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Sample records for high amplitude wave

  1. Large-amplitude ULF waves at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, T.; Tulegenov, B.; Streltsov, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    We present results from the statistical study of ULF waves detected by the fluxgate magnetometer in Gakona, Alaska during several experimental campaigns conducted at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in years 2011-2013. We analyzed frequencies of ULF waves recorded during 26 strongly disturbed geomagnetic events (substorms) and compared them with frequencies of ULF waves detected during magnetically quiet times. Our analysis demonstrates that the frequency of the waves carrying most of the power in almost all these events is less than 1 mHz. We also analyzed data from the ACE satellite, measuring parameters of the solar wind in the L1 Lagrangian point between Earth and Sun, and found that in several occasions there is a strong correlation between oscillations of the magnetic field in the solar wind and oscillations detected on the ground. We also found several cases when there is no correlation between signals detected on ACE and on the ground. This finding suggests that these frequencies correspond to the fundamental eigenfrequency of the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system, and the amplitude of these waves can reach significant magnitude when the system is driven by the external driver (for example, the solar wind) with this particular frequency. When the frequency of the driver does not match the frequency of the system, the waves still are observed, but their amplitudes are much smaller.

  2. Relativistic electron scattering by magnetosonic waves: Effects of discrete wave emission and high wave amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: ante0226@gmail.com [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V. [LPC2E/CNRS - University of Orleans, Orleans (France); Agapitov, O. V. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we study relativistic electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We compare results of test particle simulations and the quasi-linear theory for different spectra of waves to investigate how a fine structure of the wave emission can influence electron resonant scattering. We show that for a realistically wide distribution of wave normal angles θ (i.e., when the dispersion δθ≥0.5{sup °}), relativistic electron scattering is similar for a wide wave spectrum and for a spectrum consisting in well-separated ion cyclotron harmonics. Comparisons of test particle simulations with quasi-linear theory show that for δθ>0.5{sup °}, the quasi-linear approximation describes resonant scattering correctly for a large enough plasma frequency. For a very narrow θ distribution (when δθ∼0.05{sup °}), however, the effect of a fine structure in the wave spectrum becomes important. In this case, quasi-linear theory clearly fails in describing accurately electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We also study the effect of high wave amplitudes on relativistic electron scattering. For typical conditions in the earth's radiation belts, the quasi-linear approximation cannot accurately describe electron scattering for waves with averaged amplitudes >300 pT. We discuss various applications of the obtained results for modeling electron dynamics in the radiation belts and in the Earth's magnetotail.

  3. Facilitation of epileptic activity during sleep is mediated by high amplitude slow waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauscher, Birgit; von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Avoli, Massimo; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2015-06-01

    Epileptic discharges in focal epilepsy are frequently activated during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Sleep slow waves are present during this stage and have been shown to include a deactivated ('down', hyperpolarized) and an activated state ('up', depolarized). The 'up' state enhances physiological rhythms, and we hypothesize that sleep slow waves and particularly the 'up' state are the specific components of non-rapid eye movement sleep that mediate the activation of epileptic activity. We investigated eight patients with pharmaco-resistant focal epilepsies who underwent combined scalp-intracerebral electroencephalography for diagnostic evaluation. We analysed 259 frontal electroencephalographic channels, and manually marked 442 epileptic spikes and 8487 high frequency oscillations during high amplitude widespread slow waves, and during matched control segments with low amplitude widespread slow waves, non-widespread slow waves or no slow waves selected during the same sleep stages (total duration of slow wave and control segments: 49 min each). During the slow waves, spikes and high frequency oscillations were more frequent than during control segments (79% of spikes during slow waves and 65% of high frequency oscillations, both P ∼ 0). The spike and high frequency oscillation density also increased for higher amplitude slow waves. We compared the density of spikes and high frequency oscillations between the 'up' and 'down' states. Spike and high frequency oscillation density was highest during the transition from the 'up' to the 'down' state. Interestingly, high frequency oscillations in channels with normal activity expressed a different peak at the transition from the 'down' to the 'up' state. These results show that the apparent activation of epileptic discharges by non-rapid eye movement sleep is not a state-dependent phenomenon but is predominantly associated with specific events, the high amplitude widespread slow waves that are frequent, but not

  4. In search of objective manometric criteria for colonic high-amplitude propagated pressure waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Schryver, AMP; Samsom, M; Smout, AJPM

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore all characteristics of high-amplitude propagated contractions (HAPCs) that would allow them to be distinguished from nonHAPC colonic pressure waves, and to develop computer algorithms for automated HAPC detection. Colonic manometry recordings obtained from 24 h

  5. Non-Linear High Amplitude Oscillations in Wave-shaped Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Dion; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2011-11-01

    A numerical and experimental study of non-linear, high amplitude standing waves in ``wave-shaped'' resonators is reported here. These waves are shock-less and can generate peak acoustic overpressures that can exceed the ambient pressure by three/four times its nominal value. A high fidelity compressible axisymmetric computational fluid dynamic model is used to simulate the phenomena in cylindrical and arbitrarily shaped axisymmetric resonators. Working fluids (Helium, Nitrogen and R-134a) at various operating pressures are studied. The experiments are performed in a constant cross-section cylindrical resonator in atmospheric pressure nitrogen and helium to provide model validation. The high amplitude non-linear oscillations demonstrated can be used as a prime mover in a variety of applications including thermoacoustic cryocooling. The work reported is supported by the US National Science Foundation under grant CBET-0853959.

  6. Rapid high-amplitude circumferential slow wave propagation during normal gastric pacemaking and dysrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, G; Du, P; Paskaranandavadivel, N; Angeli, T R; Lammers, W J E P; Asirvatham, S J; Windsor, J A; Farrugia, G; Pullan, A J; Cheng, L K

    2012-07-01

    Gastric slow waves propagate aborally as rings of excitation. Circumferential propagation does not normally occur, except at the pacemaker region. We hypothesized that (i) the unexplained high-velocity, high-amplitude activity associated with the pacemaker region is a consequence of circumferential propagation; (ii) rapid, high-amplitude circumferential propagation emerges during gastric dysrhythmias; (iii) the driving network conductance might switch between interstitial cells of Cajal myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) and circular interstitial cells of Cajal intramuscular (ICC-IM) during circumferential propagation; and (iv) extracellular amplitudes and velocities are correlated. An experimental-theoretical study was performed. High-resolution gastric mapping was performed in pigs during normal activation, pacing, and dysrhythmia. Activation profiles, velocities, and amplitudes were quantified. ICC pathways were theoretically evaluated in a bidomain model. Extracellular potentials were modeled as a function of membrane potentials. High-velocity, high-amplitude activation was only recorded in the pacemaker region when circumferential conduction occurred. Circumferential propagation accompanied dysrhythmia in 8/8 experiments was faster than longitudinal propagation (8.9 vs 6.9 mm s(-1) ; P = 0.004) and of higher amplitude (739 vs 528 μV; P = 0.007). Simulations predicted that ICC-MP could be the driving network during longitudinal propagation, whereas during ectopic pacemaking, ICC-IM could outpace and activate ICC-MP in the circumferential axis. Experimental and modeling data demonstrated a linear relationship between velocities and amplitudes (P propagation. Rapid circumferential propagation also emerges during a range of gastric dysrhythmias, elevating extracellular amplitudes and organizing transverse wavefronts. One possible explanation for these findings is bidirectional coupling between ICC-MP and circular ICC-IM networks. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Role of the Ionosphere in the Generation of Large-Amplitude Ulf Waves at High Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulegenov, B.; Guido, T.; Streltsov, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from the statistical study of ULF waves detected by the fluxgate magnetometer in Gakona, Alaska during several experimental campaigns conducted at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in years 2011-2013. We analyzed frequencies of ULF waves recorded during 26 strongly disturbed geomagnetic events (substorms) and compared them with frequencies of ULF waves detected during magnetically quite times. Our analysis demonstrates that the frequency of the waves carrying most of the power almost in all these events is less than 1 mHz. We also analyzed data from the ACE satellite, measuring parameters of the solar wind in the L1 Lagrangian point between Earth and Sun, and found that in several occasions there is a strong correlation between oscillations of the magnetic field in the solar wind and oscillations detected on the ground. We also found several cases when there is no correlation between signals detected on ACE and on the ground. This finding suggests that these frequencies correspond to the fundamental eigenfrequency of the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. The low frequency of the oscillations is explained by the effect of the ionosphere, where the current is carried by ions through highly collisional media. The amplitude of these waves can reach significant magnitude when the system is driven by the external driver (for example, the solar wind) with this particular frequency. When the frequency of the driver does not match the frequency of the system, the waves still are observed, but their amplitudes are much smaller.

  8. High amplitude nonlinear acoustic wave driven flow fields in cylindrical and conical resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Dion Savio; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2013-08-01

    A high fidelity computational fluid dynamic model is used to simulate the flow, pressure, and density fields generated in a cylindrical and a conical resonator by a vibrating end wall/piston producing high-amplitude standing waves. The waves in the conical resonator are found to be shock-less and can generate peak acoustic overpressures that exceed the initial undisturbed pressure by two to three times. A cylindrical (consonant) acoustic resonator has limitations to the output response observed at one end when the opposite end is acoustically excited. In the conical geometry (dissonant acoustic resonator) the linear acoustic input is converted to high energy un-shocked nonlinear acoustic output. The model is validated using past numerical results of standing waves in cylindrical resonators. The nonlinear nature of the harmonic response in the conical resonator system is further investigated for two different working fluids (carbon dioxide and argon) operating at various values of piston amplitude. The high amplitude nonlinear oscillations observed in the conical resonator can potentially enhance the performance of pulse tube thermoacoustic refrigerators and these conical resonators can be used as efficient mixers.

  9. High amplitude theta wave bursts: a novel electroencephalographic feature of rem sleep and cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Martire, Viviana Carmen; Bastianini, Stefano; Berteotti, Chiara; Silvani, Alessandro; Zoccoli, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    High amplitude theta wave bursts (HATs) were originally described during REMS and cataplexy in ORX-deficient mice as a novel neurophysiological correlate of narcolepsy (Bastianini et al., 2012). This finding was replicated the following year by Vassalli et al. in both ORX-deficient narcoleptic mice and narcoleptic children during cataplexy episodes (Vassalli et al., 2013). The relationship between HATs and narcolepsy-cataplexy in mice and patients indicates that the lack of ORX peptides is responsible for this abnormal EEG activity, the physiological meaning of which is still unknown. This review aimed to explore different phasic EEG events previously described in the published literature in order to find analogies and differences with HATs observed in narcoleptic mice and patients. We found similarities in terms of morphology, frequency and duration between HATs and several physiological (mu and wicket rhythms, sleep spindles, saw-tooth waves) or pathological (SWDs, HVSs, bursts of polyphasic complexes EEG complexes reported in a mouse model of CJD, and BSEs) EEG events. However, each of these events also shows significant differences from HATs, and thus cannot be equaled to them. The available evidence thus suggests that HATs are a novel neurophysiological phenomenon. Further investigations on HATs are required in order to investigate their physiological meaning, to individuate their brain structure(s) of origin, and to clarify the neural circuits involved in their manifestation.

  10. Amplitude limits and nonlinear damping of shear-Alfvén waves in high-beta low-collisionality plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Quataert, E.

    2017-05-01

    This work, which extends Squire et al (Astrophys. J. Lett. 2016 830 L25), explores the effect of self-generated pressure anisotropy on linearly polarized shear-Alfvén fluctuations in low-collisionality plasmas. Such anisotropies lead to stringent limits on the amplitude of magnetic perturbations in high-β plasmas, above which a fluctuation can destabilize itself through the parallel firehose instability. This causes the wave frequency to approach zero, ‘interrupting’ the wave and stopping its oscillation. These effects are explored in detail in the collisionless and weakly collisional ‘Braginskii’ regime, for both standing and traveling waves. The focus is on simplified models in one dimension, on scales much larger than the ion gyroradius. The effect has interesting implications for the physics of magnetized turbulence in the high-β conditions that are prevalent in many astrophysical plasmas.

  11. Multi-fluid approach to high-frequency waves in plasmas: I. Small-amplitude regime in fully ionized medium

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Gómez, David; Terradas, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Ideal MHD provides an accurate description of low-frequency Alfv\\'en waves in fully ionized plasmas. However, higher frequency waves in many plasmas of the solar atmosphere cannot be correctly described by ideal MHD and a more accurate model is required. Here, we study the properties of small-amplitude incompressible perturbations in both the low and the high frequency ranges in plasmas composed of several ionized species. We use a multi-fluid approach and take into account the effects of collisions between ions and the inclusion of Hall's term in the induction equation. Through the analysis of the corresponding dispersion relations and numerical simulations we check that at high frequencies ions of different species are not as strongly coupled as in the low frequency limit. Hence, they cannot be treated as a single fluid. In addition, elastic collisions between the distinct ionized species are not negligible for high frequency waves since an appreciable damping is obtained. Furthermore, Coulomb collisions be...

  12. Study of High and Low Amplitude Wave Trains of Cosmic Ray Diurnal Variation during Solar Cycle 23

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ambika Singh; Anil Kumar Tiwari; S. P. Agrawal

    2010-06-01

    A detailed study has been conducted on the long-term changes in the diurnal variation of cosmic rays in terms of high and low amplitude wave trains event (HAEs/LAEs) during the period 1996–2008 (solar cycle 23), using the neutron monitor data from Kiel neutron monitoring station. As such, 17 HAE and 48 LAE cases have been detected and analyzed. These HAEs appear quite dominantly during the declining phase as well as near the maximum of the solar activity cycle 23. In contrast, the low amplitude events (LAEs) are inversely correlated with solar activity cycle. In fact, LAEs appear quite dominantly during the minimum phase of the solar activity. When we compare our results for diurnal phase with that observed on an annual average basis, we notice no significant diurnal phase shift for HAEs as well as for LAEs. Moreover, we find that the high-speed solar wind streams (HSSWS) do not play any significant role in causing these variations. These results are discussed on the basis of that observed in earlier cycles.

  13. Surface Wave Amplitude Anomalies in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, C.; Ekstrom, G.

    2011-12-01

    We determine maps of local surface wave amplitude factors across the Western United States for Rayleigh and Love waves at discrete periods between 25 and 125s. Measurements of raw amplitude anomalies are made from data recorded at 1161 USArray stations for minor arc arrivals of earthquakes with Mw>5.5 occurring between 2006 and 2010. We take the difference between high-quality amplitude anomaly measurements for events recorded on station pairs less than 2 degrees apart. The mean of these differences for each station pair is taken as the datum. Surface wave amplitudes are controlled by four separate mechanisms: focusing due to elastic structure, attenuation due to anelastic structure, source effects, and receiver effects. By taking the mean of the differences of amplitude anomalies for neighboring stations, we reduce the effects of focusing, attenuation, and the seismic source, thus isolating amplitude anomalies due to near-receiver amplitude effects. We determine local amplitude factors for each USArray station by standard linear inversion of the differential data set. The individual station amplitude factors explain the majority of the variance of the data. For example, derived station amplitude factors for 50s Rayleigh waves explain 92% of the variance of the data. We explore correlations between derived station amplitude factors and local amplitude factors predicted by crust and upper mantle models. Maps of local amplitude factors show spatial correlation with topography and geologic structures in the Western United States, particularly for maps derived from Rayleigh wave amplitude anomalies. A NW-SE trending high in amplitude factors in Eastern California is evident in the 50s map, corresponding to the location of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. High amplitude factors are observed in Colorado and New Mexico in the 50s-125s maps in the location of the highest peaks of the Rocky Mountains. High amplitude factors are also seen in Southern Idaho and Eastern Wyoming in

  14. Numerical Simulation on Seismic Response of the Filled Joint under High Amplitude Stress Waves Using Finite-Discrete Element Method (FDEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper numerically investigates the seismic response of the filled joint under high amplitude stress waves using the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM. A thin layer of independent polygonal particles are used to simulate the joint fillings. Each particle is meshed using the Delaunay triangulation scheme and can be crushed when the load exceeds its strength. The propagation of the 1D longitude wave through a single filled joint is studied, considering the influences of the joint thickness and the characteristics of the incident wave, such as the amplitude and frequency. The results show that the filled particles under high amplitude stress waves mainly experience three deformation stages: (i initial compaction stage; (ii crushing stage; and (iii crushing and compaction stage. In the initial compaction stage and crushing and compaction stage, compaction dominates the mechanical behavior of the joint, and the particle area distribution curve varies little. In these stages, the transmission coefficient increases with the increase of the amplitude, i.e., peak particle velocity (PPV, of the incident wave. On the other hand, in the crushing stage, particle crushing plays the dominant role. The particle size distribution curve changes abruptly with the PPV due to the fragments created by the crushing process. This process consumes part of wave energy and reduces the stiffness of the filled joint. The transmission coefficient decreases with increasing PPV in this stage because of the increased amount of energy consumed by crushing. Moreover, with the increase of the frequency of the incident wave, the transmission coefficient decreases and fewer particles can be crushed. Under the same incident wave, the transmission coefficient decreases when the filled thickness increases and the filled particles become more difficult to be crushed.

  15. Multi-fluid Approach to High-frequency Waves in Plasmas. II. Small-amplitude Regime in Partially Ionized Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, David; Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    The presence of neutral species in a plasma has been shown to greatly affect the properties of magnetohydrodynamic waves. For instance, the interaction between ions and neutrals through momentum transfer collisions causes the damping of Alfvén waves and alters their oscillation frequency and phase speed. When the collision frequencies are larger than the frequency of the waves, single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic approximations can accurately describe the effects of partial ionization, since there is a strong coupling between the various species. However, at higher frequencies, the single-fluid models are not applicable and more complex approaches are required. Here, we use a five-fluid model with three ionized and two neutral components, which takes into consideration Hall’s current and Ohm’s diffusion in addition to the friction due to collisions between different species. We apply our model to plasmas composed of hydrogen and helium, and allow the ionization degree to be arbitrary. By analyzing the corresponding dispersion relation and numerical simulations, we study the properties of small-amplitude perturbations. We discuss the effect of momentum transfer collisions on the ion-cyclotron resonances and compare the importance of magnetic resistivity, and ion–neutral and ion–ion collisions on the wave damping at various frequency ranges. Applications to partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere are performed.

  16. Organizing Filament of Small Amplitude Scroll Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU TianShou; ZHANG SuoChun

    2001-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the organizing filament of small amplitude scroll waves in general excitable media by perturbation method and explicitly give the expressions of coefficients in Keener theory. In particular for the excitable media with equal diffusion, we obtain a close system for the motion of the filament. With an example of the Oregonator model, our results are in good agreement with those simulated by Winfree.``

  17. Turbulence beneath finite amplitude water waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beya, J.F. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Oceanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valparaiso (Chile); The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Peirson, W.L. [The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Banner, M.L. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Babanin and Haus (J Phys Oceanogr 39:2675-2679, 2009) recently presented evidence of near-surface turbulence generated below steep non-breaking deep-water waves. They proposed a threshold wave parameter a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 3,000 for the spontaneous occurrence of turbulence beneath surface waves. This is in contrast to conventional understanding that irrotational wave theories provide a good approximation of non-wind-forced wave behaviour as validated by classical experiments. Many laboratory wave experiments were carried out in the early 1960s (e.g. Wiegel 1964). In those experiments, no evidence of turbulence was reported, and steep waves behaved as predicted by the high-order irrotational wave theories within the accuracy of the theories and experimental techniques at the time. This contribution describes flow visualisation experiments for steep non-breaking waves using conventional dye techniques in the wave boundary layer extending above the wave trough level. The measurements showed no evidence of turbulent mixing up to a value of a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 7,000 at which breaking commenced in these experiments. These present findings are in accord with the conventional understandings of wave behaviour. (orig.)

  18. Generation and Propagation of Finite-Amplitude Waves in Flexible Tubes (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1972-01-01

    Highly reproducible finite-amplitude waves, generated by a modified electromagnetic plane-wave generator, characterized by a rise time......Highly reproducible finite-amplitude waves, generated by a modified electromagnetic plane-wave generator, characterized by a rise time...

  19. T-wave amplitude is related to physical fitness status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, Yaron; Birati, Edo Y; Shapira, Itzhak; Topilsky, Yan; Wirguin, Michal; Canaani M D, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    Abnormalities in repolarization may reflect underlying myocardial pathology and play a prominent role in arrhythmogenesis The T-wave amplitude has been associated with cardiovascular outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) Additionally, T-wave amplitude is considered a predictor of arrhythmias, as well as being related to an individual's inflammatory status. The combined influence of different variables, such as inflammation, cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness status, on the T-wave amplitude has not been evaluated to date. The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect the T-wave amplitude. Data from 255 consecutive apparently healthy individuals included in the Tel Aviv Medical Center Inflammation Survey (TAMCIS) were reviewed. All patients had undergone a physical examination and an exercise stress test, and different inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers (fibrinogen, potassium, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were measured. Multivariate stepwise analysis revealed that the body mass index and the resting heart rate were significantly associated with the T-wave amplitude (β=-0.34, P physical fitness and not to his/her inflammatory status. ©2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Amplitude Equations for Electrostatic Waves multiple species

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, J D; Crawford, John David; Jayaraman, Anandhan

    1997-01-01

    The amplitude equation for an unstable electrostatic wave is analyzed using an expansion in the mode amplitude $A(t)$. In the limit of weak instability, i.e. $\\gamma\\to 0^+$ where $\\gamma$ is the linear growth rate, the nonlinear coefficients are singular and their singularities predict the dependence of $A(t)$ on $\\gamma$. Generically the scaling $|A(t)|=\\gamma^{5/2}r(\\gamma t)$ as orders. This result predicts the electric field scaling $|E_k|\\sim\\gamma^{5/2}$ will hold universally for these instabilities (including beam-plasma and two-stream configurations) throughout the dynamical evolution and in the time-asymptotic state. In exceptional cases, such as infinitely massive ions, the coefficients are less singular and the more familiar trapping scaling $|E_k|\\sim\\gamma^2$ is recovered.

  1. Symmetric waves are traveling waves for a shallow water equation for surface waves of moderate amplitude

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Following a general principle introduced by Ehrnstr\\"{o}m et.al. we prove that for an equation modeling the free surface evolution of moderate amplitude waves in shallow water, all symmetric waves are traveling waves.

  2. Symmetric waves are traveling waves for a shallow water equation for surface waves of moderate amplitude

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Following a general principle introduced by Ehrnstr\\"{o}m et.al. we prove that for an equation modeling the free surface evolution of moderate amplitude waves in shallow water, all symmetric waves are traveling waves.

  3. Characterization of a Setup to test the Impact of High-Amplitude Pressure Waves on Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mischa; Kahlert, Ulf; Wessolleck, Johanna; Maciaczyk, Donata; Merkt, Benjamin; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw; Osterholz, Jens; Nikkhah, Guido; Steinhauser, Martin O.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of pressure waves on cells may provide several possible applications in biology and medicine including the direct killing of tumors, drug delivery or gene transfection. In this study we characterize the physical properties of mechanical pressure waves generated by a nanosecond laser pulse in a setup with well-defined cell culture conditions. To systematically characterize the system on the relevant length and time scales (micrometers and nanoseconds) we use photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and obtain velocity profiles of the cell culture vessel at the passage of the pressure wave. These profiles serve as input for numerical pressure wave simulations that help to further quantify the pressure conditions on the cellular length scale. On the biological level we demonstrate killing of glioblastoma cells and quantify experimentally the pressure threshold for cell destruction. PMID:24458018

  4. High Amplitude Secondary Mass Drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DYCK,CHRISTOPHER WILLIAM; ALLEN,JAMES J.; HUBER,ROBERT JOHN; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.

    2000-07-06

    In this paper we describe a high amplitude electrostatic drive for surface micromachined mechanical oscillators that may be suitable for vibratory gyroscopes. It is an advanced design of a previously reported dual mass oscillator (Dyck, et. al., 1999). The structure is a 2 degree-of-freedom, parallel-plate driven motion amplifier, termed the secondary mass drive oscillator (SMD oscillator). During each cycle the device contacts the drive plates, generating large electrostatic forces. Peak-to-peak amplitudes of 54 {micro}m have been obtained by operating the structure in air with an applied voltage of 11 V. We describe the structure, present the analysis and design equations, and show recent results that have been obtained, including frequency response data, power dissipation, and out-of- plane motion.

  5. Amplitude or Higgs modes in d-wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Yafis; Varma, C. M.

    2013-02-01

    In Lorentz-invariant systems spontaneously broken gauge symmetry results in three types of fundamental excitations: density excitations, Higgs bosons (amplitude modes), and Goldstone bosons (phase modes). The density and phase modes are coupled by electromagnetic interactions while the amplitude modes are not. In s-wave superconductors, the Higgs mode, which can be observed only under special conditions, has been detected. We show that unconventional d-wave superconductors, such as the high-temperature cuprate superconductors, should have a rich assortment of Higgs bosons, each in a different irreducible representation of the point-group symmetry of the lattice. We also show that these modes have a characteristic singular spectral structure and discuss conditions for their observability.

  6. Strong S-wave attenuation and actively degassing magma beneath Taal volcano, Philippines, inferred from source location analysis using high-frequency seismic amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H.; Lacson, R. _Jr., Jr.; Maeda, Y.; Figueroa, M. S., II; Yamashina, T.

    2014-12-01

    Taal volcano, Philippines, is one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes given its history of explosive eruptions and its close proximity to populated areas. A key feature of these eruptions is that the eruption vents were not limited to Main Crater but occurred on the flanks of Volcano Island. This complex eruption history and the fact that thousands of people inhabit the island, which has been declared a permanent danger zone, together imply an enormous potential for disasters. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) constantly monitors Taal, and international collaborations have conducted seismic, geodetic, electromagnetic, and geochemical studies to investigate the volcano's magma system. Realtime broadband seismic, GPS, and magnetic networks were deployed in 2010 to improve monitoring capabilities and to better understand the volcano. The seismic network has recorded volcano-tectonic (VT) events beneath Volcano Island. We located these VT events based on high-frequency seismic amplitudes, and found that some events showed considerable discrepancies between the amplitude source locations and hypocenters determined by using onset arrival times. Our analysis of the source location discrepancies points to the existence of a region of strong S-wave attenuation near the ground surface beneath the east flank of Volcano Island. This region is beneath the active fumarolic area and above sources of pressure contributing inflation and deflation, and it coincides with a region of high electrical conductivity. The high-attenuation region matches that inferred from an active-seismic survey conducted at Taal in 1993. Our results, synthesized with previous results, suggest that this region represents actively degassing magma near the surface, and imply a high risk of future eruptions on the east flank of Volcano Island.

  7. Kinematics and amplitude evolution of global coronal extreme ultraviolet waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Li; Jun Zhang; Shu-Hong Yang; Wei Liu

    2012-01-01

    With the observations of the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),we analyze in detail the kinematics of global coronal waves together with their intensity amplitudes (so-called "perturbation profiles").We use a semi-automatic method to investigate the perturbation profiles of coronal waves.The location and amplitude of the coronal waves are calculated over a 30° sector on the sphere,where the wave signal is strongest.The position with the strongest perturbation at each time is considered as the location of the wave front.In all four events,the wave velocities vary with time for most of their lifetime,up to 15 min,while in the event observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly there is an additional early phase with a much higher velocity.The velocity varies greatly between different waves from 216 to 440 km s-1.The velocity of the two waves initially increases,subsequently decreases,and then increases again.Two other waves show a deceleration followed by an acceleration.Three categories of amplitude evolution of global coronal waves are found for the four events.The first is that the amplitude only shows a decrease.The second is that the amplitude initially increases and then decreases,and the third is that the amplitude shows an orderly increase,a decrease,an increase again and then a decrease.All the extreme ultraviolet waves show a decrease in amplitude while propagating farther away,probably because the driver of the global coronal wave (coronal mass ejection) is moving farther away from the solar surface.

  8. Damping and Frequency Shift of Large Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kenneth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    The initial evolution of large-amplitude one-dimensional electron waves is investigated by applying a numerical simulation. The initial wave damping is found to be strongly enhanced relative to the linear damping and it increases with increasing amplitude. The temporal evolution of the nonlinear...... damping rate γ(t) shows that it increases with time within the initial phase of propagation, t≲π/ωB (ωB is the bounce frequency), whereafter it decreases and changes sign implying a regrowth of the wave. The shift in the wave frequency δω is observed to be positive for t≲π/ωB; then δω changes sign...

  9. High-amplitude THz and GHz strain waves, generated by ultrafast screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; van Capel, P.J.S.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    Screening of large built-in piezoelectric fields in InGaN/GaN quantum wells leads to high-amplitude acoustic emission. We will compare acoustic emission by quantum wells with different thicknesses with photoluminescence; indicating screening.......Screening of large built-in piezoelectric fields in InGaN/GaN quantum wells leads to high-amplitude acoustic emission. We will compare acoustic emission by quantum wells with different thicknesses with photoluminescence; indicating screening....

  10. Turbulent Flow over Small Amplitude Solid Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    7. Annubar flow meter 8. Butterfly throttling valve 9. Removable blanking plate 10. Diaphragm valve 11. Small pump 12. By pass diaphragm valve...monitored by using an annubar connected to either a mercury or mirriam oil filled manometer. (b) Test Section 2 a A wave with a ratio of 0.014

  11. Shoaling Large Amplitude Internal Solitary Waves in a Laboratory Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allshouse, Michael; Larue, Conner; Swinney, Harry

    2014-11-01

    The shoaling of internal solitary waves onto the continental shelf can change both the wave dynamics and the state of the environment. Previous observations have demonstrated that these waves can trap fluid and transport it over long distances. Through the use of a camshaft-based wavemaker, we produce large amplitude shoaling waves in a stratified fluid in a laboratory tank. Simulations of solitary waves are used to guide the tuning of the wave generator to approximate solitary waves; thus nonlinear waves can be produced within the 4m long tank. PIV and synthetic schlieren measurements are made to study the transport of fluid by the wave as it moves up a sloping boundary. The results are then compared to numerical simulations and analyzed using finite time Lyapunov exponent calculations. This Lagrangian analysis provides an objective measure of barriers surrounding trapped regions in the flow. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N000141110701 (WHOI).

  12. Finite Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves in a Cylindrical Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1978-01-01

    The nonlinear behaviour of the electron plasma wave propagating in a cylindrical plasma waveguide immersed in an infinite axial magnetic field is investigated using the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky perturbation method, by means of which is deduced the nonlinear Schrodinger equation governing...... the long-time slow modulation of the wave amplitude. From this equation the amplitude-dependent frequency and wavenumber shifts are calculated, and it is found that the electron waves with short wavelengths are modulationally unstable with respect to long-wavelength, low-frequency perturbations...

  13. Obliquely propagating large amplitude solitary waves in charge neutral plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Verheest

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals in a consistent way with the implications, for the existence of large amplitude stationary structures in general plasmas, of assuming strict charge neutrality between electrons and ions. With the limit of pair plasmas in mind, electron inertia is retained. Combining in a fluid dynamic treatment the conservation of mass, momentum and energy with strict charge neutrality has indicated that nonlinear solitary waves (as e.g. oscillitons cannot exist in electron-ion plasmas, at no angle of propagation with respect to the static magnetic field. Specifically for oblique propagation, the proof has turned out to be more involved than for parallel or perpendicular modes. The only exception is pair plasmas that are able to support large charge neutral solitons, owing to the high degree of symmetry naturally inherent in such plasmas. The nonexistence, in particular, of oscillitons is attributed to the breakdown of the plasma approximation in dealing with Poisson's law, rather than to relativistic effects. It is hoped that future space observations will allow to discriminate between oscillitons and large wave packets, by focusing on the time variability (or not of the phase, since the amplitude or envelope graphs look very similar.

  14. Finite amplitude wave interaction with premixed laminar flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Mohamad; Regele, Jonathan D.

    2014-11-01

    The physics underlying combustion instability is an active area of research because of its detrimental impact in many combustion devices, such as turbines, jet engines, and liquid rocket engines. Pressure waves, ranging from acoustic waves to strong shocks, are potential sources of these disturbances. Literature on flame-disturbance interactions are primarily focused on either acoustics or strong shock wave interactions, with little information about the wide spectrum of behaviors that may exist between these two extremes. For example, the interaction between a flame and a finite amplitude compression wave is not well characterized. This phenomenon is difficult to study numerically due to the wide range of scales that need to be captured, requiring powerful and efficient numerical techniques. In this work, the interaction of a perturbed laminar premixed flame with a finite amplitude compression wave is investigated using the Parallel Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method (PAWCM). This method optimally solves the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations while capturing the essential scales. The results show that depending on the amplitude and duration of a finite amplitude disturbance, the interaction between these waves and premixed flames can produce a broad range of responses.

  15. Conjugate flows and amplitude bounds for internal solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Makarenko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude bounds imposed by the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for strongly nonlinear waves in stratified fluid are considered. We discuss the theoretical scheme which allows to determine broadening limits for solitary waves in the terms of a given upstream density profile. Attention is focused on the continuously stratified flows having multiple broadening limits. The role of the mean density profile and the influence of fine-scale stratification are analyzed.

  16. High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktham Asfour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted.

  17. Amplitude-dependent contraction/elongation of nonlinear Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Uhl, Tadeusz; Leamy, Michael J.

    2016-04-01

    Nonlinear elastic guided waves find application in various disciplines of science and engineering, such as non- destructive testing and structural health monitoring. Recent recognition and quantification of their amplitude- dependent changes in spectral properties has contributed to the development of new monitoring concepts for mechanical structures. The focus of this work is to investigate and predict amplitude-dependent shifts in Lamb wave dispersion curves. The theory for frequency/wavenumber shifts for plate waves, based on a Lindstedt-Poincaré perturbation approach, was presented by the authors in previous years. Equivalently, spectral properties changes can be seen as wavelength contraction/elongation. Within the proposed framework, the wavelength of a Lamb wave depends on several factors; e.g., wave amplitude and second-, third- and fourth-order elastic constants, and others. Various types of nonlinear effects are considered in presented studies. Sensitivity studies for model parameters, i.e. higher-order elastic constants, are performed to quantify their influence on Lamb wave frequency/wavenumber shifting, and to identify the key parameters governing wavelength tuning.

  18. On the Turbulence Beneath Finite Amplitude Water Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Babanin, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    The paper by Beya et al. (2012, hereinafter BPB) has a general title of Turbulence Beneath Finite Amplitude Water Waves, but is solely dedicated to discussing the experiment by Babanin and Haus (2009, hereinafter BH) who conducted measurements of wave-induced non-breaking turbulence by particle image velocimetry (PIV). The authors of BPB conclude that their observations contradict those of BH. Here we argue that the outcomes of BPB do not contradict BH. In addition, although the main conclusion of BPB is that there is no turbulence observed in their experiment, it actually is observed.

  19. Photoinduced Enhancement of the Charge Density Wave Amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, A.; Patel, S. K. K.; Kukreja, R.; Uhlíř, V.; Wingert, J.; Festersen, S.; Zhu, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Lemke, H. T.; Nelson, S.; Kozina, M.; Rossnagel, K.; Bauer, M.; Murphy, B. M.; Magnussen, O. M.; Fullerton, E. E.; Shpyrko, O. G.

    2016-07-01

    Symmetry breaking and the emergence of order is one of the most fascinating phenomena in condensed matter physics. It leads to a plethora of intriguing ground states found in antiferromagnets, Mott insulators, superconductors, and density-wave systems. Exploiting states of matter far from equilibrium can provide even more striking routes to symmetry-lowered, ordered states. Here, we demonstrate for the case of elemental chromium that moderate ultrafast photoexcitation can transiently enhance the charge-density-wave (CDW) amplitude by up to 30% above its equilibrium value, while strong excitations lead to an oscillating, large-amplitude CDW state that persists above the equilibrium transition temperature. Both effects result from dynamic electron-phonon interactions, providing an efficient mechanism to selectively transform a broad excitation of the electronic order into a well-defined, long-lived coherent lattice vibration. This mechanism may be exploited to transiently enhance order parameters in other systems with coupled degrees of freedom.

  20. Amplitude Equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals using Saturation of Four-Wave Mixing in a Highly Nonlinear Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Yan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jeppesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of amplitude equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals using saturation of FWM in a HNLF. We show effective power penalty reduction after wavelength conversion of an amplitude distorted signal......We report the first experimental demonstration of amplitude equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals using saturation of FWM in a HNLF. We show effective power penalty reduction after wavelength conversion of an amplitude distorted signal...

  1. Finite-amplitude steady waves in plane viscous shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinazzo, F. A.; Saffman, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    Computations of two-dimensional solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are carried out for finite-amplitude waves on steady unidirectional flow. Several cases are considered. The numerical method employs pseudospectral techniques in the streamwise direction and finite differences on a stretched grid in the transverse direction, with matching to asymptotic solutions when unbounded. Earlier results for Poiseuille flow in a channel are re-obtained, except that attention is drawn to the dependence of the minimum Reynolds number on the physical constraint of constant flux or constant pressure gradient. Attempts to calculate waves in Couette flow by continuation in the velocity of a channel wall fail. The asymptotic suction boundary layer is shown to possess finite-amplitude waves at Reynolds numbers orders of magnitude less than the critical Reynolds number for linear instability. Waves in the Blasius boundary layer and unsteady Rayleigh profile are calculated by employing the artifice of adding a body force to cancel the spatial or temporal growth. The results are verified by comparison with perturbation analysis in the vicinity of the linear-instability critical Reynolds numbers.

  2. The density stratification and amplitude dispersion of internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, N.; Ulanova, E.

    2012-04-01

    We consider the theoretical model of large amplitude internal solitary waves propagating in a weakly stratified fluid under gravity. It is well known that steady 2D Euler equations of non-homogeneous fluid reduce in this case to the second-order quasi-linear equation for a stream function (the Dubreil-Jacotin-Long equation). Subsequently, the shape of traveling solitary wave can be determined in the long-wave scaling limit by solving the dispersive KdV-type model equation. The non-linear terms of this equation depend considerably on the instantaneous fine-scale density profile formed over background linear- or exponential stratification (Benney&Ko, 1978; Borisov&Derzho 1990; Derzho&Grimshaw 1997; Makarenko, 1999; Makarenko, Maltseva and Kazakov, 2009). Now we derive and analyze Fredholm-type integral equations coupling immediately the fluid density coefficient with the dispersion function for internal solitary waves. The inverse problem which means to find the fine-scale density by known curve of the amplitude dispersion is discussed in more details.

  3. Measuring finite-frequency body-wave amplitudes and traveltimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigloch, Karin; Nolet, Guust

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a method to measure finite-frequency amplitude and traveltime anomalies of teleseismic P waves. We use a matched filtering approach that models the first 25 s of a seismogram after the P arrival, which includes the depth phases pP and sP. Given a set of broad-band seismograms from a teleseismic event, we compute synthetic Green's functions using published moment tensor solutions. We jointly deconvolve global or regional sets of seismograms with their Green's functions to obtain the broad-band source time function. The matched filter of a seismogram is the convolution of the Green's function with the source time function. Traveltimes are computed by cross-correlating each seismogram with its matched filter. Amplitude anomalies are defined as the multiplicative factors that minimize the RMS misfit between matched filters and data. The procedure is implemented in an iterative fashion, which allows for joint inversion for the source time function, amplitudes, and a correction to the moment tensor. Cluster analysis is used to identify azimuthally distinct groups of seismograms when source effects with azimuthal dependence are prominent. We then invert for one source time function per group. We implement this inversion for a range of source depths to determine the most likely depth, as indicated by the overall RMS misfit, and by the non-negativity and compactness of the source time function. Finite-frequency measurements are obtained by filtering broad-band data and matched filters through a bank of passband filters. The method is validated on a set of 15 events of magnitude 5.8 to 6.9. Our focus is on the densely instrumented Western US. Quasi-duplet events (`quplets') are used to estimate measurement uncertainty on real data. Robust results are achieved for wave periods between 24 and 2 s. Traveltime dispersion is on the order of 0.5 s. Amplitude anomalies are on the order of 1 db in the lowest bands and 3 db in the highest bands, corresponding to

  4. Excitation and evolution of finite-amplitude plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y. W.; Wu, Y. C., E-mail: yican.wu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Chen, M. X. [School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Yu, M. Y., E-mail: myyu@zju.edu.cn [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Wu, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The evolution of a small spatially periodic perturbation in the electron velocity distribution function in collisionless plasma is reconsidered by numerically solving the Vlasov and Poisson equations. The short as well as long time behaviors of the excited oscillations and damping/modulation are followed. In the small but finite-amplitude excited plasma wave, resonant electrons become trapped in the wave potential wells and their motion affects the low-velocity electrons participating in the plasma oscillations, leading to modulation of the latter at an effective trapping frequency. It is found that the phase space of the resonant and low-velocity electrons becomes chaotic, but then self-organization takes place but remains fine-scale chaotic. It is also found that as long as particles are trapped, there is only modulation and no monotonic damping of the excited plasma wave. The modulation period/amplitude increases/decreases as the magnitude of the initial disturbance is reduced. For the initial and boundary conditions used here, linear Landau damping corresponds to the asymptotic limit of the modulation period becoming infinite, or no trapping of the resonant electrons.

  5. Increasing signal amplitude in fiber Bragg grating detection of Lamb waves using remote bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Junghyun; Wells, Brian; Hackney, Drew; Bradford, Philip; Peters, Kara

    2016-07-20

    Networks of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors can serve as structural health monitoring systems for large-scale structures based on the collection of ultrasonic waves. The demodulation of structural Lamb waves using FBG sensors requires a high signal-to-noise ratio because the Lamb waves are of low amplitudes. This paper compares the signal transfer amplitudes between two adhesive mounting configurations for an FBG to detect Lamb waves propagating in an aluminum plate: a directly bonded FBG and a remotely bonded FBG. In the directly bonded FBG case, the Lamb waves create in-plane and out-of-plane displacements, which are transferred through the adhesive bond and detected by the FBG sensor. In the remotely bonded FBG case, the Lamb waves are converted into longitudinal and flexural traveling waves in the optical fiber at the adhesive bond, which propagate through the optical fiber and are detected by the FBG sensor. A theoretical prediction of overall signal attenuation also is performed, which is the combination of material attenuation in the plate and optical fiber and attenuation due to wave spreading in the plate. The experimental results demonstrate that remote bonding of the FBG significantly increases the signal amplitude measured by the FBG.

  6. On the Amplitude Equations for Weakly Nonlinear Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzoni-Gavage, Sylvie; Coulombel, Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Nonlocal generalizations of Burgers' equation were derived in earlier work by Hunter (Contemp Math, vol 100, pp 185-202. AMS, 1989), and more recently by Benzoni-Gavage and Rosini (Comput Math Appl 57(3-4):1463-1484, 2009), as weakly nonlinear amplitude equations for hyperbolic boundary value problems admitting linear surface waves. The local-in-time well-posedness of such equations in Sobolev spaces was proved by Benzoni-Gavage (Differ Integr Equ 22(3-4):303-320, 2009) under an appropriate stability condition originally pointed out by Hunter. The same stability condition has also been shown to be necessary for well-posedness in Sobolev spaces in a previous work of the authors in collaboration with Tzvetkov (Benzoni-Gavage et al. in Adv Math 227(6):2220-2240, 2011). In this article, we show how the verification of Hunter's stability condition follows from natural stability assumptions on the original hyperbolic boundary value problem, thus avoiding lengthy computations in each particular situation. We also show that the resulting amplitude equation has a Hamiltonian structure when the original boundary value problem has a variational origin. Our analysis encompasses previous equations derived for nonlinear Rayleigh waves in elasticity.

  7. Intra-plasmaspheric wave power density deduced from long-term DEMETER measurements of terrestrial VLF transmitter wave amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U.

    2012-12-01

    We deduce the 3d intra-plasmaspheric distribution of VLF wave power between conjugate regions of strong VLF wave amplitudes as measured by DEMETER for high-power terrestrial VLF transmitters during its ~6-yr lifetime. We employ a mixed WKB/full-wave technique to solve for the primary and secondary electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are transmitted and reflected from strong cold-plasma density gradients and posited irregularities, in order to match the respective end-point measured amplitude distributions. Energy arriving in the conjugate region and also escaping to other regions of the magnetosphere is note. The resulting 3d distribution allows improved estimates for the long-term average particle scattering induced by terrestrial VLF transmitters.

  8. Nonlinear damping of a finite amplitude whistler wave due to modified two stream instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shinji, E-mail: saito@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Nariyuki, Yasuhiro, E-mail: nariyuki@edu.u-toyama.ac.jp [Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Umeda, Takayuki, E-mail: umeda@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    A two-dimensional, fully kinetic, particle-in-cell simulation is used to investigate the nonlinear development of a parallel propagating finite amplitude whistler wave (parent wave) with a wavelength longer than an ion inertial length. The cross field current of the parent wave generates short-scale whistler waves propagating highly oblique directions to the ambient magnetic field through the modified two-stream instability (MTSI) which scatters electrons and ions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, respectively. The parent wave is largely damped during a time comparable to the wave period. The MTSI-driven damping process is proposed as a cause of nonlinear dissipation of kinetic turbulence in the solar wind.

  9. Residual Amplitude Modulation in Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Arai, Koji; Adhikari, Rana X

    2013-01-01

    The effects of residual amplitude modulation (RAM) in laser interferometers using heterodyne sensing can be substantial and difficult to mitigate. In this work, we analyze the effects of RAM on a complex laser interferometer used for gravitational wave detection. The RAM introduces unwanted offsets in the cavity length signals and thereby shifts the operating point of the optical cavities from the nominal point via feedback control. This shift causes variations in the sensing matrix, and leads to degradation in the performance of the precision noise subtraction scheme of the multiple-degree-of-freedom control system. In addition, such detuned optical cavities produce an opto-mechanical spring, which also varies the sensing matrix. We use our simulations to derive requirements on RAM for the Advanced LIGO detectors, and show that the RAM expected in Advanced LIGO will not limit its sensitivity.

  10. Residual amplitude modulation in interferometric gravitational wave detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokeyama, Keiko; Izumi, Kiwamu; Korth, William Z; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Arai, Koji; Adhikari, Rana X

    2014-01-01

    The effects of residual amplitude modulation (RAM) in laser interferometers using heterodyne sensing can be substantial and difficult to mitigate. In this work, we analyze the effects of RAM on a complex laser interferometer used for gravitational wave detection. The RAM introduces unwanted offsets in the cavity length signals and thereby shifts the operating point of the optical cavities from the nominal point via feedback control. This shift causes variations in the sensing matrix, and leads to degradation in the performance of the precision noise subtraction scheme of the multiple-degree-of-freedom control system. In addition, such detuned optical cavities produce an optomechanical spring, which also perturbs the sensing matrix. We use our simulations to derive requirements on RAM for the Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) detectors, and show that the RAM expected in aLIGO will not limit its sensitivity.

  11. River plumes as a source of large-amplitude internal waves in the coastal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Jonathan D.; Moum, James N.

    2005-09-01

    Satellite images have long revealed the surface expression of large amplitude internal waves that propagate along density interfaces beneath the sea surface. Internal waves are typically the most energetic high-frequency events in the coastal ocean, displacing water parcels by up to 100m and generating strong currents and turbulence that mix nutrients into near-surface waters for biological utilization. While internal waves are known to be generated by tidal currents over ocean-bottom topography, they have also been observed frequently in the absence of any apparent tide-topography interactions. Here we present repeated measurements of velocity, density and acoustic backscatter across the Columbia River plume front. These show how internal waves can be generated from a river plume that flows as a gravity current into the coastal ocean. We find that the convergence of horizontal velocities at the plume front causes frontal growth and subsequent displacement downward of near-surface waters. Individual freely propagating waves are released from the river plume front when the front's propagation speed decreases below the wave speed in the water ahead of it. This mechanism generates internal waves of similar amplitude and steepness as internal waves from tide-topography interactions observed elsewhere, and is therefore important to the understanding of coastal ocean mixing.

  12. Hyperbolic Mild Slope Equations with Inclusion of Amplitude Dispersion Effect: Random Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    New hyperbolic mild slope equations for random waves are developed with the inclusion of amplitude dispersion. The frequency perturbation around the peak frequency of random waves is adopted to extend the equations for regular waves to random waves. The nonlinear effect of amplitude dispersion is incorporated approximately into the model by only considering the nonlinear effect on the carrier waves of random waves, which is done by introducing a representative wave amplitude for the carrier waves. The computation time is greatly saved by the introduction of the representative wave amplitude. The extension of the present model to breaking waves is also considered in order to apply the new equations to surf zone. The model is validated for random waves propagate over a shoal and in surf zone against measurements.

  13. Elastic reverse-time migration based on amplitude-preserving P- and S-wave separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia-Jia; Luan, Xi-Wu; Fang, Gang; Liu, Xin-Xin; Pan, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Jie

    2016-09-01

    Imaging the PP- and PS-wave for the elastic vector wave reverse-time migration requires separating the P- and S-waves during the wave field extrapolation. The amplitude and phase of the P- and S-waves are distorted when divergence and curl operators are used to separate the P- and S-waves. We present a P- and S-wave amplitude-preserving separation algorithm for the elastic wavefield extrapolation. First, we add the P-wave pressure and P-wave vibration velocity equation to the conventional elastic wave equation to decompose the P- and S-wave vectors. Then, we synthesize the scalar P- and S-wave from the vector Pand S-wave to obtain the scalar P- and S-wave. The amplitude-preserved separated P- and S-waves are imaged based on the vector wave reverse-time migration (RTM). This method ensures that the amplitude and phase of the separated P- and S-wave remain unchanged compared with the divergence and curl operators. In addition, after decomposition, the P-wave pressure and vibration velocity can be used to suppress the interlayer reflection noise and to correct the S-wave polarity. This improves the image quality of P- and S-wave in multicomponent seismic data and the true-amplitude elastic reverse time migration used in prestack inversion.

  14. MESSENGER Orbital Observations of Large-Amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves at Mercury's Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Torbjorn; Boardsen, Scott A.; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a survey of Kelvi\\ n-Helmholtz (KH) waves at Mercury's magnetopause during MESSENGER's first Mercury year in orb it. The waves were identified on the basis of the well-established sawtooth wave signatures that are associated with non-linear KH vortices at the magnetopause. MESSENGER frequently observed such KH waves in the dayside region of the magnetosphere where the magnetosheath flow velocity is still sub -sonic, which implies that instability growth rates at Mercury's magnetopau are much larger than at Earth. We attribute these greater rates to the limited wave energy dissipation in Mercury's highly resistive regolith. The wave amplitude was often on the order of ' 00 nT or more, and the wave periods were - 10- 20 s. A clear dawn-dusk asymmetry is present in the data, in that all of the observed wave events occurred in the post-noon and dusk-side sectors of the magnetopause. This asymmetry is like ly related to finite Larmor-radius effects and is in agreement with results from particle-in-cell simulations of the instability. The waves were observed almost exclusively during periods when the north-south component of the magnetosheath magnetic field was northward, a pattern similar to that for most terrestrial KH wave events. Accompanying plasma measurements show that the waves were associated with the transport of magnetosheath plasma into the magnetosphere.

  15. Large Amplitude Solitary Waves in a Fluid-Filled Elastic Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANWen-Shah

    2003-01-01

    By usign the potential method to a fluid filled elastic tube, we obtained a solitary wave solution.Compared with recluetive perturbation method, this method can be used for larger amplitude solitary waves. The result is in agreement with that of small amplitude approximation from reduetive perturbation method when the amplitude is small enough.

  16. Large Amplitude Solitary Waves in a Fluid-Filled Elastic Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wen-Shan

    2003-01-01

    By using the potential method to a fluid filled elastic tube, we obtained a solitary wave solution. Comparedwith reductive perturbation method, this method can be used for larger amplitude solitary waves. The result is inagreement with that of small amplitude approximation from reductive perturbation method when the amplitude is smallenough.

  17. On the generation and evolution of numerically simulated large-amplitude internal gravity wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdilghanie, Ammar M.; Diamessis, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of internal gravity wave (IGW) dynamics typically rely on wave velocity and density fields which are either generated through forcing terms in the governing equations or are explicitly introduced as initial conditions. Both approaches are based on the associated solution to the inviscid linear internal wave equations and, thus, assume weak-amplitude, space-filling waves. Using spectral multidomain-based numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and focusing on the forcing-driven approach, this study examines the generation and subsequent evolution of large-amplitude IGW packets which are strongly localized in the vertical in a linearly stratified fluid. When the vertical envelope of the forcing terms varies relatively rapid when compared to the vertical wavelength, the associated large vertical gradients in the Reynolds stress field drive a nonpropagating negative horizontal mean flow component in the source region. The highly nonlinear interaction of this mean current with the propagating IGW packet leads to amplification of the wave, a significant distortion of its rear flank, and a substantial decay of its amplitude. Scaling arguments show that the mean flow is enhanced with a stronger degree of localization of the forcing, larger degree of hydrostaticity, and increasing wave packet steepness. Horizontal localization results in a pronounced reduction in mean flow strength mainly on account of the reduced vertical gradient of the wave Reynolds stress. Finally, two techniques are proposed toward the efficient containment of the mean flow at minimal computational cost. The findings of this study are of particular value in overcoming challenges in the design of robust computational process studies of IGW packet (or continuously forced wave train) interactions with a sloping boundary, critical layer, or caustic, where large wave amplitudes are required for any instabilities to develop. In addition, the detailed

  18. Breaking of Large Amplitude Electron Plasma Wave in a Maxwellian Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    The determination of maximum possible amplitude of a coherent longitudinal plasma oscillation/wave is a topic of fundamental importance in non-linear plasma physics. The amplitudes of these large amplitude plasma waves is limited by a phenomena called wave breaking which may be induced by several non-linear processes. It was shown by Coffey [T. P. Coffey, Phys. Fluids 14, 1402 (1971)] using a "water-bag" distribution for electrons that, in a warm plasma the maximum electric field amplitude and density amplitude implicitly depend on the electron temperature, known as Coffey's limit. In this paper, the breaking of large amplitude freely running electron plasma wave in a homogeneous warm plasma where electron's velocity distribution is Maxwellian has been studied numerically using 1D Particle in Cell (PIC) simulation method. It is found that Coffey's propagating wave solutions, which was derived using a "water-bag" distribution for electrons, also represent propagating waves in a Maxwellian plasma. Coffey's wave...

  19. Cardiac output in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: association with arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure wave amplitudes and outcome of shunt surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eide Per K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH responding to shunt surgery, we have consistently found elevated intracranial pressure (ICP wave amplitudes during diagnostic ICP monitoring prior to surgery. It remains unknown why ICP wave amplitudes are increased in these patients. Since iNPH is accompanied by a high incidence of vascular co-morbidity, a possible explanation is that there is reduced vascular compliance accompanied by elevated arterial blood pressure (ABP wave amplitudes and even altered cardiac output (CO. To investigate this possibility, the present study was undertaken to continuously monitor CO to determine if it is correlated to ABP and ICP wave amplitudes and the outcome of shunting in iNPH patients. It was specifically addressed whether the increased ICP wave amplitudes seen in iNPH shunt responders were accompanied by elevated CO and/or ABP wave amplitude levels. Methods Prospective iNPH patients (29 were clinically graded using an NPH grading scale. Continuous overnight minimally-invasive monitoring of CO and ABP was done simultaneously with ICP monitoring; the CO, ABP, and ICP parameters were parsed into 6-second time windows. Patients were assessed for shunt surgery on clinical grade, Evan's index, and ICP wave amplitude. Follow-up clinical grading was performed 12 months after surgery. Results ICP wave amplitudes but not CO or ABP wave amplitude, showed good correlation with the response to shunt treatment. The patients with high ICP wave amplitude did not have accompanying high levels of CO or ABP wave amplitude. Correlation analysis between CO and ICP wave amplitudes in individual patients showed different profiles [significantly positive in 10 (35% and significantly negative in 16 (55% of 29 recordings]. This depended on whether there was also a correlation between ABP and ICP wave amplitudes and on the average level of ICP wave amplitude. Conclusions These results gave no

  20. Optimisation of amplitude limiters for phase preservation based on the exact solution to degenerate four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, K R H; Hesketh, G; Parmigiani, F; Richardson, D J; Petropoulos, P

    2016-02-08

    Adopting an exact solution to four-wave mixing (FWM), wherein harmonic evolution is described by the sum of two Bessel functions, we identify two causes of amplitude to phase noise conversion which impair FWM saturation based amplitude regenerators: self-phase modulation (SPM) and Bessel-order mixing (BOM). By increasing the pump to signal power ratio, we may arbitrarily reduce their impact, realising a phase preserving amplitude regenerator. We demonstrate the technique by applying it to the regeneration of a 10 GBaud QPSK signal, achieving a high level of amplitude squeezing with minimal amplitude to phase noise conversion.

