normal dogs and 12 dogs with MI (5 had 1 day and 7 had 4 day old MI). The excised hearts were rinsed and frozen before ''bread-loaf'' sections, 3 mm thick, were cut. Images were acquired on a gamma camera with a volume resolution of 12 mm/sup 3/. A computer program for determining MBF was checked against the conventional microsphere method. The volume resolution of the latter method was 100 mm/sup 3/. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was r=0.96. Average MBF for a given section of normal RV and LV was 95 +- 13 and 119 +- 15 ml/min/100 g of tissue, respectively. Average MBF was compared in normal LV and from ischemic epicardium (IsZ) of the central MI and endocardial infarcted zone (IZ). The authors' new method, accurately and with high resolution, delineates zones of differing MBF and confirms the increase of MBF in surviving myocardium with healing.

  11. High-throughput studies of protein shapes and interactions by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cy M; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2015-01-01

    Solution-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) affords the opportunity to extract accurate structural parameters and global shape information from diverse biological macromolecular systems. SAXS is an ideal complementary technique to other structural and biophysical methods but it can also be applied alone to access structural information that is otherwise unobtainable using high-resolution methods. Macromolecular structures ranging from kilodaltons to gigadaltons can be analyzed, which encompasses the size of most proteins and functional cellular complexes. The SAXS analysis is performed using only a few microliters of solution containing microgram quantities of purified material in sample environments that can be tailored to mimic physiological conditions or altered to suit a particular question. High-brilliance synchrotron X-ray sources and parallel advances in hardware and computing have reduced data acquisition times to the millisecond range and the application of automated methods have allowed data processing and low resolution shape modelling to be completed within minutes. These developments have paved the way for high-throughput studies that generate significant quantities of structural information over a short period of time. Here, we briefly consider the basics of SAXS and describe major methods and protocols employed in high-throughput SAXS studies.

  12. Reliability and Failure in NASA Missions: Blunders, Normal Accidents, High Reliability, Bad Luck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA emphasizes crew safety and system reliability but several unfortunate failures have occurred. The Apollo 1 fire was mistakenly unanticipated. After that tragedy, the Apollo program gave much more attention to safety. The Challenger accident revealed that NASA had neglected safety and that management underestimated the high risk of shuttle. Probabilistic Risk Assessment was adopted to provide more accurate failure probabilities for shuttle and other missions. NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" initiative and government procurement reform led to deliberately dismantling traditional reliability engineering. The Columbia tragedy and Mars mission failures followed. Failures can be attributed to blunders, normal accidents, or bad luck. Achieving high reliability is difficult but possible.

  13. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  14. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Deplanque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL, glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results: Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001. Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals.

  15. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplanque, Xavier; Muscente-Paque, Delphine; Chappuis, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE) standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL), glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG) responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001). Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals. PMID:27707453

  16. Cyclical pattern of non-nutritive sucking in normal and high-risk neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbrón, Alicia V; Sorbera-Ferrer, Lucas; Gómez de Ferraris, María E; Carranza, Miriam L

    2013-01-01

    This study determined patterns of suction cycles by recording sucking pressure in full-term infants, normal pre-term infants and newborns with pathology (hypoxia at birth). Associations between these patterns and some clinical parameters were established in order to evaluate feeding capacity for the purpose of guiding specific stimulation and aiding hospital discharge in better health conditions. Seventy-five infants of both sexes were assessed after informed consent, grouped by their status at birth. Body weight and Apgar score were determined. Sucking pressure was evaluated with an ad-hoc device. Maximum and minimum pressure scores and the number of suction cycles were measured. Data were analyzed statistically at a significance level of p < 0.05. Maximum sucking pressure values varied between study groups. Full-term infants showed the highest pressure values and number of suction cycles. In pre-term infants, lower pressure values and fewer suction cycles were observed. Those with hypoxia showed great variability in both parameters. This study found a cyclical pattern of non-nutritive sucking in normal and high-risk newborns. Normal and preterm infants showed a significant direct correlation between suction cycles and Apgar scores at 5 minutes, but the infants with pathology due to hypoxia group did not show the same association. These findings are an important tool that will contribute to improving newborn maternal nutrition and optimizing the quality of life for high-risk newborns in our environment.

  17. Modification of ITU-R Rain Fade Slope Prediction Model Based on Satellite Data Measured at High Elevation Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Dao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rain fade slope is one of fade dynamics behaviour used by system engineers to design fade mitigation techniques (FMT for space-earth microwave links. Recent measurements found that fade slope prediction model proposed by ITU-R is unable to predict fade slope distribution accurately in tropical regions. Rain fade measurement was conducted  in Kuala Lumpur (3.3° N, 101.7° E where located in heavy rain zone by receiving signal at 10.982 GHz (Ku-band from MEASAT3 (91.5° E on 77.4° elevation angle. The measurement has been carried out for one year period. Fade slope S parameter on ITU-R prediction model has been investigated. New parameter is proposed for the fade slope prediction modeling based on measured data at high elevation angle, Ku-band. ABSTRAK: Cerun hujan pudar adalah salah satu dinamik tingkah laku pudar yang digunakan oleh jurutera sistem untuk mereka bentuk teknik-teknik pengurangan pudar (FMT bagi link gelombang mikro ruang bumi. Ukuran baru-baru ini mendapati bahawa cerun pudar ramalan model yang dicadangkan oleh ITU-R tidak mampu untuk meramalkan pengagihan cerun pudar tepat di kawasan tropika. Pengukuran  hujan pudar telah dijalankan di Kuala Lumpur (3.3° N, 101.7° E yang terletak di kawasan hujan lebat dengan menerima isyarat pada 10,982 GHz (Ku-band dari MEASAT3 (91.5° E pada sudut ketinggian 77.4°. Pengukuran telah dijalankan untuk tempoh satu tahun. Parameter cerun pudar S pada model ramalan ITU-R telah disiasat. Parameter baru adalah dicadangkan untuk pemodelan cerun pudar ramalan berdasarkan data yang diukur pada sudut paras ketinggian, Ku-band.KEYWORDS: fade slope; ITU-R; fade mitigation techniques; sampling time interval

  18. High-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals metabolic effects of normal brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Janna L; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Swerdlow, Russell H; Choi, In-Young; Lee, Phil; Brooks, William M

    2014-07-01

    Altered brain metabolism is likely to be an important contributor to normal cognitive decline and brain pathology in elderly individuals. To characterize the metabolic changes associated with normal brain aging, we used high-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo to quantify 20 neurochemicals in the hippocampus and sensorimotor cortex of young adult and aged rats. We found significant differences in the neurochemical profile of the aged brain when compared with younger adults, including lower aspartate, ascorbate, glutamate, and macromolecules, and higher glucose, myo-inositol, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, total choline, and glutamine. These neurochemical biomarkers point to specific cellular mechanisms that are altered in brain aging, such as bioenergetics, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell membrane turnover, and endogenous neuroprotection. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be a valuable translational approach for studying mechanisms of brain aging and pathology, and for investigating treatments to preserve or enhance cognitive function in aging.

  19. High-frequency Born synthetic seismograms based on coupled normal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred F.

    2011-01-01

    High-frequency and full waveform synthetic seismograms on a 3-D laterally heterogeneous earth model are simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The set of coupled integral equations that describe the 3-D response are simplified into a set of uncoupled integral equations by using the Born approximation to calculate scattered wavefields and the pure-path approximation to modulate the phase of incident and scattered wavefields. This depends upon a decomposition of the aspherical structure into smooth and rough components. The uncoupled integral equations are discretized and solved in the frequency domain, and time domain results are obtained by inverse Fourier transform. Examples show the utility of the normal mode approach to synthesize the seismic wavefields resulting from interaction with a combination of rough and smooth structural heterogeneities. This approach is applied to an ∼4 Hz shallow crustal wave propagation around the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD).

  20. Normal tissue studies in radiation oncology: A systematic review of highly cited articles and citation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Carsten; Andratschke, Nicolaus H; Grosu, Anca L

    2014-09-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the cornerstones of modern multidisciplinary cancer treatment. Normal tissue tolerance is critical as radiation-induced side effects may compromise organ function and quality of life. The importance of normal tissue research is reflected by the large number of scientific articles, which have been published between 2006 and 2010. The present study identified important areas of research as well as seminal publications. The article citation rate is among the potential indicators of scientific impact. Highly cited articles, arbitrarily defined as those with ≥15 citations, were identified via a systematic search of the citation database, Scopus. Up to 608 articles per year were published between 2006 and 2010, however, distribution, clinical prevention or mitigation studies are critical and must receive higher priority, funding and attention.

  1. Processing of high resolution magic angle spinning spectra of breast cancer cells by the filter diagonalization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Roberta Manzano; Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Magon, Claudio José; Venâncio, Tiago; Altei, Wanessa Fernanda; Andricopulo, Adriano Defini; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy for detection of biochemical changes in biological samples is a successful technique. However, the achieved NMR resolution is not sufficiently high when the analysis is performed with intact cells. To improve spectral resolution, high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) is used and the broad signals are separated by a T(2) filter based on the CPMG pulse sequence. Additionally, HR-MAS experiments with a T(2) filter are preceded by a water suppression procedure. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that the experimental procedures of water suppression and T(2) or diffusing filters are unnecessary steps when the filter diagonalization method (FDM) is used to process the time domain HR-MAS signals. Manipulation of the FDM results, represented as a tabular list of peak positions, widths, amplitudes and phases, allows the removal of water signals without the disturbing overlapping or nearby signals. Additionally, the FDM can also be used for phase correction and noise suppression, and to discriminate between sharp and broad lines. Results demonstrate the applicability of the FDM post-acquisition processing to obtain high quality HR-MAS spectra of heterogeneous biological materials.

  2. A single reflection approach to HCPV: Very high concentration ratio and wide acceptance angles using low cost materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardis, Davide

    2012-10-01

    The Italian engineering company Becar (Beghelli SpA group) presents its latest HCPV module currently sold under the brand name "Life Tree". The module is characterized by an efficiency of 26% that is in line with systems having higher complexity. The high efficiency and flexibility of the system are reached thanks to the single reflection scheme of the optical system. The module characterized by high acceptance angles comprises a metalized plastic primary reflector and a secondary optical element. The latter being a crucial technical feature of the Becar's system. This secondary optic element has been developed and manufactured by the German group Evonik Industries, which markets the product under the trade name SAVOSIL(TM). This technology, compared to other optics available in the market, offer high transparency in the whole solar spectrum and it is manufactured with an innovative sol-gel process that guarantees a precision in the micron range, at a fraction of the other approaches cost . Those two important features boost the light harvesting power of the Beghelli's systems. The article shows also the results of extensive in-field tests carried out to confirm reliability, performance and easy maintenance of the system.

  3. Evaluation of cartilage composition and degradation by high-resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Jürgen; Huster, Daniel; Fuchs, Beate; Naji, Lama; Kaufmann, Jörn; Arnold, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases are accompanied by a progressive destruction of the cartilage layers of the joints. Although the number of patients suffering from rheumatic diseases is steadily increasing, degradation mechanisms of cartilage are not yet understood, and methods for early diagnosis are not available. Although some information on pathogenesis could be obtained from the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of degradation products in the supernatants of cartilage specimens incubated with degradation-causing agents, the most direct information on degradation processes would come from the native cartilage as such. To obtain highly resolved NMR spectra of cartilage, application of the recently developed high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR technique is advisable to obtain small line-widths of individual cartilage resonances. This technique is nowadays commercially available for most NMR spectrometers and has the considerable advantage that the same pulse sequences as in high-resolution NMR can be applied. Except for a MAS spinning equipment, no solid-state NMR hardware is required. Therefore, this method can be easily implemented. Here, we describe the most important requirements that are necessary to record HR-MAS NMR spectra. The capabilities of the HR-MAS technique are discussed for the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of cartilage.

  4. Perturbative estimates of lepton mixing angles in unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: antusch@mppmu.mpg.de; King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-11

    Many unified models predict two large neutrino mixing angles, with the charged lepton mixing angles being small and quark-like, and the neutrino masses being hierarchical. Assuming this, we present simple approximate analytic formulae giving the lepton mixing angles in terms of the underlying high energy neutrino mixing angles together with small perturbations due to both charged lepton corrections and renormalisation group (RG) effects, including also the effects of third family canonical normalization (CN). We apply the perturbative formulae to the ubiquitous case of tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing at the unification scale, in order to predict the theoretical corrections to mixing angle predictions and sum rule relations, and give a general discussion of all limiting cases. We also discuss the implications for the sum rule relations of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  5. Ultra-high resolution profiles of macular intra-retinal layer thicknesses and associations with visual field defects in primary open angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Huang, Shenghai; Ma, Qingkai; Lin, Huiling; Pan, Mengmeng; Liu, Xinting; Lu, Fan; Shen, Meixiao

    2017-02-01

    The structural characteristics of the outer retinal layers in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) are still controversial, and these changes, along with those in the inner retinal layers, could have clinical and/or pathophysiological significance. A custom-built ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) combined with an automated segmentation algorithm can image and measure the eight intra-retinal layers. The purpose of this study is to determine the thickness characteristics of the macular intra-retinal layers, especially the outer layers, in POAG patients. Thirty-four POAG patients (56 eyes) and 33 normal subjects (63 eyes) were enrolled. Thickness profiles of the eight intra-retinal layers along a 6-mm length centred on the fovea at the horizontal and vertical meridians were obtained and the regional thicknesses were compared between two groups. The associations between the thicknesses of each intra-retinal layer and the macular visual field (VF) sensitivity were then analysed. POAG affected not only the inner retinal layers but also the photoreceptor layers and retinal pigment epithelium of the outer retina. However, the VF loss was correlated mainly with the damage of the inner retinal layers. UHR-OCT with automated algorithm is a useful tool in detecting microstructural changes of macula with respect to the progression of glaucoma.

  6. Ultra-high resolution profiles of macular intra-retinal layer thicknesses and associations with visual field defects in primary open angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Huang, Shenghai; Ma, Qingkai; Lin, Huiling; Pan, Mengmeng; Liu, Xinting; Lu, Fan; Shen, Meixiao

    2017-01-01

    The structural characteristics of the outer retinal layers in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) are still controversial, and these changes, along with those in the inner retinal layers, could have clinical and/or pathophysiological significance. A custom-built ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) combined with an automated segmentation algorithm can image and measure the eight intra-retinal layers. The purpose of this study is to determine the thickness characteristics of the macular intra-retinal layers, especially the outer layers, in POAG patients. Thirty-four POAG patients (56 eyes) and 33 normal subjects (63 eyes) were enrolled. Thickness profiles of the eight intra-retinal layers along a 6-mm length centred on the fovea at the horizontal and vertical meridians were obtained and the regional thicknesses were compared between two groups. The associations between the thicknesses of each intra-retinal layer and the macular visual field (VF) sensitivity were then analysed. POAG affected not only the inner retinal layers but also the photoreceptor layers and retinal pigment epithelium of the outer retina. However, the VF loss was correlated mainly with the damage of the inner retinal layers. UHR-OCT with automated algorithm is a useful tool in detecting microstructural changes of macula with respect to the progression of glaucoma. PMID:28169283

  7. An angle encoder for super-high resolution and super-high accuracy using SelfA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsukasa; Kon, Masahito; Nabeshima, Nobuo; Taniguchi, Kayoko

    2014-06-01

    Angular measurement technology at high resolution for applications such as in hard disk drive manufacturing machines, precision measurement equipment and aspherical process machines requires a rotary encoder with high accuracy, high resolution and high response speed. However, a rotary encoder has angular deviation factors during operation due to scale error or installation error. It has been assumed to be impossible to achieve accuracy below 0.1″ in angular measurement or control after the installation onto the rotating axis. Self-calibration (Lu and Trumper 2007 CIRP Ann. 56 499; Kim et al 2011 Proc. MacroScale; Probst 2008 Meas. Sci. Technol. 19 015101; Probst et al Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Tadashi and Makoto 1993 J. Robot. Mechatronics 5 448; Ralf et al 2006 Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 2811) and cross-calibration (Probst et al 1998 Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Just et al 2009 Precis. Eng. 33 530; Burnashev 2013 Quantum Electron. 43 130) technologies for a rotary encoder have been actively discussed on the basis of the principle of circular closure. This discussion prompted the development of rotary tables which achieve reliable and high accuracy angular verification. We apply these technologies for the development of a rotary encoder not only to meet the requirement of super-high accuracy but also to meet that of super-high resolution. This paper presents the development of an encoder with 221 = 2097 152 resolutions per rotation (360°), that is, corresponding to a 0.62″ signal period, achieved by the combination of a laser rotary encoder supplied by Magnescale Co., Ltd and a self-calibratable encoder (SelfA) supplied by The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST). In addition, this paper introduces the development of a rotary encoder to guarantee ±0.03″ accuracy at any point of the interpolated signal, with respect to the encoder at the minimum resolution of 233, that is, corresponding to a 0.0015″ signal period after

  8. A pilot study of high-density electromyographic maps of muscle activity in normal deglutition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zhu, Mingxing; Xu, Lisheng; Li, Guanglin

    2013-01-01

    While various methods have been used to study physiological aspects of swallowing, few studies have been conducted to investigate the dynamics of a swallowing procedure with the activation pattern of swallowing muscles. In this pilot study we investigated the feasibility of surface electromyographic (sEMG) dynamic topography as a new approach for continuously visualizing muscle activity of normal swallowing. The dynamic sEMG topographies (or potential mappings) of swallowing were constructed with high-density sEMG recordings from three subjects without any swallowing disorders. The root mean square (RMS) of the sEMG signals was calculated as a function of both position and time to produce two-dimension dynamic sEMG maps of the muscle activity during swallowing. The sEMG maps could provide the information about the dynamic characteristics of swallowing muscles, which is accordance with physiological and biomechanical laws of a normal swallowing. With the results of the present study, we might conclude that the dynamic topography would provide a noninvasive means to continuously visualize the distribution of surface EMG signals of complex muscle activities of normal deglutition.

  9. Applications of high-resolution magic angle spinning MRS in biomedical studies I-cell line and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebisch, Eva; Fuss, Taylor L; Vandergrift, Lindsey A; Toews, Karin; Habbel, Piet; Cheng, Leo L

    2017-06-01

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) MRS allows for direct measurements of non-liquid tissue and cell specimens to present valuable insights into the cellular metabolisms of physiological and pathological processes. HRMAS produces high-resolution spectra comparable to those obtained from solutions of specimen extracts but without complex metabolite extraction processes, and preserves the tissue cellular structure in a form suitable for pathological examinations following spectroscopic analysis. The technique has been applied in a wide variety of biomedical and biochemical studies and become one of the major platforms of metabolomic studies. By quantifying single metabolites, metabolite ratios, or metabolic profiles in their entirety, HRMAS presents promising possibilities for diagnosis and prediction of clinical outcomes for various diseases, as well as deciphering of metabolic changes resulting from drug therapies or xenobiotic interactions. In this review, we evaluate HRMAS MRS results on animal models and cell lines reported in the literature, and present the diverse applications of the method for the understanding of pathological processes and the effectiveness of therapies, development of disease animal models, and new progress in HRMAS methodology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Extraction of structural and chemical information from high angle annular dark-field image by an improved peaks finding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenhao; Huang, Rong; Qi, Ruijuan; Duan, Chungang

    2016-09-01

    With the development of spherical aberration (Cs) corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), high angle annular dark filed (HAADF) imaging technique has been widely applied in the microstructure characterization of various advanced materials with atomic resolution. However, current qualitative interpretation of the HAADF image is not enough to extract all the useful information. Here a modified peaks finding method was proposed to quantify the HAADF-STEM image to extract structural and chemical information. Firstly, an automatic segmentation technique including numerical filters and watershed algorithm was used to define the sub-areas for each atomic column. Then a 2D Gaussian fitting was carried out to determine the atomic column positions precisely, which provides the geometric information at the unit-cell scale. Furthermore, a self-adaptive integration based on the column position and the covariance of statistical Gaussian distribution were performed. The integrated intensities show very high sensitivity on the mean atomic number with improved signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Consequently, the polarization map and strain distributions were rebuilt from a HAADF-STEM image of the rhombohedral and tetragonal BiFeO3 interface and a MnO2 monolayer in LaAlO3 /SrMnO3 /SrTiO3 heterostructure was discerned from its neighbor TiO2 layers. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:820-826, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Combination of high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and microscale genomics to type brain tumor biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzika, A Aria; Astrakas, Loukas; Cao, Haihui; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Mindrinos, Michael; Zhang, Jiangwen; Rahme, Laurence G; Blekas, Konstantinos D; Likas, Aristidis C; Galatsanos, Nikolas P; Carroll, Rona S; Black, Peter M

    2007-08-01

    Advancements in the diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumor patients, and thus in their survival and quality of life, can be achieved using biomarkers that facilitate improved tumor typing. We introduce and implement a combinatorial metabolic and molecular approach that applies state-of-the-art, high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) proton (1H) MRS and gene transcriptome profiling to intact brain tumor biopsies, to identify unique biomarker profiles of brain tumors. Our results show that samples as small as 2 mg can be successfully processed, the HRMAS 1H MRS procedure does not result in mRNA degradation, and minute mRNA amounts yield high-quality genomic data. The MRS and genomic analyses demonstrate that CNS tumors have altered levels of specific 1H MRS metabolites that directly correspond to altered expression of Kennedy pathway genes; and exhibit rapid phospholipid turnover, which coincides with upregulation of cell proliferation genes. The data also suggest Sonic Hedgehog pathway (SHH) dysregulation may play a role in anaplastic ganglioglioma pathogenesis. That a strong correlation is seen between the HRMAS 1H MRS and genomic data cross-validates and further demonstrates the biological relevance of the MRS results. Our combined metabolic/molecular MRS/genomic approach provides insights into the biology of anaplastic ganglioglioma and a new potential tumor typing methodology that could aid neurologists and neurosurgeons to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and ongoing evaluation of brain tumor patients.

  12. High frequency quasi-normal modes for black-holes with generic singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Saurya; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2004-01-01

    We compute the high frequency quasi-normal modes (QNM) for scalar perturbations of spherically symmetric single horizon black-holes in $(D+2)$-space-time dimensions with generic curvature singularities and having metrics of the form $ds^2 = \\eta x^p (dy^2-dx^2) + x^q d\\O_D^2$ near the singularity $x=0$. The real part of the QN frequencies is shown to be proportional to $\\log \\le[ 1 + 2\\cos \\le(\\p \\le[ qD -2 \\ri]/2 \\ri) \\ri]$ where the constant of proportionality is equal to the Hawking temper...

  13. Protein and Carbohydrate Accumulation in Normal and High-Lysine Barley in Spike Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mather, D.E; Giese, Nanna Henriette

    1984-01-01

    -soluble, hordein, and non-protein N fractions appeared to be normal. Endosperm dry weight and starch were lower than in intact plants and declined at higher N levels. A linear relationship was observed between starch content and the concentration of sucrose in the endosperm water. Uptake of culture medium......Spikes of barley cv. Bomi and high-lysine mutants Riso 1508 and Riso 56 were cultured on liquid media at varying N and sucrose levels. Bomi accumulated N in response to increasing N levels in the medium and a higher level was reached than in spikes of intact plants. The distribution of N in salt...

  14. Rapid high-amplitude circumferential slow wave propagation during normal gastric pacemaking and dysrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, G; Du, P; Paskaranandavadivel, N; Angeli, T R; Lammers, W J E P; Asirvatham, S J; Windsor, J A; Farrugia, G; Pullan, A J; Cheng, L K

    2012-07-01

    Gastric slow waves propagate aborally as rings of excitation. Circumferential propagation does not normally occur, except at the pacemaker region. We hypothesized that (i) the unexplained high-velocity, high-amplitude activity associated with the pacemaker region is a consequence of circumferential propagation; (ii) rapid, high-amplitude circumferential propagation emerges during gastric dysrhythmias; (iii) the driving network conductance might switch between interstitial cells of Cajal myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) and circular interstitial cells of Cajal intramuscular (ICC-IM) during circumferential propagation; and (iv) extracellular amplitudes and velocities are correlated. An experimental-theoretical study was performed. High-resolution gastric mapping was performed in pigs during normal activation, pacing, and dysrhythmia. Activation profiles, velocities, and amplitudes were quantified. ICC pathways were theoretically evaluated in a bidomain model. Extracellular potentials were modeled as a function of membrane potentials. High-velocity, high-amplitude activation was only recorded in the pacemaker region when circumferential conduction occurred. Circumferential propagation accompanied dysrhythmia in 8/8 experiments was faster than longitudinal propagation (8.9 vs 6.9 mm s(-1) ; P = 0.004) and of higher amplitude (739 vs 528 μV; P = 0.007). Simulations predicted that ICC-MP could be the driving network during longitudinal propagation, whereas during ectopic pacemaking, ICC-IM could outpace and activate ICC-MP in the circumferential axis. Experimental and modeling data demonstrated a linear relationship between velocities and amplitudes (P propagation. Rapid circumferential propagation also emerges during a range of gastric dysrhythmias, elevating extracellular amplitudes and organizing transverse wavefronts. One possible explanation for these findings is bidirectional coupling between ICC-MP and circular ICC-IM networks. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The relevance of the high frequency audiometry in tinnitus patients with normal hearing in conventional pure-tone audiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Vielsmeier; Astrid Lehner; Jürgen Strutz; Thomas Steffens; Kreuzer, Peter M; Martin Schecklmann; Michael Landgrebe; Berthold Langguth; Tobias Kleinjung

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The majority of tinnitus patients suffer from hearing loss. But a subgroup of tinnitus patients show normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry (125 Hz–8 kHz). Here we explored whether the results of the high frequency audiometry (>8 kHz) provide relevant additional information in tinnitus patients with normal conventional audiometry by comparing those with normal and pathological high frequency audiometry with respect to their demographic and clinical chara...

  16. High stable, high efficient ultraviolet laser with angle-phase-mismatching compensation by adjusting temperature of the nonlinear crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Houwen; Wang, Bo; Wang, Junhua; Li, Xiaofang; Liu, Zhaojun; Cheng, Wenyong

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrated an ultraviolet laser at 355 nm using a type-I and a type-II phase-matching nonlinear optical crystal of LiB3O5 (LBO). A method of adjusting temperature for compensation is presented. The crystal temperature is controlled by proportional integral derivative (PID) thermal controllers with a  ±0.01 °C resolution. The value of wave vector mismatch, distance of light propagation in nonlinear crystals, effective nonlinear coefficient, theoretical analysis and calculation of conversion efficiency versus temperature are discussed. The experimental results show that the average output power of the 355 nm laser is 1.24 W with the pump power of 13.33 W, when the repetition frequency is 15 kHz. The pulse duration is 9.8 ns, and the beam quality factors are of Mx2   =  1.8, My2   =  1.7. The conversion efficiency from 808 nm to 355 nm laser is 9.3%, which nearly reaches the optimum value reported so far and is limited by the wavelength mismatch between the pumping and absorbing lasers. The 355 nm output power instability of the laser device is 0.45% in 2 h. A compact no-water-cooling ultraviolet laser with high stability and high efficiency is obtained.

  17. Paradoxical effects of ginkgolide B on cardiomyocyte contractile function in normal and high-glucose environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihye KIM; Qun LI; Cindy X FANG; Jun REN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Ginkgo biloba extract is a natural product used widely for cerebral and cardiovascular diseases. It is mainly composed of terpene lactones (ginkgolide A and B) and flavone glycosides (eg quercetin and kaempferol).To better understand the cardiac electromechanical action of Ginkgo biloba extract in normal and diabetic states, this study was designed to examine the effect of ginkgolide B on cardiomyocyte contractile function under normal and high-glucose environments. Methods: Isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes were cultured for 6 h in a serum-free medium containing either normal (NG;5.5 mmol/L) or high (HG;25.5 mmol/L) glucose with or without ginkgolide B (0.5-2.0μg/mL). Mechanical properties were evaluated using the IonOptix MyoCam system. Contractile properties analyzed included peak shortening (PS),maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (+dl/dt),time-to-PS (TPS) and time-to-90% relengthening (TR90). Levels of essential Ca2+ regulatory proteins sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA2a),phospholamban (PLB) and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) were assessed by Western blotting. Results: Ginkgolide B nullified HG-induced prolongation in TR90. However, ginkgolide B depressed PS.±dl/dt and shortened TPS in NG and HG cells. Ginkgolide B also prolonged TR90 in NG cells. Western blot analysis revealed that HG upregulated SERCA2a and downregulated PLB expression without affecting that of NCX. Ginkgolide B disrupted the NG-HG response pattern in SERCA2a and NCX without affecting that of PLB. Conclusion: Ginkgolide B affects cardiomyocyte contractile function under NG or HG environments in a paradoxical manner, which may be attributed to uneven action on Ca2+ regulatory proteins under NG and HG conditions.