  1. Disperson relation of finite amplitude Alfven wave in a relativistic electron- positron plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Hada, T; Muñoz, V; Hada, Tohru; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Munoz, Victor

    2004-01-01

    The linear dispersion relation of a finite amplitude, parallel, circularly polarized Alfv\\'en wave in a relativistic electron-positron plasma is derived. In the nonrelativistic regime, the dispersion relation has two branches, one electromagnetic wave, with a low frequency cutoff at $\\sqrt{1+2\\omega_p^2/\\Omega_p^2}$ (where $\\omega_p=(4\\pi n e^2/m)^{1/2}$ is the electron/positron plasma frequency), and an Alfv\\'en wave, with high frequency cutoff at the positron gyrofrequency $\\Omega_p$. There is only one forward propagating mode for a given frequency. However, due to relativistic effects, there is no low frequency cutoff for the electromagnetic branch, and there appears a critical wave number above which the Alfv\\'en wave ceases to exist. This critical wave number is given by $ck_c/\\Omega_p=a/\\eta$, where $a=\\omega_p^2/\\Omega_p^2$ and $\\eta$ is the ratio between the Alfv\\'en wave magnetic field amplitude and the background magnetic field. In this case, for each frequency in the Alfv\\'en branch, two additional...

  2. Hyperbolic Mild Slope Equations with Inclusion of Amplitude Dispersion Effect: Regular Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hong; ZOU Zhi-li

    2008-01-01

    A new form of hyperbolic mild slope equations is derived with the inclusion of the amplitude dispersion of nonlinear waves. The effects of including the amplitude dispersion effect on the wave propagation are discussed. Wave breaking mechanism is incorporated into the present model to apply the new equations to surf zone. The equations are solved numerically for regular wave propagation over a shoal and in surf zone, and a comparison is made against measurements. It is found that the inclusion of the amplitude dispersion can also improve model's performance on prediction of wave heights around breaking point for the wave motions in surf zone.

  3. Body-wave traveltime and amplitude shifts from asymptotic travelling wave coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the sensitivity of finite-frequency body-wave traveltimes and amplitudes to perturbations in 3-D seismic velocity structure relative to a spherically symmetric model. Using the approach of coupled travelling wave theory, we consider the effect of a structural perturbation on an isolated portion of the seismogram. By convolving the spectrum of the differential seismogram with the spectrum of a narrow window taper, and using a Taylor's series expansion for wavenumber as a function of frequency on a mode dispersion branch, we derive semi-analytic expressions for the sensitivity kernels. Far-field effects of wave interactions with the free surface or internal discontinuities are implicitly included, as are wave conversions upon scattering. The kernels may be computed rapidly for the purpose of structural inversions. We give examples of traveltime sensitivity kernels for regional wave propagation at 1 Hz. For the direct SV wave in a simple crustal velocity model, they are generally complicated because of interfering waves generated by interactions with the free surface and the Mohorovic??ic?? discontinuity. A large part of the interference effects may be eliminated by restricting the travelling wave basis set to those waves within a certain range of horizontal phase velocity. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2006 RAS.

  4. Analysis for the amplitude oscillatory movements of the ship in response to the incidence wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiţu, M. G.; Zăgan, R.; Manea, E.

    2015-11-01

    Event of major accident navigation near offshore drilling rigs remains unacceptably high, known as the complications arising from the problematic of the general motions of the ship sailing under real sea. Dynamic positioning system is an effective instrument used on board of the ships operating in the extraction of oil and gas in the continental shelf of the seas and oceans, being essential that the personnel on board of the vessel can maintain position and operating point or imposed on a route with high precision. By the adoption of a strict safety in terms of handling and positioning of the vessel in the vicinity of the drilling platform, the risk of accidents can be reduced to a minimum. Possibilities in anticipation amplitudes of the oscillatory movements of the ships navigating in real sea, is a challenge for naval architects and OCTOPUS software is a tool used increasingly more in this respect, complementing navigational facilities offered by dynamic positioning systems. This paper presents a study on the amplitudes of the oscillations categories of supply vessels in severe hydro meteorological conditions of navigation. The study provides information on the RAO (Response Amplitude Operator) response operator of the ship, for the amplitude of the roll movements, in some incident wave systems, interpreted using the energy spectrum Jonswap and whose characteristics are known (significant height of the wave, wave period, pulsation of the wave). Ship responses are analyzed according to different positioning of the ship in relation to the wave front (incident angle ranging from 10 to 10 degree from 0 to 180), highlighting the value of the ship roll motion amplitude. For the study, was used, as a tool for modeling and simulation, the features offered by OCTOPUS software that allows the study of the computerized behavior of the ship on the waves, in the real conditions of navigation. Program library was used for both the vessel itself and navigation modeling

  5. Effect of attenuation correction on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Some selected wave profiles recorded using a ship borne wave recorder are analysed to study the effect of attenuation correction on the distribution of the surface amplitudes. A new spectral width parameter is defined to account for wide band...

  6. Amplitude Distribution of Emission Wave for Cracking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission technique is a method of assessment for structural health monitoring system. This technique is an effective tool for the evaluation of any system without destroying the material conditions. It enables early crack detections and has very high sensitivity to crack growth. The crack patterns in concrete beam have been identified according to the type of cracking process and the crack classifications using the AE data parameters are mainly based on the AE amplitude, rise time, and average frequency. These data parameters have been analysed using statistical methods of b-value analysis. This research paper will mainly focus on the utilization of statistical b-value analysis in evaluating the emission amplitude distribution of concrete beams. The beam specimens (150 × 250 × 1900 mm were prepared in the laboratory system and tested with the four point bending test using cyclic loading together with acoustic emission monitoring system. The results showed that this statistical analysis is promising in determining the cracking process in concrete beams.

  7. Finite-amplitude shear-Alfv\\'en waves do not propagate in weakly magnetized collisionless plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, J; Schekochihin, A A

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that low-collisionality plasmas cannot support linearly polarized shear-Alfv\\'en fluctuations above a critical amplitude $\\delta B_{\\perp}/B_{0} \\sim \\beta^{\\,-1/2}$, where $\\beta$ is the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure. Above this cutoff, a developing fluctuation will generate a pressure anisotropy that is sufficient to destabilize itself through the parallel firehose instability. This causes the wave frequency to approach zero, interrupting the fluctuation before any oscillation. The magnetic field lines rapidly relax into a sequence of angular zig-zag structures. Such a restrictive bound on shear-Alfv\\'en-wave amplitudes has far-reaching implications for the physics of magnetized turbulence in the high-$\\beta$ conditions prevalent in many astrophysical plasmas, as well as for the solar wind at $\\sim 1 \\mathrm{AU}$ where $\\beta \\gtrsim 1$.

  8. NONLINEAR EVOLUTION ANALYSIS OF T-S DISTURBANCE WAVE AT FINITE AMPLITUDE IN NONPARALLEL BOUNDARY LAYERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐登斌; 夏浩

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution problem in nonparallel boundary layer stability was studied. The relative parabolized stability equations of nonlinear nonparallel boundary layer were derived. The developed numerical method, which is very effective, was used to study the nonlinear evolution of T-S disturbance wave at finite amplitudes. Solving nonlinear equations of different modes by using predictor-corrector and iterative approach, which is uncoupled between modes, improving computational accuracy by using high order compact differential scheme, satisfying normalization condition, determining tables of nonlinear terms at different modes, and implementing stably the spatial marching, were included in this method. With different initial amplitudes, the nonlinear evolution of T-S wave was studied. The nonlinear nonparallel results of examples compare with data of direct numerical simulations (DNS) using full Navier- Stokes equations.

  9. The influence of storms on finite amplitude sand wave dynamics: an idealized nonlinear model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campmans, G.H.P.; Roos, P.C.; de Vriend, H.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of storms on finite amplitude sand wave growth using a new idealized nonlinear morphodynamic model. We find that the growth speed initially linearly increases with sand wave amplitude, after which nonlinear effects cause the growth to decrease. This finally leads to an

  10. Stability of steady rotational water-waves of finite amplitude on arbitrary shear currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seez, William; Abid, Malek; Kharif, Christian

    2016-04-01

    A versatile solver for the two-dimensional Euler equations with an unknown free-surface has been developed. This code offers the possibility to calculate two-dimensional, steady rotational water-waves of finite amplitude on an arbitrary shear current. Written in PYTHON the code incorporates both pseudo-spectral and finite-difference methods in the discretisation of the equations and thus allows the user to capture waves with large steepnesses. As such it has been possible to establish that, in a counter-flowing situation, the existence of wave solutions is not guaranteed and depends on a pair of parameters representing mass flux and vorticity. This result was predicted, for linear solutions, by Constantin. Furthermore, experimental comparisons, both with and without vorticity, have proven the precision of this code. Finally, waves propagating on top of highly realistic shear currents (exponential profiles under the surface) have been calculated following current profiles such as those used by Nwogu. In addition, a stability analysis routine has been developed to study the stability regimes of base waves calculated with the two-dimensional code. This linear stability analysis is based on three dimensional perturbations of the steady situation which lead to a generalised eigenvalue problem. Common instabilities of the first and second class have been detected, while a third class of wave-instability appears due to the presence of strong vorticity. {1} Adrian Constantin and Walter Strauss. {Exact steady periodic water waves with vorticity}. Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, 57(4):481-527, April 2004. Okey G. Nwogu. {Interaction of finite-amplitude waves with vertically sheared current fields}. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 627:179, May 2009.

  11. Numerical study of the propagation of small-amplitude atmospheric gravity wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Xianchang; YI Fan; LIU Yingjie; LI Fang

    2005-01-01

    By using a two-dimensional fully nonlinear compressible atmospheric dynamic numerical model, the propagation of a small amplitude gravity wave packet is simulated. A corresponding linear model is also developed for comparison. In an isothermal atmosphere, the simulations show that the nonlinear effects impacting on the propagation of a small amplitude gravity wave are negligible. In the nonisothermal atmosphere, however, the nonlinear effects are remarkable. They act to slow markedly down the propagation velocity of wave energy and therefore reduce the growth ratio of the wave amplitude with time. But the energy is still conserved. A proof of this is provided by the observations in the middle atmosphere.

  12. THEMIS Observations of the Magnetopause Electron Diffusion Region: Large Amplitude Waves and Heated Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Xiangwei; Dombeck, John; Dai, Lei; Wilson, Lynn B; Breneman, Aaron; Hupach, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We present the first observations of large amplitude waves in a well-defined electron diffusion region at the sub-solar magnetopause using data from one THEMIS satellite. These waves identified as whistler mode waves, electrostatic solitary waves, lower hybrid waves and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, are observed in the same 12-sec waveform capture and in association with signatures of active magnetic reconnection. The large amplitude waves in the electron diffusion region are coincident with abrupt increases in electron parallel temperature suggesting strong wave heating. The whistler mode waves which are at the electron scale and enable us to probe electron dynamics in the diffusion region were analyzed in detail. The energetic electrons (~30 keV) within the electron diffusion region have anisotropic distributions with T_{e\\perp}/T_{e\\parallel}>1 that may provide the free energy for the whistler mode waves. The energetic anisotropic electrons may be produced during the reconnection process. The whi...

  13. Exact traveling wave solutions and L1 stability for the shallow water wave model of moderate amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Guo, Yunxi

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we developed, for the first time, the exact expressions of several periodic travelling wave solutions and a solitary wave solution for a shallow water wave model of moderate amplitude. Then, we present the existence theorem of the global weak solutions. Finally, we prove the stability of solution in L1(R) space for the Cauchy problem of the equation.

  14. Exact traveling wave solutions and L1 stability for the shallow water wave model of moderate amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Guo, Yunxi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we developed, for the first time, the exact expressions of several periodic travelling wave solutions and a solitary wave solution for a shallow water wave model of moderate amplitude. Then, we present the existence theorem of the global weak solutions. Finally, we prove the stability of solution in L1(R) space for the Cauchy problem of the equation.

  15. Plasma Metamaterials for Arbitrary Complex-Amplitude Wave Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    y = 120 mm, propagation waves join evanescent waves which are depressed as the position becomes apart from the edge of the metamaterial region...Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer , E. Harel, E., B. E. Koel and A. A. Requicha, Nature Mat. 2, 229 (2003). 38 S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, J. Appl

  16. Dispersive analysis of the $S$-, $P$-, $D$-, and $F$-wave $\\pi\\pi$ amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bydžovský, P; Nazari, V

    2016-01-01

    A reanalysis of $\\pi\\pi$ amplitudes for all important partial-waves below about 2 GeV is presented. A set of once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition is used to modify unitary multi-channel amplitudes in the $S$, $P$, $D$, and $F$ waves. So far, these specific amplitudes constructed in our works and many other analyzes have been fitted only to experimental data and therefore do not fulfill the crossing symmetry condition. In the present analysis, the self consistent, i.e. unitary and fulfilling the crossing symmetry, amplitudes for the $S$, $P$, $D$, and $F$ waves are formed. The proposed very effective and simple method of modification of the $\\pi\\pi$ amplitudes does not change their previous-original mathematical structure and the method can be easily applied in various other analyzes.

  17. Signal Construction-Based Dispersion Compensation of Lamb Waves Considering Signal Waveform and Amplitude Spectrum Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of Lamb wave identification for the aerospace structures could be easily affected by the nonlinear-dispersion characteristics. In this paper, dispersion compensation of Lamb waves is of particular concern. Compared with the similar research works on the traditional signal domain transform methods, this study is based on signal construction from the viewpoint of nonlinear wavenumber linearization. Two compensation methods of linearly-dispersive signal construction (LDSC and non-dispersive signal construction (NDSC are proposed. Furthermore, to improve the compensation effect, the influence of the signal construction process on the other crucial signal properties, including the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum, is considered during the investigation. The linear-dispersion and non-dispersion effects are firstly analyzed. Then, after the basic signal construction principle is explored, the numerical realization of LDSC and NDSC is discussed, in which the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum preservation is especially regarded. Subsequently, associated with the delay-and-sum algorithm, LDSC or NDSC is employed for high spatial resolution damage imaging, so that the adjacent multi-damage or quantitative imaging capacity of Lamb waves can be strengthened. To verify the proposed signal construction and damage imaging methods, the experimental and numerical validation is finally arranged on the aluminum plates.

  18. Signal Construction-Based Dispersion Compensation of Lamb Waves Considering Signal Waveform and Amplitude Spectrum Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Wang, Tongguang

    2016-12-23

    The results of Lamb wave identification for the aerospace structures could be easily affected by the nonlinear-dispersion characteristics. In this paper, dispersion compensation of Lamb waves is of particular concern. Compared with the similar research works on the traditional signal domain transform methods, this study is based on signal construction from the viewpoint of nonlinear wavenumber linearization. Two compensation methods of linearly-dispersive signal construction (LDSC) and non-dispersive signal construction (NDSC) are proposed. Furthermore, to improve the compensation effect, the influence of the signal construction process on the other crucial signal properties, including the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum, is considered during the investigation. The linear-dispersion and non-dispersion effects are firstly analyzed. Then, after the basic signal construction principle is explored, the numerical realization of LDSC and NDSC is discussed, in which the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum preservation is especially regarded. Subsequently, associated with the delay-and-sum algorithm, LDSC or NDSC is employed for high spatial resolution damage imaging, so that the adjacent multi-damage or quantitative imaging capacity of Lamb waves can be strengthened. To verify the proposed signal construction and damage imaging methods, the experimental and numerical validation is finally arranged on the aluminum plates.

  19. Parametric instabilities of large amplitude Alfven waves with obliquely propagating sidebands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on properties of the parametric decay and modulational, filamentation, and magnetoacoustic instabilities of a large amplitude, circularly polarized Alfven wave. We allow the daughter and sideband waves to propagate at an arbitrary angle to the background magnetic field so that the electrostatic and electromagnetic characteristics of these waves are coupled. We investigate the dependance of these instabilities on dispersion, plasma/beta, pump wave amplitude, and propagation angle. Analytical and numerical results are compared with numerical simulations to investigate the full nonlinear evolution of these instabilities.

  20. Effects of Periodic Forcing Amplitude on the Spiral Wave Resonance Drift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning-Jie; LI Bing-Wei; YING He-Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ We study dynamics of spiral waves under a uniform periodic temporal forcing in an excitable medium. With a specific combination of frequency and amplitude of the external periodic forcing, a resonance drift of a spiral wave occurs along a straight line, and it is accompanied by a complicated ‘flower-like’ motion on each side of this bifurcate boundary line. It is confirmed that the straight-line drift frequency of spiral waves is not locked to the nature rotation frequency as the forcing amplitude expends the range of the spiral wave frequency. These results are further verified numerically for a simplified kinematical model.

  1. A penalization method for calculating the flow beneath travelling water waves of large amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, Adrian; Scherzer, Otmar

    2014-01-01

    A penalization method for a suitable reformulation of the governing equations as a constrained optimization problem provides accurate numerical simulations for large-amplitude travelling water waves in irrotational flows and in flows with constant vorticity.

  2. Revival of the Phase-Amplitude Description of a Quantum-Mechanical Wave Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawitscher, George

    2017-01-01

    The phase-amplitude description of a wave function is formulated by means of a new linear differential-integral equation, which is valid in the region of turning points. A numerical example for a Coulomb potential is presented.

  3. Amplitude reconstruction from complete experiments and truncated partial-wave expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Workman, R L; Wunderlich, Y; Doering, M; Haberzettl, H

    2016-01-01

    We compare the methods of amplitude reconstruction, for a complete experiment and a truncated partial wave analysis, applied to the photoproduction of pseudo-scalar mesons. The approach is pedagogical, showing in detail how the amplitude reconstruction (observables measured at a single energy and angle) is related to a truncated partial-wave analysis (observables measured at a single energy and a number of angles).

  4. Sources and sinks separating domains of left- and right-traveling waves Experiment versus amplitude equations

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, R; Van Saarloos, W; Alvarez, Roberto; Hecke, Martin van; Saarloos, Wim van

    1996-01-01

    In many pattern forming systems that exhibit traveling waves, sources and sinks occur which separate patches of oppositely traveling waves. We show that simple qualitative features of their dynamics can be compared to predictions from coupled amplitude equations. In heated wire convection experiments, we find a discrepancy between the observed multiplicity of sources and theoretical predictions. The expression for the observed motion of sinks is incompatible with any amplitude equation description.

  5. Sources and sinks separating domains of left- and right-traveling waves: experiment versus amplitude equations

    OpenAIRE

    Saarloos, van, W.; Alvarez, R.; Hecke, van, M

    1997-01-01

    In many pattern forming systems that exhibit traveling waves, sources and sinks occur which separate patches of oppositely traveling waves. We show that simple qualitative features of their dynamics can be compared to predictions from coupled amplitude equations. In heated wire convection experiments, we find a discrepancy between the observed multiplicity of sources and theoretical predictions. The expression for the observed motion of sinks is incompatible with any amplitude equation descri...

  6. Frequencies and amplitudes of high-degree solar oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, James Morris

    Measurements of some of the properties of high-degree solar p- and f-mode oscillations are presented. Using high-resolution velocity images from Big Bear Solar Observatory, we have measured mode frequencies, which provide information about the composition and internal structure of the Sun, and mode velocity amplitudes (corrected for the effects of atmospheric seeing), which tell us about the oscillation excitation and damping mechanisms. We present a new and more accurate table of the Sun's acoustic vibration frequencies, nunl, as a function of radial order n and spherical harmonic degree l. These frequencies are averages over azimuthal order m and approximate the normal mode frequencies of a nonrotating spherically symmetric Sun near solar minimum. The frequencies presented here are for solar p- and f-modes with 180 less than or = l less than or = 1920, 0 less than or = n less than or = 8, and 1.7 mHz less than or = nunl less than or = 5.3 mHz. The uncertainties, sigmanl, in the frequencies areas are as low as 3.1 micro-Hz. The theoretically expected f-mode frequencies are given by omega squared = gkh approx. = gl/R, where g is the gravitational acceleration at the surface, kh is the horizontal component of the wave vector, and R is the radius of the Sun. We find that the observed frequencies are significantly less than expected for l greater than 1000, for which we have no explanation. Observations of high-degree oscillations, which have very small spatial features, suffer from the effects of atmospheric image blurring and image motion (or 'seeing'), thereby reducing the amplitudes of their spatial-frequency components. In an attempt to correct the velocity amplitudes for these effects, we simultaneously measured the atmospheric modulation transfer function (MTF) by looking at the effects of seeing on the solar limb. We are able to correct the velocity amplitudes using the MTF out to l approx. = 1200. We find that the frequency of the peak velocity power (as a

  7. Finite-amplitude waves in cylindrical lined ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    A second-order uniformly valid expansion is obtained for nonlinear waves propagating in a cylindrical duct lined with a point-reacting acoustic material that consists of a porous sheet followed by honey-comb cavities and backed by the impervious walls of the duct. The effect of the liner is taken into account by coupling the waves in the duct with those in the liner. As in the two-dimensional case, the nonlinearity increases the attenuation rate at all frequencies except in narrow bandwidths around the resonant frequencies, irrespective of the geometrical dimensions of the liner or the acoustic properties of the porous sheet.

  8. Amplitude equations for coupled electrostatic waves in the limit of weak instability

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, J D; Crawford, John David; Knobloch, Edgar

    1997-01-01

    We consider the simplest instabilities involving multiple unstable electrostatic plasma waves corresponding to four-dimensional systems of mode amplitude equations. In each case the coupled amplitude equations are derived up to third order terms. The nonlinear coefficients are singular in the limit in which the linear growth rates vanish together. These singularities are analyzed using techniques developed in previous studies of a single unstable wave. In addition to the singularities familiar from the one mode problem, there are new singularities in coefficients coupling the modes. The new singularities are most severe when the two waves have the same linear phase velocity and satisfy the spatial resonance condition $k_2=2k_1$. As a result the short wave mode saturates at a dramatically smaller amplitude than that predicted for the weak growth rate regime on the basis of single mode theory. In contrast the long wave mode retains the single mode scaling. If these resonance conditions are not satisfied both mo...

  9. Parametric instabilities of large-amplitude parallel propagating Alfven waves: 2-D PIC simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Nariyuki, Yasuhiro; Hada, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the parametric instabilities of large-amplitude parallel propagating Alfven waves using the 2-D PIC simulation code. First, we confirmed the results in the past study [Sakai et al, 2005] that the electrons are heated due to the modified two stream instability and that the ions are heated by the parallel propagating ion acoustic waves. However, although the past study argued that such parallel propagating longitudinal waves are excited by transverse modulation of parent Alfven wave, we consider these waves are more likely to be generated by the usual, parallel decay instability. Further, we performed other simulation runs with different polarization of the parent Alfven waves or the different ion thermal velocity. Numerical results suggest that the electron heating by the modified two stream instability due to the large amplitude Alfven waves is unimportant with most parameter sets.

  10. Numerical Computation of Large Amplitude Internal Solitary Waves,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-20

    provide adequate resolution. All computations were performed on a CDC Cyber 176 computer, and it takes slightly less than one CPU second to obtain a...H. Segur , Lgn Internal Waves in Fluids of Great Depth, Studies in Applied Math., 62 (1980), pp. 249-262. [3] E. Allgower and K. Georg, Simlicial -and

  11. An analytical model for the amplitude of lee waves forming on the boundary layer inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachsperger, Johannes; Serafin, Stefano; Stiperski, Ivana; Grubišić, Vanda

    2016-04-01

    Lee waves are horizontally propagating gravity waves with a typical wavelength of 5-15 km that may be generated when stratified flow is lifted over a mountain. A frequently observed type of such waves is that of interfacial lee waves. Those develop, similar to surface waves on a free water surface, when the upstream flow features a density discontinuity. Such conditions are often present for example at the capping inversion in boundary layer flow. The dynamics of interfacial lee waves can be described concisely with linear interfacial gravity wave theory. However, while this theoretical framework accurately describes the wavelength, it fails to properly predict the amplitude of lee waves. It is well known that large amplitude lee waves may lead to low-level turbulence, which poses a potential hazard for aviation. Therefore, this property of interfacial lee waves deserves further attention. In this study, we develop a simple analytical model for the amplitude of lee waves forming on the boundary layer inversion. This model is based on the energetics of two-layer flow. We obtain an expression for the wave amplitude by equating the energy loss across an internal jump with the energy radiation through lee waves. The verification of the result with water tank experiments of density-stratified two-layer flow over two-dimensional topography from the HYDRALAB campaign shows good agreement between theory and observations. This new analytical model may be useful in determining potential hazards of interfacial lee waves with negligible computational cost as compared to numerical weather prediction models.

  12. Finite amplitude waves in two-dimensional lined ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    A second-order uniform expansion is obtained for nonlinear wave propagation in a two-dimensional duct lined with a point-reacting acoustic material consisting of a porous sheet followed by honeycomb cavities and backed by the impervious wall of the duct. The waves in the duct are coupled with those in the porous sheet and the cavities. An analytical expression is obtained for the absorption coefficient in terms of the sound frequency, the physical properties of the porous sheet, and the geometrical parameters of the flow configuration. The results show that the nonlinearity flattens and broadens the absorption vs. frequency curve, irrespective of the geometrical dimensions or the porous material acoustic properties, in agreement with experimental observations.

  13. Roll dynamics of a ship sailing in large amplitude head waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalen, E.F.G.; Gunsing, M.; Grasman, J.; Remmert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Some ship types may show significant rolling when sailing in large-amplitude (near) head waves. The dynamics of the ship are such that the roll motion is affected by the elevation of the encountering waves. If the natural roll period (without forcing) is about half the period of the forcing by the w

  14. Large-Amplitude Electrostatic Waves Observed at a Supercritical Interplanetary Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Cattell, C. A.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Kersten, K.; Kasper, J. C.; Szabo, A.; Wilber, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first observations at an interplanetary shock of large-amplitude (> 100 mV/m pk-pk) solitary waves and large-amplitude (approx.30 mV/m pk-pk) waves exhibiting characteristics consistent with electron Bernstein waves. The Bernstein-like waves show enhanced power at integer and half-integer harmonics of the cyclotron frequency with a broadened power spectrum at higher frequencies, consistent with the electron cyclotron drift instability. The Bernstein-like waves are obliquely polarized with respect to the magnetic field but parallel to the shock normal direction. Strong particle heating is observed in both the electrons and ions. The observed heating and waveforms are likely due to instabilities driven by the free energy provided by reflected ions at this supercritical interplanetary shock. These results offer new insights into collisionless shock dissipation and wave-particle interactions in the solar wind.

  15. Amplitude wave in one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ling-Ling; Gao Jia-Zhen; Xie Wei-Miao; Gao Ji-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The wave propagation in the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE) is studied by considering a wave source at the system boundary.A special propagation region,which is an island-shaped zone surrounded by the defect turbulence in the system parameter space,is observed in our numerical experiment.The wave signal spreads in the whole space with a novel amplitude wave pattern in the area.The relevant factors of the pattern formation,such as the wave speed,the maximum propagating distance and the oscillatory frequency,are studied in detail.The stability and the generality of the region are testified by adopting various initial conditions.This finding of the amplitude pattern extends the wave propagation region in the parameter space and presents a new signal transmission mode,and is therefore expected to be of much importance.

  16. Small amplitude nonlinear electron acoustic solitary waves in weakly magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Manjistha; Khan, Manoranjan [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (India); Ghosh, Samiran [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata-700 009 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar [Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700 108 (India); Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar Kolkata-700 064 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Nonlinear propagation of electron acoustic waves in homogeneous, dispersive plasma medium with two temperature electron species is studied in presence of externally applied magnetic field. The linear dispersion relation is found to be modified by the externally applied magnetic field. Lagrangian transformation technique is applied to carry out nonlinear analysis. For small amplitude limit, a modified KdV equation is obtained, the modification arising due to presence of magnetic field. For weakly magnetized plasma, the modified KdV equation possesses stable solitary solutions with speed and amplitude increasing temporally. The solutions are valid upto some finite time period beyond which the nonlinear wave tends to wave breaking.

  17. Behavior of gravity waves with limited amplitude in the vicinity of critical layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using the FICE scheme, a numerical simulation of three-dimensional nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packet in a wind-stratified atmosphere is presented. The whole nonlinear propagation process of the gravity wave packet is shown; the propagation behavior of gravity waves in the vicinity of critical layer is analyzed. The results show that gravity waves encounter the critical layer when propagating in the fair winds whose velocities increase with height, and the height of critical layer propagating nonlinearly is lower than that expected by the linear gravity waves theory; the amplitudes of gravity waves increase with height as a whole before gravity waves encounter the critical layer, but the increasing extent is smaller than the result given by the linear theory of gravity waves, while the amplitudes of gravity waves reduce when gravity waves meet the critical layer; the energy of wave decreases with height, especially at the critical layer; the vertical wavelength reduces with the height increasing, but it does not become zero.

  18. Body wave travel times and amplitudes for present-day seismic model of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevskiy, Sergey; Gudkova, Tamara

    At the moment Martian interior structure models are constrained by the satellite observational data (the mass, the moment of inertia factor, the Love number k _{2}) (Konopliv et al., 2011) and high pressure experimental data (Bertka and Fei, 1997). Seismological observations could provide unparalleled capability for studying Martian interiors. Future missions include seismic experiments on Mars (Lognonné et al., 2012). The main instrument for these seismic experiments is a broadband seismometer (Robert et al., 2012). When seismic measurements are not yet available, physically consistent interior models, characterized by properties of relevant minerals, make possible to study of the seismic response of the planet. \\To estimate travel times for direct P, S, core reflected PcP, ScS and core refracted PKP body waves as a function of epicentral distance and hypocentral depth, as well as their amplitudes at the surface for a given marsquake, software product was developed in MatLab, as it encompasses many plotting routines that plot resulting travel times and ray paths. The computational results have been compared with the program TTBox (Knapmeyer, 2004). The code computes seismic ray paths and travel times for a one-dimentional spherical interior model (density and seismic velocities are functions of a radius only). Calculations of travel times tables for direct P, S, core reflected PcP, ScS and core refracted PKP waves and their amplitudes are carried out for a trial seismic model of Mars M14_3 from (Zharkov et al., 2009): the core radius is 1800 km, the thickness of the crust is 50 km. Direct and core reflected P and S waves are recorded to a maximum epicentral distance equal to about 100(°) , and PKP arrivals can be detected for epicental distances larger than 150(°) . The shadow zone is getting wider in comparison with previous results (Knapmeyer, 2010), as the liquid core radius of the seismic model under consideration is larger. Based on the estimates of

  19. Frequency dispersion of small-amplitude capillary waves in viscous fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Denner, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a detailed study of the dispersion of capillary waves with small amplitude in viscous fluids using an analytically derived solution to the initial value problem of a small-amplitude capillary wave as well as direct numerical simulation. A rational parametrization for the dispersion of capillary waves in the underdamped regime is proposed, including predictions for the wavenumber of critical damping based on a harmonic oscillator model. The scaling resulting from this parametrization leads to a self-similar solution of the frequency dispersion of capillary waves that covers the entire underdamped regime, which allows an accurate evaluation of the frequency at a given wavenumber, irrespective of the fluid properties. This similarity also reveals characteristic features of capillary waves, for instance that critical damping occurs when the characteristic timescales of dispersive and dissipative mechanisms are balanced. In addition, the presented results suggest that the widely adopted hydrodyn...

  20. Two-body wave functions and compositeness from scattering amplitudes. I. General properties with schematic models

    CERN Document Server

    Sekihara, Takayasu

    2016-01-01

    For a general two-body bound state in quantum mechanics, both in the stable and decaying cases, we establish a way to extract its two-body wave function in momentum space from the scattering amplitude of the constituent two particles. For this purpose, we first show that the two-body wave function of the bound state corresponds to the residue of the off-shell scattering amplitude at the bound state pole. Then, we examine our scheme to extract the two-body wave function from the scattering amplitude in several schematic models. As a result, the two-body wave functions from the Lippmann--Schwinger equation coincides with that from the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for an energy-independent interaction. Of special interest is that the two-body wave function from the scattering amplitude is automatically scaled; the norm of the two-body wave function, to which we refer as the compositeness, is unity for an energy-independent interaction, while the compositeness deviates from unity for an energy-dependent interaction, ...

  1. Exact solution to the Coulomb wave using the linearized phase-amplitude method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Kiyokawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The author shows that the amplitude equation from the phase-amplitude method of calculating continuum wave functions can be linearized into a 3rd-order differential equation. Using this linearized equation, in the case of the Coulomb potential, the author also shows that the amplitude function has an analytically exact solution represented by means of an irregular confluent hypergeometric function. Furthermore, it is shown that the exact solution for the Coulomb potential reproduces the wave function for free space expressed by the spherical Bessel function. The amplitude equation for the large component of the Dirac spinor is also shown to be the linearized 3rd-order differential equation.

  2. Dispersion relations with crossing symmetry for pipi D and F wave amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, R

    2011-01-01

    A set of once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition for the pipi D- and F-wave amplitudes is derived and analyzed. An example of numerical calculations in the effective two pion mass range from the threshold to 1.1 GeV is presented. It is shown that these new dispersion relations impose quite strong constraints on the analyzed pipi interactions and are very useful tools to test the pipi amplitudes. One of the goals of this work is to provide a complete set of equations required for easy use. Full analytical expressions are presented. Along with the well known dispersion relations successful in testing the pipi S- and P-wave amplitudes, those presented here for the D and F waves give a complete set of tools for analyzes of the pipi interactions.

  3. Amplitude controlled array transducers for mode selection and beam steering of guided waves in plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannajosyula, H.; Lissenden, C. J.; Rose, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for mode selection of guided wave modes and beam steering using purely amplitude variation across a one dimensional linear array of transducers. The method is distinct from apodization of phased array transducers that involves amplitude variation in addition to time delays and merely aims to improve the spectral characteristics of the transducer. The relationship between amplitude variation and the pitch of the array is derived by considering the resulting transduction as analogous to a spatio-temporal filter approach. It is also shown analytically and through numerical examples that the proposed method results in bidirectional guided waves when the steering angle is zero. Further, for non-zero steering angles, the waves travel in four directions, including the desired direction. Experimental studies are suggested.

  4. Nonlinear effects of the finite amplitude ultrasound wave in biological tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear effects will occur during the transmission of the finite amplitude wave in biological tissues.The theoretical prediction and experimental demonstration of the nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude wave at the range of biomedical ultrasound frequency and intensity are studied.Results show that the efficiency factor and effective propagation distance will decrease while the attenuation coefficient increases due to the existence of nonlinear effects.The experimental results coincided quite well with the theory.This shows that the effective propagation distance and efficiency factor can be used to describe quantitatively the influence of nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude sound wave in biological tissues.

  5. The supergravity fields for a D-brane with a travelling wave from string amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Black, William; Turton, David

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the supergravity fields sourced by a D-brane with a null travelling wave from disk amplitudes in type IIB string theory compactified on T^4 x S^1. The amplitudes reproduce the non-trivial features of the previously known two-charge supergravity solutions in the D-brane/momentum frame, providing a direct link between the microscopic bound states and their macroscopic descriptions.

  6. The supergravity fields for a D-brane with a travelling wave from string amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, William, E-mail: w.black@qmul.ac.u [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Research in String Theory, Department of Physics, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Russo, Rodolfo, E-mail: r.russo@qmul.ac.u [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Research in String Theory, Department of Physics, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Turton, David, E-mail: d.j.turton@qmul.ac.u [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Research in String Theory, Department of Physics, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-08

    We calculate the supergravity fields sourced by a D-brane with a null travelling wave from disk amplitudes in type IIB string theory compactified on T{sup 4}xS{sup 1}. The amplitudes reproduce all the non-trivial features of the previously known two-charge supergravity solutions in the D-brane/momentum duality frame, providing a direct link between the microscopic bound states and their macroscopic descriptions.

  7. Amplitude death, oscillation death, wave, and multistability in identical Stuart-Landau oscillators with conjugate coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenchen; Cheng, Hongyan; Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Ju, Ping; Yang, Junzhong

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics in a ring of identical Stuart-Landau oscillators with conjugate coupling systematically. We analyze the stability of the amplitude death and find the stability independent of the number of oscillators. When the amplitude death state is unstable, a large number of states such as homogeneous oscillation death, heterogeneous oscillation death, homogeneous oscillation, and wave propagations are found and they may coexist. We also find that all of these states are related to the unstable spatial modes to the amplitude death state.

  8. Upper mantle structure from body-wave coda and amplitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.

    1993-01-01

    The last decade has seen a large increase in the amount of high-quality data from a growing number of digitally operating seismic stations. Both short- and long-period data are reported on a regular basis to central data centres. As global seismology is hampered by the unequal distribution of statio

  9. Autism spectrum disorders and the amplitude of auditory brainstem response wave I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mariline; Marques, Cristina; Nóbrega Pinto, Ana; Fernandes, Raquel; Coutinho, Miguel Bebiano; Almeida E Sousa, Cecília

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have an increased number of wave I abnormal amplitudes in auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) than age- and sex-matched typically developing children. This analytical case-control study compared patients with ASDs between the ages of 2 and 6 years and children who had a language delay not associated with any other pathology. Amplitudes of ABR waves I and V; absolute latencies (ALs) of waves I, III, and V; and interpeak latencies (IPLs) I-III, III-IV, and I-V at 90 dB were compared between ASD patients and normally developing children. The study enrolled 40 children with documented ASDs and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Analyses of the ABR showed that children with ASDs exhibited higher amplitudes of wave 1 than wave V (35%) more frequently than the control group (10%), and this difference between groups reached statistical significance by Chi-squared analysis. There were no significant differences in ALs and IPLs between ASD children and matched controls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case-control study testing the amplitudes of ABR wave I in ASD children. The reported results suggest a potential for the use of ABR recordings in children, not only for the clinical assessment of hearing status, but also for the possibility of using amplitude of ABR wave I as an early marker of ASDs allowing earlier diagnosis and intervention. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. High initial amplitude and high Mach number effects on the evolution of the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikanati, A; Oron, D; Sadot, O; Shvarts, D

    2003-02-01

    Effects of high-Mach numbers and high initial amplitudes on the evolution of the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov shock-wave induced hydrodynamic instability are studied using theoretical models, experiments, and numerical simulations. Two regimes in which there is a significant deviation from the linear dependence of the initial velocity on the initial perturbation amplitude are defined and characterized. In one, the observed reduction of the initial velocity is primarily due to large initial amplitudes. This effect is accurately modeled by a vorticity deposition model, quantifying both the effect of the initial perturbation amplitude and the exact shape of the interface. In the other, the reduction is dominated by the proximity of the shock wave to the interface. This effect is modeled by a modified incompressible model where the shock wave is mimicked by a moving bounding wall. These results are supplemented with high initial amplitude Mach 1.2 shock-tube experiments, enabling separation of the two effects. It is shown that in most of the previous experiments, the observed reduction is predominantly due to the effect of high initial amplitudes.

  11. Subharmonic and fundamental high amplitude excitation of an axisymmetric jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous excitation at the fundamental and subharmonic frequencies on the behavior of a circular jet shear layer is studied. Attention is given to the effect of the initial phase difference, the Strouhal number pair, and amplitudes of the fundamental and subharmonic tones. High-amplitude excitation devices which can provide a wide range of forcing conditions when used in conjunction with equipment that produces complex waveforms are used.

  12. High-resolution, high-reflectivity operation of lamellar multilayer amplitude gratings: identification of the single-order regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozhevnikov, I. V.; van der Meer, R.; Bastiaens, H. M. J.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2010-01-01

    High resolution while maintaining high peak reflectivities can be achieved for Lamellar Multilayer Amplitude Gratings (LMAG) in the soft-x-ray (SXR) region. Using the coupled waves approach (CWA), it is derived that for small lamellar widths only the zeroth diffraction order needs to be considered f

  13. High Amplitude (delta)-Scutis in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A; Cook, K H; Nikolaev, S; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Becker, A C; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Miknaitis, G; Minniti, D; Morelli, L; Olsen, K; Prieto, J L; Suntzeff, N B; Welch, D L; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2010-01-25

    The authors present 2323 High-Amplitude {delta}-Scutis (HADS) candidates discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by the SuperMACHO survey (Rest et al. 2005). Frequency analyses of these candidates reveal that several are multimode pulsators, including 119 whose largest amplitude of pulsation is in the fundamental (F) mode and 19 whose largest amplitude of pulsation is in the first overtone (FO) mode. Using Fourier decomposition of the HADS light curves, they find that the period-luminosity (PL) relation defined by the FO pulsators does not show a clear separation from the PL-relation defined by the F pulsators. This differs from other instability strip pulsators such as type c RR Lyrae. They also present evidence for a larger amplitude, subluminous population of HADS similar to that observed in Fornax (Poretti et al. 2008).

  14. High Amplitude \\delta-Scutis in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, A; Nikolaev, S; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Becker, A C; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Miknaitis, G; Minniti, D; Morelli, L; Olsen, K; Prieto, J L; Suntzeff, N B; Welch, D L; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2010-01-01

    We present 2323 High-Amplitude \\delta-Scuti (HADS) candidates discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by the SuperMACHO survey (Rest et al. 2005). Frequency analyses of these candidates reveal that several are multimode pulsators, including 119 whose largest amplitude of pulsation is in the fundamental (F) mode and 19 whose largest amplitude of pulsation is in the first overtone (FO) mode. Using Fourier decomposition of the HADS light curves, we find that the period-luminosity (PL) relation defined by the FO pulsators does not show a clear separation from the PL-relation defined by the F pulsators. This differs from other instability strip pulsators such as type c RR Lyrae. We also present evidence for a larger amplitude, subluminous population of HADS similar to that observed in Fornax (Poretti et al. 2008).

  15. Regularity of the Attractor for the Dissipative Hamiltonian Amplitude Equation Governing Modulated Wave Instabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-de Dai

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper, the existence of global attractor for dissipative Hamiltonian amplitude equation governing the modulated wave instabilities in E0 is considered. By a decomposition of solution operator, it is shown that the global attractor in E0 is actually equal to a global attractor in E1.

  16. Large Amplitude Low Frequency Waves in a Magnetized Nonuniform Electron-Positron-Ion Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Q. Haque; H. Saleem

    2004-01-01

    @@ It is shown that the large amplitude low-frequency electromagnetic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas might give rise to dipolar vortices. A linear dispersion relation of several coupled electrostatic and electromagnetic low-frequency modes is obtained. The relevance of this work to both laboratory and astrophysical situations is pointed out.

  17. Scattering of gravitational radiation - Second order moments of the wave amplitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquart, JP

    2004-01-01

    Gravitational radiation that propagates through an inhomogeneous mass distribution is subject to random gravitational tensing, or scattering, causing variations in the wave amplitude and temporal smearing of the signal. A statistical theory is constructed to treat these effects. The statistical prop

  18. Joint Inversion for Earthquake Depths Using Local Waveforms and Amplitude Spectra of Rayleigh Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhe; Ni, Sidao; Chu, Risheng; Zhan, Zhongwen

    2017-01-01

    Reliable earthquake depth is fundamental to many seismological problems. In this paper, we present a method to jointly invert for centroid depths with local (distance distance of 5°-15°) Rayleigh wave amplitude spectra on sparse networks. We use earthquake focal mechanisms and magnitudes retrieved with the Cut-and-Paste (CAP) method to compute synthetic amplitude spectra of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave for a range of depths. Then we grid search to find the optimal depth that minimizes the joint misfit of amplitude spectra and local waveforms. As case studies, we apply this method to the 2008 Wells, Nevada Mw6.0 earthquake and a Mw5.6 outer-rise earthquake to the east of Japan Trench in 2013. Uncertainties estimated with a bootstrap re-sampling approach show that this joint inversion approach constrains centroid depths well, which are also verified by independent teleseismic depth-phase data.

  19. Local finite-amplitude wave activity as an objective diagnostic of midlatitude extreme weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jian; Burrows, Alex D.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-12-28

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this letter, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura [2015] is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500) to characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trend13 s of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  20. Characteristics of Electron Distributions Observed During Large Amplitude Whistler Wave Events in the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lynn B., III

    2010-01-01

    We present a statistical study of the characteristics of electron distributions associated with large amplitude whistler waves inside the terrestrial magnetosphere using waveform capture data as an addition of the study by Kellogg et al., [2010b]. We identified three types of electron distributions observed simultaneously with the whistler waves including beam-like, beam/flattop, and anisotropic distributions. The whistlers exhibited different characteristics dependent upon the observed electron distributions. The majority of the waveforms observed in our study have f/fce or = 8 nT pk-pk) whistler wave measured in the radiation belts. The majority of the largest amplitude whistlers occur during magnetically active periods (AE > 200 nT).

  1. Adaptive defect and pattern detection in amplitude and phase structures via photorefractive four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehmetallah, George; Banerjee, Partha; Khoury, Jed

    2015-11-10

    This work comprises the theoretical and numerical validations of experimental work on pattern and defect detection of periodic amplitude and phase structures using four-wave mixing in photorefractive materials. The four-wave mixing optical processor uses intensity filtering in the Fourier domain. Specifically, the nonlinear transfer function describing four-wave mixing is modeled, and the theory for detection of amplitude and phase defects and dislocations are developed. Furthermore, numerical simulations are performed for these cases. The results show that this technique successfully detects the slightest defects clearly even with no prior enhancement. This technique should prove to be useful in quality control systems, production-line defect inspection, and e-beam lithography.

  2. Prestimulus amplitudes modulate P1 latencies and evoked traveling alpha waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Alexandra Himmelstoss

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traveling waves have been well documented in the ongoing, and more recently also in the evoked EEG. In the present study we investigate what kind of physiological process might be responsible for inducing an evoked traveling wave. We used a semantic judgment task which already proved useful to study evoked traveling alpha waves that coincide with the appearance of the P1 component. We found that the P1 latency of the leading electrode is significantly correlated with prestimulus amplitude size and that this event is associated with a transient change in alpha frequency. We assume that cortical background excitability, as reflected by an increase in prestimulus amplitude, is responsible for the observed change in alpha frequency and the initiation of an evoked traveling trajectory.

  3. Large amplitude, leaky, island-generated, internal waves around Palau, Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanski, E.; Colin, P.; Naithani, J.; Deleersnijder, E.; Golbuu, Y.

    2004-08-01

    Three years of temperature data along two transects extending to 90 m depth, at Palau, Micronesia, show twice-a-day thermocline vertical displacements of commonly 50-100 m, and on one occasion 270 m. The internal wave occurred at a number of frequencies. There were a number of spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies, as well as intermediate and sub-inertial frequencies, less so at the inertial frequency. At Palau the waves generally did not travel around the island because there was no coherence between internal waves on either side of the island. The internal waves at a site 30 km offshore were out-of-phase with those on the island slopes, suggesting that the waves were generated on the island slope and then radiated away. Palau Island was thus a source of internal wave energy for the surrounding ocean. A numerical model suggests that the tidal and low-frequency currents flowing around the island form internal waves with maximum wave amplitude on the island slope and that these waves radiate away from the island. The model also suggests that the headland at the southern tip of Palau prevents the internal waves to rotate around the island. The large temperature fluctuations (commonly daily fluctuations ≈10 °C, peaking at 20 °C) appear responsible for generating a thermal stress responsible for a biologically depauperate biological community on the island slopes at depths between 60 and 120 m depth.

  4. Nonlinear ionospheric responses to large-amplitude infrasonic-acoustic waves generated by undersea earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-02-01

    Numerical models of ionospheric coupling with the neutral atmosphere are used to investigate perturbations of plasma density, vertically integrated total electron content (TEC), neutral velocity, and neutral temperature associated with large-amplitude acoustic waves generated by the initial ocean surface displacements from strong undersea earthquakes. A simplified source model for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake is constructed from estimates of initial ocean surface responses to approximate the vertical motions over realistic spatial and temporal scales. Resulting TEC perturbations from modeling case studies appear consistent with observational data, reproducing pronounced TEC depletions which are shown to be a consequence of the impacts of nonlinear, dissipating acoustic waves. Thermospheric acoustic compressional velocities are ˜±250-300 m/s, superposed with downward flows of similar amplitudes, and temperature perturbations are ˜300 K, while the dominant wave periodicity in the thermosphere is ˜3-4 min. Results capture acoustic wave processes including reflection, onset of resonance, and nonlinear steepening and dissipation—ultimately leading to the formation of ionospheric TEC depletions "holes"—that are consistent with reported observations. Three additional simulations illustrate the dependence of atmospheric acoustic wave and subsequent ionospheric responses on the surface displacement amplitude, which is varied from the Tohoku case study by factors of 1/100, 1/10, and 2. Collectively, results suggest that TEC depletions may only accompany very-large amplitude thermospheric acoustic waves necessary to induce a nonlinear response, here with saturated compressional velocities ˜200-250 m/s generated by sea surface displacements exceeding ˜1 m occurring over a 3 min time period.

  5. Intermittent large amplitude internal waves observed in Port Susan, Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. C.; Decker, L.

    2017-07-01

    A previously unreported internal tidal bore, which evolves into solitary internal wave packets, was observed in Port Susan, Puget Sound, and the timing, speed, and amplitude of the waves were measured by CTD and visual observation. Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements were attempted, but unsuccessful. The waves appear to be generated with the ebb flow along the tidal flats of the Stillaguamish River, and the speed and width of the resulting waves can be predicted from second-order KdV theory. Their eventual dissipation may contribute significantly to surface mixing locally, particularly in comparison with the local dissipation due to the tides. Visually the waves appear in fair weather as a strong foam front, which is less visible the farther they propagate.

  6. The influence of fluid properties and pulse amplitude on bubble dynamics in the field of a shock wave lithotripter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M J; Coleman, A J; Saunders, J E

    1993-11-01

    This study concerns the radial dynamics of a bubble driven by pulsed ultrasound of the type generated during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. In particular, a numerical model has been used to examine the sensitivity of the bubble oscillations to changes in both the amplitude of the driving field and the physical conditions of the fluid surrounding the bubble: viscosity, surface tension, temperature and gas content. It is shown that, at high negative pressures (p- = 10 MPa) as in lithotripsy, the timing and amplitude of bubble collapses have a considerably reduced sensitivity to the initial bubble size and all fluid parameters, except gas content, compared with those expected in lower-amplitude fields (p- = 0.2 MPa). This study indicates that, in the lithotripsy fields, the differences in the viscosity, surface tension and temperature of body fluids and the initial bubble size will have little effect on bubble dynamics compared with those expected in water.

  7. Probing Saturn's ion cyclotron waves on high-inclination orbits: Lessons for wave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, J. S.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, H. Y.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2011-09-01

    Ion cyclotron waves have been observed at Saturn by all spacecraft that passed through the inner magnetosphere near the equatorial plane, typically from slightly inside Enceladus' orbit to outside of Dione's. In 2005 and 2006, the Cassini spacecraft made high-inclination crossings of the equatorial plane in this region. The magnetometer observed that the waves were characteristically not uniform with distance from the equatorial plane. Instead, waves with weak and constant amplitude were observed in a small region around the magnetic equator where they propagated bidirectionally. Above and below that plane, the wave amplitude varied strongly, and the wave propagated away from the equator. We draw comparisons between these waves and those at the Earth and ion cyclotron waves associated with neutral sources in the Jovian magnetosphere. These behaviors may be common and should be considered when using the wave amplitude to infer the neutral ionization rates at Saturn, in other planetary magnetospheres, and at bodies in the solar wind.

  8. Small amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized superthermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanandhan, S.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Bharuthram, R.

    2015-05-01

    The propagation of electron acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma consisting of fluid cold electrons, electron beam and superthermal hot electrons (obeying kappa velocity distribution function) and ion is investigated in a small amplitude limit using reductive perturbation theory. The Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation governing the dynamics of electron acoustic solitary waves is derived. The solution of the KdV-ZK equation predicts the existence of negative potential solitary structures. The new results are: (1) increase of either the beam speed or temperature of beam electrons tends to reduce both the amplitude and width of the electron acoustic solitons, (2) the inclusion of beam speed and temperature pushes the allowed Mach number regime upwards and (3) the soliton width maximizes at certain angle of propagation (αm) and then decreases for α >αm . In addition, increasing the superthermality of the hot electrons also results in reduction of soliton amplitude and width. For auroral plasma parameters observed by Viking, the obliquely propagating electron-acoustic solitary waves have electric field amplitudes in the range (7.8-45) mV/m and pulse widths (0.29-0.44) ms. The Fourier transform of these electron acoustic solitons would result in a broadband frequency spectra with peaks near 2.3-3.5 kHz, thus providing a possible explanation of the broadband electrostatic noise observed during the Burst a.

  9. Large Amplitude Whistlers in the Magnetosphere Observed with Wind-Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Cattell, C. A.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.; Wilson, L. B., III

    2011-01-01

    We describe the results of a statistical survey of Wind-Waves data motivated by the recent STEREO/Waves discovery of large-amplitude whistlers in the inner magnetosphere. Although Wind was primarily intended to monitor the solar wind, the spacecraft spent 47 h inside 5 R(sub E) and 431 h inside 10 R(sub E) during the 8 years (1994-2002) that it orbited the Earth. Five episodes were found when whistlers had amplitudes comparable to those of Cattell et al. (2008), i.e., electric fields of 100 m V/m or greater. The whistlers usually occurred near the plasmapause. The observations are generally consistent with the whistlers observed by STEREO. In contrast with STEREO, Wind-Waves had a search coil, so magnetic measurements are available, enabling determination of the wave vector without a model. Eleven whistler events with useable magnetic measurements were found. The wave vectors of these are distributed around the magnetic field direction with angles from 4 to 48deg. Approximations to observed electron distribution functions show a Kennel-Petschek instability which, however, does not seem to produce the observed whistlers. One Wind episode was sampled at 120,000 samples/s, and these events showed a signature that is interpreted as trapping of electrons in the electrostatic potential of an oblique whistler. Similar waveforms are found in the STEREO data. In addition to the whistler waves, large amplitude, short duration solitary waves (up to 100 mV/m), presumed to be electron holes, occur in these passes, primarily on plasma sheet field lines mapping to the auroral zone.

  10. Dispersion relations with crossing symmetry for pipi D and F wave amplitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, R.

    2011-01-01

    A set of once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition for the pipi D- and F-wave amplitudes is derived and analyzed. An example of numerical calculations in the effective two pion mass range from the threshold to 1.1 GeV is presented. It is shown that these new dispersion relations impose quite strong constraints on the analyzed pipi interactions and are very useful tools to test the pipi amplitudes. One of the goals of this work is to provide a complete set o...

  11. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, Jens; Kendl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line...... with conditions found in tokamak scrape-off-layers (SOL) regions. Varying the ion temperature, the initial blob width, and the initial amplitude, we found an FLR dominated regime where the blob behavior is significantly different from what is predicted by cold-ion models. The transition to this regime is very...

  12. A model for large-amplitude internal solitary waves with trapped cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Helfrich

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Large-amplitude internal solitary waves in continuously stratified systems can be found by solution of the Dubreil-Jacotin-Long (DJL equation. For finite ambient density gradients at the surface (bottom for waves of depression (elevation these solutions may develop recirculating cores for wave speeds above a critical value. As typically modeled, these recirculating cores contain densities outside the ambient range, may be statically unstable, and thus are physically questionable. To address these issues the problem for trapped-core solitary waves is reformulated. A finite core of homogeneous density and velocity, but unknown shape, is assumed. The core density is arbitrary, but generally set equal to the ambient density on the streamline bounding the core. The flow outside the core satisfies the DJL equation. The flow in the core is given by a vorticity-streamfunction relation that may be arbitrarily specified. For simplicity, the simplest choice of a stagnant, zero vorticity core in the frame of the wave is assumed. A pressure matching condition is imposed along the core boundary. Simultaneous numerical solution of the DJL equation and the core condition gives the exterior flow and the core shape. Numerical solutions of time-dependent non-hydrostatic equations initiated with the new stagnant-core DJL solutions show that for the ambient stratification considered, the waves are stable up to a critical amplitude above which shear instability destroys the initial wave. Steadily propagating trapped-core waves formed by lock-release initial conditions also agree well with the theoretical wave properties despite the presence of a "leaky" core region that contains vorticity of opposite sign from the ambient flow.

  13. Simulation of transients of high amplitude in pipe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.M.; Looijmans, K.N.H.

    1999-01-01

    Fast high-amplitude transients ask for a non-linear modelling approach in which large density variations and heat exchange can be considered. Operation of safety-valves, relief valves, the occurrence of valve failure and the start-up or shutdown of rotating equipment in industrial pipe systems can l

  14. Relationship between pressure wave amplitude and esophageal bolus clearance assessed by combined manometry and multichannel intraluminal impedance measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nam Q.; Tippett, Marcus; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Holloway, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Esophageal wave amplitude is an important determinant of esophageal clearance. A threshold of 30 mmHg is widely accepted as the threshold for effective clearance in the distal esophagus. However, the precise relationship between wave amplitude and clearance has received relatively little

  15. Magneto-Acoustic Waves of Small Amplitude in Optically Thin Quasi-Isentropic Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Nakariakov, V M; Ibáñez, M H; Nakariakov, Valery M.; Mendoza-Briceno, Cesar A.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of quasi-isentropic magnetohydrodynamic waves of small but finite amplitude in an optically thin plasma is analyzed. The plasma is assumed to be initially homogeneous, in thermal equilibrium and with a straight and homogeneous magnetic field frozen in. Depending on the particular form of the heating/cooling function, the plasma may act as a dissipative or active medium for magnetoacoustic waves, while Alfven waves are not directly affected. An evolutionary equation for fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves in the single wave limit, has been derived and solved, allowing us to analyse the wave modification by competition of weakly nonlinear and quasi-isentropic effects. It was shown that the sign of the quasi-isentropic term determines the scenario of the evolution, either dissipative or active. In the dissipative case, when the plasma is first order isentropically stable the magnetoacoustic waves are damped and the time for shock wave formation is delayed. However, in the active case when the plasm...

  16. Phase and amplitude wave front sensing and reconstruction with a modified plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chensheng; Ko, Jonathan; Nelson, William; Davis, Christopher C.

    2014-10-01

    A plenoptic camera is a camera that can retrieve the direction and intensity distribution of light rays collected by the camera and allows for multiple reconstruction functions such as: refocusing at a different depth, and for 3D microscopy. Its principle is to add a micro-lens array to a traditional high-resolution camera to form a semi-camera array that preserves redundant intensity distributions of the light field and facilitates back-tracing of rays through geometric knowledge of its optical components. Though designed to process incoherent images, we found that the plenoptic camera shows high potential in solving coherent illumination cases such as sensing both the amplitude and phase information of a distorted laser beam. Based on our earlier introduction of a prototype modified plenoptic camera, we have developed the complete algorithm to reconstruct the wavefront of the incident light field. In this paper the algorithm and experimental results will be demonstrated, and an improved version of this modified plenoptic camera will be discussed. As a result, our modified plenoptic camera can serve as an advanced wavefront sensor compared with traditional Shack- Hartmann sensors in handling complicated cases such as coherent illumination in strong turbulence where interference and discontinuity of wavefronts is common. Especially in wave propagation through atmospheric turbulence, this camera should provide a much more precise description of the light field, which would guide systems in adaptive optics to make intelligent analysis and corrections.

  17. Dependence of oscillational instabilities on the amplitude of the acoustic wave in single-axis levitators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozco-Santillán, Arturo; Ruiz-Boullosa, Ricardo; Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    published on the topic predicts that these instabilities appear when the levitator is driven with a frequency above the resonant frequency of the empty device. The theory also shows that the instabilities can either saturate to a state with constant amplitude, or they can grow without limit until the object...... pressure amplitude in the cavity because of the presence of the sample. The theory predicts that the phase difference depends on the speed of the oscillating object. In this paper, we give for the first time experimental evidence that shows the existence of the phase difference, and that it is negatively...... proportional to the oscillation frequency of the levitated sample. We also present experimental results that show that the oscillational instabilities can be reduced if the amplitude of the acoustic wave is increased; as a result, stable conditions can be obtained where the oscillations of the sphere...

  18. Determination of stress glut moments of total degree 2 from teleseismic surface wave amplitude spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukchin, B. G.

    1995-08-01

    A special case of the seismic source, where the stress glut tensor can be expressed as a product of a uniform moment tensor and a scalar function of spatial coordinates and time, is considered. For such a source, a technique of determining stress glut moments of total degree 2 from surface wave amplitude spectra is described. The results of application of this technique for the estimation of spatio-temporal characteristics of the Georgian earthquake, 29.04.91 are presented.

  19. Beat-to-beat T-wave amplitude variability in the long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extramiana, Fabrice; Tatar, Charif; Maison-Blanche, Pierre; Denjoy, Isabelle; Messali, Anne; Dejode, Patrick; Iserin, Frank; Leenhardt, Antoine

    2010-09-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a primary electrical disease characterized by QT prolongation and increased repolarization dispersion leading to T-wave amplitude beat-to-beat changes. We aimed to quantify beat-to-beat T-wave amplitude variability from ambulatory Holter recordings in genotyped LQTS patients. Seventy genotyped LQTS patients (mean age 23 +/- 15 years, 42 males, 50% LQT1, 39% LQT2, and 11% LQT3) and 70 normal matched control subjects underwent a 24-h digital Holter recording. Using the Tvar software (Ela Medical, Sorin group), the beat-to-beat variance of the T-wave amplitude (TAV in microV) [corrected] was assessed on 50-ms consecutive clusters during three 1-h periods: one with around average diurnal heart rate (Day Fast), one nocturnal period (Night), and one diurnal period with around average nocturnal heart rate (Day Slow). TAV was increased in LQTS patients during the two diurnal periods but not at night (during the Day Fast period, mean TAV was 34 +/- 20 microV [corrected] in LQTS patients vs. 27 +/- 10 microV [corrected] in controls, P < 0.05). This effect depended on the genotype. In LQT1, TAV was larger when compared with controls for both Day Fast and Slow periods, but in LQT2 only Day Fast shows higher TAV. Oppositely, in LQT3 the TAV was higher than in the control group during the Day slow period (mean TAV = 34 +/- 20 vs. 25 +/- 8 microV [corrected] in controls, P < 0.05). In genotyped LQTS patients beat-to-beat T-wave amplitude variability was increased when compared with control subjects. That pattern was modulated by circadian influences in a gene-dependent manner.

  20. The amplitude of the cross-covariance function of solar oscillations as a diagnostic tool for wave attenuation and geometrical spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kaori; Fournier, Damien; Birch, Aaron C.; Gizon, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    Context. In time-distance helioseismology, wave travel times are measured from the two-point cross-covariance function of solar oscillations and are used to image the solar convection zone in three dimensions. There is, however, also information in the amplitude of the cross-covariance function, for example, about seismic wave attenuation. Aims: We develop a convenient procedure to measure the amplitude of the cross-covariance function of solar oscillations. Methods: In this procedure, the amplitude of the cross-covariance function is linearly related to the cross-covariance function and can be measured even for high levels of noise. Results: As an example application, we measure the amplitude perturbations of the seismic waves that propagate through the sunspot in active region NOAA 9787. We can recover the amplitude variations due to the scattering and attenuation of the waves by the sunspot and associated finite-wavelength effects. Conclusions: The proposed definition of cross-covariance amplitude is robust to noise, can be used to relate measured amplitudes to 3D perturbations in the solar interior under the Born approximation, and provides independent information from the travel times.

  1. Large amplitude solitary waves in ion-beam plasmas with charged dust impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, A P

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of large amplitude dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves (SWs) in an ion-beam plasma with stationary charged dusts is investigated. For typical plasma parameters relevant for experiments [J. Plasma Phys. \\textbf{60}, 69 (1998)], when the beam speed is larger than the DIA speed ($v_{b0}\\gtrsim1.7c_s$), three stable waves, namely the "fast" and "slow" ion-beam modes and the plasma DIA wave are shown to exist. These modes can propagate as SWs in the beam plasmas. However, in the other regime ($c_s0)$ is found to be limited by a critical value which typically depends on $M$, $v_{b0}$ as well as the ion/beam temperature. The conditions for the existence of DIA solitons are obtained and their properties are analyzed numerically in terms of the system parameters. While the system supports both the compressive and rarefactive large amplitude SWs, the small amplitude solitons exist only of the compressive type. The theoretical results may be useful for observation of soliton excitations in l...

  2. Variable amplitude corrosion fatigue and fracture mechanics of weldable high strength jack-up steels

    OpenAIRE

    Etube, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    The tubular welded joints used in the construction of Offshore structures can experience millions of variable amplitude wave induced stress cycles during their operational life. Fatigue has been identified as the main cause of degradation of structural integrity in these structures. As a result, fatigue is an important consideration in their design. Jack-up legs are made from a range of high strength steels with yield strengths up to 70OMPa. These steels are thought to exhib...

  3. DETERMINATION OF COORDINATES OF SEISMIC WAVE SOURCE BY AMPLITUDE METHOD OF PASSIVE LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily D. Syten’ky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the mathematical synthesis of the method of passive location of a seismic wave source. The method employs measurements of regular attenuation of seismic oscillation amplitudes. If it is impossible to determine the location of a seismic event by means of direct measurements, indirect measurements are needed. A priori information for the mathematical synthesis was obtained from functional equations showing inverse proportions of measured amplitudes, arbitrary effective attenuation coefficients and corresponding coordinates. An original method was applied to process the data. The method providing for passive location of seismic waves sources has been developed; it is called the radial basic method. In the one-dimensional case, a distance is determined on the basis of seismic oscillation amplitudes measured by two seismographs that are located at a known base distance coinciding with the direction to the source of seismic waves. The distance is calculated from the receiver that is nearest to the source. If the base distance and the direct line between the seismograph and the seismic wave source do not coincide, a projection of the distance between the receivers to the given straight line is taken into account.Three seismographs were placed at mutually perpendicular base distances in a plane (i.e. the two-dimensional space. This allowed us to obtain an analytical equation for determining the direction to the seismic wave source using measured amplitudes. The value of the angle is taken into account when calculating the distance.For the seismic wave source located in the three-dimensional space, transition equations for combined coordinate systems (i.e. the Descartes (Cartesian, at the axes of which the seismographs were placed, and the spherical coordinate systems were applied, and analytical equations were obtained for determination of coordinates, such as distance/polar radius, elevation

  4. iResum: a new paradigm for resumming gravitational wave amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method to improve the resummation of the post-Newtonian (PN), circularized, multipolar waveform that enters the effective-one-body (EOB) theory of coalescing, nonprecessing, spinning black hole binaries (BBHs). We focus on the residual (post-factorized) waveform amplitude corrections $f_{\\ell m}$ introduced by Damour and Nagar~[Phys. Rev. D~76, 064028 (2007)]. In the (nonspinning) test-particle limit, using 20PN-accurate analytical gravitational wave fluxes, we compute the usual functions $\\rho_{\\ell m}\\equiv (f_{\\ell m})^{1/\\ell}=\\rho^{\\rm orb}_{\\ell m}+\\rho^{\\rm S}_{\\ell m}$ (where $\\rho^{\\rm S}_{\\ell m}$ and $\\rho_{\\ell m}^{\\rm orb}$ are the spin and orbital contributions) at 20PN following Pan et al. [Phys. Rev. D 83, 064003 (2011)]. When $m$ is even and the angular momentum of the supermassive black hole is large (and explicitly discussing $\\ell=m=2$) the usual $\\rho_{\\ell m}$, even at high PN order, are inaccurate with respect to the "exact" functions $\\rho_{\\ell m}^{\\rm Num}$ through...

  5. Arbitrary amplitude electrostatic wave propagation in a magnetized dense plasma containing helium ions and degenerate electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.; Ali, Munazza Z.

    2016-06-01

    The obliquely propagating arbitrary amplitude electrostatic wave is studied in a dense magnetized plasma having singly and doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons pressures. The Fermi temperature for ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons described by N. M. Vernet [(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007), p. 57] is used to define ion acoustic speed in ultra-dense plasmas. The pseudo-potential approach is used to solve the fully nonlinear set of dynamic equations for obliquely propagating electrostatic waves in a dense magnetized plasma containing helium ions. The upper and lower Mach number ranges for the existence of electrostatic solitons are found which depends on the obliqueness of the wave propagation with respect to applied magnetic field and charge number of the helium ions. It is found that only compressive (hump) soliton structures are formed in all the cases and only subsonic solitons are formed for a singly charged helium ions plasma case with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons. Both subsonic and supersonic soliton hump structures are formed for doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons plasma case containing singly as well as doubly charged helium ions. The effect of propagation direction on the soliton amplitude and width of the electrostatic waves is also presented. The numerical plots are also shown for illustration using dense plasma parameters of a compact star (white dwarf) from literature.

  6. Photon counting chirped amplitude modulation lidar using an asymmetric triangular wave modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijing; Cen, Longzhu; Zhang, Jiandong; Ma, Kun; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    We propose a novel strategy of asymmetric triangular-wave modulation for photon-counting chirped amplitude modulation (PCCAM) lidar. Earlier studies use the symmetric triangle wave modulation, by which the velocity can be detected only when the Doppler shift caused by a moving target is greater than Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) of Intermediate Frequency (IF). We use an alternative method known as the asymmetric triangular wave modulation method, in which the modulation rates of the up-ramp and the down-ramp are different. This new method avoids the overlapping of the up-ramp and the down-ramp IF peaks, and breaks the limit of the FWHM of IF peak to improve the velocity measuring sensitivity (also called the minimum detectable velocity). Finally, a proof-of-principle experiment is carried out in the laboratory. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical results and show the improvement of the minimum detectable velocity.

  7. The amplitudes and the structure of the charge density wave in YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkov, Y. A.; Sushkov, O. P.

    2016-10-01

    We find unknown s- and d-wave amplitudes of the recently discovered charge density wave (CDW) in underdoped cuprates. To do so we perform a combined analysis of experimental data for ortho-II YBa2Cu3Oy. The analysis includes data on nuclear magnetic resonance, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, and hard X-ray diffraction. The amplitude of doping modulation found in our analysis is 3.5 · 10‑3 in a low magnetic field and T = 60 K, the amplitude is 6.5 · 10‑3 in a magnetic field of 30T and T = 1.3 K. The values are in units of elementary charge per unit cell of a CuO2 plane. We show that the data rule out a checkerboard pattern, and we also show that the data might rule out mechanisms of the CDW which do not include phonons.

  8. Compact wave function for bond dissociation and Van der Waals interactions: A natural amplitude assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Giesbertz, K J H

    2014-01-01

    Electron correlations in molecules can be divided in short range dynamical correlations, long range Van der Waals type interactions and near degeneracy static correlations. In this work we analyze how these three types of correlations can be incorporated in a simple wave function of restricted functional form consisting of an orbital product multiplied by a single correlation function $f(r_{12})$ depending on the interelectronic distance $r_{12}$. Since the three types of correlations mentioned lead to different signatures in terms of the natural orbital (NO) amplitudes in two-electron systems we make an analysis of the wave function in terms of the NO amplitudes for a model system of a diatomic molecule. In our numerical implementation we fully optimize the orbitals and the correlation function on a spatial grid without restrictions on their functional form. For the model system we can prove that none of the amplitudes vanishes and moreover that it displays a distinct sign pattern and a series of avoided cro...

  9. The Properties of Large Amplitude Whistler Mode Waves in the Magnetosphere: Propagation and Relationship with Geomagnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Cattell, C. A.; Kellogg, P. J.; Wygant, J. R.; Goetz, K.; Breneman, A.; Kersten, K.

    2011-01-01

    Wepresent resultsof a studyof the characteristicsof very large amplitude whistler mode waves inside the terrestrial magnetosphere at radial distances of less than 15 RE using waveform capture data from the Wind spacecraft. We observed 247 whistler mode waves with at least one electric field component (105/247 had !80 mV/m peak!to!peak amplitudes) and 66 whistler mode waves with at least one search coil magnetic field component (38/66 had !0.8 nT peak!to!peak amplitudes). Wave vectors determined from events with three magnetic field components indicate that 30/46 propagate within 20 of the ambient magnetic field, though some are more oblique (up to "50 ). No relationship was observed between wave normal angle and GSM latitude. 162/247 of the large amplitude whistler mode waves were observed during magnetically active periods (AE > 200 nT). 217 out of 247 total whistler mode waves examined were observed inside the radiation belts. We present a waveform capture with the largest whistler wave magnetic field amplitude (^8 nT peak!to!peak) ever reported in the radiation belts. The estimated Poynting flux magnitude associated with this wave is ^300 mW/m2, roughly four orders of magnitude above estimates from previous satellite measurements. Such large Poynting flux values are consistent with rapid energization of electrons.

  10. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesenberger, M; Kendl, A

    2014-01-01

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line with conditions found in tokamak scrape-off-layers (SOL) regions. Varying the ion temperature, the initial blob width and the initial amplitude, we found an FLR dominated regime where the blob behavior is significantly different from what is predicted by cold-ion models. The transition to this regime is very well described by the ratio of the ion gyroradius to the characteristic gradient scale length of the blob. We compare the global gyrofluid model with a partly linearized local model. For low ion temperatures we find that simulations of the global model show more coherent blobs with an increased cross-field transport compared to blobs simulated with the local model. The maximal blob amplitude is significantly higher in ...

  11. Arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves in electronegative plasmas with electrons featuring Tsallis distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebache, Siham; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2017-10-01

    The problem of arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs), which accompany electronegative plasmas having positive ions, negative ions, and nonextensive electrons is addressed. The energy integral equation with a new Sagdeev potential is analyzed to examine the existence regions of the IASWs. Different types of electronegative plasmas inspired from the experimental studies of Ichiki et al. (2001) are discussed. Our results show that in such plasmas IASWs, the amplitude and nature of which depend sensitively on the mass and density ratio of the positive and negative ions as well as the q-nonextensive parameter, can exist. Interestingly, one finds that our plasma model supports the coexistence of smooth rarefactive and spiky compressive IASWs. Our results complement and provide new insights on previously published findings on this problem.

  12. Remarks on the parallel propagation of small-amplitude dispersive Alfvénic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Champeaux

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The envelope formalism for the description of a small-amplitude parallel-propagating Alfvén wave train is tested against direct numerical simulations of the Hall-MHD equations in one space dimension where kinetic effects are neglected. It turns out that the magnetosonic-wave dynamics departs from the adiabatic approximation not only near the resonance between the speed of sound and the Alfvén wave group velocity, but also when the speed of sound lies between the group and phase velocities of the Alfvén wave. The modulational instability then does not anymore affect asymptotically large scales and strong nonlinear effects can develop even in the absence of the decay instability. When the Hall-MHD equations are considered in the long-wavelength limit, the weakly nonlinear dynamics is accurately reproduced by the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation on the expected time scale, provided no decay instabilities are present. The stronger nonlinear regime which develops at later time is captured by including the coupling to the nonlinear dynamics of the magnetosonic waves.

  13. Effects of continuous-wave, pulsed, and sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated microwaves on brain energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A P; Joines, W T; Allis, J W

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the effects of continuous-wave, sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated, and pulsed square-wave-modulated 591-MHz microwave exposures on brain energy metabolism was made in male Sprague-Dawley rats (175-225 g). Brain NADH fluorescence, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration, and creatine phosphate (CP) concentration were determined as a function of modulation frequency. Brain temperatures of animals were maintained between -0.1 and -0.4 degrees C from the preexposure temperature when subjected to as much as 20 mW/cm2 (average power) CW, pulsed, or sinusoidal-amplitude modulated 591-MHz radiation for 5 min. Sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated exposures at 16-24 Hz showed a trend toward preferential modulation frequency response in inducing an increase in brain NADH fluorescence. The pulse-modulated and sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated (16 Hz) microwaves were not significantly different from CW exposures in inducing increased brain NADH fluorescence and decreased ATP and CP concentrations. When the pulse-modulation frequency was decreased from 500 to 250 pulses per second the average incident power density threshold for inducing an increase in brain NADH fluorescence increased by a factor of 4--ie, from about 0.45 to about 1.85 mW/cm2. Since brain temperature did not increase, the microwave-induced increase in brain NADH and decrease in ATP and CP concentrations was not due to hyperthermia. This suggests a direct interaction mechanism and is consistent with the hypothesis of microwave inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain function of ATP production.

  14. Identifying seismic noise sources and their amplitude from P wave microseisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Jennifer; Harmon, Nicholas; Srokosz, Meric

    2016-04-01

    Understanding sources of seismic noise is important for a range of applications including seismic imagery, time-lapse, and climate studies. For locating sources from seismic data, body waves offer an advantage over surface waves because they can reveal the distance to the source as well as direction. Studies have found that body waves do originate from regions predicted by models (Obrebski et al., 2013), where wave interaction intensity and site effect combine to produce the source (Ardhuin & Herbers, 2013). Here, we undertake a quantitative comparison between observed body wave microseisms and modelled sources- in terms of location, amplitude, and spectral shape- with the aim of understanding how well sources are observed and potentially what they reveal about the underlying ocean wavefield. We used seismic stations from the Southern California Seismic Network, and computed beamformer output as a function of time, frequency, slowness and azimuth. During winter months (October - mid March) the dominant arrivals at frequencies 0.18-0.22 Hz were P waves that originated from the North Pacific, whilst arrivals from the North Atlantic dominated at slightly lower frequencies of 0.16-0.18 Hz. Based on this, we chose to focus on P waves during winter, and back-projected the beamformer energy onto a global grid using P wave travel timetables (following Gerstoft et al., 2008). We modelled the seismic sources using Wavewatch III and site effect coefficients calculated following Ardhuin and Herbers (2013). We output the beamformer and the modelled sources on a 2° global grid averaged over 6 hour periods from September 2012 to September 2014, at seismic frequencies of 0.06 to 0.3 Hz. We then integrated the spectra over the full frequency range. Here we focus on results from the first winter in the North Pacific. Preliminary results indicate that the logarithm of the modelled source and the logarithm of the beamformer output are well described by a two-term exponential model

  15. Mode conversion of large-amplitude electromagnetic waves in relativistic critical density plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesch, T.C.; Kull, H.J. [Aachen Univ., Institute of Theoretical Physics A, RWTH (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The propagation of linearly polarized large-amplitude electromagnetic waves in critical density plasmas is studied in the framework of the Akiezer-Polovin model. A new mechanism of mode conversion is presented. The well-known periodic solutions are generalized to quasiperiodic solutions taking into account additional electrostatic oscillations. Nearly periodic circle-like solutions are found to be stabilized by intrinsic mode coupling whereas for nearly periodic eight-like solutions an effective mode conversion mechanism is discovered. Finally, the modulation timescales are considered. (authors)

  16. T wave amplitude in lead aVR as a novel diagnostic marker for cardiac sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Konno, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Shohei; Tsuda, Toyonobu; Sakata, Kenji; Furusho, Hiroshi; Takamura, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2017-03-01

    It is vital to identify cardiac involvement (CI) in patients with sarcoidosis as the condition could initially lead to sudden cardiac death. Although the T wave amplitude in lead aVR (TWAaVR) is reportedly associated with adverse cardiac events in various cardiovascular diseases, only scarce data are available concerning the utility of lead aVR in identifying CI in patients with sarcoidosis. We retrospectively investigated the diagnostic values of TWAaVR in patients with sarcoidosis in comparison with conventional electrocardiography parameters such as bundle branch block (BBB). From January 2006 to December 2014, 93 consecutive patients with sarcoidosis were enrolled (mean age, 55.7 ± 15.7 years; male, 31 %; cardiac involvement, n = 26). TWAaVR showed the greatest sensitivity (39 %) and specificity (92 %) in distinguishing between sarcoidosis patients with and without CI, at a cutoff value of -0.08 mV. The diagnostic value of BBB for cardiac involvement was significantly improved when combined with TWAaVR (sensitivity: 61-94 %, specificity: 97-89 %, area under the curve: 0.79-0.92, p = 0.018). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that TWAaVR and BBB were independent electrocardiography parameters associated with CI. In summary, we observed that sarcoidosis patients exhibiting a high TWAaVR were likely to have CI. Thus, the application of a combination of BBB with TWAaVR may be useful when screening for CI in sarcoidosis patients.

  17. Gamma distribution model describes maturational curves for delta wave amplitude, cortical metabolic rate and synaptic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, I; Thode, H C; Chugani, H T; March, J D

    1990-01-23

    We analyzed the available ontogenetic data (birth to 30 years of age) for: amplitude of delta EEG (DA) waves during sleep; cortical metabolic rate (CMR) measured with positron emission tomography; and synaptic density (SD) in frontal cortex. Each is at the adult level at birth, increases to about twice this level by 3 years of age, and then gradually falls back to the adult level over the next two decades. Statistical analyses revealed that individual gamma distribution models fit each data set as well as did the best ad hoc polynomial. A test of whether a single gamma distribution model could describe all three data sets gave good results for DA and CMR but the fit was unsatisfactory for SD. However, because so few data were available for SD, this test was not conclusive. We proposed the following model to account for these changes. First, cortical neurons are stimulated by birth to enter a proliferative state (PS) that creates many connections. Next, as a result of interactions in the PS, neurons are triggered into a transient organizational state (OS) in which they make enduring connections. The OS has a finite duration (minutes to years), and is characterized by high rates of information-processing and metabolism. Levels of CMR, SD and DA, therefore, are proportional to the number of neurons in the OS at any time. Thus, the cortex after birth duplicates, over a vastly greater time scale, the overproduction and regression of neural elements that occurs repeatedly in embryonic development. Finally, we discussed the implications of post-natal brain changes for normal and abnormal brain function. Mental disorders that have their onset after puberty (notably schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychoses) might be caused by errors in these late maturational processes. In addition to age of onset, this neurodevelopmental hypothesis might explain several other puzzling features of these subtle disorders.

  18. Heritability of Tpeak-Tend Interval and T-wave Amplitude: A Twin Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Vedel-Larsen, Esben;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Tpeak-Tend interval (TpTe) and T-wave amplitude (Tamp) carry diagnostic and prognostic information regarding cardiac morbidity and mortality. Heart rate and QT interval are known to be heritable traits. The heritability of T-wave morphology parameters such as TpTe and Tamp is unknown....... TpTe and Tamp were evaluated in a large sample of twins. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Twins from the GEMINAKAR study (611 pairs, 246 monozygotic, 365 dizygotic, aged 38±11 years, 49 % men) who had an ECG performed during 1997-2000 were included. Tamp was measured in leads V1 and V5. Duration variables (RR...... are heritable ECG parameters....

  19. Numerical studies of large-amplitude internal waves shoaling and breaking at shelf slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Øyvind; Berntsen, Jarle

    2009-12-01

    Hydro carbon fields beyond the shelf break are presently being explored and developed, which has increased the scientific focus in this area. Measurements from the slopes reveal large variability in temperature and velocity, and some of the observed events are due to interactions between large-amplitude oscillations of the thermocline and the topography. The present study focuses on the strong currents that are generated near the seabed during shoaling and breaking of internal waves along shelf slopes. The parameter regime used is similar to the one for the Nordic Seas. The results show that, during shoaling of large internal waves along (gentle) slopes, the energy is transferred towards smaller scales and strong velocities (over 1 m s - 1) can be generated. To resolve all scales involved is still not feasible, and therefore, the model results are sensitive to the grid size and the subgrid scale closure.

  20. A unitarity analysis on the I=2 $d$ wave $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; Zheng, H Q; Wang, Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    We study $d$ wave $\\pi\\pi$ scattering phase shift using a proper unitarization approach. It is verified that the $f_2(1270)$ resonance corresponds to a twin pole structure: one on the second sheet, another one on the third sheet. Also we find fair agreement on $f_2(1270)$ pole's mass and width between our results and the PDG values. Besides, our analysis reveals the existence of a virtual state in this channel. Its pole location is determined by fitting experimental data and it is found to be in good agreement with the prediction from chiral perturbation theory. Our analysis demonstrates that partial wave amplitudes calculated in chiral perturbation theory are reliable in the small $|s|$ region, contrary to some unitarization models.

  1. Identifying nonlinear wave interactions in plasmas using two-point measurements a case study of Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Dudok de Wit, T; Dunlop, M; Luehr, H

    1999-01-01

    A framework is described for estimating Linear growth rates and spectral energy transfers in turbulent wave-fields using two-point measurements. This approach, which is based on Volterra series, is applied to dual satellite data gathered in the vicinity of the Earth's bow shock, where Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) supposedly play a leading role. The analysis attests the dynamic evolution of the SLAMS and reveals an energy cascade toward high-frequency waves.

  2. Probing phase of a scattering amplitude beyond the plane-wave approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Karlovets, Dmitry V

    2016-01-01

    Within a plane-wave approach, a number of scattering events in a generic collision process is insensitive to an overall complex phase of a transition amplitude, although this phase is extremely important for a number of problems, especially in hadronic physics at the LHC energies. In reality, however, the particles are better described as localized wave packets with the mean momenta $p$, their uncertainties $\\sigma$, and here we show that the observables grow dependent upon this phase if one lays aside the simplified plane-wave model. A relative contribution of the phase to the cross section is generally attenuated by a small factor $\\sigma^2/p^2 \\ll 1$, making its experimental measurement a rather challenging task. We discuss two methods for probing how this phase changes with the transferred momentum $t$, either by colliding two beams at a non-zero impact-parameter (say, $pp \\rightarrow X$) or by employing the states with the non-trivial wave functions, for instance, vortex particles carrying orbital angula...

  3. Arbitrary amplitude solitary and shock waves in an unmagnetized quantum dusty electron-positron-ion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, M. R.; Akbarian, A.; Mohammadi, Z. [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, P. O. Box 1993891176, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The behavior of quantum dust ion acoustic soliton and shocks in a plasma including inertialess quantum electrons and positrons, classical cold ions, and stationary negative dust grains are studied, using arbitrary amplitude approach. The effect of dissipation due to viscosity of ions is taken into account. The numerical analysis of Sagdeev potential for small value of quantum diffraction parameter (H) shows that for chosen plasma, only compressive solitons can exist and the existence domain of this type of solitons is decreased by increasing dust density (d). Additionally, the possibility of propagation of both subsonic and supersonic compressive solitons is investigated. It is shown that there is a critical dust density above which only supersonic solitons are observed. Moreover, increasing d leads to a reduction in the existence domain of compressive solitons and the possibility of propagation of rarefactive soliton is provided. So, rarefactive solitons are observed only due to the presence of dust particles in this model quantum plasma. Furthermore, numerical solution of governed equations for arbitrary amplitude shock waves has been investigated. It is shown that only compressive large amplitude shocks can propagate. Finally, the effects of plasma parameters on these structures are investigated. This research will be helpful in understanding the properties of dense astrophysical (i.e., white dwarfs and neutron stars) and laboratory dusty plasmas.

  4. Vector network analyzer measurement of the amplitude of an electrically excited surface acoustic wave and validation by X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, I. S.; Croset, B.; Largeau, L.; Rovillain, P.; Thevenard, L.; Duquesne, J.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves are used in magnetism to initiate magnetization switching, in microfluidics to control fluids and particles in lab-on-a-chip devices, and in quantum systems like two-dimensional electron gases, quantum dots, photonic cavities, and single carrier transport systems. For all these applications, an easy tool is highly needed to measure precisely the acoustic wave amplitude in order to understand the underlying physics and/or to optimize the device used to generate the acoustic waves. We present here a method to determine experimentally the amplitude of surface acoustic waves propagating on Gallium Arsenide generated by an interdigitated transducer. It relies on Vector Network Analyzer measurements of S parameters and modeling using the Coupling-Of-Modes theory. The displacements obtained are in excellent agreement with those measured by a very different method based on X-ray diffraction measurements.

  5. Adhesive bond strength evaluation in composite materials by laser-generated high amplitude ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perton, M.; Blouin, A.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of composites laminates is highly efficient but is not used for joining primary aircraft structures, since there is presently no nondestructive inspection technique to ensure the quality of the bond. We are developing a technique based on the propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves to evaluate the adhesive bond strength. Large amplitude compression waves are generated by a short pulse powerful laser under water confinement and are converted after reflection by the assembly back surface into tensile waves. The resulting tensile stresses can cause a delamination inside the laminates or at the bond interfaces. The adhesion strength is evaluated by increasing the laser pulse energy until disbond. A good bond is unaffected by a certain level of stress whereas a weaker one is damaged. The method is shown completely non invasive throughout the whole composite assembly. The sample back surface velocity is measured by an optical interferometer and used to estimate stress history inside the sample. The depth and size of the disbonds are revealed by a post-test inspection by the well established laser-ultrasonic technique. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to differentiate weak bond from strong bonds and to estimate quantitatively their bond strength.

  6. Large Amplitude Whistler Waves and Electron Acceleration in the Earth's Radiation Belts: A Review of STEREO and Wind Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, Cynthia; Breneman, A.; Goetz, K.; Kellogg, P.; Kersten, K.; Wygant, J.; Wilson, L. B., III; Looper, Mark D.; Blake, J. Bernard; Roth, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the critical problems for understanding the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts is determining the physical processes that energize and scatter relativistic electrons. We review measurements from the Wind/Waves and STEREO S/Waves waveform capture instruments of large amplitude whistler-mode waves. These observations have provided strong evidence that large amplitude (100s mV/m) whistler-mode waves are common during magnetically active periods. The large amplitude whistlers have characteristics that are different from typical chorus. They are usually nondispersive and obliquely propagating, with a large longitudinal electric field and significant parallel electric field. We will also review comparisons of STEREO and Wind wave observations with SAMPEX observations of electron microbursts. Simulations show that the waves can result in energization by many MeV and/or scattering by large angles during a single wave packet encounter due to coherent, nonlinear processes including trapping. The experimental observations combined with simulations suggest that quasilinear theoretical models of electron energization and scattering via small-amplitude waves, with timescales of hours to days, may be inadequate for understanding radiation belt dynamics.

  7. Method for generation of THz frequency radiation and sensing of large amplitude material strain waves in piezoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Evan J.; Armstrong, Michael R.

    2010-09-07

    Strain waves of THz frequencies can coherently generate radiation when they propagate past an interface between materials with different piezoelectric coefficients. Such radiation is of detectable amplitude and contains sufficient information to determine the time-dependence of the strain wave with unprecedented subpicosecond, nearly atomic time and space resolution.

  8. High CW power, phase and amplitude modulatorrealized with fast ferrite phase-shifters

    CERN Document Server

    Valuch, D

    2004-01-01

    Superconducting cavity resonators are suffering from detuning effects caused by high internal electromagnetic fields (Lorentz force detuning). For classical resonators working with continuous wave signals, this detuning is static and compensated by the slow mechanical tuning system. However, pulsing of superconducting cavities, an operational mode only recently considered, results in dynamic detuning effects. New ways to handle this effect have to be found and worked out. A way to supply several superconducting cavities in the particle accelerator by one large transmitter while keeping the possibility of controlling the field in each individual cavity is shown. By introducing a fast phase and amplitude modulator into each cavity feeder line, the individual deviations of each cavity with respect to the average can be compensated in order to equalize their behaviour for the main control loop, which will compensate the global detuning of all cavities. Several types of phase and amplitude modulators suitable for ...

  9. Fundamental study on subharmonic imaging by irradiation of amplitude-modulated ultrasound waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikusa, Norihide; Fukami, Tadanori; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Tamura, Yasutaka; Akatsuka, Takao

    2007-07-01

    The second harmonic and subharmonic components, the frequencies of which are twice and one half the fundamental frequency, are included in echoes from contrast agents. An imaging method, which employs a second harmonic (second harmonic imaging), is widely used in medical diagnoses. On the other hand, subharmonic is expected to provide a higher contrast between biological tissues and blood flow because echo signals are generated only from blood containing the contrast agents. However, the subharmonic component echo signal power from contrast agents is relatively low. This has resulted in little progress in the field of subharmonic imaging. In this study, a new imaging method is proposed using amplitude-modulated waves as transmitted waves combined with the pulse inversion method to enhance subharmonic echo signals. Two optimal frequencies are set, including the modulated waves, F(1) and F(2), so that the subharmonic frequency of F(1) and the second harmonic frequency of F(2) may result in the same value. This allows a more powerful signal at the frequency band because the second harmonic and subharmonic components are integrated. Furthermore, a B-mode ultrasound image of an agar phantom that imitated biological tissue and showed the effectiveness of our method was reconstructed. As a result, the echo power of the subharmonic component was enhanced by approximately 11.8 dB more than the conventional method and the signal to noise ratio showed an improvement of 7.6 dB.

  10. Estimation of Tsunami Arrival Time and Maximum Tsunami Wave Amplitude for Rakhine Coast, Myanmar using the TUNAMI F1 Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIN Htwe, Y. M.

    2016-12-01

    Myanmar has suffered many times from earthquake disasters and four times from tsunamis according to historical data. The purpose of this study is to estimate the tsunami arrival time and maximum tsunami wave amplitude for the Rakhine coast of Myanmar using the TUNAMI F1 model. In this study I calculate the tsunami arrival time and maximum tsunami wave amplitude based on a tsunamigenic earthquake source of moment magnitude 8.5 in the Arakan subduction zone off the west-coast of Myanmar, using the TUNAMI F1 model, selecting eight points on Rakhine coast. The model result indicates that the tsunami waves would first hit Kyaukpyu on the Rakhine coast about 0.05 minutes after the onset of a magnitude 8.5 earthquake, and the maximum tsunami wave amplitude would be 2.37 meters.

  11. Focused Wave Properties Based on A High Order Spectral Method with A Non-Periodic Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金宣; 柳淑学

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical model is developed based on the High Order Spectral (HOS) method with a non-periodic boundary. A wave maker boundary condition is introduced to simulate wave generation at the incident boundary in the HOS method. Based on the numerical model, the effects of wave parameters, such as the assumed focused amplitude, the central frequency, the frequency bandwidth, the wave amplitude distribution and the directional spreading on the surface elevation of the focused wave, the maximum generated wave crest, and the shifting of the focusing point, are numerically investigated. Especially, the effects of the wave directionality on the focused wave properties are emphasized. The numerical results show that the shifting of the focusing point and the maximum crest of the wave group are dependent on the amplitude of the focused wave, the central frequency, and the wave amplitude distribution type. The wave directionality has a definite effect on multidirectional focused waves. Generally, it can even out the difference between the simulated wave amplitude and the amplitude expected from theory and reduce the shifting of the focusing points, implying that the higher order interaction has an influence on wave focusing, especially for 2D wave. In 3D wave groups, a broader directional spreading weakens the higher nonlinear interactions.

  12. Large-amplitude internal waves sustain coral health during thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Wall, Marlene; Taylor, Marc; Jantzen, Carin; Richter, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Ocean warming is a major threat for coral reefs causing widespread coral bleaching and mortality. Potential refugia are thus crucial for coral survival. Exposure to large-amplitude internal waves (LAIW) mitigated heat stress and ensured coral survival and recovery during and after an extreme heat anomaly. The physiological status of two common corals, Porites lutea and Pocillopora meandrina, was monitored in host and symbiont traits, in response to LAIW-exposure throughout the unprecedented 2010 heat anomaly in the Andaman Sea. LAIW-exposed corals of both species survived and recovered, while LAIW-sheltered corals suffered partial and total mortality in P. lutea and P. meandrina, respectively. LAIW are ubiquitous in the tropics and potentially generate coral refuge areas. As thermal stress to corals is expected to increase in a warming ocean, the mechanisms linking coral bleaching to ocean dynamics will be crucial to predict coral survival on a warming planet.

  13. Large-Amplitude Transmitter-Associated and Lightning-Associated Whistler Waves in the Earth's Inner Plasmasphere at L less than 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L. B., III; Schreiner, S.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report observations of very large amplitude whistler mode waves in the Earth fs nightside inner radiation belt enabled by the STEREO Time Domain Sampler. Amplitudes range from 30.110 mV/m (zero ]peak), 2 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than previously observed in this region. Measurements from the peak electric field detector (TDSMax) indicate that these large ]amplitude waves are prevalent throughout the plasmasphere. A detailed examination of high time resolution electric field waveforms is undertaken on a subset of these whistlers at L 100 keV) electrons on a time scale of <1 s and thus may be an important previously unaccounted for source of energization or pitch ]angle scattering in the inner radiation belt.

  14. Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of large-amplitude, parallel, electrostatic waves associated with magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Holmes, J. C.; Goodrich, K. A.; Wilder, F. D.; Stawarz, J. E.; Eriksson, S.; Newman, D. L.; Schwartz, S. J.; Goldman, M. V.; Sturner, A. P.; Malaspina, D. M.; Usanova, M. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Burch, J. L.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. J. C.; Avanov, L.; Hesse, M.; Chen, L. J.; Lavraud, B.; Le Contel, O.; Retino, A.; Phan, T. D.; Eastwood, J. P.; Oieroset, M.; Drake, J.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P. A.; Nakamura, R.; Zhou, M.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; André, M.

    2016-06-01

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites of large-amplitude, parallel, electrostatic waves associated with magnetic reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause. The observed waves have parallel electric fields (E||) with amplitudes on the order of 100 mV/m and display nonlinear characteristics that suggest a possible net E||. These waves are observed within the ion diffusion region and adjacent to (within several electron skin depths) the electron diffusion region. They are in or near the magnetosphere side current layer. Simulation results support that the strong electrostatic linear and nonlinear wave activities appear to be driven by a two stream instability, which is a consequence of mixing cold (plasma in the magnetosphere with warm (~100 eV) plasma from the magnetosheath on a freshly reconnected magnetic field line. The frequent observation of these waves suggests that cold plasma is often present near the magnetopause.

  15. Characterization of Regular Wave, Irregular Wave, and Large-Amplitude Wave Group Kinematics in an Experimental Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    and experimental measurements were also made by Graw (1994), Stansberg, et al. (1996), Grue and Jensen (2006), Hennig, et al. (2006), and Clauss...Goda, Y. (1976), "On Wave Groups," Proc. 1st Intl. Conf. on the Behavior of Offshore Structures, Trondheim, Norway, pp. 1 15-128. Graw , K..-U. (1994

  16. Injection coupling with high amplitude transverse modes: Experimentation and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mery, Yoann; Ducruix, Sébastien; Scouflaire, Philippe; Candel, Sébastien

    2009-06-01

    High frequency combustion instabilities have technical importance in the design of liquid rocket engines. These phenomena involve a strong coupling between transverse acoustic modes and combustion. They are currently being investigated by combining experimentation and numerical simulations. On the experimental level, the coupling is examined in a model scale system featuring a multiple injector combustor (MIC) comprising five coaxial injectors fed with liquid oxygen and gaseous methane. This system is equipped with a novel VHAM actuator (Very High Amplitude Modulator) which comprises two nozzles and a rotating toothed wheel blocking the nozzles in an alternate fashion. This device was designed to obtain the highest possible levels of transverse oscillation in the MIC. After a brief review of the VHAM, this article reports cold flow experiments using this modulator. Velocity maps obtained under resonant conditions using the VHAM are examined at different instants during a cycle of oscillation. Experimental data are compared with numerical pressure and velocity fields obtained from an acoustic solver. The good agreement observed in the nozzle vicinity indicates that numerical simulations can be used to analyze the complex flow field generated by the VHAM. To cite this article: Y. Mery et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  17. Time-domain hybrid method for simulating large amplitude motions of ships advancing in waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical results obtained by a newly developed, nonlinear time domain hybrid method for simulating large amplitude motions of ships advancing with constant forward speed in waves are presented. The method is hybrid in the way of combining a time-domain transient Green function method and a Rankine source method. The present approach employs a simple double integration algorithm with respect to time to simulate the free-surface boundary condition. During the simulation, the diffraction and radiation forces are computed by pressure integration over the mean wetted surface, whereas the incident wave and hydrostatic restoring forces/moments are calculated on the instantaneously wetted surface of the hull. Typical numerical results of application of the method to the seakeeping performance of a standard containership, namely the ITTC S175, are herein presented. Comparisons have been made between the results from the present method, the frequency domain 3D panel method (NEWDRIFT of NTUA-SDL and available experimental data and good agreement has been observed for all studied cases between the results of the present method and comparable other data.

  18. Structure of the Particle-Hole Amplitudes in No-core Shell Model Wave Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2009-01-01

    We study the structure of the no-core shell model wave functions for $^6$Li and $^{12}$C by investigating the ground state and first excited state electron scattering charge form factors. In both nuclei, large particle-hole ($ph$) amplitudes in the wave functions appear with the opposite sign to that needed to reproduce the shape of the $(e,e')$ form factors, the charge radii, and the B(E2) values for the lowest two states. The difference in sign appears to arise mainly from the monopole $\\Delta\\hbar\\omega=2$ matrix elements of the kinetic and potential energy (T+V) that transform under the harmonic oscillator SU(3) symmetries as $(\\lambda,\\mu)=(2,0)$. These are difficult to determine self-consistently, but they have a strong effect on the structure of the low-lying states and on the giant monopole and quadrupole resonances. The Lee-Suzuki transformation, used to account for the restricted nature of the space in terms of an effective interaction, introduces large higher-order $\\Delta\\hbar\\omega=n, n>$2, $ph$ ...

  19. Arbitrary amplitude kinetic Alfven solitary waves in two temperature electron superthermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh Saini, Nareshpal; Ghai, Yashika

    2016-07-01

    Through various satellite missions it is observed that superthermal velocity distribution for particles is more appropriate for describing space and astrophysical plasmas. So it is appropriate to use superthermal distribution, which in the limiting case when spectral index κ is very large ( i.e. κ→∞), shifts to Maxwellian distribution. Two temperature electron plasmas have been observed in auroral regions by FAST satellite mission, and also by GEOTAIL and POLAR satellite in the magnetosphere. Kinetic Alfven waves arise when finite Larmor radius effect modifies the dispersion relation or characteristic perpendicular wavelength is comparable to electron inertial length. We have studied the kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in a plasma comprising of positively charged ions, superthermal hot electrons and Maxwellian distributed cold electrons. Sagdeev pseudo-potential has been employed to derive an energy balance equation. The critical Mach number has been determined from the expression of Sagdeev pseudo-potential to see the existence of solitary structures. It is observed that sub-Alfvenic compressive solitons and super-Alfvenic rarefactive solitons exist in this plasma model. It is also observed that various parameters such as superthermality of hot electrons, relative concentration of cold and hot electron species, Mach number, plasma beta, ion to cold electron temperature ratio and ion to hot electron temperature ratio have significant effect on the amplitude and width of the KAWs. Findings of this investigation may be useful to understand the dynamics of coherent non-linear structures (i.e. KAWs) in space and astrophysical plasmas.

  20. High Amplitude (delta)-Scutis in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garg, A; Cook, K H; Nikolaev, S; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Becker, A C; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Miknaitis, G; Minniti, D; Morelli, L; Olsen, K; Prieto, J L; Suntzeff, N B; Welch, D L; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2010-01-01

    ... (LMC) by the SuperMACHO survey (Rest et al. 2005). Frequency analyses of these candidates reveal that several are multimode pulsators, including 119 whose largest amplitude of pulsation is in the fundamental (F...

  1. Direct Evaluation of Transition Amplitude Using Determinant of Wave Operator in One-Dimensional Potential Scattering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Itsuki Banno; Kazumi Fujima

    2007-01-01

    A determinantal formula is developed for direct evaluation of transition amplitude without solving the wave equation in a one-dimensional potential scattering system. Our formulation is based on the principle that a desired quantity can be extracted from the wave operator, which is the master operator maintaining all the information of the system. This principle is tested in a simplified system, I.e., in a one-dimensional potential scattering system. We are now developing a formula for direct evaluation of near-field amplitude to design a system, in which local Geld enhancement is desired.

  2. Relationship between partial wave amplitudes and polarization observables in pp --> dπ+ and πd --> πd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankleider, B.; Afnan, I. R.

    1985-04-01

    The polarization observables of the reactions parrow parrow --> π+d, parrowp --> darrowπ+, and πdarrow --> πdarrow are investigated. Expressions relating these observables directly to (LSJ) partial wave amplitudes are derived and tabulations of the partial wave contributions are given for some of the observables. Examples are given of how such tabulations can be useful for optimizing the connection between theory and experiment and in suggesting possible new experiments. All observables are also calculated numerically using a unitary few-body model of the NN-πNN system to generate the amplitudes. Sensitivity to the choice of P11 interaction is investigated.

  3. Relationship between partial wave amplitudes and polarization observables in pp. -->. d. pi. /sup +/ and. pi. d. -->. pi. d

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankleider, B.; Afnan, I.R.

    1985-04-01

    The polarization observables of the reactions parrow parrow ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/d, parrowp ..-->.. darrow..pi../sup +/, and ..pi..darrow ..-->.. ..pi..darrow are investigated. Expressions relating these observables directly to (LSJ) partial wave amplitudes are derived and tabulations of the partial wave contributions are given for some of the observables. Examples are given of how such tabulations can be useful for optimizing the connection between theory and experiment and in suggesting possible new experiments. All observables are also calculated numerically using a unitary few-body model of the NN-..pi..NN system to generate the amplitudes. Sensitivity to the choice of P/sub 11/ interaction is investigated.

  4. Prediction of maximum P- and S-wave amplitude distributions incorporating frequency- and distance-dependent characteristics of the observed apparent radiation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Manabu; Yoshimoto, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Frequency-dependent model of the apparent radiation pattern has been extensively incorporated into engineering and scientific applications for high-frequency seismic waves, but distance-dependent properties have not yet been fully taken into account. We investigated the unified characteristics of frequency and distance dependences in both apparent P- and S-wave radiation patterns during local crustal earthquakes. Observed distortions of the apparent P- and S-wave radiation patterns could be simply modeled by using a function of the normalized hypocentral distance, which is a product of the wave number and hypocentral distance. This behavior suggests that major cause of distortion of the apparent radiation pattern is seismic wave scattering and diffraction within the heterogeneous crust. On the basis of observed normalized hypocentral distance dependency, we proposed a method for prediction of spatial distributions of maximum P- and S-wave amplitudes. Our method incorporating normalized hypocentral distance dependence of the apparent radiation pattern reproduced the observed spatial distributions of maximum P- and S-wave amplitudes over a wide frequency and distance ranges successfully.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. An extended numerical calibration method for an electrochemical probe in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The calibrating method for an electrochemical probe, neglecting the effect of the normal velocity on the mass transport, can cause large errors when applied to the measurement of wall shear rates in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves. An extended calibrating method is developed to consider the contributions of the normal velocity. The inclusion of the turbulence-induced normal velocity term is found to have a negligible effect on the mass transfer coefficient. The contribution of the wave-induced normal velocity can be classified on the dimensionless parameter, V. If V is above a critical value of V, V{sub crit}, the effects of the wave-induced normal velocity become larger with an increase in V. While its effects negligible for inversely. The present inverse method can predict the unknown shear rate more accurately in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves than the previous method. 18 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  6. High sensitive detection of high-order partial wave scattering in photoassociation of ultralcold atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yu-Qing; Ma Jie; Wu Ji-Zhou; Zhang Yi-Chi; Zhao Yan-Ting; Wang Li-Rong; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2012-01-01

    We report on the observation of enhanced high-order partial wave scattering from atom-atom interaction via changing the temperature of a magneto-optical trap in the process of photoassociation. The high-order scattering partial wave is directly manifested through the large signal amplitude of the rovibrational resonance levels of trap-loss spectroscopy from photoassociation.

  7. The High Amplitude delta Scuti Star AD Canis Minoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, R. A.; Napier-Munn, T.

    2016-12-01

    The high amplitude delta Scuti star AD Canis Minoris was studied by photoelectric photometry (PEP) during one night in in February 2011 and by digital single lens reflex (DSLR) photometry during seven nights in January and February 2016. Nine light curve peaks were captured, eight of them by DSLR photometry. A review of the literature enabled us to tabulate 109 times of maximum since 1959, to which we added 9 times of maximum from our data, thus creating the largest dataset to date for this star. Assuming a linear ephemeris, the period of AD CMi was calculated to be 0.122974511 (+/- 0.000000004) d, almost identical to that quoted in earlier literature. We constructed an observed minus computed (O-C) diagram which exhibited a quasi-sinusoidal shape, and fitted a weighted model characterised by combined quadratic and trigonometric functions. The fit indicates that the shape of the O-C diagram is attributable to the effects of a slow increase in the pulsation period of AD CMi at a constant rate, and the light time effect of a binary pair, confirming the results from previous authors, and updating most of the coefficients of the equation for the fitted model. The values of all of the coefficients in the function are statistically significant. The rate of increase in the pulsation period of AD CMi was calculated from the entire dataset to be dP/dt = 6.17 (+/- 0.75) x 10-9 d yr-1 or dP/Pdt = 5.01 (+/- 0.61) x 10-8 yr-1.

  8. Experimental investigation of the generation of large-amplitude internal solitary wave and its interaction with a submerged slender body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gang; Du, Hui; Xu, XiaoHui; Zhang, YuanMing; Qu, ZiYun; Hu, TianQun; You, YunXiang

    2014-01-01

    A principle of generating the nonlinear large-amplitude internal wave in a stratified fluid tank with large cross-section is proposed according to the `jalousie' control mode. A new wave-maker based on the principle was manufactured and the experiments on the generation and evolution of internal solitary wave were conducted. Both the validity of the new device and applicability range of the KdV-type internal soliton theory were tested. Furthermore, a measurement technique of hydrodynamic load of internal waves was developed. By means of accurately measuring slight variations of internal wave forces exerted on a slender body in the tank, their interaction characteristics were determined. It is shown that through establishing the similarity between the model scale in the stratified fluid tank and the full scale in the numerical simulation the obtained measurement results of internal wave forces are confirmed to be correct.

  9. Stabilization of triadic resonance of a finite amplitude gravity wave in the ocean : when a daughter wave is engaged with two fiancés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Ortiz, Sabine; Lerisson, Gaétan

    2016-11-01

    Triadic instability is a very generic mechanism by which a primary wave of finite amplitude is destabilized by two secondary (daugther) waves forming a resonant triad. For gravity wave in the ocean, as shown by Phillips, O.M. (CUP, 1967) the resonant triads form several continuous family that may be represented in twodimension (2D) as resonant lines in the 2D wave vector space of the secondary wave. We show here that the crossing of two od these branches may results in a double triadic instability where the instability is reduced. Building on McEwan, A.D. & Plumb, R.A. (Dyn. Atm. & Oceans, 1977) we show that this double triadic instability stabilization domain expends from a singular point to a finite significant region when the amplitude of the primary wave is increased. Comparison with direct computation of the instability branches shows that, from very small to order unity primary wave amplitude, the theoretical prediction stay valid and is able to explain the strong departure from the classical triadic instability theory. Support by DGA is acknowledged.

  10. Automated determination of magnitude and source length of large earthquakes using backprojection and P wave amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dun; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Zhuang, Jiancang; Mori, Jim; Maeda, Takuto; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Zhao, Xu

    2017-06-01

    Fast estimates of magnitude and source extent of large earthquakes are fundamental for disaster mitigation. However, resolving these estimates within 10-20 min after origin time remains challenging. Here we propose a robust algorithm to resolve magnitude and source length of large earthquakes using seismic data recorded by regional arrays and global stations. We estimate source length and source duration by backprojecting seismic array data. Then the source duration and the maximum amplitude of the teleseismic P wave displacement waveforms are used jointly to estimate magnitude. We apply this method to 74 shallow earthquakes that occurred within epicentral distances of 30-85° to Hi-net (2004-2014). The estimated magnitudes are similar to moment magnitudes estimated from W-phase inversions (U.S. Geological Survey), with standard deviations of 0.14-0.19 depending on the global station distributions. Application of this method to multiple regional seismic arrays could benefit tsunami warning systems and emergency response to large global earthquakes.

  11. Continuity and asymptotic behaviors for a shallow water wave model with moderate amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shouming; Qiao, Zhijun; Mu, Chunlai; Wei, Long

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study continuity and persistence for a nonlinear evolution equation describing the free surface of shallow water wave with a moderate amplitude, which was proposed by Constantin and Lannes [7]. By the approach for approximate solutions and well-posedness estimates, we obtain two sequences of solution for Constantin-Lannes equation, which are bounded in the Sobolev space Hs (R) with s > 3 / 2, and the distance between the two sequences is lower-bounded by a positive constant for any time t, but converges to zero at the initial time. This implies that the solution map is not uniformly continuous. Furthermore, the solution map for Constantin-Lannes equation is shown Hölder-continuous in Hr-topology for all 0 ≤ r < s with exponent α depending on s and r. In addition, we also investigate the asymptotic behaviors of the strong solutions to Constantin-Lannes equation at infinity within its lifespan provided the initial data in weighted Lϕp : =Lp (R ,ϕp dx) spaces.

  12. Thermal Mechanisms for High Amplitude Aerodynamic Flow Control (YIP 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    employed to generate shear layer profiles. Two access holes are drilled in the tunnel sidewalls to provide a path for laser beam. The holes were...observed for the ns- DBD plasma case. The laser -induced wave strength at short delay can exceed four times that of the ns-DBD case. The laser wave...energy deposition for mixing layer excitation. Figure 52 shows the response of the mixing layer to Nd:YAG laser energy deposition. The time trace

  13. Numerical modeling study of the momentum deposition of small amplitude gravity waves in the thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the momentum deposition in the thermosphere from the dissipation of small amplitude gravity waves (GWs within a wave packet using a fully nonlinear two-dimensional compressible numerical model. The model solves the nonlinear propagation and dissipation of a GW packet from the stratosphere into the thermosphere with realistic molecular viscosity and thermal diffusivity for various Prandtl numbers. The numerical simulations are performed for GW packets with initial vertical wavelengths (λz ranging from 5 to 50 km. We show that λz decreases in time as a GW packet dissipates in the thermosphere, in agreement with the ray trace results of Vadas and Fritts (2005 (VF05. We also find good agreement for the peak height of the momentum flux (zdiss between our simulations and VF05 for GWs with initial λz ≤ 2π H in an isothermal, windless background, where H is the density scale height. We also confirm that zdiss increases with increasing Prandtl number. We include eddy diffusion in the model, and find that the momentum deposition occurs at lower altitudes and has two separate peaks for GW packets with small initial λz. We also simulate GW packets in a non-isothermal atmosphere. The net λz profile is a competition between its decrease from viscosity and its increase from the increasing background temperature. We find that the wave packet disperses more in the non-isothermal atmosphere, and causes changes to the momentum flux and λz spectra at both early and late times for GW packets with initial λz ≥ 10 km. These effects are caused by the increase in T in the thermosphere, and the decrease in T near the mesopause.