  18. Numerical aperture characteristics of angle-ended plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Farrell, Gerard

    2003-03-01

    With the increasing information rates demanded in consumer, automotive and aeronautical applications, a low cost and high performance physical transmission medium is required. Compared with Silica Optical Fiber, Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) offers an economic solution for a range of high-capacity, short-haul applications in industrial and military environments. Recently, a new type of POF, the perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber (PF GI-POF), has been introduced that has low losses and high bandwidth at the communication wavelengths 850 nm and 1300nm. POF is normally terminated perpendicular to the fiber axis. We propose an angle-ended POF, which is terminated at non-perpendicular angles to the fiber axis. The aim of the research is to investigate the numerical aperture (NA) characteristics of angle-ended POF along the major axis of the elliptical endface. A theoretical model indicates that the NA of the angle-ended POF will increase nonlinearly with tilt-angle and the acceptance cone will be deflected with the angle of the deflection increasing nonlinearly with tilt-angle. We present results for the measured NA and the measured deflection angle using the far-field radiation method. Results are presented for 13 angle-ended SI-POF tilt-angles. We also present results for theoretical value of NA and deflection angle as a function of tilt-angle. The agreement between the measured and theoretical value is good up to tilt-angles of about 15 degrees, beyond which deviation occurs.

  19. Relationship between high normal TSH levels and metabolic syndrome components in type 2 diabetic subjects with euthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilit Petrosyan

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: In type 2 diabetic subjects with biochemical euthyroidism we found significant association between high normal TSH levels and components of metabolic syndrome. High normal TSH levels were associated with more number of subjects with glycemic goal (HbA1c >7%.

  20. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in the high normal range is associated with lower prevalence of insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jujić, Amra; Nilsson, Peter M; Persson, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    plasma levels of mid-regional proANP (MR-proANP) are associated with insulin resistance and post challenge incretin secretion after long-term follow-up. Design/Setting/Patients MR-proANP was measured in 2243 non-diabetic individuals at baseline examination of Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular cohort...... was inversely associated with insulin resistance calculated as HOMA-IR (per 1 SD change β= -0.066, p-value 0.001) at follow-up. Logistic regression analysis showed that each 1 SD increment of baseline ANP levels resulted in lower risk of belonging to upper quartile of HOMA-IR at follow-up (OR 0.88; CI 95 % 0...... after 75g glucose intake at 16.5 years of follow up. CONCLUSION: Midlife exposure to ANP within the high normal range is associated with lower risk of insulin resistance. Further, midlife exposure to ANP within the high normal range is associated with greater post challenge GIP secretion at follow...

  1. High-normal calcium (1.35 mmol/l) dialysate in patients on CAPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Brandi, L; Olgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term efficacy and safety of treatment with a high-normal calcium dialysate with a calcium concentration of 1.35 mmol/l in patients on CAPD. This dialysate calcium concentration is close to the high-normal plasma ionized calcium level aimed......-containing phosphate binders, and (5) bone mineral density (BMD). RESULTS: Thirty-seven non-selected patients on CAPD treatment were followed for an average of 10 months after switching from a dialysate Ca of 1.75 to 1.35 mmol/l. After 1 week, a significant decrease of mean iCa from 1.26 +/- 0.01 to 1.23 +/- 0.01 mmol...... from a dialysate Ca of 1.75 to 1.35 mmol/l, the doses of calcium carbonate and alfacalcidol could be significantly increased. Furthermore, using the dialysate Ca of 1.35 mmol/l made it possible to induce a controlled increase of PTH levels to 80-100 pg/ml by a temporarily discontinuation...

  2. Ultrasonic measurements of normal and superfluid He-3 in high porosity aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonseok

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance have been proven to be the most valuable spectroscopic tools in the study of superfluid 3He. These experimental methods provide complementary information on the orbital and spin structure of the Cooper pairs. In particular, the rich spectrum of the order parameter collective modes, a direct consequence of the exotic broken symmetry in the superfluid phases, have been mapped out by ultrasonic spectroscopic techniques. Aerogel possesses a unique structure, whose topology is at the antipode of conventional porous media such as Vycor glass and metallic sinters. High porosity aerogel presents additional scattering channel that substantially changes the ultrasonic behavior in both normal and superfluid phase of 3He. For example, in the normal fluid the classic first to zero sound crossover is effectively prohibited due to the residual elastic scattering from aerogel. However, the hydrodynamic-Knudsen crossover arises owing to the unique structure and the widely varying inelastic mean free path in 3He. In superfluid, no signatures of the order parameter collective modes were observed but the gapless superfluidity has been clearly verified through ultrasound measurements. In this paper, we will present the experimental results obtained in the past decade using ultrasonic techniques. Supported by NSF DMR-0803516 and DMR-1205891, and DMR-0654118 through National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the State of Florida.

  3. Surface Interactions and Confinement of Methane: A High Pressure Magic Angle Spinning NMR and Computational Chemistry Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, Salim; Hoyt, David W.; Andersen, Amity; Sheets, Julie; Welch, Susan A.; Cole, David R.; Mueller, Karl T.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2017-01-18

    Characterization and modeling of the molecular-level behavior of simple hydrocarbon gases, such as methane, in the presence of both nonporous and nano-porous mineral matrices allows for predictive understanding of important processes in engineered and natural systems. In this study, changes in local electromagnetic environments of the carbon atoms in methane under conditions of high pressure (up to 130 bar) and moderate temperature (up to 346 K) were observed with 13C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy while the methane gas was mixed with two model solid substrates: a fumed non-porous, 12 nm particle size silica and a mesoporous silica with 200 nm particle size and 4 nm average pore diameter. Examination of the interactions between methane and the silica systems over temperatures and pressures that include the supercritical regime was allowed by a novel high pressure MAS sample containment system, which provided high resolution spectra collected under in situ conditions. For pure methane, no significant thermal effects were found for the observed 13C chemical shifts at all pressures studied here (28.2 bar, 32.6 bar, 56.4 bar, 65.1 bar, 112.7 bar, and 130.3 bar). However, the 13C chemical shifts of resonances arising from confined methane changed slightly with changes in temperature in mixtures with mesoporous silica. The chemical shift values of 13C nuclides in methane change measurably as a function of pressure both in the pure state and in mixtures with both silica matrices, with a more pronounced shift when meso-porous silica is present. Molecular-level simulations utilizing GCMC, MD and DFT confirm qualitatively that the experimentally measured changes are attributed to interactions of methane with the hydroxylated silica surfaces as well as densification of methane within nanopores and on pore surfaces.

  4. Complete protocol for slow-spinning high-resolution magic-angle spinning NMR analysis of fragile tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marion; Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Rezig, Lamya; Shintu, Laetitia; Piotto, Martial; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2014-11-04

    High-resolution magic-angle spinning (HR-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an essential tool to characterize a variety of semisolid systems, including biological tissues, with virtually no sample preparation. The "non-destructive" nature of NMR is typically compromised, however, by the extreme centrifugal forces experienced under conventional HR-MAS frequencies of several kilohertz. These features limit the usefulness of current HR-MAS approaches for fragile samples. Here, we introduce a full protocol for acquiring high-quality HR-MAS NMR spectra of biological tissues at low spinning rates (down to a few hundred hertz). The protocol first consists of a carefully designed sample preparation, which yields spectra without significant spinning sidebands at low spinning frequency for several types of sample holders, including the standard disposable inserts classically used in HR-MAS NMR-based metabolomics. Suppression of broad spectral features is then achieved using a modified version of the recently introduced PROJECT experiment with added water suppression and rotor synchronization, which deposits limited power in the sample and which can be suitably rotor-synchronized at low spinning rates. The performance of the slow HR-MAS NMR procedure is demonstrated on conventional (liver tissue) and very delicate (fish eggs) samples, for which the slow-spinning conditions are shown to preserve the structural integrity and to minimize intercompartmental leaks of metabolites. Taken together, these results expand the applicability and reliability of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. These results have been obtained at 400 and 600 MHz and suggest that high-quality slow HR-MAS spectra can be expected at higher magnetic fields using the described protocol.

  5. Mineral Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2: An in situ High-Pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcu, R. V.; Hoyt, D. H.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Felmy, A. R.; Hu, J. Z.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms and kinetics of mineral carbonation reactions relevant to sequestering carbon dioxide as a supercritical fluid (scCO2) in geologic formations is crucial for accurately predicting long-term storage risks. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information at geologically relevant temperatures and pressures are highly desirable and challenging to develop. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof. However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS sample rotor. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability capable of handling fluid pressure exceeding 170 bars and temperatures up to 80°C, and its application to mineral carbonation in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures. Mineral carbonation reactions of the magnesium silicate mineral forsterite and the magnesium hydroxide brucite reacted with scCO2 (up to 170 bar) and containing variable content of H2O (at, below, and above saturation in scCO2) were investigated at 50 to 70°C. In situ 13C MAS NMR spectra show peaks corresponding to the reactants, intermediates, and the magnesium carbonation products in a single spectrum. For example, Figure 1 shows the reaction dynamics, i.e., the formation and conversion of reaction intermediates, i.e., HCO3- and nesquehonite, to magnesite as a function of time at 70°C. This capability offers a significant advantage over traditional ex situ 13C MAS experiments on similar systems, where, for example, CO2 and HCO3- are not directly observable.

  6. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  7. Nano-Structural Investigation on Cellulose Highly Dissolved in Ionic Liquid: A Small Angle X-ray Scattering Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatsugu Endo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated nano-structural changes of cellulose dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate—an ionic liquid (IL—using a small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS technique over the entire concentration range (0–100 mol %. Fibril structures of cellulose disappeared at 40 mol % of cellulose, which is a significantly higher concentration than the maximum concentration of dissolution (24–28 mol % previously determined in this IL. This behavior is explained by the presence of the anion bridging, whereby an anion prefers to interact with multiple OH groups of different cellulose molecules at high concentrations, discovered in our recent work. Furthermore, we observed the emergence of two aggregated nano-structures in the concentration range of 30–80 mol %. The diameter of one structure was 12–20 nm, dependent on concentration, which is ascribed to cellulose chain entanglement. In contrast, the other with 4.1 nm diameter exhibited concentration independence and is reminiscent of a cellulose microfibril, reflecting the occurrence of nanofibrillation. These results contribute to an understanding of the dissolution mechanism of cellulose in ILs. Finally, we unexpectedly proposed a novel cellulose/IL composite: the cellulose/IL mixtures of 30–50 mol % that possess liquid crystallinity are sufficiently hard to be moldable.

  8. High-resolution magic angle spinning (1) H NMR measurement of ligand concentration in solvent-saturated chromatographic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwinger, Fredrik; Furó, István

    2016-04-01

    A method based on (1) H high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR has been developed for measuring concentration accurately in heterogeneous materials like that of ligands in chromatography media. Ligand concentration is obtained by relating the peak integrals for a butyl ligand in the spectrum of a water-saturated chromatography medium to the integral of the added internal reference. The method is fast, with capacity of 10 min total sample preparation and analysis time per sample; precise, with a reproducibility expressed as 1.7% relative standard deviation; and accurate, as indicated by the excellent agreement of derived concentration with that obtained previously by (13) C single-pulse excitation MAS NMR. The effects of radiofrequency field inhomogeneity, spin rate, temperature increase due to spinning, and distribution and re-distribution of medium and reference solvent both inside the rotor during spinning and between bulk solvent and pore space are discussed in detail. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Direct determination of phosphate sugars in biological material by (1)H high-resolution magic-angle-spinning NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diserens, Gaëlle; Vermathen, Martina; Gjuroski, Ilche; Eggimann, Sandra; Precht, Christina; Boesch, Chris; Vermathen, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The study aim was to unambiguously assign nucleotide sugars, mainly UDP-X that are known to be important in glycosylation processes as sugar donors, and glucose-phosphates that are important intermediate metabolites for storage and transfer of energy directly in spectra of intact cells, as well as in skeletal muscle biopsies by (1)H high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS) NMR. The results demonstrate that sugar phosphates can be determined quickly and non-destructively in cells and biopsies by HR-MAS, which may prove valuable considering the importance of phosphate sugars in cell metabolism for nucleic acid synthesis. As proof of principle, an example of phosphate-sugar reaction and degradation kinetics after unfreezing the sample is shown for a cardiac muscle, suggesting the possibility to follow by HR-MAS NMR some metabolic pathways. Graphical abstract Glucose-phosphate sugars (Glc-1P and Glc-6P) detected in muscle by 1H HR-MAS NMR.

  10. Evaluation of Cancer Metabolomics Using ex vivo High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Taylor L; Cheng, Leo L

    2016-03-22

    According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, cancer is responsible for more deaths than all coronary heart disease or stroke worldwide, serving as a major public health threat around the world. High resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has demonstrated its usefulness in the identification of cancer metabolic markers with the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis for the oncology clinic, due partially to its ability to preserve tissue architecture for subsequent histological and molecular pathology analysis. Capable of the quantification of individual metabolites, ratios of metabolites, and entire metabolomic profiles, HRMAS MRS is one of the major techniques now used in cancer metabolomic research. This article reviews and discusses literature reports of HRMAS MRS studies of cancer metabolomics published between 2010 and 2015 according to anatomical origins, including brain, breast, prostate, lung, gastrointestinal, and neuroendocrine cancers. These studies focused on improving diagnosis and understanding patient prognostication, monitoring treatment effects, as well as correlating with the use of in vivo MRS in cancer clinics.

  11. The potential link between high angle grain boundary morphology and grain boundary deformation in a nickel-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jennifer L.W., E-mail: jennifer.w.carter@case.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Sosa, John M. [Center for Accelerated Maturation of Materials, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Shade, Paul A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials & Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RXCM, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Fraser, Hamish L. [Center for Accelerated Maturation of Materials, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Uchic, Michael D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials & Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RXCM, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Mills, Michael J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Focused ion beam (FIB) based serial sectioning was utilized to characterize the morphology of two high angle grain boundaries (HAGB) in a nickel based superalloy, one that experienced grain boundary sliding (GBS) and the other experienced strain accumulation, during elevated temperature constant stress loading conditions. A custom script was utilized to serial section and collect ion-induced secondary electron images from the FIB-SEM system. The MATLAB based MIPAR{sup TM} software was utilized to align, segment and reconstruct 3D volumes from the sectioned images. Analysis of the 3D data indicates that the HAGB that exhibited GBS had microscale curvature that was planar in nature, and local serrations on the order of ±150 nm. In contrast, the HAGB that exhibited strain accumulation was not planar and had local serrations an order of magnitude greater than the other grain boundary. It is hypothesized that the serrations and the local grain boundary network are key factors in determining which grain boundaries experience GBS during creep deformation.

  12. High density electromyography data of normally limbed and transradial amputee subjects for multifunction prosthetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Heather; Englehart, Kevin; Hargrove, Levi; Kuruganti, Usha

    2012-06-01

    Pattern recognition based control of powered upper limb myoelectric prostheses offers a means of extracting more information from the available muscles than conventional methods. By identifying repeatable patterns of muscle activity across multiple muscle sites rather than relying on independent EMG signals it is possible to provide more natural, reliable control of myoelectric prostheses. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine if participants can perform distinctive muscle activation patterns associated with multiple wrist and hand movements reliably and (2) to show that high density EMG can be applied individually to determine the electrode location of a clinically acceptable number of electrodes (maximally eight) to classify multiple wrist and hand movements reliably in transradial amputees. Eight normally limbed subjects (five female, three male) and four transradial amputee subjects (two traumatic and congenital) subjects participated in this study, which examined the classification accuracies of a pattern recognition control system. It was found that tasks could be classified with high accuracy (85-98%) with normally limbed subjects (10-13 tasks) and with amputees (4-6) tasks. In healthy subjects, reducing the number of electrodes to eight did not affect accuracy significantly when those electrodes were optimally placed, but did reduce accuracy significantly when those electrodes were distributed evenly. In the amputee subjects, reducing the number of electrodes up to 4 did not affect classification accuracy or the number of tasks with high accuracy, independent of whether those remaining electrodes were evenly distributed or optimally placed. The findings in healthy subjects suggest that high density EMG testing is a useful tool to identify optimal electrode sites for pattern recognition control, but its use in amputees still has to be proven. Instead of just identifying the electrode sites where EMG activity is strong, clinicians will be able to

  13. Statistical Contact Angle Analyses with the High-Precision Drop Shape Analysis (HPDSA) Approach: Basic Principles and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Heib; Michael Schmitt

    2016-01-01

    Surface science, which includes the preparation, development and analysis of surfaces and coatings, is essential in both fundamental and applied as well as in engineering and industrial research. Contact angle measurements using sessile drop techniques are commonly used to characterize coated surfaces or surface modifications. Well-defined surfaces structures at both nanoscopic and microscopic level can be achieved but the reliable characterization by means of contact angle measurements and t...

  14. Effect of high myopia on 24-hour intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying-xin; WANG Ning-li; WU Lie; ZHEN Yi; WANG Tao; REN Cai-xia; PENG Xiao-xia; HAO Jie; XIA Yan-ting

    2012-01-01

    Background As intraocular pressure (lOP) and lOP fluctuation are known risk factors for glaucoma,it is important to understand the effects of high myopia on these ocular parameters.The aim of this study was to investigate if primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with high myopia exhibit higher lOP and greater lOP fluctuations at resting conditions over 24 hours.@@Methods We designed a prospective control clinical study.Eighty-two eyes of 82 high-tension Chinese POAG patients only on prostaglandin analogue locally were divided into 3 groups according to various myopic grades (<-6.0 D,n=27 and between -0.76 and -5.99 D,n=33) or without myopia (-0.75 to 0.75 D,n=22).Single time lOP at 10 am,mean corrected 24-hour lOP,mean corrected night lOP,24-hour lOP fluctuation and lOPs of 10 am,2 pm,6 pm,10 pm,2 am,6 am and 8 am were measured.@@Results The lOP was higher in POAG patients with high myopia over those POAG alone in three ways:the elevated lOP value was 0.65 mmHg measured in single time lOP at 10 am,0.84 mmHg in mean corrected 24-hour lOP,0.97 mmHg in mean corrected night lOP.The 24-hour lOP fluctuation was lower in the two myopia groups than in non-myopia group.Further,using repeated measurement analysis of variance,there was no statistical significance among groups regarding the lOPs at the seven time points (P=0.77) and there was no interaction between groups and time points (P=0.71),but the difference of lOPs at the seven time points in same group was statistically significant (P=0.01).@@Conclusion High-tension POAG patients with high myopia,even on pharmacological glaucoma therapy,still have higher lOp,but 24-hour lOP fluctuation at resting conditions was lower in these patients.

  15. The Relevance of the High Frequency Audiometry in Tinnitus Patients with Normal Hearing in Conventional Pure-Tone Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielsmeier, Veronika; Lehner, Astrid; Strutz, Jürgen; Steffens, Thomas; Kreuzer, Peter M; Schecklmann, Martin; Landgrebe, Michael; Langguth, Berthold; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The majority of tinnitus patients suffer from hearing loss. But a subgroup of tinnitus patients show normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry (125 Hz-8 kHz). Here we explored whether the results of the high frequency audiometry (>8 kHz) provide relevant additional information in tinnitus patients with normal conventional audiometry by comparing those with normal and pathological high frequency audiometry with respect to their demographic and clinical characteristics. From the database of the Tinnitus Clinic at Regensburg we identified 75 patients with normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry. We contrasted these patients with normal and pathological high-frequency audiogram and compared them with respect to gender, age, tinnitus severity, pitch, laterality and duration, comorbid symptoms and triggers for tinnitus onset. Patients with pathological high frequency audiometry were significantly older and had higher scores on the tinnitus questionnaires in comparison to patients with normal high frequency audiometry. Furthermore, there was an association of high frequency audiometry with the laterality of tinnitus. In tinnitus patients with normal pure-tone audiometry the high frequency audiometry provides useful additional information. The association between tinnitus laterality and asymmetry of the high frequency audiometry suggests a potential causal role for the high frequency hearing loss in tinnitus etiopathogenesis.

  16. The Relevance of the High Frequency Audiometry in Tinnitus Patients with Normal Hearing in Conventional Pure-Tone Audiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vielsmeier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The majority of tinnitus patients suffer from hearing loss. But a subgroup of tinnitus patients show normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry (125 Hz–8 kHz. Here we explored whether the results of the high frequency audiometry (>8 kHz provide relevant additional information in tinnitus patients with normal conventional audiometry by comparing those with normal and pathological high frequency audiometry with respect to their demographic and clinical characteristics. Subjects and Methods. From the database of the Tinnitus Clinic at Regensburg we identified 75 patients with normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry. We contrasted these patients with normal and pathological high-frequency audiogram and compared them with respect to gender, age, tinnitus severity, pitch, laterality and duration, comorbid symptoms and triggers for tinnitus onset. Results. Patients with pathological high frequency audiometry were significantly older and had higher scores on the tinnitus questionnaires in comparison to patients with normal high frequency audiometry. Furthermore, there was an association of high frequency audiometry with the laterality of tinnitus. Conclusion. In tinnitus patients with normal pure-tone audiometry the high frequency audiometry provides useful additional information. The association between tinnitus laterality and asymmetry of the high frequency audiometry suggests a potential causal role for the high frequency hearing loss in tinnitus etiopathogenesis.

  17. Hepatic glucose metabolism in late pregnancy: normal versus high-fat and -fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Smith, Marta S; Shiota, Masakazu; Irimia, Jose M; Roach, Peter J; Farmer, Ben; Williams, Phillip E; Moore, Mary Courtney

    2013-03-01

    Net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) is an important contributor to postprandial glycemic control. We hypothesized that NHGU is reduced during normal pregnancy and in a pregnant diet-induced model of impaired glucose intolerance/gestational diabetes mellitus (IGT/GDM). Dogs (n = 7 per group) that were nonpregnant (N), normal pregnant (P), or pregnant with IGT/GDM (pregnant dogs fed a high-fat and -fructose diet [P-HFF]) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamp with intraportal glucose infusion. Clamp period insulin, glucagon, and glucose concentrations and hepatic glucose loads did not differ among groups. The N dogs reached near-maximal NHGU rates within 30 min; mean ± SEM NHGU was 105 ± 9 µmol·100 g liver⁻¹·min⁻¹. The P and P-HFF dogs reached maximal NHGU in 90-120 min; their NHGU was blunted (68 ± 9 and 16 ± 17 µmol·100 g liver⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively). Hepatic glycogen synthesis was reduced 20% in P versus N and 40% in P-HFF versus P dogs. This was associated with a reduction (>70%) in glycogen synthase activity in P-HFF versus P and increased glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity in both P (1.7-fold greater than N) and P-HFF (1.8-fold greater than P) dogs. Thus, NHGU under conditions mimicking the postprandial state is delayed and suppressed in normal pregnancy, with concomitant reduction in glycogen storage. NHGU is further blunted in IGT/GDM. This likely contributes to postprandial hyperglycemia during pregnancy, with potential adverse outcomes for the fetus and mother.

  18. Apparatus for simultaneous rheology and small-angle neutron scattering from high-viscosity polymer melts and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Jitendra, E-mail: jitendra.sharma@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, Science Site Laboratories, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); King, Stephen M. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bohlin, Leif [Reologen i Lund AB, Oved 19, S-27594 Sjoebo (Sweden); Clarke, Nigel [Department of Chemistry, Science Site Laboratories, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-21

    In situ study of structural changes in soft matter systems while exposed to shear gives vital information related to the dynamics of polymers. A new shear apparatus has been developed for simultaneous rheology and in situ small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from high-viscosity polymeric melts and blends. The apparatus described here enables one to perform rheological measurements in a plate-plate geometry under various modes of applied shear viz., steady, oscillatory, and other programmed mode, in a wide range of temperatures that can be varied from ambient to 550 K. A major advantage of this instrument compared to other counterparts (available elsewhere) for a similar geometry of operation is that it is also equipped with a strain sensor for rheological measurements along with the capability to offer both steady state and oscillatory shearing measurements with a single instrument, something hitherto not possible due to the limitations imposed by the conceived design of the instruments. Besides, the parallel plate geometry of the apparatus utilized here offers a distinctive edge over Couette type cells used for similar purposes as the latter is often not suitable for studies on well-entangled concentrated polymeric systems due to high viscosity and associated large sample volume requirements. The details of the design, construction and operation of such device, the Rheo-SANS apparatus, are described in this paper. Preliminary test data obtained from the initial experiments on different samples of blends of deuterated polystyrene and poly(vinyl methyl ether) are presented and discussed within the context of theories known to predict their behaviour.

  19. Application of High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy to Define the Cell Uptake of MRI Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, Luisella; Alfieri, Goffredo; Biondi, Luca; De Miranda, Mario; Paleari, Lino; Ghelli, Stefano

    2002-06-01

    A new method, based on proton high-resolution magic-angle spinning ( 1H HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy, has been employed to study the cell uptake of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents (MRI-CAs). The method was tested on human red blood cells (HRBC) and white blood cells (HWBC) by using three gadolinium complexes, widely used in diagnostics, Gd-BOPTA, Gd-DTPA, and Gd-DOTA, and the analogous complexes obtained by replacing Gd(III) with Dy(III), Nd(III), and Tb(III) (i.e., complexes isostructural to the ones of gadolinium but acting as shift agents). The method is based on the evaluation of the magnetic effects, line broadening, or induced lanthanide shift (LIS) caused by these complexes on NMR signals of intra- and extracellular water. Since magnetic effects are directly linked to permeability, this method is direct. In all the tests, these magnetic effects were detected for the extracellular water signal only, providing a direct proof that these complexes are not able to cross the cell membrane. Line broadening effects (i.e., the use of gadolinium complexes) only allow qualitative evaluations. On the contrary, LIS effects can be measured with high precision and they can be related to the concentration of the paramagnetic species in the cellular compartments. This is possible because the HR-MAS technique provides the complete elimination of bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shift and the differentiation of extra- and intracellular water signals. Thus with this method, the rapid quantification of the MRI-CA amount inside and outside the cells is actually feasible.

  20. Electronic band structure of ReS2 by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, James L.; Hart, Lewis S.; Wolverson, Daniel; Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, Jose; Asensio, Maria C.

    2017-09-01

    The rhenium-based transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are atypical of the TMD family due to their highly anisotropic crystalline structure and are recognized as promising materials for two-dimensional heterostructure devices. The nature of the band gap (direct or indirect) for bulk, few-, and single-layer forms of ReS2 is of particular interest, due to its comparatively weak interplanar interaction. However, the degree of interlayer interaction and the question of whether a transition from indirect to direct gap is observed on reducing thickness (as in other TMDs) are controversial. We present a direct determination of the valence band structure of bulk ReS2 using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We find a clear in-plane anisotropy due to the presence of chains of Re atoms, with a strongly directional effective mass which is larger in the direction orthogonal to the Re chains (2.2 me ) than along them (1.6 me ). An appreciable interplane interaction results in an experimentally measured difference of ≈100 -200 meV between the valence band maxima at the Z point (0,0,1/2 ) and the Γ point (0,0,0) of the three-dimensional Brillouin zone. This leads to a direct gap at Z and a close-lying but larger gap at Γ , implying that bulk ReS2 is marginally indirect. This may account for recent conflicting transport and photoluminescence measurements and the resulting uncertainty about the nature of the band gap in this material.

  1. Primary open-angle glaucoma genes

    OpenAIRE

    Fingert, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial fraction of glaucoma has a genetic basis. About 5% of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is currently attributed to single-gene or Mendelian forms of glaucoma (ie glaucoma caused by mutations in myocilinor optineurin). Mutations in these genes have a high likelihood of leading to glaucoma and are rarely seen in normal subjects. Other cases of POAG have a more complex genetic basis and are caused by the combined effects of many genetic and environmental risk factors, each of whic...

  2. An Angle Resolved Photoemission Study of a Mott Insulator and Its Evolution to a High Temperature Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronning, Filip

    2002-03-19

    One of the most remarkable facts about the high temperature superconductors is their close proximity to an antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulating phase. This fact suggests that to understand superconductivity in the cuprates we must first understand the insulating regime. Due to material properties the technique of angle resolved photoemission is ideally suited to study the electronic structure in the cuprates. Thus, a natural starting place to unlocking the secrets of high Tc would appears to be with a photoemission investigation of insulating cuprates. This dissertation presents the results of precisely such a study. In particular, we have focused on the compound Ca{sub 2-x}Na{sub x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. With increasing Na content this system goes from an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator with a Neel transition of 256K to a superconductor with an optimal transition temperature of 28K. At half filling we have found an asymmetry in the integrated spectral weight, which can be related to the occupation probability, n(k). This has led us to identify a d-wave-like dispersion in the insulator, which in turn implies that the high energy pseudogap as seen by photoemission is a remnant property of the insulator. These results are robust features of the insulator which we found in many different compounds and experimental conditions. By adding Na we were able to study the evolution of the electronic structure across the insulator to metal transition. We found that the chemical potential shifts as holes are doped into the system. This picture is in sharp contrast to the case of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} where the chemical potential remains fixed and states are created inside the gap. Furthermore, the low energy excitations (ie the Fermi surface) in metallic Ca{sub 1.9}Na{sub 0.1}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} is most well described as a Fermi arc, although the high binding energy features reveal the presence of shadow bands. Thus, the results in this dissertation provide a

  3. Dynamic high-resolution US of ankle and midfoot ligaments: normal anatomic structure and imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Orlandi, Davide; Lacelli, Francesca; Serafini, Giovanni; Silvestri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    The ankle is the most frequently injured major joint in the body, and ankle sprains are frequently encountered in individuals playing football, basketball, and other team sports, in addition to occurring in the general population. Imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of ankle ligaments. Magnetic resonance imaging has been proven to provide excellent evaluation of ligaments around the ankle, with the ability to show associated intraarticular abnormalities, joint effusion, and bone marrow edema. Ultrasonography (US) performed with high-resolution broadband linear-array probes has become increasingly important in the assessment of ligaments around the ankle because it is low cost, fast, readily available, and free of ionizing radiation. US can provide a detailed depiction of normal anatomic structures and is effective for evaluating ligament integrity. In addition, US allows the performance of dynamic maneuvers, which may contribute to increased visibility of normal ligaments and improved detection of tears. In this article, the authors describe the US techniques for evaluation of the ankle and midfoot ligaments and include a brief review of the literature related to their basic anatomic structures and US of these structures. Short video clips showing dynamic maneuvers and dynamic real-time US of ankle and midfoot structures and their principal pathologic patterns are included as supplemental material. Use of a standardized imaging technique may help reduce the intrinsic operator dependence of US. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  4. High-resolution SNP array analysis of patients with developmental disorder and normal array CGH results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siggberg Linda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic analysis of patients with developmental disorders has improved over recent years largely due to the use of microarray technology. Array methods that facilitate copy number analysis have enabled the diagnosis of up to 20% more patients with previously normal karyotyping results. A substantial number of patients remain undiagnosed, however. Methods and Results Using the Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0, we analyzed 35 patients with a developmental disorder of unknown cause and normal array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH results, in order to characterize previously undefined genomic aberrations. We detected no seemingly pathogenic copy number aberrations. Most of the vast amount of data produced by the array was polymorphic and non-informative. Filtering of this data, based on copy number variant (CNV population frequencies as well as phenotypically relevant genes, enabled pinpointing regions of allelic homozygosity that included candidate genes correlating to the phenotypic features in four patients, but results could not be confirmed. Conclusions In this study, the use of an ultra high-resolution SNP array did not contribute to further diagnose patients with developmental disorders of unknown cause. The statistical power of these results is limited by the small size of the patient cohort, and interpretation of these negative results can only be applied to the patients studied here. We present the results of our study and the recurrence of clustered allelic homozygosity present in this material, as detected by the SNP 6.0 array.

  5. Artery wall layer dimensions during normal pregnancy: a longitudinal study using noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Tansim; Larsson, Anders; Larsson, Marita; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Naessen, Tord

    2013-01-15

    The vascular effects of normal pregnancy were investigated by estimating the intima and media thicknesses of the common carotid artery separately using 22-MHz ultrasound (Collagenoson, Meudt, Germany) in 57 healthy women with normal pregnancies and pregnancy outcomes, in all three trimesters and at 1 yr postpartum. A thick intima, thin media, and high intima-to-media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. Mean artery wall layer dimensions remained fairly constant during pregnancy, but the intima thickness and I/M thickness ratio appeared to improve (decrease) postpartum (P blood pressure in the first trimester were associated with higher I/M ratios, especially in the second trimester, whereas higher serum estradiol levels were significantly associated with a lower I/M ratio. Changes from the first to second trimesters in I/M ratio, taking into account differential changes in intima and media thickness, were significantly (P pregnancy appeared to improve postpartum. However, higher age, body mass index, or blood pressure and lower serum estradiol levels in the first trimester appeared to negatively affect the artery wall, strongly suggesting that pregnancy has negative vascular effects in some women. A less likely explanation involves possible adaptation to physiological changes during and after pregnancy.

  6. Implementation of a Rotational Ultrasound Biomicroscopy System Equipped with a High-Frequency Angled Needle Transducer — Ex Vivo Ultrasound Imaging of Porcine Ocular Posterior Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Bok

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical scanning of a single element transducer has been mostly utilized for high-frequency ultrasound imaging. However, it requires space for the mechanical motion of the transducer. In this paper, a rotational scanning ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM system equipped with a high-frequency angled needle transducer is designed and implemented in order to minimize the space required. It was applied to ex vivo ultrasound imaging of porcine posterior ocular tissues through a minimal incision hole of 1 mm in diameter. The retina and sclera for the one eye were visualized in the relative rotating angle range of 270° ~ 330° and at a distance range of 6 ~ 7 mm, whereas the tissues of the other eye were observed in relative angle range of 160° ~ 220° and at a distance range of 7.5 ~ 9 mm. The layer between retina and sclera seemed to be bent because the distance between the transducer tip and the layer was varied while the transducer was rotated. Certin features of the rotation system such as the optimal scanning angle, step angle and data length need to be improved for ensure higher accuracy and precision. Moreover, the focal length should be considered for the image quality. This implementation represents the first report of a rotational scanning UBM system.

  7. Dental arch changes from 22 to 43 years of age: are they different in individuals with high versus low mandibular plane angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondevik, Olav; Espeland, Lisen; Stenvik, Arild

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether individuals with high and low mandibular plane angles, respectively, have different patterns of long-term dental arch changes in adulthood. The material comprised 16 low-angle (≤ 24.4 degree) and 10 high-angle individuals (≥38.7 degree). Mean age was 22.7 years when the first recordings were made (T1), and new recordings were made 10 (T2) and 20 (T3) years later. The individuals were orthodontically untreated except for three who had been out of retention for more than 5 years before T1. Lateral cephalograms and study casts were obtained on all three occasions. For the total observation period, the greatest mean changes were observed as a 1mm decrease of lower intercanine width and arch depths in both groups. Intermolar widths increased less than 0.5mm. Upper and lower crowding increased in the range of 0.5-0.7mm in the two groups. Only small changes occurred in overjet and overbite. Differences between groups were not significant except for lower anterior arch depth which decreased more in the low-angle group, and overjet which increased in the high- and decreased in the low-angle group. During both periods the changes were generally in the same direction. Changes in dental arch dimensions from third to fifth decade of life are small and generally similar in individuals with high versus low mandibular plane angles. The changes are for most variables in the same direction in the two periods examined. The only significant differences between the groups are the changes in lower arch depth and overjet. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. High-throughput biomarker segmentation on ovarian cancer tissue microarrays via hierarchical normalized cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowczyk, Andrew; Chandran, Sharat; Singh, Rajendra; Sasaroli, Dimitra; Coukos, George; Feldman, Michael D; Madabhushi, Anant

    2012-05-01

    We present a system for accurately quantifying the presence and extent of stain on account of a vascular biomarker on tissue microarrays. We demonstrate our flexible, robust, accurate, and high-throughput minimally supervised segmentation algorithm, termed hierarchical normalized cuts (HNCuts) for the specific problem of quantifying extent of vascular staining on ovarian cancer tissue microarrays. The high-throughput aspect of HNCut is driven by the use of a hierarchically represented data structure that allows us to merge two powerful image segmentation algorithms-a frequency weighted mean shift and the normalized cuts algorithm. HNCuts rapidly traverses a hierarchical pyramid, generated from the input image at various color resolutions, enabling the rapid analysis of large images (e.g., a 1500 × 1500 sized image under 6 s on a standard 2.8-GHz desktop PC). HNCut is easily generalizable to other problem domains and only requires specification of a few representative pixels (swatch) from the object of interest in order to segment the target class. Across ten runs, the HNCut algorithm was found to have average true positive, false positive, and false negative rates (on a per pixel basis) of 82%, 34%, and 18%, in terms of overlap, when evaluated with respect to a pathologist annotated ground truth of the target region of interest. By comparison, a popular supervised classifier (probabilistic boosting trees) was only able to marginally improve on the true positive and false negative rates (84% and 14%) at the expense of a higher false positive rate (73%), with an additional computation time of 62% compared to HNCut. We also compared our scheme against a k-means clustering approach, which both the HNCut and PBT schemes were able to outperform. Our success in accurately quantifying the extent of vascular stain on ovarian cancer TMAs suggests that HNCut could be a very powerful tool in digital pathology and bioinformatics applications where it could be used to

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Intact Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves during Circadian Cycle Using 1H High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schadewijk, R.; de Groot, H. J. M.; Alia, A.

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely used model organism for research in plant biology. While significant advances in understanding plant growth and development have been made by focusing on the molecular genetics of Arabidopsis, extracting and understanding the functional framework of metabolism is challenging, both from a technical perspective due to losses and modification during extraction of metabolites from the leaves, and from the biological perspective, due to random variation obscuring how well the function is performed. The purpose of this work is to establish the in vivo metabolic profile directly from the Arabidopsis thaliana leaves without metabolite extraction, to reduce the complexity of the results by multivariate analysis, and to unravel the mitigation of cellular complexity by predominant functional periodicity. To achieve this, we use the circadian cycle that strongly influences metabolic and physiological processes and exerts control over the photosynthetic machinery. High resolution-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) was applied to obtain the metabolic profile directly from intact Arabidopsis leaves. Combining one- and two-dimensional 1H HR-MAS NMR allowed the identification of several metabolites including sugars and amino acids in intact leaves. Multivariate analysis on HR-MAS NMR spectra of leaves throughout the circadian cycle revealed modules of primary metabolites with significant and consistent variations of their molecular components at different time points of the circadian cycle. Since robust photosynthetic performance in plants relies on the functional periodicity of the circadian rhythm, our results show that HR-MAS NMR promises to be an important non-invasive method that can be used for metabolomics of the Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered physiology and photosynthetic efficiency. PMID:27662620

  10. Metabolic Profiling of Intact Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves during Circadian Cycle Using 1H High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustijn, D; Roy, U; van Schadewijk, R; de Groot, H J M; Alia, A

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely used model organism for research in plant biology. While significant advances in understanding plant growth and development have been made by focusing on the molecular genetics of Arabidopsis, extracting and understanding the functional framework of metabolism is challenging, both from a technical perspective due to losses and modification during extraction of metabolites from the leaves, and from the biological perspective, due to random variation obscuring how well the function is performed. The purpose of this work is to establish the in vivo metabolic profile directly from the Arabidopsis thaliana leaves without metabolite extraction, to reduce the complexity of the results by multivariate analysis, and to unravel the mitigation of cellular complexity by predominant functional periodicity. To achieve this, we use the circadian cycle that strongly influences metabolic and physiological processes and exerts control over the photosynthetic machinery. High resolution-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) was applied to obtain the metabolic profile directly from intact Arabidopsis leaves. Combining one- and two-dimensional 1H HR-MAS NMR allowed the identification of several metabolites including sugars and amino acids in intact leaves. Multivariate analysis on HR-MAS NMR spectra of leaves throughout the circadian cycle revealed modules of primary metabolites with significant and consistent variations of their molecular components at different time points of the circadian cycle. Since robust photosynthetic performance in plants relies on the functional periodicity of the circadian rhythm, our results show that HR-MAS NMR promises to be an important non-invasive method that can be used for metabolomics of the Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered physiology and photosynthetic efficiency.

  11. Crocus sativus Petals: Waste or Valuable Resource? The Answer of High-Resolution and High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Vitaliano; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2015-09-30

    Intact Crocus sativus petals were studied for the first time by high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, revealing the presence of kinsenoside (2) and goodyeroside A (3), together with 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (4). These findings were confirmed by HR-NMR analysis of the ethanol extract of fresh petals and showed that, even though carried out rapidly, partial hydrolysis of glucopyranosyloxybutanolides occurs during extraction. On the other hand, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (1), which is "NMR-silent" in intact petals, is present in extracts. These results suggest to evaluate the utilization of saffron petals for phytopharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes to exploit a waste product of massive production of commercial saffron and point to the application of HR-MAS NMR for monitoring bioactive compounds directly on intact petals, avoiding the extraction procedure and the consequent hydrolysis reaction.

  12. Comparison of corneal topographic measurements and high order aberrations in keratoconus and normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Hatice Nur; Kantarci, Feride Aylin; Yildirim, Aydin; Tatar, Mehmet Gurkan; Goker, Hasan; Uslu, Hasim; Gurler, Bulent

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this report was to compare corneal topographic measurements and anterior high order corneal aberrations in eyes with keratoconus and normal eyes by using Scheimpflug-Placido topography. Eighty cases diagnosed with mild (group 1), moderate (group 2), and advanced (group 3) stage keratoconus (KC) according to Amsler-Krumeich Classification and 81 healthy (control group) cases were retrospectively examined. The mean keratometric measurements (as both diopters (Kavg) and mm values (mmavg)), central corneal thickness values (CCT), high order aberration (HOA), total wavefront aberration (TWA), coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration measurements were performed using Sirius topography equipment. The topographic values were compared between the groups. There were 25 cases in group 1 KC (15.5%), 34 cases in group 2 KC (21.1%), 21 cases in group 3 KC (13.1%), and 81 cases (50.3%) in the control group. In terms of mean age and gender distributions, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). However, there was significant difference between the groups in terms of Kavg, CCT, HOA, TWA, coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration values (pkeratoconus. Anterior high order corneal aberration measurements are a useful tool to guide the physician in diagnosis and classification of keratoconus. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation of normal and superconducting properties and unified approach to the description of high Tc oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresin, V. Z.; Wolf, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    We present a unified approach based on the Fermi liquid picture which allows us to describe the normal as well as the superconducting properties of the doped cuprates. The theory that is presented is for the doped compounds which are metallic. One can distinguish two interrelated, but nevertheless, different directions in the physics of high T(sub c): one involving the problem of carrier doping and the transition to the metallic state, and the second being the description of the metallic state. It is important that this metallic phase undergoes the transition into the superconducting state; as a result, our analysis is directly related to the origin of high T(sub c). We are using a quasi-2D Fermi liquid model to estimate the fundamental parameters of these very interesting materials. We find that this description is able to describe these materials and also that phonons and plasmons play a major role in the mechanism of high T(sub c).

  14. Aggregation of normal and sickle hemoglobin in high concentration phosphate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kejing; Ballas, Samir K; Hantgan, Roy R; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2004-12-01

    Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutant form of hemoglobin, hemoglobin S, that polymerizes under hypoxic conditions. The extent and mechanism of polymerization are thus the subject of many studies of the pathophysiology of the disease and potential treatment strategies. To facilitate such studies, a model system using high concentration phosphate buffer (1.5 M-1.8 M) has been developed. To properly interpret results from studies using this model it is important to understand the similarities and differences in hemoglobin S polymerization in the model compared to polymerization under physiological conditions. In this article, we show that hemoglobin S and normal adult hemoglobin, hemoglobin A, aggregate in high concentration phosphate buffer even when the concentration of hemoglobin is below the solubility defined for polymerization. This phenomenon was not observed using 0.05 M phosphate buffer or in another model system we studied that uses dextran to enhance polymerization. We have used static light scattering, dynamic light scattering, and differential interference contrast microscopy to confirm aggregation of deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobins below their solubility and have shown that this aggregation is not observable using turbidity measurements, a common technique for assessing polymerization. We have also shown that the aggregation increases with increasing temperature in the range of 15 degrees -37 degrees C and that it increases as the concentration of phosphate increases. These studies contribute to the working knowledge of how to properly apply studies of hemoglobin S polymerization that are conducted using the high phosphate model.

  15. High-gradient normal-conducting RF structures for muon cooling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.N.; Green, M.A.; Hartman, N.; Ladran, A.; Li, D.; MacGill, R.; Rimmer, R.; Moretti, A.; Jurgens, T.; Holtkamp, N.; Black, E.; Summers, D.; Booke, M.

    2001-06-12

    We present a status report on the research and development of high-gradient normal-conducting RF structures for the ionization cooling of muons in a neutrino factory or muon collider. High-gradient RF structures are required in regions enclosed in strong focusing solenoidal magnets, precluding the application of superconducting RF technology [1]. We propose using linear accelerating structures, with individual cells electromagnetically isolated, to achieve the required gradients of over 15 MV/m at 201 MHz and 30 MV/m at 805 MHz. Each cell will be powered independently, and cell length and drive phase adjusted to optimize shunt impedance of the assembled structure. This efficient design allows for relatively small field enhancement on the structure walls, and an accelerating field approximately 1.7 times greater than the peak surface field. The electromagnetic boundary of each cell may be provided by a thin Be sheet, or an assembly of thin-walled metal tubes. Use of thin, low-Z materials will allow passage of the muon beams without significant deterioration in beam quality due to scattering. R and D in design and analysis of robust structures that will operate under large electric and magnetic fields and RF current heating are discussed, including the experimental program based in a high-power test laboratory developed for this purpose.

  16. High diffraction efficiency of three-layer diffractive optics designed for wide temperature range and large incident angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shan; Cui, Qingfeng; Piao, Mingxu; Zhao, Lidong

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model of diffraction efficiency and polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency affected by environment temperature change and incident angle for three-layer diffractive optics with different dispersion materials is put forward, and its effects are analyzed. Taking optical materials N-FK5 and N-SF1 as the substrates of multilayer diffractive optics, the effect on diffraction efficiency and polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency with intermediate materials POLYCARB is analyzed with environment temperature change as well as incident angle. Therefore, three-layer diffractive optics can be applied in more wide environmental temperature ranges and larger incident angles for refractive-diffractive hybrid optical systems, which can obtain better image quality. Analysis results can be used to guide the hybrid imaging optical system design for optical engineers.

  17. High normal fasting glucose level in obese youth: a marker for insulin resistance and beta cell dysregulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Malley, G

    2010-06-01

    A high but normal fasting plasma glucose level in adults is a risk factor for future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether normal fasting plasma glucose levels (<5.60 mmol\\/l) are associated with decreases in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function, as well as an adverse cardiovascular profile in obese youth.

  18. Small angle proton-proton correlations in collisions of high energy light ions with carbon and gold nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budilov, V.A.; Filipkowski, A.; Golembiewski, A.; Ilyuschenko, V.I.; Korejwo, A.; Kozma, P.; Laritcheva, A.P.; Nikitin, V.A.; Nomokonov, P.V.; Traikova, M.; Zhidkov, N.K. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)); Kotus, A.; Nawrot, A.; Szawlowski, M.; Zielinski, I.P. (Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland)); Sidor, G.; Surala, M.; Turowiecki, A.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Zlomanczuk, J. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Doswiadczalnej)

    1990-07-05

    Small angle correlations of protons (p>320 MeV/c) emitted in 5.1 GeV/c proton, 4 GeV/c deuteron and 8 GeV/c helium-4 collisions with carbon and gold targets were measured using plastic scintillator hodoscopes and NaI(Tl) detectors placed at 72deg and 101deg with respect to the beam. It has been found that for both targets the two-proton correlation function depends on the emission angle and that this dependence is stronger for the carbon target than for the gold one. (orig.).

  19. RF Couplers for Normal-Conducting Photoinjector of High-Power CW FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, Sergey; Wood, Richard L; Schultheiss, T J; Rathke, John; Young, Lloyd

    2004-01-01

    A high-current emittance-compensated RF photoinjector is a key enabling technology for a high-power CW FEL. A preliminary design of a normal-conducting, 2.5-cell pi-mode, 700-MHz CW RF photoinjector that will be built for demonstration purposes, is completed. This photoinjector will be capable of accelerating a 100-mA electron beam (3 nC per bunch at 35 MHz bunch repetition rate) to 2.7 MeV while providing an emittance below 7 mm-mrad at the wiggler. More than 1 MW of RF power will be fed into the photoinjector cavity through two ridge-loaded tapered waveguides. The waveguides are coupled to the cavity by "dog-bone" irises cut in a thick wall. Due to CW operation of the photoinjector, the cooling of the coupler irises is a rather challenging thermal management project. This paper presents results of a detailed electromagnetic modeling of the coupler-cavity system, which has been performed to select the coupler design that minimizes the iris heating due to RF power loss in its walls.

  20. RF Couplers for Normal-Conducting Photoinjector of High-Power CW FEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey; Schrage, Dale; Wood, Richard; Schultheiss, Tom; Rathke, John; Young, Lloyd

    2004-05-01

    A high-current emittance-compensated RF photoinjector is a key enabling technology for a high-power CW FEL. A preliminary design of a normal-conducting, 2.5-cell pi-mode, 700-MHz CW RF photoinjector that will be build for demonstration purposes, is completed. This photoinjector will be capable of accelerating a 100-mA electron beam (3 nC per bunch at 35 MHz bunch repetition rate) to 2.7 MeV while providing an emittance below 7 mm-mrad at the wiggler. More than 1 MW of RF power will be fed into the photoinjector cavity through two ridge-loaded tapered waveguides. The waveguides are coupled to the cavity by "dog-bone" irises cut in a thick wall. Due to CW operation of the photoinjector, the cooling of the coupler irises is a rather challenging thermal management project. This paper presents results of a detailed electromagnetic modeling of the coupler-cavity system, which has been performed to select the coupler design that minimizes the iris heating due to RF power loss in its walls.

  1. RF couplers for normal-conducting photoinjector of high-power CW FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S. (Sergey)

    2004-01-01

    A high-current emittance-compensated RF photoinjector is a key enabling technology for a high-power CW FEL. A preliminary design of a normal-conducting, 2.5-cell pi-mode, 700-MHz CW RF photoinjector that will be built for demonstration purposes, is completed. This photoinjector will be capable of accelerating a 100-mA electron beam (3 nC per bunch at 35 MHz bunch repetition rate) to 2.7 MeV while providing an emittance below 7 mm-mrad at the wiggler. More than 1 MW of RF power will be fed into the photoinjector cavity through two ridge-loaded tapered waveguides. The waveguides are coupled to the cavity by 'dog-bone' irises cut in a thick wall. Due to CW operation of the photoinjector, the cooling of the coupler irises is a rather challenging thermal management project. This paper presents results of a detailed electromagnetic modeling of the coupler-cavity system, which has been performed to select the coupler design that minimizes the iris heating due to RF power loss in its walls.

  2. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in study of the skin: Normal patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sans, Nicolas, E-mail: sans.n@chu-toulouse.fr [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, Place du Dr Baylac, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Faruch, Marie; Chiavassa-Gandois, Helene; Ribes, Catherine Lalande Champetier de [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, Place du Dr Baylac, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Paul, Carle [Service de Dermatologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Larrey, Toulouse (France); Railhac, Jean-Jacques [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, Place du Dr Baylac, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To validate quantitative and qualitative criteria of normal healthy skin using high-resolution MR imaging. Materials and methods: FIESTA and spin echo sequences of the skin of the heel, back and calf were obtained in 31 healthy volunteers. A dedicated 3-in. coil for study of the skin was used to optimize reception sensitivity. Quantitative analysis was performed to measure skin thickness in these three sites and qualititative analysis aimed to differentiate the various skin layers. Results: With both sequences, the stratum corneum appeared as a hyperintense layer. The epidermis was visualized appeared as a fine, homogeneous, hyperintense line. The dermoepidermal junction was clearer particularly in the calf. The dermis was also identified in each sequence and in each anatomic site. The signal was hypointense in both sequences, homogeneous with spin echo and more heterogeneous with FIESTA. Moreover the interface between the papillary and the reticular dermis could be distinguished. The hypodermis was visualized in both sequences and in all sites and hypodermal inclusions in the dermis were seen particularly in the back and calf. Lastly, the pilosebaceous follicles and the deep vascular network of the reticular dermis were more clearly seen with FIESTA sequence. Measures of overall skin thickness and for each layer according to site, sex and MRI sequence were performed. Statistical analysis was then performed to seek significant differences between the results according to these parameters. Conclusion: MR imaging provides global analysis with high resolution of the various skin layers down to the hypodermis and the muscular fascia.

  3. Effects of High Frequency Chest Compression on Respiratory System Mechanics in Normal Subjects and Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Jones

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short term effects of high frequency chest compression (HFCC on several indices of respiratory system mechanics in normal subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF.

  4. Contact angle distribution of particles at fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeyink, Craig; Barman, Sourav; Christopher, Gordon F

    2015-01-27

    Recent measurements have implied a distribution of interfacially adsorbed particles' contact angles; however, it has been impossible to measure statistically significant numbers for these contact angles noninvasively in situ. Using a new microscopy method that allows nanometer-scale resolution of particle's 3D positions on an interface, we have measured the contact angles for thousands of latex particles at an oil/water interface. Furthermore, these measurements are dynamic, allowing the observation of the particle contact angle with high temporal resolution, resulting in hundreds of thousands of individual contact angle measurements. The contact angle has been found to fit a normal distribution with a standard deviation of 19.3°, which is much larger than previously recorded. Furthermore, the technique used allows the effect of measurement error, constrained interfacial diffusion, and particle property variation on the contact angle distribution to be individually evaluated. Because of the ability to measure the contact angle noninvasively, the results provide previously unobtainable, unique data on the dynamics and distribution of the adsorbed particles' contact angle.

  5. Preparation of a durable superhydrophobic membrane by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) mixed with epoxy-siloxane modified SiO2 nanoparticles: a possible route to superhydrophobic surfaces with low water sliding angle and high water contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Li, Yapeng; Fei, Xiaoliang; Sun, Mingda; Zhang, Chaoqun; Li, Yaoxian; Yang, Qingbiao; Hong, Xia

    2011-07-15

    A durable superhydrophobic surface with low water sliding angle (SA) and high water contact angle (CA) was obtained by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) which was mixed with epoxy-siloxane modified SiO(2) nanoparticles. To increase the roughness, modified SiO(2) nanoparticles were introduced into PVDF precursor solution. Then in the electrospinning process, nano-sized SiO(2) particles irregularly inlayed (it could also be regard as self-assembly) in the surface of the micro-sized PVDF mini-islands so as to form a dual-scale structure. This structure was responsible for the superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning property. In addition, epoxy-siloxane copolymer was used to modify the surface of SiO(2) nanoparticles so that the SiO(2) nanoparticles could stick to the surface of the micro-sized PVDF mini-islands. Through the underwater immersion test, the SiO(2) nanoparticles cannot be separated from PVDF easily so as to achieve the effect of durability. We chiefly explore the surface wettability and the relationship between the mass ratio of modified SiO(2) nanoparticles/PVDF and the CA, SA of electrospun mat. As the content of modified SiO(2) nanoparticles increased, the value of CA increased, ranging from 145.6° to 161.2°, and the water SA decreased to 2.17°, apparently indicating that the membrane we fabricated has a perfect effect of superhydrophobicity.

  6. Metamaterials with angle selective emissivity in the near-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, Jeremy A; Werner, Douglas H

    2013-03-11

    Metamaterials have been previously studied for their ability to tailor the dispersive IR emissivity of a surface. Here, we investigate two metamaterial structures based on an electromagnetic band-gap surface and a dielectric resonator array for use as near-IR emitters with custom angle selectivity. A genetic algorithm is successfully employed to optimize the metamaterial structures to have minimum emissivity in the normal direction and high emissivity at custom off-normal angles specified by the designer. Two symmetry conditions are utilized to achieve emissivity patterns that are azimuthally stable or distinct in the two orthogonal plane cuts.