  14. Resonance of a Metal Drop under the Effect of Amplitude-Modulated High Frequency Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiahong; Lei, Zuosheng; Zhu, Hongda; Zhang, Lijie; Magnetic Hydrodynamics(Siamm) Team; Magnetic Mechanics; Engineering(Smse) Team

    2016-11-01

    The resonance of a sessile and a levitated drop under the effect of high frequency amplitude-modulated magnetic field (AMMF) is investigated experimentally and numerically. It is a new method to excite resonance of a metal drop, which is different from the case in the presence of a low-frequency magnetic field. The transient contour of the drop is obtained in the experiment and the simulation. The numerical results agree with the experimental results fairly well. At a given frequency and magnetic flux density of the high frequency AMMF, the edge deformations of the drop with an azimuthal wave numbers were excited. A stability diagram of the shape oscillation of the drop and its resonance frequency spectrum are obtained by analysis of the experimental and the numerical data. The results show that the resonance of the drop has a typical character of parametric resonance. The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51274237 and 11372174).

  15. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Abadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group. Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V than did the control group (P=0.001. These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001; however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001. The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients’ improvement after treatment.

  16. Investigation of beat-waves generation with high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Shi, Y. C.; Deng, Y. Q.; Zhu, X. X.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Hu, X. G.

    2013-10-01

    A method for generating high power beating radio-frequency wave with high conversion efficiency is proposed. Based on Cherenkov radiation, two longitudinal resonant modes are excited simultaneously and interacted with intense electron beam synchronously. An experiment was carried out and beat-waves with an average power of about 2.3 GW, frequencies of 9.29 GHz and 10.31 GHz, and efficiency of about 40% were obtained. Through controlling the electron energy, the amplitude proportions of the two resonant modes are altered, and different beat-wave patterns are formed.

  17. Investigation of beat-waves generation with high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, W.; Shi, Y. C.; Deng, Y. Q.; Zhu, X. X.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Hu, X. G. [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an, Shanxi 710024 (China)

    2013-10-21

    A method for generating high power beating radio-frequency wave with high conversion efficiency is proposed. Based on Cherenkov radiation, two longitudinal resonant modes are excited simultaneously and interacted with intense electron beam synchronously. An experiment was carried out and beat-waves with an average power of about 2.3 GW, frequencies of 9.29 GHz and 10.31 GHz, and efficiency of about 40% were obtained. Through controlling the electron energy, the amplitude proportions of the two resonant modes are altered, and different beat-wave patterns are formed.

  18. Small-amplitude shock waves and double layers in dusty plasmas with opposite polarity charged dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amina, M.; Ema, S. A.; Mamun, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma whose constituents are massive, micron-sized, positive and negatively charged inertial dust grains along with q (nonextensive) distributed electrons and ions. The reductive perturbation method is employed in order to derive two types of nonlinear dynamical equations, namely, Burgers equation and modified Gardner equation (Gardner equation with dissipative term). They are also numerically analyzed to investigate the basic features (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of shock waves and double layers. It has been observed that the effects of nonextensivity, opposite polarity charged dust grains, and different dusty plasma parameters have significantly modified the fundamental properties of shock waves and double layers. The results of this investigation may be used for researches of the nonlinear wave propagation in laboratory and space plasmas.

  19. A Novel Algorithm for Extracting the Parton Distribution Amplitude from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter Wave Function

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Yu-xin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new numerical method to compute parton distribution amplitude(PDA) from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter wave function. The essential step is to extract the weight function in the Nakanishi representation of the Bethe-Salpeter wave function in Euclidean space, which is an ill-posed inversion problem, via the maximum entropy method(MEM). The Nakanishi weight function as well as the corresponding light-front PDA can be well determined. We confirm the previous works on PDA computation therein the different method has been performed.

  20. A new method of testing pile using dynamic P-S-curve made by amplitude of wave train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡毅力; 许峻; 段永康; 许昭永; 杨润海; 赵晋明

    2004-01-01

    A new method of detecting the vertical bearing capacity for single-pile with high strain is discussed in this paper. A heavy hammer or a small type of rocket is used to strike the pile top and the detectors are used to record vibration graphs. An expression of higher degree of strain (deformation force) is introduced. It is testified theoretically that the displacement, velocity and acceleration cannot be obtained by simple integral acceleration and differential velocity when long displacement and high strain exist, namely when the pile phase generates a whole slip relative to the soil body. That is to say that there are non-linear relations between them. It is educed accordingly that the force P and displacement S are calculated from the amplitude of wave train and (dynamic) P-S curve is drew so as to determine the yield points. Further, a method of determining the vertical bearing capacity for single-pile is discussed. A static load test is utilized to check the result of dynamic test and determine the correlative constants of dynamic-static P(Q)-S curve.

  1. Effect of phase coupling on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Nonlinear features of wind generated surface waves are considered here to be caused by nonrandomness (non-Uniform) in the phase spectrum. Nonrandomness in recorded waves, if present, would be generally obscured within the error level of observations...

  2. A Fundamental Wave Amplitude Prediction Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Neural Network for Harmonic Elimination of Electric Arc Furnace Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjun Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnace (EAF causes the harmonics to impact on the supply network greatly and harmonic elimination is a very important research work for the power quality associated with EAF. In the paper, a fundamental wave amplitude prediction algorithm based on fuzzy neural network for harmonic elimination of EAF current is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses the learning ability of the neural network to refine Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules and the inputs are the average of the current measured value in different time intervals. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, some experiments are performed to compare the proposed algorithm with the back-propagation neural networks, and the field data collected at an EAF are used in the experiments. Moreover, the measured amplitudes of fundamental waves of field data are obtained by the sliding-window-based discrete Fourier transform on the field data. The experiments results show that the proposed algorithm has higher precision. The real curves also verify that the amplitude of fundamental wave current could be predicted accurately and the harmonic elimination of EAF would be realized based on the proposed algorithm.

  3. Research on High Frequency Amplitude Attenuation of Electric Fast Transient Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the amplitude attenuation of electric fast transient (EFT generator operating in high frequency, the charging and discharging process of energy storage capacitor in EFT generator are analyzed, the main circuit voltage variation mathematical model is established, the parameters of main loop circuit and the parameters of switch driving waveform which affect burst amplitude are discussed. Through the simulation, this paper puts forward effective methods to overcome burst amplitude attenuation in high frequency. The simulation results show that when the frequency is low, the duty ratio of drive signal have little effect on energy storage capacitor voltage amplitude attenuation. when the charging resistance is less than 500 Ω, the duty ratio of drive signal is less than 0.125, the repetition frequency of burst reaches 1.2 MHz, the amplitude attenuation of energy storage capacitor voltage is less than 9%, the amplitude of burst satisfies IEC61000-4-4 standards.

  4. Benthic reef primary production in response to large amplitude internal waves at the Similan Islands (Andaman Sea, Thailand)

    KAUST Repository

    Jantzen, Carin

    2013-11-29

    Coral reefs are facing rapidly changing environments, but implications for reef ecosystem functioning and important services, such as productivity, are difficult to predict. Comparative investigations on coral reefs that are naturally exposed to differing environmental settings can provide essential information in this context. One prevalent phenomenon regularly introducing alterations in water chemistry into coral reefs are internal waves. This study therefore investigates the effect of large amplitude internal waves (LAIW) on primary productivity in coral reefs at the Similan Islands (Andaman Sea, Thailand). The LAIW-exposed west sides of the islands are subjected to sudden drops in water temperature accompanied by enhanced inorganic nutrient concentrations compared to the sheltered east. At the central island, Ko Miang, east and west reefs are only few hundred meters apart, but feature pronounced differences. On the west lower live coral cover (-38%) coincides with higher turf algae cover (+64%) and growth (+54%) compared to the east side. Turf algae and the reef sand-associated microphytobenthos displayed similar chlorophyll a contents on both island sides, but under LAIW exposure, turf algae exhibited higher net photosynthesis (+23%), whereas the microphytobenthos displayed reduced net and gross photosynthesis (-19% and -26%, respectively) accompanied by lower respiration (-42%). In contrast, the predominant coral Porites lutea showed higher chlorophyll a tissues contents (+42%) on the LAIW-exposed west in response to lower light availability and higher inorganic nutrient concentrations, but net photosynthesis was comparable for both sides. Turf algae were the major primary producers on the west side, whereas microphytobenthos dominated on the east. The overall primary production rate (comprising all main benthic primary producers) was similar on both island sides, which indicates high primary production variability under different environmental conditions.

  5. Benthic reef primary production in response to large amplitude internal waves at the Similan Islands (Andaman Sea, Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Carin; Schmidt, Gertraud M; Wild, Christian; Roder, Cornelia; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat; Richter, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are facing rapidly changing environments, but implications for reef ecosystem functioning and important services, such as productivity, are difficult to predict. Comparative investigations on coral reefs that are naturally exposed to differing environmental settings can provide essential information in this context. One prevalent phenomenon regularly introducing alterations in water chemistry into coral reefs are internal waves. This study therefore investigates the effect of large amplitude internal waves (LAIW) on primary productivity in coral reefs at the Similan Islands (Andaman Sea, Thailand). The LAIW-exposed west sides of the islands are subjected to sudden drops in water temperature accompanied by enhanced inorganic nutrient concentrations compared to the sheltered east. At the central island, Ko Miang, east and west reefs are only few hundred meters apart, but feature pronounced differences. On the west lower live coral cover (-38 %) coincides with higher turf algae cover (+64 %) and growth (+54 %) compared to the east side. Turf algae and the reef sand-associated microphytobenthos displayed similar chlorophyll a contents on both island sides, but under LAIW exposure, turf algae exhibited higher net photosynthesis (+23 %), whereas the microphytobenthos displayed reduced net and gross photosynthesis (-19 % and -26 %, respectively) accompanied by lower respiration (-42 %). In contrast, the predominant coral Porites lutea showed higher chlorophyll a tissues contents (+42 %) on the LAIW-exposed west in response to lower light availability and higher inorganic nutrient concentrations, but net photosynthesis was comparable for both sides. Turf algae were the major primary producers on the west side, whereas microphytobenthos dominated on the east. The overall primary production rate (comprising all main benthic primary producers) was similar on both island sides, which indicates high primary production variability under different environmental

  6. Compact two-electron wave function for bond dissociation and Van der Waals interactions: A natural amplitude assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesbertz, Klaas J. H. [Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Robert van [Department of Physics, Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2014-05-14

    Electron correlations in molecules can be divided in short range dynamical correlations, long range Van der Waals type interactions, and near degeneracy static correlations. In this work, we analyze for a one-dimensional model of a two-electron system how these three types of correlations can be incorporated in a simple wave function of restricted functional form consisting of an orbital product multiplied by a single correlation function f (r{sub 12}) depending on the interelectronic distance r{sub 12}. Since the three types of correlations mentioned lead to different signatures in terms of the natural orbital (NO) amplitudes in two-electron systems, we make an analysis of the wave function in terms of the NO amplitudes for a model system of a diatomic molecule. In our numerical implementation, we fully optimize the orbitals and the correlation function on a spatial grid without restrictions on their functional form. Due to this particular form of the wave function, we can prove that none of the amplitudes vanishes and moreover that it displays a distinct sign pattern and a series of avoided crossings as a function of the bond distance in agreement with the exact solution. This shows that the wave function ansatz correctly incorporates the long range Van der Waals interactions. We further show that the approximate wave function gives an excellent binding curve and is able to describe static correlations. We show that in order to do this the correlation function f (r{sub 12}) needs to diverge for large r{sub 12} at large internuclear distances while for shorter bond distances it increases as a function of r{sub 12} to a maximum value after which it decays exponentially. We further give a physical interpretation of this behavior.

  7. DESIGN NOTE: A fast high-voltage pulse generator with variable amplitude and duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Jankee; Navathe, C. P.

    2006-07-01

    A high-voltage pulse generator based on a self-matched transmission line with variable pulse amplitude and duration is developed. Two avalanche transistor stacks are used as switches. The pulse width is varied by adjusting the delay in triggering two switches whereas amplitude is adjusted by adjusting load resistance. A pulse with amplitude of 800 V to 3.8 kV and width of 5 ns to 38 ns can be obtained using this circuit.

  8. Large-amplitude, circularly polarized, compressive, obliquely propagating electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves throughout the Earth's magnetosheath: low plasma β conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remya, B.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Kalamboli Highway, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Echer, E. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Avenida Astronautas, 1758, P.O. Box 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Glassmeier, K.-H., E-mail: remyaphysics@gmail.com [Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics (IGEP), Mendelssohnstr.3, D-38106, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-09-20

    During 1999 August 18, both Cassini and WIND were in the Earth's magnetosheath and detected transverse electromagnetic waves instead of the more typical mirror-mode emissions. The Cassini wave amplitudes were as large as ∼14 nT (peak to peak) in a ∼55 nT ambient magnetic field B {sub 0}. A new method of analysis is applied to study these waves. The general wave characteristics found were as follows. They were left-hand polarized and had frequencies in the spacecraft frame (f {sub scf}) below the proton cyclotron frequency (f{sub p} ). Waves that were either right-hand polarized or had f {sub scf} > f{sub p} are shown to be consistent with Doppler-shifted left-hand waves with frequencies in the plasma frame f{sub pf} < f{sub p} . Thus, almost all waves studied are consistent with their being electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves. Most of the waves (∼55%) were found to be propagating along B {sub 0} (θ{sub kB{sub 0}}<30{sup ∘}), as expected from theory. However, a significant fraction of the waves were found to be propagating oblique to B {sub 0}. These waves were also circularly polarized. This feature and the compressive ([B {sub max} – B {sub min}]/B {sub max}, where B {sub max} and B {sub min} are the maximum and minimum field magnitudes) nature (ranging from 0.27 to 1.0) of the waves are noted but not well understood at this time. The proton cyclotron waves were shown to be quasi-coherent, theoretically allowing for rapid pitch-angle transport of resonant protons. Because Cassini traversed the entire subsolar magnetosheath and WIND was in the dusk-side flank of the magnetosheath, it is surmised that the entire region was filled with these waves. In agreement with past theory, it was the exceptionally low plasma β (0.35) that led to the dominance of the proton cyclotron wave generation during this interval. A high-speed solar wind stream ((V{sub sw} ) = 598 km s{sup –1}) was the source of this low-β plasma.

  9. Variable amplitude corrosion fatigue and fracture mechanics of weldable high strength jack-up steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etube, Linus Sone

    The tubular welded joints used in the construction of Offshore structures can experience millions of variable amplitude wave induced stress cycles during their operational life. Fatigue has been identified as the main cause of degradation of structural integrity in these structures. As a result, fatigue is an important consideration in their design. Jack-up legs are made from a range of high strength steels with yield strengths up to TOOMPa. These steels are thought to exhibit fatigue resistance properties which are different when compared with conventional fixed platform steels such as BS 4360 50D and BS 7191 355D. The difference in their behaviour was heightened by the discovery, in the late 80s and early 90s, of extensive cracking around the spud can regions of several Jack-ups operating in the North Sea. It was thought that these steels may be more susceptible to hydrogen cracking and embrittlement. There was the additional requirement to study their behaviour under realistic loading conditions typical of the North Sea environment. This thesis contains results of an investigation undertaken to assess the performance of a typical high strength weldable Jack-up steel under realistic loading and environmental conditions. Details of the methodology employed to develop a typical Jack-up Offshore Standard load History (JOSH) are presented. The factors which influence fatigue resistance of structural steels used in the construction of Jack-up structures are highlighted. The methods used to model the relevant factors for inclusion in JOSH are presented with particular emphasis on loading and structural response interaction. Results and details of experimental variable amplitude corrosion fatigue (VACF) tests conducted using JOSH are reported and discussed with respect to crack growth mechanisms in high strength weldable Jack-up steels. Different fracture mechanics models for VACF crack growth prediction are compared and an improved generalised methodology for fast

  10. Experimental study on monitoring CO2 sequestration by conjoint analysis of the P-wave velocity and amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Yang, Shenglai; Huan, Kangning; Li, Fangfang; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Aiai; Zhang, Xing

    2013-09-03

    CO2 sequestration has been considered to be one of the most straightforward carbon management strategies for industrial CO2 emission. Monitoring of the CO2 injection process is one of the best ways to make sure the safety storage but is also a major challenge in CO2 geological sequestration. Previous field and laboratory researches have shown that seismic methods are among the most promising monitoring methods because of the obvious reduction in P-wave velocities caused by CO2 injection. However, as CO2 injection continues, the P-wave velocity becomes increasingly insensitive according to the pilot projects when CO2 saturation is higher than 20-40%. Therefore, the conventional seismic method needs improvement or replacement to solve its limitations. In this study, P-wave velocity and amplitude responses to supercritical CO2 injection in brine-saturated core samples from Jilin oilfield were tested using core displacement and an ultrasonic detection integrated system. Results showed that neither the P-wave velocity nor amplitude could simply be used to monitor the CO2 injection process because of the insensitive or nonmonotonous response. Consequently, a new index was established by synthetically considering these two parameters to invert and monitor the CO2 process, which can be thought of as a newer and more effective assessment criterion for the seismic method.

  11. Formation of Large-Amplitude Wave Groups in an Experimental Model Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Tm= 3.0s with large grouped waves embedded C -46 Figure 95. Spectral Analysis of Phase II, Run 26- Hurricane Camille, ?i=30, Hs= 40.64 cm (16.0 in...Tm= 2.45s with wave group embedded C -47 Figure 96. Spectral Analysis of Phase II, Run 40- Hurricane Camille, ^=46.6, Hs= 26.16 cm (10.3 in.), Tm...1.96s with wave group embedded C -48 Figure 97. Three-dimensional wave surface plots for Phase II, Run 7 D-2 Figure 98. GLRP Single Point Time History

  12. External Drive to Inhibitory Cells Induces Alternating Episodes of High- and Low-Amplitude Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, Oscar J. Avella; van Aerde, Karlijn I.; van Elburg, Ronald A. J.; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; van Pelt, Jaap; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    Electrical oscillations in neuronal network activity are ubiquitous in the brain and have been associated with cognition and behavior. Intriguingly, the amplitude of ongoing oscillations, such as measured in EEG recordings, fluctuates irregularly, with episodes of high amplitude alternating with epi

  13. Brh V128 is a Double-Mode High-Amplitude delta Scuti Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, K.; Pejcha, O.; Proksch, W.; Quester, W.; van Cauteren, P.; Wils, P.

    2004-08-01

    CCD-V and unfiltered photometric data show that Brh V128 = GSC 1893-89 is a new high-amplitude double-mode Delta Scuti variable with a fundamental period of 0.1534 days and a period ratio of 0.767. The amplitude of the first overtone pulsation is slightly larger than that of the fundamental mode.

  14. Application of the Theory of Wave Propagation through Random Media to Phase and Amplitude Fluctuations of Seismic P-Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-18

    Mantle Boundary Inferred from Short-Period Scattered PKP Waves Recorded at the Global Digital Seismograph Network KLAUS BATAILLE AND STANILY M. F...Geophys. Res., 78, Osemov, L A., Wave Propagation in a Random Medium, Mc Graw - 6009--6020, 1973. Hill, New York, 1960. Morelli, A., and A. M

  15. Effects of Increase in Amplitude of Occipital Alpha & Theta Brain Waves on Global Functioning Level of Patients with GAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashi, Mohsen; Birashk, Behrooz; Taremian, Farhad; Asgarnejad, Ali Asghar; Momtazi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The basic objective of this study is to investigate the effects of alpha and theta brain waves amplitude increase in occipital area on reducing the severity of symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and to increase the global functioning level in patients with GAD. This study is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test with two groups. For this purpose, 28 patients who had been referred to Sohrawardi psychiatric and clinical psychology center in Zanjan were studied based on the interview with the psychiatrist, clinical psychologist and using clinical diagnostic criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders text revision - the DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition diagnosis of GAD, 14 subjects were studied in neurofeedback treatment group and 14 subjects in the waiting list group. Patients in both groups were evaluated at pre-test and post-test with General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAFs). The treatment group received fifteen 30-minute alpha training sessions and fifteen 30-minute theta brain training sessions in occipital area by neurofeedback training (treatment group). This evaluation was performed according to the treatment protocol to increase the alpha and theta waves. And no intervention was done in the waiting list group. But due to ethical issues after the completion of the study all the subjects in the waiting list group were treated. The results showed that increase of alpha and theta brain waves amplitude in occipital area in people with GAD can increase the global functioning level and can reduce symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder in a treatment group, but no such change was observed in the waiting list group. Increase of alpha and theta brain waves amplitude in occipital area can be useful in the treatment of people with GAD.

  16. Off-shell helicity amplitudes in high-energy factorization

    CERN Document Server

    van Hameren, Andreas; Kutak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    In the Catani-Ciafaloni-Hautmann high-energy factorization approach a cross section is expressed as a convolution of unintegrated gluon densities and a gauge-invariant hard process, in which two incoming gluons are off-shell with momenta satisfying certain high-energy kinematics. We present two methods of evaluating the tree-level hard process with multiple final states. The first one assumes that only one of the gluons is off-shell and relies on the Slavnov-Taylor identities. Such asymmetric configuration of incoming gluons is phenomenologically important in small x probing by forward processes. The second method deals also with two off-shell gluons and is based on the analytic continuation of the off-shell gluons momenta to the complex space. The methods were implemented into Monte Carlo computer programs and used in phenomenological applications. The results of both methods are straightforwardly related to Lipatov's effective vertices in quasi-multi-regge kinematics.

  17. High extinction amplitude modulation in ultrashort pulse shaping

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    We explored the issues related to the resolution and the modulation extinction when filtering the spectrum of a UV femtosecond laser with a standard ultrashort pulse shaper. We have learned that a higher pulse shaping resolution often requires a larger working beam size or a higher density grating for greater dispersion. However, these approaches also introduce more optical errors and degrade the extinction. In this work, we examined specifics of each component to determine the best configuration of our spectral filtering setup. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we utilized elements available as standard products and achieved 100 GHz filtering resolution with high extinction at the UV-A wavelength, which is superb in this wavelength range. The high extinction spectral filtering is especially important while modifying a broadband laser for the optical control of molecule's internal state.

  18. Statistics of Amplitude and Fluid Velocity of Large and Rare Waves in the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Hextreme_max Maximum crest-to-trough height meters Hs Significant wave height meters Hs100 Extreme significant wave height with the 100 year return period...NHsHsP −=< (3.1-7) Where: Hs100 = extreme significant wave height with the 100 year return period D = a decorrelation time scale in hours for...between the buoy-derived extreme Hs with the return period of 100 years and the Hs100 based on IDM and POT differed by less than 10% (under 5% for all but

  19. Freeform high-speed large-amplitude deformable Piezo Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Wapler, Matthias C; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    We present a new type of tunable mirror with sharply-featured freeform displacement profiles, large displacements of several 100\\mu m and high operating frequencies close to the kHz range at 15mm diameter. The actuation principle is based on a recently explored "topological" displacement mode of piezo sheets. The prototypes presented here include a rotationally symmetric axicon, a hyperbolic sech-icon and a non-symmetric pyram-icon and are scalable to smaller dimensions. The fabrication process is economic and cleanroom-free, and the optical quality is sufficient to demonstrate the diffraction patterns of the optical elements.

  20. Analytical analysis of adaptive defect detection in amplitude and phase structures using photorefractive four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehmetallah, George; Donoghue, John; Banerjee, Partha; Khoury, Jed; Yamamoto, Michiharu; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2016-04-01

    In this work, brief theoretical modeling, analysis, and novel numerical verification of a photorefractive polymer based four wave mixing (FWM) setup for defect detection has been developed. The numerical simulation helps to validate our earlier experimental results to perform defect detection in periodic amplitude and phase objects using FWM. Specifically, we develop the theory behind the detection of isolated defects, and random defects in amplitude, and phase periodic patterns. In accordance with the developed theory, the results show that this technique successfully detects the slightest defects through band-pass intensity filtering and requires minimal additional post image processing contrast enhancement. This optical defect detection technique can be applied to the detection of production line defects, e.g., scratch enhancement, defect cluster enhancement, and periodic pattern dislocation enhancement. This technique is very useful in quality control systems, production line defect inspection, and computer vision.

  1. Unusually low-amplitude anisotropic wave-train events of cosmic ray intensity during 1981-1994

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh K Mishra; Rekha Agarwal Mishra

    2005-02-01

    Investigation has been made for unusually low-amplitude anisotropic wave train events (LAE) for cosmic ray intensity data of Deep River neutron monitoring station during the period 1981-94. It has been observed that the phase of diurnal anisotropy remains in the same co-rotational direction for most of the LAEs while the phase shifts to early hours for some of the LAEs in diurnal anisotropy. During minimum solar activity, LAEs have been observed to be dominant. Solar wind plasma (SWP) parameters, interplanetary magnetic field and various features at solar disk have also been studied. The amplitude remains low continuously for most of the days while the phase shifts to earlier hours. Occurrence of LAE is independent of the nature of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF).

  2. Modulated amplitude waves with non-trivial phase in quasi-1D inhomogeneous Bose–Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Pedro J., E-mail: ptorres@ugr.es

    2014-10-03

    We consider a 1D nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) which describes the mean field dynamics of an elongated Bose–Einstein condensate and prove the existence of modulated amplitude waves with non-trivial phase and minimal spatial period tending to infinite. The proof combines the theory of local continuation of non-degenerate periodic solutions with a property of the Ermakov–Pinney equation. - Highlights: • A rigorous proof of the existence of rotating MAWs in an inhomogeneous BEC. • No condition on the sign or the magnitude of the trap or the scattering length. • Non-trivial phase leads to a singular ODE for the amplitude. • The proof combines a local continuation theorem and properties of rotation numbers.

  3. Fourier spectrum and shape evolution of an internal Riemann wave of moderate amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kartashova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear deformation of long internal waves in the ocean is studied using the dispersionless Gardner equation. The process of nonlinear wave deformation is determined by the signs of the coefficients of the quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms; the breaking time depends only on their absolute values. The explicit formula for the Fourier spectrum of the deformed Riemann wave is derived and used to investigate the evolution of the spectrum of the initially pure sine wave. It is shown that the spectrum has exponential form for small times and a power asymptotic before breaking. The power asymptotic is universal for arbitrarily chosen coefficients of the nonlinear terms and has a slope close to –8/3.

  4. A study of daily variation in cosmic ray intensity during high/low amplitude days

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh K Mishra; Rekha Agarwal Mishra

    2007-03-01

    A detailed study has been conducted on the long-term changes in the diurnal, semi-diurnal and tri-diurnal anisotropies of cosmic rays in terms of the high/low amplitude anisotropic wave train events (HAE/LAE) during the period 1981-94 using the neutron monitor data from Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station. In all, 38 HAE and 28 LAE cases have been studied. An inter-comparison of the first three harmonics during these events has been made so as to understand the basic reason for the occurrence of these types of events. It has been observed that the phase of diurnal anisotropy shifts towards earlier hours for HAEs and it shifts towards earlier hour as compared to 18-h direction for LAEs. For semi-diurnal anisotropy, phase remains statistically the same for both HAE and LAE. In the case of tri-diurnal anisotropy, phase is evenly distributed for both types of events. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind plasma (SWP) parameters during these events are also investigated. It has also been observed that HAE/LAEs are weakly dependent on high-speed solar wind velocity. The two types of solar wind streams (corotating streams and flare-generated streams) produce significant deviations in cosmic ray intensity during HAE/LAE.

  5. Photonic generation of high quality frequency-tunable millimeter wave and terahertz wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ji; Yah Li; Fangzheng Zhang; Jian Wu; Xiaobing Hong; Kun Xu; Wei Li; Jintong Lin

    2012-01-01

    A scheme for the photonic generation of frequency-tunable millimeter wave and terahertz wave signals based on a highly flat optical frequency comb is proposed and demonstrated experimentally.The frequency comb is generated using two cascaded phase modulators (PMs) and an electro-absorption modulator (EAM).The frequency comb covers a 440-GHz frequency range,with 40-GHz comb spacing and less than 2-dB amplitude variation. By filtering out two of the comb lines with 50 dB out of the band suppression ratio,high frequency-purity and low phase noise millimeter wave or terahertz wave signals are successfully generated,with frequencies ranging from 40 to 440 GHz.

  6. Wave structure and flow amplitude-frequency characteristics in the turbine nozzle lattice in the presence of phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribin, V. G.; Gavrilov, I. Yu.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Tishchenko, V. A.; Alekseev, R. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the wave structure of a flow at its near- and supersonic velocities in a flat turbine cascade of profiles in the zone of phase transitions. The main task was investigation of the mechanics of interaction of the condensation jump with the adiabatic jumps of packing in a change of the initial condition of the flow. The obtained results are necessary for verification of the calculation models of the moisture-steam flow in the elements of lotic parts of the steam turbines. The experimental tests were made on a stand of the wet steam contour (WSC-2) in the Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI, National Research University) at various initial states of steam in a wide range of Mach numbers. In the investigation of the wave structure, use was made of an instrument based on the Schlieren-method principle. The amplitude-frequency characteristics of the flow was found by measurement of static pressure pulsations by means of the piezo resistive sensors established on a bandage plate along the bevel cut of the cascade. It is shown that appearance of phase transitions in the bevel cut of the nozzle turbine cascade leads to a change in the wave structure of the flow. In case of condensation jump, the system of adiabatic jumps in the bevel cut of the cascade becomes nonstationary, and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of static pressure pulsations are restructured. In this, a change in the frequency pulsations of pressure and amplitude takes place. It is noted that, at near-sonic speeds of the flow and the state of saturation at the input, the low-frequency pulsations of static pressure appear that lead to periodic disappearance of the condensation jump and of the adiabatic jump. As a result, in this mode, the flow discharge variations take place.

  7. High-Energy String Scattering Amplitudes and Signless Stirling Number Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chi Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We give a complete proof of a set of identities (7 proposed recently from calculation of high-energy string scattering amplitudes. These identities allow one to extract ratios among high-energy string scattering amplitudes in the fixed angle regime from high-energy amplitudes in the Regge regime. The proof is based on a signless Stirling number identity in combinatorial theory. The results are valid for arbitrary real values L rather than only for L=0,1 proved previously. The identities for non-integer real value L were recently shown to be realized in high-energy compactified string scattering amplitudes [He S., Lee J.C., Yang Y., arXiv:1012.3158]. The parameter L is related to the mass level of an excited string state and can take non-integer values for Kaluza-Klein modes.

  8. Measurement of absolute displacement-amplitude of ultrasonic wave using piezo-electric detection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hyun; Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is defined by the ratio of displacement amplitude of the fundamental frequency component to that of the second-order harmonic frequency component. In this study, the ultrasonic displacement amplitude of an SUS316 specimen was measured via a piezo-electric-based method to identify the validity of piezo-electric detection method. For comparison, the ultrasonic displacement was also determined via a laser-based Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The experimental results for both measurements were in good agreement. Additionally, the stability of the repeated test results from the piezo-electric method exceeded that of the laser-interferometric method. This result indicated that the piezo-electric detection method can be utilized to measure a nonlinear ultrasonic parameter due to its excellent stability although it involves a complicated process.

  9. Amplitude equations for electrostatic waves universal singular behavior in the limit of weak instability

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, J D

    1994-01-01

    An amplitude equation for an unstable mode in a collisionless plasma is derived from the dynamics on the unstable manifold of the equilibrium F_0(v).\\\\ The mode eigenvalue arises from a simple zero of the dielectric \\epsilon_{{k}}(z); as the linear growth rate \\gamma vanishes, the eigenvalue merges with the continuous spectrum on the imaginary axis and disappears. The evolution of the mode amplitude \\rho(t) is studied using an expansion in \\rho. As \\glim, the expansion coefficients diverge, but these singularities are absorbed by rescaling the amplitude: \\rho(t)\\equiv\\gamma^2\\,r(\\gamma t). This renders the theory finite and also indicates that the electric field exhibits trapping scaling E\\sim\\gamma^2. These singularities and scalings are independent of the specific F_0(v) considered. The asymptotic dynamics of r(\\tau) depends on F_0 only through \\exp{i\\xi} where d\\epsilon_{{k}} /dz=|{\\epsilon'_{{k}}}|\\exp{-i\\xi/2}. Similar results also hold for the electric field and distribution function.

  10. 3D elastic full-waveform inversion for OBC data using the P-wave excitation amplitude

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Ju-Won

    2017-08-17

    We suggest a fast and efficient 3D elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) algorithm based on the excitation amplitude (maximum energy arrival) of the P-wave in the source wavefield. It evaluates the gradient direction significantly faster than its conventional counterpart. In addition, it removes the long-wavelength artifacts from the gradient, which are often originated from SS correlation process. From these advantages, the excitation approach offers faster convergence not only for the S wave velocity, but also for the entire process of multi-parameter inversion, compared to the conventional FWI. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated through the synthetic Marmousi and a real OBC data from North Sea.

  11. Small amplitude Kinetic Alfven waves in a superthermal electron-positron-ion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Mahmood, Sahahzad; Qamar, Anisa; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2016-11-01

    We are investigating the propagating properties of coupled Kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves in a low beta plasma having superthermal electrons and positrons. Using the standard reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type equation is derived which describes the evolution of Kinetic Alfven waves. It is found that nonlinearity and Larmor radius effects can compromise and give rise to solitary structures. The parametric role of superthermality and positron content on the characteristics of solitary wave structures is also investigated. It is found that only sub-Alfvenic and compressive solitons are supported in the present model. The present study may find applications in a low β electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons and positrons.

  12. a Finite Difference Numerical Model for the Propagation of Finite Amplitude Acoustical Blast Waves Outdoors Over Hard and Porous Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Victor Ward

    1990-01-01

    This study has concerned the propagation of finite amplitude, i.e. weakly non-linear, acoustical blast waves from explosions over hard and porous media models of outdoor ground surfaces. The nonlinear acoustic propagation effects require a numerical solution in the time domain. To model a porous ground surface, which in the frequency domain exhibits a finite impedance, the linear phenomenological porous model of Morse and Ingard was used. The phenomenological equations are solved in the time domain for coupling with the time domain propagation solution in the air. The numerical solution is found through the method of finite differences. The second-order in time and fourth -order in space MacCormack method was used in the air, and the second-order in time and space MacCormack method was used in the porous medium modeling the ground. Two kinds of numerical absorbing boundary conditions were developed for the air propagation equations to truncate the physical domain for solution on a computer. Radiation conditions first were used on those sides of the domain where there were outgoing waves. Characteristic boundary conditions secondly are employed near the acoustic source. The numerical model agreed well with the Pestorius algorithm for the propagation of electric spark pulses in the free field, and with a result of Pfriem for normal plane reflection off a hard surface. In addition, curves of pressure amplification versus incident angle for waves obliquely incident on the hard and porous surfaces were produced which are similar to those in the literature. The model predicted that near grazing finite amplitude acoustic blast waves decay with distance over hard surfaces as r to the power -1.2. This result is consistent with the work of Reed. For propagation over the porous ground surface, the model predicted that this surface decreased the decay rate with distance for the larger blasts compared to the rate expected in the linear acoustics limit.

  13. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep: A high density EEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, David T; Goldstein, Michael R; Cook, Jesse D; Smith, Richard; Riedner, Brady A; Rumble, Meredith E; Jelenchick, Lauren; Roth, Andrea; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M; Peterson, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Changes in slow waves during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in response to acute total sleep deprivation are well-established measures of sleep homeostasis. This investigation utilized high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to examine topographic changes in slow waves during repeated partial sleep deprivation. Twenty-four participants underwent a 6-day sleep restriction protocol. Spectral and period-amplitude analyses of sleep hdEEG data were used to examine changes in slow wave energy, count, amplitude, and slope relative to baseline. Changes in slow wave energy were dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized for analysis, with widespread increases during sleep restriction and recovery when comparing data from the first portion of the sleep period, but restricted to recovery sleep if the entire sleep episode was considered. Period-amplitude analysis was less dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized, and demonstrated topographic changes in the count, amplitude, and distribution of slow waves, with frontal increases in slow wave amplitude, numbers of high-amplitude waves, and amplitude/slopes of low amplitude waves resulting from partial sleep deprivation. Topographic changes in slow waves occur across the course of partial sleep restriction and recovery. These results demonstrate a homeostatic response to partial sleep loss in humans. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Scanning tunneling microscopy in TTF-TCNQ: Phase and amplitude modulated charge density waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.Z.; Gorard, J.C.; Pasquier, C.

    2003-01-01

    Charge density waves (CDWs) have been studied at the surface of a cleaved tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) single crystal using a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, between 300 and 33 K with molecular resolution. All CDW...

  15. Feasibility Study on Determining Focal Mechanism Solutions of Small Earthquakes Using the Velocity Amplitude Ratio of P-and S-Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yongjiu; Cheng Wanzheng

    2008-01-01

    The focal mechanism parameters of small earthquakes are determined by the maximum velocity and displacement amplitude ratio of the direct P-and S-waves recorded by digital stations. The displacement is obtained from the velocity by emulation, and the two results are compared and analyzed. Results of the oretical analysis and practical measurement indicate that the two results of velocity and displacement are consistent, and it is feasible that the maximum displacement amplitude ratio be replaced by the maximum velocity amplitude ratio of the direct P-and S-waves recorded by regional seismic networks when determining focal mechanism solutions of small earthquakes.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VVV high amplitude NIR variable stars (Contreras Pena+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Pena, C.; Lucas, P. W.; Minniti, D.; Kurtev, R.; Stimson, W.; Navarro Molina, C.; Borissova, J.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Thompson, M. A.; Gledhill, T.; Terzi, R.; Froebrich, D.; Caratti o Garatti, A.

    2017-08-01

    We present the single epoch ZYJHKs photometry obtained from VVV catalogues for 816 high-amplitude variables. We also present the amplitude of the Ks light curve of the objects derived from 2010-2015 photometry. For each object we also provide a provisional classification derived from the shape of the light curve. For objects found to be likely associated with SFRs we present an spectral index derived from the object's spectral energy distribution. (2 data files).

  17. Kepler observations of the high-amplitude δ Scuti star V2367 Cyg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, L. A.; Lenz, P.; Antoci, V.

    2012-01-01

    We analyse Kepler observations of the high-amplitude δ Scuti (HADS) star V2367 Cyg (KIC 9408694). The variations are dominated by a mode with frequency f1= 5.6611 d−1. Two other independent modes with f2= 7.1490 d−1 and f3= 7.7756 d−1 have amplitudes an order of magnitude smaller than f1. Nearly ...

  18. Development of high-voltage pulse generator with variable amplitude and duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, J.; Sharma, M. L.; Ahuja, Aakash B.; Navathe, C. P.

    2014-06-01

    A high voltage pulse generator with variable amplitude (100-3000 V) and duration (100-2000 μs) has been designed and developed. The variable duration pulse has been generated by adopting a simple and novel technique of varying the turn off delay time of a high voltage Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) based switch by varying external gate resistance. The pulse amplitude is made variable by adjusting biasing supply of the high voltage switch. The high voltage switch has been developed using a MOSFET based stack of 3 kV rating with switching time of 7 ns.

  19. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P. [ITB, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Tecnology (Indonesia); BMKG (Indonesia)

    2012-06-20

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance ({Delta}) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log {Delta}+ 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  20. Disbond Detection in Bonded Aluminum Joints Using Lamb Wave Amplitude and Time-of-Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Keun J.; Johnston, Patrick H.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, there was a need of developing efficient nondestructive integrity assessment techniques for large area laminate structures, such as detections of disbond, crack, and corrosion in fuselage of an aircraft. Together with the improving tomography and computer technologies, progress has been made in many fields in NDE towards a faster inspection. Ultrasonically, Lamb wave is considered to be a candidate for large area inspections based on its capability of propagating a relatively long distance in thin plates and its media-thickness-dependent propagation properties. Moreover, the occurence of disbonds, corrosion, and even cracks often results in reduction of effective thickness of a laminate. The idea is to assess the condition of a structure by sensing the response of propagating Lamb waves to these flaws over long path length. A series of tests in the sequence of disbond, corrosion, and crack have been done on various types of specimen to investigate the feasibility of this approach. This paper will present some of the test results for disbond detection on aluminum lap splice joints.

  1. Localized injection of large-amplitude Pc 1 waves and electron temperature enhancement near the plasmapause observed by DE2 in the upper ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyemori, T.; Sugiura, M.; Oka, A.; Morita, Y.; Ishii, M.; Slavin, J. A.; Brace, L. H.; Hoffman, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The relation between electron temperature enhancement and large amplitude Pc 1 wave injections in the upper ionosphere is investigated using the data obtained by the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft. Results can be summarized as follows: (1) The region of the temperature enhancement coincides with that of the wave injection which is latitudinally very narrow (less than 100 km) in comparison with the wavelength along the ambient magnetic field (several hundred kilometers). (2) The duration of the wave injection (or the temperature enhancement) seems to be less than a few hours even under quiet geomagnetic conditions, and/or the injection seems to be very localized, not only latitudinally, but also longitudinally. (3) The appearance and the magnitude of temperature enhancement depend on both the wave amplitude and the satellite altitude. (4) Two of the 22 events that were analyzed show a clear enhancement of low-energy electron flux (5 to 30 eV) at the wave injection, and the flux is field-aligned both downward and upward. The region of the temperature enhancement coincides with that of the downward electron flux. From these results, it is suggested that the temperature enhancement which accompanies large-amplitude waves with Pc 1 pulsation frequencies (0.2 to 5 Hz) is caused by the direct acceleration of thermal electrons at low altitudes by the parallel electric field (0.01 to 0.001 mV/m) of the ion-cyclotron waves (kinetic Alfven waves) having an oblique wave normal.

  2. Simple method for measuring vibration amplitude of high power airborne ultrasonic transducer: using thermo-couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffar, Saber; Abdullah, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Vibration amplitude of transducer's elements is the influential parameters in the performance of high power airborne ultrasonic transducers to control the optimum vibration without material yielding. The vibration amplitude of elements of provided high power airborne transducer was determined by measuring temperature of the provided high power airborne transducer transducer's elements. The results showed that simple thermocouples can be used both to measure the vibration amplitude of transducer's element and an indicator to power transmission to the air. To verify our approach, the power transmission to the air has been investigated by other common method experimentally. The experimental results displayed good agreement with presented approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Internal friction mechanism of Fe-19Mn alloy at low and high strain amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shuke, E-mail: huangshuke@163.com [Institute of Machinery Manufacturing Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Huang, Wenrong; Liu, Jianhui [Institute of Machinery Manufacturing Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Teng, Jin; Li, Ning; Wen, Yuhua [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Fe-Mn damping alloy, which can decrease the vibrating and noise effectively, will be widely applied to household appliances, automobiles, industrial facilities, etc. In this paper, the internal friction mechanism of Fe-19Mn alloy at low strain amplitude (10{sup -5} range) and high strain amplitude (10{sup -4} range) was investigated. The internal friction was measured using multifunction internal friction equipment and reversal torsion pendulum. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The phase transformation temperatures were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The results indicated that the internal friction of Fe-19Mn alloy after solution treating was related to strain amplitude. The internal friction mechanism was believed to the movements of four damping sources ({epsilon}-martensite variant boundaries, stacking fault boundaries in {epsilon}-martensite and {gamma}-austenite, {gamma}/{epsilon} interfaces), which could be explained using the interactive movements of Shockley partial dislocations and point defects. At low strain amplitude (10{sup -5} range), the bowing out movements of Shockley partial dislocations are the main moving mode of generating internal friction. At high strain amplitude (10{sup -4} range), however, the breaking away movements of Shockley partial dislocations are the high internal friction mechanism of Fe-19Mn alloy.

  4. New analytical solutions for propagation of small but finite amplitude ion-acoustic waves in a dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Ali, M. Hossain

    2016-01-01

    The theoretical and numerical studies have been investigated on the nonlinear propagation of electrostatic ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) in an un-magnetized Thomas-Fermi plasma system consisting of electron, positrons, and positive ions for both of ultra-relativistic and non-relativistic degenerate electrons. Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation is derived from the model equations by using the well-known reductive perturbation method. This equation is solved by employing the generalized Riccati equation mapping method. The hyperbolic functions type solutions to the K-dV equation are only considered for describing the effect of plasma parameters on the propagation of electrostatic IAWs for both of ultra-relativistic and non-relativistic degenerate electrons. The obtained results may be helpful in proper understanding the features of small but finite amplitude localized IAWs in degenerate plasmas and provide the mathematical foundation in plasma physics.

  5. Leading-twist parton distribution amplitudes of S-wave heavy-quarkonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Ding

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The leading-twist parton distribution amplitudes (PDAs of ground-state S01 and S13 cc¯- and bb¯-quarkonia are calculated using a symmetry-preserving continuum treatment of the meson bound-state problem which unifies the properties of these heavy-quark systems with those of light-quark bound-states, including QCD's Goldstone modes. Analysing the evolution of S01 and S13 PDAs with current-quark mass, mˆq, increasing away from the chiral limit, it is found that in all cases there is a value of mˆq for which the PDA matches the asymptotic form appropriate to QCD's conformal limit and hence is insensitive to changes in renormalisation scale, ζ. This mass lies just above that associated with the s-quark. At current-quark masses associated with heavy-quarkonia, on the other hand, the PDAs are piecewise convex–concave–convex. They are much narrower than the asymptotic distribution on a large domain of ζ; but nonetheless deviate noticeably from φQQ¯(x=δ(x−1/2, which is the result in the static-quark limit. There are also material differences between S01 and S13 PDAs, and between the PDAs for different vector-meson polarisations, which vanish slowly with increasing ζ. An analysis of moments of the root-mean-square relative-velocity, 〈v2m〉, in S01 and S13 systems reveals that 〈v4〉-contributions may be needed in order to obtain a reliable estimate of matrix elements using such an expansion, especially for processes involving heavy pseudoscalar quarkonia.

  6. Computation of High-Frequency Waves with Random Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Malenova, Gabriela

    2016-01-06

    We consider the forward propagation of uncertainty in high-frequency waves, described by the second order wave equation with highly oscillatory initial data. The main sources of uncertainty are the wave speed and/or the initial phase and amplitude, described by a finite number of random variables with known joint probability distribution. We propose a stochastic spectral asymptotic method [1] for computing the statistics of uncertain output quantities of interest (QoIs), which are often linear or nonlinear functionals of the wave solution and its spatial/temporal derivatives. The numerical scheme combines two techniques: a high-frequency method based on Gaussian beams [2, 3], a sparse stochastic collocation method [4]. The fast spectral convergence of the proposed method depends crucially on the presence of high stochastic regularity of the QoI independent of the wave frequency. In general, the high-frequency wave solutions to parametric hyperbolic equations are highly oscillatory and non-smooth in both physical and stochastic spaces. Consequently, the stochastic regularity of the QoI, which is a functional of the wave solution, may in principle below and depend on frequency. In the present work, we provide theoretical arguments and numerical evidence that physically motivated QoIs based on local averages of |uE|2 are smooth, with derivatives in the stochastic space uniformly bounded in E, where uE and E denote the highly oscillatory wave solution and the short wavelength, respectively. This observable related regularity makes the proposed approach more efficient than current asymptotic approaches based on Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

  7. Poles, the only true resonant-state signals, are extracted from a worldwide collection of partial wave amplitudes using only one, well controlled pole-extraction method

    CERN Document Server

    Hadžimehmedović, M; Švarc, A; Osmanović, H; Stahov, J

    2011-01-01

    Each and every energy dependent partial-wave analysis is parameterizing the pole positions in a procedure defined by the way how the continuous energy dependence is implemented. These pole positions are, henceforth, inherently model dependent. To reduce this model dependence, we use only one, coupled-channel, unitary, fully analytic method based on the isobar approximation to extract the pole positions from the each available member of the worldwide collection of partial wave amplitudes which are understood as nothing more but a good energy dependent representation of genuine experimental numbers assembled in a form of partial-wave data. In that way, the model dependence related to the different assumptions on the analytic form of the partial-wave amplitudes is avoided, and the true confidence limit for the existence of a particular resonant state, at least in one model, is established. The way how the method works, and first results are demonstrated for the S11 partial wave.

  8. The analysis of high amplitude of potential oscillations near the hollow cathode of ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Xie, Kan; Guo, Ning; Zhang, Zun; Zhang, Cen; Gu, Zengjie; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Zhaorui; Ouyang, Jiting

    2017-05-01

    The influence of gas flow, current level, and different shapes of anode on the oscillation amplitude and the characteristics of the hollow cathode discharge were investigated. The average plasma potential, temporal measurements of plasma potential, ion density, the electron temperature, as well as waveforms of plasma potential for test conditions were measured. At the same time, the time-resolved images of the plasma plume were also recorded. The results show that the potential oscillations appear at high discharge current or low flow rate. The potential oscillation boundaries, the position of maximum amplitude of plasma potential, and the position where the highest ion density was observed, were found. Both of the positions are affected by different shapes of anode configurations. This high amplitude of potential oscillations is ionization-like instabilities. The xenon ions ionized in space was analyzed for the fast potential rise and spatial dissipation of the space xenon ions was the reason for the gradual potential delay.

  9. The wave buoy analogy - estimating high-frequency wave excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the wave buoy analogy where a ship is considered as a wave buoy, so that measured ship responses are used as a basis to estimate wave spectra and associated sea state parameters. The study presented follows up on a previous paper, Nielsen [Nielsen UD. Response-based estimation...... processes are carried out in the present paper; however with one of the responses being the relative motion which is a type of response that is sensitive to high-frequency excitations. Based on the present study it is shown that by including the relative motion, the frequency-wise energy distribution can...

  10. High performance single-error-correcting quantum codes for amplitude damping

    CERN Document Server

    Shor, Peter W; Smolin, John A; Zeng, Bei

    2009-01-01

    We construct families of high performance quantum amplitude damping codes. All of our codes are nonadditive and most modestly outperform the best possible additive codes in terms of encoded dimension. One family is built from nonlinear error-correcting codes for classical asymmetric channels, with which we systematically construct quantum amplitude damping codes with parameters better than any prior construction known for any block length n > 7 except n=2^r-1. We generalize this construction to employ classical codes over GF(3) with which we numerically obtain better performing codes up to length 14. Because the resulting codes are of the codeword stabilized (CWS) type, easy encoding and decoding circuits are available.

  11. Multiband carrierless amplitude/phase modulation for ultra-wideband high data rate wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Altabas, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of carrierless amplitude/phase modulation in a flexible multiband approach for ultrawideband high-data-rate wireless communications. An effective bitrate of 2 GB/s is achieved while complying with the restrictions on the effective radiated power e...

  12. Numerical modeling of dune progression in a high amplitude meandering channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory experiments carried out by Abad and Garcia (2009) in a high-amplitude Kinoshita meandering channel show bed morphodynamics to comprise steady (local scour and deposition) and unsteady (migrating bedforms) components. The experiments are replicated with a numerical model. The sediment tran...

  13. Vortex induced vibrations of pipe in high waves. Field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen Ottesen, N.-E.; Pedersen, B.

    1999-07-01

    Vortex induced vibrations have been measured full scale on an instrumented pipe placed vertically in the crest zone of high and steep waves. The Reynolds numbers were in the range 105 to 106. It was found that the vortex induced vibrations in the wave motion were generated within a reduced velocity range of 4 and 8. The vibrations grew intermittently with the passing waves. The vibrations took place in 2-3 modes simultaneously. One mode, however, dominated over the other. The growths of the VIV using a modal analysis were consistent with a basic correlation length of 3 diameters for a stationary pipe with a linear growth of the correlation length of 10 diameter for each 0.1 diameter amplitude. (au)

  14. A typical wave wake from high-speed vessels: its group structure and run-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Didenkulova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-amplitude water waves induced by high-speed vessels are regularly observed in Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea, causing intense beach erosion and disturbing marine habitants in the coastal zone. Such a strong impact on the coast may be a result of a certain group structure of the wave wake. In order to understand it, here we present an experimental study of the group structure of these wakes at Pikakari beach, Tallinn Bay. The most energetic vessel waves at this location (100 m from the coast at the water depth 2.7 m have amplitudes of about 1 m and periods of 8–10 s and cause maximum run-up heights on a beach up to 1.4 m. These waves represent frequency modulated packets where the largest and longest waves propagate ahead of other smaller amplitude and period waves. Sometimes the groups of different heights and periods can be separated even within one wave wake event. The wave heights within a wake are well described by the Weibull distribution, which has different parameters for wakes from different vessels. Wave run-up heights can also be described by Weibull distribution and its parameters can be connected to the parameters of the distribution of wave heights 100 m from the coast. Finally, the run-up of individual waves within a packet is studied. It is shown that the specific structure of frequency modulated wave packets, induced by high-speed vessels, leads to a sequence of high wave run-ups at the coast, even when the original wave heights are rather moderate. This feature can be a key to understanding the significant impact on coasts caused by fast vessels.

  15. Impaired T-wave amplitude adaptation to heart-rate induced by cardiac deconditioning after 5-days of head-down bed-rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiani, Enrico G.; Pellegrini, Alessandro; Bolea, Juan; Sotaquira, Miguel; Almeida, Rute; Vaïda, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    The study of QT/RR relationship is important for the clinical evaluation of possible risk of acquired or congenital ventricular tachyarrhythmias. In the hypothesis that microgravity exposure could induce changes in the repolarization mechanisms, our aim was to test if a short 5-days strict 6° head-down bed-rest (HDBR) could induce alterations in the QT/RR relationship and spatial repolarization heterogeneity. Twenty-two healthy men (mean age 31±6) were enrolled as part of the European Space Agency HDBR studies. High fidelity (1000 Hz) 24 h Holter ECG (12-leads, Mortara Instrument) was acquired before (PRE), the last day of HDBR (HDT5), and four days after its conclusion (POST). The night period (23:00-06:30) was selected for analysis. X, Y, Z leads were derived and the vectorcardiogram computed. Selective beat averaging was used to obtain averages of P-QRS-T complexes preceded by the same RR (10 ms bin amplitude, in the range 900-1200 ms). For each averaged waveform (i.e., one for each bin), T-wave maximum amplitude (Tmax), T-wave area (Tarea), RTapex, RTend, ventricular gradient (VG) magnitude and spatial QRS-T angle were computed. Non-parametric Friedman test was applied. Compared to PRE, at HDT5 both RTapex and RTend resulted shortened (-4%), with a decrease in T-wave amplitude (-8%) and area (-13%). VG was diminished by 10%, and QRS-T angle increased by 14°. At POST, QT duration and area parameters, as well as QRS-T angle were restored while Tmax resulted larger than PRE (+5%) and VG was still decreased by 3%. Also, a marked loss in strength of the linear regression with RR was found at HDT5 in Tmax and Tarea, that could represent a new dynamic marker of increased risk for life-threatening arrhythmias. Despite the short-term HDBR, ventricular repolarization during the night period was affected. This should be taken into account in astronauts for risk assessment during space flight.

  16. High-Frequency Rayleigh-Wave Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianghai Xia; Richard D Millerg; Xu Yixian; Luo Yinhe; Chen Chao; Liu Jiangping; Julian Ivanov; Chong Zeng

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency (≥2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannei recording sys-tem have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave tech-niques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a nou-iuvasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution.

  17. Nonlinear reflection of high-amplitude laser pulses from relativistic electron mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulagin, V. V.; Kornienko, V. N.; Cherepenin, V. A.

    2016-04-01

    A coherent X-ray pulse of attosecond duration can be formed in the reflection of a counterpropagating laser pulse from a relativistic electron mirror. The reflection of a high-amplitude laser pulse from the relativistic electron mirror located in the field of an accelerating laser pulse is investigated by means of two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulation. It is shown that provided the amplitude of the counterpropagating laser pulse is several times greater than the amplitude of the accelerating laser pulse, the reflection process is highly nonlinear, which causes a significant change in the X-ray pulse shape and its shortening up to generation of quasi-unipolar pulses and single-cycle pulses. A physical mechanism responsible for this nonlinearity of the reflection process is explained, and the parameters of the reflected X-ray pulses are determined. It is shown that the duration of these pulses may constitute 50 - 60 as, while their amplitude may be sub-relativistic.

  18. Does the schock wave in a highly ionized non-isothermal plasma really exist ?

    CERN Document Server

    Rukhadze, A A; Samkharadze, T

    2015-01-01

    Here we study the structure of a highly ionizing shock wave in a gas of high atmospheric pressure. We take into account the gas ionization when the gas temperature reaches few orders of an ionization potential. It is shown that after gasdynamic temperature-raising shock and formation of a highly-ionized nonisothermal plasma $T_e>>T_i$ only the solitary ion-sound wave (soliton) can propagate in this plasma. In such a wave the charge separation occurs: electrons and ions form the double electric layer with the electric field. The shock wave form, its amplitude and front width are obtained.