  7. Correction for a measurement artifact of the Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP at high black carbon mass concentration levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-P. Hyvärinen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP is a widely-used instrument for aerosol black carbon (BC measurements. In this paper, we show correction methods for an artifact found to affect the instrument accuracy in environments characterized by high black carbon concentrations. The artifact occurs after a filter spot change – as BC mass is accumulated on a fresh filter spot, the attenuation of the light (raw signal is weaker than anticipated. This causes a sudden decrease, followed by a gradual increase in measured BC concentration. The artifact is present in the data when the BC concentration exceeds ~3 μg m−3 at the typical MAAP flow rate of 16.7 L min−1 or 1 m3 h−1. The artifact is caused by erroneous dark counts in the photodetector measuring the transmitted light, in combination with an instrument internal averaging procedure of the photodetector raw signals. It was found that, in addition to the erroneous temporal response of the data, concentrations higher than 9 μg m−3 (at the flow rate of 16.7 L min−1 are underestimated by the MAAP. The underestimation increases with increasing BC accumulation rate. At a flow rate of 16.7 L min−1 and concentration of about 24 μg m−3 (BC accumulation rate ~0.4 μg min−1, the underestimation is about 30%. There are two ways of overcoming the MAAP artifact. One method is by logging the raw signal of the 165° photomultiplier measuring the reflected light from the filter spot. As this signal is not affected by the artifact, it can be converted to approximately correct absorption and BC values. However, as the typical print formats of the MAAP do not give the reflected signal as an output, a semi-empirical correction method was developed based on laboratory experiments to correct for the results in the post-processing phase. The correction function was applied to three MAAP datasets from

  8. Correction for a measurement artifact of the Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP at high black carbon mass concentration levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-P. Hyvärinen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP is a widely-used instrument for aerosol black carbon observations. In this paper, we show correction methods for an artifact found to affect the instrument accuracy in environments with high black carbon concentrations. The artifact occurs after a filter spot change – as BC mass is accumulated on a fresh filter spot, the attenuation of the light (raw signal is weaker than anticipated. This causes a sudden decrease, followed by a gradual increase in measured BC concentration. The artifact is present in the data when the BC concentration exceeds ∼3 μg m−3 at the typical MAAP flow rate of 16.7 l min−1 or 1 m3 h−1. The artifact is caused by erroneous dark counts in the photo detector measuring the transmitted light, in combination with an instrument internal averaging procedure of the photo detector raw signals. It was found that in addition to the erroneous temporal response of the data, concentrations higher than 9 μg m−3 (at the flow rate of 16.7 l min−1 are underestimated by the MAAP. The underestimation increases with increasing BC accumulation rate. At a flow rate of 16.7 l min−1 and concentration of about 24 μg m−3 (BC accumulation rate ∼0.4 μg min−1, the underestimation is about 30%. There are two ways of overcoming the MAAP artifact. One method is by logging the raw signal of the 165° photomultiplier measuring the reflected light from the filter spot. As this signal is not affected by the artifact, it can be converted to approximately correct absorption and BC values. However, as the typical print formats of the MAAP do not give the reflected signal as an output, a semi-empirical correction method was developed based on laboratory experiments to correct for the results in the post-processing phase. The correction function was applied to three MAAP datasets from Gual Pahari

  9. Correction for a measurement artifact of the Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) at high black carbon mass concentration levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Vakkari, V.; Laakso, L.; Hooda, R. K.; Sharma, V. P.; Panwar, T. S.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Josipovic, M.; Garland, R. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.; Petzold, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) is a widely-used instrument for aerosol black carbon (BC) measurements. In this paper, we show correction methods for an artifact found to affect the instrument accuracy in environments characterized by high black carbon concentrations. The artifact occurs after a filter spot change - as BC mass is accumulated on a fresh filter spot, the attenuation of the light (raw signal) is weaker than anticipated. This causes a sudden decrease, followed by a gradual increase in measured BC concentration. The artifact is present in the data when the BC concentration exceeds ~3 μg m-3 at the typical MAAP flow rate of 16.7 L min-1 or 1 m3 h-1. The artifact is caused by erroneous dark counts in the photodetector measuring the transmitted light, in combination with an instrument internal averaging procedure of the photodetector raw signals. It was found that, in addition to the erroneous temporal response of the data, concentrations higher than 9 μg m-3 (at the flow rate of 16.7 L min-1) are underestimated by the MAAP. The underestimation increases with increasing BC accumulation rate. At a flow rate of 16.7 L min-1 and concentration of about 24 μg m-3 (BC accumulation rate ~0.4 μg min-1), the underestimation is about 30%. There are two ways of overcoming the MAAP artifact. One method is by logging the raw signal of the 165° photomultiplier measuring the reflected light from the filter spot. As this signal is not affected by the artifact, it can be converted to approximately correct absorption and BC values. However, as the typical print formats of the MAAP do not give the reflected signal as an output, a semi-empirical correction method was developed based on laboratory experiments to correct for the results in the post-processing phase. The correction function was applied to three MAAP datasets from Gual Pahari (India), Beijing (China), and Welgegund (South Africa). In Beijing, the results could also be compared against a

  10. High-precision drop shape analysis on inclining flat surfaces: Introduction and comparison of this special method with commercial contact angle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Heib, Florian

    2013-10-01

    Drop shape analysis is one of the most important and frequently used methods to characterise surfaces in the scientific and industrial communities. An especially large number of studies, which use contact angle measurements to analyse surfaces, are characterised by incorrect or misdirected conclusions such as the determination of surface energies from poorly performed contact angle determinations. In particular, the characterisation of surfaces, which leads to correlations between the contact angle and other effects, must be critically validated for some publications. A large number of works exist concerning the theoretical and thermodynamic aspects of two- and tri-phase boundaries. The linkage between theory and experiment is generally performed by an axisymmetric drop shape analysis, that is, simulations of the theoretical drop profiles by numerical integration onto a number of points of the drop meniscus (approximately 20). These methods work very well for axisymmetric profiles such as those obtained by pendant drop measurements, but in the case of a sessile drop onto real surfaces, additional unknown and misunderstood effects on the dependence of the surface must be considered. We present a special experimental and practical investigation as another way to transition from experiment to theory. This procedure was developed to be especially sensitive to small variations in the dependence of the dynamic contact angle on the surface; as a result, this procedure will allow the properties of the surface to be monitored with a higher precession and sensitivity. In this context, water drops onto a 111 silicon wafer are dynamically measured by video recording and by inclining the surface, which results in a sequence of non-axisymmetric drops. The drop profiles are analysed by commercial software and by the developed and presented high-precision drop shape analysis. In addition to the enhanced sensitivity for contact angle determination, this analysis technique, in

  11. High-precision drop shape analysis on inclining flat surfaces: introduction and comparison of this special method with commercial contact angle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Heib, Florian

    2013-10-07

    Drop shape analysis is one of the most important and frequently used methods to characterise surfaces in the scientific and industrial communities. An especially large number of studies, which use contact angle measurements to analyse surfaces, are characterised by incorrect or misdirected conclusions such as the determination of surface energies from poorly performed contact angle determinations. In particular, the characterisation of surfaces, which leads to correlations between the contact angle and other effects, must be critically validated for some publications. A large number of works exist concerning the theoretical and thermodynamic aspects of two- and tri-phase boundaries. The linkage between theory and experiment is generally performed by an axisymmetric drop shape analysis, that is, simulations of the theoretical drop profiles by numerical integration onto a number of points of the drop meniscus (approximately 20). These methods work very well for axisymmetric profiles such as those obtained by pendant drop measurements, but in the case of a sessile drop onto real surfaces, additional unknown and misunderstood effects on the dependence of the surface must be considered. We present a special experimental and practical investigation as another way to transition from experiment to theory. This procedure was developed to be especially sensitive to small variations in the dependence of the dynamic contact angle on the surface; as a result, this procedure will allow the properties of the surface to be monitored with a higher precession and sensitivity. In this context, water drops onto a 111 silicon wafer are dynamically measured by video recording and by inclining the surface, which results in a sequence of non-axisymmetric drops. The drop profiles are analysed by commercial software and by the developed and presented high-precision drop shape analysis. In addition to the enhanced sensitivity for contact angle determination, this analysis technique, in

  12. Evidence of disrupted high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in morphologically normal cervices of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah M; Pereira, Merlin; Roberts, Sally; Cuschieri, Kate; Nuovo, Gerard; Athavale, Ramanand; Young, Lawrence; Ganesan, Raji; Woodman, Ciarán B

    2016-02-15

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) causes nearly 100% of cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear whether HPV can establish a latent infection, one which may be responsible for the second peak in incidence of cervical carcinoma seen in older women. Therefore, using Ventana in situ hybridisation (ISH), quantitative PCR assays and biomarkers of productive and transforming viral infection, we set out to provide the first robust estimate of the prevalence and characteristics of HPV genomes in FFPE tissue from the cervices of 99 women undergoing hysterectomy for reasons unrelated to epithelial abnormality. Our ISH assay detected HR-HPV in 42% of our study population. The majority of ISH positive samples also tested HPV16 positive using sensitive PCR based assays and were more likely to have a history of preceding cytological abnormality. Analysis of subsets of this population revealed HR-HPV to be transcriptionally inactive as there was no evidence of a productive or transforming infection. Critically, the E2 gene was always disrupted in those HPV16 positive cases which were assessed. These findings point to a reservoir of transcriptionally silent, disrupted HPV16 DNA in morphologically normal cervices, re-expression of which could explain the increase in incidence of cervical cancer observed in later life.

  13. High Accuracy Extraction of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia with Statistical Processing using Normal Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Takashi; Ogawa, Yutaro; Yoshida, Lui; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    The autonomic nervous system is important in maintaining homeostasis by mediating the opposing effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity on organs. Although it is known that the amplitude of RSA (Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia) is an index of parasympathetic nervous activity, it is difficult to estimate that activity in real-time in everyday situations. It is partly caused by body motions and extrasystoles. Also, automatic recognition of the R-wave on electrocardiograms is required for real-time analysis of RSA amplitude, there is an unresolved problem of false recognition of the R-wave. In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the amplitude of RSA accurately using statistical processing with probabilistic models. Then, we estimate parasympathetic nervous activity during body motion and isometric exercise to examine the validity of the method. As a result, using the proposed method, we demonstrate that the amplitude of RSA can be extracted with false recognition of the R-wave. In addition, an appropriate threshold for the estimate is one or five percent because waveforms of RSA amplitude do not follow the abrupt changes of the parasympathetic nervous activity evoked by isometric exercise with the threshold at ten percent. Furthermore, the method using normal distribution is found to be more appropriate than that of chi-square distribution for statistical processing. Therefore, we expect that the proposed method can evaluate parasympathetic nervous activity with high accuracy in everyday situations.

  14. Numerical simulation of the processes in the normal incidence tube for high acoustic pressure levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, E. S.; Khramtsov, I. V.; Kustov, O. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulation of the acoustic processes in an impedance tube at high levels of acoustic pressure is a way to solve a problem of noise suppressing by liners. These studies used liner specimen that is one cylindrical Helmholtz resonator. The evaluation of the real and imaginary parts of the liner acoustic impedance and sound absorption coefficient was performed for sound pressure levels of 130, 140 and 150 dB. The numerical simulation used experimental data having been obtained on the impedance tube with normal incidence waves. At the first stage of the numerical simulation it was used the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, which describe well the imaginary part of the liner impedance whatever the sound pressure level. These equations were solved by finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics program in axisymmetric formulation. At the second stage, the complete Navier-Stokes equations were solved by direct numerical simulation in ANSYS CFX in axisymmetric formulation. As the result, the acceptable agreement between numerical simulation and experiment was obtained.

  15. Segmenting high-frequency intracardiac ultrasound images of myocardium into infarcted, ischemic, and normal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X; Bruce, C J; Pislaru, C; Greenleaf, J F

    2001-12-01

    Segmenting abnormal from normal myocardium using high-frequency intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) images presents new challenges for image processing. Gray-level intensity and texture features of ICE images of myocardium with the same structural/perfusion properties differ. This significant limitation conflicts with the fundamental assumption on which existing segmentation techniques are based. This paper describes a new seeded region growing method to overcome the limitations of the existing segmentation techniques. Three criteria are used for region growing control: 1) Each pixel is merged into the globally closest region in the multifeature space. 2) "Geographic similarity" is introduced to overcome the problem that myocardial tissue, despite having the same property (i.e., perfusion status), may be segmented into several different regions using existing segmentation methods. 3) "Equal opportunity competence" criterion is employed making results independent of processing order. This novel segmentation method is applied to in vivo intracardiac ultrasound images using pathology as the reference method for the ground truth. The corresponding results demonstrate that this method is reliable and effective.

  16. High-throughput screening normalized to biological response: application to antiviral drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhara A; Patel, Anand C; Nolan, William C; Huang, Guangming; Romero, Arthur G; Charlton, Nichole; Agapov, Eugene; Zhang, Yong; Holtzman, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The process of conducting cell-based phenotypic screens can result in data sets from small libraries or portions of large libraries, making accurate hit picking from multiple data sets important for efficient drug discovery. Here, we describe a screen design and data analysis approach that allow for normalization not only between quadrants and plates but also between screens or batches in a robust, quantitative fashion, enabling hit selection from multiple data sets. We independently screened the MicroSource Spectrum and NCI Diversity Set II libraries using a cell-based phenotypic high-throughput screening (HTS) assay that uses an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE)-driven luciferase-reporter assay to identify interferon (IFN) signal enhancers. Inclusion of a per-plate, per-quadrant IFN dose-response standard curve enabled conversion of ISRE activity to effective IFN concentrations. We identified 45 hits based on a combined z score ≥2.5 from the two libraries, and 25 of 35 available hits were validated in a compound concentration-response assay when tested using fresh compound. The results provide a basis for further analysis of chemical structure in relation to biological function. Together, the results establish an HTS method that can be extended to screening for any class of compounds that influence a quantifiable biological response for which a standard is available.

  17. Large deflection angle, high-power adaptive fiber optics collimator with preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Chen, Zilun; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a monolithic adaptive fiber optics collimator, with a large deflection angle and preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality, that has been tested at a maximal output power at the 300 W level. Additionally, a new measurement method of beam quality (M2 factor) is developed. Experimental results show that the deflection angle of the collimated beam is in the range of 0-0.27 mrad in the X direction and 0-0.19 mrad in the Y direction. The effective working frequency of the device is about 710 Hz. By employing the new measurement method of the M2 factor, we calculate that the beam quality is Mx2=1.35 and My2=1.24, which is in agreement with the result from the beam propagation analyzer and is preserved well with the increasing output power.

  18. Small-angle X-ray scattering at high brilliance european synchrotrons for biotechnology and nano-technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svergun, D.; Malfois, M. [EMBL c/o DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Svergun, D. [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Douka, M. [Commission Europeenne, DG III, Bruxelles (Belgium); Riekel, Ch. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France); Perez, J. [Soleil, 91 - Saclay (France); Roessle, M. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Amenitsch, H. [IBN/Elettra (Germany); Gunter Grossman, J. [Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) (United Kingdom); Vestergaard, B. [University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark); Receveur-Brechot, V. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS/AFMB), 13 - Marseille (France); Roth, St.V. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (HASYLAB), Hamburg (Germany); Ferrari, E. [National Institute for the Physics of Matter (CNR-INFM), Trieste (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Different issues such as micro-fluidic devices for SAXS (small-angle X-ray diffraction), the use of electro-spray and ion trapping for SAXS in the gas phase, the study of flexible and disordered proteins through SAXS, the time-resolved SAXS studies in solution, or the study of nano-structured soft materials, were addressed in this workshop. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations.

  19. High resolution mapping of Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Veste, M.; Eisele, A.; Bens, O.; Spyra, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2012-04-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) are typically determined using satellite or airborne remote sensing, or field portable spectrometers, which give an averaged signal on centimetre to meter scale plots. Biological soil crust (BSC) patches may have smaller sizes, and ecophysiological, hydrological as well as pedological processes may be heterogeneously distributed within this level of resolution. A ground-based NDVI imaging procedure using low-cost equipment (Olympus Camedia 5000z digital camera equipped with a Hoya R72 infrared filter) was developed in this study to fill this gap at the level of field research, where carrying costly and bulky equipment to remote locations is often the limiting factor for data collection. A commercially available colour rendition chart (GretagMacbeth ColorChecker®) with known red (600-700 nm) and NIR (800-900 nm) reflectances was placed into each scene and used for calibration purposes on a per-image basis. Generation of NDVI images involved (i) determination of red and NIR reflectances from the pixel values of the red and NIR channels, respectively, and (ii) calculation and imaging of the NDVI, where NDVI values of -1 to +1 were mapped to grey values of 0 to 255. The correlation between NDVI values retrieved from these images and NDVI values determined using conventional field spectrometry (ASD FieldSpec 3 portable spectroradiometer) was close (r2 =0.91), the 95% confidence interval amounted to 0.10 NDVI units. The pixel resolution was 0.8 mm in the field and 0.2 mm in the laboratory, but can still be improved significantly with closer distance to the crust or with higher camera resolution. Geostatistical analysis revealed that both spatial variability as well as size of individual objects characterized by the NDVI increased with crust development. The latter never exceeded 4 mm in the investigated crusts, which points to the necessity of high resolution imaging for linking remote sensing with ecophysiology

  20. Analyzing the installation angle error of a SAW torque sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanping; Ji, Xiaojun; Cai, Ping

    2014-09-01

    When a torque is applied to a shaft, normal strain oriented at ±45° direction to the shaft axis is at its maximum, which requires two one-port SAW resonators to be bonded to the shaft at ±45° to the shaft axis. In order to make the SAW torque sensitivity high enough, the installation angle error of two SAW resonators must be confined within ±5° according to our design requirement. However, there are few studies devoted to the installation angle analysis of a SAW torque sensor presently and the angle error was usually obtained by a manual method. Hence, we propose an approximation method to analyze the angle error. First, according to the sensitive mechanism of the SAW device to torque, the SAW torque sensitivity is deduced based on the linear piezoelectric constitutive equation and the perturbation theory. Then, when a torque is applied to the tested shaft, the stress condition of two SAW resonators mounted with an angle deviating from ±45° to the shaft axis, is analyzed. The angle error is obtained by means of the torque sensitivities of two orthogonal SAW resonators. Finally, the torque measurement system is constructed and the loading and unloading experiments are performed twice. The torque sensitivities of two SAW resonators are obtained by applying average and least square method to the experimental results. Based on the derived angle error estimation function, the angle error is estimated about 3.447°, which is close to the actual angle error 2.915°. The difference between the estimated angle and the actual angle is discussed. The validity of the proposed angle error analysis method is testified to by the experimental results.

  1. Normalization to specific gravity prior to analysis improves information recovery from high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic profiles of human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmands, William M B; Ferrari, Pietro; Scalbert, Augustin

    2014-11-04

    Extraction of meaningful biological information from urinary metabolomic profiles obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) necessitates the control of unwanted sources of variability associated with large differences in urine sample concentrations. Different methods of normalization either before analysis (preacquisition normalization) through dilution of urine samples to the lowest specific gravity measured by refractometry, or after analysis (postacquisition normalization) to urine volume, specific gravity and median fold change are compared for their capacity to recover lead metabolites for a potential future use as dietary biomarkers. Twenty-four urine samples of 19 subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort were selected based on their high and low/nonconsumption of six polyphenol-rich foods as assessed with a 24 h dietary recall. MS features selected on the basis of minimum discriminant selection criteria were related to each dietary item by means of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis models. Normalization methods ranked in the following decreasing order when comparing the number of total discriminant MS features recovered to that obtained in the absence of normalization: preacquisition normalization to specific gravity (4.2-fold), postacquisition normalization to specific gravity (2.3-fold), postacquisition median fold change normalization (1.8-fold increase), postacquisition normalization to urinary volume (0.79-fold). A preventative preacquisition normalization based on urine specific gravity was found to be superior to all curative postacquisition normalization methods tested for discovery of MS features discriminant of dietary intake in these urinary metabolomic datasets.

  2. Applicability of the two-angle differential method to response measurement of neutron-sensitive devices at the RCNP high-energy neutron facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Satoh, Daiki; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Yashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Nishiyama, Jun; Shima, Tatsushi; Tamii, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Harano, Hideki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    Quasi-monoenergetic high-energy neutron fields induced by 7Li(p,n) reactions are used for the response evaluation of neutron-sensitive devices. The quasi-monoenergetic high-energy field consists of high-energy monoenergetic peak neutrons and unwanted continuum neutrons down to the low-energy region. A two-angle differential method has been developed to compensate for the effect of the continuum neutrons in the response measurements. In this study, the two-angle differential method was demonstrated for Bonner sphere detectors, which are typical examples of moderator-based neutron-sensitive detectors, to investigate the method's applicability and its dependence on detector characteristics. Experiments were performed under 96-387 MeV quasi-monoenergetic high-energy neutron fields at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The measurement results for large high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sphere detectors agreed well with Monte Carlo calculations, which verified the adequacy of the two-angle differential method. By contrast, discrepancies were observed in the results for small HDPE sphere detectors and metal-induced sphere detectors. The former indicated that detectors that are particularly sensitive to low-energy neutrons may be affected by penetrating neutrons owing to the geometrical features of the RCNP facility. The latter discrepancy could be consistently explained by a problem in the evaluated cross-section data for the metals used in the calculation. Through those discussions, the adequacy of the two-angle differential method was experimentally verified, and practical suggestions were made pertaining to this method.

  3. Normal tissue studies in radiation oncology: A systematic review of highly cited articles and citation patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Nieder, Carsten; Andratschke, Nicolaus H.; GROSU, ANCA L.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the cornerstones of modern multidisciplinary cancer treatment. Normal tissue tolerance is critical as radiation-induced side effects may compromise organ function and quality of life. The importance of normal tissue research is reflected by the large number of scientific articles, which have been published between 2006 and 2010. The present study identified important areas of research as well as seminal publications. The article citation rate is among the potential...

  4. Analysis of the pressure response of high angle multiple (HAM) fractures intersecting a welbore; Kokeisha multi fracture (HAM) kosei ni okeru atsuryoku oto kaiseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujo, S.; Osato, K. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arihara, N. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Schroeder, R.

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports pressure response analysis on wells piercing a high angle multi (HAM) fracture model. In this model which is defined on a three-dimensional space, a plurality of slanted fractures intersect with wells at high angles (however, intersection of fractures with each other is not considered). With respect to the pressure response analysis method using this model, the paper presents a basic differential equation on pressure drawdown and boundary conditions in the wells taking flows in the fractures pseudo-linear, as well as external boundary conditions in calculation regions (a reservoir spreads to an infinite distance, and its top and bottom are closed by non-water permeating beds). The paper also indicates that results of calculating a single vertical fracture model and a slanted fracture model by using a numerical computation program (MULFRAC) based on the above equations agree well respectively with the existing calculation results (calculations performed by Erlougher and Cinco et al). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Fuel rod behavior under normal operating conditions in Super Fast Reactor with high power density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Haitao, E-mail: haitaoju@gmail.com [Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Laboratory, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Ishiwatari, Yuki [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Oka, Yoshiaki [Joint Department of Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, Totsukamachi, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The improved core of Super Fast Reactor with high power density is analyzed. • We analyzed four types of the limiting fuel rods. • The influence of Pu enrichment and compressive stress to yield strength ratio are analyzed. • The improved fuel rod design of the new core is suggested. - Abstract: A Super Fast Reactor is a pressure-vessel type, fast spectrum SuperCritical Water Reactor (SCWR) which is presently researched in a Japanese project. A preliminary core has an average power density of 158.8 W/cc. However one of the most important advantages of the Super Fast Reactor is the higher power density compared to the thermal spectrum SCWR, which reduces the capital cost. After the sensitivity analyses on the fuel rod configurations, the fuel assembly configurations and the core configurations, an improved core with an average power density of 294.8 W/cc is designed by 3-D neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled calculations. In order to ensure the fuel rod integrity of new core design with high power density, the fuel rod behaviors under normal operating condition are analyzed using fuel performance code FEMAXI-6. The power histories of each fuel rod are taken from the neutronics calculation results in the core design. The cladding surface temperature histories are generated from the thermal-hydraulic calculation results in the core design. Four types of the limiting fuel rods, individually with the Maximum Cladding Surface Temperature (MCST), Maximum Power Peak (MPP), Maximum Discharge Burnup (MDB) and Different Coolant Flow Pattern (DCFP), are chosen to cover all the fuel rods in the core. The available design range of the fuel rod design parameters, such as initial gas plenum pressure, gas plenum position, gas plenum length, grain size and gap size, are found out in order to satisfy the following design criteria: (1) Maximum fuel centerline temperature should be less than 1900 °C. (2) Maximum cladding stress in circumferential direction should

  6. An American Board of Orthodontics case report: treatment of a Class I malocclusion with a significant transverse discrepancy and high mandibular plane angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhane, J M

    1997-03-01

    A case report of the orthodontic treatment of a female adolescent with a Class I malocclusion, complicated by a significant transverse discrepancy and a high mandibular plane angle, is presented. Early removal of a maxillary right first premolar contributed to a midline discrepancy. Treatment consisted of rapid palatal expansion and extraction of the maxillary left first premolar and the mandibular right and left second premolars. A very acceptable result was achieved despite a demonstrated vertical growth pattern.

  7. 大斜度测井中井径缩径问题分析%Analysis of Well diameter reducing problem in high angle deviated well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周奇; 霍海鑫

    2015-01-01

    本文通过总结从事测井解释与验收工作的工作经验,论述大斜度井的井径缩径问题产生的原因及对策.%this paper summarizes the work experience of working in the field of well logging interpretation and acceptance,discusses the causes and the countermeasures of problems on high Angle deviated Wells caliper reducing.

  8. Electron pitch angle variations recorded at the high magnetic latitude boundary layer by the NUADU instrument on the TC-2 spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit experiment aboard TC-2 recorded, with high temporal and spatial resolution, 4π solid angle images of electrons (~50-125 keV spiraling around geomagnetic field lines at high northern magnetic latitudes (L>10, during its in-orbit commissioning phase (September 2004. The ambient magnetic field, as well as electrons in other energy ranges, were simultaneously measured by the TC-2 magnetometer (FGM, the plasma electron and current experiment (PEACE, the low energy ion detector (LEID and the high energy electron detector (HEED. The NUADU data showed that up-flowing electron beams could form "ring-like" and "dumbbell-type" pitch angle distributions (PADs in the region sampled. Changes in these pitch angle distributions due to transient magnetic variations are suggested to have been associated with electron acceleration along the geomagnetic field lines. A nested magnetic bottle configuration that formed due to the propagation towards the Earth of a magnetic pulse, is proposed to have been associated with this process.

  9. Comparison of macular choroidal thickness between primary open angle glaucoma and normal subjects%原发性开角型青光眼患者与正常人黄斑区脉络膜厚度的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苗苗; 王建荣; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)患者黄斑区脉络膜厚度与正常人之间的差异。方法应用增强深部成像的相干光断层扫描(EDI-OCT)仪测量60例(60只眼)POAG 患者(POAG 组)和60例(60只眼)正常人(对照组)黄斑区脉络膜厚度。组内相关系数(ICC)表示检测者内和检测者间信度分析。结果检测者内的 ICC 值为0.994~0.999(P <0.001),检测者间的 ICC 值为0.995~0.998(P <0.001)。黄斑区脉络膜厚度特征为黄斑中心凹下方最厚,鼻侧最薄。POAG 组黄斑区各象限脉络膜厚度均明显厚于对照组(t =3.114~4.456,P <0.05)。POAG 组和对照组黄斑区象限脉络膜厚度均随年龄增加及眼轴增长而变薄(r =-0.456~-0.520,-0.445~-0.491;P <0.05)。结论POAG 患者的黄斑区脉络膜厚度比正常人厚;POAG 患者黄斑区脉络膜增厚与青光眼的发病机制相关。%Objective To compare the macular choroidal thickness between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG)and normal subjects using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).Methods Scans were per-formed by EDI-OCT in eyes of 60 POAG patients and 60 age-and sex-matched normal subjects.The reliability analysis of intra-and inter-observer was tested using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).Results The intra-and inter-ob-server ICC values ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and 0.995 to 0.998 respectively (both P <0.001).In the COPD pa-tients and controls,the choroidal thickness beneath the fovea was thickest and the nasal choroidal thickness was thin-nest.Each quadrant of choroidal thickness in POAG patients were thicker than that of the controls (t =3.114 to 4.456, P <0.05).For both subjects investigated,the choroidal thickness showed a negative correlation with age and axial length (r =-0.456 to -0.520,-0.445 to -0.491;P <0.05).Conclusion The choroidal thickness of POAG pa

  10. Enabling High Fidelity Measurements of Energy and Pitch Angle for Escaping Energetic Ions with a Fast Ion Loss Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, R.; Pace, D. C.; Marcy, G. R.; Taussig, D.

    2016-10-01

    Energetic ion losses must be minimized in burning plasmas to maintain fusion power, and existing tokamaks provide access to energetic ion parameter regimes that are relevant to burning machines. A new Fast Ion Loss Detector (FILD) probe on the DIII-D tokamak has been optimized to resolve beam ion losses across a range of 30 - 90 keV in energy and 40° to 80° in pitch angle, thereby providing valuable measurements during many different experiments. The FILD is a magnetic spectrometer; once inserted into the tokamak, the magnetic field allows energetic ions to pass through a collimating aperture and strike a scintillator plate that is imaged by a wide view camera and narrow view photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The design involves calculating scintillator strike patterns while varying probe geometry. Calculated scintillator patterns are then used to design an optical system that allows adjustment of the focus regions for the 1 MS/s resolved PMTs. A synthetic diagnostic will be used to determine the energy and pitch angle resolution that can be attained in DIII-D experiments. Work supported in part by US DOE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  11. Serum protein profile study of normal and cervical cancer subjects by high performance liquid chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kumar, Pratap; Mahato, Krishna K; Kartha, Vasudevan B; Santhosh, Chidangil

    2008-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography with high sensitivity laser-induced fluorescence detection is used to study the protein profiles of serum samples from healthy volunteers and cervical cancer subjects. The protein profiles are subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA shows that the large number of chromatograms of a given class of serum samples--say normal/malignant--can be expressed in terms of a small number of factors (principal components). Three parameters--scores of the factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis distance--are derived from PCA. The parameters are observed to have a narrow range for protein profiles of standard calibration sets formed from groups of clinically confirmed normal/malignant classes. Limit tests using match/no match of the parameters of any test sample with parameters derived for the standard calibration sets give very good discrimination between malignant and normal samples with high sensitivity (approximately 100%) aand specificity (approximately 94%).

  12. High-LET Radiation Induced Chromosome Aberrations in Normal and Ataxia Telangiectasia Fibroblast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Tetsuya; George, Ms Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Ito, Hisao; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Uno, Takashi

    We investigated the effects of heavy ions beams on chromosomal aberrations in normal and AT cells. Normal and AT fibroblast cells arrested at G0/G1 phase were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays, 490 MeV/u Silicon (LET 55 keV/micron), 500 MeV/u Iron (LET 185 keV/micron) and 200 MeV/u Iron (LET 440 keV/micron) particles, and then cells were allowed to repair for 24 hours at 37 degrees before subculture. Calyculin-A induced PCC method was employed to collect G2/M chromosomes and whole DNA probes 1 and 3 were used to analyze chromosomal aberrations such as color-junctions, deletions, simple exchanges (incomplete and reciprocal exchanges) and complex-type exchanges. The percentages of aberrant cells were higher when normal and AT cells were exposed to heavy ions compared to X-rays, and had a tendency to increase with increasing LET up to 185 keV/micron and then decreased at 440 keV/micron. When the frequency of color-junctions per cell was compared after X-ray exposure, AT cells had around three times higher frequency of color-junctions (mis-rejoining) than normal cells. However, at 185 keV/micron there was no difference in the frequency of color-junctions between two cell lines. It was also found that the frequency of simple exchanges per cell was almost constant in AT cells regardless LET levels, but it was LET dependent for normal cells. Interestingly, the frequency of simple exchanges was higher for normal fibroblast cells when it was compared at 185 keV/micron, but AT cells had more complex-type exchanges at the same LET levels. Heavy ions are more efficient in inducing chromosome aberrations in normal and AT cells compared to X-rays, and the aberration types between normal and AT fibroblast appeared different probably due to difference in the ATM gene function.

  13. Effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet on glucose and lipid metabolisms in normal and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Jiro; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Umehara, Norimitsu; Miyashita, Akira; Tsuru, Tomomitsu; Hikida, Shigeki; Mizote, Hiroyoshi

    2004-04-01

    The beneficial effects of high-monounsaturated fat (high-MUFA) diets on diabetic patients have been reported, whereas studies concerning the effects on animals have been few. Although experiments on animals should be useful in elucidating underlying mechanisms, it is not clear even whether there are benefits of a high-MUFA diet in animals. This study examined the short-term effects of a high-MUFA diet on normal and genetically diabetic mice. The high-MUFA diet supplied 38% of the total calories as fat (26% from MUFA), while a regular diet was 13% fat (3% from MUFA). Normal C5 7BL/6J and diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were fed either the regular or the high-MUFA diet for 1 wk. Serum glucose and lipid levels were then measured. In normal mice, hepatic triglyceride production was also compared between the two dietary groups using the Triton WR1339 method. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted on the diabetic mice. After 1 wk of feeding to normal mice, the high-MUFA diet was seen to lower serum triglyceride levels and reduce hepatic triglyceride production in comparison with the regular diet; it is suggested that the lowering of triglyceride consists of mechanisms including reduced hepatic triglyceride production. When diabetic mice were fed the high-MUFA diet with a controlled caloric intake, the serum glucose levels lowered without an accompanying deterioration in lipid metabolism and the impaired glucose tolerance was ameliorated. This study demonstrates that a high-MUFA diet can lower serum triglyceride levels in normal mice and improve disorders of glucose metabolism in diabetic mice.

  14. The limits of narrow and wide-angle AVA inversions for high Vp/Vs ratios: An application to elastic seabed characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleardi, Mattia; Tognarelli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Since its introduction in the oil and gas industry, amplitude versus angle (AVA) inversion has become a standard tool in deep hydrocarbon exploration. However, with the intensification of offshore construction activity, applications of this method have been extended to evaluate the elastic properties of seabed sediments and of the shallowest part of the subsurface. These regions are often characterized by undercompacted sediments with very low S-wave velocities (Vs) and high P-wave velocity to S-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) ratios. However, the importance of the Vp/Vs ratio is usually underrated in AVA inversion. In this study, we analyse the limits of the AVA method in cases of high Vp/Vs ratios and the benefits introduced by wide-angle reflections in constraining the inversion results. A simplified seabed model that is characterized by a high Vp/Vs ratio is used to study the influence of the elastic and viscoelastic parameters on the P-wave reflection coefficients and to compute the error function of the AVA inversion. In addition, a synthetic AVA inversion is performed on this simplified model, which enables us to apply the sensitivity analysis tools to the inversion kernel. These theoretical analyses show that in the case of high Vp/Vs ratios, the Vs contrast at the reflecting interface plays a very minor role in determining the P-wave reflection coefficients and that the viscoelastic effects can be neglected when only pre-critical angles are considered in the inversion. In addition, wide-angle reflections are essential to reducing both the cross-talk between the inverted elastic parameters and the uncertainties in the Vp and density estimations, but they are not sufficient to better constrain the Vs estimation. As an application to field data, we derive the elastic properties of the seabed interface by applying AVA inversion to a 2D seismic dataset from a well-site survey acquisition. The limited water depth, the maximum available source-to-receiver offset, and the

  15. Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

  16. Factors Affecting the Normalization of CALL in Chinese Senior High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bi; Puakpong, Nattaya; Lian, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    With the development of Information Technology, increasing attention has been paid to Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Meanwhile, increasing enthusiasm is seen for English learning and teaching in China. Yet, few research studies have focused on the normalization of CALL in ethnically diverse areas. In response to this research gap,…

  17. Normal and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography of some new 1, 2, 4-triazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The retention behaviour and separation ability of normal and reversed phase HPLC with one non-polar and two polar mobile phases, have been studied by measuring the retention constants of a series of newly synthesized 1,2,4-triazole derivatives. The results are discussed in terms of the nature of the solute, eluent and stationary phase.

  18. High quality and quantity Genome-wide germline genotypes from FFPE normal tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgelas Ann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although collections of formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE samples exist, sometimes representing decades of stored samples, they have not typically been utilized to their full potential. Normal tissue from such samples would be extremely valuable for generation of genotype data for individuals who cannot otherwise provide a DNA sample. Findings We extracted DNA from normal tissue identified in FFPE tissue blocks from prostate surgery and obtained complete genome wide genotype data for over 500,000 SNP markers for these samples, and for DNA extracted from whole blood for 2 of the cases, for comparison. Four of the five FFPE samples of varying age and amount of tissue had identifiable normal tissue. We obtained good quality genotype data for between 89 and 99% of all SNP markers for the 4 samples from FFPE. Concordance rates of over 99% were observed for the 2 samples with DNA from both FFPE and from whole blood. Conclusions DNA extracted from normal FFPE tissue provides excellent quality and quantity genome-wide genotyping data representing germline DNA, sufficient for both linkage and association analyses. This allows genetic analysis of informative individuals who are no longer available for sampling in genetic studies.

  19. A new simple tubular flow cell for use with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry: A high throughput in situ protein adsorption study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, T. M.; Trussler, S.; McArthur, M. A.; Lohstreter, L. B.; Bai, Zhijun; Filiaggi, M. J.; Dahn, J. R.

    2009-09-01

    A simple and novel flow cell design is presented here for use with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) to study the adsorption of liquid-borne species on reflective surfaces. The flow cell allows a sample as large as 6 mm × 75 mm to be probed point by point and at any common ellipsometric angle of incidence, unlike other designs. Using our flow cell system with VASE, combinatorial films of Al 1-xNb x, Al 1-xTa x, and Al 1-xTi x (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) were tested in situ for fibrinogen affinity along their 75 mm long compositional gradients. Fibrinogen adsorption on the films was found to be closely correlated to the various surface oxide fractions, with high alumina content at the surface leading to low amounts of adsorbed fibrinogen for each binary library. Adsorbed amounts measured in situ were in agreement with previously obtained values found using ex situ techniques.

  20. A source term model of perturbation in a numerical study on flows around a slender body of revolution at a high angle of attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liu; Dongjun Ma; Dejun Sun; Xieyuan Yin

    2009-01-01

    A numerical study on flows around a slender body of revolution at a high angle of attack is conducted to investigate the influence of strength and circumferential angle of perturbation on flow asymmetry.A source term model is applied to simulate a real geometrical perturbation near the tip of the slender body.It can greatly facilitate the adjustment of perturbation strength.The results show that the bistable phenomenon does not appear any more at a small perturbation strength.For different perturbation strengths,the energy of the asymmetric perturbation flow experiences a similar spatial exponential growth regime with the same growth rate.The appearance of the bistable phenomenon is closely related to nonlinear saturation of the perturbation flow as perturbation strength increases.

  1. Comparing Diagnostic Ability of Basic Emotional States in Children with High Performance Autism Disorder with Normal Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jalili

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Study on weaknesses and diagnostic strategies of autistic children in social interactions as well as how we can diagnose different emotions in the face may be an efficient step towards their therapy and communication improvement. The objective of this study was to compare diagnostic ability of basic emotions in children with high-performance autism with normal peers.Materials and Method: In this comparative profile study, two groups of 16 individuals: children with high-performance autistic disorder and their normal peers were selected by available sample method in terms of age, sex and life location. Neuropsychology diagnostic test of different emotions in Benton face (changed version was used to determine diagnostic ability of emotions (happy, sad and angry. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and descriptive statistics and t-test were done for both independent groups.Results: Results showed that the ability of both tested groups is equal in diagnosing emotional states of joy, anger and neutral condition in face while viewing face picture and there was not any significant difference between groups but in diagnosing emotional grief state, the performance of autistics is lower and there was significant difference with normal peer group.Conclusion: The autistic children with high function are equal in ability with normal children in case of recognizing the happiness, anger and neutral facial excitement. However, they are less competent in recognizing the sadness and facial excitement than normal children

  2. Small angle X-ray scattering of wheat seed-storage proteins: alpha-, gamma- and omega-gliadins and the high molecular weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, N H; Miles, M J; Popineau, Y; Harries, J; Shewry, P; Tatham, A S

    1999-03-19

    Small angle X-ray scattering in solution was performed on seed-storage proteins from wheat. Three different groups of gliadins (alpha-, gamma- and omega-) and a high molecular weight (HMW) subunit of glutenin (1Bx20) were studied to determine molecular size parameters. All the gliadins could be modelled as prolate ellipsoids with extended conformations. The HMW subunit existed as a highly extended rod-like particle in solution with a length of about 69 nm and a diameter of about 6.4 nm. Specific aggregation effects were observed which may reflect mechanisms of self-assembly that contribute to the unique viscoelastic properties of wheat dough.

  3. Comparison of dyslipidemia among the normal-BMI and high-BMI group of people of rural Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetharaman Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity are considered major epidemic health problems in both developed and underdeveloped countries, as many studies showed a remarkable rise. One of the causes of dyslipidemia is obesity. Body mass index (BMI correlates reasonably well with laboratory-based measures of adiposity for population studies, and is extremely practical in most clinical settings. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the lipid profile of patients with normal BMI and high BMI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 400 subjects attended the medical outpatient department (OPD of a private medical college hospital at Salem from March 2010 to August 2011. The subjects were divided into two groups (200 in each group: (1 high BMI (BMI 25 and above and (2 normal BMI (BMI less than 25. The laboratory parameters; cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride (TG were determined directly by using an automated chemistry analyzer. Statistical Analysis: The Student′s t-test was used for comparison between categorical variables, i.e. lipid profile, high-BMI and normal-BMI subjects at P ≤0.05. Results: The total cholesterol, LDL and very LDL cholesterol and the TGs are found to be relatively high among the subjects with high BMI when compared with normal BMI persons, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: By analyzing the results of the study conducted, it was concluded that there was an increased risk of dyslipidemia among the high-BMI group compared with the normal-BMI people. Hence, a community-based education in this regard is of utmost importance.

  4. A comparative study of annealing of waxy, normal and high-amylose maize starches: the role of amylose molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Jinrong; Yu, Jinglin; Wang, Shuo

    2014-12-01

    The effect of annealing on starch structure and functionality of three maize starches (waxy, normal and high-amylose) was investigated, with the aim of understanding the role of amylose molecules during starch annealing. Amylose content, granular morphology and crystallinity of maize starches were little affected by annealing treatment. Annealing treatment did not alter the swelling power of waxy maize starch, but reduced the swelling power of normal and high-amylose maize starches. The thermal transition temperatures were increased, and the temperature range was decreased, but the enthalpy change was not affected greatly. The pasting viscosities of normal and waxy maize starches were decreased significantly, with the pasting temperature being little affected. The in vitro digestibility of three maize starches was not affected significantly by annealing treatment. Our results demonstrated that amylose molecules play an important role in the structural reorganization of starch granules during annealing treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 正常人眼前段组织与房角开放度数的关系%Relationship between Structure of Anterior Segment Tissue and Open Angle in Normal Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾阳发; 刘杏; 王涛; 李媚; 李彬彬; 何明光

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To study the relationship between structure of anterior segment tissues and open angle(AA) in normal subjects.[Methods] A total of 211 eyes from 211 normal subjects were enrolled,whose anterior chambers and lens were scanned using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT).The measuring items included AA,anterior chamber depth (ACD),anterior chamber horizontal diameter (ACHD),anatomical anterior chamber depth (AACD),ciliary band length (CBL),iris thickness (IT),lens thickness (LT),lens position (LP) and lens anterior apex position (LAAP).The relationship between the 8 biometric parameters and AA was analyzed using linear correlation,respectively.[Results] The mean of AA was (40 ± 17)°,with (44 ± 18)° in male,and (37 ± 16)° in female.The difference of AA between male and female was statistically significant (t = 2.893,P = 0.004).There was significant correlation between AA and ACD (r = 0.721,P = 0.000),LT (r = -0.545,P = 0.000),CBL (r = 0.615,P = 0.000),LAAP (r = -0.717,P = 0.000),LP (r = 0.557,P = 0.000),and ACHD (r = 0.175,P = 0.011).There was no significant correlation between AA and AACD (r = 0.130,P = 0.059),IT (r = 0.129,P = 0.061).[Conclusion] The AA of females was narrower than that of males.In normal subjects,the most important factors which determine AA are the lens,the location of the peripheral iris and ciliary body.%[目的] 分析正常人房角开放度数(AA)与眼前段结构的关系. [方法] 收集211例(211只眼)正常人,采用眼前段光学相干断层扫描仪(AS-OCT)扫描其前房和晶状体,并测量前房深度(ACD)、前房横径(ACHD)、解剖前房深度(AACD)、睫状体带长度(CBL)、虹膜厚度(IT)、晶状体厚度(LT)、晶状体位置(LP)以及晶状体前极的位置(LAAP).采用直线相关分析这8个参数与AA的关系. [结果] AA的均值为(40 ± 17)°,男性(44 ± 18)°,女性(37 ± 16)°,比较差异有统计学意义(t = 2.893,P = 0.004).AA

  6. Normalization of vibration signals generated under highly varying speed and load with application to signal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Jacek; Barszcz, Tomasz; Strączkiewicz, Marcin; Jablonski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a normalization dedicated to transform non-stationary vibration signals into signals characterized by purely stationary properties. For this purpose, a novel class of generalized periodic signals is defined followed by a proposition of a normalization technique, which takes advantage of available, instantaneous values of operational parameters. Within the paper, a well-known discrete-random separation (DRS) technique is recalled as an exemplary technique, which has been restricted to stationary signals so far. The authors present a step-by-step adoption of the DRS to non-stationary signals. The method is applied to simulated signal, test rig signal, and a vibration signal from industrial object. Additionally, for the purpose of synthesis of simulated signal, a new model of multi-component vibrations generated under varying regime is proposed. The presented method aims to expand existing solutions dealing with varying frequency to a more general solution dealing with independent, simultaneous varying frequency and amplitude of signal components.

  7. Hierarchical Decompositions for the Computation of High-Dimensional Multivariate Normal Probabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2017-09-07

    We present a hierarchical decomposition scheme for computing the n-dimensional integral of multivariate normal probabilities that appear frequently in statistics. The scheme exploits the fact that the formally dense covariance matrix can be approximated by a matrix with a hierarchical low rank structure. It allows the reduction of the computational complexity per Monte Carlo sample from O(n2) to O(mn+knlog(n/m)), where k is the numerical rank of off-diagonal matrix blocks and m is the size of small diagonal blocks in the matrix that are not well-approximated by low rank factorizations and treated as dense submatrices. This hierarchical decomposition leads to substantial efficiencies in multivariate normal probability computations and allows integrations in thousands of dimensions to be practical on modern workstations.

  8. Prevention of metabolic disorders with telmisartan and indapamide in a Chinese population with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Zhendong; Wang, Zhihao; Tang, Mengxiong; Zhong, Ming; Lu, Fanghong; Zhang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    High-normal blood pressure is considered a precursor of stage 1 hypertension that is associated with metabolic disorders. This study aims to investigate whether the pharmacologic treatment of high-normal blood pressure affects metabolism, especially in abdominally obese individuals, and the pharmacoeconomics of two antihypertensive agents, telmisartan and indapamide. Subjects with high-normal blood pressure were randomly assigned to receive telmisartan, indapamide or placebo for 3 years. All the subjects were instructed to modify their lifestyle to reduce blood pressure throughout the study. A total of 221 subjects were randomly assigned to telmisartan, 213 to indapamide and 230 to placebo. After the 3-year intervention, blood pressure was lower in the telmisartan and indapamide groups (Ptelmisartan group was lower during the first 2 years (P0.05). The percentage of subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in the telmisartan and indapamide groups (Ptelmisartan group for subjects with abdominal obesity (Ptelmisartan was ~1.86 times higher than for indapamide for a similar antihypertensive effect. The intervention for high-normal blood pressure with telmisartan and indapamide appeared to be feasible and reduced the risk of metabolic syndrome. Telmisartan was more effective, whereas indapamide had better pharmacoeconomic benefits.

  9. High-T(sub c) Superconductor-Normal-Superconductor Junctions with Polyimide-Passivated Ambient Temperature Edge Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, J. B.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Hunt, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to controllably fabricate High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) S-Normal-S (SNS) Josephson Juntions (JJ's) enhances the possibilities fro many applications, including digital circuits, SQUID's, and mixers. A wide variety of approaches to fabricating SNS-like junctions has been tried and analyzed in terms of proximity effect behavior.

  10. Pre-beta-HDL formation relates to high-normal free thyroxine in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienhoven-Wind, van Lynnda; Perton, Frank G.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objectives: Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may influence plasma lipoprotein levels. Associations between variation in thyroid function and pre-beta-high density lipoproteins (pre-beta-HDL), i.e. lipid-poor or lipid free HDL particles that act as initial acceptor of

  11. The Inclination Angle and Evolution of the Braking Index of Pulsars with Plasma-filled Magnetosphere: Application to the High Braking Index of PSR J1640-4631

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşi, K. Y.; Andaç, I. C.; Çıkıntoğlu, S.; Gügercinoğlu, E.; Vahdat Motlagh, A.; Kızıltan, B.

    2016-05-01

    The recently discovered rotationally powered pulsar PSR J1640-4631 is the first to have a braking index measured, with high enough precision, that is greater than 3. An inclined magnetic rotator in vacuum or plasma would be subject not only to spin-down but also to an alignment torque. The vacuum model can address the braking index only for an almost orthogonal rotator, which is incompatible with the single-peaked pulse profile. The magnetic dipole model with the corotating plasma predicts braking indices between 3 and 3.25. We find that the braking index of 3.15 is consistent with two different inclination angles, 18.°5 ± 3° and 56° ± 4°. The smaller angle is preferred given that the pulse profile has a single peak and the radio output of the source is weak. We infer the change in the inclination angle to be at the rate -0.°23 per century, three times smaller in absolute value than the rate recently observed for the Crab pulsar.

  12. Flight and wind-tunnel calibrations of a flush airdata sensor at high angles of attack and sideslip and at supersonic Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Whitmore, Stephen A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A nonintrusive airdata-sensing system was calibrated in flight and wind-tunnel experiments to an angle of attack of 70 deg and to angles of sideslip of +/- 15 deg. Flight-calibration data have also been obtained to Mach 1.2. The sensor, known as the flush airdata sensor, was installed on the nosecap of an F-18 aircraft for flight tests and on a full-scale F-18 forebody for wind-tunnel tests. Flight tests occurred at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, using the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the 30- by 60-ft wind tunnel at the NASA LaRC, Hampton, Virginia. The sensor consisted of 23 flush-mounted pressure ports arranged in concentric circles and located within 1.75 in. of the tip of the nosecap. An overdetermined mathematical model was used to relate the pressure measurements to the local airdata quantities. The mathematical model was based on potential flow over a sphere and was empirically adjusted based on flight and wind-tunnel data. For quasi-steady maneuvering, the mathematical model worked well throughout the subsonic, transonic, and low supersonic flight regimes. The model also worked well throughout the angles-of-attack and -sideslip regions studied.

  13. High energy electron radiography system design and simulation study of beam angle-position correlation and aperture effect on the images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cao, S.C.; Liu, M.; Sheng, X.K. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Y.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zong, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, X.M. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jing, Y.; Cheng, R.; Zhao, Y.T. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Z.M., E-mail: zzm@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du, Y.C. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gai, W. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A beam line dedicated to high-energy electron radiography experimental research with linear achromat and imaging lens systems has been designed. The field of view requirement on the target and the beam angle-position correlation correction can be achieved by fine-tuning the fields of the quadrupoles used in the achromat in combination with already existing six quadrupoles before the achromat. The radiography system is designed by fully considering the space limitation of the laboratory and the beam diagnostics devices. Two kinds of imaging lens system, a quadruplet and an octuplet system are integrated into one beam line with the same object plane and image plane but with different magnification factor. The beam angle-position correlation on the target required by the imaging lens system and the aperture effect on the images are studied with particle tracking simulation. It is shown that the aperture position is also correlated to the beam angle-position on the target. With matched beam on the target, corresponding aperture position and suitable aperture radius, clear pictures can be imaged by both lens systems. The aperture is very important for the imaging. The details of the beam optical requirements, optimized parameters and the simulation results are presented.

  14. Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Y; Imai, M [Department of Physics, Ochanomizu University, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Urakami, N [Department of Physics and Information Sciences, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Taniguchi, T, E-mail: imai@phys.ocha.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8510 (Japan)

    2011-07-20

    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively without steric modification of lipids as in fluorescence probe techniques. First the SANS profile of protonated SUVs at a film contrast condition showed that SUVs have a spherical shape with an inner radius of 190 A and a bilayer thickness of 40 A. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at a contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The characteristic profile was described well by a spherical bilayer model. The fitting revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet. Thus the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model.

  15. Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Y.; Urakami, N.; Taniguchi, T.; Imai, M.

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively without steric modification of lipids as in fluorescence probe techniques. First the SANS profile of protonated SUVs at a film contrast condition showed that SUVs have a spherical shape with an inner radius of 190 Å and a bilayer thickness of 40 Å. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at a contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The characteristic profile was described well by a spherical bilayer model. The fitting revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet. Thus the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model.

  16. High-resolution copy number arrays in cancer and the problem of normal genome copy number variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

    2008-11-01

    High-resolution techniques for analysis of genome copy number (CN) enable the analysis of complex cancer somatic genetics. However, the analysis of these data is difficult, and failure to consider a number of issues in depth may result in false leads or unnecessary rejection of true positives. First, segmental duplications may falsely generate CN breakpoints in aneuploid samples. Second, even when tumor data were each normalized to matching lymphocyte DNA, we still observed copy number polymorphisms masquerading as somatic alterations due to allelic imbalance. We investigated a number of different solutions and determined that evaluating matching normal DNA, or at least using locally derived normal baseline data, were preferable to relying on current online databases because of poor cross-platform compatibility and the likelihood of excluding genuine small somatic alterations.

  17. Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Normal and High Strength Concretes Produced with Fly Ash and Silica Fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Karakurt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on determination of the freeze-thaw resistance of air-entrained and non-air-entrained normal strength concrete (NC and high strength concrete (HSC produced with fly ash and silica fume according to surface scaling. The procedure allows us to measure the amount of scaling per unit surface area due to a number of well defined freezing and thawing cycles in the presence of deicing salt. The weight loss, surface scaling, moisture uptake, and internal damage were measured after 0 and after every 4th freeze-thaw cycle. The test results showed that the freeze-thaw resistance is influenced directly by the compressive strength property of the concrete. Silica fume significantly reduced the resistance of normal strength concrete against freeze-thaw effect without plasticizing agent. The surface scaling of silica fume concrete without admixture was 22% higher than reference normal concrete.

  18. The influence of the Al stabilizer layer thickness on the normal zone propagation velocity in high current superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I.; Langeslag, S.A.E.; Martins, L.P.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The stability of high-current superconductors is challenging in the design of superconducting magnets. When the stability requirements are fulfilled, the protection against a quench must still be considered. A main factor in the design of quench protection systems is the resistance growth rate in the magnet following a quench. The usual method for determining the resistance growth in impregnated coils is to calculate the longitudinal velocity with which the normal zone propagates in the conductor along the coil windings. Here, we present a 2D numerical model for predicting the normal zone propagation velocity in Al stabilized Rutherford NbTi cables with large cross section. By solving two coupled differential equations under adiabatic conditions, the model takes into account the thermal diffusion and the current redistribution process following a quench. Both the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the superconductor and the metal cladding materials properties are included. Unlike common normal zon...

  19. BiGlobal linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past an airfoil at high angle of attack

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-04

    We perform BiGlobal linear stability analysis on flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at 16° angle of attack and Reynolds number ranging from 400 to 1000. The steady-state two-dimensional base flows are computed using a well-tested finite difference code in combination with the selective frequency damping method. The base flow is characterized by two asymmetric recirculation bubbles downstream of the airfoil whose streamwise extent and the maximum reverse flow velocity increase with the Reynolds number. The stability analysis of the flow past the airfoil is carried out under very small spanwise wavenumber β = 10−4 to approximate the two-dimensional perturbation, and medium and large spanwise wavenumbers (β = 1–8) to account for the three-dimensional perturbation. Numerical results reveal that under small spanwise wavenumber, there are at most two oscillatory unstable modes corresponding to the near wake and far wake instabilities; the growth rate and frequency of the perturbation agree well with the two-dimensional direct numerical simulation results under all Reynolds numbers. For a larger spanwise wavenumber β = 1, there is only one oscillatory unstable mode associated with the wake instability at Re = 400 and 600, while at Re = 800 and 1000 there are two oscillatory unstable modes for the near wake and far wake instabilities, and one stationary unstable mode for the monotonically growing perturbation within the recirculation bubble via the centrifugal instability mechanism. All the unstable modes are weakened or even suppressed as the spanwise wavenumber further increases, among which the stationary mode persists until β = 4.