  19. Co-existence of Whistler Waves with Kinetic Alfven Wave Turbulence for the High-beta Solar Wind Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Mithaiwala, Manish; Crabtree, Chris; Ganguli, Gurudas

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the dispersion relation for whistler waves is identical for a high or low beta plasma. Furthermore in the high-beta solar wind plasma whistler waves meet the Landau resonance with electrons for velocities less than the thermal speed, and consequently the electric force is small compared to the mirror force. As whistlers propagate through the inhomogeneous solar wind, the perpendicular wave number increases through refraction, increasing the Landau damping rate. However, the whistlers can survive because the background kinetic Alfven wave turbulence creates a plateau by quasilinear diffusion in the solar wind electron distribution at small velocities. It is found that for whistler energy density of only ~10^-3 that of the kinetic Alfven waves, the quasilinear diffusion rate due to whistlers is comparable to KAW. Thus very small amplitude whistler turbulence can have a significant consequence on the evolution of the solar wind electron distribution function.

  20. Relationship between T-wave amplitude and oxygen pulse in guinea pigs in hyperbaric helium and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayar, S R; Parker, E C; Aukhert, E O

    1998-09-01

    Diving is known to induce a change in the amplitude of the T wave (ATw) of electrocardiograms, but it is unknown whether this is linked to a change in cardiovascular performance. We analyzed ATw in guinea pigs at 10-60 atm and 25-36 degreesC, breathing 2% O2 in either helium (heliox; n = 10) or hydrogen (hydrox; n = 9) for 1 h at each pressure. Core temperature and electrocardiograms were detected by using implanted radiotelemeters. O2 consumption rate was measured by using gas chromatography. In a previous study (S. R. Kayar and E. C. Parker. J. Appl. Physiol. 82: 988-997, 1997), we analyzed the O2 pulse, i.e., the O2 consumption rate per heart beat, in the same animals. By multivariate regression analysis, we identified variables that were significant to O2 pulse: body surface area, chamber temperature, core temperature, and pressure. In this study, inclusion of ATw made a significantly better model with fewer variables. After normalizing for chamber temperature and pressure, the O2 pulse increased with increasing ATw in heliox (P = 0.001) but with decreasing ATw in hydrox (P pulse for animals breathing heliox vs. hydrox.

  1. Differential impact of monsoon and large amplitude internal waves on coral reef development in the Andaman Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Marlene; Schmidt, Gertraud Maria; Janjang, Pornpan; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat; Richter, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The Andaman Sea and other macrotidal semi-enclosed tropical seas feature large amplitude internal waves (LAIW). Although LAIW induce strong fluctuations i.e. of temperature, pH, and nutrients, their influence on reef development is so far unknown. A better-known source of disturbance is the monsoon affecting corals due to turbulent mixing and sedimentation. Because in the Andaman Sea both, LAIW and monsoon, act from the same westerly direction their relative contribution to reef development is difficult to discern. Here, we explore the framework development in a number of offshore island locations subjected to differential LAIW- and SW-monsoon impact to address this open question. Cumulative negative temperature anomalies - a proxy for LAIW impact - explained a higher percentage of the variability in coral reef framework height, than sedimentation rates which resulted mainly from the monsoon. Temperature anomalies and sediment grain size provided the best correlation with framework height suggesting that so far neglected subsurface processes (LAIW) play a significant role in shaping coral reefs.

  2. FPGA Implementation of an Amplitude-Modulated Continuous-Wave Ultrasonic Ranger Using Restructured Phase-Locking Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate ultrasonic range finder employing Sliding Discrete Fourier Transform (SDFT based restructured phase-locked loop (RPLL, which is an improved version of the recently proposed integrated phase-locking scheme (IPLL, has been expounded. This range finder principally utilizes amplitude-modulated ultrasonic waves assisted by an infrared (IR pilot signal. The phase shift between the envelope of the reference IR pilot signal and that of the received ultrasonic signal is proportional to the range. The extracted envelopes are filtered by SDFT without introducing any additional phase shift. A new RPLL is described in which the phase error is driven to zero using the quadrature signal derived from the SDFT. Further, the quadrature signal is reinforced by another cosine signal derived from a lookup table (LUT. The pulse frequency of the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO is extremely accurate, enabling fine tuning of the SDFT and RPLL also improves the lock time for the 50 Hz input signal to 0.04 s. The percentage phase error for the range 0.6 m to 6 m is about 0.2%. The VHDL codes generated for the various signal processing steps were downloaded into a Cyclone FPGA chip around which the ultrasonic ranger had been built.

  3. Novel method of high-accuracy wavefront-phase and amplitude correction for coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Charles W.; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Lyon, Richard G.

    2003-11-01

    Detection of extra-solar, and especially terrestrial-like planets, using coronagraphy requires an extremely high level of wavefront correction. For example, the study of Woodruff et al. (2002) has shown that phase uniformity of order 10-4λ(rms) must be achieved over the critical range of spatial frequencies to produce the ~1010 contrast needed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission. Correction of wavefront phase errors to this level may be accomplished by using a very high precision deformable mirror (DM). However, not only phase but also amplitude uniformity of the same scale (~10-4) and over the same spatial frequency range must be simultaneously obtained to remove all residual speckle in the image plane. We present a design for producing simultaneous wavefront phase and amplitude uniformity to high levels from an input wavefront of lower quality. The design uses a dual Michelson interferometer arrangement incorporating two DM and a single, fixed mirror (all at pupils) and two beamsplitters: one with unequal (asymmetric) beam splitting and one with symmetric beam splitting. This design allows high precision correction of both phase and amplitude using DM with relatively coarse steps and permits a simple correction algorithm.

  4. Dynamics of self-generated, large amplitude magnetic fields following high-intensity laser matter interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Sarri, G; Cecchetti, C A; Kar, S; Liseykina, T V; Yang, X H; Dieckmann, M E; Fuchs, J; Galimberti, M; Gizzi, L A; Jung, R; Kourakis, I; Osterholz, J; Pegoraro, F; Robinson, A P L; Romagnani, L; Willi, O; Borghesi, M

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of magnetic fields with amplitude of several tens of Megagauss, generated at both sides of a solid target irradiated with a high intensity (? 1019W/cm2) picosecond laser pulse, has been spatially and temporally resolved using a proton imaging technique. The amplitude of the magnetic fields is sufficiently large to have a constraining effect on the radial expansion of the plasma sheath at the target surfaces. These results, supported by numerical simulations and simple analytical modeling, may have implications for ion acceleration driven by the plasma sheath at the rear side of the target as well as for the laboratory study of self-collimated high-energy plasma jets.

  5. Analysis of the Petersen Diagram of Double-Mode High-Amplitude {\\delta} Scuti Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    I created the Petersen diagram relative to all the Double Mode High Amplitude {\\delta} Scuti stars listed in the AAVSO's International Variable Star Index up to date December 29, 2015. For the first time I noticed that the ratio between the two periods P1/P0 seems in evident linear relation with the duration of the period P0, a finding never explicitly described in literature regarding this topic.

  6. A high-stability non-contact dilatometer for low-amplitude temperature-modulated measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckabauer, Martin; Sprengel, Wolfgang; Würschum, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Temperature modulated thermophysical measurements can deliver valuable insights into the phase transformation behavior of many different materials. While especially for non-metallic systems at low temperatures numerous powerful methods exist, no high-temperature device suitable for modulated measurements of bulk metallic alloy samples is available for routine use. In this work a dilatometer for temperature modulated isothermal and non-isothermal measurements in the temperature range from room temperature to 1300 K is presented. The length measuring system is based on a two-beam Michelson laser interferometer with an incremental resolution of 20 pm. The non-contact measurement principle allows for resolving sinusoidal length change signals with amplitudes in the sub-500 nm range and physically decouples the length measuring system from the temperature modulation and heating control. To demonstrate the low-amplitude capabilities, results for the thermal expansion of nickel for two different modulation frequencies are presented. These results prove that the novel method can be used to routinely resolve length-change signals of metallic samples with temperature amplitudes well below 1 K. This high resolution in combination with the non-contact measurement principle significantly extends the application range of modulated dilatometry towards high-stability phase transformation measurements on complex alloys.

  7. WEATHER ON OTHER WORLDS. III. A SURVEY FOR T DWARFS WITH HIGH-AMPLITUDE OPTICAL VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, Aren N.; Metchev, Stanimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Kellogg, Kendra, E-mail: aren.heinze@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: smetchev@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-03-10

    We have monitored 12 T dwarfs with the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope using an F814W filter (0.7-0.95 μm) to place in context the remarkable 10%-20% variability exhibited by the nearby T dwarf Luhman 16B in this wavelength regime. The motivation was the poorly known red optical behavior of T dwarfs, which have been monitored almost exclusively at infrared wavelengths, where variability amplitudes greater than 10% have been found to be very rare. We detect highly significant variability in two T dwarfs. The T2.5 dwarf 2MASS 13243559+6358284 shows consistent ∼17% variability on two consecutive nights. The T2 dwarf 2MASS J16291840+0335371 exhibits ∼10% variability that may evolve from night to night, similarly to Luhman 16B. Both objects were previously known to be variable in the infrared, but with considerably lower amplitudes. We also find evidence for variability in the T6 dwarf J162414.37+002915.6, but since it has lower significance, we conservatively refrain from claiming this object as a variable. We explore and rule out various telluric effects, demonstrating that the variations we detect are astrophysically real. We suggest that high-amplitude photometric variability for T dwarfs is likely more common in the red optical than at longer wavelengths. The two new members of the growing class of high-amplitude variable T dwarfs offer excellent prospects for further study of cloud structures and their evolution.

  8. [High-frequency ventilation. I. Distribution of alveolar pressure amplitudes during high frequency oscillation in the lung model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, J; Lunkenheimer, P P; Niederer, P; Bush, E; Frieling, G; Lawin, P

    1987-09-01

    The pattern of intrapulmonary pressure distribution was studied during high-frequency ventilation in order to explain the inconsistent results reported in the literature. Methods. Pressure and flow velocity (hot-wire anemometry) were measured in different lung compartments: 1. In transalveolar chambers sealed to the perforated pleural surfaces of dried pig lungs; 2. In emphysema-simulating airbags sealed to the isolated bronchial trees of dried pig lungs; and 3. In transalveolar chambers sealed to the perforated pleural surfaces of freshly excised pig lungs. Results. 1. The pressure amplitudes change from one area to another and depending on the exciting frequency. 2. High-frequency oscillation is associated with an increase in pressure amplitude when the exciting frequency rises, whereas with conventional high-frequency jet ventilation the pressure amplitude is more likely to decrease with frequency. 3. During high-frequency jet ventilation the local pressure amplitude changes with the position of the tube in the trachea rather than with the exciting frequency. 4. When the volume of the measuring chamber is doubled the resulting pressure amplitude falls to half the control value. 5. The pressure amplitude and mean pressure measured in the transalveolar chamber vary more or less independently from the peak flow velocity. High-frequency ventilation is thus seen to be a frequency-dependant, inhomogeneous mode of ventilation that can essentially be homogenized by systematically changing the exciting frequency. The frequency-dependant response to different lung areas to excitation is likely to result from an intrabronchially-localized aerodynamic effect rather than the mechanical properties of the lung parenchyma.

  9. Speckle interferometric sensor to measure low-amplitude high frequency Ocular Microtremor (OMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, James P.; Al-Kalbani, Mohammed; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Boyle, Gerard; Coakley, Davis; Sheridan, John T.

    2009-08-01

    Ocular microtremor (OMT) is a physiological high frequency (up to 150Hz) low amplitude (150-2500nm) involuntary tremor of the human eye. It is one of the three fixational ocular motions described by Adler and Fliegelman in 1934 as well as microsaccades and drift. Clinical OMT investigations to date have used eye-contacting piezoelectric probes or piezoelectric strain gauges. Before contact can be made, the eye must first be anaesthetised. In some cases, this induces eyelid spasms (blepharospasm) making it impossible to measure OMT. Using the contact probe method, the eye motion is mechanically damped. In addition to this, it is not possible to obtain exact information about the displacement. Results from clinical studies to date have given electrical signal amplitudes from the probe. Recent studies suggest a number of clinical applications for OMT, these include monitoring the depth of anaesthesia of a patient in surgery, prediction of outcome in coma, diagnosis of brainstem death. In addition to this, abnormal OMT frequency content is present in patients with neurological disorders such as Multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. However for ongoing clinical investigations the contact probe method falls short of a non-contact accurate measurement solution. In this paper, we design a compact non contact phase modulating optical fiber speckle interferometer to measure eye motions. We present our calibration results using a calibrated piezoelectric vibration simulator. Digital signal processing is then performed to extract the low amplitude high frequency displacement information.

  10. Tip radius preservation for high resolution imaging in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jorge R., E-mail: jorge.rr@cea.cu [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Canto Blanco, 28049 Madrid, España (Spain)

    2014-07-28

    The acquisition of high resolution images in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is correlated to the cantilever's tip shape, size, and imaging conditions. In this work, relative tip wear is quantified based on the evolution of a direct experimental observable in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy, i.e., the critical amplitude. We further show that the scanning parameters required to guarantee a maximum compressive stress that is lower than the yield/fracture stress of the tip can be estimated via experimental observables. In both counts, the optimized parameters to acquire AFM images while preserving the tip are discussed. The results are validated experimentally by employing IgG antibodies as a model system.

  11. Subsurface Signature of the Internal Wave Field Radiated by Submerged High Reynolds Number Stratified Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-26

    parametric subharmonic instability. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Stratified turbulent wakes, high Reynolds numbers, internal waves, nonlinear effects, harmonics, mean...beam and the potential for parametric subharmonic instability. In all these efforts, a uniform linear stratification was considered. A subset of our...found for all simulated waves. c) For sufficiently high-amplitude beams, a parametric subharmonic instability is observed after a long enough time

  12. Focal plane wave-front sensing algorithm for high-contrast imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    High-contrast imaging provided by a coronagraph is critical for the direction imaging of the Earth-like planet orbiting its bright parent star.A major limitation for such direct imaging is the speckle noise that is induced from the wave-front error of an optical system.We derive an algorithm for the wave-front measurement directly from 3 focal plane images.The 3 images are achieved through a deformable mirror to provide specific phases for the optics system.We introduce an extra amplitude modulation on one deformable mirror configuration to create an uncorrelated wave-front,which is a critical procedure for wave-front sensing.The simulation shows that the reconstructed wave-front is consistent with the original wave-front theoretically,which indicates that such an algorithm is a promising technique for the wave-front measurement for the high-contrast imaging.

  13. Focal plane wave-front sensin8 algorithm for high-contrast imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU JiangPei; REN DeQing; ZHU YongTian; ZHANG Xi

    2009-01-01

    High-contrast imaging provided by a coronagraph is critical for the direction imaging of the Earth-like planet orbiting its bright parent star. A major limitation for such direct imaging is the speckle noise that is induced from the wave-front error of an optical system. We derive an algorithm for the wave-front measurement directly from 3 focal plane images. The 3 images are achieved through a deformable mirror to provide specific phases for the optics system. We introduce an extra amplitude modulation on one deformable mirror configuration to create an uncorrelated wave-front, which is a critical procedure for wave-front sensing. The simulation shows that the reconstructed wave-front is consistent with the original wave-front theoretically, which indicates that such an algorithm is a promising technique for the wave-front measurement for the high-contrast imaging.

  14. Triplet pair amplitude in a trapped s -wave superfluid Fermi gas with broken spin rotation symmetry. II. Three-dimensional continuum case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotani, Daisuke; Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji

    2016-10-01

    We extend our recent work [Y. Endo et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 023610 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.023610 for a parity-mixing effect in a model of two-dimensional lattice fermions to a realistic three-dimensional ultracold Fermi gas. Including effects of broken local spatial inversion symmetry by a trap potential within the framework of the real-space Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory at T =0 , we point out that an odd-parity p -wave Cooper-pair amplitude is expected to have already been realized in previous experiments on an (even-parity) s -wave superfluid Fermi gas with spin imbalance. This indicates that when one suddenly changes the s -wave pairing interaction to an appropriate p -wave one by using a Feshbach technique in this case, a nonvanishing p -wave superfluid order parameter is immediately obtained, which is given by the product of the p -wave interaction and the p -wave pair amplitude that has already been induced in the spin-imbalanced s -wave superfluid Fermi gas. Thus, by definition, the system is in the p -wave superfluid state, at least just after this manipulation. Since the achievement of a p -wave superfluid state is one of the most exciting challenges in cold Fermi gas physics, our results may provide an alternative approach to this unconventional pairing state. In addition, since the parity-mixing effect cannot be explained as far as one deals with a trap potential in the local density approximation (LDA), it is considered as a crucial example which requires us to go beyond the LDA.

  15. An application of Love SH waves for the viscosity measurement of triglycerides at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostocki, A. J.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.

    2010-03-01

    A new ultrasonic method of viscosity measurements at a high-pressure conditions has been presented. The method is based on the Love wave amplitude measurement. The same electronic setup as in the Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) wave method applied by the authors recently for a high-pressure measurement was adopted. The new sensors were made of metallic materials, which make them more reliable at high-pressure conditions. The method has been successfully applied for the viscosity measurement of some triglycerides at high-pressure conditions up to 1 GPa. The results have been compared with the earlier results obtained using B-G waves. This comparison has shown that Love wave method sensors are more reliable than B-G wave sensors and are also cheaper in fabrication, although the sensitivity of Love wave sensors is lower. During the measurement, the phase transitions in the investigated liquids were observed.

  16. Effect of heat-induced pain stimuli on pulse transit time and pulse wave amplitude in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Marit H N; Loeve, Arjo J; Kortekaas, Minke C; Niehof, Sjoerd P; Mik, Egbert G; Stolker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Pain is commonly assessed subjectively by interpretations of patient behaviour and/or reports from patients. When this is impossible the availability of a quantitative objective pain assessment tool based on objective physiological parameters would greatly benefit clinical practice and research beside the standard self-report tests. Vasoconstriction is one of the physiological responses to pain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pulse transit time (PTT) and pulse wave amplitude (PWA) decrease in response to this vasoconstriction when caused by heat-induced pain. The PTT and PWA were measured in healthy volunteers, on both index fingers using photoplethysmography and electrocardiography. Each subject received 3 heat-induced pain stimuli using a Temperature-Sensory Analyzer thermode block to apply a controlled, increasing temperature from 32.0 °C to 50.0 °C to the skin. After reaching 50.0 °C, the thermode was immediately cooled down to 32.0 °C. The study population was divided into 2 groups with a time-interval between the stimuli 20s or 60s. The results showed a significant (p  <  0.05) decrease of both PTT and PWA on the stimulated and contralateral side. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the stimulated and contralateral side. The time-interval of 20s was too short to allow PTT and PWA to return to baseline values and should exceed 40s in future studies. Heat-induced pain causes a decrease of PTT and PWA. Consequently, it is expected that, in the future, PTT and PWA may be applied as objective indicators of pain, either beside the standard self-report test, or when self-report testing is impossible.

  17. On statistical properties of wave amplitudes in stormy sea. Effect of short-crestedness; Daihakoji no haro no tokeiteki seishitsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimoto, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Since ocean waves encountered by ocean vessels or offshore structures in actual sea areas present extremely irregular variations, a stochastic method is necessary to estimate their statistical properties. This paper first shows a calculation method for probability density function for water level variation which strictly incorporates a secondary non-linear effect containing directional dispersibility by modeling ocean waves as short-crested irregular waves. Then, the paper specifically elucidates effects of the directional dispersibility of ocean waves on statistical amount of amplitudes by deriving the statistical amount of the amplitudes based on the probability density function of the water level variation and by using a numerical simulation. The paper finally takes up data of waves in stormy sea observed in an experiment in an actual sea area, compares the result with that of theoretical calculations, and evaluates reasonability of this method. With this estimation method, individual secondary components or components of difference and sum may be subjected to influence of the directional dispersibility, but they do not differ much from the case of long-crested irregular waves on the whole. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Effects of thrust amplitude and duration of high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation on lumbar muscle spindle responses to vertebral position and movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Reed, William R.; Long, Cynthia R.; Kawchuk, Gregory N.; Pickar, Joel G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mechanical characteristics of high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulations (HVLA-SM) can be variable. Sustained changes in peripheral neuronal signaling due to altered load transmission to a sensory receptor’s local mechanical environment are often considered a mechanism contributing to the therapeutic effects of spinal manipulation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an HVLA-SM’s thrust amplitude or duration altered neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. METHODS Anesthetized cats (n=112) received L6 HVLA-SMs delivered to the spinous process. Cats were divided into 6 cohorts depending upon the peak thrust force (25%, 55%, 85% body weight) or thrust displacement (1, 2, 3mm) they received. Cats in each cohort received 8 thrust durations (0–250ms). Afferent discharge from 112 spindles was recorded in response to ramp and hold vertebral movement before and after the manipulation. Changes in mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) during the baseline period preceding the ramps (ΔMIFresting), during ramp movements (ΔMIFmovement), and with the vertebra held in the new position (ΔMIFposition) were compared. RESULTS Thrust duration had a small but statistically significant effect on ΔMIFresting at all six thrust amplitudes compared to control (0ms thrust duration). The lowest amplitude thrust displacement (1mm) increased ΔMIFresting at all thrust durations. For all the other thrust displacements and forces, the direction of change in ΔMIFresting was not consistent and the pattern of change was not systematically related to thrust duration. Regardless of thrust force, displacement, or duration, ΔMIFmovement and ΔMIFposition were not significantly different from control. Conclusion Relatively low amplitude thrust displacements applied during an HVLA-SM produced sustained increases in the resting discharge of paraspinal muscle spindles regardless of the duration over which the thrust was

  19. Effects of thrust amplitude and duration of high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation on lumbar muscle spindle responses to vertebral position and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Reed, William R; Long, Cynthia R; Kawchuk, Gregory N; Pickar, Joel G

    2013-02-01

    Mechanical characteristics of high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulations (HVLA-SMs) can vary. Sustained changes in peripheral neuronal signaling due to altered load transmission to a sensory receptor's local mechanical environment are often considered a mechanism contributing to the therapeutic effects of spinal manipulation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether variation in an HVLA-SM's thrust amplitude and duration alters the neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. Anesthetized cats (n = 112) received L6 HVLA-SMs delivered to the spinous process. Cats were divided into 6 cohorts depending upon the peak thrust force (25%, 55%, 85% body weight) or thrust displacement (1, 2, 3 mm) they received. Cats in each cohort received 8 thrust durations (0-250 milliseconds). Afferent discharge from 112 spindles was recorded in response to ramp and hold vertebral movement before and after the manipulation. Changes in mean instantaneous frequency (∆MIF) during the baseline period preceding the ramps (∆MIFresting), during ramp movement (∆MIFmovement), and with the vertebra held in the new position (∆MIFposition) were compared. Thrust duration had a small but statistically significant effect on ∆MIFresting at all 6 thrust amplitudes compared with control (0-millisecond thrust duration). The lowest amplitude thrust displacement (1 mm) increased ∆MIFresting at all thrust durations. For all the other thrust displacements and forces, the direction of change in ∆MIFresting was not consistent, and the pattern of change was not systematically related to thrust duration. Regardless of thrust force, displacement, or duration, ∆MIFmovement and ∆MIFposition were not significantly different from control. Relatively low-amplitude thrust displacements applied during an HVLA-SM produced sustained increases in the resting discharge of paraspinal muscle spindles regardless of the duration over which the thrust

  20. First Results with a Fast Phase and Amplitude Modulator for High Power RF Application

    CERN Document Server

    Frischholz, Hans; Valuch, D; Weil, C

    2004-01-01

    In a high energy and high power superconducting proton linac, it is more economical to drive several cavities with a single high power transmitter rather than to use one transmitter per cavity. However, this option has the disadvantage of not permitting individual control for each cavity, which potentially leads to instabilities. Provided that it can be built at a reasonable cost, a fast phase and amplitude modulator inserted into each cavity feeder line can provide the necessary control capability. A prototype of such a device has been built, based on two fast and compact high power RF phase-shifters, magnetically biased by external coils. The design is described, together with the results obtained at high and low power levels.

  1. Semi-blind Adaptive Beamforming for High-throughput Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Chen; Wang Yao; Lajos Hanzo

    2010-01-01

    A semi-blind adaptive beamforming scheme is proposed for wireless systems that employ high-throughput quadrature amplitude modulation signalling. A minimum number of training symbols, equal to the number of receiver antenna array's elements, are first utilised to provide a rough initial least squares estimate of the beamformer's weight vector. A concurrent constant modulus algorithm and soft decision-directed scheme is then applied to adapt the beamformer. This semi-blind adaptive beamforming scheme is capable of converging fast to the minimum mean-square-error beamforming solution, as demonstrated in our simulation study.

  2. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph with reduced amplitude zone detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as ''RAZs''. RAZs are displayed as ''go, no-go'' signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  3. Excitation of high-frequency surface waves with long duration in the Valley of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Masahiro

    1999-04-01

    During the 1985 Michoacan earthquake (Ms = 8.1), large-amplitude seismograms with extremely long duration were recorded in the lake bed zone of Mexico City. We interpret high-frequency seismic wave fields in the three geotechnical zones (the hill, the transition, and the lake bed zones) in the Valley of Mexico on the basis of a systematic analysis for borehole strong motion recordings. We make identification of wave types for real seismograms. First, amplitude ratios between surface and underground seismograms indicate that predominant periods of the surface seismograms are largely controlled by the wave field incident into surficial layers in the Valley of Mexico. We interpret recorded surface waves as fundamental-mode Love waves excited in the Mexican Volcanic Belt by calculating theoretical amplification for different-scale structures. Second, according to a cross-correlation analysis, the hill and transition seismograms are mostly surface waves. In the lake bed zone, while early portions are noisy body waves, late portions are mostly surface waves. Third, using two kinds of surface arrays with different station intervals, we investigate high-frequency surface-wave propagation in the lake bed zone. The wave propagation is very complicated, depending upon the time section and the frequency band. Finally, on the basis of a statistical time series model with an information criterion, we separate S- and surface-wave portions from lake bed seismograms. Surface waves are dominant and are recognized even in the early time section. Thus high-frequency surface waves with long duration in the Valley of Mexico are excited by the Mexican Volcanic Belt.

  4. Cardiac Risk and Disordered Eating: Decreased R Wave Amplitude in Women with Bulimia Nervosa and Women with Subclinical Binge/Purge Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melinda; Rogers, Jennifer; Nguyen, Christine; Blasko, Katherine; Martin, Amanda; Hudson, Dominique; Fernandez-Kong, Kristen; Kaza-Amlak, Zauditu; Thimmesch, Brandon; Thorne, Tyler

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was threefold. First, we examined whether women with bulimia nervosa (n = 12) and women with subthreshold binge/purge symptoms (n = 20) showed decreased mean R wave amplitude, an indicator of cardiac risk, on electrocardiograph compared to asymptomatic women (n = 20). Second, we examined whether this marker was pervasive across experimental paradigms, including before and after sympathetic challenge tasks. Third, we investigated behavioural predictors of this marker, including binge frequency and purge frequency assessed by subtype (dietary restriction, excessive exercise, self-induced vomiting, and laxative abuse). Results of a 3 (ED symptom status) × 5 (experimental condition) mixed factorial ANCOVA (covariates: body mass index, age) indicated women with bulimia nervosa and women with subclinical binge/purge symptoms demonstrated significantly reduced mean R wave amplitude compared to asymptomatic women; this effect was pervasive across experimental conditions. Multiple regression analyses showed binge and purge behaviours, most notably laxative abuse as a purge method, predicted decreased R wave amplitude across all experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. 基于虚拟偏移距方法的各向异性转换波保幅叠前时间偏移%Anisotropic converted wave amplitude-preserving prestack time migration by the pseudo-offset method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽艳; 刘洋

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we use the method of pseudo-offset migration (POM) to complete converted wave pre-stack time migration with amplitude-preservation in an anisotropic medium. The method maps the original traces into common conversion scatter point (CCSP) gathers directly by POM, which simplifies the conventional processing procedure for converted waves. The POM gather fold and SNR are high, which is favorable for velocity analysis and especially suitable for seismic data with low SNR. We used equivalent anisotropic theory to compute anisotropic parameters. Based on the scattering wave traveltime equation in a VTI medium, the POM pseudo-offset migration in anisotropic media was deduced. By amplitude-preserving POM gather mapping, velocity analysis, stack processing, and so on, the anisotropic migration results were acquired. The forward modeling computation and actual data processing demonstrate the validity of converted wave pre-stack time migration with amplitude-preservation using the anisotropic POM method.

  6. On the local properties of highly nonlinear unsteady gravity water waves. Part 1. Slowdown, kinematics and energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Barthelemy, X; Peirson, W L; Dias, F; Allis, M

    2015-01-01

    The kinematic properties of unsteady highly non-linear 3D wave groups have been investigated using a numerical wave tank. Although carrier wave speeds based on zero-crossing analysis remain within +-7% of linear theory predictions, crests and troughs locally undertake a systematic cyclical leaning from forward to backward as the crests/troughs transition through their maximum amplitude. Consequently, both crests and troughs slow down by approximately 15% of the linear velocity, in sharp contrast to the predictions of finite amplitude Stokes steady wavetrain theory. Velocity profiles under the crest maximum have been investigated and surface values in excess of 1.8 times the equivalent Stokes velocity can be observed. Equipartitioning between depth-integrated kinetic and potential energy holds globally on the scale of the wave group. However, equipartitioning does not occur at crests and troughs (even for low amplitude Stokes waves), where the local ratio of potential to total energy varies systemically as a f...

  7. Entanglement between low- and high-lying atomic spin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, D. S.; Wang, K.; Zhang, W.; Shi, S.; Dong, M. X.; Yu, Y. C.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Shi, B. S.; Guo, G. C.

    2016-11-01

    Establishing a quantum interface between different physical systems is of special importance for developing the practical versatile quantum networks. Entanglement between low- and high-lying atomic spin waves is essential for building up Rydberg-based quantum information engineering, which is also helpful to study the dynamics behavior of entanglement under external perturbations. Here, we report on the successful storage of a single photon as a high-lying atomic spin wave in a quantum regime. By storing a K-vector entanglement between a single photon and low-lying spin wave, we experimentally realize the entanglement between low- and high-lying atomic spin waves in two separated atomic systems. This makes our experiment a primary demonstration of Rydberg quantum memory of entanglement, representing a primary step toward the construction of a hybrid quantum interface.

  8. Alfvén ship waves: high-m ULF pulsations in the magnetosphere generated by a moving plasma inhomogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Klimushkin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The generation of a high-m Alfvén wave by substorm injected energetic particles in the magnetosphere is studied. The wave is supposed to be emitted by an alternating current created by the drifting particle cloud or ring current inhomogeneity. It is shown that the wave appears in some azimuthal location simultaneously with the particle cloud arrival at the same spot. The value of the azimuthal wave number is determined as m~ω/ωd, where ω is the eigenfrequency of the standing Alfvén wave and ωd is the particle drift frequency. The wave propagates westward, in the direction of the proton drift. Under the reasonable assumption about the density of the energetic particles, the amplitude of the generated wave is close to the observed amplitudes of poloidal ULF pulsations.

  9. Thermal effects on seeded finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    CERN Document Server

    Held, M; Madsen, J; Kendl, A

    2016-01-01

    Thermal effects on the perpendicular convection of seeded pressure blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetised fusion plasmas are investigated. Our numerical study is based on a four field full-F gyrofluid model, which entails the consistent description of high fluctuation amplitudes and dynamic finite Larmor radius effects. We find that a temperature perturbation increases the maximal blob velocity and that a finite Larmor radius contributes to highly compact blob structures with finite poloidal motion. An extensive parameter study reveals that a smooth transition to this compact blob regime occurs when the finite Larmor radius effect strength, defined by the ratio of the ion diamagnetic to the perpendicular vorticity, exceeds unity. The maximal blob velocities excellently agree with the inertial velocity scaling law over more than an order of magnitude. We show that the finite Larmor radius effect strength affects the radial transport and verify the here presented empirical scaling law for the maximal radia...

  10. An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓丰; 莫太山; 马成炎; 叶甜春

    2012-01-01

    An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented.The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs.And what's more,the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to increase the step accuracy.A zero,which is composed by the source feedback resistance and the source capacity,is introduced to compensate for the pole.The AGC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process.The AGC shows a 62 dB gain control range by 1 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.2 dB.The AGC provides 3 dB bandwidth larger than 80 MHz and the overall power consumption is less than 1.8 mA,and the die area is 800 × 300μm2.

  11. Squeeze Film Dampers Executing Small Amplitude Circular-Centered Orbits in High-Speed Turbomachinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Hamzehlouia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work represents a pressure distribution model for finite length squeeze film dampers (SFDs executing small amplitude circular-centered orbits (CCOs with application in high-speed turbomachinery design. The proposed pressure distribution model only accounts for unsteady (temporal inertia terms, since based on order of magnitude analysis, for small amplitude motions of the journal center, the effect of convective inertia is negligible relative to unsteady (temporal inertia. In this work, the continuity equation and the momentum transport equations for incompressible lubricants are reduced by assuming that the shapes of the fluid velocity profiles are not strongly influenced by the inertia forces, obtaining an extended form of Reynolds equation for the hydrodynamic pressure distribution that accounts for fluid inertia effects. Furthermore, a numerical procedure is represented to discretize the model equations by applying finite difference approximation (FDA and to numerically determine the pressure distribution and fluid film reaction forces in SFDs with significant accuracy. Finally, the proposed model is incorporated into a simulation model and the results are compared against existing SFD models. Based on the simulation results, the pressure distribution and fluid film reaction forces are significantly influenced by fluid inertia effects even at small and moderate Reynolds numbers.

  12. Statistical threshold determination method through noise map generation for two dimensional amplitude and time-of-flight mapping of guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenn Chong, See; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yik Park, Chan

    2013-03-01

    Conventional threshold crossing technique generally encounters the difficulty in setting a common threshold level in the extraction of the respective time-of-flights (ToFs) and amplitudes from the guided waves obtained at many different points by spatial scanning. Therefore, we propose a statistical threshold determination method through noise map generation to automatically process numerous guided waves having different propagation distances. First, a two-dimensional (2-D) noise map is generated using one-dimensional (1-D) WT magnitudes at time zero of the acquired waves. Then, the probability density functions (PDFs) of Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution and exponential distribution are used to model the measured 2-D noise map. Graphical goodness-of-fit measurements are used to find the best fit among the three theoretical distributions. Then, the threshold level is automatically determined by selecting the desired confidence level of the noise rejection in the cumulative distribution function of the best fit PDF. Based on this threshold level, the amplitudes and ToFs are extracted and mapped into a 2-D matrix array form. The threshold level determined by the noise statistics may cross the noise signal after time zero. These crossings are represented as salt-and-pepper noise in the ToF and amplitude maps but finally removed by the 1-D median filter. This proposed method was verified in a thick stainless steel hollow cylinder where guided waves were acquired in an area of 180 mm×126 mm of the cylinder by using a laser ultrasonic scanning system and an ultrasonic sensor. The Gamma distribution was estimated as the best fit to the verification experimental data by the proposed algorithm. The statistical parameters of the Gamma distribution were used to determine the threshold level appropriate for most of the guided waves. The ToFs and amplitudes of the first arrival mode were mapped into a 2-D matrix array form. Each map included 447 noisy points out of 90

  13. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  14. Millimetre wave spectroscopy of high Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkt, F.; Osterwalder, A.

    We have recently developed high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet laser sources and combined these with millimetre waves in double-resonance experiments to achieve a spectral resolution of up to 60 kHz in the spectra of high Rydberg states. The article describes the main features of our experimental procedure and presents studies in which we have used millimetre wave spectroscopy (a) to obtain information on the energy level structure, including the spin-orbit and hyperfine structure, of atomic Rydberg states at high principal quantum numbers n , (b) to record spectrally resolved spectra of the high Rydberg states ( n ≥100) detected in pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron spectra, (c) to measure stray electric fields and ion concentrations in the gas phase, (d) to test and improve the selectivity of the electric field ionization of high Rydberg states and (e) to observe for the first time the hyperfine structure in high- n , low- l molecular Rydberg states.

  15. Giant-amplitude, high-work density microactuators with phase transition activated nanolayer bimorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Cheng, Chun; Cheng, Zhenting; Wang, Kevin; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Wu, Junqiao

    2012-12-12

    Various mechanisms are currently exploited to transduce a wide range of stimulating sources into mechanical motion. At the microscale, simultaneously high amplitude, high work output, and high speed in actuation are hindered by limitations of these actuation mechanisms. Here we demonstrate a set of microactuators fabricated by a simple microfabrication process, showing simultaneously high performance by these metrics, operated on the structural phase transition in vanadium dioxide responding to diverse stimuli of heat, electric current, and light. In both ambient and aqueous conditions, the actuators bend with exceedingly high displacement-to-length ratios up to 1 in the sub-100 μm length scale, work densities over 0.63 J/cm(3), and at frequencies up to 6 kHz. The functionalities of actuation can be further enriched with integrated designs of planar as well as three-dimensional geometries. Combining the superior performance, high durability, diversity in responsive stimuli, versatile working environments, and microscale manufacturability, these actuators offer potential applications in microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, robotics, drug delivery, and artificial muscles.

  16. High efficiency processing for reduced amplitude zones detection in the HRECG signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarte, N.; Álvarez, A.; Balacco, J.; Mercado, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Dugarte, E.; Olivares, A.

    2016-04-01

    Summary - This article presents part of a more detailed research proposed in the medium to long term, with the intention of establishing a new philosophy of electrocardiogram surface analysis. This research aims to find indicators of cardiovascular disease in its early stage that may go unnoticed with conventional electrocardiography. This paper reports the development of a software processing which collect some existing techniques and incorporates novel methods for detection of reduced amplitude zones (RAZ) in high resolution electrocardiographic signal (HRECG).The algorithm consists of three stages, an efficient processing for QRS detection, averaging filter using correlation techniques and a step for RAZ detecting. Preliminary results show the efficiency of system and point to incorporation of techniques new using signal analysis with involving 12 leads.

  17. High Capacity Phase/Amplitude Modulated Optical Communication Systems and Nonlinear Inter-Channel Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Vahid

    This thesis studies and mathematically models nonlinear interactions among channels of modern high bit rate (amplitude/) phase modulated optical systems. First, phase modulated analogue systems are studied and a differential receiving method is suggested with experimental validation. The main focus of the rest of the thesis is on digital advanced modulation format systems. Cross-talk due to fiber Kerr nonlinearity in two-format hybrid systems as well as 16-QAM systems is mathematically modelled and verified by simulation for different system parameters. A comparative study of differential receivers and coherent receivers is also given for hybrid systems. The model is based on mathematically proven assumptions and provides an intuitive analytical understanding of nonlinear cross-talk in such systems.

  18. Pulsation analysis of the high amplitude δ Scuti star CW Serpentis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jia-Shu; Fu, Jian-Ning; Zong, Wei-Kai

    2013-10-01

    Time-series photometric observations were made for the high amplitude δ Scuti star CW Ser between 2011 and 2012 at the Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. After performing the frequency analysis of the light curves, we confirmed the fundamental frequency of f = 5.28677 c d-1, together with seven harmonics of the fundamental frequency, which are newly detected. No additional frequencies were detected. The O — C diagram, produced with the 21 newly determined times of maximum light combined with those provided in the literature, helps to obtain a new ephemeris formula of the times of maximum light with the pulsation period of 0.189150355 ± 0.000000003 d.

  19. Noninvasive respiratory support of juvenile rabbits by high-amplitude bubble continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diblasi, Robert M; Zignego, Jay C; Tang, Dennis M; Hildebrandt, Jack; Smith, Charles V; Hansen, Thomas N; Richardson, C Peter

    2010-06-01

    Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (B-CPAP) applies small-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations in airway pressure (DeltaPaw) that may improve gas exchange in infants with respiratory disease. We developed a device, high-amplitude B-CPAP (HAB-CPAP), which provides greater DeltaPaw than B-CPAP provides. We studied the effects of different operational parameters on DeltaPaw and volumes of gas delivered to a mechanical infant lung model. In vivo studies tested the hypothesis that HAB-CPAP provides noninvasive respiratory support greater than that provided by B-CPAP. Lavaged juvenile rabbits were stabilized on ventilator nasal CPAP. The animals were then supported at the same mean airway pressure, bias flow, and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) required for stabilization, whereas the bubbler angle was varied in a randomized crossover design at exit angles, relative to vertical, of 0 (HAB-CPAP0; equivalent to conventional B-CPAP), 90 (HAB-CPAP90), and 135 degrees (HAB-CPAP135). Arterial blood gases and pressure-rate product (PRP) were measured after 15 min at each bubbler angle. Pao2 levels were higher (p<0.007) with HAB-CPAP135 than with conventional B-CPAP. PaCO2 levels did not differ (p=0.073) among the three bubbler configurations. PRP with HAB-CPAP135 were half of the PRP with HAB-CPAP0 or HAB-CPAP90 (p=0.001). These results indicate that HAB-CPAP135 provides greater respiratory support than conventional B-CPAP does.

  20. Measuring the Energy Release of Low Amplitude Impact of High Explosive Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, J. W.; Idar, D. J.; Smith, L.; Osborn, M. A.; Viramontes, L. E.; Chavez, P. J.

    2004-07-01

    Predicting the degree of violence of high explosive (HE) reactions for a given event is desirable for risk assessments and a goal for computational models. Historically, different types of low amplitude impact tests on HE specimens have been performed to determine the critical impact-velocity threshold for high explosive violent reactions (HEVR). Additionally, the energy release relative to a steady-state detonation is also desirable for assessing the potential outcome of an accidental event. Traditionally, blast gauge measurements have been used to measure the overpressure of the HEVR event at a defined distance. This paper summarizes the use of this active technique coupled with a passive technique to derive average energy release curves for Modified Steven tests. A classic ballistic pendulum design was employed with the traditional blast gauge method. Calibration of the ballistic pendulum involved three elements. First, two mechanical measurements were related to the actual peak swing of the pendulum. Second, the general nature of the swing versus energy release curve was estimated. Two different approaches were used to estimate the momenta as a function of HE energy release using the Gurney relationships for an unsymmetrical sandwich. Finally, both techniques were simultaneously benchmarked with PBX 9501 calibration charges. Test results demonstrate the utility of using coupled diagnostic methods for low amplitude insult testing. Each set of data was fit to derive a working curve for the determination of the average energy release for HEVR event based on mass relative to a steady-state detonation. These tests results and working curve derivations are presented.

  1. A compact, low jitter, nanosecond rise time, high voltage pulse generator with variable amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiubing; Wang, Xin; Tang, Dan; Lv, Huayi; Li, Chengxin; Shao, Yanhua; Qin, Lan

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a compact, low jitter, nanosecond rise time, command triggered, high peak power, gas-switch pulse generator system is developed for high energy physics experiment. The main components of the system are a high voltage capacitor, the spark gap switch and R = 50 Ω load resistance built into a structure to obtain a fast high power pulse. The pulse drive unit, comprised of a vacuum planar triode and a stack of avalanche transistors, is command triggered by a single or multiple TTL (transistor-transistor logic) level pulses generated by a trigger pulse control unit implemented using the 555 timer circuit. The control unit also accepts user input TTL trigger signal. The vacuum planar triode in the pulse driving unit that close the first stage switches is applied to drive the spark gap reducing jitter. By adjusting the charge voltage of a high voltage capacitor charging power supply, the pulse amplitude varies from 5 kV to 10 kV, with a rise time of gas-switch and available capacitor recovery time.

  2. Correlation between the phase and the log-amplitude of a wave through the vertical atmospheric propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Molodij, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    I present expressions of the correlation between the log-amplitude and the phase of a wavefront propagating through the atmospheric turbulence. The properties of the angular correlation functions are discussed using usual synthetic turbulence profiles. The theoretical study is completed by practical implementations that can be envisioned to determine and eventually compensate the effects of the fluctuations of the intensity during the astronomical observations. The close formulation between the phase and the log-amplitude allows an analytic formulation in the Rytov approximation. Equations contain the product of an arbitrary number of hypergeometric functions that are evaluated using the Mellin transforms integration method.

  3. Detecting phase-amplitude coupling with high frequency resolution using adaptive decompositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Kaur, Satvinder; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun

    2014-04-15

    Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC)--the dependence of the amplitude of one rhythm on the phase of another, lower-frequency rhythm - has recently been used to illuminate cross-frequency coordination in neurophysiological activity. An essential step in measuring PAC is decomposing data to obtain rhythmic components of interest. Current methods of PAC assessment employ narrowband Fourier-based filters, which assume that biological rhythms are stationary, harmonic oscillations. However, biological signals frequently contain irregular and nonstationary features, which may contaminate rhythms of interest and complicate comodulogram interpretation, especially when frequency resolution is limited by short data segments. To better account for nonstationarities while maintaining sharp frequency resolution in PAC measurement, even for short data segments, we introduce a new method of PAC assessment which utilizes adaptive and more generally broadband decomposition techniques - such as the empirical mode decomposition (EMD). To obtain high frequency resolution PAC measurements, our method distributes the PAC associated with pairs of broadband oscillations over frequency space according to the time-local frequencies of these oscillations. We compare our novel adaptive approach to a narrowband comodulogram approach on a variety of simulated signals of short duration, studying systematically how different types of nonstationarities affect these methods, as well as on EEG data. Our results show: (1) narrowband filtering can lead to poor PAC frequency resolution, and inaccuracy and false negatives in PAC assessment; (2) our adaptive approach attains better PAC frequency resolution and is more resistant to nonstationarities and artifacts than traditional comodulograms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microwave beatwave excitation of electron plasma wave and high energy electron production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsuzuka, M.; Obata, K.; Nobuhara, S. [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Two X-band microwave beams with a slightly different frequency and the maximum output power of 50 kW are injected into a target plasma antiparallel to each other through a standard horn. The resonant excitation of an electron plasma wave is observed when the difference in frequency between counterstreaming microwaves is equal to the electron plasma frequency. The excited wave propagates in the same direction as the higher-frequency microwave with a wave length which satisfies the resonance condition of wave number. The wave amplitude grows with an increase in incident microwave power, and reaches the density perturbation {delta}n/n{sub 0} of approximately 3.2 % at the incident microwave power of 40 kW and beat frequency of 600 MHz. A small amount of high-energy electrons with the speed of 27 eV are observed in the high-power region of incident microwave. (author)

  5. On the wave number 2 eastward propagating quasi 2 day wave at middle and high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Liu, Han-Li; Pedatella, N. M.; Dou, Xiankang; Liu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    The temperature and wind data sets from the ensemble data assimilation version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model + Data Assimilation Research Testbed (WACCM + DART) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) are utilized to study the seasonal variability of the eastward quasi 2 day wave (QTDW) with zonal wave number 2 (E2) during 2007. The aliasing ratio of E2 from wave number 3 (W3) in the synoptic WACCM data set is a constant value of 4 × 10-6% due to its uniform sampling pattern, whereas the aliasing is latitudinally dependent if the WACCM fields are sampled asynoptically based on the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) sampling. The aliasing ratio based on SABER sampling is 75% at 40°S during late January, where and when W3 peaks. The analysis of the synoptic WACCM data set shows that the E2 is in fact a winter phenomenon, which peaks in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere at high latitudes. In the austral winter period, the amplitudes of E2 can reach 10 K, 20 m/s, and 30 m/s for temperature, zonal, and meridional winds, respectively. In the boreal winter period, the wave perturbations are only one third as strong as those in austral winter. Diagnostic analysis also shows that the mean flow instabilities in the winter upper mesosphere polar region provide sources for the amplification of E2. This is different from the westward QTDWs, whose amplifications are related to the summer easterly jet. In addition, the E2 also peaks at lower altitude than the westward modes.

  6. Efficient Ultra-High Speed Communication with Simultaneous Phase and Amplitude Regenerative Sampling (SPARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowitz, Christian; Girg, Thomas; Ghaleb, Hatem; Du, Xuan-Quang

    2017-08-01

    For ultra-high speed communication systems at high center frequencies above 100 GHz, we propose a disruptive change in system architecture to address major issues regarding amplifier chains with a large number of amplifier stages. They cause a high noise figure and high power consumption when operating close to the frequency limits of the underlying semiconductor technologies. Instead of scaling a classic homodyne transceiver system, we employ repeated amplification in single-stage amplifiers through positive feedback as well as synthesizer-free self-mixing demodulation at the receiver to simplify the system architecture notably. Since the amplitude and phase information for the emerging oscillation is defined by the input signal and the oscillator is only turned on for a very short time, it can be left unstabilized and thus come without a PLL. As soon as gain is no longer the most prominent issue, relaxed requirements for all the other major components allow reconsidering their implementation concepts to achieve further improvements compared to classic systems. This paper provides the first comprehensive overview of all major design aspects that need to be addressed upon realizing a SPARS-based transceiver. At system level, we show how to achieve high data rates and a noise performance comparable to classic systems, backed by scaled demonstrator experiments. Regarding the transmitter, design considerations for efficient quadrature modulation are discussed. For the frontend components that replace PA and LNA amplifier chains, implementation techniques for regenerative sampling circuits based on super-regenerative oscillators are presented. Finally, an analog-to-digital converter with outstanding performance and complete interfaces both to the analog baseband as well as to the digital side completes the set of building blocks for efficient ultra-high speed communication.

  7. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device.

  8. Short-lived high-amplitude cooling on Svalbard during the Dark Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem; D`Andrea, William; Bakke, Jostein; Balascio, Nicholas; Werner, Johannes; Hoek, Wim

    2016-04-01

    As the paradigm of a stable Holocene climate has shifted, an increasing number of high-resolution proxy timeseries reveal dynamic conditions, characterized by high-amplitude climate shifts. Some of these events occurred during historical times and allow us to study the interaction between environmental and cultural change, providing valuable lessons for the near future. These include the Dark Ages Cold Period (DACP) between 300 and 800 AD, a period marked by political upheaval and climate instability that remains poorly investigated. Here, we present two temperature reconstructions from the High Arctic Svalbard Archipelago. To this end, we applied the established alkenone-based UK37 paleothermometer on sediments from two lakes on western Spitsbergen, Lake Hajeren and Lake Hakluyt. The Arctic is presently warming twice as fast as the global average and proxy data as well as model simulations suggest that this amplified response is characteristic for regional climate. The Arctic therefore provides a uniquely sensitive environment to study relatively modest climate shifts, like the DACP, that may not be adequately captured at lower-latitude sites. Owing to undisturbed sediments, a high sampling resolution and robust chronological control, the presented reconstructions resolve the attendant sub-centennial-scale climate shifts. Our findings suggest that the DACP marks a cold spell within the cool Neoglacial period, which started some 4 ka BP on Svalbard. Close investigation reveals a distinct temperature minimum around 500 AD that is reproduced in another alkenone-based temperature reconstruction from a nearby lake. At ± 1.75 °C, cooling underlines the sensitivity of Arctic climate as well as the magnitude of the DACP.

  9. Research on Amplitude-frequency Characteristic of a Love Wave Device%乐甫波器件的幅频特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 陈智军; 阮鹏; 王萌阳; 黄鑫

    2012-01-01

    乐甫波器件的设计制作过程中,幅频特性是其关键性能指标.本文基于部分波理论和表面有效介电常数方法建立乐甫波谐振频率的理论分析模型,计算乐甫波的传播速度、谐振频率及机电耦合系数;在此基础上通过在梅森等效电路中加入波导元件,得到乐甫波器件的等效电路模型,仿真出器件的幅频特性曲线;通过实际器件测试结果与数值仿真对比,验证了理论模型的有效性.仿真分析薄膜厚度变化对乐甫波器件幅频特性的影响,指导器件的设计制作和测试系统的搭建.%In the process of Love wave device's design and fabrication, the amplitude-frequency characteristic is its key performance index. Based on the partial wave theory and the surface effective permittivity method, the theoretical analysis model of Love wave resonant frequency is established, the Love wave's propagation velocity, resonant frequency and electromechanical coupling coefficient are calculated. The equivalent circuit model of a Love wave device is obtained by adding waveguide component in the Mason equivalent circuit, and the device's amplitude-frequency curve is simulated, accordingly. By comparison of the device's test results and the numerical simulation, the validity of the theoretical model is proved. The influence of the film thickness on the amplitude-frequency characteristic is analyzed, which can provide guidance to the device design, fabrication and the measurement system establishment.

  10. High-amplitude electrical stimulation can reduce elicited neuronal activity in visual prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Rivera, Alejandro; Guo, Tianruo; Yang, Chih-Yu; Abed, Amr Al; Dokos, Socrates; Lovell, Nigel H.; Morley, John W.; Suaning, Gregg J.

    2017-01-01

    Retinal electrostimulation is promising a successful therapy to restore functional vision. However, a narrow stimulating current range exists between retinal neuron excitation and inhibition which may lead to misperformance of visual prostheses. As the conveyance of representation of complex visual scenes may require neighbouring electrodes to be activated simultaneously, electric field summation may contribute to reach this inhibitory threshold. This study used three approaches to assess the implications of relatively high stimulating conditions in visual prostheses: (1) in vivo, using a suprachoroidal prosthesis implanted in a feline model, (2) in vitro through electrostimulation of murine retinal preparations, and (3) in silico by computing the response of a population of retinal ganglion cells. Inhibitory stimulating conditions led to diminished cortical activity in the cat. Stimulus-response relationships showed non-monotonic profiles to increasing stimulating current. This was observed in vitro and in silico as the combined response of groups of neurons (close to the stimulating electrode) being inhibited at certain stimulating amplitudes, whilst other groups (far from the stimulating electrode) being recruited. These findings may explain the halo-like phosphene shapes reported in clinical trials and suggest that simultaneous stimulation in retinal prostheses is limited by the inhibitory threshold of the retinal ganglion cells. PMID:28209965

  11. Skeletal bone morphology is resistant to the high amplitude seasonal leptin cycle in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, K; Atcha, Z; Denton, J; Cagampang, F R A; Ennos, A R; Freemont, A J; Loudon, A S I

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, plays a role in the regulation of metabolism. Here, we tested this hypothesis in the seasonally breeding Siberian hamster, as this species exhibits profound seasonal changes in adiposity and circulating leptin concentrations driven by the annual photoperiodic cycle. Male hamsters were kept in either long (LD) or short (SD) photoperiods. Following exposure to short photoperiods for 8 weeks animals exhibited a significant weight-loss and a 16-fold reduction of serum leptin concentrations. At Week 9, animals in both photoperiods were infused with leptin or PBS via osmotic mini-pump for 14 days. Chronic leptin infusion mimicked LD-like concentrations in SD-housed animals and caused a further decline in body weight and adipose tissue. In LD-housed animals, leptin infusion resulted in a significant elevation of serum concentrations above natural LD-like levels, but had no discernable effect on body weight or overall adiposity. Both bending and compression characteristics and histomorphometric measurements of trabecular bone mass were unaltered by leptin treatment or photoperiod. Our data therefore show that despite a high natural amplitude cycle of leptin, this hormone has no apparent role in the regulation of bone metabolism, and therefore do not support recent propositions that this hormone is an important component in the metabolism of bone tissue.

  12. High amplitude phase resetting in rev-erbalpha/per1 double mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Jud

    Full Text Available Over time, organisms developed various strategies to adapt to their environment. Circadian clocks are thought to have evolved to adjust to the predictable rhythms of the light-dark cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth around its own axis. The rhythms these clocks generate persist even in the absence of environmental cues with a period of about 24 hours. To tick in time, they continuously synchronize themselves to the prevailing photoperiod by appropriate phase shifts. In this study, we disrupted two molecular components of the mammalian circadian oscillator, Rev-Erbalpha and Period1 (Per1. We found that mice lacking these genes displayed robust circadian rhythms with significantly shorter periods under constant darkness conditions. Strikingly, they showed high amplitude resetting in response to a brief light pulse at the end of their subjective night phase, which is rare in mammals. Surprisingly, Cry1, a clock component not inducible by light in mammals, became slightly inducible in these mice. Taken together, Rev-Erbalpha and Per1 may be part of a mechanism preventing drastic phase shifts in mammals.

  13. The Spectral Amplitude of Stellar Convection and Its Scaling in the High-Rayleigh-number Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Hindman, Bradley W.

    2016-02-01

    Convection plays a central role in the dynamics of any stellar interior, and yet its operation remains largely hidden from direct observation. As a result, much of our understanding concerning stellar convection necessarily derives from theoretical and computational models. The Sun is, however, exceptional in that regard. The wealth of observational data afforded by its proximity provides a unique test bed for comparing convection models against observations. When such comparisons are carried out, surprising inconsistencies between those models and observations become apparent. Both photospheric and helioseismic measurements suggest that convection simulations may overestimate convective flow speeds on large spatial scales. Moreover, many solar convection simulations have difficulty reproducing the observed solar differential rotation owing to this apparent overestimation. We present a series of three-dimensional stellar convection simulations designed to examine how the amplitude and spectral distribution of convective flows are established within a star’s interior. While these simulations are nonmagnetic and nonrotating in nature, they demonstrate two robust phenomena. When run with sufficiently high Rayleigh number, the integrated kinetic energy of the convection becomes effectively independent of thermal diffusion, but the spectral distribution of that kinetic energy remains sensitive to both of these quantities. A simulation that has converged to a diffusion-independent value of kinetic energy will divide that energy between spatial scales such that low-wavenumber power is overestimated and high-wavenumber power is underestimated relative to a comparable system possessing higher Rayleigh number. We discuss the implications of these results in light of the current inconsistencies between models and observations.

  14. High harmonic fast waves in high beta plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki

    1995-04-01

    High harmonic fast magnetosonic wave in high beta/high dielectric plasmas is investigated. including the finite-Larmor-radius effects. In this regime, due to the combination of group velocity slow down and the high beta enhancement, the electron absorption via electron Landau and electron magnetic pumping becomes significant enough that one can expect a strong ({approximately} 100%) single pass absorption. By controlling the wave spectrum, the prospect of some localized electron heating and current drive appears to be feasible in high beta low-aspect-ratio tokamak regimes. Inclusion of finite-Larmor-radius terms shows an accessibility limit in the high ion beta regime ({beta}{sub i} = 50% for a deuterium plasma) due to mode-conversion into an ion Bernstein-wave-like mode while no beta limit is expected for electrons. With increasing ion beta, the ion damping can increase significantly particularly near the beta limits. The presence of energetic ion component expected during intense NBI and {alpha}-heating does not appear to modify the accessibility condition nor cause excessive wave absorption.

  15. Electron Acoustic Waves and the Search for a Truly Self-Consistent Large-Amplitude Plasma Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Tudor; Afeyan, Bedros

    2003-10-01

    We examine some theoretical nonlinear Vlasov work invoked in connection with recent laser-plasma experiments [1] on Electron Acoustic Waves and their stimulated scatter (SEAS). Earlier work discussed [2-5] is then related to more recent theory [6] used to interpret [1]. All this [2-6] is then related the recent Vlasov-Poisson findings of Afeyan et al. [7] on Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear (KEEN) waves. (Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG03-NA00059.) [1] D.S. Montgomery et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 155001 (2001), Phys. Plasmas 9, 2311(2002). [2] I.B. Bernstein et al., Phys.Rev. 108, 546 (1957). [3] W.P. Allis, paper no. 3 pp. 21-42, in In Honor of Philip M. Morse, ed. H. Feshbach and K. Ingard, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, (1969). (Source for V.B. Krapchev and A.K. Ram, Phys. Rev. A, 22, 1229 (1980)). [4] H. Schamel, Phys. Scr. 20, 336 (1979), Phys. Rep. 140, 161 (1986), Phys. Plasmas 7, 4831 (2000). [5] J.P. Holloway and J.J. Dorning, Phys. Lett. A 138, 279 (1989) and Phys. Rev. A 44, 3856 (1991). [6] H. A. Rose and D. A. Russell, Phys. Plasmas 8, 4784 (2001). [7] B. B. Afeyan et al., "Optical Mixing Generated Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear (KEEN) Waves", manuscript in preparation and poster at this conference.

  16. Quantifying the high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulative thrust: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Aron S; Vemulpad, Subramanyam; Bull, Peter W

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review studies that quantify the high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) spinal thrust, to qualitatively compare the apparatus used and the force-time profiles generated, and to critically appraise studies involving the quantification of thrust as an augmented feedback tool in psychomotor learning. A search of the literature was conducted to identify the sources that reported quantification of the HVLA spinal thrust. MEDLINE-OVID (1966-present), MANTIS-OVID (1950-present), and CINAHL-EBSCO host (1981-present) were searched. Eligibility criteria included that thrust subjects were human, animal, or manikin and that the thrust type was a hand-delivered HVLA spinal thrust. Data recorded were single force, force-time, or displacement-time histories. Publications were in English language and after 1980. The relatively small number of studies, combined with the diversity of method and data interpretation, did not enable meta-analysis. Twenty-seven studies met eligibility criteria: 17 studies measured thrust as a primary outcome (13 human, 2 cadaver, and 2 porcine). Ten studies demonstrated changes in psychomotor learning related to quantified thrust data on human, manikin, or other device. Quantifiable parameters of the HVLA spinal thrust exist and have been described. There remain a number of variables in recording that prevent a standardized kinematic description of HVLA spinal manipulative therapy. Despite differences in data between studies, a relationship between preload, peak force, and thrust duration was evident. Psychomotor learning outcomes were enhanced by the application of thrust data as an augmented feedback tool. Copyright © 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hidden focal EEG seizures during prolonged suppressions and high-amplitude bursts in early infantile epileptic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Futaisi, Amna; Banwell, Brenda; Ochi, Ayako; Hew, Justine; Chu, Bill; Oishi, Makoto; Otsubo, Hiroshi

    2005-05-01

    We report on a 27-month-old female with atypical early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), who developed tonic spasms, partial seizures and myoclonic jerks along with episodic bradycardia at 5 days. We recorded digital electroencephalography (EEG) using either an 11-channel neonatal montage or 19 channel scalp electrodes, at 200 Hz sampling rate, and a single reference for a minimum of 30 min. At 18 days EEG showed suppression-burst (SB) patterns during wakefulness and sleep. Tonic spasms concomitant with bursts recorded as brief, low-amplitude fast waves. EEG at 8 months showed increased amplitude of bursts to 1 mV and extension of suppression periods to 65 s. By increasing recording sensitivity, we detected focal epileptiform discharges of slow rhythmic sharp and slow waves building to 30 microV during suppression periods. Status epilepticus occurred at 16 months. EEG at 27 months returned to the previous SB pattern with rare partial seizures. This report is the first to demonstrate clinically silent focal EEG seizures during prolonged suppression periods in atypical EIEE by off-line digital EEG. Digital EEG sensitivity can reveal covert electrical activity during suppression periods in epileptic neonates and infants.

  18. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalographic activity is suppressed in preterm infants with high scores on illness severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; van Eykern, Leo A.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The neonatal acute physiology score. SNAP-II, reflects the severity of illness in newborns. In term newborns, amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG), is depressed following asphyxia. In preterm infants aEEG is discontinuous, and therefore more difficult to assess compared to term infants. Aims:

  19. Low frequency modulation of transionospheric radio wave amplitude at low-latitudes: possible role of field line oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sinha

    Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillations of radio waves at low-latitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigen-periods of toroidal field line oscillations at low-latitudes, computed by using the dipole magnetic field and ion distributions obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI for typical nighttime conditions, fall in the range of 20–25 s. When subjected to spectral analysis, signal strength of the radio waves recorded on the 250 MHz beacon at Pondicherry (4.5° N dip, Mumbai (13.4° N dip and Ujjain (18.6° N dip exhibit periodicities in the same range. For the single event for which simultaneous ground magnetic data were available, the geomagnetic field also oscillated at the same periodicity. The systematic presence of a significant peak in the 20–25 s range during periods of strong radio wave scintillations, and its absence otherwise suggests the possibility that field line oscillations are endogenously excited by the irregularities, and the oscillations associated with the excited field line generate the modulation characteristics of the radio waves received on the ground. The frequency of modulation is found to be much lower than the characteristic frequencies that define the main body of scintillations, and they probably correspond to scales that are much larger than the typical Fresnel scale. It is possible that the refractive mechanism associated with larger scale long-lived irregularities could be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Results of a preliminary numerical experiment that uses a sinusoidal phase irregularity in the ionosphere as a refracting media are presented. The results show that phase variations which are large enough to produce a focal plane close to the ground can reproduce features that are not

  20. Self-induced plantar-flexion objectively reduces wave amplitude of detrusor overactivity and subjectively improve urinary urgency: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stav, Kobi; Leibovici, Dan; Yoram, Siegel I; Ronny, Ohlgisser; Zisman, Amnon

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the effect of plantar-flexion on the wave amplitude of involuntary detrusor contraction and the severity of urinary urgency during filling cystometry in patients with detrusor overactivity (DO). Twenty-two consecutive patients with DO were enrolled. During urodynamics, the mean peak detrusor pressures of each contraction were documented and compared. At the beginning of the 2nd or 3rd wave, patients were asked to perform continuous plantar-flexion by pushing their tiptoes against the floor. Following each wave, patients were asked to grade the severity of the urgency by a visual analogue scale (VAS). The mean peak detrusor pressure without plantar-flexion was 58 cmH2 O (95% CI: 46.3-69.7) compared to 31 cmH2 O (95% CI: 23.1-38.9) with plantar-flexion (P < 0.001). All patients reported a reduced degree of urgency during plantar-flexion reflected in a significant reduction in mean VAS score from 9.3 (95% CI: 9-9.5) to 4.7 (95% CI: 3.9-5.4; P < 0.0001). Self-performed plantar-flexion maneuver might reduce the severity of urinary urgency and the magnitude of overactive detrusor contractions, which may have a role in the conservative therapy of detrusor overactivity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 1D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; Brandenburg, Martijn

    2017-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Last year an approach was presented using a phase inversion of guided waves that propagated around the circumference of a pipe. This approach works well for larger corrosion spots, but shows significant under-sizing of small spots due to lack of sufficient phase rotation. In this paper the use of arrival time and amplitude loss of higher order circumferential passes is evaluated. Using higher order passes increases sensitivity for sizing smaller defects. Different defect profiles are assumed and the change in arrival time and amplitude loss are calculated using a wave equation based approach for different defect widths and depths. This produces a differential travel time and amplitude change map as function of defect depth and defect width. The actually measured travel time change and amplitude change produces two contours in these maps. Calculating the intersection point gives the defect dimensions. The contours for amplitude loss and travel time change are quite orthogonal, this yields a good discrimination between deep and shallow defects. The approach is evaluated using experimental data from different pipes contain artificial and real defects.

  2. A novel smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber for high temperatures and variable amplitude vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanhong; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Dayi; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Liu, Baolong; Hong, Jie

    2014-12-01

    The work describes the design, manufacturing and testing of a smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber (SMA-MR) elements, able to provide variable stiffness and damping characteristics with temperature, motion amplitude and excitation frequency. Differences in damping behavior and nonlinear stiffness between SMA-MR and more traditional metal rubber supports are discussed. The mechanical performance shown by the prototype demonstrates the feasibility of using the SMA-MR concept for active vibration control in rotordynamics, in particular at high temperatures and large amplitude vibrations.

  3. Subsurface Signature of the Internal Wave Field Radiation by Submerged High Reynolds Number Stratified Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-26

    primary beam and the potential for parametric subharmonic instability. In all these efforts, a uniform linear stratification was considered. A subset of...243) is found for all simulated waves. c) For sufficiently high-amplitude beams, a parametric subharmonic instability is observed after a long... subharmonic instability (PSI) manifests itself in the form of more horizontal like isophase lines at //7>50. (b) jcz-contour plot of horizontal velocity

  4. The influence of temperature dynamics and dynamic finite ion Larmor radius effects on seeded high amplitude plasma blobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, Magnus; Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Thermal effects on the perpendicular convection of seeded pressure blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetised fusion plasmas are investigated. Our numerical study is based on a four field full-F gyrofluid model, which entails the consistent description of high fluctuation amplitudes and dynamic...

  5. A single high dose of escitalopram increases mismatch negativity without affecting processing negativity or P300 amplitude in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienberg, M; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jensen, K S

    2009-01-01

    processing. The present study was designed to replicate and further extent the results of our initial study on the effects of a low dose of escitalopram (10 mg) on MMN, PN and P300 amplitude. In a randomised, double-blind, cross-over experiment, 20 healthy male volunteers received either a single, orally...... administered dose of 15 mg escitalopram (a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) or placebo, after which their PN, MMN and P300 amplitude were assessed. Similar to our initial study with 10 mg escitalopram, 15 mg escitalopram significantly increased MMN, while it did not affect P300 amplitude....... In contrast to our initial study, however, the currently higher dose of escitalopram did not increase PN. Results support the view that a broad range of increased serotonergic activity enhances MMN, while the relationship between serotonin and PN seems more complex. The current study does not support...

  6. Approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear waves in wave flumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2007-01-01

    An approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear regular waves in flumes is presented. This theory is based on an ad hoe unified wave-generation method that combines linear fully dispersive wavemaker theory and wave generation for non-linear shallow water waves. This is done...... by applying a dispersion correction to the paddle position obtained for non-linear long waves. The method is validated by a number of wave flume experiments while comparing with results of linear wavemaker theory, second-order wavemaker theory and Cnoidal wavemaker theory within its range of application....

  7. Investigation of Instability Wave Dynamics in High-Speed Turbulent Jets Using LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaiyoung; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2007-11-01

    Instability waves have been frequently invoked to explain the dominant noise from high-speed jets. Current methods for predicting jet noise do not, as of yet, use the instability wave formalism. We decompose the results of the large-eddy simulation of high-speed jets (Bodony and Lele, 2005) by Fourier, adjoint (Ryu, Lele and Viswanathan, 2007) and POD methods (Suzuki, 2007) to extract the instability wave contribution to the fluctuations. Three operating conditions are analyzed. Jet instability modes at different frequencies and azimuthal mode numbers as a function of downstream position are traced. The deduced instability wave amplitude and phase dynamics are compared with the predictions of the parabolized stability equations (Cheung, 2007). The least square method is used to provide the amplitude estimate for the linear PSE results. The decomposed LES database shows ``the physics of instability waves'' to a limited extent. The agreement is best for the lowest frequency considered (St=0.1) and for the first azimuthal mode (n=1). For higher St and other modes larger discrepancies are observed.

  8. Quantum manifestation of systems on the macro-scale – the concept of transition state and transition amplitude wave

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram K Varma

    2007-06-01

    Quantum effects which have usually been associated with micro-scale phenomena can also arise on the macro-scale in situations other than the well-known macro-quantum phenomena of superconductivity and superfluidity. Such situations have been shown here to arise in processes involving inelastic scattering with bound or partially bound systems (not bound in all degrees of freedom), and the macro-quantum behaviour is associated with the state of the total system in transition in the process of scattering. Such a state is designated as a `transition-state'. It is pointed out that we have already observed such manifestations for a particular system, the charged particles in a magnetic field where interference effects involving macro-scale matter waves along the magnetic field have been reported [R K Varma et al, Phys. Rev. E65, 026503 (2002)].

  9. On the origin of high m magnetospheric waves

    OpenAIRE

    Beharrell, Matthew J.; Kavanagh, Andrew J.; F. Honary

    2010-01-01

    A survey of Advanced Rio-Imaging Experiment in Scandinavia data reveals evidence for a previously overlooked generation mechanism of high azimuthal wave number magnetospheric waves. Here we present observations of pulsating cosmic noise absorption with azimuthal wave numbers as high as 380, suggestive of precipitation modulation by magnetospheric waves. Dispersion relations of the small-scale precipitation pulsations are indicative of the proposed origin. Previous studies of magnetospheric wa...

  10. Spectral characteristics of high shallow water waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.

    .0081 and 3.3, respectively. By carrying out a multi-regression analysis, an empirical equation is arrived relating the JONSWAP parameters with significant wave height, peak wave period and mean wave period. It was found that the Scott spectra underestimate...

  11. Controlled generation of high-intensity optical rogue waves by induced modulation instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Saili; Yang, Hua; Chen, Nengsong; Zhao, Chujun

    2017-01-04

    Optical rogue waves are featured as the generation of high amplitude events at low probability in optical systems. Moreover, the formation of optical rogue waves is unpredictable and transient in photonic crystal fibers. In this paper, we put forward a method to generate high-intensity optical rogue waves in a more controlled way based on induced modulation instability, which can suppress the noise effect and hence play a leading role in the process of pulse evolution. Our numerical simulations indicate that the generation of rogue wave can be controlled when seeding at the optimal modulation frequency and the intensity of rogue wave can be enhanced with appropriate modulation depth. Further, high-intensity rogue wave can also be ejected in the fiber with a shorter propagation length by regulating the modulation depth. These results all provide a better understanding of optical rogue wave, which can contribute to the generation of tunable long-wavelength spectral components and selective excitation of mid-infrared supercontinuum.

  12. High-Gradient, Millimeter Wave Accelerating Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzikov, S V; Peskov, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    The millimeter wave all-metallic accelerating structure, aimed to provide more than 100 MeV/m gradient and fed by feeding RF pulses of 20-30 ns duration, is proposed. The structure is based on a waveguide with small helical corrugation. Each section of 10-20 wavelengths long has big circular cross-section aperture comparable with wavelength. Because short wavelength structures are expected to be critical to wakefields excitation and emittance growth, we suggest to combine in one structure properties of a linear accelerator and a cooling damping ring simultaneously. It provides acceleration of straight on-axis beam as well as cooling of this beam due to the synchrotron radiation of particles in strong non-synchronous transverse fields. These properties are provided by specific slow eigen mode which consists of two partial waves, TM01 and TM11. Simulations show that shunt impedance can be as high as 100 MOhm/m. Results of the first low-power tests with 30 GHz accelerating section are analyzed.

  13. An unusual very low-mass high-amplitude pre-main sequence periodic variable

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, Maria V; Ibrahimov, Mansur; Messina, Sergio; Parihar, Padmakar; Hessman, Frederic; de Oliveira, Catarina Alves; Herbst, William

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the nature of the variability of CHS7797, an unusual periodic variable in the Orion Nebula Cluster. An extensive I-band photometric data set of CHS7797 was compiled between 2004-2010 using various telescopes. Further optical data have been collected in R and z' bands. In addition, simultaneous observations of the ONC region including CHS7797 were performed in the I, J, Ks and IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] bands over a time interval of about 40d. CHS7797 shows an unusual large-amplitude variation of about 1.7 mag in the R, I, and z' bands with a period 17.786. The amplitude of the brightness modulation decreases only slightly at longer wavelengths. The star is faint during 2/3 of the period and the shape of the phased light-curves for seven different observing seasons shows minor changes and small-amplitude variations. Interestingly, there are no significant colour-flux correlations for wavelengths smaller than 2microns, while the object becomes redder when fainter at longer wavelengths. CHS7797 ha...

  14. Pattern formation of coupled spiral waves in bilayer systems: rich dynamics and high-frequency dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haichun; Gao, Jihua; Zhan, Meng

    2011-11-01

    The interaction of two spiral waves with independent frequencies in a bilayer oscillatory medium (one spiral in each layer) and with a symmetric coupling e is studied. If the spirals have different frequencies, the faster spiral is unaffected by the slower one, and the slower can show a variety of behaviors, which depend on e and include, in order of increasing e, phase drifting, amplitude modulation, amplitude domination, and phase synchronization. This high-frequency dominance, the asymmetric driving-response effect under the condition of a symmetric coupling, is generic and independent of whether the coupled spiral waves are outwardly rotating or inwardly rotating spirals. If the spirals have identical frequencies, they may even show complete synchronization, parallel drift, or circular drift, depending on the relative rotation direction of the two spirals and their initial separation distance. Comparisons with coupled spirals in monolayer media, previous works on coupled spirals in bilayer systems, and coupled phase oscillators are made.

  15. Low Frequency Turbulence as the Source of High Frequency Waves in Multi-Component Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Krivorutsky, Emmanuel N.; Uritsky, Vadim M.

    2011-01-01

    Space plasmas support a wide variety of waves, and wave-particle interactions as well as wavewave interactions are of crucial importance to magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma behavior. High frequency wave turbulence generation by the low frequency (LF) turbulence is restricted by two interconnected requirements: the turbulence should be strong enough and/or the coherent wave trains should have the appropriate length. These requirements are strongly relaxed in the multi-component plasmas, due to the heavy ions large drift velocity in the field of LF wave. The excitation of lower hybrid waves (LHWs), in particular, is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. It is demonstrated that large-amplitude Alfven waves, in particular those associated with LF turbulence, may generate LHW s in the auroral zone and ring current region and in some cases (particularly in the inner magnetosphere) this serves as the Alfven wave saturation mechanism. We also argue that the described scenario can playa vital role in various parts of the outer magnetosphere featuring strong LF turbulence accompanied by LHW activity. Using the data from THEMIS spacecraft, we validate the conditions for such cross-scale coupling in the near-Earth "flow-braking" magnetotail region during the passage of sharp injection/dipolarization fronts, as well as in the turbulent outflow region of the midtail reconnection site.

  16. High latitude electromagnetic plasma wave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The principal types of electromagnetic plasma wave emission produced in the high latitude auroral regions are reviewed. Three types of radiation are described: auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, and Z mode radiation. Auroral kilometric radiation is a very intense radio emission generated in the free space R-X mode by electrons associated with the formation of discrete auroral arcs in the local evening. Theories suggest that this radiation is an electron cyclotron resonance instability driven by an enhanced loss cone in the auroral acceleration region at altitudes of about 1 to 2 R sub E. Auroral hiss is a somewhat weaker whistler mode emission generated by low energy (100 eV to 10 keV) auroral electrons. The auroral hiss usually has a V shaped frequency time spectrum caused by a freqency dependent beaming of the whistler mode into a conical beam directed upward or downward along the magnetic field.

  17. A statistical study of the properties of large amplitude whistler waves and their association with few eV to 30 keV electron distributions observed in the magnetosphere by Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, L B; Kellogg, P J; Wygant, J R; Goetz, K; Breneman, A; Kersten, K

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical study of the characteristics of very large amplitude whistler waves inside the terrestrial magnetosphere using waveform capture data from the Wind spacecraft as an addition of the study by Kellogg et al., [2010b]. We observed 244(65) whistler waves using electric(magnetic) field data from the Wind spacecraft finding ~40%(~62%) of the waves have peak-to-peak amplitudes of >/- 50 mV/m(>/- 0.5 nT). We present an example waveform capture of the largest magnetic field amplitude (>/- 8 nT peak-to-peak) whistler wave ever reported in the radiation belts. The estimated Poynting flux magnitude associated with this wave is >/- 300 microW/m^2, roughly four orders of magnitude above previous estimates. Such large Poynting flux values are consistent with rapid energization of electrons. The majority of the largest amplitude whistlers occur during magnetically active periods (AE > 200 nT). The waves were observed to exhibit a broad range of propagation angles with respect to the magnetic field, 0{\\...

  18. Contact-line dynamics for water waves and high-Re flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Liu, Ziyuan; Perlin, Marc; Schultz, William W.

    1997-11-01

    An appropriate contact-line model at the gas/liquid/solid trijunction is critical to the prediction of both low-Re flows and high-Re flows such as occur with water waves. Contact-line condition for water waves was proposed by Hocking (1987) and later by Miles (1991) based on Navier's slip relation. However, Cocciaro et al. (1993) and Ting & Perlin (1995) showed that strongly nonlinear contact-line dynamics are present experimentally, and that these dynamics are more complex than Hocking and Miles' models. We present results on the frequency and damping of Faraday water waves in various wave tanks and under different wetting conditions. The surface-elevation decay is analyzed with a complex demodulation technique. Frequency detuning and contact-line damping are found to obey power laws in the wave amplitude. The power-law exponent depends on the wetting condition and the material of which the tank is constructed. A preliminary analysis suggests that an averaged contact-line condition similar to the Tanner's law gives the correct amplitude dependence in frequency and damping. This condition also agrees qualitatively with contact-line data from Ting & Perlin. Preliminary analysis of the boundary layer structure near a moving contact line is carried out in the large-Re limit. Influence of corner flow and some implications from the self-similar Falkner-Skan equation are presented. This research is supported by ONR and NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program.

  19. On second order effects in a galvanic cell : Part I. Polarization by a sine wave modulated high frequency current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, F. van der; Sluyters-Rehbach, M.; Sluyters, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented concerning the application of a high-frequency alternating current, amplitude modulated by a low-frequency sine wave, to a galvanic cell. Based on the correlation with the faradaic rectification technique, expressions are given for the low-frequency demodulation

  20. Constraining the r-mode saturation amplitude from a hypothetical detection of r-mode gravitational waves from a newborn neutron star - sensitivity study

    CERN Document Server

    Mytidis, Antonis; Whiting, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This paper consists of two related parts: In the first part we derive an expression of the moment of inertia (MOI) of a neutron star as a function of observables from a hypothetical r-mode gravitational wave detection. For a given r-mode detection we show how the value of the MOI of a neutron star constrains the equation of state (EOS) of the matter in the core of the neutron star. Subsequently, for each candidate EOS, we derive a possible value of the saturation amplitude, \\alpha, of the r-mode oscillations on the neutron star. Additionally, we argue that a r-mode detection will provide clues about the cooling rate mechanism of the neutron star. The above physics that can be derived from a hypothetical r-mode detection constitute our motivation for the second part of the paper. In that part we present a detection strategy to efficiently search for r-modes in gravitational-wave data. R-mode signals were injected into simulated noise colored with the advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and Einstein Telescope (ET) sensitivit...

  1. High Performance of Space Vector Modulation Direct Torque Control SVM-DTC Based on Amplitude Voltage and Stator Flux Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Farhan Rashag

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects related to controlling induction motor are investigated. Direct torque control is an original high performance control strategy in the field of AC drive. In this proposed method, the control system is based on Space Vector Modulation (SVM, amplitude of voltage in direct- quadrature reference frame (d-q reference and angle of stator flux. Amplitude of stator voltage is controlled by PI torque and PI flux controller. The stator flux angle is adjusted by rotor angular frequency and slip angular frequency. Then, the reference torque and the estimated torque is applied to the input of PI torque controller and the control quadrature axis voltage is determined. The control d-axis voltage is determined from the flux calculator. These q and d axis voltage are converted into amplitude voltage. By applying polar to Cartesian on amplitude voltage and stator flux angle, direct voltage and quadratures voltage are generated. The reference stator voltages in d-q are calculated based on forcing the stator voltage error to zero at next sampling period. By applying inverse park transformation on d-q voltages, the stator voltages in &alpha and &beta frame are generated and apply to SVM. From the output of SVM, the motor control signal is generated and the speed of the induction motor regulated toward the rated speed. The simulation Results have demonstrated exceptional performance in steady and transient states and shows that decrease of torque and flux ripples is achieved in a complete speed range.

  2. Identification of ground motion features for high-tech facility under far field seismic waves using wavelet packet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shieh-Kung; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Chen, Chin-Tsun

    2016-04-01

    Seismic records collected from earthquake with large magnitude and far distance may contain long period seismic waves which have small amplitude but with dominant period up to 10 sec. For a general situation, the long period seismic waves will not endanger the safety of the structural system or cause any uncomfortable for human activity. On the contrary, for those far distant earthquakes, this type of seismic waves may cause a glitch or, furthermore, breakdown to some important equipments/facilities (such as the high-precision facilities in high-tech Fab) and eventually damage the interests of company if the amplitude becomes significant. The previous study showed that the ground motion features such as time-variant dominant frequencies extracted using moving window singular spectrum analysis (MWSSA) and amplitude characteristics of long-period waves identified from slope change of ground motion Arias Intensity can efficiently indicate the damage severity to the high-precision facilities. However, embedding a large hankel matrix to extract long period seismic waves make the MWSSA become a time-consumed process. In this study, the seismic ground motion data collected from broadband seismometer network located in Taiwan were used (with epicenter distance over 1000 km). To monitor the significant long-period waves, the low frequency components of these seismic ground motion data are extracted using wavelet packet transform (WPT) to obtain wavelet coefficients and the wavelet entropy of coefficients are used to identify the amplitude characteristics of long-period waves. The proposed method is a timesaving process compared to MWSSA and can be easily implemented for real-time detection. Comparison and discussion on this method among these different seismic events and the damage severity to the high-precision facilities in high-tech Fab is made.

  3. Measurements Of High Frequency Electromagnetic Waves In Center Of Mus

    OpenAIRE

    etem, taha; ABBASOV, Teymuraz

    2016-01-01

    All electrically powered devices cause electromagnetic wave exposure onhuman body and we use them nearly every moment in a day. Mobile phones,computers, televisions, hair dryers, lighting systems, etc. they all useelectricity and naturally radiate electromagnetic waves. Effects ofelectromagnetic waves are not clear but international organizations definelimit values depending on epidemiological studies in this field. In this studywe measure high frequency electromagnetic waves in city center o...

  4. High-frequency capillary waves excited by oscillating microbubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Pommella, Angelo; Poulichet, Vincent; Garbin, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video shows high-frequency capillary waves excited by the volumetric oscillations of microbubbles near a free surface. The frequency of the capillary waves is controlled by the oscillation frequency of the microbubbles, which are driven by an ultrasound field. Radial capillary waves produced by single bubbles and interference patterns generated by the superposition of capillary waves from multiple bubbles are shown.

  5. Amplitude-preserving plane-wave prestack time migration for AVO analysis%用于AVO分析的振幅保真平面波叠前时间偏移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王棣; 程玖兵; 郑晓东; 王华忠; 马在田

    2008-01-01

    To support amplitude variation with offset (AVO) analysis in complex structure areas, we introduce an amplitude-preserving plane-wave prestack time migration approach based on the double-square-root wave equation in media with little lateral velocity variation.In its implementation, a data mapping algorithm is used to obtain offset-plane-wave data sets from the common-midpoint gathers followed by a non-recursive phase-shift solution with amplitude correction to generate common-image gathers in offset-ray-parameter domain and a structural image. Theoretical model tests and a real data example show that our prestack time migration approach is helpful for AVO analysis in complex geological environments.

  6. Evaluation of a Hopkinson bar fly-away technique for high amplitude shock accelerometer calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togami, T.C.; Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.

    1997-11-01

    A split Hopkinson bar technique has been developed to evaluate the performance of accelerometers that measure large amplitude pulses. An evaluation of this technique has been conducted in the Mechanical Shock Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to determine its use in the practical calibration of accelerometers. This evaluation consisted of three tasks. First, the quartz crystal was evaluated in a split Hopkinson bar configuration to evaluate the quartz gage`s sensitivity and frequency response at force levels of 18,000, 35,000 and 53,000 N at ambient temperature, {minus}48 C and +74 C. Secondly, the fly away technique was evaluated at shock amplitudes of 50,000, 100,000, 150,000 and 200,000 G (1 G = 9.81 m/s{sup 2}) at ambient temperature, {minus}48 C and +74 C. Lastly, the technique was performed using a NIST calibrated reference accelerometer. Comparisons of accelerations calculated from the quartz gage data and the measured acceleration data have shown very good agreement. Based on this evaluation, the authors expect this split Hopkinson fly away technique to be certified by the SNL Primary Standards Laboratory.

  7. Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 105, no. 41, pp. 15815-15818 Wagner F., L.L.R. Kouwenberg, T.B. van Hoof and H. Visscher 2004. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO2 records based on stomatal frequency. Quartenary Science Reviews. V. 23, pp. 1947-1954

  8. Current drive with combined electron cyclotron wave and high harmonic fast wave in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Gong, X. Y.; Dong, J. Q.; Wang, J.; Zhang, N.; Zheng, P. W.; Yin, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The current driven by combined electron cyclotron wave (ECW) and high harmonic fast wave is investigated using the GENRAY/CQL3D package. It is shown that no significant synergetic current is found in a range of cases with a combined ECW and fast wave (FW). This result is consistent with a previous study [Harvey et al., in Proceedings of IAEA TCM on Fast Wave Current Drive in Reactor Scale Tokamaks (Synergy and Complimentarily with LHCD and ECRH), Arles, France, IAEA, Vienna, 1991]. However, a positive synergy effect does appear with the FW in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. This positive synergy effect can be explained using a picture of the electron distribution function induced by the ECW and a very high harmonic fast wave (helicon). The dependence of the synergy effect on the radial position of the power deposition, the wave power, the wave frequency, and the parallel refractive index is also analyzed, both numerically and physically.

  9. RANSE Simulation of High-speed Planning Craft in Regular Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Wang; Yumin Su; Xi Zhang; Jinglei Yang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the numerical simulation of planing crafts sailing in regular waves.This allows an accurate estimate of the seas keeping performance of the high speed craft.The simulation set in six-degree of freedom motions is based on the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equations volume of fluid (RANSE VOF) solver.The trimming mesh technique and integral dynamic mesh method are used to guarantee the good accuracy of the hydrodynamic force and high efficiency of the numerical simulation.Incident head waves,oblique waves and beam waves are generated in the simulation with three different velocities (Fn =1.0,1.5,2.0).The motions and sea keeping performance of the planing craft with waves coming from different directions are indicated in the flow solver.The ship designer placed an emphasis on the effects of waves on sailing amplitude and pressure distribution of planing craft in the configuration of building high speed crafts.

  10. Magnetic signatures of ion cyclotron waves during Cassini's high-inclination orbits of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Zachary; Simon, Sven

    2017-02-01

    Based on magnetic field data from Cassini's high-inclination orbits of Saturn (radius RS = 60 , 268 km), we analyze the latitudinal distribution of ion cyclotron waves in the giant planet's magnetosphere. Our survey takes into account magnetic field data from all high-inclination orbits between 2004 and 2015. We analyze the dependency of the occurrence rate and amplitude of the ion cyclotron waves on radial distance ρ to Saturn's rotation axis, vertical distance z to Saturn's equatorial plane, and magnetic latitude λ. The occurrence rate of ion cyclotron waves is approximately 100% in Saturn's equatorial plane between the orbits of Enceladus and Dione and decreases to 50% at altitudes of | z | ≈ 0.6RS . Ion cyclotron waves were detected up to | z | = 2.0RS . The occurrence rate displays strong, non-monotonic variations with respect to ρ, z, and λ. The vertical amplitude profile of the waves exhibits an M-like pattern with two distinct peaks near z = ± 0.3RS and the central minimum at z=0. Compared to earlier observations, we find this M-like structure to be inflated in±z direction by a factor of three. The available magnetic field data provides only weak evidence for a local impact of Enceladus and Dione on the ion cyclotron wave field. Using the observed Doppler shift of the ion cyclotron wave frequency during Cassini's high-inclination orbits, we demonstrate the existence of a narrow band of bidirectional wave propagation. This band is centered around Saturn's equatorial plane and possesses a half-width of | z | = 0.15RS , which agrees well with the vertical scale height of Saturn's neutral cloud. To the north of this band, all ion cyclotron waves propagate towards the north (z > 0); and to the south, all waves propagate towards the south (z < 0). In companion with our previous study (Meeks et al., 2016), this survey provides the complete three-dimensional picture of the ion cyclotron wave field between the orbits of Enceladus and Rhea during the Cassini

  11. Focusing of high-wave-vector magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, J. J.; Camley, R. E.

    2017-06-01

    The focusing of spin waves in magnetic materials has a number of important advantages for directing energy and thus information. In contrast to earlier works, we theoretically calculate the focusing of short-wavelength spin waves. We show that strong focusing of large wave-vector spin waves naturally occurs about halfway out in the Brillouin zone with no need for a magnetocrystalline anisotropy, dipolar effects, or an external magnetic field. The fact that the wavelength is on the order of the lattice constant leads to a form of lattice-induced anisotropy in the wave propagation. We also explore the tunability that is achieved by the application of both an external field and a uniaxial anisotropy. In this case there is a rotation of the focusing pattern. The rotation angle can be changed by varying the field strength, demonstrating tunability.

  12. Short duration high amplitude flares detected on the M dwarf star KIC 5474065

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, Gavin; Hakala, Pasi; Garcia-Alvarez, David; Brooks, Adam; Barclay, Thomas; Still, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Using data obtained during the RATS-Kepler project we identified one short duration flare in a 1 hour sequence of ground based photometry of the dwarf star KIC 5474065. Observations made using GTC show it is a star with a M4 V spectral type. Kepler observations made using 1 min sampling show that KIC 5474065 exhibits large amplitude (deltaF/F>0.4) optical flares which have a duration as short as 10 mins. We compare the energy distribution of flares from KIC 5474065 with that of KIC 9726699, which has also been observed using 1 min sampling, and ground based observations of other M dwarf stars in the literature. We discuss the possible implications of these short duration, relatively low energy flares would have on the atmosphere of exo-planets orbiting in the habitable zone of these flare stars.

  13. Multiband Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation for High Capacity Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2014-01-01

    packaging. Therefore, increasing effort is now put into the possibility of exploiting higher order modulation formats with increased spectral efficiency and reduced optical transceiver complexity. As these type of links are based on intensity modulation and direct detection, modulation formats relying...... on optical coherent detection can not be straight forwardly employed. As an alternative and more viable solution, this paper proposes the use of carrierless amplitude phase (CAP) in a novel multiband approach (MultiCAP) that achieves record spectral efficiency, increases tolerance towards dispersion......Short range optical data links are experiencing bandwidth limitations making it very challenging to cope with the growing data transmission capacity demands. Parallel optics appears as a valid short-term solution. It is, however, not a viable solution in the long-term because of its complex optical...

  14. Using domain walls to perform non-local measurements with high spin signal amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savero Torres, W.; Pham, V.-T.; Zahnd, G.; Laczkowski, P.; Nguyen, V.-D.; Beigné, C.; Notin, L.; Jamet, M.; Marty, A.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.

    2016-07-01

    Standard non-local measurements require lateral spin-valves with two different ferromagnetic electrodes, to create and to detect the spin accumulation. Here we show that non-local measurements can also be performed in a cross-shaped nanostructure, made of a single ferromagnetic wire connected to an orthogonal non-magnetic wire. A magnetic domain wall located underneath the ferromagnetic/non-magnetic interface is used to control the magnetizations of the injection and detection zones. As these zones can be very close, our results display spin signals possessing amplitudes larger than those obtained in conventional non-local measurements. We also show that this method can be used as a domain wall detection technique.

  15. The Spectral Amplitude of Stellar Convection and its Scaling in the High-Rayleigh-Number Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Featherstone, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Convection plays a central role in the dynamics of any stellar interior, and yet its operation remains largely-hidden from direct observation. As a result, much of our understanding concerning stellar convection necessarily derives from theoretical and computational models. The Sun is, however, exceptional in that regard. The wealth of observational data afforded by its proximity provides a unique testbed for comparing convection models against observations. When such comparisons are carried out, surprising inconsistencies between those models and observations become apparent. Both photospheric and helioseismic measurements suggest that convection simulations may overestimate convective flow speeds on large spatial scales. Moreover, many solar convection simulations have difficulty reproducing the observed solar differential rotation due to this apparent overestimation. We present a series of 3-dimensional (3-D) stellar convection simulations designed to examine how the amplitude and spectral distribution of ...

  16. The effects of photobiomodulation and low-amplitude high-frequency vibration on bone healing process: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei Jafarabadi, M; Rouhi, G; Kaka, G; Sadraie, S H; Arum, J

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) and low-amplitude high-frequency (LAHF) whole body mechanical vibration on bone fracture healing process when metallic plates are implanted in rats' femurs. Forty male rats weighing between 250 and 350 g, 12 weeks old, were employed in this study. A transverse critical size defect (CSD) was made in their right femurs that were fixed by stainless steel plates. After the surgery, the rats were divided equally into four groups: low-level laser therapy group (GaAlAs laser, 830 nm, 40 mW, 4 J/cm(2), 0.35 cm beam diameter, LLLT), whole body vibration group (60 Hz, 0.1 mm amplitude, 1.5 g, WBV), a combination of laser and vibration group (LV), and the control group (C). Each group was divided into two subgroups based on sacrifice dates. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 3 and 6 weeks after the surgery to extract their right femurs for radiography and biomechanical and histological analyses, and the results were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Radiographic analyses showed greater callus formation in the LLLT and WBV groups than in control group at both 3 (P low-amplitude high-frequency WBV both had a positive impact on bone healing process, for critical size defects in the presence of a stainless steel implant. But their combination, i.e., low-level laser therapy and low-amplitude high-frequency whole body vibration (LV), interestingly did not accelerate the fractured bone healing process.

  17. The MACHO Project Sample of Galactic Bulge High-Amplitude Scuti Stars: Pulsation Behavior and Stellar Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.P.; Cook, K.H.; Freeman, K.C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M.J.; Marshall, S.L.; McNamara, B.J.; Minniti, D.; Nelson, C.; Peterson, B.A.; Popowski, P.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Rodgers, A.W.; Sutherland, W.; Templeton, M.R.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D.L.

    1999-11-16

    We have detected 90 objects with periods and lightcurve structure similar to those of field {delta} Scuti stars, using the Massive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Project database of Galactic bulge photometry. If we assume similar extinction values for all candidates and absolute magnitudes similar to those of other field high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars (HADS), the majority of these objects lie in or near the Galactic bulge. At least two of these objects are likely foreground {delta} Scuti stars, one of which may be an evolved nonradial pulsator, similar to other evolved, disk-population {delta} Scuti stars. We have analyzed the light curves of these objects and find that they are similar to the light curves of field {delta} Scuti stars and the {delta} Scuti stars found by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE). However, the amplitude distribution of these sources lies between those of low- and high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars, which suggests that they may be an intermediate population. We have found nine double-mode HADS with frequency ratios ranging from 0.75 to 0.79, four probable double- and multiple-mode objects, and another four objects with marginal detections of secondary modes. The low frequencies (5-14 cycles d{sup -1}) and the observed period ratios of {approx}0.77 suggest that the majority of these objects are evolved stars pulsating in fundamental or first overtone radial modes.

  18. Stability analysis of amplitude death in delay-coupled high-dimensional map networks and their design procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomohiko; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Konishi, Keiji; Hara, Naoyuki

    2017-01-01

    The present paper studies amplitude death in high-dimensional maps coupled by time-delay connections. A linear stability analysis provides several sufficient conditions for an amplitude death state to be unstable, i.e., an odd number property and its extended properties. Furthermore, necessary conditions for stability are provided. These conditions, which reduce trial-and-error tasks for design, and the convex direction, which is a popular concept in the field of robust control, allow us to propose a design procedure for system parameters, such as coupling strength, connection delay, and input-output matrices, for a given network topology. These analytical results are confirmed numerically using delayed logistic maps, generalized Henon maps, and piecewise linear maps.

  19. Observations of nearshore infragravity wave dynamics under high energy swell and wind-wave conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inch, Kris; Davidson, Mark; Masselink, Gerd; Russell, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Infragravity waves (0.005-0.04 Hz) can dominate the water motion close to shore on low sloping beaches and play a significant role in beach and dune erosion. A new field data set of water surface elevation at 15 cross-shore locations on a dissipative, fetch-unlimited beach is analysed to investigate the forcing and surf zone behaviour of infragravity waves during a wide range of offshore wave conditions (Ho=0.38-3.88 m; Tp=6-20 s). Infragravity waves approach the shore as bound waves lagging slightly ( 4 s) behind the short wave (0.04-0.33 Hz) envelope and are released in the surf zone as free waves. Infragravity wave heights of up to 1 m are measured close to shore and are best predicted using an offshore forcing parameter that represents the short wave energy flux (Ho2 Tp). Considerable infragravity dissipation is observed in the surf zone and dissipation increases with offshore wave energy. Dissipation is highly frequency-dependant and a frequency-domain Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals (quasi-)standing waves at frequencies <0.017 Hz, but an increasingly progressive wave pattern at higher frequencies with reflection coefficients <0.1, indicative of more than 90% dissipation. Much of the observed dissipation occurs very close to shore and the dependence of the reflection coefficient on a normalised bed slope parameter implies that energy at high infragravity frequencies is dissipated by wave breaking, since these frequencies fit into a mild sloping regime. This is supported by the results of bispectral analysis which show predominantly infragravity-infragravity interactions in shallow water and the development of infragravity harmonics indicative of steepening and eventual breaking of the infragravity waves.

  20. Acoustic minor losses in high amplitude resonators with single-sided junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doller, Andrew J.

    Steady flow engineering handbooks like Idelchik20 do not exist for investigators interested in acoustic (oscillating) fluid flows in complex resonators. Measurements of acoustic minor loss coefficients are presented in this dissertation for a limited number of resonator configurations having single-sided junctions. While these results may be useful, the greater purpose of this work is to provide a set of controlled measurements that can be used to benchmark computational models of acoustic flows used for more complicated resonator structures. The experiments are designed around a driver operating at 150 Hz enabling acoustic pressures in excess of 10k Pa in liquid cooled, temperature controlled resonators with 90°, 45° and 25° junctions. These junctions join a common 109 cm long 4.7 cm diameter section to a section of 8.4 mm diameter tube making two sets of resonators: one set with a small diameter length approximately a quarter-wavelength (45 cm), the other approximately a half-wavelength (112 cm). The long resonators have a velocity node at the junction; the short resonators have a velocity anti-node generating the greatest minor losses. Input power is measured by an accelerometer and a pressure transducer at the driver. A pressure sensor at the rigid termination measures radiation pressure from the driver and static junction pressure, as well as the acoustic pressure used to calculate linear thermal and viscous resonator wall losses. At the largest amplitudes, the 90° junction was found to dissipate as much as 0.3 Watt, 1/3 the power of linear losses alone. For each junction, the power dissipation depends on acoustic pressure differently: pressure cubed for the 90°, pressure to the 3.76 for the 45° and pressure to the 4.48 for the 25°. Common among all resonators, blowing acoustic half-cycle minor losses (KB) are excited at lower amplitudes than the suction half-cycle (KS) minor losses. Data collected for the 90° junction shows KB reaches an asymptotic

  1. MOSFET-based high voltage double square-wave pulse generator with an inductive adder configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Qiaogen, E-mail: hvzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Long, Jinghua [College of Physics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Lei, Yunfei; Liu, Jinyuan [Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a fast MOSFET-based solid-state pulse generator for high voltage double square-wave pulses. The generator consists mainly of an inductive adder system stacked of 20 solid-state modules. Each of the modules has 18 power MOSFETs in parallel, which are triggered by individual drive circuits; these drive circuits themselves are synchronously triggered by a signal from avalanche transistors. Our experiments demonstrate that the output pulses with amplitude of 8.1 kV and peak current of about 405 A are available at a load impedance of 20 Ω. The pulse has a double square-wave form with a rise and fall time of 40 ns and 26 ns, respectively and bottom flatness better than 12%. The interval time of the double square-wave pulses can be adjustable by varying the interval time of the trigger pulses.

  2. Detecting Very-High-Frequency Relic Gravitational Waves by a Waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Lei Tong; Yang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The polarization vector (PV) of an electromagnetic wave (EW) will experience a rotation in a region of spacetime perturbed by gravitational waves (GWs). Based on this consideration, Cruise's group has built an annular waveguide to detect GWs. We give detailed calculations of the rotations of polarization vector of an EW caused by incident GWs from various directions and in various polarization states, and then analyze the accumulative effects on the polarization vector when the EW passes n cycles along the annular waveguide. We reexamine the feasibility and limitation of this method to detect GWs of high frequency around 100 MHz, in particular the relic gravitational waves (RGWs). By comparing the spectrum of RGWs in the accelerating universe with the detector sensitivity of the current waveguide, it is found that the amplitude of the RGWs is too low to be detected by the waveguide detectors currently operating. Possible ways of improvements on detection are suggested.

  3. 3D High Density Wave Interconnects Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuvotronics has developed and optimized the PolyStrataTM process for the fabrication of intricate microwave and millimeter-wave devices. These devices have primarily...

  4. High sensitivity phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detector with combined amplitude and phase read-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Colantoni, I.; Cruciani, A.; Bellini, F.; Castellano, M. G.; Cosmelli, C.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2017-01-01

    Developing wide-area cryogenic light detectors with baseline resolution better than 20 eV is one of the priorities of next generation bolometric experiments searching for rare interactions, as the simultaneous read-out of the light and heat signals enables background suppression through particle identification. Among the proposed technological approaches for the phonon sensor, the naturally multiplexed Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) stand out for their excellent intrinsic energy resolution and reproducibility. The potential of this technique was proved by the CALDER project that reached a baseline resolution of 154 ± 7 eV RMS by sampling a 2 × 2 cm2 Silicon substrate with 4 Aluminum KIDs. In this paper, we present a prototype of Aluminum KID with improved geometry and quality factor. The design improvement, as well as the combined analysis of amplitude and phase signals, allowed to reach a baseline resolution of 82 ± 4 eV by sampling the same substrate with a single Aluminum KID.

  5. Resolving longitudinal amplitude and phase information of two continuous data streams for high-speed and real-time processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guntoro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there is an increase of performance in DSPs, due to its nature of execution a DSP could not perform high-speed data processing on a continuous data stream. In this paper we discuss the hardware implementation of the amplitude and phase detector and the validation block on a FPGA. Contrary to the software implementation which can only process data stream as high as 1.5 MHz, the hardware approach is 225 times faster and introduces much less latency.

  6. Focusing of Rayleigh waves generated by high-speed trains under the condition of ground vibration boom

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, the effects of focusing of Rayleigh waves generated by high speed trains in the supporting ground under the condition of ground vibration boom are considered theoretically. These effects are similar to the effects of focusing of sound waves radiated by aircraft under the condition of sonic boom. In particular, if a railway track has a bend to provide the possibility of changing direction of train movement, the Rayleigh surface waves generated by high-speed trains under the condition of ground vibration boom may become focused. This results in concentration of their energy along a simple caustic line at one side of the track and in the corresponding increase in ground vibration amplitudes. The effect of focusing of Rayleigh waves may occur also if a train moves along a straight line with acceleration and its current speed is higher than Rayleigh wave velocity in the ground. The obtained results are illustrated by numerical calculations.

  7. Surrogate data modeling the relationship between high frequency amplitudes and Higuchi fractal dimension of EEG signals in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Sladjana; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Kesic, Srdjan; Obradovic, Milica; Saponjic, Jasna

    2011-11-21

    We used spectral analysis and Higuchi fractal dimension (FD) to correlate the EEG spectral characteristics of the sensorimotor cortex, hippocampus, and pons with their corresponding EEG signal complexities in anesthetized rats. We have explored the quantitative relationship between the mean FDs and EEG wide range high frequency (8-50 Hz) activity during ketamine/xylazine versus nembutal anesthesia at surgical plane. Using FD we detected distinct inter-structure complexity pattern and uncovered for the first time that the polygraphically and behaviorally defined anesthetized state at surgical plane as equal during experiment in two anesthetic regimens, is not the same with respect to the degree of neuronal activity (degree of generalized neuronal inhibition achieved) at different brain levels. Using the correlation of certain brain structure EEG spectral characteristics with their corresponding FDs, and the surrogate data modeling, we determined what particular frequency band contributes to EEG complexities in ketamine/xylazine versus nembutal anesthesia. In this study we have shown that the quantitative relationship between higher frequency EEG amplitude and EEG complexity is the best-modeled by surrogate data as a 3rd order polynomial. On the base of our EEG amplitude/EEG complexity relationship model, and the evidenced spectral differences in ketamine versus nembutal anesthesia we have proved that higher amplitudes of sigma, beta, and gamma frequency in ketamine anesthesia yields to higher FDs.

  8. Multi-spacecraft determination of wave characteristics near the proton gyrofrequency in high-altitude cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sundkvist

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of waves with frequencies near the proton gyrofrequency in the high-altitude cusp for northward IMF as observed by the Cluster spacecraft. Waves in this regime can be important for energization of ions and electrons and for energy transfer between different plasma populations. These waves are present in the entire cusp with the highest amplitudes being associated with localized regions of downward precipitating ions, most probably originating from the reconnection site at the magnetopause. The Poynting flux carried by these waves is downward/upward at frequencies below/above the proton gyrofrequency, which is consistent with the waves being generated near the local proton gyrofrequency in an extended region along the flux tube. We suggest that the waves can be generated by the precipitating ions that show shell-like distributions. There is no clear polarization of the perpendicular wave components with respect to the background magnetic field, while the waves are polarized in a parallel-perpendicular plane. The coherence length is of the order of one ion-gyroradius in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field and a few times larger or more in the parallel direction. The perpendicular phase velocity was found to be of the order of 100km/s, an order of magnitude lower than the local Alfvén speed. The perpendicular wavelength is of the order of a few proton gyroradius or less. Based on our multi-spacecraft observations we conclude that the waves cannot be ion-whistlers, while we suggest that the waves can belong to the kinetic Alfvén branch below the proton gyrofrequency fcp and be described as non-potential ion-cyclotron waves (electromagnetic ion-Bernstein waves above. Linear wave growth calculations using kinetic code show considerable wave growth of non-potential ion cyclotron waves at wavelengths agreeing with observations. Inhomogeneities in the plasma on the order of the ion

  9. Microscale capillary wave turbulence excited by high frequency vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Jeremy; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2013-03-19

    Low frequency (O(10 Hz-10 kHz)) vibration excitation of capillary waves has been extensively studied for nearly two centuries. Such waves appear at the excitation frequency or at rational multiples of the excitation frequency through nonlinear coupling as a result of the finite displacement of the wave, most often at one-half the excitation frequency in so-called Faraday waves and twice this frequency in superharmonic waves. Less understood, however, are the dynamics of capillary waves driven by high-frequency vibration (>O(100 kHz)) and small interface length scales, an arrangement ideal for a broad variety of applications, from nebulizers for pulmonary drug delivery to complex nanoparticle synthesis. In the few studies conducted to date, a marked departure from the predictions of classical Faraday wave theory has been shown, with the appearance of broadband capillary wave generation from 100 Hz to the excitation frequency and beyond, without a clear explanation. We show that weak wave turbulence is the dominant mechanism in the behavior of the system, as evident from wave height frequency spectra that closely follow the Rayleigh-Jeans spectral response η ≈ ω(-17/12) as a consequence of a period-halving, weakly turbulent cascade that appears within a 1 mm water drop whether driven by thickness-mode or surface acoustic Rayleigh wave excitation. However, such a cascade is one-way, from low to high frequencies. The mechanism of exciting the cascade with high-frequency acoustic waves is an acoustic streaming-driven turbulent jet in the fluid bulk, driving the fundamental capillary wave resonance through the well-known coupling between bulk flow and surface waves. Unlike capillary waves, turbulent acoustic streaming can exhibit subharmonic cascades from high to low frequencies; here it appears from the excitation frequency all the way to the fundamental modes of the capillary wave at some four orders of magnitude in frequency less than the excitation frequency

  10. The working principle of MATLAB wave amplitude modulation transmitter simulation%中波调幅发射机工作原理MATLAB仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林斌

    2015-01-01

    MATLAB is a very good teaching and scientific research and engineering application of simulation software,it will block diagram model and simulation model of the combined form of visual programming to use.In this paper,using MATLAB to achieve the simulation of wave amplitude modulation transmitter working principle.Starting from the numerical modeling theory and simulation calculation method,theoretical research,analysis of the transmitter performance verification for the operator to provide a deep understanding of the opportunity from quantity to quality.%MATLAB是一个很好的科研教学和工程应用仿真软件,它将可视化的方框图模型与编程形式的仿真模型综合起来加以利用。本文利用MATLAB实现对中波调幅发射机工作原理进行仿真。从系统建模原理和仿真的数值计算方法入手,对发射机理论研究、性能分析验证等方面为值机员提供深刻的从量到质的认识机会。

  11. Oxygen ion energization by waves in the high altitude cusp and mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Waara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study of low frequency electric field spectral densities and temperatures observed by the Cluster spacecraft in the high altitude cusp/mantle region. We compare the relation between the O+ temperature and wave intensity at the oxygen gyrofrequency at each measurement point and find a clear correlation. The trend of the correlation agrees with the predictions by both an asymptotic mean-particle theory and a test-particle approach. The perpendicular to parallel temperature ratio is also consistent with the predictions of the asymptotic mean-particle theory. At times the perpendicular temperature is significantly higher than predicted by the models. A simple study of the evolution of the particle distributions (conics at these altitudes indicates that enhanced perpendicular temperatures would be observed over many RE after heating ceases. Therefore, sporadic intense heating is the likely explanation for cases with high temperature and comparably low wave activity. We observe waves of sufficient amplitude to explain the highest observed temperatures, while the theory in general overestimates the temperature associated with the highest observed wave activity, indicating that such high wave activity is very sporadic.

  12. Wafer scale millimeter-wave integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene in high data rate communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibpour, Omid; He, Zhongxia Simon; Strupinski, Wlodek; Rorsman, Niklas; Zirath, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the demand for high data rate wireless communications has increased dramatically, which requires larger bandwidth to sustain multi-user accessibility and quality of services. This can be achieved at millimeter wave frequencies. Graphene is a promising material for the development of millimeter-wave electronics because of its outstanding electron transport properties. Up to now, due to the lack of high quality material and process technology, the operating frequency of demonstrated circuits has been far below the potential of graphene. Here, we present monolithic integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene operating at unprecedented high frequencies (80–100 GHz). The demonstrated circuits are capable of encoding/decoding of multi-gigabit-per-second information into/from the amplitude or phase of the carrier signal. The developed fabrication process is scalable to large wafer sizes. PMID:28145513

  13. Wafer scale millimeter-wave integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene in high data rate communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibpour, Omid; He, Zhongxia Simon; Strupinski, Wlodek; Rorsman, Niklas; Zirath, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the demand for high data rate wireless communications has increased dramatically, which requires larger bandwidth to sustain multi-user accessibility and quality of services. This can be achieved at millimeter wave frequencies. Graphene is a promising material for the development of millimeter-wave electronics because of its outstanding electron transport properties. Up to now, due to the lack of high quality material and process technology, the operating frequency of demonstrated circuits has been far below the potential of graphene. Here, we present monolithic integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene operating at unprecedented high frequencies (80–100 GHz). The demonstrated circuits are capable of encoding/decoding of multi-gigabit-per-second information into/from the amplitude or phase of the carrier signal. The developed fabrication process is scalable to large wafer sizes.

  14. Evolution of gravitational waves from inflationary brane-world numerical study of high-energy effects

    CERN Document Server

    Hiramatsu, T; Taruya, A; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Koyama, Kazuya; Taruya, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    We study the evolution of gravitational waves(GWs) after inflation in a brane-world cosmology embedded in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. Contrary to the standard four-dimensional results, the GWs at the high-energy regime in brane-world model suffer from the effects of the non-standard cosmological expansion and the excitation of the Kaluza-Klein modes(KK-modes), which can affect the amplitude of stochastic gravitational wave background significantly. To investigate these two high-energy effects quantitatively, we numerically solve the wave equation of the GWs in the radiation dominated epoch at relatively low-energy scales. We show that the resultant GWs is suppressed by the excitation of the KK modes. The created KK modes are rather soft and escape away from the brane to the bulk gravitational field. The results are also compared to the semi-analytic prediction from the low-energy approximation and the evolved amplitude of GWs on the brane reasonably matches the numerical simulations.

  15. Alfv\\'en Wave Driven High Frequency Waves in the Solar Atmosphere: Implications for Ion Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Kaghashvili, Edisher Kh

    2014-01-01

    This work is an extension of Kaghashvili [1999] where ion-cyclotron wave dissipation channel for Alfv\\'en waves was discussed. While our earlier study dealt with the mode coupling in the commonly discussed sense, here we study changes in the initial waveform due to interaction of the initial driver Alfv\\'en wave and the plasma inhomogeneity, which are implicitly present in the equations, but were not elaborated in Kaghashvili [1999]. Using a cold plasma approximation, we show how high frequency waves (higher than the initial driver Alfv\\'en wave frequency) are generated in the inhomogeneous solar plasma flow. The generation of the high frequency forward and backward propagating modified fast magnetosonic/whistler waves as well as the generation of the driven Alfv\\'en waves is discussed in the solar atmosphere. The generated high frequency waves have a shorter dissipation timescale, and they can also resonant interact with particles using both the normal cyclotron and anomalous cyclotron interaction channels. ...

  16. High power, high efficiency millimeter wavelength traveling wave tubes for high rate communications from deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The high-power transmitters needed for high data rate communications from deep space will require a new class of compact, high efficiency traveling wave tubes (TWT's). Many of the recent TWT developments in the microwave frequency range are generically applicable to mm wave devices, in particular much of the technology of computer aided design, cathodes, and multistage depressed collectors. However, because TWT dimensions scale approximately with wavelength, mm wave devices will be physically much smaller with inherently more stringent fabrication tolerances and sensitivity to thermal dissipation.

  17. High Energy Asymptotics of the Scattering Amplitude for the Schrödinger Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Yafaev

    2002-02-01

    We find an explicit function approximating at high energies the kernel of the scattering matrix with arbitrary accuracy. Moreover, the same function gives all diagonal singularities of the kernel of the scattering matrix in the angular variables.

  18. High power pulses extracted from the Peregrine rogue wave

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guangye; Jia, SuoTang; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2013-01-01

    We address the various initial excitations of the Peregrine rogue wave and establish a robust transmission scheme of high power pulses extracted from the Peregrine rogue wave in a standard telecommunications fiber. The results show that the Peregrine rogue wave can be excited by using a weak pulse atop a continuous wave background and that the high power pulses extracted from the Peregrine rogue wave exhibit the typical characteristics of breathing solitons. The influence of higher-order effects, such as the third-order dispersion, the self-steepening and the Raman effect, on the propagation of the pulse extracted from the peak position and the interaction between neighboring high power pulses induced by initial perturbations are also investigated.

  19. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Darren W

    2013-05-07

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  20. High-amplitude, centennial-scale climate oscillations during the last glacial in the western Third Pole as recorded in the Guliya ice cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. G.; Yao, T.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Wu, G.; Davis, M. E.; Tian, L.; Lin, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Guliya ice cap, located in the Kunlun Mountains in the western Third Pole (TP) region near the northern limit of the southwest monsoon influence, may be the only non-polar ice field that provides detailed histories of climate and environment over the last glacial cycle. A continuous climate record from an ice core drilled in 1992 contains Eemian ice, and basal temperatures measured that year confirmed that the record was not being removed from the bottom. The δ18O record throughout Marine Isotope Stage 2 (MIS2) displays the occurrence of high-amplitude (~20‰) episodes of ~200-year periodicity, and the aerosol records suggest snow cover, regional vegetation and fire frequency that vary in synchrony. These oscillations might reflect the movement of the northernmost penetration of the monsoon precipitation through the Late Glacial Stage, which is restricted by the topographic barrier posed by the Kunlun range, and might also reflect solar-driven nonlinearities in the climate system such as sudden shifts in the jet stream. Recent model simulations suggest that glacial cooling over China was significantly amplified by stationary waves, and the Guliya MIS2 oscillations could reflect cyclical variability in these waves. These results are supported by clumped isotope thermometry of carbonates from the Chinese Loess Plateau, which indicate a 6 to 7oC decrease in Last Glacial Maximum summer temperatures. These studies will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms driving such high-frequency, high-amplitude oscillations. A review of the 2015 Sino-American cooperative ice core drilling program on Guliya is presented. This program will serve as a flagship for the TP Environment Program, an international, multidisciplinary collaboration among professionals and students in 14 countries designed to investigate environmental changes across the TP. The rapidly warming TP contains ~46,000 glaciers that collectively hold one of Earth's largest stores of fresh water that

  1. High-latitude HF Doppler observations of ULF waves: 2. Waves with small spatial scale sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Wright

    Full Text Available The DOPE (Doppler Pulsation Experiment HF Doppler sounder located near Tromsø, Norway (geographic: 69.6°N 19.2°E; L = 6.3 is deployed to observe signatures, in the high-latitude ionosphere, of magnetospheric ULF waves. A type of wave has been identified which exhibits no simultaneous ground magnetic signature. They can be subdivided into two classes which occur in the dawn and dusk local time sectors respectively. They generally have frequencies greater than the resonance fundamentals of local field lines. It is suggested that these may be the signatures of high-m ULF waves where the ground magnetic signature has been strongly attenuated as a result of the scale size of the waves. The dawn population demonstrate similarities to a type of magnetospheric wave known as giant (Pg pulsations which tend to be resonant at higher harmonics on magnetic field lines. In contrast, the waves occurring in the dusk sector are believed to be related to the storm-time Pc5s previously reported in VHF radar data. Dst measurements support these observations by indicating that the dawn and dusk classes of waves occur respectively during geomagnetically quiet and more active intervals.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities

  2. High amplitude vortex-induced pulsations in a gas transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriesels, P.C.; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Hirschberg, A.; Wijnands, A.P.J.; Iafrati, A.; Riccardi, G.; Piva, R.; Bruggeman, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    High Reynolds number, low Mach number gas flows in pipe systems with closed side branches exhibit spectacular low frequency self-sustained pulsations driven by periodic vortex shedding at specific values of the Strouhal number. A detailed study is presented of the behaviour of the flow in a system w

  3. Phase and Polarization State of High-Frequency Relic Gravitational Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-Yu; YANG Nan

    2009-01-01

    The displaying condition of strength, phase and polarization states of high-frequency relic gravitational waves (BFRGWs) in electromagnetic (EM) detecting systems is studied. It is shown that the displaying condition depends not only on the sensitivity of EM detecting systems and the amplitudes of HFRGWs, but also on the phase, the polarization states of HFRGWs and their matching to the EM detecting systems. In order to display simultaneously the strength, phase and polarization states of the resonant "monochromatic component"of HFRGWs, an important necessary condition is the utilization of two or more different EM detectors.

  4. The gyrokinetic resonant theory of circular polarized high frequency wave driving charged particle in strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuangxi; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies about circular polarized high frequency wave driving charged particle in strong magnetic field, and a new gyro resonant Lie perturbed transformation theory is given by adding a new total differential term to the original first order 1-form to remove the secularity of relevant infinitesimal generators. The time consumption of numerical simulation based on this resonant theory has an advantage over real orbit simulation if the magnetic field has almost a constant amplitude in the simulation spatial region, while the advantage disappears when the amplitude changes obviously in the simulation spatial region. A simple numerical experiment is given to test the new resonant theory and its time consumption property.

  5. Propagation of high frequency waves in the quiet solar atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andić A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency waves (5 mHz to 20 mHz have previously been suggested as a source of energy accounting for partial heating of the quiet solar atmosphere. The dynamics of previously detected high-frequency waves is analyzed here. Image sequences were taken by using the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT, Observatorio del Teide, Izana, Tenerife, with a Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The data were speckle reduced and analyzed with wavelets. Wavelet phase-difference analysis was performed to determine whether the waves propagate. We observed the propagation of waves in the frequency range 10 mHz to 13 mHz. We also observed propagation of low-frequency waves in the ranges where they are thought to be evanescent in the regions where magnetic structures are present.

  6. Propagation of High Frequency Waves in the Quiet Solar Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andić, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency waves (5 mHz to 20 mHz have previously been suggested as a source of energy accounting for partial heating of the quiet solar atmosphere. The dynamics of previously detected high-frequency waves is analysed here. Image sequences were taken by using the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT, Observatorio del Teide, Izana, Tenerife, with a Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The data were speckle reduced and analysed with wavelets. Wavelet phase-difference analysis was performed to determine whether the waves propagate. We observed the propagation of waves in the frequency range 10 mHz to 13 mHz. We also observed propagation of low-frequency waves in the ranges where they are thought to be evanescent in the regions where magnetic structures are present.

  7. Propagation of High Frequency Waves in the Quiet Solar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Andić, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    High-frequency waves (5 mHz to 20mHz) have previously been suggested as a source of energy accounting partial heating of the quiet solar atmosphere. The dynamics of previously detected high-frequency waves is analysed here. Image sequences are taken using the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Observatorio del Teide, Izana, Tenerife, with a Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The data were speckle reduced and analyzed with wavelets. Wavelet phase-difference analysis is performed to determine whether the waves propagate. We observe the propagation of waves in the frequency range 10mHz to 13mHz. We also observe propagation of low-frequency waves in the ranges where they are thought to be evanescent in regions where magnetic structures are present.

  8. High-frequency homogenization for travelling waves in periodic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Davit; Milton, Graeme W; Craster, Richard V

    2016-07-01

    We consider high-frequency homogenization in periodic media for travelling waves of several different equations: the wave equation for scalar-valued waves such as acoustics; the wave equation for vector-valued waves such as electromagnetism and elasticity; and a system that encompasses the Schrödinger equation. This homogenization applies when the wavelength is of the order of the size of the medium periodicity cell. The travelling wave is assumed to be the sum of two waves: a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω1 plus a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω2. We derive effective equations for the modulating functions, and then prove that there is no coupling in the effective equations between the two different waves both in the scalar and the system cases. To be precise, we prove that there is no coupling unless ω1=ω2 and [Formula: see text] where Λ=(λ1λ2…λ d ) is the periodicity cell of the medium and for any two vectors [Formula: see text] the product a⊙b is defined to be the vector (a1b1,a2b2,…,adbd ). This last condition forces the carrier waves to be equivalent Bloch waves meaning that the coupling constants in the system of effective equations vanish. We use two-scale analysis and some new weak-convergence type lemmas. The analysis is not at the same level of rigour as that of Allaire and co-workers who use two-scale convergence theory to treat the problem, but has the advantage of simplicity which will allow it to be easily extended to the case where there is degeneracy of the Bloch eigenvalue.

  9. High-frequency homogenization for travelling waves in periodic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Davit; Milton, Graeme W.; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-07-01

    We consider high-frequency homogenization in periodic media for travelling waves of several different equations: the wave equation for scalar-valued waves such as acoustics; the wave equation for vector-valued waves such as electromagnetism and elasticity; and a system that encompasses the Schrödinger equation. This homogenization applies when the wavelength is of the order of the size of the medium periodicity cell. The travelling wave is assumed to be the sum of two waves: a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector k and frequency ω1 plus a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector m and frequency ω2. We derive effective equations for the modulating functions, and then prove that there is no coupling in the effective equations between the two different waves both in the scalar and the system cases. To be precise, we prove that there is no coupling unless ω1=ω2 and (k -m )⊙Λ ∈2 π Zd, where Λ=(λ1λ2…λd) is the periodicity cell of the medium and for any two vectors a =(a1,a2,…,ad),b =(b1,b2,…,bd)∈Rd, the product a⊙b is defined to be the vector (a1b1,a2b2,…,adbd). This last condition forces the carrier waves to be equivalent Bloch waves meaning that the coupling constants in the system of effective equations vanish. We use two-scale analysis and some new weak-convergence type lemmas. The analysis is not at the same level of rigour as that of Allaire and co-workers who use two-scale convergence theory to treat the problem, but has the advantage of simplicity which will allow it to be easily extended to the case where there is degeneracy of the Bloch eigenvalue.

  10. Electron Acceleration by High Power Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul

    2012-10-01

    At the highest ERP of the High Altitude Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, high frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves in the ionosphere produce artificial aurora and electron-ion plasma layers. Using HAARP, electrons are accelerated by high power electrostatic (ES) waves to energies >100 times the thermal temperature of the ambient plasma. These ES waves are driven by decay of the pump EM wave tuned to plasma resonances. The most efficient acceleration process occurs near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in earth's magnetic field. Mode conversion plays a role in transforming the ES waves into EM signals that are recorded with ground receivers. These diagnostic waves, called stimulated EM emissions (SEE), show unique resonant signatures of the strongest electron acceleration. This SEE also provides clues about the ES waves responsible for electron acceleration. The electron gas is accelerated by high frequency modes including Langmuir (electron plasma), upper hybrid, and electron Bernstein waves. All of these waves have been identified in the scattered EM spectra as downshifted sidebands of the EM pump frequency. Parametric decay is responsible low frequency companion modes such as ion acoustic, lower hybrid, and ion Bernstein waves. The temporal evolution of the scattered EM spectrum indicates development of field aligned irregularities that aid the mode conversion process. The onset of certain spectral features is strongly correlated with glow plasma discharge structures that are both visible with the unaided eye and detectable using radio backscatter techniques at HF and UHF frequencies. The primary goals are to understand natural plasma layers, to study basic plasma physics in a unique ``laboratory with walls,'' and to create artificial plasma structures that can aid radio communications.

  11. Large-amplitude jumps and non-Gaussian dynamics in highly concentrated hard sphere fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Erica J; Schweizer, Kenneth S

    2008-05-01

    Our microscopic stochastic nonlinear Langevin equation theory of activated dynamics has been employed to study the real-space van Hove function of dense hard sphere fluids and suspensions. At very short times, the van Hove function is a narrow Gaussian. At sufficiently high volume fractions, such that the entropic barrier to relaxation is greater than the thermal energy, its functional form evolves with time to include a rapidly decaying component at small displacements and a long-range exponential tail. The "jump" or decay length scale associated with the tail increases with time (or particle root-mean-square displacement) at fixed volume fraction, and with volume fraction at the mean alpha relaxation time. The jump length at the alpha relaxation time is predicted to be proportional to a measure of the decoupling of self-diffusion and structural relaxation. At long times corresponding to mean displacements of order a particle diameter, the volume fraction dependence of the decay length disappears. A good superposition of the exponential tail feature based on the jump length as a scaling variable is predicted at high volume fractions. Overall, the theoretical results are in good accord with recent simulations and experiments. The basic aspects of the theory are also compared with a classic jump model and a dynamically facilitated continuous time random-walk model. Decoupling of the time scales of different parts of the relaxation process predicted by the theory is qualitatively similar to facilitated dynamics models based on the concept of persistence and exchange times if the elementary event is assumed to be associated with transport on a length scale significantly smaller than the particle size.

  12. Forecasting extreme wave events in moderate and high sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Anne Karin; Reistad, Magnar; Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta Maria

    2013-04-01

    Empirical studies on measurements have not yet come to conclusive relations between occurrence of rogue waves and - parameters which could be forecasted . Theoretical and tank experiments have demonstrated that high spectral peakedness and low spectral width combined (high Benjamin-Feir instability index, Onorato et al., 2006) give higher probability of rogue wave occurrence. Directional spread seems to reduce the probability of occurrence of rogue waves in these studies. Many years of experience with forecasting and discussions with people working in ocean environment indicate that rogue waves may as well occur in crossing seas. This was also indicated in a study in the Maxwave project (Toffoli et al., 2003) and the EXTREME SEAS project (Toffoli et al., 2011). We have here experimented with some indexes describing both high BFI and crossing seas and run the WAM model for some North Sea storm cases. Wave distributions measured at Ekofisk are analysed in the different cases. References • Onorato, M., Osborne, A., Serio, M., Cavaleri, L., Brandini, C., and Stansberg, C.: Extreme waves, modulational instability and second order theory: wave flume experiments on irregular waves,Europ. J. Mech. B/Fluids, 25, 586-601, 2006. • Toffoli, A., Lefevre, J.M., Monbaliu, J., Savina, H., and Bitner-Gregersen, E., "Freak Waves:Clues for Prediction in Ship Accidents?", Proc. ISOPE'2003 Conf. Hawai, USA, 2003. • Toffoli A., Bitner-Gregersen E. M., Osborne A. R., Serio M. Monbaliu J., Onorato M. (2011) Extreme Waves in Random Crossing Seas: Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 38, L06605, 5 pp. doi: 10.1029/2011.

  13. Low amplitude insult project: PBX 9501 high explosive violent reaction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idar, D.J.; Lucht, R.A.; Straight, J.W.; Scammon, R.J.; Browning, R.V.; Middleditch, J.; Dienes, J.K.; Skidmore, C.B.; Buntain, G.A.

    1998-12-31

    The Modified Steven test geometry has been used with several different target designs to investigate the mechanical loading behavior of PBX 9501 to a low velocity impact. A 2 kg. mild steel spigot projectile is launched via a new powder driven gun design, from {approximately} 20 to 105 m/s, at lightly confined, steel targets. Brief descriptions of the gun design and operation are given. The threshold velocity to reaction for various target designs, different PBX 9501 lots, and different high explosive (HE) thicknesses are reported and compared. Various diagnostics have been employed to evaluate the pressure profile and timing, and target strain behavior relative to projectile impact. The violence of reaction, as measured by both passive and active techniques, is reported relative to a steady state detonation in PBX 9501. Experimental results suggest slightly different ignition mechanisms dominate based on (HE) thickness, resulting in delayed reactions from {approximately} 0.2- to 2.8-ms after impact. Post-test analyses of the PBX 9501 are briefly summarized.

  14. Low amplitude insult project: PBX 9501 high explosive violent reaction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idar, D.J.; Lucht, R.A.; Straight, J.W.; Scammon, R.J.; Browning, R.V.; Middleditch, J.; Dienes, J.K.; Skidmore, C.B.; Buntain, G.A.

    1998-12-31

    The Modified Steven test geometry has been used with several different target designs to investigate the mechanical loading behavior of PBX 9501 to a low velocity impact. A 2 kg. mild steel spigot projectile is launched via a new powder driven gun design, from {approximately} 20 to 105 m/s, at lightly confined, steel targets. Brief descriptions of the gun design and operation are given. The threshold velocity to reaction for various target designs, different PBX 9501 lots, and different high explosive (HE) thicknesses are reported and compared. Various diagnostics have been employed to evaluate the pressure profile and timing, and target strain behavior relative to projectile impact. The violence of reaction, as measured by both passive and active techniques, is reported relative to a steady state detonation in PBX 9501. Experimental results suggest slightly different ignition mechanisms dominate based on (HE) thickness, resulting in delayed reactions from {approximately} 0.2- to 2.8-ms after impact. Post-test analyses of the PBX 9501 are briefly summarized.

  15. Integrable spin chains and scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J.; Prygarin, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Lipatov, L.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sankt-Peterburgskij Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    In this review we show that the multi-particle scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM at large N{sub c} and in the multi-Regge kinematics for some physical regions have the high energy behavior appearing from the contribution of the Mandelstam cuts in the complex angular momentum plane of the corresponding t-channel partial waves. These Mandelstam cuts or Regge cuts are resulting from gluon composite states in the adjoint representation of the gauge group SU(N{sub c}). In the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) their contribution to the six point amplitude is in full agreement with the known two-loop result. The Hamiltonian for the Mandelstam states constructed from n gluons in LLA coincides with the local Hamiltonian of an integrable open spin chain. We construct the corresponding wave functions using the integrals of motion and the Baxter-Sklyanin approach. (orig.)

  16. Gravitational-wave astronomy: the high-frequency window

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N; Andersson, Nils; Kokkotas, Kostas D

    2004-01-01

    This contribution is divided in two parts. The first part provides a text-book level introduction to gravitational radiation. The key concepts required for a discussion of gravitational-wave physics are introduced. In particular, the quadrupole formula is applied to the anticipated ``bread-and-butter'' source for detectors like LIGO, GEO600, EGO and TAMA300: inspiralling compact binaries. The second part provides a brief review of high frequency gravitational waves. In the frequency range above (say) 100Hz, gravitational collapse, rotational instabilities and oscillations of the remnant compact objects are potentially important sources of gravitational waves. Significant and unique information concerning the various stages of collapse, the evolution of protoneutron stars and the details of the supranuclear equation of state of such objects can be drawn from careful study of the gravitational-wave signal. As the amount of exciting physics one may be able to study via the detections of gravitational waves from ...

  17. Enabling high confidence detections of gravitational-wave bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Littenberg, Tyson B; Cornish, Neil J; Millhouse, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    With the advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors taking observations the detection of gravitational waves is expected within the next few years. Extracting astrophysical information from gravitational wave detections is a well-posed problem and thoroughly studied when detailed models for the waveforms are available. However, one motivation for the field of gravitational wave astronomy is the potential for new discoveries. Recognizing and characterizing unanticipated signals requires data analysis techniques which do not depend on theoretical predictions for the gravitational waveform. Past searches for short-duration un-modeled gravitational wave signals have been hampered by transient noise artifacts, or "glitches," in the detectors. In some cases, even high signal-to-noise simulated astrophysical signals have proven difficult to distinguish from glitches, so that essentially any plausible signal could be detected with at most 2-3 $\\sigma$ level confidence. We have put forth the BayesWave algorithm to differentiat...

  18. High-frequency gravitational waves from magnetars and gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Hao; Li, Jin; Fang, Zhenyun

    2016-01-01

    Extremely powerful astrophysical electromagnetic (EM) system could lead to significant energy-momentum tensor as possible source of high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs). Here based on properties of magnetars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we address 'Gamma-HFGWs' caused by ultra-strong EM radiations (in the radiation-dominated phase of GRBs fireball) interacting with super-high magnetar surface magnetic fields (10^{11}Tesla). By certain parameters of distance and power, the Gamma-HFGWs would have amplitude of 10^{-41} at 10^{20}Hz, and such very high frequency effectively compensate their weak amplitude and thus would cause perturbed EM waves of 10^{-20}Watt/m^2 in proposed HFGW detection system based on EM response to GWs. Particularly, predicted Gamma-HFGWs can possess distinctive pulse-like envelopes with characteristic shapes, which could be exclusive features helpful to distinguish them from background noise. Results obtained suggest that magnetars could involve in possible astrophysical EM sources o...

  19. Comparing the Robustness of High-Frequency Traveling-Wave Tube Slow-Wave Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christine T.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kory, Carol L.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional electromagnetic field simulation software package was used to compute the cold-test parameters, phase velocity, on-axis interaction impedance, and attenuation, for several high-frequency traveling-wave tube slow-wave circuit geometries. This research effort determined the effects of variations in circuit dimensions on cold-test performance. The parameter variations were based on the tolerances of conventional micromachining techniques.

  20. Signal photon flux generated by high-frequency relic gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Sai; Wen, Hao

    2016-08-01

    The power spectrum of primordial tensor perturbations increases rapidly in the high frequency region if the spectral index n t > 0. It is shown that the amplitude of relic gravitational waves h t(5 × 109 Hz) varies from 10-36 to 10-25 while n t varies from -6.25 × 10-3 to 0.87. A high frequency gravitational wave detector proposed by F.-Y. Li detects gravitational waves through observing the perturbed photon flux that is generated by interaction between relic gravitational waves and electromagnetic field. It is shown that the perturbative photon flux (5 × 109 Hz) varies from 1.40 × 10-4 s-1 to 2.85 × 107 s-1 while n t varies from -6.25 × 10-3 to 0.87. Correspondingly, the ratio of the transverse perturbative photon flux to the background photon flux varies from 10-28 to 10-16. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305181,11322545,11335012) and Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Y5KF181CJ1)

  1. High-frequency waves following PKP-CDIFF at distances greater than 155°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Ichiro

    1990-04-01

    Using a seismic network in Hokkaido-Tohoku region, Japan we observe PKP waves in the distance range 152 to 157°from a deep earthquake in Argentina. The seismic network consists of 26 stations and provides us with a data set of dense distance sampling. The examination of amplitude variation of PKP-BC and PKP-Cdiff with distance locates the C-cusp at about 155.5° for a surface source for the path from Argentina to Japan. This C-cusp position suggests a P velocity of 10.27 km/s at the bottom of the outer core. The bandpass filtering of the data shows that high-frequency waves are observed following PKP-Cdiff at distances beyond the C-cusp. The waves are characterized by a dominant frequency of about 2 to 3 Hz, a long duration of oscillation until the arrival of PKP-AB, and an apparent onset slowness of about 4 s/deg, which is approximately equal to that of PKP-AB in the distance range. The onset time of the high-frequency waves seems to be consistent with the least time of the scattering of PKP-BC on the receiver side near the bottom of the upper mantle.

  2. Amplitude differences in high-frequency fMRI signals between eyes open and eyes closed resting states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin-Ke; Wang, Jue; Zang, Yu-Feng; Liu, Dong-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies employing rapid sampling techniques have demonstrated that the resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) signal exhibits synchronized activities at frequencies much higher than the conventional frequency range (high-frequency fluctuations between different resting states. Here, we acquired rs-fMRI data at a high sampling rate (TR = 400 ms) from subjects with both eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC), and compared the amplitude of fluctuation (AF) between EO and EC for both the low- and high-frequency components. In addition to robust AF differences in the conventional low frequency band (high-frequency (primarily in 0.1-0.35 Hz) differences. The high-frequency results without covariates regression exhibited noisy patterns. For the data with nuisance covariates regression, we found a significant and reproducible reduction in high-frequency AF between EO and EC in the bilateral PSMC and the supplementary motor area (SMA), and an increase in high-frequency AF in the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of sampling rate by down-sampling the data to effective TR = 2 s. Briefly, by using the rapid sampling rate, we were able to detect more regions with significant differences while identifying fewer artifactual differences in the high-frequency bands as compared to the down-sampled dataset. We concluded that (1) high-frequency fluctuations of rs-fMRI signals can be modulated by different resting states and thus may be of physiological importance; and (2) the regression of covariates and the use of fast sampling rates are superior for revealing high-frequency differences in rs-fMRI signals.

  3. Simulations of Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear (KEEN) Waves with Variable Velocity Resolution Grids and High-Order Time-Splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Afeyan, Bedros; Crouseilles, Nicolas; Dodhy, Adila; Faou, Erwan; Mehrenberger, Michel; Sonnendrücker, Eric

    2014-01-01

    KEEN waves are nonlinear, non-stationary, self-organized asymptotic states in Vlasov plasmas outside the scope or purview of linear theory constructs such as electron plasma waves or ion acoustic waves. Nonlinear stationary mode theories such as those leading to BGK modes also do not apply. The range in velocity that is strongly perturbed by KEEN waves depends on the amplitude and duration of the ponderomotive force used to drive them. Smaller amplitude drives create highly localized structures attempting to coalesce into KEEN waves. These cases have much more chaotic and intricate time histories than strongly driven ones. The narrow range in which one must maintain adequate velocity resolution in the weakly driven cases challenges xed grid numerical schemes. What is missing there is the capability of resolving locally in velocity while maintaining a coarse grid outside the highly perturbed region of phase space. We here report on a new Semi-Lagrangian Vlasov-Poisson solver based on conservative non-uniform c...

  4. Non-linear high-frequency waves in the magnetosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Moolla; R Bharuthram; S V Singh; G S Lakhina

    2003-12-01

    Using fluid theory, a set of equations is derived for non-linear high-frequency waves propagating oblique to an external magnetic field in a three-component plasma consisting of hot electrons, cold electrons and cold ions. For parameters typical of the Earth’s magnetosphere, numerical solutions of the governing equations yield sinusoidal, sawtooth or bipolar wave-forms for the electric field.

  5. Generation of High Pressure and Temperature by Converging Detonation Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Singh

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Generation of high pressure and temperature has various applications in defence. Several techniques, viz flying plate method, collapsing of linear, convergence of detonation waves in solid explosives, have been established in this connection. In the present paper, converging detonation waves in solid explosives, where variable heat of detonation is being added to the front, is studied, by using Whitham's characteristics rule. Results are compared with those reported elsewhere.

  6. Generation of High Pressure and Temperature by Converging Detonation Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, V. P.; Shukla, S K

    1987-01-01

    Generation of high pressure and temperature has various applications in defence. Several techniques, viz flying plate method, collapsing of linear, convergence of detonation waves in solid explosives, have been established in this connection. In the present paper, converging detonation waves in solid explosives, where variable heat of detonation is being added to the front, is studied, by using Whitham's characteristics rule. Results are compared with those reported elsewhere.

  7. Generation of high pressure and temperature by converging detonation waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V. P.; Shukla, S. K.

    1987-07-01

    Generation of high pressure and temperature has various applications in defense. Several techniques, viz flying plate method, collapsing of linear, convergence of detonation waves in solid explosives, have been established in this connection. In this paper, converging detonation waves in solid explosives, where variable heat of detonation is being added to the front, are studied by using Whitham's characteristics rule. Results are compared with those reported elsewhere.

  8. Weak bond detection in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Taru; Kim, Eunho; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Yang, Jinkyu

    2017-05-01

    We experimentally investigate a diagnostic technique for identifying a weak bond in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs). We set up a one-dimensional chain of granular crystals, consisting of spherical particles with nonlinear interactions, to generate HNSWs. These solitary wave packets are transmitted into an inspection area of composites by making a direct contact with the chain. We demonstrate that a strong type of solitary waves injected to the weak bond area can break the weak bond of laminates, thereby causing delamination. Then, to identify the creation of the delamination, we transmit a weak type of solitary waves by employing the same apparatus, and measure the solitary waves reflected from the specimens. By analyzing these reflected solitary waves, we differentiate the weak bond samples with the pristine bond ones in an efficient and fast manner. The diagnostic results based on the proposed method are compared with the strength and energy release rate at bond interfaces, which are measured via standard testing methods such as three point bending and end notched flexure tests. This study shows the potential of solitary wave-based detection of weak bonds for hot spot monitoring of composite-based structures.

  9. Nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube-polymer composite films for high-amplitude optoacoustic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baac, Hyoung Won; Ok, Jong G.; Lee, Taehwa; Jay Guo, L.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite films that can be used as highly efficient and robust ultrasound transmitters for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. An inherent architecture of the nano-composite provides unique thermal, optical, and mechanical properties that are accommodated not just for efficient energy conversion but also for extraordinary robustness against pulsed laser ablation. First, we explain a thermoacoustic transfer mechanism within the nano-composite. CNT morphologies are examined to determine a suitable arrangement for heat transfer to the surrounding PDMS. Next, we introduce an approach to enhance optical extinction of the composite films, which uses shadowed deposition of a thin Au layer through an as-grown CNT network. Finally, the transmitter robustness is quantified in terms of laser-induced damage threshold. This reveals that the CNT-PDMS films can withstand an order-of-magnitude higher optical fluence (and extinction) than a Cr film used as a reference. Such robustness is crucial to increase the maximum-available optical energy for optoacoustic excitation and pressure generation. All of these structure-originated characteristics manifest the CNT-PDMS composite films as excellent optoacoustic transmitters for high-amplitude and high-frequency ultrasound generation.

  10. Nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube-polymer composite films for high-amplitude optoacoustic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baac, Hyoung Won; Ok, Jong G; Lee, Taehwa; Guo, L Jay

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite films that can be used as highly efficient and robust ultrasound transmitters for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. An inherent architecture of the nano-composite provides unique thermal, optical, and mechanical properties that are accommodated not just for efficient energy conversion but also for extraordinary robustness against pulsed laser ablation. First, we explain a thermoacoustic transfer mechanism within the nano-composite. CNT morphologies are examined to determine a suitable arrangement for heat transfer to the surrounding PDMS. Next, we introduce an approach to enhance optical extinction of the composite films, which uses shadowed deposition of a thin Au layer through an as-grown CNT network. Finally, the transmitter robustness is quantified in terms of laser-induced damage threshold. This reveals that the CNT-PDMS films can withstand an order-of-magnitude higher optical fluence (and extinction) than a Cr film used as a reference. Such robustness is crucial to increase the maximum-available optical energy for optoacoustic excitation and pressure generation. All of these structure-originated characteristics manifest the CNT-PDMS composite films as excellent optoacoustic transmitters for high-amplitude and high-frequency ultrasound generation.

  11. Optical parametric amplification beyond the slowly varying amplitude approximation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Hosseini Farzad

    2007-09-01

    The coupled-wave equations describing optical parametric amplification (OPA) are usually solved in the slowly varying amplitude (SVA) approximation regime, in which the second-order derivatives of the signal and idler amplitudes are ignored and in fact the electromagnetic effects due to exit face of the medium is not involved. Here, an analytical plane-wave solution of these coupled-wave equations in a non-absorbing medium is presented. The solutions are derived beyond the SVA approximation up to order of = (coupling constant over the wave number). The intensity distributions of the signal and the idler waves show a periodic behavior about their corresponding distributions of SVA-adapted solution. This behavior can be explained by the interference of the forward propagating signal (idler) wave and the corresponding backward one resulted from the reflection by the end face of the medium. Furthermore, this interference pattern in the medium can in turn serve as a periodic source for the next generations of the signal and idler waves. Therefore, the superposition of the waves, generated from different points of this periodic source, at the exit face of the medium shows an oscillatory behavior of the transmitted signal (idler) wave in terms of normalized coupling constant, . This study also shows that this effect is more considerable for high intensity pump beam, high relative refractive index and short length of the nonlinear medium.

  12. The wave energy flux of high frequency diffracting beams in complex geometrical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Omar; Mariani, Alberto; Poli, Emanuele; Farina, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    We consider the construction of asymptotic solutions of Maxwell's equations for a diffracting wave beam in the high frequency limit and address the description of the wave energy flux transported by the beam. With this aim, the complex eikonal method is applied. That is a generalization of the standard geometrical optics method in which the phase function is assumed to be complex valued, with the non-negative imaginary part accounting for the finite width of the beam cross section. In this framework, we propose an argument which simplifies significantly the analysis of the transport equation for the wave field amplitude and allows us to derive the wave energy flux. The theoretical analysis is illustrated numerically for the case of electron cyclotron beams in tokamak plasmas by using the GRAY code [D. Farina, Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 154 (2007)], which is based upon the complex eikonal theory. The results are compared to those of the paraxial beam tracing code TORBEAM [E. Poli et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 136, 90 (2001)], which provides an independent calculation of the energy flow.

  13. The wave energy flux of high frequency diffracting beams in complex geometrical optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, Omar; Poli, Emanuele [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mariani, Alberto [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ' P. Caldirola,' Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, via R. Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Farina, Daniela [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ' P. Caldirola,' Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, via R. Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    We consider the construction of asymptotic solutions of Maxwell's equations for a diffracting wave beam in the high frequency limit and address the description of the wave energy flux transported by the beam. With this aim, the complex eikonal method is applied. That is a generalization of the standard geometrical optics method in which the phase function is assumed to be complex valued, with the non-negative imaginary part accounting for the finite width of the beam cross section. In this framework, we propose an argument which simplifies significantly the analysis of the transport equation for the wave field amplitude and allows us to derive the wave energy flux. The theoretical analysis is illustrated numerically for the case of electron cyclotron beams in tokamak plasmas by using the GRAY code [D. Farina, Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 154 (2007)], which is based upon the complex eikonal theory. The results are compared to those of the paraxial beam tracing code TORBEAM [E. Poli et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 136, 90 (2001)], which provides an independent calculation of the energy flow.

  14. MHD waves generated by high-frequency photospheric vortex motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fedun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss simulations of MHD wave generation and propagation through a three-dimensional open magnetic flux tube in the lower solar atmosphere. By using self-similar analytical solutions for modelling the magnetic field in Cartesian coordinate system, we have constructed a 3-D magnetohydrostatic configuration which is used as the initial condition for non-linear MHD wave simulations. For a driver we have implemented a high-frequency vortex-type motion at the footpoint region of the open magnetic flux tube. It is found that the implemented swirly source is able to excite different types of wave modes, i.e. sausage, kink and torsional Alfvén modes. Analysing these waves by magneto-seismology tools could provide insight into the magnetic structure of the lower solar atmosphere.

  15. Instationary compaction wave propagation in highly porous cohesive granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkelmann, Nina; Ringl, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2016-07-01

    We study the collision of a highly porous granular aggregate of adhesive \\upmu m-sized silica grains with a hard wall using a granular discrete element method. A compaction wave runs through the granular sample building up an inhomogeneous density profile. The compaction is independent of the length of the aggregate, within the regime of lengths studied here. Also short pulses, as they might be exerted by a piston pushing the granular material, excite a compaction wave that runs through the entire material. The speed of the compaction wave is larger than the impact velocity but considerably smaller than the sound speed. The wave speed is related to the compaction rate at the colliding surface and the average slope of the linear density profile.

  16. Corrosion monitoring using high-frequency guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, P.

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion can develop due to adverse environmental conditions during the life cycle of a range of industrial structures, e.g., offshore oil platforms, ships, and desalination plants. Generalized corrosion leading to wall thickness loss can cause the reduction of the strength and thus degradation of the structural integrity. The monitoring of corrosion damage in difficult to access areas can be achieved using high frequency guided waves propagating along the structure from accessible areas. Using standard ultrasonic wedge transducers with single sided access to the structure, guided wave modes were selectively generated that penetrate through the complete thickness of the structure. The wave propagation and interference of the different guided wave modes depends on the thickness of the structure. Laboratory experiments were conducted for wall thickness reduction due to milling of the steel structure. From the measured signal changes due to the wave mode interference the reduced wall thickness was monitored. Good agreement with theoretical predictions was achieved. The high frequency guided waves have the potential for corrosion damage monitoring at critical and difficult to access locations from a stand-off distance.

  17. The influence of temperature dynamics and dynamic finite ion Larmor radius effects on seeded high amplitude plasma blobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, M.; Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, J.; Kendl, A.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal effects on the perpendicular convection of seeded pressure blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetised fusion plasmas are investigated. Our numerical study is based on a four field full-F gyrofluid model, which entails the consistent description of high fluctuation amplitudes and dynamic finite Larmor radius effects. We find that the maximal radial blob velocity increases with the square root of the initial pressure perturbation and that a finite Larmor radius contributes to highly compact blob structures that propagate in the poloidal direction. An extensive parameter study reveals that a smooth transition to this compact blob regime occurs when the finite Larmor radius effect strength, defined by the ratio of the magnetic field aligned component of the ion diamagnetic to the \\boldsymbol{E}× \\boldsymbol{B} vorticity, exceeds unity. The maximal radial blob velocities agree excellently with the inertial velocity scaling law over more than an order of magnitude. We show that the finite Larmor radius effect strength affects the poloidal and total particle transport and present an empirical scaling law for the poloidal and total blob velocities. Distinctions to the blob behaviour in the isothermal limit with constant finite Larmor radius effects are highlighted.

  18. Controlled tissue emulsification produced by high intensity focused ultrasound shock waves and millisecond boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Canney, Michael S; Khokhlova, Vera A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications, tissue may be thermally necrosed by heating, emulsified by cavitation, or, as was recently discovered, emulsified using repetitive millisecond boiling caused by shock wave heating. Here, this last approach was further investigated. Experiments were performed in transparent gels and ex vivo bovine heart tissue using 1, 2, and 3 MHz focused transducers and different pulsing schemes in which the pressure, duty factor, and pulse duration were varied. A previously developed derating procedure to determine in situ shock amplitudes and the time-to-boil was refined. Treatments were monitored using B-mode ultrasound. Both inertial cavitation and boiling were observed during exposures, but emulsification occurred only when shocks and boiling were present. Emulsified lesions without thermal denaturation were produced with shock amplitudes sufficient to induce boiling in less than 20 ms, duty factors of less than 0.02, and pulse lengths shorter than 30 ms. Higher duty factors or longer pulses produced varying degrees of thermal denaturation combined with mechanical emulsification. Larger lesions were obtained using lower ultrasound frequencies. The results show that shock wave heating and millisecond boiling is an effective and reliable way to emulsify tissue while monitoring the treatment with ultrasound.

  19. Evolution of gravitational waves in the high-energy regime of brane-world cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hiramatsu, T; Taruya, A; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Koyama, Kazuya; Taruya, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the cosmological evolution of gravitational waves (GWs) after inflation in a brane-world cosmology embedded in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS_5) bulk spacetime. In a brane-world scenario, the evolution of GWs is affected by the non-standard cosmological expansion and the excitation of the Kaluza-Klein modes (KK-modes), which are significant in the high-energy regime of the universe. We numerically solve the wave equation of GWs in the Poincare coordinates of the AdS_5 spacetime. Using a plausible initial condition from inflation, we find that, while the behavior of GWs in the bulk is sensitive to the transition time from inflation to the radiation dominated epoch, the amplitude of GWs on the brane is insensitive to this time if the transition occurs early enough before horizon re-entry. As a result, the amplitude of GWs is suppressed by the excitation of KK-modes which escape from the brane into the bulk, and the effect may compensate the enhancement of the GWs by the non-standard cosmologica...

  20. Guided wave propagation in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure in presence of a high density core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik

    2016-09-01

    A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density.

  1. High-resolution global tomography: A full-wave technique for forward and inverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Sigloch, Karin; Fournier, Alexandre

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, seismology has greatly benefitted from significant progress in digital data collection and processing, accurate numerical methods for wave propagation, and high-performance computing to explore crucial scales of interest in both data and model spaces. We will present a full-wave technique to address the seismic forward and inverse problem at the global scale, with a specific focus on diffracted waves in the lowermost mantle: Our 2D spectral-element method tackles 3D wave propagation through spherically symmetric background models down to seismic frequencies of 1 Hz and delivers the wavefields necessary to construct sensitivity kernels. This specific approach distinguishes itself from the adjoint method in that it requires no knowledge about data structure or observables at the time of forward modeling by means of storing entire reference space-time wavefields. To obtain a direct view of the interconnection between surface displacements and earth structure, we examine the time-dependent sensitivity of the seismic signal to 3D model perturbations. Being highly sensitive to such parameters as epicentral distance, earthquake radiation pattern, depth, frequency, receiver components and time windows, this effort suggests criteria for data selection to optimally illuminate a specific region within the earth. As shown with core-diffracted P-waves, we measure and model our observables (e.g. traveltimes, amplitudes) in multiple-frequency passbands, thereby increasing robustness of the inverse problem and path coverage. This allows us to selectively draw only upon frequency bands with high signal-to-noise ratio. We discuss the selection and usability of data for such a Pdiff tomographic setting, coverage maps and target regions. We also touch upon the validity of a 1D reference model and quantify the applicability range of the first-order Born approximation.

  2. Numerical survey of pressure wave propagation around and inside an underground cavity with high order FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Schöberl, Joachim; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    The research on purely numerical methods for modeling seismic waves has been more and more intensified over last decades. This development is mainly driven by the fact that on the one hand for subsurface models of interest in exploration and global seismology exact analytic solutions do not exist, but, on the other hand, retrieving full seismic waveforms is important to get insides into spectral characteristics and for the interpretation of seismic phases and amplitudes. Furthermore, the computational potential has dramatically increased in the recent past such that it became worthwhile to perform computations for large-scale problems as those arising in the field of computational seismology. Algorithms based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) are becoming increasingly popular for the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in geophysical models as they provide more geometrical flexibility in terms of complexity as well as heterogeneity of the materials. In particular, we want to demonstrate the benefit of high-order FEMs as they also provide a better control on the accuracy. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Further we are interested in the generation of synthetic seismograms including direct, refracted and converted waves in correlation to the presence of an underground cavity and the detailed simulation of the comprehensive wave field inside and around such a cavity that would have been created by a nuclear explosion. The motivation of this application comes from the need to find evidence of a nuclear test as they are forbidden by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). With this approach it is possible for us to investigate the wave field over a large bandwidth of wave numbers. This again will help to provide a better understanding on the characteristic signatures of an underground cavity, improve the protocols for

  3. Hybrid amplitude determination in charged kaon photoproduction and comparison with partial waves analysis in the energy range of 1800 to 2300 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Forozani, Gh

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude of four independent amplitudes are determined in charged kaon photoproduction in the energy range of 1500 to 2300MeV incident photon. Differential cross section and three polarization parameters are required for such amplitudes reconstruction at different kaon scattering angles. This analysis has indicated that the magnitudes of spin-flip amplitudes of the target nucleon dominate over the non-flip ones in all energies and scattering angles. The results have been compared with the solution of phase shift analysis sp98 at all energies. This analysis indicates that here is a good agreement between the present work and the results of phase shift analysis at all energies and scattering angles.

  4. Pulsation and Long-Term Variability of the High-Amplitude δ Scuti Star AD Canis Minoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pongsak Khokhuntod; Jian-Ning Fu; Chayan Boonyarak; Kanokwan Marak; Li Chen; Shi-Yang Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Time-series photometry was made for the large-amplitude δ Scuti star AD CMi in 2005 and 2006.High-quality photometric data provided in the literature were used to analyze the pulsation of the star,with the derived multiple frequencies fitted to our new data.Besides the dominant frequency and its harmonics,one low frequency(2.27402 cd-1)is discovered,which provides a reasonable interpretation for the long-noticed luminosity variation at the maximum and minimum light.Combining the nine new times of light maxima determined from the new data with the 64 times collected from the literature.we analyzed the long-term variability of AD CMi with the O-C technique.The results provide the updated value of period of 0.122974478 days.and seem to be in favor of the model of combination of the evolutionary effect and light-time effect of a binary system.of which some parameters are hereby deduced.

  5. Teaching and Assessment of High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Techniques for the Spine in Predoctoral Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, Millicent King

    2016-09-01

    Although national didactic criteria have been set for predoctoral education and assessment in osteopathic manipulative treatment, there is no criterion standard for teaching methods and assessments of osteopathic manipulative treatment competence in colleges of osteopathic medicine. This issue is more pressing with the creation of the single graduate medical education accreditation system by the American Osteopathic Association and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, which introduced the creation of "osteopathic recognition" for residencies that want to incorporate osteopathic principles and practice into their programs. Residencies with osteopathic recognition may include both osteopathic and allopathic graduates. Increased standardization at the predoctoral level, however, is recommended as osteopathic principles and practice training applications are expanded. The objectives of this article are to review the standards for teaching osteopathic medical students high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) techniques for the spine; to review and discuss the methods used to assess medical students' proficiency in using HVLA; and to propose baseline standards for teaching and assessing HVLA techniques among medical students.

  6. Pulsation and Long-Term Variability of the High-Amplitude δ Scuti Star AD Canis Minoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhuntod, Pongsak; Fu, Jian-Ning; Boonyarak, Chayan; Marak, Kanokwan; Chen, Li; Jiang, Shi-Yang

    2007-06-01

    Time-series photometry was made for the large-amplitude δ Scuti star AD CMi in 2005 and 2006. High-quality photometric data provided in the literature were used to analyze the pulsation of the star, with the derived multiple frequencies fitted to our new data. Besides the dominant frequency and its harmonics, one low frequency (2.27402 c d-1) is discovered, which provides a reasonable interpretation for the long-noticed luminosity variation at the maximum and minimum light. Combining the nine new times of light maxima determined from the new data with the 64 times collected from the literature, we analyzed the long-term variability of AD CMi with the O-C technique. The results provide the updated value of period of 0.122974478 days, and seem to be in favor of the model of combination of the evolutionary effect and light-time effect of a binary system, of which some parameters are hereby deduced.

  7. The Kep-Cont Mission: Continuing the observation of high-amplitude variable stars in the Kepler field of view

    CERN Document Server

    Molnár, L; Kolenberg, K; Borkovits, T; Antoci, V; Vida, K; Ngeow, C C; Guzik, J A; Plachy, E; Castanheira, B

    2013-01-01

    As a response to the Kepler white paper call, we propose to keep Kepler pointing to its current field of view and continue observing thousands of large amplitude variables (Cepheid, RR Lyrae and delta Scuti stars among others) with high cadence in the Kep-Cont Mission. The degraded pointing stability will still allow observation of these stars with reasonable (better than millimag) precision. The Kep-Cont mission will allow studying the nonradial modes in Blazhko-modulated and first overtone RR Lyrae stars and will give a better view on the period jitter of the only Kepler Cepheid in the field. With continued continuous observation of the Kepler RR Lyrae sample we may get closer to the origin of the century-old Blazhko problem. Longer time-span may also uncover new dynamical effects like apsidal motion in eclipsing binaries. A continued mission will have the advantage of providing unprecedented, many-years-long homogeneous and continuous photometric data of the same targets. We investigate the pragmatic detai...

  8. Patient-centered outcomes of high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation for low back pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, C M; Pohlman, K A; Vining, R D; Brantingham, J W; Long, C R

    2012-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a well-recognized public health problem with no clear gold standard medical approach to treatment. Thus, those with LBP frequently turn to treatments such as spinal manipulation (SM). Many clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy or effectiveness of SM for LBP. The primary objective of this paper was to describe the current literature on patient-centered outcomes following a specific type of commonly used SM, high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA), in patients with LBP. A systematic search strategy was used to capture all LBP clinical trials of HVLA using our predefined patient-centered outcomes: visual analogue scale, numerical pain rating scale, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index. Of the 1294 articles identified by our search, 38 met our eligibility criteria. Like previous SM for LBP systematic reviews, this review shows a small but consistent treatment effect at least as large as that seen in other conservative methods of care. The heterogeneity and inconsistency in reporting within the studies reviewed makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions. Future SM studies for LBP would benefit if some of these issues were addressed by the scientific community before further research in this area is conducted.

  9. Asteroseismology of KIC\\,11754974: a high-amplitude SX\\,Phe pulsator in a 343-day binary system

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, S J; Kurtz, D W; Suarez, J C; Handler, G; Balona, L A; Smalley, B; Uytterhoeven, K; Szabo, R; Thygesen, A O; Elkin, V; Breger, M; Grigahcene, A; Guzik, J A; Nemec, J M; Southworth, J

    2013-01-01

    The candidate SX Phe star KIC 11754974 shows a remarkably high number of combination frequencies in the Fourier amplitude spectrum: 123 of the 166 frequencies in our multi-frequency fit are linear combinations of independent modes. Predictable patterns in frequency spacings are seen in the Fourier transform of the light curve. We present an analysis of 180 d of short-cadence Kepler photometry and of new spectroscopic data for this evolved, late A-type star. We infer from the 1150-d, long-cadence light curve, and in two different ways, that our target is the primary of a 343-d, non-eclipsing binary system. According to both methods, the mass function is similar, f(M)=0.0207 +/- 0.0003 Msun. The observed pulsations are modelled extensively, using separate, state-of-the-art, time-dependent convection (TDC) and rotating models. The models match the observed temperature and low metallicity, finding a mass of 1.50-1.56 Msun. The models suggest the whole star is metal-poor, and that the low metallicity is not just a...

  10. A novel high amplitude piezoceramic actuator for applications in magnetic resonance elastography: a compliant mechanical amplifier approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, Arvin; Eskandari, Amiraslan; Ouyang, Puren; Chopra, Rajiv

    2017-08-01

    Piezoceramic actuators are capable of precise positioning with high force, but suffer from limited displacement range, which has hindered their application in the field of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a mechanical amplifier in combination with a piezoceramic actuator for the application of endorectal prostate MRE. A five-bar symmetric structure was designed in ANSYS® and manufactured out of brass. Laser vibrometer measurements were used to characterize the amplitude of the CMA actuator while attached to masses in the 0-325 g range and over operating frequencies of 90-500 Hz. The response of the CMA was investigated while mechanically coupled to a balloon type endorectal coil. The resonant frequency of the prototype CMA actuator was predicted within 10% error using ANSYS simulations. The amplification ratio of the CMA actuator was measured to be 10 with the laser vibrometer and 7.6 ± 1.7 (max: 9.2, min: 6.5) using MRE, at a vibration frequency of 200 Hz. Laser vibrometer data also showed that the CMA actuator’s performance did not change whether it was connected to an empty or inflated endorectal. The feasibility of performing endorectal prostate MRE with a CMA actuator was successfully demonstrated in a human volunteer.

  11. A photometric monitoring of bright high-amplitude delta Scuti stars. II. Period updates for seven stars

    CERN Document Server

    Derekas, A; Székely, P; Alfaro, E J; Csák, B; Mészáros, S; Rodríguez, E; Rolland, A; Sarneczky, K; Szabó, G M; Szatmary, K; Varadi, M; Kiss, C; Meszaros, Sz.; Szabo, Gy.M.; Kiss, Cs.

    2003-01-01

    We present new photometric data for seven high-amplitude delta Scuti stars. The observations were acquired between 1996 and 2002, mostly in the Johnson photometric system. For one star (GW UMa), our observations are the first since the discovery of its pulsational nature from the Hipparcos data.The primary goal of this project was to update our knowledge on the period variations of the target stars. For this, we have collected all available photometric observations from the literature and constructed decades-long O-C diagrams of the stars. This traditional method is useful because of the single-periodic nature of the light variations. Text-book examples of slow period evolution (XX Cyg, DY Her, DY Peg) and cyclic period changes due to light-time effect (LITE) in a binary system (SZ Lyn) are updated with the new observations. For YZ Boo, we find a period decrease instead of increase. The previously suggested LITE-solution of BE Lyn (Kiss & Szatmary 1995) is not supported with the new O-C diagram. Instead o...

  12. Numerical investigation of amplitude-dependent dynamic response in acoustic metamaterials with nonlinear oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimala, James M; Sun, C T

    2016-06-01

    The amplitude-dependent dynamic response in acoustic metamaterials having nonlinear local oscillator microstructures is studied using numerical simulations on representative discrete mass-spring models. Both cubically nonlinear hardening and softening local oscillator cases are considered. Single frequency, bi-frequency, and wave packet excitations at low and high amplitude levels were used to interrogate the models. The propagation and attenuation characteristics of harmonic waves in a tunable frequency range is found to correspond to the amplitude and nonlinearity-dependent shifts in the local resonance bandgap for such nonlinear acoustic metamaterials. A predominant shift in the propagated wave spectrum towards lower frequencies is observed. Moreover, the feasibility of amplitude and frequency-dependent selective filtering of composite signals consisting of individual frequency components which fall within propagating or attenuating regimes is demonstrated. Further enrichment of these wave manipulation mechanisms in acoustic metamaterials using different combinations of nonlinear microstructures presents device implications for acoustic filters and waveguides.

  13. Protostring scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Charles B.

    2016-11-01

    We calculate some tree-level scattering amplitudes for a generalization of the protostring, which is a novel string model implied by the simplest string bit models. These bit models produce a light-cone world sheet which supports s integer moded Grassmann fields. In the generalization we supplement this Grassmann world-sheet system with d =24 -s transverse coordinate world-sheet fields. The protostring corresponds to s =24 and the bosonic string to s =0 . The interaction vertex is a simple overlap with no operator insertions at the break/join point. Assuming that s is even we calculate the multistring scattering amplitudes by bosonizing the Grassmann fields, each pair equivalent to one compactified bosonic field, and applying Mandelstam's interacting string formalism to a system of s /2 compactified and d uncompactified bosonic world-sheet fields. We obtain all amplitudes for open strings with no oscillator excitations and for closed strings with no oscillator excitations and zero winding number. We then study in detail some simple special cases. Multistring processes with maximal helicity violation have much simpler amplitudes. We also specialize to general four-string amplitudes and discuss their high energy behavior. Most of these models are not covariant under the full Lorentz group O (d +1 ,1 ). The exceptions are the bosonic string whose Lorentz group is O (25 ,1 ) and the protostring whose Lorentz group is O (1 ,1 ). The models in between only enjoy an O (1 ,1 )×O (d ) spacetime symmetry.

  14. Making Wave Concept Tangible

    OpenAIRE

    Bülbül, Mustafa Şahin

    2012-01-01

    This study includes efficiency of some designed materials and activities for the students with special needs (blind students) about wave concept. In 9th grade Turkish High School Physics Curriculum, all the students have to learn wave concept because physics course is compulsory and wave concept was prepared as a unit. Generally, blind students only memorize some definitions about period, frequency and amplitude in that unit. This seems the easiest way for both teacher and students. Observing...

  15. Analysis of Energy Overshoot of High Frequency Waves with Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Fan

    2000-01-01

    A study is made on the overshoot phenomena in wind-generated waves. The surface displace ments of time-growing waves are measured at four fetches in a wind wave channel. The evolution of high frequency waves is displayed with wavelet transform. The results are compared with Sutherland's. It is found that high frequency wave components experience much stronger energy overshoot in the evolution.The energy of high frequency waves decreases greatly after overshoot

  16. High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast pressure of 8.2-25.0%. 3) Combined with smaller blast waves, these large variations in peak blast pressure of DDNP-based primers led to delayed ignition and failure to fire in brief field tests.

  17. Generation of sheet currents by high frequency fast MHD waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Manuel, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of fast magnetosonic waves of high frequency propagating into an axisymmetric equilibrium plasma is studied. By using the methods of weakly nonlinear geometrical optics, it is shown that the perturbation travels in the equatorial plane while satisfying a transport equation which enables us to predict the time and location of formation of shock waves. For plasmas of large magnetic Prandtl number, this would result into the creation of sheet currents which may give rise to magnetic reconnection and destruction of the original equilibrium. - Highlights: • Regular solutions of quasilinear hyperbolic systems may evolve into shocks. • The shock location is found for high frequency fast MHD waves. • The result is applied to static axisymmetric equilibria. • The previous process may lead to the formation of sheet currents and destruction of the equilibrium.

  18. Highly retrievable spin-wave-photon entanglement source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Jun; Wang, Xu-Jie; Li, Jun; Rui, Jun; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2015-05-29

    Entanglement between a single photon and a quantum memory forms the building blocks for a quantum repeater and quantum network. Previous entanglement sources are typically with low retrieval efficiency, which limits future larger-scale applications. Here, we report a source of highly retrievable spin-wave-photon entanglement. Polarization entanglement is created through interaction of a single photon with an ensemble of atoms inside a low-finesse ring cavity. The cavity is engineered to be resonant for dual spin-wave modes, which thus enables efficient retrieval of the spin-wave qubit. An intrinsic retrieval efficiency up to 76(4)% has been observed. Such a highly retrievable atom-photon entanglement source will be very useful in future larger-scale quantum repeater and quantum network applications.

  19. Supersaturation of vertically propagating internal gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindzen, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    The usual assumption that vertically propagating internal gravity waves will cease growing with height once their amplitudes are such as to permit convective instability anywhere within the wave is reexamined. Two factors lead to amplitude limitation: (1) wave clipping associated with convective mixing, and (2) energetic constraints associated with the rate at which the wave can supply energy to the convection. It is found that these two factors limit supersaturation to about 50 percent for waves with short horizontal wavelengths and high relative phase speeds. Usually the degree of supersaturation will be much less. These factors also lead to a gradual, rather than sudden, cessation of wave growth with height.

  20. Cloud Atlas: Discovery of Patchy Clouds and High-amplitude Rotational Modulations in a Young, Extremely Red L-type Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Ben W. P.; Apai, Daniel; Zhou, Yifan; Schneider, Glenn; Burgasser, Adam J.; Karalidi, Theodora; Yang, Hao; Marley, Mark S.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Radigan, Jacqueline; Lowrance, Patrick J.

    2016-10-01

    Condensate clouds fundamentally impact the atmospheric structure and spectra of exoplanets and brown dwarfs, but the connections between surface gravity, cloud structure, dust in the upper atmosphere, and the red colors of some brown dwarfs remain poorly understood. Rotational modulations enable the study of different clouds in the same atmosphere, thereby providing a method to isolate the effects of clouds. Here, we present the discovery of high peak-to-peak amplitude (8%) rotational modulations in a low-gravity, extremely red (J-K s = 2.55) L6 dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047). Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) time-resolved grism spectroscopy, we find a best-fit rotational period (13.20 ± 0.14 hr) with a larger amplitude at 1.1 μm than at 1.7 μm. This is the third-largest near-infrared variability amplitude measured in a brown dwarf, demonstrating that large-amplitude variations are not limited to the L/T transition but are present in some extremely red L-type dwarfs. We report a tentative trend between the wavelength dependence of relative amplitude, possibly proxy for small dust grains lofted in the upper atmosphere, and the likelihood of large-amplitude variability. By assuming forsterite as a haze particle, we successfully explain the wavelength-dependent amplitude with submicron-sized haze particle sizes of around 0.4 μm. W0047 links the earlier spectral and later spectral type brown dwarfs in which rotational modulations have been observed; the large amplitude variations in this object make this a benchmark brown dwarf for the study of cloud properties close to the L/T transition.

  1. High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

  2. High frequency guided wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, Marco; Masserey, Bernard; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Fromme, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. The cutting process can introduce micro-cracks in the thin wafers and lead to varying thickness. High frequency guided ultrasonic waves are considered for the structural monitoring of the wafers. The anisotropy of the monocrystalline silicon leads to variations of the wave characteristics, depending on the propagation direction relative to the crystal orientation. Full three-dimensional Finite Element simulations of the guided wave propagation were conducted to visualize and quantify these effects for a line source. The phase velocity (slowness) and skew angle of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes (first anti-symmetric mode A0 and first symmetric mode S0) for varying propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation were measured experimentally. Selective mode excitation was achieved using a contact piezoelectric transducer with a custom-made wedge and holder to achieve a controlled contact pressure. The out-of-plane component of the guided wave propagation was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Good agreement was found with the simulation results and theoretical predictions based on nominal material properties of the silicon wafer.

  3. Low-amplitude, high-frequency electromagnetic field exposure causes delayed and reduced growth in Rosa hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémiaux, Alexandre; Girard, Sébastien; Guérin, Vincent; Lothier, Jérémy; Baluška, František; Davies, Eric; Bonnet, Pierre; Vian, Alain

    2016-01-15

    It is now accepted that plants perceive high-frequency electromagnetic field (HF-EMF). We wondered if the HF-EMF signal is integrated further in planta as a chain of reactions leading to a modification of plant growth. We exposed whole small ligneous plants (rose bush) whose growth could be studied for several weeks. We performed exposures at two different development stages (rooted cuttings bearing an axillary bud and 5-leaf stage plants), using two high frequency (900MHz) field amplitudes (5 and 200Vm(-1)). We achieved a tight control on the experimental conditions using a state-of-the-art stimulation device (Mode Stirred Reverberation Chamber) and specialized culture-chambers. After the exposure, we followed the shoot growth for over a one-month period. We observed no growth modification whatsoever exposure was performed on the 5-leaf stage plants. When the exposure was performed on the rooted cuttings, no growth modification was observed on Axis I (produced from the elongation of the axillary bud). Likewise, no significant modification was noted on Axis II produced at the base of Axis I, that came from pre-formed secondary axillary buds. In contrast, Axis II produced at the top of Axis I, that came from post-formed secondary buds consistently displayed a delayed and significant reduced growth (45%). The measurements of plant energy uptake from HF-EMF in this exposure condition (SAR of 7.2 10(-4)Wkg(-1)) indicated that this biological response is likely not due to thermal effect. These results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic field only affected development of post-formed organs.

  4. Influence of shock wave pressure amplitude and pulse repetition frequency on the lifespan, size and number of transient cavities in the field of an electromagnetic lithotripter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Peter; Jöchle, Knut; Debus, Jürgen

    1998-10-01

    Monitoring the generation of cavitation is of great interest for diagnostic and therapeutic use of ultrasound in medicine, since cavitation is considered to play a major role in nonthermal ultrasound interactions with tissue. Important parameters are the number of cavitation events and the energy released during the bubble collapse. This energy is correlated to the maximum bubble radius which is related to the cavitation lifespan. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of the acoustic pressure amplitude and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) in the field of a lithotripter (Lithostar, Siemens) on the number, size and lifespan of transient cavitation bubbles in water. We used scattered laser light recorded by a photodiode and stroboscopic photographs to monitor the cavitation activity. We found that PRF (range 0.5-5 Hz) had no influence on the cavitation bubble lifespan and size, whereas lifespan and size increased with the acoustic pressure amplitude. In contrast, the number of cavitation events strongly increased with PRF, whereas the pressure amplitude had no significant influence on the number of cavitation events. Thus, by varying the pressure amplitude and PRF, it might be possible to deliver a defined relative number of cavitations at a defined relative energy level in a defined volume. This seems to be relevant to further studies that address the biological effects of transient cavitation occurring in the fields of lithotripters.

  5. Studies of high latitude mesospheric turbulence by radar and rocket. I - Energy deposition and wave structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Chou, H.-G.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Barcus, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of wintertime mesospheric echoes observed with the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar at Poker Flat, Alaska, was studied by probing the mesosphere with in situ rocket measurements during echo occurrences in the early spring, 1985. Within the height range 65-75 km, the structure of the large scale wave field was identified. In this region, a gravity wave with a vertical wavelength of about 2 km was found superimposed on a wave with a larger amplitude and a vertical wavelength of about 6.6 km. Because of the close correlation between the smaller amplitude wave and the modulation observed in the S/N profiles, it is concluded that the smaller wave was dominant in generating turbulence within the middle atmosphere.

  6. Quasi-B-mode generated by high-frequency gravitational waves and corresponding perturbative photon fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangyu, E-mail: cqufangyuli@hotmail.com [Institute of Gravitational Physics, Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wen, Hao [Institute of Gravitational Physics, Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Fang, Zhenyun [Institute of Gravitational Physics, Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wei, Lianfu; Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Miao [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Interaction of very low-frequency primordial (relic) gravitational waves (GWs) to cosmic microwave background (CMB) can generate B-mode polarization. Here, for the first time we point out that the electromagnetic (EM) response to high-frequency GWs (HFGWs) would produce quasi-B-mode distribution of the perturbative photon fluxes. We study the duality and high complementarity between such two B-modes, and it is shown that such two effects are from the same physical origin: the tensor perturbation of the GWs and not the density perturbation. Based on this quasi-B-mode in HFGWs and related numerical calculation, it is shown that the distinguishing and observing of HFGWs from the braneworld would be quite possible due to their large amplitude, higher frequency and very different physical behaviors between the perturbative photon fluxes and background photons, and the measurement of relic HFGWs may also be possible though face to enormous challenge.

  7. Quasi-B-mode generated by high-frequency gravitational waves and corresponding perturbative photon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyu; Wen, Hao; Fang, Zhenyun; Wei, Lianfu; Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Miao

    2016-10-01

    Interaction of very low-frequency primordial (relic) gravitational waves (GWs) to cosmic microwave background (CMB) can generate B-mode polarization. Here, for the first time we point out that the electromagnetic (EM) response to high-frequency GWs (HFGWs) would produce quasi-B-mode distribution of the perturbative photon fluxes. We study the duality and high complementarity between such two B-modes, and it is shown that such two effects are from the same physical origin: the tensor perturbation of the GWs and not the density perturbation. Based on this quasi-B-mode in HFGWs and related numerical calculation, it is shown that the distinguishing and observing of HFGWs from the braneworld would be quite possible due to their large amplitude, higher frequency and very different physical behaviors between the perturbative photon fluxes and background photons, and the measurement of relic HFGWs may also be possible though face to enormous challenge.

  8. A high-density ERP study reveals latency, amplitude, and topographical differences in multiple sclerosis patients versus controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelan, R

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify latency, amplitude and topographical differences in event-related potential (ERP) components between multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls and to compare ERP findings with results from the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). METHODS: Fifty-four subjects (17 relapsing remitting (RRMS) patients, 16 secondary progressive (SPMS) patients, and 21 controls) completed visual and auditory oddball tasks while data were recorded from 134 EEG channels. Latency and amplitude differences, calculated using composite mean amplitude measures, were tested using an ANOVA. Topographical differences were tested using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). RESULTS: In the visual modality, P2, P3 amplitudes and N2 latency were significantly different across groups. In the auditory modality, P2, N2, and P3 latencies and N1 amplitude were significantly different across groups. There were no significant differences between RRMS and SPMS patients on any ERP component. There were topographical differences between MS patients and controls for both early and late components for the visual modality, but only in the early components for the auditory modality. PASAT score correlated significantly with auditory P3 latency for MS patients. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant ERP differences between MS patients and controls. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicated that both early sensory and later cognitive ERP components are impaired in MS patients relative to controls.

  9. Gravitational Wave Science in the High School Classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Farr, Benjamin; Trouille, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational waves have the potential to bring astronomy into the next era by providing an entirely new means of observing astronomical phenomena. By measuring fluctuations down to the sub-attometer scale, scientists are hoping to measure the gravitational effects of extreme cosmic events happening millions of parsecs away. This widely multidisciplinary work encompasses fields ranging from astrophysics to quantum optics. This article discusses the integration of gravitational wave science into a high school astronomy curriculum, where students learn about a variety of topics in the field, with particular focus placed on astrophysical sources, detector technology, and data analysis techniques.

  10. Drift waves in a high-density cylindrical helicon discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.

    2005-01-01

    of the background plasma parameters. All experimentally observed features of the instability are found to be consistent with drift waves. A linear nonlocal numerical model for drift modes, based on the two-fluid description of a plasma, is used for comparison between the experimental observations and theory....... Comparing numerical and experimental frequencies, it is found that the experimentally observed frequencies are consistent with drift waves. The numerical results show that the high electron collision frequencies provide the strongest destabilization mechanism in the helicon plasma. (c) 2005 American...

  11. Electron acceleration and emission in a field of a plane and converging dipole wave of relativistic amplitudes with the radiation reaction force taken into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashinov, Aleksei V.; Gonoskov, Arkady A.; Kim, A. V.; Marklund, Mattias; Mourou, G.; Sergeev, Aleksandr M.

    2013-04-01

    A comparative analysis is performed of the electron emission characteristics as the electrons move in laser fields with ultra-relativistic intensity and different configurations corresponding to a plane or tightly focused wave. For a plane travelling wave, analytical expressions are derived for the emission characteristics, and it is shown that the angular distribution of the radiation intensity changes qualitatively even when the wave intensity is much less than that in the case of the radiation-dominated regime. An important conclusion is drawn that the electrons in a travelling wave tend to synchronised motion under the radiation reaction force. The characteristic features of the motion of electrons are found in a converging dipole wave, associated with the curvature of the phase front and nonuniformity of the field distribution. The values of the maximum achievable longitudinal momenta of electrons accelerated to the centre, as well as their distribution function are determined. The existence of quasi-periodic trajectories near the focal region of the dipole wave is shown, and the characteristics of the emission of both accelerated and oscillating electrons are analysed.

  12. Changes in Central Aortic Pressure Levels, Wave Components and Determinants Associated with High Peripheral Blood Pressure States in Childhood: Analysis of Hypertensive Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Espinosa, Victoria; Curcio, Santiago; Marotta, Marco; Castro, Juan M; Arana, Maite; Peluso, Gonzalo; Chiesa, Pedro; Giachetto, Gustavo; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina

    2016-10-01

    The aims were to determine whether children's high peripheral blood pressure states (HBP) are associated with increased central aortic blood pressure (BP) and to characterize hemodynamic and vascular changes associated with HBP in terms of changes in cardiac output (stroke volume, SV), arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, PWV), peripheral vascular resistances (PVR) and net and relative contributions of reflected waves to the aortic pulse amplitude. We included 154 subjects (mean age 11; range 4-16 years) assigned to one of two groups: normal peripheral BP (NBP, n = 101), defined as systolic and diastolic BP wave-derived parameters (augmentation index, forward and backward wave components' amplitude) were measured using gold-standard techniques, applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor) and oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph). Independent of the presence of dyslipidemia and/or obesity, aortic systolic and pulse BP were higher in HBP than in NBP children. The increase in central BP could not be explained by an increase in the relative contribution of reflections to the aortic pressure wave, higher PVR or by an augmented peripheral reflection coefficient. Instead, the rise in central BP would be explained by an increase in the amplitude of both incident and reflected wave components.

  13. Neural responses to the mechanical parameters of a high velocity, low amplitude spinal manipulation: effect of preload parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, William. R.; Long, Cynthia R.; Kawchuk, Gregory N.; Pickar, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine how the preload that precedes a high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) affects muscle spindle input from lumbar paraspinal muscles both during and after the HVLA-SM. Methods Primary afferent activity from muscle spindles in lumbar paraspinal muscles were recorded from the L6 dorsal root in anesthetized cats. HVLA-SM of the L6 vertebra was preceded either by no preload or by systematic changes in the preload magnitude, duration, and the presence or absence of a downward incisural point (DIP). Immediate effects of preload on muscle spindle responses to the HVLA-SM were determined by comparing mean instantaneous discharge frequencies (MIF) during the HVLA-SM’s thrust phase with baseline. Longer lasting effects of preload on spindle responses to the HVLA-SM were determined by comparing MIF during slow ramp and hold movement of the L6 vertebra before and following the HVLA-SM. Results The smaller compared to the larger preload magnitude and the longer compared to the shorter preload duration significantly increased (P=0.02 and P=0.04) respectively) muscle spindle responses during the HVLA-SM thrust. The absence of preload had the greatest effect on the change in MIF. Interactions between preload magnitude, duration and DIP often produced statistically significant but arguably physiologically modest changes in the passive signaling properties of the muscle spindle following the manipulation. Conclusion Because preload parameters in this animal model were shown to affect neural responses to an HVLA-SM, preload characteristics should be taken into consideration when judging this intervention’s therapeutic benefit in both clinical efficacy studies and in clinical practice. PMID:24387888

  14. High-resolution diffraction microscopy using the plane-wave field of a nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beam

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Yukio; Nishino, Yoshinori; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Kubo, Hideto; Furukawa, Hayato; Mimura, Hidekazu; MATSUYAMA, Satoshi; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2009-01-01

    X-ray waves in the center of the beam waist of nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beams can be considered to have amplitude and phase that are both almost uniform, i.e., they are x-ray plane waves. Here we report the results of an experimental demonstration of high-resolution diffraction microscopy using the x-ray plane wave of the synchrotron x-ray beam focused using Kirkpatrik-Baez mirrors. A silver nanocube with an edge length of ∼100 nm is illuminated with the x-ray beam focused to ...

  15. Statistical characterization of high-to-medium frequency mesoscale gravity waves by lidar-measured vertical winds and temperatures in the MLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xian; Chu, Xinzhao; Li, Haoyu; Chen, Cao; Smith, John A.; Vadas, Sharon L.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first statistical study of gravity waves with periods of 0.3-2.5 h that are persistent and dominant in the vertical winds measured with the University of Colorado STAR Na Doppler lidar in Boulder, CO (40.1°N, 105.2°W). The probability density functions of the wave amplitudes in temperature and vertical wind, ratios of these two amplitudes, phase differences between them, and vertical wavelengths are derived directly from the observations. The intrinsic period and horizontal wavelength of each wave are inferred from its vertical wavelength, amplitude ratio, and a designated eddy viscosity by applying the gravity wave polarization and dispersion relations. The amplitude ratios are positively correlated with the ground-based periods with a coefficient of 0.76. The phase differences between the vertical winds and temperatures (φW -φT) follow a Gaussian distribution with 84.2±26.7°, which has a much larger standard deviation than that predicted for non-dissipative waves ( 3.3°). The deviations of the observed phase differences from their predicted values for non-dissipative waves may indicate wave dissipation. The shorter-vertical-wavelength waves tend to have larger phase difference deviations, implying that the dissipative effects are more significant for shorter waves. The majority of these waves have the vertical wavelengths ranging from 5 to 40 km with a mean and standard deviation of 18.6 and 7.2 km, respectively. For waves with similar periods, multiple peaks in the vertical wavelengths are identified frequently and the ones peaking in the vertical wind are statistically longer than those peaking in the temperature. The horizontal wavelengths range mostly from 50 to 500 km with a mean and median of 180 and 125 km, respectively. Therefore, these waves are mesoscale waves with high-to-medium frequencies. Since they have recently become resolvable in high-resolution general circulation models (GCMs), this statistical study provides an important

  16. Amplitude modulated, by M1, Earth's oscillating (T = 1 day) electric field triggered by K1 tidal waves. Its relation to the occurrence time of large EQs

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C; Verveniotis, G

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the observation that quite often the Earth's oscillating electric field varies in amplitude, a mechanism is postulated that accounts for these observations. That mechanism is the piezoelectric one driven by the M1 and K1 tidal components. It is demonstrated how the system: piezoelectricity triggered in the lithosphere - M1 and K1 tidal components is activated and produces the amplitude modulated Earth's oscillating electric field. This procedure is linked to the strain load conditions met in the seismogenic area before the occurrence of a large EQ. Peaks of the oscillating Earth's electric field are tightly connected to the M1 peak tidal component and to the timing of the occurrence of large EQs. Typical examples from real recordings of the Earth's oscillating electric field, recorded by the ATH (Greece) monitoring site, are given in order to verify the postulated detailed piezoelectric mechanism.

  17. SONIC SPEED AND SHOCK WAVE IN HIGH VELOCITY AERATED FLOWS FROM HIGH HEAD DISCHARGE STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zhi-yong

    2003-01-01

    The compressible characteristics in aerated flows at the high velocity of about 50m/s were analyzed. Based on the theory of compressible the relations between the sonic speed and shock wave in high-velocity aerated flow were theoretically deduced. And comparisons with measured data were made. The theoretical and experimental results show the sonic speed in aerated flow is merely of the order of several-dozen meters per second, and its minimum value is only 20m/s, which is far much less than that in water or air alone. So high subsonic flow, supersonic flow and transonic flow as well as compression wave, shock wave and expansion wave similarly to aerodnamics may be produced in high velocity aerated flow at the speed of the order of 50m/s. Hence the influences of these compressible characteristics on high head discharge structures can not be neglected, especially on super high dams over 200m high.

  18. Detecting gravitational waves from highly eccentric compact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tai, Kai Sheng; Pretorius, Frans

    2014-01-01

    In dense stellar regions, highly eccentric binaries of black holes and neutron stars can form through various n-body interactions. Such a binary could emit a significant fraction of its binding energy in a sequence of largely isolated gravitational wave bursts prior to merger. Given expected black hole and neutron star masses, many such systems will emit these repeated bursts at frequencies within the sensitive band of contemporary ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Unfortunately, existing gravitational wave searches are ill-suited to detect these signals. In this work, we adapt a "power stacking" method to the detection of gravitational wave signals from highly eccentric binaries. We implement this method as an extension of the Q-transform, a projection onto a multiresolution basis of windowed complex exponentials that has previously been used to analyze data from the network of LIGO/Virgo detectors. Our method searches for excess power over an ensemble of time-frequency tiles. We characterize the pe...

  19. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Crystals for Acoustic Wave Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Hongfei; Wu, Huiyan; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2016-03-01

    In this review paper, nine different types of high-temperature piezoelectric crystals and their sensor applications are overviewed. The important materials' properties of these piezoelectric crystals including dielectric constant, elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, electromechanical coupling coefficients, and mechanical quality factor are discussed in detail. The determination methods of these physical properties are also presented. Moreover, the growth methods, structures, and properties of these piezoelectric crystals are summarized and compared. Of particular interest are langasite and oxyborate crystals, which exhibit no phase transitions prior to their melting points ∼ 1500 °C and possess high electrical resistivity, piezoelectric coefficients, and mechanical quality factor at ultrahigh temperature ( ∼ 1000 °C). Finally, some research results on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors developed using this high-temperature piezoelectric crystals are discussed.

  20. Critical parameters and universal amplitude ratios of two-dimensional spin-S Ising models using high- and low-temperature expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Butera, P

    2003-01-01

    For the study of Ising models of general spin S on the square lattice, we have combined our recently extended high-temperature expansions with the low-temperature expansions derived some time ago by Enting, Guttmann and Jensen. We have computed for the first time various critical parameters and improved the estimates of others. Moreover the properties of hyperscaling and of universality (spin S independence) of exponents and of various dimensionless amplitude combinations have been verified accurately. Assuming the validity of the lattice-lattice scaling, from our estimates of critical amplitudes for the square lattice we have also obtained estimates of the corresponding amplitudes for the spin S Ising model on the triangular, honeycomb, and kagome` lattices.

  1. Large-amplitude Fourier transformed high-harmonic alternating current cyclic voltammetry: kinetic discrimination of interfering Faradaic processes at glassy carbon and at boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Si-Xuan; Bond, Alan M; Marken, Frank

    2004-07-01

    Significant advantages of Fourier transformed large-amplitude ac higher (second to eighth) harmonics relative to responses obtained with conventional small-amplitude ac or dc cyclic voltammetric methods have been demonstrated with respect to (i) the suppression of capacitive background currents, (ii) the separation of the reversible reduction of [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+) from the overlapping irreversible oxygen reduction process under conditions where aerobic oxygen remains present in the electrochemical cell, and (iii) the kinetic resolution of the reversible [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+/2+) process in mixtures of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) and [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+) at appropriately treated boron-doped diamond electrodes, even when highly unfavorable [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) to [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+) concentration ratios are employed. Theoretical support for the basis of kinetic discrimination in large-amplitude higher harmonic ac cyclic voltammetry is provided.

  2. Amplitude dependent closest tune approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Franchi, Andrea; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations in the LHC point to the existence of an amplitude dependent closest tune approach. However this dynamical behavior and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This effect is highly relevant for the LHC as an unexpectedly closest tune approach varying with amplitude modifies the frequency content of the beam and, hence, the Landau damping. Furthermore the single particle stability would also be affected by this effect as it would modify how particles with varying amplitudes approach and cross resonances. We present analytic derivations that lead to a mechanism generating an amplitude dependent closest tune approach.

  3. High speed, high current pulsed driver circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Christopher R.

    2017-03-21

    Various technologies presented herein relate to driving a LED such that the LED emits short duration pulses of light. This is accomplished by driving the LED with short duration, high amplitude current pulses. When the LED is driven by short duration, high amplitude current pulses, the LED emits light at a greater amplitude compared to when the LED is driven by continuous wave current.

  4. A new delirium phenotype with rapid high amplitude onset and nearly as rapid reversal: Central Coast Australia Delirium Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regal PJ

    2015-02-01

    , and 45%/80% for the Delirium Index. General medicine and geriatric medicine groups had similar outcomes.Conclusion: This delirium phenotype selects for a rapid high amplitude critical decline in attention, executive function, IADL, and apathy that recovers almost as rapidly.Keywords: delirium, inattention, executive function, dementia

  5. High performance millimeter-wave microstrip circulators and isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ming; Pan, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Millimeter wave systems, phased array antennas, and high performance components all require wideband circulators (and isolators) to perform diplexing and switching, to improve isolation and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), and to construct IMPATT diode reflection amplifiers. Presently, most of the millimeter-wave circulators and isolators are available in the configurations of waveguide or stripline, both of which suffer from the shortcomings of bulky size/weight, narrow bandwidth, and poor compatibility with monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMIC). MMW microstrip circulators/isolators can eliminate or improve these shortcomings. Stub-tuned microstrip circulator configuration were developed utilizing the electromagnetic fields perturbation technique, the adhesion problems of microstrip metallization on new ferrite substrate were overcome, the fabrication, assembly, packaging techniques were improved, and then successfully designed, fabricated a Ka band circulator which has isolation and return loss of greater than 16dB, insertion loss less than 0.7dB. To assess the steady and reliable performance of the circulator, a temperature cycling test was done over the range of -20 to +50 C for 3 continuous cycles and found no significant impact or variation of circulator performance.

  6. Investigation of the effects of continuous-wave, pulse- and amplitude-modulated microwaves on single excitable cells of Chara corallina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L M; Garber, F; Cleary, S F

    1982-01-01

    Single internodal excitable cells of Chara corallina were exposed to CW, pulse-modulated and sinusoidally modulated S-band microwave fields in a temperature-controlled waveguide exposure chamber. All electrical measurements were made external to the waveguide (ie, under no impressed microwave field). The dependent variables measured before, during, and after exposure to the S-band microwave fields included: resting potential, amplitude of the action potential, rise and decay time of the action potential, conduction velocity, and excitability. Cells maintained at 22 +/- 0.1 degrees C during exposure showed no consistent or statistically significant microwave-dependent alterations in any of the dependent variables.

  7. High-speed measurement of rifle primer blast waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of rifle primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Our key findings are: 1) Most of the primer models tested show 5-12% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) For most primer types tested, peak pressure magnitudes are well correlated with measured primer masses so that significant reductions in standard deviation are expected to result from sorting primers by mass. 3) A range of peak pressures from below 200 psi to above 500 psi is available in different primer types.

  8. Measurement of the I =1 /2 K π S -wave amplitude from Dalitz plot analyses of ηc→K K ¯π in two-photon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Brown, D. N.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Lankford, A. J.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Kim, J.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Röhrken, M.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Pushpawela, B. G.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Santoro, V.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Martellotti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Bhuyan, B.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Prell, S.; Ahmed, H.; Pennington, M. R.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Banerjee, Sw.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Schubert, K. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Cenci, R.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Cowan, R.; Cheaib, R.; Robertson, S. H.; Dey, B.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Summers, D. J.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Rossi, A.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Pilloni, A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Dittrich, S.; Grünberg, O.; Heß, M.; Leddig, T.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Aston, D.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Purohit, M. V.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; De Mori, F.; Filippi, A.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Beaulieu, A.; Bernlochner, F. U.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lueck, T.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; BaBar Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We study the processes γ γ →KS0K±π∓ and γ γ →K+K-π0 using a data sample of 519 fb-1 recorded with the BABAR detector operating at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider at center-of-mass energies at and near the Υ (n S ) (n =2 , 3, 4) resonances. We observe ηc decays to both final states and perform Dalitz plot analyses using a model-independent partial wave analysis technique. This allows a model-independent measurement of the mass-dependence of the I =1 /2 K π S -wave amplitude and phase. A comparison between the present measurement and those from previous experiments indicates similar behavior for the phase up to a mass of 1.5 GeV /c2. In contrast, the amplitudes show very marked differences. The data require the presence of a new a0(1950 ) resonance with parameters m =1931 ±14 ±22 MeV /c2 and Γ =271 ±22 ±29 MeV .

  9. High-Energy Waves in Superpolynomial FPU-Type Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Michael

    2017-02-01

    We consider periodic traveling waves in FPU-type chains with superpolynomial interaction forces and derive explicit asymptotic formulas for the high-energy limit as well as bounds for the corresponding approximation error. In the proof we adapt twoscale techniques that have recently been developed by Herrmann and Matthies for chains with singular potential and provide an asymptotic ODE for the scaled distance profile.

  10. Acoustic wave propagation in high-pressure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Habán, Vladimír

    2006-12-22

    Recently, substantial attention is paid to the development of methods of generation of pulsations in high-pressure systems to produce pulsating high-speed water jets. The reason is that the introduction of pulsations into the water jets enables to increase their cutting efficiency due to the fact that the impact pressure (so-called water-hammer pressure) generated by an impact of slug of water on the target material is considerably higher than the stagnation pressure generated by corresponding continuous jet. Special method of pulsating jet generation was developed and tested extensively under the laboratory conditions at the Institute of Geonics in Ostrava. The method is based on the action of acoustic transducer on the pressure liquid and transmission of generated acoustic waves via pressure system to the nozzle. The purpose of the paper is to present results obtained during the research oriented at the determination of acoustic wave propagation in high-pressure system. The final objective of the research is to solve the problem of transmission of acoustic waves through high-pressure water to generate pulsating jet effectively even at larger distances from the acoustic source. In order to be able to simulate numerically acoustic wave propagation in the system, it is necessary among others to determine dependence of the sound speed and second kinematical viscosity on operating pressure. Method of determination of the second kinematical viscosity and speed of sound in liquid using modal analysis of response of the tube filled with liquid to the impact was developed. The response was measured by pressure sensors placed at both ends of the tube. Results obtained and presented in the paper indicate good agreement between experimental data and values of speed of sound calculated from so-called "UNESCO equation". They also show that the value of the second kinematical viscosity of water depends on the pressure.

  11. Effect of High-Frequency Sea Waves on Wave Period Retrieval from Radar Altimeter and Buoy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifeng Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wave periods estimated from satellite altimetry data behave differently from those calculated from buoy data, especially in low-wind conditions. In this paper, the geometric mean wave period T a is calculated from buoy data, rather than the commonly used zero-crossing wave period T z . The geometric mean wave period uses the fourth moment of the wave frequency spectrum and is related to the mean-square slope of the sea surface measured using altimeters. The values of T a obtained from buoys and altimeters agree well (root mean square difference: 0.2 s only when the contribution of high-frequency sea waves is estimated by a wavenumber spectral model to complement the buoy data, because a buoy cannot obtain data from waves having wavelengths that are shorter than the characteristic dimension of the buoy.

  12. 稳定的保幅高阶广义屏地震偏移成像方法研究%The method of preserved-amplitude seismic migration imaging with stable generalized high order screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘定进; 杨瑞娟; 罗申玥; 王鹏燕; 郑小鹏; 宋林

    2012-01-01

    Wave equation preserved-amplitude seismic migration imaging has a special function that can give true amplitudes as well as the correct locations based on advanced wave theories. The author first starts from the unstable phase shift expression of preserved-amplitude one way wave equation. Based on perturbation theory which is often used in reversed question solution, the author uses the progressive expansion of single square root operator to drive a high-order generalized screen form of preserved-amplitude prestack depth migration equation. To solve the unstable problem in lateral variable speed media caused by computation items of the scattering wavefield, the author proposes a strategy which can effectively improve the stability by math approximation. Then this strategy is applied to the wavefield recursion extrapolation, so a kind of stable preserved-amplitude prestack depth migration operators of high-order generalized screen are obtained. Theoretical model testing and real data processing indicate that this method can not only make scattering energy be focused and migrated to the correct position to improve imaging accuracy but also output the amplitude information which reflects the correct subsurface reflection coefficients. So this method has clearer AVO response and can enhance analytic precision for AVO data.%以先进的波动理论为基础的波动方程保幅地震偏移成像是在给出正确位置的同时也给出真实振幅的一种特殊完善.作者从保幅单程波动方程的非稳态相移公式出发,基于反问题求解中常用的摄动理论,利用单平方根算子的渐进展开,从而推导出保幅叠前深度偏移方程的高阶广义屏形式;针对散射波场计算项对于横向变速介质的不稳定性,通过数学近似提出一个有效提高稳定性的策略,应用到波场递归外推过程中,从而得到一种稳定的保幅高阶广义屏叠前深度偏移算子.理论模型试算和实际资料处理表明,该

  13. Coexistence of up- and downstream traffic waves on a ring road

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, K.; Kanellopoulos, G.

    2016-09-01

    It is an observational fact that density waves in vehicle traffic can move in either direction: small-amplitude waves travel in the same direction as the cars (downstream) whereas high-amplitude waves or "jams" travel in the opposite direction (upstream). We construct a model of ring road traffic to demonstrate how this comes about. Our model shows the spontaneous generation of these density waves, explains their stability properties, and pinpoints the precise density level at which the wave speed changes direction.

  14. High-power dual-fed traveling wave photodetector circuits in silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Sinsky, Jeffrey H; Dong, Po; de Valicourt, Guilhem; Chen, Young-Kai

    2015-08-24

    We introduce the concept of dual-illuminated photodetectors for high-power applications. Illuminating the photodetector on both sides doubles the number of optical channels, boosting DC and RF power handling capability. This concept is demonstrated utilizing multiple-stage dual-illuminated traveling wave photodetector circuits in silicon photonics, showing a maximum DC photocurrent of 112 mA and a 3-dB bandwidth of 40 GHz at 0.3 mA. Peak continuous-wave RF power is generated up to 12.3 dBm at 2 GHz and 5.3 dBm at 40 GHz, at a DC photocurrent of 55 mA. High speed broadband data signals are detected with eye amplitudes of 2.2 V and 1.3 V at 10 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s, respectively. A theoretical analysis is presented illustrating design tradeoffs for the multiple-stage photodetector circuits based on the bandwidth and power requirements.

  15. Generation of uniform large-area very high frequency plasmas by launching two specific standing waves simultaneously

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Liang, E-mail: hlchen@iner.gov.tw; Tu, Yen-Cheng; Hsieh, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Deng-Lain [Physics Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), Longtan, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Leou, Keh-Chyang [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-14

    With the characteristics of higher electron density and lower ion bombardment energy, large-area VHF (very high frequency) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has become an essential manufacturing equipment to improve the production throughput and efficiency of thin film silicon solar cell. However, the combination of high frequency and large electrodes leads to the so-called standing wave effect causing a serious problem for the deposition uniformity of silicon thin film. In order to address this issue, a technique based on the idea of simultaneously launching two standing waves that possess similar amplitudes and are out of phase by 90° in time and space is proposed in this study. A linear plasma reactor with discharge length of 54 cm is tested with two different frequencies including 60 and 80 MHz. The experimental results show that the proposed technique could effectively improve the non-uniformity of VHF plasmas from >±60% when only one standing wave is applied to <±10% once two specific standing waves are launched at the same time. Moreover, in terms of the reactor configuration adopted in this study, in which the standing wave effect along the much shorter dimension can be ignored, the proposed technique is applicable to different frequencies without the need to alter the number and arrangement of power feeding points.

  16. Laser-energy transfer and enhancement of plasma waves and electron beams by interfering high-intensity laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P; Saleh, N; Chen, S; Sheng, Z M; Umstadter, D

    2003-11-28

    The effects of interference due to crossed laser beams were studied experimentally in the high-intensity regime. Two ultrashort (400 fs), high-intensity (4 x 10(17) and 1.6 x 10(18) W/cm(2)) and 1 microm wavelength laser pulses were crossed in a plasma of density 4 x 10(19) cm(3). Energy was observed to be transferred from the higher-power to the lower-power pulse, increasing the amplitude of the plasma wave propagating in the direction of the latter. This results in increased electron self-trapping and plasma-wave acceleration gradient, which led to an increased number of hot electrons (by 300%) and hot-electron temperature (by 70%) and a decreased electron-beam divergence angle (by 45%), as compared with single-pulse illumination. Simulations reveal that increased stochastic heating of electrons may have also contributed to the electron-beam enhancement.

  17. Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-09-01

    As a revolutionary three-dimensional imaging technique, holography has attracted wide attention for its ability to photographically record a light field. However, traditional phase-only or amplitude-only modulation holograms have limited image quality and resolution to reappear both amplitude and phase information required of the objects. Recent advances in metasurfaces have shown tremendous opportunities for using a planar design of artificial meta-atoms to shape the wave front of light by optimal control of both its phase and amplitude. Inspired by the concept of designer metasurfaces, we demonstrate a novel amplitude-phase modulation hologram with simultaneous five-level amplitude modulation and eight-level phase modulation. Such a design approach seeks to turn the perceived disadvantages of the traditional phase or amplitude holograms, and thus enable enhanced performance in resolution, homogeneity of amplitude distribution, precision, and signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, the unique holographic approach exhibits broadband characteristics. The method introduced here delivers more degrees of freedom, and allows for encoding highly complex information into designer metasurfaces, thus having the potential to drive next-generation technological breakthroughs in holography.

  18. High-Order Wave Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2013-01-22

    We present a finite volume method that is applicable to hyperbolic PDEs including spatially varying and semilinear nonconservative systems. The spatial discretization, like that of the well-known Clawpack software, is based on solving Riemann problems and calculating fluctuations (not fluxes). The implementation employs weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction in space and strong stability preserving Runge--Kutta integration in time. The method can be extended to arbitrarily high order of accuracy and allows a well-balanced implementation for capturing solutions of balance laws near steady state. This well-balancing is achieved through the $f$-wave Riemann solver and a novel wave-slope WENO reconstruction procedure. The wide applicability and advantageous properties of the method are demonstrated through numerical examples, including problems in nonconservative form, problems with spatially varying fluxes, and problems involving near-equilibrium solutions of balance laws.

  19. A method for generating highly nonlinear periodic waves in physical wave basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Haiwen; Schäffer, Hemming A.; Bingham, Harry B.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes a new method for generating nonlinear waves of constant form in physical wave basins. The idea is to combine fully dispersive linear wavemaker theory with nonlinear shallow water wave generation theory; and use an exact nonlinear theory as the target. We refer to the metho...... as an ad-hoc unified wave generation theory, since there is no rigorous analysis behind the idea which is simply justified by the improved results obtained for the practical generation of steady nonlinear waves....

  20. Estimating gravity wave parameters from oblique high-frequency backscatter: Modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, W. A.; Greenwald, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    A new technique for estimating electron density perturbation amplitudes of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), using HF radar data, is presented. TIDs are observed in HF radar data as enhancements of the ground-scattered power which propagate through the radar's field of view. These TIDs are the ionospheric manifestation of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves. TID electron density perturbation amplitudes were estimated by simulating the radar returns, using HF ray tracing through a model ionosphere perturbed by a model gravity wave. The simulation determined the return power in the ground-scattered portion of the signal as a function of range, and this was compared to HF radar data from the Goose Bay HF radar at a time when evidence of gravity waves was present in the data. By varying the amplitude of the electron density perturbation in the model it was possible to estimate the perturbation of the actual wave. It was found that the perturbations that are observed by the Goose Bay HF radar are of the order of 20% to 35%. It was also found that the number of observable power enhancements, and the relative amplitudes of these enhancements, depended on the vertical thickness of the gravity wave's source region. From the simulations and observations it was estimated that the source region for the case presented here was approximately 20 km thick. In addition, the energy in the wave packet was calculated and compared to an estimate of the available energy in the source region. It was found that the wave energy was about 0.2% of the estimated available source region energy.

  1. Tsunami Focusing and Leading Amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, U.

    2016-12-01

    Tsunamis transform substantially through spatial and temporal spreading from their source region. This substantial spreading might result unique maximum tsunami wave heights which might be attributed to the source configuration, directivity, the waveguide structures of mid-ocean ridges and continental shelves, focusing and defocusing through submarine seamounts, random focusing due to small changes in bathymetry, dispersion, and, most likely, combination of some of these effects. In terms of the maximum tsunami wave height, after Okal and Synolakis (2016 Geophys. J. Int. 204, 719-735), it is clear that dispersion would be one of the reasons to drive the leading wave amplitude in a tsunami wave train. Okal and Synolakis (2016), referring to this phenomenon as sequencing -later waves in the train becoming higher than the leading one, considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp) formalism, in addition to LeMéhauté and Wang's (1995 Water waves generated by underwater explosion, World Scientific, 367 pp), to evaluate linear dispersive tsunami propagation from a circular plug uplifted on an ocean of constant depth. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, performing parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the ocean. Here, we extend Okal and Synolakis' (2016) analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common tsunami initial wave form of N-wave (Tadepalli and Synolakis, 1994 Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 445, 99-112). First, we investigate the focusing feature in the leading-depression side, which enhance tsunami wave height as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013 Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 469, 20130015). We then discuss the results in terms of leading wave amplitude presenting a parametric study and identify a simple relation for the transition distance. The solution presented here could be used to better analyze dispersive

  2. Computation of nonlinear water waves with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.; Bingham, Harry

    2005-01-01

    -crested waves in shallow/deep water, resulting in hexagonal/rectangular surface patterns; crescent waves, resulting from unstable perturbations of plane progressive waves; and highly-nonlinear wave-structure interactions. The emphasis is on physically demanding problems, and in eachcase qualitative and (when...

  3. Cloud Atlas: Discovery of Patchy Clouds and High-amplitude Rotational Modulations In a Young, Extremely Red L-type Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Ben W P; Zhou, Yifan; Schneider, Glenn; Burgasser, Adam J; Karalidi, Theodora; Yang, Hao; Marley, Mark S; Cowan, N B; Bedin,; R., L; Metchev, Stanimir A; Radigan, Jacqueline; Lowrance, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Condensate clouds fundamentally impact the atmospheric structure and spectra of exoplanets and brown dwarfs but the connections between surface gravity, cloud structure, dust in the upper atmosphere, and the red colors of some brown dwarfs remain poorly understood. Rotational modulations enable the study of different clouds in the same atmosphere, thereby providing a method to isolate the effects of clouds. Here we present the discovery of high peak-to-peak amplitude (8%) rotational modulations in a low-gravity, extremely red (J-Ks=2.55) L6 dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047). Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) time-resolved grism spectroscopy we find a best-fit rotational period (13.20$\\pm$0.14 hours) with a larger amplitude at 1.1 micron than at 1.7 micron. This is the third largest near-infrared variability amplitude measured in a brown dwarf, demonstrating that large-amplitude variations are not limited to the L/T transition but are present in some extremely red L-type dwarfs. We report a tentativ...

  4. Shape of Pion Distribution Amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly

    2009-11-01

    A scenario is investigated in which the leading-twist pion distribution amplitude $\\varphi_\\pi (x)$ is approximated by the pion decay constant $f_\\pi$ for all essential values of the light-cone fraction $x$. A model for the light-front wave function $\\Psi (x, k_\\perp)$ is proposed that produces such a distribution amplitude and has a rapidly decreasing (exponential for definiteness) dependence on the light-front energy combination $ k_\\perp^2/x(1-x)$. It is shown that this model easily reproduces the fit of recent large-$Q^2$ BaBar data on the photon-pion transition form factor. Some aspects of scenario with flat pion distribution amplitude are discussed.

  5. High-speed traveling-wave electro-absorption modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergren, Urban; Yu, Yichuan; Thylén, Lars

    2006-07-01

    Electroabsorption modulators (EAM) based on quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) in multiplequantum wells (MQW) have been demonstrated to provide high-speed, low drive voltage, and high extinction ratio. They are compact in size and can be monolithically integrated with continuous-wave (CW) lasers. In order to achieve both high speed and low drive-voltage operation, travelling-wave (TW) electrode structures can be used for EAMs. The inherently low impedance of high-speed EAMs may be transformed to values close to the standard 50Ohm impedance using periodic microwave structures with a combination of passive transmission lines with high characteristic impedance and active modulator sections with low impedance. Modulation bandwidths of 100GHz (-3dBe) have been accomplished with electrical reflections lower than -10dB in a 50Ohm system. Transmission at 80Gbit/s with non-return-to-zero (NRZ) code has been demonstrated for InP-based TWEAMs using electronic time-domain multiplexing (ETDM), indicating the possibility of reaching speeds of 100Gbit/s and beyond.

  6. High-frequency sound waves to eliminate a horizon in the mixmaster universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    From the linear wave equation for small-amplitude sound waves in a curved space-time, there is derived a geodesiclike differential equation for sound rays to describe the motion of wave packets. These equations are applied in the generic, nonrotating, homogeneous closed-model universe (the 'mixmaster universe,' Bianchi type IX). As for light rays described by Doroshkevich and Novikov (DN), these sound rays can circumnavigate the universe near the singularity to remove particle horizons only for a small class of these models and in special directions. Although these results parallel those of DN, different Hamiltonian methods are used for treating the Einstein equations.

  7. High Frequency Measurements in Shock-Wave/Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction at Duplicated Flight Conditions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...

  8. High Frequency Measurements in Shock-Wave/Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction at Duplicated Flight Conditions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...

  9. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; Smith, R.R.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 {times} 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electonically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  10. A review of crustacean sensitivity to high amplitude underwater noise: Data needs for effective risk assessment in relation to UK commercial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Nathan J; Firmin, Christopher J; Goldsmith, Denise; Faulkner, Rebecca C; Wood, Daniel T

    2016-07-15

    High amplitude anthropogenic noise is associated with adverse impacts among a variety of organisms but detailed species-specific knowledge is lacking in relation to effects upon crustaceans. Brown crab (Cancer pagurus), European lobster (Homarus gammarus) and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) together represent the most valuable commercial fishery in the UK (Defra, 2014). Critical evaluation of literature reveals physiological sensitivity to underwater noise among N. norvegicus and closely related crustacean species, including juvenile stages. Current evidence supports physiological sensitivity to local, particle motion effects of sound production in particular. Derivation of correlative relationships between the introduction of high amplitude impulsive noise and crustacean distribution/abundance is hindered by the coarse resolution of available data at the present time. Future priorities for research are identified and argument for enhanced monitoring under current legislative frameworks outlined. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Helicon waves in uniform plasmas. II. High m numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Helicons are whistler modes with azimuthal wave numbers. They have been studied in solids and plasmas where boundaries play a role. The present work shows that very similar modes exist in unbounded gaseous plasmas. Instead of boundaries, the antenna properties determine the topology of the wave packets. The simplest antenna is a magnetic loop which excites m = 0 or m = 1 helicons depending on whether the dipole moment is aligned parallel or perpendicular to the ambient background magnetic field B{sub 0}. While these low order helicons have been described by J. M. Urrutia and R. L. Stenzel [“Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. I. Low m modes,” Phys. Plasmas 22, 092111 (2015)], the present work focuses on high order modes up to m = 8. These are excited by antenna arrays forming magnetic multipoles. Their wave magnetic field has been measured in space and time in a large and uniform laboratory plasma free of boundary effects. The observed wave topology exhibits m pairs of unique field line spirals which may have inspired the name “helicon” to this mode. All field lines converge into these nested spirals which propagate like corkscrews along B{sub 0}. The field lines near the axis of helicons are perpendicular to B{sub 0} and circularly polarized as in parallel whistlers. Helical antennas couple to these transverse fields but not to the spiral fields of helicons. Using a circular antenna array of phased m = 0 loops, right or left rotating or non-rotating multipole antenna fields are generated. They excite m < 0 and m > 0 modes, showing that the plasma supports both modes equally well. The poor excitation of m < 0 modes is a characteristic of loops with dipole moment across B{sub 0}. The radiation efficiency of multipole antennas has been found to decrease with m.

  12. Explicit exact solitary wave solutions for generalized symmetric regularized long-wave equations with high-order nonlinear terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫国

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we have obtained the bell-type and kink-type solitary wave solutions of the generalized symmetric regularized long-wave equations with high-order nonlinear terms by means of proper transformation and undetermined assumption method.

  13. Generation of Acoustic Gravity Waves by Periodic Radio Transmissions from a High-Power Ionospheric Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Rozumenko, Victor

    The Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and Kharkiv V. N. Karazin National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine) have studied opportunities for the effective generation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in 3 - 180-min period range. The excitation of such waves was conducted for the last several years using the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod). The detection of the HF-induced AGWs was carried out in the Radiophysical Observatory located near Kharkiv City at a distance of about 960 km from the SURA. A coherent radar for vertical sounding, an ionosonde, and magnetometer chains were used in our measurements. The main results are the following (see [1-5]): 1. Infrasound oscillation trains with a period of 6 min are detected during periodic SURA heater turn-on and -off. Similar oscillation trains are detected after long time pumping, during periodic transmissions with a period of 20 s, as well as after pumping turn-off. The train recordings begin 28 - 54 min after the heater turn-on or -off, and the train propagation speeds are about 300 - 570 m/s, the value of which is close to the sound speed at upper atmospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the Doppler shift frequency is of 10 - 40 mHz, which fits to the 0.1 - 0.3% electron density disturbances at ionospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the infrasound oscillations depends on the SURA mode of operation and the state of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. 2. High-power radio transmissions stimulate the generation (or enhancement) of waves at ionospheric altitudes in the range of internal gravity wave periods. The HF-induced waves propagate with speeds of 360 - 460 m/s and produce changes in electron density with amplitudes of 2 - 3%. The generation of such periodic perturbations is more preferable with periods of 10 - 60 minutes. Their features depend significantly on the heater mode of operation. It should be stressed that perturbation intensity increases when a pumping wave frequency approaches

  14. Superconducting travelling wave ring with high gradient accelerating section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrakhov, P.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Use of a superconducting traveling wave accelerating (STWA) structure instead of a standing wave cavity has major advantages in increasing the accelerating gradient in the ILC. In contrast with standing wave cavity STWA requires feedback loop, which sends wave from the structure output to input, making a superconducting traveling wave ring (STWR). One or few input couplers need to excite STWR and compensate power dissipations due to beam loading. To control traveling wave regime in the structure two independent knobs can be used for tuning both resonant ring frequency and backward wave. We discuss two variants of the STWR with one and two feed couplers.

  15. Global coherence of dust density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    The coherence of self-excited three-dimensional dust density waves has been experimentally investigated by comparing global and local wave properties. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a radio frequency plasma with thermophoretic levitation. Global wave properties have been measured from the line-of-sight integrated dust density obtained from homogenous light extinction measurements. Local wave properties have been obtained from thin, two-dimensional illuminated laser slices of the cloud. By correlating the simultaneous global and local wave properties, the spatial coherence of the waves has been determined. We find that linear waves with small amplitudes tend to be fragmented, featuring an incoherent wave field. Strongly non-linear waves with large amplitudes, however, feature a strong spatial coherence throughout the dust cloud, indicating a high level of synchronization.

  16. Nonlinear propagation of high-frequency energy from blast waves as it pertains to bat hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubeau, Alexandra

    Close exposure to blast noise from military weapons training can adversely affect the hearing of both humans and wildlife. One concern is the effect of high-frequency noise from Army weapons training on the hearing of endangered bats. Blast wave propagation measurements were conducted to investigate nonlinear effects on the development of blast waveforms as they propagate from the source. Measurements were made at ranges of 25, 50, and 100 m from the blast. Particular emphasis was placed on observation of rise time variation with distance. Resolving the fine shock structure of blast waves requires robust transducers with high-frequency capability beyond 100 kHz, hence the limitations of traditional microphones and the effect of microphone orientation were investigated. Measurements were made with a wide-bandwidth capacitor microphone for comparison with conventional 3.175-mm (⅛-in.) microphones with and without baffles. The 3.175-mm microphone oriented at 90° to the propagation direction did not have sufficient high-frequency response to capture the actual rise times at a range of 50 m. Microphone baffles eliminate diffraction artifacts on the rise portion of the measured waveform and therefore allow for a more accurate measurement of the blast rise time. The wide-band microphone has an extended high-frequency response and can resolve shorter rise times than conventional microphones. For a source of 0.57 kg (1.25 lb) of C-4 plastic explosive, it was observed that nonlinear effects steepened the waveform, thereby decreasing the shock rise time, from 25 to 50 m. At 100m, the rise times had increased slightly. For comparison to the measured blast waveforms, several models of nonlinear propagation are applied to the problem of finite-amplitude blast wave propagation. Shock front models, such as the Johnson and Hammerton model, and full-waveform marching algorithms, such as the Anderson model, are investigated and compared to experimental results. The models

  17. Hysteretic Faraday Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Périnet, Nicolas; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon

    2016-01-01

    We report on the numerical and theoretical study of the subcritical bifurcation of parametrically amplified waves appearing at the interface between two immiscible incompressible fluids when the layer of the lower fluid is very shallow. As a critical control parameter is surpassed, small amplitude surface waves bifurcate towards highly nonlinear ones, with twice their amplitude. We propose a simple phenomenological model which can describe the observed bifurcation. We relate this hysteresis with the change of shear stress using a simple stress balance, in agreement with numerical results.

  18. Radiation environment effects of amplitude modulation wave on a certain radio fuze%无线电引信调幅波电磁辐射环境效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚洲; 程二威; 费支强; 高磊

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the elecromagnetic environment effects of the amplitude modulation wave on radio fuze,the mixing theory and the output signal character of high frequency circuit are analyzed,and the problems of waveform modulate are resolved.The modulate waveform expression and the radio fuze radiation electromagnetic environment is established.The experiment is done to find out the threshold field intensity for accidental explosion and the variable rules of the radio fuze.The conclusions show that when radiation frequency is appressed with the vibration frequency,the threshold field intensity is less than 10V/m.With the frequency deviation increasing,the threshold field intensity becomes larger.The electronic components of the radio fuze is not destroyed.%为了研究调幅波对无线电引信的电磁环境效应,分析了无线电引信混频原理及高频电路输出信号特征,解决了调幅波的波形调制问题,建立了辐照调幅波的波形表达式,形成了无线电引信辐照电磁环境,探索了不同频率调幅波对引信的意外发火场强干扰阈值及其变化规律。结果表明:辐照频率在引信本振频率外一定范围内引信误炸干扰阈值低于10V/m,随着辐照频率与引信本振频率偏移量增加误炸干扰阈值呈增大趋势;调幅波辐照不会对引信电子部件产生硬损伤,也不会导致引信瞎火。

  19. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  20. High performance guided-wave asynchronous heralded single photon source

    OpenAIRE

    Alibart, Olivier; Ostrowsky, Daniel Barry; Baldi, Pascal; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We report on a guided wave heralded photon source based on the creation of non-degenerate photon pairs by spontaneous parametric down conversion in a Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate waveguide. Using the signal photon at 1310 nm as a trigger, a gated detection process permits announcing the arrival of single photons at 1550 nm at the output of a single mode optical fiber with a high probability of 0.38. At the same time the multi-photon emission probability is reduce...