  20. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial δ-doped diamond layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C. [Dpto Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) (Spain); Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E. [Institut Néel, CNRS-Université Joseph Fourier, 25 av. des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Jomard, F. [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), UMR 8635 du CNRS, UVSQ, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup −}/p{sup ++}/p{sup −} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  1. Experimental electronic structure and Fermi-surface instability of the correlated 3d sulphide BaVS3 : High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, S.; Fazekas, P.; Søndergaard, C.; Ariosa, D.; Barišić, N.; Berger, H.; Cloëtta, D.; Forró, L.; Höchst, H.; Kupčić, I.; Pavuna, D.; Margaritondo, G.

    2007-04-01

    The correlated 3d sulphide BaVS3 exhibits an interesting coexistence of one-dimensional and three-dimensional properties. Our experiments determine the electronic band structure and shed light on this puzzle. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements in a 4-eV -wide range below the Fermi energy level uncover and investigate the coexistence of a1g wide-band and eg narrow-band d electrons, which lead to the complicated electronic properties of this material. We explore the effects of strong correlations and the Fermi surface instability associated with the metal-insulator transition.

  2. High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy in the characterization of urinary metabolites of normal subjects, oral premalignant and malignant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, Elumalai; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2017-01-01

    Urine has emerged as one of the diagnostically potential bio fluids, as it has many metabolites. As the concentration and the physiochemical properties of the urinary metabolites may vary under pathological transformation, Raman spectroscopic characterization of urine has been exploited as a significant tool in identifying several diseased conditions, including cancers. In the present study, an attempt was made to study the high wavenumber (HWVN) Raman spectroscopic characterization of urine samples of normal subjects, oral premalignant and malignant patients. It is concluded that the urinary metabolites flavoproteins, tryptophan and phenylalanine are responsible for the observed spectral variations between the normal and abnormal groups. Principal component analysis-based linear discriminant analysis was carried out to verify the diagnostic potentiality of the present technique. The discriminant analysis performed across normal and oral premalignant subjects classifies 95.6% of the original and 94.9% of the cross-validated grouped cases correctly. In the second analysis performed across normal and oral malignant groups, the accuracy of the original and cross-validated grouped cases was 96.4% and 92.1% respectively. Similarly, the third analysis performed across three groups, normal, oral premalignant and malignant groups, classifies 93.3% and 91.2% of the original and cross-validated grouped cases correctly.

  3. Late-responding normal tissue cells benefit from high-precision radiotherapy with prolonged fraction delivery times via enhanced autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiwei; Zheng, Rong; Xie, Guozhu; Liao, Guixiang; Du, Shasha; Ren, Chen; Li, Rong; Lin, Xiaoshan; Hu, Daokun; Yuan, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiotherapy (HPR) has established its important role in the treatment of tumors due to its precise dose distribution. Given its more complicated delivery process, HPR commonly requires more fraction delivery time (FDT). However, it is unknown whether it has an identical response of prolonged FDT on different normal tissues. Our results showed that fractionated irradiation with prolonged FDTs (15, 36, and 50 minutes) enhanced cell surviving fractions for normal tissue cells compared with irradiation with an FDT of 2 minutes. However, the late-responding normal cell line HEI-OC1 was more responsive to prolonged FDTs and demonstrated higher surviving fractions and significantly decreased apoptosis and DNA damage compared to the acute-responding normal cell line HaCaT. Increased autophagy mediated via the ATM-AMPK pathway was observed in HEI-OC1 cells compared with HaCaT cells when irradiated with prolonged FDTs. Furthermore, treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or ATM inhibitor KU55933 resulted in enhanced ROS accumulation and attenuation of the effect of prolonged FDT-mediated protection on irradiated HEI-OC1 cells. Our results indicated that late-responding normal tissue cells benefitted more from prolonged FDTs compared with acute-responding tissue cells, which was mainly attributed to enhanced cytoprotective autophagy mediated via the ATM/AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:25766900

  4. Optimization of accelerator parameters using normal form methods on high-order transfer maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snopok, Pavel [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Methods of analysis of the dynamics of ensembles of charged particles in collider rings are developed. The following problems are posed and solved using normal form transformations and other methods of perturbative nonlinear dynamics: (1) Optimization of the Tevatron dynamics: (a) Skew quadrupole correction of the dynamics of particles in the Tevatron in the presence of the systematic skew quadrupole errors in dipoles; (b) Calculation of the nonlinear tune shift with amplitude based on the results of measurements and the linear lattice information; (2) Optimization of the Muon Collider storage ring: (a) Computation and optimization of the dynamic aperture of the Muon Collider 50 x 50 GeV storage ring using higher order correctors; (b) 750 x 750 GeV Muon Collider storage ring lattice design matching the Tevatron footprint. The normal form coordinates have a very important advantage over the particle optical coordinates: if the transformation can be carried out successfully (general restrictions for that are not much stronger than the typical restrictions imposed on the behavior of the particles in the accelerator) then the motion in the new coordinates has a very clean representation allowing to extract more information about the dynamics of particles, and they are very convenient for the purposes of visualization. All the problem formulations include the derivation of the objective functions, which are later used in the optimization process using various optimization algorithms. Algorithms used to solve the problems are specific to collider rings, and applicable to similar problems arising on other machines of the same type. The details of the long-term behavior of the systems are studied to ensure the their stability for the desired number of turns. The algorithm of the normal form transformation is of great value for such problems as it gives much extra information about the disturbing factors. In addition to the fact that the dynamics of particles is represented

  5. Device for Measuring Landslide Critical Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xueling; Xia Weisheng; Huang Daoyou; Yu Yun

    2016-01-01

    The mountain landslide has high destructive effects, discussion of its landslide critical angle has always been one of the major concerns, and we designed a system that can automatically measure the landslide critical angle. This equipment consists of the

  6. A new angle on the Euler angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1995-01-01

    We present a generalization of the Euler angles to axes beyond the twelve conventional sets. The generalized Euler axes must satisfy the constraint that the first and the third are orthogonal to the second; but the angle between the first and third is arbitrary, rather than being restricted to the values 0 and pi/2, as in the conventional sets. This is the broadest generalization of the Euler angles that provides a representation of an arbitrary rotation matrix. The kinematics of the generalized Euler angles and their relation to the attitude matrix are presented. As a side benefit, the equations for the generalized Euler angles are universal in that they incorporate the equations for the twelve conventional sets of Euler angles in a natural way.

  7. Camouflage of a high-angle skeletal Class II open-bite malocclusion in an adult after mini-implant failure during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzotti Sant'Anna, Eduardo; Carneiro da Cunha, Amanda; Paludo Brunetto, Daniel; Franzotti Sant'Anna, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    The treatment of skeletal anterior open-bite malocclusion requires complex orthodontic planning that considers its multifactorial etiology, treatment limitations, and high relapse rates. This case report illustrates a successful treatment approach for a skeletal high-angle Class II malocclusion in an adult with a severe open bite. The treatment consisted of a high-pull headgear therapy after mini-implants failure during fixed orthodontic therapy. Adequate esthetics and function were achieved. Despite its low probability, the unexpected event of mini-implant loosening during complex treatments should be considered. Therefore, classic orthodontic mechanics should be established, especially when treating patients for whom invasive procedures such as miniplates or orthognathic surgery are not available options.

  8. X-Band high range resolution radar measurements of sea surface forward scatter at low grazing angles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, JC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Radar measurements of a radar calibration sphere test target suspended in sea surface multipath propagation conditions are reported. Wideband measurements together with high range resolution (HRR) processing were employed to resolve the direct...

  9. Genetic control of the leaf angle and leaf orientation value as revealed by ultra-high density maps in three connected maize populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Li

    Full Text Available Plant architecture is a key factor for high productivity maize because ideal plant architecture with an erect leaf angle and optimum leaf orientation value allow for more efficient light capture during photosynthesis and better wind circulation under dense planting conditions. To extend our understanding of the genetic mechanisms involved in leaf-related traits, three connected recombination inbred line (RIL populations including 538 RILs were genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS method and phenotyped for the leaf angle and related traits in six environments. We conducted single population quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping and joint linkage analysis based on high-density recombination bin maps constructed from GBS genotype data. A total of 45 QTLs with phenotypic effects ranging from 1.2% to 29.2% were detected for four leaf architecture traits by using joint linkage mapping across the three populations. All the QTLs identified for each trait could explain approximately 60% of the phenotypic variance. Four QTLs were located on small genomic regions where candidate genes were found. Genomic predictions from a genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP model explained 45±9% to 68±8% of the variation in the remaining RILs for the four traits. These results extend our understanding of the genetics of leaf traits and can be used in genomic prediction to accelerate plant architecture improvement.

  10. High molecular gas fractions in normal massive star-forming galaxies in the young Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, L J; Genzel, R; Neri, R; Cox, P; Cooper, M C; Shapiro, K; Bolatto, A; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Combes, F; Comerford, J; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Omont, A; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

    2010-02-11

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas. As this is relatively rare in the local Universe, galaxies like the Milky Way form only a few new stars per year. Typical massive galaxies in the distant Universe formed stars an order of magnitude more rapidly. Unless star formation was significantly more efficient, this difference suggests that young galaxies were much more molecular-gas rich. Molecular gas observations in the distant Universe have so far largely been restricted to very luminous, rare objects, including mergers and quasars, and accordingly we do not yet have a clear idea about the gas content of more normal (albeit massive) galaxies. Here we report the results of a survey of molecular gas in samples of typical massive-star-forming galaxies at mean redshifts of about 1.2 and 2.3, when the Universe was respectively 40% and 24% of its current age. Our measurements reveal that distant star forming galaxies were indeed gas rich, and that the star formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch. The average fraction of cold gas relative to total galaxy baryonic mass at z = 2.3 and z = 1.2 is respectively about 44% and 34%, three to ten times higher than in today's massive spiral galaxies. The slow decrease between z approximately 2 and z approximately 1 probably requires a mechanism of semi-continuous replenishment of fresh gas to the young galaxies.

  11. High-risk human papilloma virus in archival tissues of oral pathosis and normal oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Dhanapal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral cancer ranks third among all cancers in the Indian population. Human papilloma virus (HPV plays a significant role in oral carcinogenesis. Population-based subtype variations are present in the HPV prevalence. This study gives an emphasis on the parameters to be considered in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues for polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based research work. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study on archival paraffin-embedded tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, epithelial dysplasia, and normal oral mucosa surrounding impacted tooth was amplified by PCR for the E6 gene of HPV type 16 and E1 gene of HPV type 18. Results: HPV 18 was positive in three OSCC cases. There was no statistically significant association of the positivity of HPV with the age, gender or habit. The HPV positive patients had a tobacco habit and were of a younger age group. Conclusion: The presence of HPV in carcinomatous tissue highlights the possible role of HPV in carcinogenesis and archival paraffin embedded tissue specimen can be used for this analysis. Recent studies on genomic analyses have highlighted that the HPV positive tumors are a separate subgroup based on genomic sequencing. The results of a larger retrospective study will help further in our understanding of the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, this study could form the baseline for such follow-up studies.

  12. Single file and normal dual mode diffusion in highly confined hard sphere mixtures under flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanasundara, Surajith N; Spiteri, Raymond J; Bowles, Richard K

    2012-09-14

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the dual-mode diffusion regime of binary and tertiary mixtures of hard spheres confined in narrow cylindrical pores under the influence of an imposed flow. The flow is introduced to the dynamics by adding a small bias directed along the long axis of the pore to the random displacement of each Monte Carlo move. As a result, the motion of the particles in all the components is dominated by a drift velocity that causes the mean squared displacements to increase quadratically in the long time limit. However, an analysis of the mean squared displacements at intermediate time scales shows that components of the mixture above and below their passing thresholds still exhibit behaviors consistent with normal and single-file diffusion, respectively. The difference between the mean squared displacements of the various components is shown to go though a maximum, suggesting there may be an optimal pore diameter for the separation of mixtures exhibiting dual-mode diffusion.

  13. Shack-Hartmann centroid detection method based on high dynamic range imaging and normalization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Javier; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Luis; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; Belenguer, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    In the optical quality measuring process of an optical system, including diamond-turning components, the use of a laser light source can produce an undesirable speckle effect in a Shack-Hartmann (SH) CCD sensor. This speckle noise can deteriorate the precision and accuracy of the wavefront sensor measurement. Here we present a SH centroid detection method founded on computer-based techniques and capable of measurement in the presence of strong speckle noise. The method extends the dynamic range imaging capabilities of the SH sensor through the use of a set of different CCD integration times. The resultant extended range spot map is normalized to accurately obtain the spot centroids. The proposed method has been applied to measure the optical quality of the main optical system (MOS) of the mid-infrared instrument telescope smulator. The wavefront at the exit of this optical system is affected by speckle noise when it is illuminated by a laser source and by air turbulence because it has a long back focal length (3017 mm). Using the proposed technique, the MOS wavefront error was measured and satisfactory results were obtained.

  14. Fluid-structure Interaction Modeling of Aneurysmal Conditions with High and Normal Blood Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Ryo; Oshima, Marie; Kobayashi, Toshio; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

    2006-09-01

    Hemodynamic factors like the wall shear stress play an important role in cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the influence of hemodynamic factors in blood vessels, the authors have developed a numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis technique. The objective is to use numerical simulation as an effective tool to predict phenomena in a living human body. We applied the technique to a patient-specific arterial model, and with that we showed the effect of wall deformation on the WSS distribution. In this paper, we compute the interaction between the blood flow and the arterial wall for a patient-specific cerebral aneurysm with various hemodynamic conditions, such as hypertension. We particularly focus on the effects of hypertensive blood pressure on the interaction and the WSS, because hypertension is reported to be a risk factor in rupture of aneurysms. We also aim to show the possibility of FSI computations with hemodynamic conditions representing those risk factors in cardiovascular disease. The simulations show that the transient behavior of the interaction under hypertensive blood pressure is significantly different from the interaction under normal blood pressure. The transient behavior of the blood-flow velocity, and the resulting WSS and the mechanical stress in the aneurysmal wall, are significantly affected by hypertension. The results imply that hypertension affects the growth of an aneurysm and the damage in arterial tissues.

  15. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Home > Statistics and Data > Glaucoma, Open-angle Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  16. Theoretical study on effect of confinement on flexural ductility of normal and high-strength concrete beams

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, AKH; Au, FTK; Chau, SL

    2004-01-01

    Compared with normal concrete, high-strength concrete has higher strength but is generally more brittle. Its use in a reinforced concrete structure, if not properly controlled, could lead to an unsustainable reduction in ductility. However, confinement could be provided to improve the ductility of the structure. In this study, the effects of concrete strength and confinement on the flexural ductility of reinforced concrete beams have been evaluated by means of complete moment-curvature analys...

  17. Effects of High Frequency Chest Compression on Respiratory System Mechanics in Normal Subjects and Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Richard L; Richard T Lester; Neil E Brown

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short term effects of high frequency chest compression (HFCC) on several indices of respiratory system mechanics in normal subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).DESIGN: Comparative physiological approach. Subjects were blinded to 10 randomized HFCC settings (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Hz) with each applied at the lowest and at the highest background vest pressure.SETTING: Pulmonary function and lung mechanics laboratory, University of Alberta.PARTICIPANTS: Te...

  18. Comparison of dyslipidemia among the normal-BMI and high-BMI group of people of rural Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Seetharaman Ranganathan; Tuman US Krishnan; Shankar Radhakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are considered major epidemic health problems in both developed and underdeveloped countries, as many studies showed a remarkable rise. One of the causes of dyslipidemia is obesity. Body mass index (BMI) correlates reasonably well with laboratory-based measures of adiposity for population studies, and is extremely practical in most clinical settings. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the lipid profile of patients with normal BMI and high BMI. Material...

  19. Melatonin effect on plasma adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in normal and high fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Cano, Pilar; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, María P; Scacchi, Pablo A; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2010-11-01

    Melatonin effect on body weight progression, mean levels and 24-hr pattern of circulating adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were examined in rats fed a normal or a high-fat diet. In experiment 1, rats fed a normal diet were divided into two groups: receiving melatonin (25 μg/mL drinking water) or vehicle for 9 wk. In experiment 2, animals were divided into three groups: two fed with a high-fat diet (35% fat) and melatonin (25 μg/mL) or vehicle in drinking water for 11 wk, while a third group was given a normal diet (4% fat). At the end of experiments, groups of eight rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24-hr period. Melatonin administration for 9 wk decreased body weight gain from the 3rd wk on without affecting food intake. A significant reduction in circulating insulin, glucose and triglyceride mean levels and disrupted daily patterns of plasma adiponectin, leptin and insulin were observed after melatonin. In high fat-fed rats, melatonin attenuated body weight increase, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, as well as the increase in mean plasma adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels. The high-fat diet disrupted normal 24-hr patterns of circulating adiponectin, insulin and cholesterol, the effects on insulin and cholesterol being counteracted by melatonin. Nocturnal plasma melatonin concentration in control and obese rats receiving melatonin for 11 wk attained values 21-24-fold greater than controls. The results indicate that melatonin counteracts some of the disrupting effects of diet-induced obesity in rats. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Risk Factors in Normal-Tension Glaucoma and High-Tension Glaucoma in relation to Polymorphisms of Endothelin-1 Gene and Endothelin-1 Receptor Type A Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Wróbel-Dudzińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyse the influence of polymorphisms of endothelin-1 gene and endothelin-1 receptor type A gene on the clinical condition of patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Methods. 285 Polish patients took part in the research (160 normal-tension glaucoma and 125 high-tension glaucoma. DNA was isolated by standard methods and genotype distributions of four polymorphisms in genes encoding endothelin-1 (K198N and endothelin-1 receptor type A polymorphisms (C1222T, C70G, and G231A were determined. Genotype distributions were compared between NTG and HTG groups. The clinical condition of participants was examined for association with polymorphisms. Results. A similar frequency of occurrence of the polymorphic varieties of the studied genes was observed in patients with NTG and HTG. There is no relation between NTG risk factors and examined polymorphisms. NTG patients with TT genotype of K198N polymorphism presented with the lowest intraocular pressure in comparison to GG + GT genotype (p=0.03. In NTG patients with CC genotype of C1222T polymorphism (p=0.028 and GG of C70G polymorphism (p=0.03 the lowest values of mean blood pressure were observed. Conclusions. The studied polymorphic varieties (K198N, C1222T do have an influence on intraocular pressure as well as arterial blood pressure in NTG patients.

  1. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hao-Xin; XU Bing; XUE Li-Xia; DAI Yun; LIU Qian; RAO Xue-Jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We caJculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are diffcult to accomplish in practice, and gives confdence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory.

  2. Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Adrien Emmanuel

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a powerful tool for probing the microstructure of biological tissue non-invasively at high-speed. OCT measures depth-resolved reflectance of infrared light, generating cross-sectional images non-invasively with micron-scale resolution. As with other imaging modalities that employ coherent detection, OCT images are confounded by speckle noise. Speckle imposes a grainy texture on images that reduces the signal-to-noise ratio to near unity values. As a result, it conceals subtle differences in scattering properties known to be crucial for differentiating normal from diseased tissue states. In this thesis, we developed a novel OCT modality called "Angle-Resolved OCT" in which depth scans (A-lines) are obtained simultaneously from a broad range of backscattering angles. We demonstrated that high levels of speckle reduction can be achieved by averaging the magnitudes of A-lines corresponding to the same transverse locations. With both experimental and analytic approaches, we demonstrated that this averaging method does not lead to a substantial loss in spatial resolution. We developed two different imaging systems for performing Angle-Resolved OCT. With the first system, angular data was acquired simultaneously; with the second, it was acquired sequentially. The first system had superior speckle-reduction capabilities but image quality degraded significantly with small sample movements. The second system allowed for in vivo imaging, as demonstrated with Resolved OCT systems, the speckle-reduced images showed hitherto unprecedented delineation of tissue microstructure.

  3. L-CYSTEINE INFLUENCE ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD FROM HIGH EXTRACTION FLOURS WITH NORMAL GLUTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Stoica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing agents like L-cysteine are used in bread baking of strong flours, with short gluten to reduce mixing andfermentation time. The aim of this study is to determine if L-cysteine may be an improving agent for the quality of breadobtained from high extraction flours with normal gluten.The tested high extraction flour was analyzed by determination of several quality indicators such as wet gluten content,gluten deformation index, moisture, ash, Falling Number index and alveogram parameters of dough. The resultsindicate that flour has a normal gluten network, is “good” for bread making and has a normal α-amylase activity.After its addition to dough, L-cysteine improves the physical properties of bread made with high extraction flour. Theobserved increase for bread volume was maximum 10%, for porosity maximum 5,75% and for elasticity maximum2,58%, comparing with reference bread.The proposed solution can be assimilated into pan bread making technology.

  4. High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strocov, V. N., E-mail: vladimir.strocov@psi.ch; Schmitt, T.; Flechsig, U.; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A.; Chen, Q.; Raabe, J. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Wang, X. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Institut de Physique de la Matiére Condensé, Ecole Polytechnique Fédéderale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Grioni, M. [Institut de Physique de la Matiére Condensé, Ecole Polytechnique Fédéderale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Piazzalunga, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Patthey, L. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-09-01

    Concepts and technical realization of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source are described. Optimization of the optical scheme for high resolution and photon flux as well as diagnostics tools and alignment strategies are discussed. The concepts and technical realisation of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) are described. The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0–180° rotatable linear polarizations) but also the energy without changing the gap. The beamline optics is based on the well established scheme of plane-grating monochromator operating in collimated light. The ultimate resolving power E/ΔE is above 33000 at 1 keV photon energy. The choice of blazed versus lamellar gratings and optimization of their profile parameters is described. Owing to glancing angles on the mirrors as well as optimized groove densities and profiles of the gratings, the beamline is capable of delivering high photon flux up to 1 × 10{sup 13} photons s{sup −1} (0.01% BW){sup −1} at 1 keV. Ellipsoidal refocusing optics used for the RIXS endstation demagnifies the vertical spot size down to 4 µm, which allows slitless operation and thus maximal transmission of the high-resolution RIXS spectrometer delivering E/ΔE > 11000 at 1 keV photon energy. Apart from the beamline optics, an overview of the control system is given, the diagnostics and software tools are described, and strategies used for the optical alignment are discussed. An introduction to the concepts and instrumental realisation of the ARPES and RIXS endstations is given.

  5. Elevated intrabolus pressure identifies obstructive processes when integrated relaxation pressure is normal on esophageal high-resolution manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, Farhan; Reddy, Chanakyaram; Patel, Amit; Gyawali, C Prakash

    2017-07-01

    Elevated integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) on esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) identifies obstructive processes at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). Our aim was to determine whether intrabolus pressure (IBP) can identify structural EGJ processes when IRP is normal. In this observational cohort study, adult patients with dysphagia and undergoing HRM were evaluated for endoscopic evidence of structural EGJ processes (strictures, rings, hiatus hernia) in the setting of normal IRP. HRM metrics [IRP, distal contractile integral (DCI), distal latency (DL), IBP, and EGJ contractile integral (EGJ-CI)] were compared among 74 patients with structural EGJ findings (62.8 ± 1.6 yr, 67.6% women), 27 patients with normal EGD (52.9 ± 3.2 yr, 70.3% women), and 21 healthy controls (27.6 ± 0.6 yr, 52.4% women). Findings were validated in 85 consecutive symptomatic patients to address clinical utility. In the primary cohort, mean IBP (18.4 ± 0.9 mmHg) was higher with structural EGJ findings compared with dysphagia with normal EGD (13.5 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = 0.002) and healthy controls (10.9 ± 0.9 mmHg, P 0.05 for each comparison). During multiple rapid swallows, IBP remained higher in the structural findings group compared with controls (P = 0.02). Similar analysis of the prospective validation cohort confirmed IBP elevation in structural EGJ processes, but correlation with dysphagia could not be demonstrated. We conclude that elevated IBP predicts the presence of structural EGJ processes even when IRP is normal, but correlation with dysphagia is suboptimal.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) above the upper limit of normal defines esophageal outflow obstruction using high-resolution manometry. In patients with normal IRP, elevated intrabolus pressure (IBP) can be a surrogate marker for a structural restrictive or obstructive process at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). This has the potential to augment the clinical value of

  6. Develop high quality nursing service and normalize management of neonatal ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua YANG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To tamp basic neonatal care, provide high quality nursing service, improve the quality of neonatal care, guarantee the safety of nursing care, achieve satisfactory project. Methods:Adjust the staff of the neonatal ward , optimize schedule; strengthen the training and knowledge; strengthen the supervision and ensure the basic nursing; the nursing quality management group work out the rate of incidence of high quality nursing service, the incidence rate of hospital infection of the newborn as well as the satisfaction of their families. Results: The different data between the control group and observation group was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 . Conclusion: Develop the neonatal ward of high quality nursing service, ensure the basic nursing implement, significantly improve the quality of nursing, reduce nursing adverse events and neonatal hospital infection incidence to" zero defects and zero tolerance", and that ensures nursing safety, and achieve the goal of " quality care demonstration project" --- patient satisfaction, social satisfaction, and government satisfaction.

  7. Photoemission studies of the normal and high-temperature superconducting states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritondo, G.; Onellion, M.

    1996-02-01

    Photoemission has become a most powerful electronic probe of high-TC superconductors. The main present emphasis is on the BCSCO-2212 gap symmetry. After much controversy, a consensus emerges: (1) no symmetric s-waves; (2) the symmetry depends on temperature and doping; (3) the optimal doping data are consistent with dx2-y2 waves; (4) for other dopings, the symmetry is consistent with mixed s and d-waves. The data, though, cannot rule out other hypotheses, specifically asymmetric s-waves. Photoemission also revealed unexpected phenomena, notably for Co-doped BCSCO-2212. By fine-tuning the doping one can replace the room temperature itinerant electronic states with localized states; Tc changes too, but there is still high-TC superconductivity. This indicates that Anderson localization and high-TC superconductivity can coexist.

  8. High angle phase modulated low coherence interferometry for path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Leeuwen, van Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2008-01-01

    We describe an improved method for coherence domain path length resolved measurements of multiply scattered photons in turbid media. An electro-optic phase modulator sinusoidally modulates the phase in the reference arm of a low coherence fiber optic Mach–Zehnder interferometer, at a high phase modu

  9. Effects of Front-Loading and Stagger Angle on Endwall Losses of High Lift Low Pressure Turbine Vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Modeling for CFD,” 2 nd Edition. La Cañada, California: DCW Industries Inc. Wilcox, D.C., 2006, “Turbulence Modeling for CFD,” 3rd Edition. La...Cañada, California: DCW Industries Inc. Wilson, D.G. and Korakianitus, T., 1998, “The Design of High-Efficiency Turbomachinery and Gas Turbines

  10. KWS-2, the high intensity / wide Q-range small-angle neutron diffractometer for soft-matter and biology at FRM II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, A.; Pipich, V.; Frielinghaus, H.; Appavou, M.-S.

    2012-03-01

    The KWS-2 small-angle neutron diffractometer operated by JCNS at FRM II is upgraded and optimized towards high intensity and wide Q-range studies of mesoscopic structures and structural changes due to rapid kinetics and becomes a dedicated SANS instrument to soft-matter and biology. The high intensity permits fast measurement of small or weak scattering samples and time resolved structural studies with a time resolution up to 100ms. The possibility to cover up to four decades in Q will soon enable structural investigation over a wide length scale, between several Å and lμm. The characteristics and performance of the instrument in the conventional pinhole mode is detailed presented and the new upgrades currently in progress and aiming for boosting the instrument performance towards higher intensity and wider Q-range are reported.

  11. 1H High Resolution Magic-Angle Coil Spinning (HR-MACS) - NMR Metabolic Profiling of whole Saccharomyces cervisiae cells: A Demonstrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alan; Boutin, Celine; Aguiar, Pedro

    2014-06-01

    The low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is its prime shortcoming compared to other analytical methods for metabolomic studies. It relies on large sample volume (30-50 µl for HR-MAS) for rich metabolic profiling, hindering high-throughput screening especially when the sample requires a labor-intensive preparation or is a sacred specimen. This is indeed the case for some living organisms. This study evaluates a 1H HR-MAS approach for metabolic profiling of small volume (250 nl) whole bacterial cells, Saccharomyces cervisiae, using an emerging micro-NMR technology: high-resolution magic-angle coil spinning (HR-MACS). As a demonstrative study for whole cells, we perform two independent metabolomics studies identifying the significant metabolites associated with osmotic stress and aging.

  12. 1H High Resolution Magic-Angle Coil Spinning (HR-MACS µNMR Metabolic Profiling of whole Saccharomyces cervisiae cells: A Demonstrative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eWong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR is its prime shortcoming compared to other analytical methods for metabolomic studies. It relies on large sample volume (30–50 µl for HR-MAS for rich metabolic profiling, hindering high-throughput screening especially when the sample requires a labor-intensive preparation or is a sacred specimen. This is indeed the case for some living organisms. This study evaluates a 1H HR-MAS approach for metabolic profiling of small volume (250 nl whole bacterial cells, Saccharomyces cervisiae, using an emerging micro-NMR technology: high-resolution magic-angle coil spinning (HR-MACS. As a demonstrative study for whole cells, we perform two independent metabolomics studies identifying the significant metabolites associated with osmotic stress and aging.

  13. Quantitative composition determination at the atomic level using model-based high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G T; Rosenauer, A; De Backer, A; Verbeeck, J; Van Aert, S

    2014-02-01

    High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) images provide sample information which is sensitive to the chemical composition. The image intensities indeed scale with the mean atomic number Z. To some extent, chemically different atomic column types can therefore be visually distinguished. However, in order to quantify the atomic column composition with high accuracy and precision, model-based methods are necessary. Therefore, an empirical incoherent parametric imaging model can be used of which the unknown parameters are determined using statistical parameter estimation theory (Van Aert et al., 2009, [1]). In this paper, it will be shown how this method can be combined with frozen lattice multislice simulations in order to evolve from a relative toward an absolute quantification of the composition of single atomic columns with mixed atom types. Furthermore, the validity of the model assumptions are explored and discussed.

  14. A comparative study of attentional strategies of schizophrenic and highly creative normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, M; McGhie, A

    1976-01-01

    Frequent references have been made to the similarities between highly creative and psychotic thinking. This study attempts to test the hypothesis that one explanation for such a correspondence lies in the fact that individuals in both these populations habitually employ common attentional strategies which cause them to sample an unusually wide range of available environmental stimuli. A group of highly creative adults and a group of equally intelligent but low creative adults were compared with a group of acute non-paranoid schizophrenic adults on three tests designed to assess attentional and other cognitive styles. The results offer support to the view that both highly creative and schizophrenic individuals habitually sample a wider range of available environmental input than do less creative individuals. In the case of the schizophrenic this involuntary widening of attention tends to have a deleterious effect on performance, while, in contrast, the highly creative individual is more able to successfully process the greater input without this incurring a performance deficit.

  15. Switching Back to Normal Diet Following High-Fat Diet Feeding Reduces Cardiac Vulnerability to Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Littlejohns; Hua Lin; Gianni D Angelini; Halestrap, Andrew P.; M. Saadeh Suleiman

    2014-01-01

    Background: We have recently shown that hearts of mice fed high-fat diet exhibit increased vulnerability to ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) in parallel to changes in catalase protein expression, mitochondrial morphology and intracellular diastolic Ca2+. Aims: To determine whether switching from high-fat back to normal diet alters vulnerability to I/R and to investigate cardiac cellular remodelling in relation to the mechanism(s) underlying I/R injury. Methods and Results: Male C57BL/6J mice w...

  16. High normal thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Armeni, Eleni; Rizos, Demetrios; Georgiopoulos, Georgios; Kazani, Maria; Alexandrou, Andreas; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Livada, Alexandra; Psychas, Charalampos; Creatsa, Maria; Bouboulis, George; Alevizaki, Maria; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon

    2012-03-01

    Apart from the effects of a dysfunctional thyroid gland on the cardiovascular system, thyroid function within the reference range may have an impact on the vasculature. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between thyroid function and markers of arterial structure and function in euthyroid postmenopausal women. The present cross-sectional study recruited 106 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 55.0 years and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels within the laboratory reference range (0.4-4.5 μIU/ml). Anthropometric and biochemical measures as well as blood pressure were determined in each individual. Vascular structure and function were assessed by intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index and flow-mediated dilation, respectively. We evaluated the associations between arterial markers and serum TSH, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxin, as well as serum thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin autoantibodies. Mean levels of PWV increased linearly across increasing TSH quartiles (P value = 0.014). Individuals with serum TSH greater than 2.5 μIU/ml had significantly higher values of PWV when compared with individuals with TSH levels below 2.5 μIU/ml (9.68 ± 1.97 vs. 8.54 ± 1.83 m/s; P = 0.030). In multivariate analysis, age, insulin resistance and TSH above 2.5 μIU/ml were the only significant predictors of PWV (TSH, β-coefficient = 0.222; P = 0.014). No associations were found between the remaining markers and levels of thyroid hormones, whereas thyroid antibodies were not associated with any of the arterial markers. Women with TSH levels in the upper reference range have increased arterial stiffness compared to women with lower TSH. The upper limit of normal TSH in postmenopausal women may need re-evaluation with respect to the effects on the vasculature.

  17. High-sensitivity refractive index sensor based on large-angle tilted fiber grating with carbon nanotube deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmos, Abdulyezir A.; Sun, Qizhen; Yan, Zhijun; Arif, Raz N.; Zhang, Junxi; Rozhin, Alex; Zhang, Lin

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a highly sensitive ambient refractive index (RI) sensor based on 81° tilted fiber grating (81°-TFG) structure UV-inscribed in standard telecom fiber (62.5μm cladding radius) with carbon nanotube (CNT) overlay deposition. The sensing mechanism is based on the ability of CNT to induce change in transmitted optical power and the high sensitivity of 81°-TFG to ambient refractive index. The thin CNT film with high refractive index enhances the cladding modes of the TFG, resulting in the significant interaction between the propagating light and the surrounding medium. Consequently, the surrounding RI change will induce not only the resonant wavelength shift but also the power intensity change of the attenuation band in the transmission spectrum. Result shows that the change in transmitted optical power produces a corresponding linear reduction in intensity with increment in RI values. The sample shows high sensitivities of 207.38nm/RIU, 241.79nm/RIU at RI range 1.344-1.374 and 113.09nm/RIU, 144.40nm/RIU at RI range 1.374-1.392 (for X-pol and Y-pol respectively). It also shows power intensity sensitivity of 65.728dBm/RIU and 45.898 (for X-pol and Y-pol respectively). The low thermal sensitivity property of the 81°-TFG offers reduction in thermal cross-sensitivity and enhances specificity of the sensor.

  18. A gloss of Chronic Hypoxia in normal and diseased individuals at high altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zubieta-Castillo,G.; Zubieta-Calleja,G.R.; Zubieta-Calleja L.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction Millenary populations that live at high altitude in different continents like Asia (1) and South America (8), have endured biological adaptation in very adverse environmental conditions, of which to our understanding, paradoxically, chronic hypoxia is the most tolerable. Patients with pulmonary diseases at high altitude tolerate tissue hypoxia with an arterial tension (PaO2) even as low as 30 mmHg. Current scientific knowledge has made progress in many areas, clarifying many doubts, however due to preconception and lack of broad social studies chronic hypoxia is still not fully understood. Beings that inhabit different areas of the planet earth have lived under a variety of different hostile conditions: intense cold in the polar regions,intense heat in Africa and in the Middle East desserts,great pressure in the depth of the oceans, intense darkness of the caves and naturally the hypoxia of extreme altitudes.

  19. Inclination angle and braking index evolution of pulsars with plasma-filled magnetosphere: application to high braking index of PSR J1640-4631

    CERN Document Server

    Ekşi, Kazım Yavuz; Çıkıntoğlu, Sercan; Gügercinoğlu, Erbil; Motlagh, Armin Vahdat; Kızıltan, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered rotationally powered pulsar PSR J1640-4631 is the first to have a braking index measured, with high enough precision, to be greater than three. An inclined magnetic rotator in vacuum or plasma would be subject to not only spin-down torque but also to an alignment torque. The vacuum model can address the braking index only for an almost orthogonal rotator which is incompatible with the single peaked pulse profile. We show that the magnetic dipole model with the corotating plasma predicts braking indices between $3-3.25$ and can explain the braking index of $3.15$ for two different inclination angles, $18.5\\pm 3$ degrees and $56 \\pm 4$ degrees. Of these the former is preferred given the pulse profile has a single peak. We infer the change in the inclination angle to be at the rate $-0.23$ degrees per century, three times smaller in absolute value than the rate recently observed from the Crab pulsar.

  20. Comparison of the △12 fatty acid desaturase gene between high-oleic and normal-oleic peanut genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShanlinYu; Lijuan Pan; Qingli Yang; Ping Min; Zengkai Ren; Hongsheng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    △12fatty acid desaturase gene has been targeted as a logical candidate controlling the high oleate trait in peanut seeds. By RT-PCR method, the full-length cDNAs of △12 fatty acid desaturase gene were isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes with normal and high ratio of oleic to linoleic acid, which were designated AhFAD2B and AhFAD2B', respectively. Sequence alignment of their coding regions revealed that an extra A was inserted at the position +442 bp of AhFAD2B' sequence of high oleic acid genotypes, which resulted in the shift of open reading frame and a truncated protein AhFAD2B', with the loss of one histidine box involved in metal ion complex required for the reduction of oxygen. Analysis of transcript level showed that the expression of △12 fatty acid desaturase gene in high oleic acid genotype was slightly lower than that in normal genotype. The enzyme activity experiment of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell transformed with AhFAD2B or AhFAD2B' proved that only AhFAD2B gene product showed significant A12 fatty acid desaturase activity,but AhFAD2B' gene product did not. These results suggested that the change of AhFAD2B' gene sequence resulted in lower activity or deactivation of △12 fatty acid desaturase in high oleic acid genotype.

  1. Superconducting and normal state properties of heavily hole-doped diamond synthesized at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Sidorov, E.A. Ekimov, A.V. Rakhmanina, S.M. Stishov, E.D. Bauer and J.D. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamonds, synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures in the presence of boron, are heavily hole-doped by incorporation of boron into the diamond lattice. These diamonds become superconducting below Tc=2–9 K. Synthesis in the systems B-C and B4C-C at P=9 GPa and T=2500–2800 K result in formation of polycrystalline carbonado-like material, whereas synthesis from B-C-H gives small single crystals and intergrowth plates. Dense superconducting bodies can be prepared by compacting these single crystal particles at P=8 GPa and T=1800 K. Specific heat and resistivity measurements in magnetic fields prove the bulk nature of superconductivity in all pressure-synthesized samples and provide a consistent set of materials parameters that favor a conventional weak-coupling electron–phonon interpretation of the superconducting mechanism at high hole doping. Schottky barrier tunneling conductance spectra, obtained with contacts fabricated at the surface of these hole-doped diamonds, indicate the appearance of superconducting gap below Tc.

  2. Thermal effects generated by high-intensity focused ultrasound beams at normal incidence to a bone surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Diane M; Myers, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    Experiments and computations were performed to study factors affecting thermal safety when high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams are normally incident (i.e., beam axis normal to the interface) upon a bone/soft-tissue interface. In particular, the temperature rise and thermal dose were determined as a function of separation between the beam focus and the interface. Under conditions representative of clinical HIFU procedures, it was found that the thermal dose at the bone surface can exceed the threshold for necrosis even when the beam focus is more than 4 cm from the bone. Experiments showed that reflection of the HIFU beam from the bone back into the transducer introduced temperature fluctuations of as much as +/-15% and may be an important consideration for safety analyses at sufficiently high acoustic power. The applicability of linear propagation models in predicting thermal dose near the interface was also addressed. Linear models, while underpredicting thermal dose at the focus, provided a conservative (slight overprediction) estimate of thermal dose at the bone surface. Finally, temperature rise due to absorption of shear waves generated by the HIFU beam in the bone was computed. Modeling shear-wave propagation in the thermal analysis showed that the predicted temperature rise off axis was as much as 30% higher when absorption of shear waves is included, indicating that enhanced heating due to shear-wave absorption is potentially important, even for normally incident HIFU beams.

  3. Ionospheric plasma flow over large high-voltage space platforms. I - Ion-plasma-time scale interactions of a plate at zero angle of attack. II - The formation and structure of plasma wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Hastings, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the theory and particle simulation results for the ionospheric plasma flow over a large high-voltage space platform at a zero angle of attack and at a large angle of attack. Emphasis is placed on the structures in the large, high-voltage regime and the transient plasma response on the ion-plasma time scale. Special consideration is given to the transient formation of the space-charge wake and its steady-state structure.

  4. Prognostic Value Of Normal Myocardial Perfusion Imaging In Asymptomatic Diabetic Patients With Moderate And High Calcium Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitevska Irena Peovska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intermediate prognostic value of normal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI in asymptomatic diabetic patients with intermediate and high coronary artery calcium (CAC scores. Methods: A total of 115 asymptomatic diabetic patients with no known coronary artery disease (CAD underwent MPI after multi-slice computed tomography CAC assessment for the detection of suspected CAD. The study included 75 patients with normal MPI results. A 17-segment model for myocardial perfusion and function analysis was used. Patients were divided into three groups: I gr-20 patients with a diabetes duration between 1-5 years; II gr-24 patients with a diabetes duration 5-10 years; and III gr-31 patients with a diabetes duration >10 years. End points (cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, heart failure, new angina, revascularization were assessed at 6, 12 and 24 months.

  5. A High-Speed Motion-Picture Study of Normal Combustion, Knock and Preignition in a Spark-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C; Miller, Cearcy D

    1941-01-01

    Combustion in a spark-ignition engine was investigated by means of the NACA high-speed motion-picture cameras. This camera is operated at a speed of 40,000 photographs a second and therefore makes possible the study of changes that take place in the intervals as short as 0.000025 second. When the motion pictures are projected at the normal speed of 16 frames a second, any rate of movement shown is slowed down 2500 times. Photographs are presented of normal combustion, of combustion from preignitions, and of knock both with and without preignition. The photographs of combustion show that knock may be preceded by a period of exothermic reaction in the end zone that persists for a time interval of as much as 0.0006 second. The knock takes place in 0.00005 second or less.

  6. CCK(1) receptor is essential for normal meal patterning in mice fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2007-12-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a high fat diet on daily food intake and meal patterns using mice in which the CCK(1)R gene is deleted. CCK(1)R(-/-) and CCK(1)R(+/+) mice were fed isocaloric high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets ad libitum for 18 h each day and meal size, meal frequency, intermeal interval, and meal duration were determined. Daily food intake was unaltered by diet in the CCK(1)R(-/-) compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice. However, meal size was larger in the CCK(1)R(-/-) mice compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice when fed a HF diet, with a concomitant decrease in meal frequency. Meal duration was increased in mice fed HF diet regardless of phenotype. In addition, CCK(1)R(-/-) mice fed a HF diet had a 75% decrease in the time to 1st meal compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice following a 6 h fast. These data suggest that lack of the CCK(1)R results in diminished satiation, causing altered meal patterns including larger, less frequent meals when fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that the CCK(1)R is involved in regulating caloric intake on a meal to meal basis, but that other factors are responsible for regulation of daily food intake.

  7. High-angle tilt boundary graphene domain recrystallized from mobile hot-wire-assisted chemical vapor deposition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinsup; Baek, Jinwook; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Lee, Mi Jin; Oh, Seran; Hong, Seul Ki; Kim, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Seok-Hee; Cho, Byung Jin; Lee, Zonghoon; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2014-08-13

    Crystallization of materials has attracted research interest for a long time, and its mechanisms in three-dimensional materials have been well studied. However, crystallization of two-dimensional (2D) materials is yet to be challenged. Clarifying the dynamics underlying growth of 2D materials will provide the insight for the potential route to synthesize large and highly crystallized 2D domains with low defects. Here, we present the growth dynamics and recrystallization of 2D material graphene under a mobile hot-wire assisted chemical vapor deposition (MHW-CVD) system. Under local but sequential heating by MHW-CVD system, the initial nucleation of nanocrystalline graphenes, which was not extended into the growth stage due to the insufficient thermal energy, took a recrystallization and converted into a grand single crystal domain. During this process, the stitching-like healing of graphene was also observed. The local but sequential endowing thermal energy to nanocrystalline graphenes enabled us to simultaneously reveal the recrystallization and healing dynamics in graphene growth, which suggests an alternative route to synthesize a highly crystalline and large domain size graphene. Also, this recrystallization and healing of 2D nanocrystalline graphenes offers an interesting insight on the growth mechanism of 2D materials.

  8. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of high-caloric intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- scans, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) with stable isotopes were performed before and after the intervention. Both study groups gained the same amount of body weight. However, the inactive group accumulated significantly more....... Therefore, healthy individuals on a high caloric intake were randomized to either 10,000 or 1,500 steps per day for 14 days. Step-number, total energy expenditure, dietary records, neuropsychological tests, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)- and abdominal...

  9. A Study of Promoting High-speed,Sustained and Inclusive Development under the New Normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Changde; Jia Min

    2015-01-01

    Using the methodology of the HP filter ( Hodrick-Prescott Filter ) , this article calcu-lates the potential economic growth rate and volatil-ity of the eight ethnic provinces and regions as well as that of the whole country,and using the theory of economic cycles, the articles creates six large sta-ges.Through a special research on economic data from the three cycles from 1978 to 2014 ,the article discovers that the potential economic growth rate of the eight ethnic provinces and regions was not only high,but moreover,exhibited an increasing trend.

  10. Mechanical characterization of glancing angle deposited Si nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessler, Andre; Patzig, Christian; Rauschenbach, Bernd [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, Leipzig (Germany); Fuhrmann, Bodo [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle, Halle (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In physical vapour deposition processes the incoming particle flux strikes perpendicular to the surface, whereas a compact film is deposed on the substrate. However, at the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) process the sample is tilted with respect to the substrate normal, so the particle flux strikes the surface under an highly oblique angle {beta} (typically {beta}>80 with respect to the substrate normal). Self-shadowing of the deposed particles lead to a non-closed and highly porous film, which is compose of needle-like nanostructures, toward the incoming particle flux. By means of substrate rotation, different structures such as pillars, zigzags, screws or spirals can be obtained. Although in recent years a series of fundamentally findings have been published, mechanical properties remain unknown. Our goal was to determine the mechanical properties (such as hardness, Young's modulus and spring constants of spiral structures) by employing nanoindentation with a flat punch to these 3D silicon nanostructures.

  11. Wide-angle, high-extinction-ratio, infrared polarizing beam splitters using frustrated total internal reflection by an embedded centrosymmetric multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Siva R.; Azzam, R. M. A.

    2007-07-01

    A centrosymmetric multilayer stack of two transparent thin-film materials, which is embedded in a high-index prism, is designed to function as an efficient polarizer or polarizing beam splitter (PBS) under conditions of frustrated total internal reflection over an extended range of incidence angles. The S(LH)kLHL(HL)kS multilayer structure consists of a high-index center layer H sandwiched between two identical low-index films L and high-index-low-index bilayers repeated (k times) on both sides of the central trilayer maintaining the symmetry of the entire stack. For a given set of refractive indices, all possible solutions for the thicknesses of the layers that suppress the reflection of p-polarized light at a specified angle, and the associated reflectance of the system for the orthogonal s polarization, are determined. The angular and spectral sensitivities of polarizing multilayer stacks employing 3, 7, 11, 15, and 19 layers of BaF2 and PbTe thin films embedded in a ZnS prism, operating at λ=10.6 μm, are presented. The 15- and 19-layer stack designs achieve extinction ratios (ER) >30 dB in both reflection and transmission over a 46°-56° field of view inside the prism. Spectral analysis reveals additional discrete polarizing wavelengths other than the design wavelength (λ=10.6 μm). The 11-, 15-, and 19-layer designs function as effective s-reflection polarizers (|Rs|2>99%) over a 2-3 μm bandwidth. The effect of decreasing the refractive index contrast between the H and L layers on the resulting ER is also considered.

  12. A retrospective study for vertical control with high-pull headgear in the treatment of high angle cases%戴用高位牵引头帽后高角患者的垂直向变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳莉; 周彦恒; 傅民魁; 丁鹏

    2009-01-01

    目的 评估高位牵引头帽对高角患者垂直向控制的有效性.方法 选择40例高角拔牙正畸患者(MP-SN角>40°),进行高位牵引,分为控制组和对照组(每组各20例),分析14项头影测量项目,以配对t检验分析每组治疗前后数据,独立样本t检验分析两组治疗前后差值.结果 控制组与对照组相比,14项头影测量项目治疗变化的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).控制组治疗后Y轴角、MP-SN角、MP-FH角及U6-PP距分别平均增加1.9°、1.5°、2.3°和1.1 mm,与治疗前相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 高位牵引头帽不能为高角患者提供有效的垂直向控制.%Objective To assess the effectiveness of vertical control with high-pull headgear in the treatment of high angle cases.Methods Forty high angle cases(MP-SN>40°)were included in this study and all the patients were treated with extraction.Twenty patients in the study group and control group,respectively.Totally 14 cephalometric measurements were selected for the assessment.Paired t-test and indepeodent t-test were used in the analysis.Results No significant differences were found between the two groups(P>0.05).In the study group,after treatment Y angle,MP-SN angle,MP-FH angle and U6-PP distance increased 1.9°,1.5°,2.3°and 1.1 mm,respectively(P<0.01).Conclusions High-pull headgear could not provide effective vertical control in high angle cases.

  13. Integrated Multidimensional Maturity Assessments Predicting the High-risk Occurrence of Peak Angle Velocity During Puberty in Progressive Female Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Benlong; Mao, Saihu; Xu, Leilei; Sun, Xu; Zhu, Zezhang; Qian, Bangping; Liu, Zhen; Cheng, Jack Chun Yiu; Qiu, Yong

    2017-05-01

    A consecutive and prospective longitudinal study. To propose an integrated multidimensional maturity assessment that was designated as forming a reliable system precisely predicting the high-risk occurrence of peak angle velocity (PAV) in a group of progressive braced female idiopathic scoliosis (IS). Scoliosis deterioration is believed to keep pace with the evolution of skeletal maturity during puberty. There is, however, a paucity of data in the literature regarding which unidimensional or multidimensional maturity assessment was most informational, and could be employed to predict the likelihood of significant curve progression. In this prospective study, braced IS girls with open triradiate cartilage were recruited and followed up at 6-month regular intervals. At each visit, the following data were collected: chronologic age, stage of menses, standing height, Cobb angle of the main curve, spine length, status of triradiate cartilage, Risser sign, and digital skeletal age (DSA) scores. The height velocity (HV) and spine length velocity (SLV), as well as the angle velocity (AV) of each visit were calculated. Finally, those with main curve progression of ≥5 degrees during brace treatment and with a minimum of 2-year follow-up covering the closure of the triradiate cartilage were recruited in this analysis, and their PAV was defined as the peak of AV curves during the whole follow-up period in puberty. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of each measurement to the risk of PAV onset. Thirty-six IS girls were finally recruited in the study, with an average age of 10.8 years at initial visit and 11.8 years at PAV. The average DSA score, spine length, standing height, and Cobb angle of main curve at PAV were 479.5, 326.7 mm, 150.8 cm, and 26.5 degrees, respectively. The average HV, AV, and SLV at PAV were 8.3 cm, 7.8 degrees, and 28.2 mm/y, respectively. The PAV occurred with Risser 0, 1, and 2 in 80.6%, 11.1%, and 8.3% of the IS girls

  14. High cone-angle x-ray computed micro-tomography with 186 GigaVoxel datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Glenn R.; Latham, Shane J.; Kingston, Andrew M.; Kolomazník, Jan; Krajíček, Václav; Krupka, TomáÅ.¡; Varslot, Trond K.; Sheppard, Adrian P.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray computed micro-tomography systems are able to collect data with sub-micron resolution. This high- resolution imaging has many applications but is particularly important in the study of porous materials, where the sub-micron structure can dictate large-scale physical properties (e.g. carbonates, shales, or human bone). Sample preparation and mounting become diffiult for these materials below 2mm diameter: consequently, a typical ultra-micro-CT reconstruction volume (with sub-micron resolution) will be around 3k x 3k x 10k voxels, with some reconstructions becoming much larger. In this paper, we discuss the hardware (MPI-parallel CPU/GPU) and software (python/C++/CUDA) tools used at the ANU CTlab to reconstruct 186 GigaVoxel datasets.

  15. Is there a protective effect of normal to high intellectual function on mental health in children with chronic illness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundervold Astri J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intellectual function is considered as a protective factor for children's mental health. Few studies have investigated the effect of intellectual function on mental health in children with chronic illness (CI. The aim of the present study was twofold: First, we asked if normal to high intellectual function (IQ has a protective effect on mental health in children with CI, and secondly, if this effect is more substantial than in their peers (NCI. Methods The participants were selected among children who participated in the Bergen Child Study (BCS: 96 children with CI (the CI-group and 96 children without CI (the NCI-group. The groups were matched on intellectual function as measured by the WISC-III by selecting the same number of children from three levels of the Full Scale IQ Score (FSIQ: "very low" (84. CI was reported by parents as part of a diagnostic interview (Kiddie-SADS-PL that also generated the mental health measures used in the present study: the presence of a DSM-IV psychiatric diagnosis and the score on the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Results The risk of a psychiatric diagnosis was significantly lower for children with a normal to high FSIQ-level than for children with a very low and low FSIQ-level in the CI-group as well as in the NCI-group. The group differences were statistically non-significant for all three FSIQ-levels, and the effect of the interaction between the group-variable (CI/NCI and the FSIQ-level was non-significant on both measures of mental health. Conclusion The present study showed a protective effect of normal to high intellectual function on children's mental health. This protective effect was not more substantial in children with CI than in children without CI.

  16. Unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons by a single right-angled trapezoid metallic nanoslit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuefeng; Wang, Jun; Hann Lim, Xiao; Xu, Zhengji; Teng, Jinghua; Zhang, Dao Hua

    2017-02-01

    We report theoretical and experimental investigation on a single right-angled trapezoid metallic nanoslit for efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) under normal incidence. The propagated SPPs intensity ratio in two directions is sensitive to the taper angle and metal thickness. Significant intensity ratio at the same propagation distances from the respective slit edges in opposite directions is demonstrated. We believe that the proposed compact unidirectional SPPs generator has high potential for applications in nanolithography and photonic integration.

  17. Normal and abnormal physiology, pharmacology, and anatomy of the gastroesophageal junction high-pressure zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry; Vegesna, Anil; Ruggieri, Michael; Braverman, Alan

    2016-09-01

    The high-pressure zone of the gastroesophageal junction acts as a multifunctional valve that comprises different groups of smooth muscles located in the distal esophagus and the proximal stomach, in addition to the extrinsic crural diaphragm, composed of skeletal muscle. In this review article, we evaluate the current literature with respect to human subjects, discussing the anatomic locations and physiologic and pharmacologic processes controlling these muscles. These muscles work individually and as a group to prevent reflux of gastric contents while allowing anterograde passage of food and liquid and retrograde passage of gas. We also reviewed new findings with respect to abnormalities that are permissive of reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, which may lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Vegetation extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShamsi, Meera R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, there has been various urban development all over the UAE. Dubai is one of the cities that experienced rapid growth in both development and population. That growth can have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Hence, there has been a necessity to protect the environment from these fast pace changes. One of the major impacts this growth can have is on vegetation. As technology is evolving day by day, there is a possibility to monitor changes that are happening on different areas in the world using satellite imagery. The data from these imageries can be utilized to identify vegetation in different areas of an image through a process called vegetation detection. Being able to detect and monitor vegetation is very beneficial for municipal planning and management, and environment authorities. Through this, analysts can monitor vegetation growth in various areas and analyze these changes. By utilizing satellite imagery with the necessary data, different types of vegetation can be studied and analyzed, such as parks, farms, and artificial grass in sports fields. In this paper, vegetation features are detected and extracted through SAFIY system (i.e. the Smart Application for Feature extraction and 3D modeling using high resolution satellite ImagerY) by using high-resolution satellite imagery from DubaiSat-2 and DEIMOS-2 satellites, which provide panchromatic images of 1m resolution and spectral bands (red, green, blue and near infrared) of 4m resolution. SAFIY system is a joint collaboration between MBRSC and DEIMOS Space UK. It uses image-processing algorithms to extract different features (roads, water, vegetation, and buildings) to generate vector maps data. The process to extract green areas (vegetation) utilize spectral information (such as, the red and near infrared bands) from the satellite images. These detected vegetation features will be extracted as vector data in SAFIY system and can be updated and edited by end-users, such as

  19. Direct angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (DARPES) on high-Tc films: doping, strains, Fermi surface topology and superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuna, D.; Ariosa, D.; Cancellieri, C.; Cloetta, D.; Abrecht, M.

    2008-03-01

    Since 1997 we systematically perform Direct ARPES ( = DARPES) on in-situ grown, non-cleaved, ultra-thin (<25nm) cuprate films. Specifically, we probe low energy electronic structure and properties of high-Tc films under different degree of epitaxial (compressive vs tensile) strain. In overdoped in-plane compressed La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) thin films we double Tc from 20K to 40K, yet the Fermi surface (FS) remains essentially 2-dimensional (2D). In contrast, tensile strained films show 3-dimensional (3D) dispersion, while Tc is drastically reduced. It seems that the in-plane compressive strain tends to push the apical oxygen far away from the CuO2 plane, enhances the 2D character of the dispersion and increases Tc, while the tensile strain seems to act exactly in the opposite direction and the resulting dispersion is 3D. We have the FS topology for both cases. As the actual lattice of cuprates is 'Napoleon-cake' -like i.e. rigid CuO2 planes alternate with softer 'reservoir' (that strains distort differently) our results tend to rule out 2D rigid lattice mean field models. Finally, we briefly discuss recent successful determination of the FS topology from the observed wavevector quantization by DARPES in cuprate films thinner than 18 units cells (<24nm). Such an approach is of broader interest as it can be extended to other similar confined (ultra-thin) functional oxide systems.

  20. Horizontal vestibuloocular reflex evoked by high-acceleration rotations in the squirrel monkey. I. Normal responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, L. B.; Lasker, D. M.; Backous, D. D.; Hullar, T. E.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The horizontal angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evoked by high-frequency, high-acceleration rotations was studied in five squirrel monkeys with intact vestibular function. The VOR evoked by steps of acceleration in darkness (3,000 degrees /s(2) reaching a velocity of 150 degrees /s) began after a latency of 7.3 +/- 1.5 ms (mean +/- SD). Gain of the reflex during the acceleration was 14.2 +/- 5.2% greater than that measured once the plateau head velocity had been reached. A polynomial regression was used to analyze the trajectory of the responses to steps of acceleration. A better representation of the data was obtained from a polynomial that included a cubic term in contrast to an exclusively linear fit. For sinusoidal rotations of 0.5-15 Hz with a peak velocity of 20 degrees /s, the VOR gain measured 0.83 +/- 0.06 and did not vary across frequencies or animals. The phase of these responses was close to compensatory except at 15 Hz where a lag of 5.0 +/- 0.9 degrees was noted. The VOR gain did not vary with head velocity at 0.5 Hz but increased with velocity for rotations at frequencies of >/=4 Hz (0. 85 +/- 0.04 at 4 Hz, 20 degrees /s; 1.01 +/- 0.05 at 100 degrees /s, P < 0.0001). No responses to these rotations were noted in two animals that had undergone bilateral labyrinthectomy indicating that inertia of the eye had a negligible effect for these stimuli. We developed a mathematical model of VOR dynamics to account for these findings. The inputs to the reflex come from linear and nonlinear pathways. The linear pathway is responsible for the constant gain across frequencies at peak head velocity of 20 degrees /s and also for the phase lag at higher frequencies being less than that expected based on the reflex delay. The frequency- and velocity-dependent nonlinearity in VOR gain is accounted for by the dynamics of the nonlinear pathway. A transfer function that increases the gain of this pathway with frequency and a term related to the third power of head

  1. δ-Opioid receptor activation stimulates normal diet intake but conversely suppresses high-fat diet intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Mizushige, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Yuri; Lazarus, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Kanamoto, Ryuhei; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2014-02-15

    The central opioid system is involved in a broadly distributed neural network that regulates food intake. Here, we show that activation of central δ-opioid receptor not only stimulated normal diet intake but conversely suppressed high-fat diet intake as well. [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE), an agonist selective for the δ-receptor, increased normal diet intake after central administration to nonfasted male mice. The orexigenic activity of DPDPE was inhibited by blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), D-type prostanoid receptor 1 (DP(1)), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor type 1 (Y1) for PGD(2) and NPY, respectively, suggesting that this was mediated by the PGD(2)-NPY system. In contrast, DPDPE decreased high-fat diet intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. DPDPE-induced suppression of high-fat diet intake was blocked by antagonists of melanocortin 4 (MC(4)) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors but not by knockout of the L-PGDS gene. These results suggest that central δ-opioid receptor activation suppresses high-fat diet intake via the MC-CRF system, independent of the orexigenic PGD(2) system. Furthermore, orally administered rubiscolin-6, an opioid peptide derived from spinach Rubisco, suppressed high-fat diet intake. This suppression was also blocked by centrally administered naltrindole, an antagonist for the δ-receptor, suggesting that rubiscolin-6 suppressed high-fat diet intake via activation of central δ-opioid receptor.

  2. High wavenumber Raman spectroscopic characterization of normal and oral cancer using blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Suresh Kumar, Murugesan; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Blood plasma possesses the biomolecules released from cells/tissues after metabolism and reflects the pathological conditions of the subjects. The analysis of biofluids for disease diagnosis becomes very attractive in the diagnosis of cancers due to the ease in the collection of samples, easy to transport, multiple sampling for regular screening of the disease and being less invasive to the patients. Hence, the intention of this study was to apply near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy in the high wavenumber (HW) region (2500-3400 cm-1) for the diagnosis of oral malignancy using blood plasma. From the Raman spectra it is observed that the biomolecules protein and lipid played a major role in the discrimination between groups. The diagnostic algorithms based on principal components analysis coupled with linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) with the leave-one-patient-out cross-validation method on HW Raman spectra yielded a promising results in the identification of oral malignancy. The details of results will be discussed.

  3. Comparison between Normal and HeII Two-phase Flows at High Vapor Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Van Weelderen, R; Rousset, B; Thibault, P; Wolf, P E

    2006-01-01

    We present results on helium co-current two-phase flow experiments at high vapor velocity obtained with the use of the new CEA/SBT 400 W/1.8 K refrigerator [1]. For vapor velocities larger than typically 4 m/s, a mist of droplets develops from the bulk liquid interface accompanied by an increase in heat transfer at the wall. Experiments were conducted in a 10 m long, 40 mm I.D. straight pipe, both in helium II and in helium I to compare these two situations. The respective roles of vapor density, vapor velocity and liquid level on atomization were systematically investigated. Light scattering experiments were performed to measure sizes, velocities and interfacial areas of droplets in a complete cross section. In-house-made heat transfer sensors located in the mist allowed us to deduce an upper value of the extra cooling power of the dispersed phase. The practical interest of atomized flow for cooling large cryogenic facilities is discussed by considering the balance between increase in heat transfer and press...

  4. Anomalous asymmetry in the Fermi surface of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu4O8 revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Khasanov, R.; Sassa, Y.; Bendounan, A.; Paihes, S.; Chang, J.; Mesot, J.; Keller, H.; Zhigadlo, N.D.; Shi, M.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J.; Kaminski, A.

    2009-09-15

    We use microprobe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the Fermi surface and band dispersion of the CuO{sub 2} planes in the high-temperature superconductor, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}. We find a strong in-plane asymmetry of the electronic structure between directions along a and b axes. The saddle point of the antibonding band lies at a significantly higher energy in the a direction ({pi},0) than the b direction (0,{pi}), whereas the bonding band displays the opposite behavior. We demonstrate that the abnormal band shape is due to a strong asymmetry of the bilayer band splitting, likely caused by a nontrivial hybridization between the planes and chains. This asymmetry has an important implication for interpreting key properties of the Y-Ba-Cu-O family, especially the superconducting gap, transport, and results of inelastic neutron scattering.

  5. 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR analysis of ligand density on resins using a resin internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Laura H; Cerny, Matthew A; Koen, Yakov M; Hanzlik, Robert P; Larive, Cynthia K

    2004-10-01

    We recently attempted to generate an affinity chromatography adsorbent to purify cytochrome P450 4A1 by coupling 11-(1'-imidazolyl)-3,6,9-trioxaundecanoic acid to Toyopearl AF-Amino 650 M resin. Variations in ligand density for several resin batches were quantified by high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy using a novel resin internal standard. The uniquely designed ImQ internal resin standard yields its signature resonance in a transparent region of the analyte spectrum making suppression of the polymer background unnecessary. This method enabled us to target a reasonable ligand density for enzyme purification and provides an advantageous alternative to quantitation against soluble standards or protonated solvent.

  6. Towards real-time metabolic profiling of a biopsy specimen during a surgical operation by 1H high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotto Martial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Providing information on cancerous tissue samples during a surgical operation can help surgeons delineate the limits of a tumoral invasion more reliably. Here, we describe the use of metabolic profiling of a colon biopsy specimen by high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate tumoral invasion during a simulated surgical operation. Case presentation Biopsy specimens (n = 9 originating from the excised right colon of a 66-year-old Caucasian women with an adenocarcinoma were automatically analyzed using a previously built statistical model. Conclusions Metabolic profiling results were in full agreement with those of a histopathological analysis. The time-response of the technique is sufficiently fast for it to be used effectively during a real operation (17 min/sample. Metabolic profiling has the potential to become a method to rapidly characterize cancerous biopsies in the operation theater.

  7. High resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy reveals that pectoralis muscle dystrophy in chicken is associated with reduced muscle content of anserine and carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Rasmussen, Martin K; Young, Jette F; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2017-02-15

    Increased incidences of pectoralis muscle dystrophy are observed in commercial chicken products, but the muscle physiological causes for the condition remain to be identified. In the present study a high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) proton ((1)H) NMR spectroscopic examination of intact pectoralis muscle samples (n=77) were conducted to explore metabolite perturbations associated with the muscle dystrophy condition for the very first time. Both in chicken with an age of 21 and 31days, respectively, pectoralis muscle dystrophy was associated with a significantly lower content of anserine (p=0.034), carnosine (p=0.019) and creatine (p=0.049). These findings must be considered intriguing as they corroborate that characteristic muscle di-peptides composed of β-alanine and histidine derivatives such as anserine are extremely important in homeostasis of contractile muscles as a results of their role as buffering, anti-oxidative, and anti-glycation capacities.

  8. Estimation of mass thickness response of embedded aggregated silica nanospheres from high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron micrographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, M; Abrahamsson, C; Blomqvist, C H; Häbel, H; Röding, M; Olsson, E; Nydén, M; Rudemo, M

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the functional behaviour of the intensity in high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron micrograph images. The model material is a silica particle (20 nm) gel at 5 wt%. By assuming that the intensity response is monotonically increasing with increasing mass thickness of silica, an estimate of the functional form is calculated using a maximum likelihood approach. We conclude that a linear functional form of the intensity provides a fair estimate but that a power function is significantly better for estimating the amount of silica in the z-direction. The work adds to the development of quantifying material properties from electron micrographs, especially in the field of tomography methods and three-dimensional quantitative structural characterization from a scanning transmission electron micrograph. It also provides means for direct three-dimensional quantitative structural characterization from a scanning transmission electron micrograph.

  9. MUSIC - Multifunctional stereo imaging camera system for wide angle and high resolution stereo and color observations on the Mars-94 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, D.; Jahn, H.; Sandau, R.; Walter, I.; Driescher, H.

    1990-10-01

    Objectives of the multifunctional stereo imaging camera (MUSIC) system to be deployed on the Soviet Mars-94 mission are outlined. A high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and wide-angle opto-electronic stereo scanner (WAOSS) are combined in terms of hardware, software, technology aspects, and solutions. Both HRSC and WAOSS are push-button instruments containing a single optical system and focal plates with several parallel CCD line sensors. Emphasis is placed on the MUSIC system's stereo capability, its design, mass memory, and data compression. A 1-Gbit memory is divided into two parts: 80 percent for HRSC and 20 percent for WAOSS, while the selected on-line compression strategy is based on macropixel coding and real-time transform coding.

  10. An experimental investigation of thrust vectoring two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles installed in a twin-engine fighter model at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.

  11. Direct angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (DARPES) on high-T{sub c} films: doping, strains, Fermi surface topology and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavuna, D; Ariosa, D; Cancellieri, C; Cloetta, D; Abrecht, M [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, FSB, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: davor.pavuna@epfl.ch

    2008-03-15

    Since 1997 we systematically perform Direct ARPES ( = DARPES) on in-situ grown, non-cleaved, ultra-thin (<25nm) cuprate films. Specifically, we probe low energy electronic structure and properties of high-T{sub c} films under different degree of epitaxial (compressive vs tensile) strain. In overdoped in-plane compressed La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (LSCO) thin films we double T{sub c} from 20K to 40K, yet the Fermi surface (FS) remains essentially 2-dimensional (2D). In contrast, tensile strained films show 3-dimensional (3D) dispersion, while T{sub c} is drastically reduced. It seems that the in-plane compressive strain tends to push the apical oxygen far away from the CuO{sub 2} plane, enhances the 2D character of the dispersion and increases T{sub c}, while the tensile strain seems to act exactly in the opposite direction and the resulting dispersion is 3D. We have the FS topology for both cases. As the actual lattice of cuprates is 'Napoleon-cake' -like i.e. rigid CuO{sub 2} planes alternate with softer 'reservoir' (that strains distort differently) our results tend to rule out 2D rigid lattice mean field models. Finally, we briefly discuss recent successful determination of the FS topology from the observed wavevector quantization by DARPES in cuprate films thinner than 18 units cells (<24nm). Such an approach is of broader interest as it can be extended to other similar confined (ultra-thin) functional oxide systems.

  12. Structure development during isothermal crystallisation of high-density polyethylene: Synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślusarczyk, Czesław

    2013-12-01

    Isothermal melt crystallisation in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied using the time-resolved SAXS method with synchrotron radiation over a wide range of crystallisation temperatures. The SAXS profile was analysed by an interface distribution function, g1(r), which is a superposition of three contributions associated with the size distributions of crystalline (LC) and amorphous (LA) layers and a distribution of long period (LP). The morphological parameters extracted from the g1(r) functions show that the lamellar thickness increases with time, obeying a logarithmic time dependence. The time evolution of LC observed for the sample crystallised at 122 °C leads to the conclusion that crystallisation proceeds according to the mechanism of thickening growth. For samples crystallised at lower temperatures (116 °C and 118 °C), the lamellar thickening mechanism has been observed. The rate of lamellar thickening in these cases is much lower than that at 122 °C. At 40 °C, thickening of the crystalline layer does not occur. The interface distribution functions were deconvoluted, and the relative standard deviation σC/LC obtained in this way is an additional parameter that is varied during crystallisation and can be used for analysis of this process. Time-dependent changes in the σC/LC at large supercooling (TC=40 °C) indicates that LC presents a broad distribution in which the relative standard deviation increases with time. At lower supercooling (TC=122 °C), LC shows a much sharper distribution. In this case, the relative standard deviation decreases with time.

  13. Dynamic response characteristics of high temperature superconducting maglev systems: Comparison between Halbach-type and normal permanent magnet guideways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China); Zheng, J., E-mail: jzheng@swjtu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China); Che, T. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China); Zheng, B.T.; Si, S.S. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China); School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China); Deng, Z.G., E-mail: deng@swjtu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The loading weight affects the RF tremendously. • Reducing the FCH can improve the stability of the maglev vehicle. • The Halbach-type PMG has better loading capacity than the conventional PMG. • Pre-load is an effective way to enhance the dynamic characteristic of the HTS maglev vehicle. - Abstract: The permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is very important for the performance of the high temperature superconducting (HTS) system in terms of electromagnetic force and operational stability. The dynamic response characteristics of a HTS maglev model levitating on two types of PMG, which are the normal PMG with iron flux concentration and Halbach-type PMG, were investigated by experiments. The dynamic signals for different field-cooling heights (FCHs) and loading/unloading processes were acquired and analyzed by a vibration analyzer and laser displacement sensors. The resonant frequency, stiffness and levitation height of the model were discussed. It was found that the maglev model on the Halbach-type PMG has higher resonant frequency and higher vertical stiffness compared with the normal PMG. However, the low lateral stiffness of the model on the Halbach-type PMG indicates poor lateral stability. Besides, the Halbach-type PMG has better loading capacity than the normal PMG. These results are helpful to design a suitable PMG for the HTS system in practical applications.

  14. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng; Zhang, Zhe; Chang, Feiyan; Wang, Yishi; Zhang, Zhenxia; Zhou, Zhenyu; Guo, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  15. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xie

    Full Text Available Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  16. High-frequency video capture and a computer program with frame-by-frame angle determination functionality as tools that support judging in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorczyk, Jarosław; Nosiadek, Leszek; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Nosiadek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of selected simple methods of recording and fast biomechanical analysis performed by judges of artistic gymnastics in assessing a gymnast's movement technique. The study participants comprised six artistic gymnastics judges, who assessed back handsprings using two methods: a real-time observation method and a frame-by-frame video analysis method. They also determined flexion angles of knee and hip joints using the computer program. In the case of the real-time observation method, the judges gave a total of 5.8 error points with an arithmetic mean of 0.16 points for the flexion of the knee joints. In the high-speed video analysis method, the total amounted to 8.6 error points and the mean value amounted to 0.24 error points. For the excessive flexion of hip joints, the sum of the error values was 2.2 error points and the arithmetic mean was 0.06 error points during real-time observation. The sum obtained using frame-by-frame analysis method equaled 10.8 and the mean equaled 0.30 error points. Error values obtained through the frame-by-frame video analysis of movement technique were higher than those obtained through the real-time observation method. The judges were able to indicate the number of the frame in which the maximal joint flexion occurred with good accuracy. Using the real-time observation method as well as the high-speed video analysis performed without determining the exact angle for assessing movement technique were found to be insufficient tools for improving the quality of judging.

  17. Intestinal metaplasia in gallbladder correlates with high amylase levels in bile in patients with a morphologically normal pancreaticobiliary duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hirotsugu; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Ido, Kenichi; Satoh, Shin; Kumagai, Machio; Hayakawa, Hiroko; Tamada, Kiichi; Sugano, Kentaro

    2009-12-01

    We reported previously that intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder is strongly associated with expression of caudal-related homeobox transcription factor Cdx2. It has been documented that occult pancreatobiliary reflux, even in the absence of pancreaticobiliary maljunction, is associated with elevated risk of biliary malignancy. We ascertained the correlation between intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder and occult pancreatobiliary reflux. In 196 patients with a normal pancreaticobiliary ductal arrangement who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy, we performed intraoperative cholangiography and measured amylase levels in bile sampled from the gallbladder. The cutoff value for high cystic amylase was defined as a biliary amylase level higher than the normal upper limit of serum amylase (215 IU/L). We also retrospectively reviewed the cholecystectomized tissue specimens to investigate the presence of intestinal metaplasia and expression of Cdx2. Then, we explored the relationship between intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder and occult choledocho-pancreatic reflux. Intestinal metaplasia was found in 16.8% (33/196) of the gallbladders. The prevalence of choledocho-pancreatic reflux revealed by intraoperative cholangiography was not significantly different between cases with intestinal metaplasia (5/33, 15.2%) and those without (25/163, 15.3%; P = .81). However, in cases with intestinal metaplasia, the rate of high cystic amylase (13/33, 39.4%) was significantly higher compared with cases without intestinal metaplasia (26/163, 16.0%, P = .005). In conclusion, intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder is significantly correlated with high amylase levels in bile in patients with a morphologically normal pancreaticobiliary ductal arrangement.

  18. Characterization of the highly variable bioavailability of tiludronate in normal volunteers using population pharmacokinetic methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, G A; Lockwood, G F; Oppermann, J A; Wei, G; Bauer, P; Fedler-Kelly, J; Grasela, T

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the use of classical bioequivalence criteria is being called into question for certain classes of drugs such as bisphosphonates. These compounds typically possess a wide therapeutic index but may be characterized by low and variable absorption. The purpose of this communication was to characterize the highly variable bioavailability of tiludronate using a population pharmacokinetic method (NONMEM program) and compare the results to a standard 2 way cross-over bioequivalence trial in healthy subjects. Over 3500 plasma samples from 153 healthy subjects, representing 12 different clinical trials were pooled for mixed effect modeling purposes (complete data set). These studies, conducted under single and multiple dose conditions, contained all the directly comparable data available in healthy subjects administered a 400 mg dose of tiludronate. A two compartment model with first order absorption was fit to the plasma concentration-time data and a term for relative bioavailability (BA) was included. Intersubject and residual variability were modeled using a constant coefficient of variation (CCV) model. A pilot model development data set was obtained from a 24 subject cross-over bioequivalence study. Population estimates of BA and its associated 90% confidence interval of 1.12 and 0.89-1.35 compared favorably to standard bioequivalence methodology (1.15 and 0.93-1.42, respectively). Since a good fit of predicted and observed plasma concentrations as well as estimates of BA were obtained, a two compartment model with a term for BA was then applied to the complete data set. Under these conditions, BA and its 90% confidence interval were found to be 1.17 and 0.98-1.36. Intersubject variability of 31%, compared with 38% in the pilot model development data set and residual variability of 38% were seen. No differences in absorption characteristics as measured by Ka were found. Good agreement between the population pharmacokinetic parameters were observed when the

  19. Comparison of Outcome of Normal and High-Risk Pregnancies Based Upon Cerebroplacental Ratio Assessed by Doppler Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Anita; Seth, Namrata; Rastogi, Deepti

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the cerebroplacental ratio which is the ratio of pulsatility index of fetal middle cerebral and umbilical arteries, in normal and high-risk pregnancies during 30-36 weeks of gestation. In this study, we included 70 patients, who were scanned for Doppler parameters of Middle cerebral artery and Umbilical artery pulsatility index ratio of fetus, between 30 and 36 weeks, and then were followed till delivery. Thirty-five patients with normal pregnancy and 35 patients with high-risk pregnancy were included. Perinatal outcome was evaluated in relation to indices ratio. There was cerebroplacental ratio of <1.00 in eight cases of the study group in comparison with the control group in which there is no case of <1.00 value. It was associated with poor perinatal outcome in terms of need for lower segment cesarean section for fetal distress, Apgar <8 at 5 min, and admission to nursery. Cerebroplacental ratio is highly sensitive in diagnosing hemodynamically compromised fetuses and very useful for the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in these fetuses.

  20. Normal and pathological NMR imaging aspects of the posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee; Aspects IRM normaux et pathologiques du point d`angle postero-externe (PAPE) du genou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardieu, M.; Lazennec, J.Y.; Christel, P.; Brasseur, J.L.; Roger, B.; Grenier, P. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare normal PLC (limits lateral condyle anterior sub luxation) anatomy and its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance, with the various lesions observed in MRI, from the simple popliteus tendinous contusion to the complete PLC rupture. For this specific work on PLC lesions, we selected 61 examinations among the traumatic knees explored during the last 3 years. Surgical correlation is obtained for the 61 patients. MRI examinations are performed on a 0.5 T. unit. Normal PLC anatomy is compared to the dissection of 4 anatomic subjects. Normal MRI slices are evaluated with this reference analysis. The principle anatomical structures of the PLC include the lateral collateral ligament, the popliteus tendon, the arcuate ligament, the fabello fibular ligament, the posterolateral condylar capsule, and the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus. Surgical findings confirm PLC lesion for 58 patients with 3 false positive. Diagnosis of these lesions is important because chronical posterolateral laxity is secondary to the destabilization of lateral condyle. Unrecognized and untreated posterolateral instability may result in failure of ACL (limits lateral condyle posterior sub-luxation) reconstruction. When clinical tests are doubtful or complex, or the examination very painful, MRI evaluates completely the traumatic knee and particularly the PLC. (authors). 3 refs., 26 figs.

  1. High-normal levels of hs-CRP predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Yoon, Kijung; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2017-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study to address whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels within the normal range can predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in healthy male subjects. Among15347 male workers between 30 and 59 years old who received annual health check-ups in 2002, a NAFLD-free cohort of 4,138 was followed through December 2009. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a questionnaire. At each visit, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to identify fatty liver disease. The COX proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between hs-CRP and incident NAFLD. During the follow-up period, 28.8% (1191 of 4138) of participants developed NAFLD. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were increased by hs-CRP categories within the normal range in the non-adjusted model and age-adjusted model. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, BMI, systolic BP, triglyceride, and fasting glucose, these incidences were only increased between the lowest and the highest hs-CRP categories. The risk for NAFLD increased as the hs-CRP level increased (p< 0.001). As the hs-CRP level increased within the healthy cohort, the risk of developing NAFLD increased. This trend remained true even if the hs-CRP level remained within the normal range. hs-CRP can be used as a predictor of NAFLD, as well as other obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, individuals with higher hs-CRP levels (even within the normal range) may require appropriate follow-up and management to prevent NAFLD development. PMID:28234943

  2. High-normal levels of hs-CRP predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Yoon, Kijung; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2017-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study to address whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels within the normal range can predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in healthy male subjects. Among15347 male workers between 30 and 59 years old who received annual health check-ups in 2002, a NAFLD-free cohort of 4,138 was followed through December 2009. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a questionnaire. At each visit, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to identify fatty liver disease. The COX proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between hs-CRP and incident NAFLD. During the follow-up period, 28.8% (1191 of 4138) of participants developed NAFLD. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were increased by hs-CRP categories within the normal range in the non-adjusted model and age-adjusted model. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, BMI, systolic BP, triglyceride, and fasting glucose, these incidences were only increased between the lowest and the highest hs-CRP categories. The risk for NAFLD increased as the hs-CRP level increased (phs-CRP level increased within the healthy cohort, the risk of developing NAFLD increased. This trend remained true even if the hs-CRP level remained within the normal range. hs-CRP can be used as a predictor of NAFLD, as well as other obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, individuals with higher hs-CRP levels (even within the normal range) may require appropriate follow-up and management to prevent NAFLD development.

  3. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. I - Pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions are derived for the pressure distribution in the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. The undisturbed boundary layer is characterized by the law of the wall and the law of the wake for compressible flow. In the limiting case considered, for 'high' transonic speeds, the sonic line is very close to the wall. Comparisons with experiment are shown, with corrections included for the effect of longitudinal wall curvature and for the boundary-layer displacement effect in a circular pipe.

  4. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  5. A novel lab-on-chip platform with integrated solid phase PCR and Supercritical Angle Fluorescence (SAF) microlens array for highly sensitive and multiplexed pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tran Quang; Chin, Wai Hoe; Sun, Yi; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong

    2017-04-15

    Solid-phase PCR (SP-PCR) has become increasingly popular for molecular diagnosis and there have been a few attempts to incorporate SP-PCR into lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. However, their applicability for on-line diagnosis is hindered by the lack of sensitive and portable on-chip optical detection technology. In this paper, we addressed this challenge by combining the SP-PCR with super critical angle fluorescence (SAF) microlens array embedded in a microchip. We fabricated miniaturized SAF microlens array as part of a microfluidic chamber in thermoplastic material and performed multiplexed SP-PCR directly on top of the SAF microlens array. Attribute to the high fluorescence collection efficiency of the SAF microlens array, the SP-PCR assay on the LOC platform demonstrated a high sensitivity of 1.6 copies/µL, comparable to off-chip detection using conventional laser scanner. The combination of SP-PCR and SAF microlens array allows for on-chip highly sensitive and multiplexed pathogen detection with low-cost and compact optical components. The LOC platform would be widely used as a high-throughput biosensor to analyze food, clinical and environmental samples.

  6. Aplicabilidade do diagrama de Andrade como método auxiliar no diagnóstico e planejamento ortodôntico, no estudo comparativo de indivíduos de oclusão normal e má oclusão de classe I de Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Cato, Cidney Hiroaki [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo principal avaliar a aplicabilidade do Diagrama de Andrade em indivíduos de oclusão normal como método auxiliar no diagnóstico e planejamento ortodônticos. Este trabalho complementa estudos anteriores realizados em amostras de indivíduos de má oclusão de Classe I e Classe II, de Angle, onde o diagrama de Andrade se mostrou eficiente auxiliar para o diagnóstico e planejamento ortodôntico, servindo de parâmetro para quantificar a expansão necessária para os arcos ...

  7. MRI of normal achilles tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollandi, G.A. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa