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Sample records for high amplitude shock

  1. Isentropic/shock compression and recovery methodology for materials using high-amplitude laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, B.R., E-mail: maddox3@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Park, H.-S., E-mail: park1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lu, C.-H., E-mail: chiahuilu@gmail.com [University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Remington, B.A., E-mail: remington2@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Prisbrey, S., E-mail: prisbrey1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kad, B., E-mail: bkad@ucsd.edu [University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Luo, R., E-mail: luorwga@gmail.com [General Atomics, 3483 Dunhill Street, San Diego, CA 92121-1200 (United States); Meyers, M.A., E-mail: mameyers@eng.ucsd.edu [University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Abstarct: A new method of subjecting samples to high-amplitude laser pulses with durations in the ns range and recovering them for characterization is presented. It is applied to tantalum monocrystals and nanocrystals that are subjected to controlled and prescribed ramp loading configurations, creating a quasi-isentropic loading in the front that is retained up to 40 μm into the specimen. This is enabled by the use of a reservoir into which six laser beams impinge simultaneously, thereby creating plasma in a reservoir, from which the pulse is launched into the metal. This technique enables, with proper wave trapping devices, the recovery of the specimens for subsequent characterization. Successful experiments conducted in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, U. of Rochester, generated pressure pulses with initial amplitudes ranging from 15 to 110 GPa and initial durations of ∼3 ns. The quasi-isotropic loading minimizes thermal effects at the front surface. The compression history of the recovered samples is measured using velocity interferometry from an Al-coated LiF witness target on the same shot driven by a separate, but equivalent set of laser beams. These experimental measurements are compared with computations using a radiation hydrodynamics code. Recovered samples are investigated using optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The laser damage to the surface is characterized.

  2. Formation of large-amplitude dust ion-acoustic shocks in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical studies of self-steepening and shock formation of large-amplitude dust ion-acoustic waves in dusty plasmas are presented. A comparison is made between the nondispersive two fluid model, which predicts the formation of large-amplitude compressive and rarefactive dust ion-acoustic shocks, Vlasov simulations, and recent laboratory experiments

  3. Modeling of shock wave propagation in large amplitude ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Gianmarco F; Trahey, Gregg E

    2008-01-01

    The Rankine-Hugoniot relation for shock wave propagation describes the shock speed of a nonlinear wave. This paper investigates time-domain numerical methods that solve the nonlinear parabolic wave equation, or the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, and the conditions they require to satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot relation. Two numerical methods commonly used in hyperbolic conservation laws are adapted to solve the KZK equation: Godunov's method and the monotonic upwind scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL). It is shown that they satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot relation regardless of attenuation. These two methods are compared with the current implicit solution based method. When the attenuation is small, such as in water, the current method requires a degree of grid refinement that is computationally impractical. All three numerical methods are compared in simulations for lithotripters and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) where the attenuation is small compared to the nonlinearity because much of the propagation occurs in water. The simulations are performed on grid sizes that are consistent with present-day computational resources but are not sufficiently refined for the current method to satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot condition. It is shown that satisfying the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions has a significant impact on metrics relevant to lithotripsy (such as peak pressures) and HIFU (intensity). Because the Godunov and MUSCL schemes satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions on coarse grids, they are particularly advantageous for three-dimensional simulations.

  4. Measurements of acoustic pressure at high amplitudes and intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, L A; Bailey, M R; Kaczkowski, P; McAteer, J A; Pishchalnikov, Y A; Sapozhnikov, O A

    2004-01-01

    In our research group, we desire measurements of the large pressure amplitudes generated by the shock waves used in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and the large acoustic intensities used in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Conventional piezoelectric or PVDF hydrophones can not be used for such measurements as they are damaged either by cavitation, in SWL applications, or heat, in HIFU applications. In order to circumvent these difficulties, we have utilized optical fiber hydrophones in SWL that do not cavitate, and small glass probes and a scattering technique for measurements of large HIFU intensities. Descriptions of these techniques will be given as well as some typical data

  5. The shock formation distance in a bounded sound beam of finite amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chao; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Zhemin; Du, Gonghuan; Ping, Zihong

    2003-07-01

    This paper investigates the shock formation distance in a bounded sound beam of finite amplitude by solving the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation using frequency-domain numerical method. Simulation results reveal that, besides the nonlinearity and absorption, the diffraction is another important factor that affects the shock formation of a bounded sound beam. More detailed discussions of the shock formation in a bounded sound beam, such as the waveform of sound pressure and the spatial distribution of shock formation, are also presented and compared for different parameters.

  6. Effect of initial perturbation amplitude on Richtmyer-Meshkov flows induced by strong shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell, Z.; Abarzhi, S. I., E-mail: snezhana.abarzhi@gmail.com, E-mail: sabarji@andrew.cmu.edu [Mellon College of Science and Carnegie Mellon University – Qatar, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15231 (United States); Stellingwerf, R. F. [Stellingwerf Consulting, Huntsville, Alabama 35803 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We systematically study the effect of the initial perturbation on Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) flows induced by strong shocks in fluids with contrasting densities. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations are employed. A broad range of shock strengths and density ratios is considered. The amplitude of the initial single mode sinusoidal perturbation of the interface varies from 0% to 100% of its wavelength. The simulations results are compared, wherever possible, with four rigorous theories, and with other experiments and simulations, achieving good quantitative and qualitative agreement. Our study is focused on early time dynamics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). We analyze the initial growth-rate of RMI immediately after the shock passage, when the perturbation amplitude increases linearly with time. For the first time, to the authors' knowledge, we find that the initial growth-rate of RMI is a non-monotone function of the initial perturbation amplitude, thus restraining the amount of energy that can be deposited by the shock at the interface. The maximum value of the initial growth-rate depends on the shock strength and the density ratio, whereas the corresponding value of the initial perturbation amplitude depends only slightly on the shock strength and density ratio.

  7. Nonlinear analysis of shock absorbers with amplitude-dependent damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczko, Jan; Ferdek, Urszula; Łatas, Waldemar

    2018-01-01

    This paper contains an analysis of a quarter-car model representing a vehicle equipped with a hydraulic damper whose characteristics are dependent on the piston stroke. The damper, compared to a classical mono-tube damper, has additional internal chambers. Oil flow in those chambers is controlled by relative piston displacement. The proposed nonlinear model of the system is aimed to test the effect of key design parameters of the damper on the quality indices representing ride comfort and driving safety. Numerical methods were used to determine the characteristic curves of the damper and responses of the system to harmonic excitations with their amplitude decreasing as the values of frequency increase.

  8. High energy hadron spin-flip amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyugin, O.V.

    2016-01-01

    The high-energy part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude is examined in the framework of the new high-energy general structure (HEGS) model of the elastic hadron scattering at high energies. The different forms of the hadron spin-flip amplitude are compared in the impact parameter representation. It is shown that the existing experimental data of the proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energy in the region of the diffraction minimum and at large momentum transfer give support in the presence of the energy-independent part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude with the momentum dependence proposed in the works by Galynskii-Kuraev. [ru

  9. High energy multi-gluon exchange amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1980-11-01

    We examine perturbative high energy n-gluon exchange amplitudes calculated in the Coulomb gauge. If n exceeds the minimum required by the t-channel quantum numbers, such amplitudes are non-leading in lns. We derive a closed system of coupled integral equations for the corresponding two-particle n-gluon vertices, obtained by summing the leading powers of ln(N μ psup(μ)), where psup(μ) is the incident momentum and Nsup(μ) the gauge-defining vector. Our equations are infra-red finite, provided the external particles are colour singlets. (author)

  10. Observations of large-amplitude MHD waves in Jupiter's foreshock in connection with a quasi-perpendicular shock structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavassano-Cattaneo, M. B.; Moreno, G.; Scotto, M. T.; Acuna, M.

    1987-01-01

    Plasma and magnetic field observations performed onboard the Voyager 2 spacecraft have been used to investigate Jupiter's foreshock. Large-amplitude waves have been detected in association with the quasi-perpendicular structure of the Jovian bow shock, thus proving that the upstream turbulence is not a characteristic signature of the quasi-parallel shock.

  11. Analysis of the spectrum distribution of oscillation amplitudes of the concrete mix at shock vibration molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharapov Rashid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the production of concrete structures widespread shaking tables of various designs. The effectiveness of vibroforming concrete items largely depends on the choice of rational modes of vibroeffect to the compacting mixture. The article discusses the propagation of a wave packet in the concrete mixture under shock and vibration molding. Studies have shown that the spectrum of a wave packet contains a large number of harmonics. The main parameter influencing the amplitude-frequency spectrum is the stiffness of elastic gaskets between mold and forming machine vibrating table. By varying the stiffness of the elastic gaskets can widely change the spectrum of the oscillations propagating in the concrete mix. Thus, it is possible to adjust the intensity of the process of vibroforming.

  12. Unitarity and amplitudes for high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that in the quantum field theory of scalar particles with mass m the following inequalities for the upper bound for the amplitude of elastic scattering Μ(s,t) |Μ(s,t)| 0 )s, (|t|≥|t 0 |>0) and for the total cross section of scalar particles σ tot (s)≤C|d/dt ln Im Μ(s,t)| t=0 , (s → ∞) are valid. This result is based on the unitarity of the S-matrix on the mass shell and on a natural assumption that the imaginary part of the elastic scattering Im Μ(s,t) is a differentiable and convex down function in some vicinity of t=0. The locality of the theory and the analyticity of the elastic amplitude in the Martin-Lehmann ellipse are not used in proving these inequalities

  13. Large amplitude solitary waves in and near the Earth’s magnetosphere, magnetopause and bow shock: Polar and Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cattell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary waves with large electric fields (up to 100's of mV/m have been observed throughout the magnetosphere and in the bow shock. We discuss observations by Polar at high altitudes ( ~ 4-8 RE , during crossings of the plasma sheet boundary and cusp, and new measurements by Polar at the equatorial magnetopause and by Cluster near the bow shock, in the cusp and at the plasma sheet boundary. We describe the results of a statistical study of electron solitary waves observed by Polar at high altitudes. The mean solitary wave duration was ~ 2 ms. The waves have velocities from ~ 1000 km/s to  > 2500 km/s. Observed scale sizes (parallel to the magnetic field are on the order of 1-10lD, with eF/kTe from ~ 0.01 to O(1. The average speed of solitary waves at the plasma sheet boundary is faster than the average speed observed in the cusp and at cusp injections. The amplitude increases with both velocity and scale size. These observations are all consistent with the identification of the solitary waves as electron hole modes. We also report the discovery of solitary waves at the magnetopause, observed in Polar data obtained at the subsolar equatorial magnetopause. Both positive and negative potential structures have been observed with amplitudes up to ~ 25 mV/m. The velocities range from 150 km/s to >2500 km/s, with scale sizes the order of a kilometer (comparable to the Debye length. Initial observations of solitary waves by the four Cluster satellites are utilized to discuss the scale sizes and time variability of the regions where the solitary waves occur. Preliminary results from the four Cluster satellites have given a glimpse of the spatial and temporal variability of the occurrence of solitary waves and their association with other wave modes. In all the events studied, significant differences were observed in the waveforms observed simultaneously at the four locations separated by ~ 1000 km. When solitary waves were seen at one satellite, they

  14. Amplitude dependent damping in single crystalline high purity molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelada-Lambri, G.I; Lambri, O.A; Garcia, J.A; Lomer, J.N

    2004-01-01

    Amplitude dependent damping measurements were performed on high purity single crystalline molybdenum at several different constant temperatures between room temperature and 1273K. The employed samples were single crystals with the orientation, having a residual resistivity ratio of about 8000. Previously to the amplitude dependent damping tests, the samples were subjected to different thermomechanical histories. Amplitude dependent damping effects appear only during the first heating run in temperature where the samples have the thermomechanical state of the deformation process at room temperature. In the subsequent run-ups in temperature, i.e, after subsequent annealings, amplitude dependent damping effects were not detected (au)

  15. High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktham Asfour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted.

  16. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N 2 , CO, SiO 2 -aerogel, H 2 O, and C 6 H 6 . The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  17. Modulated convection at high frequencies and large modulation amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, J.B.; Hohenberg, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    Modulated Rayleigh-Benard convection is analyzed for high frequencies and large modulation amplitudes. The linear theory of Gershuni and Zhukhovitskii is generalized to the nonlinear domain, and a subcritical bifurcation to convection is found in agreement with the experiments of Niemela and Donnelly. The crossover between the high-frequency (''Stokes layer'') regime and the low-frequency regime studied previously is analyzed

  18. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-07-12

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N/sub 2/, CO, SiO/sub 2/-aerogel, H/sub 2/O, and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. A transport equation for the evolution of shock amplitudes along rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Russo

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available A new asymptotic method is derived for the study of the evolution of weak shocks in several dimension. The method is based on the Generalized Wavefront Expansion derived in [1]. In that paper the propagation of a shock into a known background was studied under the assumption that shock is weak, i.e. Mach Number =1+O(ε, ε ≪ 1, and that the perturbation of the field varies over a length scale O(ε. To the lowest order, the shock surface evolves along the rays associated with the unperturbed state. An infinite system of compatibility relations was derived for the jump in the field and its normal derivatives along the shock, but no valid criterion was found for a truncation of the system. Here we show that the infinite hierarchy is equivalent to a single equation that describes the evolution of the shock along the rays. We show that this method gives equivalent results to those obtained by Weakly Nonlinear Geometrical Optics [2].

  20. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, Jens; Kendl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line......-field transport compared to blobs simulated with the local model. The maximal blob amplitude is significantly higher in the global simulations than in the local ones. When the ion temperature is comparable to the electron temperature, global blob simulations show a reduced blob coherence and a decreased cross...

  1. Thermal Mechanisms for High Amplitude Aerodynamic Flow Control (YIP 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    transport aircraft , much less cruise. The search for a perfect actuator continues, but progress has been limited by the often proprietary nature these...wave generation as a mechanism for high amplitude, high bandwidth actuation has been demonstrated, but the fundamental physics of how this...moving forward with such a definition. 15. SUBJECT TERMS active flow control, energy deposition, plasma actuation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  2. Characteristics of shock propagation in high-strength cement mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanjiang; Li, Xiaolan; Zhang, Ruoqi

    2001-06-01

    Planar impact experiments have been performed on high-strength cement mortar to determine characteristics of shock propagation.The experiments were conducted on a light-gas gun,and permanent-magnet particle velocity gages were used to obtain the sand of 0.5 3.5mm size.A bulk density of 2.31g/cm^3,and a compressive and tensile strength of 82MPa and 7.8MPa,respectively,were determined.Three kinds of experimental techniques were used,including the reverse ballistic configuration.These techniques effectively averaged the measured dynamic compression state over a sensibly large volume of the test sample.The impact velocities were controlled over a range of approximately 80m/s to 0.83km/s.Hugoniot equation of state data were obtained for the material over a pressure range of approximately 0.2 2.0GPa,and its nonlinear constitutive relation were analyzed.The experiment results show that,in higher pressure range provided in the experiment,the shock wave in the material splits into two components of an elastic and a plastic,with the Hugoniot elastic limit 0.4 0.5GPa and the precursor velocity about 4.7km/s,and the material presents a very strong nonlinear dynamic response,and its shock amplitude will greatly decrease in propagation.

  3. Center manifolds for a class of degenerate evolution equations and existence of small-amplitude kinetic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogan, Alin; Zumbrun, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    We construct center manifolds for a class of degenerate evolution equations including the steady Boltzmann equation and related kinetic models, establishing in the process existence and behavior of small-amplitude kinetic shock and boundary layers. Notably, for Boltzmann's equation, we show that elements of the center manifold decay in velocity at near-Maxwellian rate, in accord with the formal Chapman-Enskog picture of near-equilibrium flow as evolution along the manifold of Maxwellian states, or Grad moment approximation via Hermite polynomials in velocity. Our analysis is from a classical dynamical systems point of view, with a number of interesting modifications to accommodate ill-posedness of the underlying evolution equation.

  4. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  5. GENERATION OF HIGH SHOCK PRESSURES BY LASER PULSES

    OpenAIRE

    Romain , J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 µm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of ...

  6. Modeling Encapsulated Microbubble Dynamics at High Pressure Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Jan F.; Bose, Sanjeeb; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Encapsulated microbubbles are commonly used in ultrasound contrast imaging and are of growing interest in therapeutic applications where local cavitation creates temporary perforations in cell membranes allowing for enhanced drug delivery. Clinically used microbubbles are encapsulated by a shell commonly consisting of protein, polymer, or phospholipid; the response of these bubbles to externally imposed ultrasound waves is sensitive to the compressibility of the encapsulating shell. Existing models approximate the shell compressibility via an effective surface tension (Marmottant et al. 2005). We present simulations of microbubbles subjected to high amplitude ultrasound waves (on the order of 106 Pa) and compare the results with the experimental measurements of Helfield et al. (2016). Analysis of critical points (corresponding to maximum and minimum expansion) in the governing Rayleigh-Plesset equation is used to make estimates of the parameters used to characterize the effective surface tension of the encapsulating shell. Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  7. Chemical kinetics studies at high temperatures using shock tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakumar, B; Anandraj, D; Reddy, KPJ; Arunan, E

    2002-01-01

    Shock tube is an unique facility to create temperature gradients exceeding million degrees Kelvin per second. We have established two shock tubes for measuring the kinetic reaction rates at high temperatures with two different but complementary detection techniques. The first one is a single pulse shock tube, in which the reflected shock is used to heat the molecules. The equilibrated products are analyzed by gas chromatograph and infrared spectrometer. The second one uses laser-schlieren sys...

  8. Shock Mechanism Analysis and Simulation of High-Power Hydraulic Shock Wave Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiu Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of regular shock wave (e.g., half-sine can be achieved by the traditional rubber shock simulator, but the practical high-power shock wave characterized by steep prepeak and gentle postpeak is hard to be realized by the same. To tackle this disadvantage, a novel high-power hydraulic shock wave simulator based on the live firing muzzle shock principle was proposed in the current work. The influence of the typical shock characteristic parameters on the shock force wave was investigated via both theoretical deduction and software simulation. According to the obtained data compared with the results, in fact, it can be concluded that the developed hydraulic shock wave simulator can be applied to simulate the real condition of the shocking system. Further, the similarity evaluation of shock wave simulation was achieved based on the curvature distance, and the results stated that the simulation method was reasonable and the structural optimization based on software simulation is also beneficial to the increase of efficiency. Finally, the combination of theoretical analysis and simulation for the development of artillery recoil tester is a comprehensive approach in the design and structure optimization of the recoil system.

  9. Nuclear-Mechanical Coupling: Small Amplitude Mechanical Vibrations and High Amplitude Power Oscillations in Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2008-11-01

    The cores of nuclear reactors, including its structural parts and cooling fluids, are complex mechanical systems able to vibrate in a set of normal modes and frequencies, if suitable perturbed. The cyclic variations in the strain state of the core materials may produce changes in density. Changes in density modify the reactivity. Changes in reactivity modify thermal power. Modifications in thermal power produce variations in temperature fields. Variations in temperature produce variations in strain due to thermal-elastic effects. If the variation of the temperature field is fast enough and if the Doppler Effect and other stabilizing prompt effects in the fuel are weak enough, a fast oscillatory instability could be produced, coupled with mechanical vibrations of small amplitude. A recently constructed, simple mathematical model of nuclear reactor kinetics, that improves the one due to A.S. Thompson, is reviewed. It was constructed in order to study, in a first approximation, the stability of the reactor: a nonlinear nuclear-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to reactor point kinetics with thermal-elastic feedback and with frozen delayed neutron effects) is coupled nonlinearly with a linear mechanical-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to the first normal mode of mechanical vibrations excited by thermo-elastic effects). This mathematical model is studied here from the standpoint of mechanical vibrations. It is shown how, under certain conditions, a suitable mechanical perturbation could elicit fast and growing oscillatory instabilities in the reactor power. Applying the asymptotic method due to Krylov, Bogoliubov and Mitropolsky, analytical formulae that may be used in the calculation of the time varying amplitude and phase of the mechanical oscillations are given, as functions of the mechanical, thermal and nuclear parameters of the reactor. The consequences for the mechanical integrity of the reactor are assessed. Some conditions, mainly, but not exclusively

  10. Characterizing shock waves in hydrogel using high speed imaging and a fiber-optic probe hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Phillip A.; Betney, M. R.; Doyle, H. W.; Tully, B.; Ventikos, Y.; Hawker, N. A.; Roy, Ronald A.

    2017-05-01

    The impact of a stainless steel disk-shaped projectile launched by a single-stage light gas gun is used to generate planar shock waves with amplitudes on the order of 102MPa in a hydrogel target material. These shock waves are characterized using ultra-high-speed imaging as well as a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. Although the hydrogel equation of state (EOS) is unknown, the combination of these measurements with conservation of mass and momentum allows us to calculate pressure. It is also shown that although the hydrogel behaves similarly to water, the use of a water EOS underpredicts pressure amplitudes in the hydrogel by ˜10 % at the shock front. Further, the water EOS predicts pressures approximately 2% higher than those determined by conservation laws for a given value of the shock velocity. Shot to shot repeatability is controlled to within 10%, with the shock speed and pressure increasing as a function of the velocity of the projectile at impact. Thus the projectile velocity may be used as an adequate predictor of shock conditions in future work with a restricted suite of diagnostics.

  11. Development of Multi-Physics Dynamics Models for High-Frequency Large-Amplitude Structural Response Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkevorkian, Armen; Peterson, Lee; Kolaini, Ali R.; Hendricks, Terry J.; Nesmith, Bill J.

    2016-01-01

    An analytic approach is demonstrated to reveal potential pyroshock -driven dynamic effects causing power losses in the Thermo -Electric (TE) module bars of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Multi -Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). This study utilizes high- fidelity finite element analysis with SIERRA/PRESTO codes to estimate wave propagation effects due to large -amplitude suddenly -applied pyro shock loads in the MMRTG. A high fidelity model of the TE module bar was created with approximately 30 million degrees -of-freedom (DOF). First, a quasi -static preload was applied on top of the TE module bar, then transient tri- axial acceleration inputs were simultaneously applied on the preloaded module. The applied input acceleration signals were measured during MMRTG shock qualification tests performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. An explicit finite element solver in the SIERRA/PRESTO computational environment, along with a 3000 processor parallel super -computing framework at NASA -AMES, was used for the simulation. The simulation results were investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively. The predicted shock wave propagation results provide detailed structural responses throughout the TE module bar, and key insights into the dynamic response (i.e., loads, displacements, accelerations) of critical internal spring/piston compression systems, TE materials, and internal component interfaces in the MMRTG TE module bar. They also provide confidence on the viability of this high -fidelity modeling scheme to accurately predict shock wave propagation patterns within complex structures. This analytic approach is envisioned for modeling shock sensitive hardware susceptible to intense shock environments positioned near shock separation devices in modern space vehicles and systems.

  12. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romain, J.P. (GRECO ILM, Laboratoire d' Energetique et Detonique, E.N.S.M.A., 86 - Poitiers (France))

    1984-11-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 ..mu..m wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined.

  13. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 μm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined

  14. DYNAMICS OF HIGH ENERGY IONS AT A STRUCTURED COLLISIONLESS SHOCK FRONT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedalin, M. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Dröge, W.; Kartavykh, Y. Y., E-mail: gedalin@bgu.ac.il [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-10

    Ions undergoing first-order Fermi acceleration at a shock are scattered in the upstream and downstream regions by magnetic inhomogeneities. For high energy ions this scattering is efficient at spatial scales substantially larger than the gyroradius of the ions. The transition from one diffusive region to the other occurs via crossing the shock, and the ion dynamics during this crossing is mainly affected by the global magnetic field change between the upstream and downstream region. We study the effects of the fine structure of the shock front, such as the foot-ramp-overshoot profile and the phase-standing upstream and downstream magnetic oscillations. We also consider time dependent features, including reformation and large amplitude coherent waves. We show that the influence of the spatial and temporal structure of the shock front on the dependence of the transition and reflection on the pitch angle of the ions is already weak at ion speeds five times the speed of the upstream flow.

  15. Dust acoustic shock wave at high dust density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Sarkar, Susmita; Khan, Manoranjan; Avinash, K.; Gupta, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Dust acoustic (DA) shock wave at high dust density, i.e., the dust electroacoustic (DEA) or dust Coulomb (DC) shock wave has been investigated incorporating the nonadiabatic dust charge variation. The nonlinear DEA (DC) shock wave is seen to be governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burger equation, in which the Burger term is proportional to the nonadiabaticity generated dissipation. It is seen that the shock strength decreases but after reaching minimum, it increases as the dust space charge density |q d n d | increases and the shock strength of DA wave is greater than that of DEA (DC) wave. Moreover the DEA (DC) shock width increases appreciably with increase mass m i of the ion component of the dusty plasma but for DA shock wave the effect is weak

  16. HIGH PERFORMANCE PIAA CORONAGRAPHY WITH COMPLEX AMPLITUDE FOCAL PLANE MASKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Belikov, Ruslan; Soummer, Remi

    2010-01-01

    We describe a coronagraph approach where the performance of a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is improved by using a partially transmissive phase-shifting focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. This approach combines the low inner working angle offered by phase mask coronagraphy, the full throughput and uncompromized angular resolution of the PIAA approach, and the design flexibility of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph. A PIAA complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) is fully described by the focal plane mask size, or, equivalently, its complex transmission which ranges from 0 (opaque) to -1 (phase shifting). For all values of the transmission, the PIAACMC theoretically offers full on-axis extinction and 100% throughput at large angular separations. With a pure phase focal plane mask (complex transmission = -1), the PIAACMC offers 50% throughput at 0.64 λ/D while providing total extinction of an on-axis point source. This performance is very close to the 'fundamental performance limit' of coronagraphy derived from first principles. For very high contrast level, imaging performance with PIAACMC is in practice limited by the angular size of the on-axis target (usually a star). We show that this fundamental limitation must be taken into account when choosing the optimal value of the focal plane mask size in the PIAACMC design. We show that the PIAACMC enables visible imaging of Jupiter-like planets at ∼1.2 λ/D from the host star, and can therefore offer almost three times more targets than a PIAA coronagraph optimized for this type of observation. We find that for visible imaging of Earth-like planets, the PIAACMC gain over a PIAA is probably much smaller, as coronagraphic performance is then strongly constrained by stellar angular size. For observations at 'low' contrast (below ∼ 10 8 ), the PIAACMC offers significant performance enhancement over PIAA. This is especially relevant for ground-based high contrast imaging systems in the near-IR, where

  17. Calculation of the real part of the nuclear amplitude at high s and small t from the Coulomb amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Theory Group, Lab. de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), CNRS 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    A new method for the determination of the real part of the elastic scattering amplitude is examined for high energy proton-proton at small momentum transfer. This method allows us to decrease the number of model assumptions, to obtain the real part in a narrow region of momentum transfer and to test different models. The possible non-exponential behavior of the real part was found on the base of the analysis of the ISR experimental data. (authors)

  18. Amplitude modulation reduces loudness adaptation to high-frequency tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Dwight P; George, Sahara E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2015-07-01

    Long-term loudness perception of a sound has been presumed to depend on the spatial distribution of activated auditory nerve fibers as well as their temporal firing pattern. The relative contributions of those two factors were investigated by measuring loudness adaptation to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated 12-kHz tones. The tones had a total duration of 180 s and were either unmodulated or 100%-modulated at one of three frequencies (4, 20, or 100 Hz), and additionally varied in modulation depth from 0% to 100% at the 4-Hz frequency only. Every 30 s, normal-hearing subjects estimated the loudness of one of the stimuli played at 15 dB above threshold in random order. Without any amplitude modulation, the loudness of the unmodulated tone after 180 s was only 20% of the loudness at the onset of the stimulus. Amplitude modulation systematically reduced the amount of loudness adaptation, with the 100%-modulated stimuli, regardless of modulation frequency, maintaining on average 55%-80% of the loudness at onset after 180 s. Because the present low-frequency amplitude modulation produced minimal changes in long-term spectral cues affecting the spatial distribution of excitation produced by a 12-kHz pure tone, the present result indicates that neural synchronization is critical to maintaining loudness perception over time.

  19. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  20. Production and utilization of high level and long duration shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrot, R.

    1978-01-01

    In order to verify the behaviour of equipments under extreme environmental conditions (propulsion, falls, impacts...), it is necessary to create 'high level and long duration shocks'. For these shocks, the velocity variation ΔV, which is equal to the area under the accelerogram γ (t), can reach several hundred meters per second. These velocity variations cannot be performed via classical free fall shock machine (ΔV [fr

  1. Shock characterization of an ultra-high strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erzar, B.; Pontiroli, C.; Buzaud, E.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the design of protective structures may imply ultra-high performance concretes. These materials present a compressive strength 5 times higher than standard concretes. However, few reliable data on the shock response of such materials are available in the literature. Thus, a characterization of an ultra-high strength concrete has been conducted by means of hydrostatic and triaxial tests in the quasi-static regime, and plate impact experiments for shock response. Data have been gathered up to 6 GPa and a simple modelling approach has been applied to get a reliable representation of the shock compression of this concrete. (authors)

  2. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume III. Mechanical Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*SPRINGS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TORSION BARS, ELASTOMERS, DAMPING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, MODEL TESTS, TEST METHODS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  3. Phenomenological study of helicity amplitudes of high energy exclusive leptoproduction of the ρ meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I. V.; Besse, A.; Ivanov, D. Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2011-01-01

    We apply a previously developed scheme to consistently include the twist-3 distribution amplitudes for transversely polarized ρ mesons in order to evaluate, in the framework of k T factorization, the helicity amplitudes for exclusive leptoproduction of a light vector meson, at leading order in α s . We compare our results with high energy experimental data for the ratios of helicity amplitudes T 11 /T 00 and T 01 /T 00 and get a good description of the data.

  4. High pressure multiple shock response of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, R.J.; Asay, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    It is well known that both dynamic yield strength and rate-dependent material response exert direct influence on the development of surface and interface instabilities under conditions of strong shock loading. A detailed understanding of these phenomena is therefore an important aspect of the analysis of dynamic inertial confinement techniques which are being used in such applications as the generation of controlled thermonuclear fusion. In these types of applications the surfaces and interfaces under consideration can be subjected to cyclic loading characterized by shock pressures on the order of 100 GPa or more. It thus becomes important to understand how rate effects and material strength differ from the values observed in the low pressure regime where they are usually measured, as well as how they are altered by the loading history

  5. High-Gain Shock Ignition on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. J.; Lafortune, K.; Bailey, D.; Lambert, M.; MacKinnon, A.; Blackfield, D.; Comley, A.; Schurtz, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Lebel, E.; Casner, A.; Craxton, R. S.; Betti, R.; McKenty, P.; Anderson, K.; Theobald, W.; Schmitt, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.

    2010-11-01

    Shock ignition offers the possibility for a near-term test of high-gain ICF on the NIF at less than 1MJ drive energy and with day-1 laser hardware. We will summarize the status of target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the R&D program to be performed in order to test the potential of a shock-ignited target on NIF. In shock ignition, compressed fuel is separately ignited by a late-time laser-driven shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, simulations indicate that fusion energy gains of 60 may be achievable at laser energies around 0.5MJ. Like fast ignition, shock ignition offers high gain but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and focusing requirements. Conventional symmetry and stability constraints apply, thus a key immediate step towards attempting shock ignition on NIF is to demonstrate adequacy of low-mode uniformity and shock symmetry under polar drive

  6. High-Mach number, laser-driven magnetized collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, Derek B.; Fox, W.; Haberberger, D.; Fiksel, G.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2017-01-01

    Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in space and astrophysical systems, and the class of supercritical shocks is of particular importance due to their role in accelerating particles to high energies. While these shocks have been traditionally studied by spacecraft and remote sensing observations, laboratory experiments can provide reproducible and multi-dimensional datasets that provide complementary understanding of the underlying microphysics. We present experiments undertaken on the OMEGA and OMEGA EP laser facilities that show the formation and evolution of high-Mach number collisionless shocks created through the interaction of a laser-driven magnetic piston and magnetized ambient plasma. Through time-resolved, 2-D imaging we observe large density and magnetic compressions that propagate at super-Alfvenic speeds and that occur over ion kinetic length scales. Electron density and temperature of the initial ambient plasma are characterized using optical Thomson scattering. Measurements of the piston laser-plasma are modeled with 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which are used to initialize 2-D particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction between the piston and ambient plasmas. The numerical results show the formation of collisionless shocks, including the separate dynamics of the carbon and hydrogen ions that constitute the ambient plasma and their effect on the shock structure. Furthermore, the simulations also show the shock separating from the piston, which we observe in the data at late experimental times.

  7. Shock loading influence on mechanical behavior of high purity iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buy, Francois; Voltz, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the analysis of shock wave effects for high purity iron. The method developed is based on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of as received and shocked material. Shock effect is generated through plate impact tests performed in the range of 4 GPa to 39 GPa on a single stage light gas gun or a powder gun. Therefore, as-received and impacted materials are characterized. A formalism proposed by J.R.Klepaczko and based on physical relations has been adopted to describe stress strain curves

  8. Production of high energy neutrinos in relativistic supernova shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of producing high-energy neutrinos (> approx. 10 GeV) in relativistic supernova shock waves is considered. It is shown that, even if the dissipation in such shocks is due to hard hadron--hadron collisions, the resulting flux of neutrinos is too small to be observed by currently envisioned detectors. The associated burst of hard γ-rays, however, may be detectable. 3 tables

  9. Generation of high pressure shocks relevant to the shock-ignition intensity regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batani, D.; Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Badziak, J.; Baffigi, F.; Chodukowski, T.; Consoli, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; De Angelis, R.; Dudžák, Roman; Folpini, G.; Giuffrida, L.; Gizzi, L.A.; Kalinowska, Z.; Koester, P.; Krouský, Eduard; Krůs, Miroslav; Labate, L.; Levato, Tadzio; Maheut, Y.; Malka, G.; Margarone, Daniele; Marocchino, A.; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Nicolai, Ph.; O’Dell, T.; Pisarczyk, T.; Renner, Oldřich; Rhee, Y.-J.; Ribeyre, X.; Richetta, M.; Rosinski, M.; Sawicka, Magdalena; Schiavi, A.; Skála, Jiří; Šmíd, Michal; Spindloe, Ch.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Velyhan, Andriy; Vinci, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2014), 032710-032710 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LM2010014 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : High-pressure shocks * shock ignition * inertial confinement fusion * PALS laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4869715

  10. Shock-induced synthesis of high temperature superconducting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, D.S.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.

    1987-06-18

    It has now been determined that the unique features of the high pressure shock method, especially the shock-induced chemical synthesis technique, are fully applicable to high temperature superconducting materials. Extraordinarily high yields are achievable in accordance with this invention, e.g., generally in the range from about 20% to about 99%, often in the range from about 50% to about 90%, lower and higher yields, of course, also being possible. The method of this invention involves the application of a controlled high pressure shock compression pulse which can be produced in any conventional manner, e.g., by detonation of a high explosive material, the impact of a high speed projectile or the effect of intense pulsed radiation sources such as lasers or electron beams. Examples and a discussion are presented.

  11. High-power laser experiments to study collisionless shock generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakawa Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A collisionless Weibel-instability mediated shock in a self-generated magnetic field is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation [Kato and Takabe, Astophys. J. Lett. 681, L93 (2008]. It is predicted that the generation of the Weibel shock requires to use NIF-class high-power laser system. Collisionless electrostatic shocks are produced in counter-streaming plasmas using Gekko XII laser system [Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011]. A NIF facility time proposal is approved to study the formation of the collisionless Weibel shock. OMEGA and OMEGA EP experiments have been started to study the plasma conditions of counter-streaming plasmas required for the NIF experiment using Thomson scattering and to develop proton radiography diagnostics.

  12. Very high Mach number shocks - Theory. [in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, Kevin B.

    1986-01-01

    The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results include the following: (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers depends sensitively on the upstream value of beta (the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) nonadiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyrorbit while transiting the shock.

  13. High energy asymptotics of the scattering amplitude for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Keywords. Scattering matrix; asymptotic expansion; high energy; diagonal singula- ..... (see subsection 2 of § 3) with functions of the generator of dilations. A = 1. 2 d ..... ness in quantum scattering theory, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré, Phys. Théor.

  14. Kepler observations of the high-amplitude δ Scuti star V2367 Cyg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, L. A.; Lenz, P.; Antoci, V.

    2012-01-01

    We analyse Kepler observations of the high-amplitude δ Scuti (HADS) star V2367 Cyg (KIC 9408694). The variations are dominated by a mode with frequency f1= 5.6611 d−1. Two other independent modes with f2= 7.1490 d−1 and f3= 7.7756 d−1 have amplitudes an order of magnitude smaller than f1. Nearly...... all the light variation is due to these three modes and their combination frequencies, but several hundred other frequencies of very low amplitude are also present. The amplitudes of the principal modes may vary slightly with time. The star has twice the projected rotational velocity of any other HADS...... star, which makes it unusual. We find a correlation between the phases of the combination frequencies and their pulsation frequencies, which is not understood. Since modes of highest amplitude in HADS stars are normally radial modes, we assumed that this would also be true in this star. However...

  15. High-Energy String Scattering Amplitudes and Signless Stirling Number Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chi Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We give a complete proof of a set of identities (7 proposed recently from calculation of high-energy string scattering amplitudes. These identities allow one to extract ratios among high-energy string scattering amplitudes in the fixed angle regime from high-energy amplitudes in the Regge regime. The proof is based on a signless Stirling number identity in combinatorial theory. The results are valid for arbitrary real values L rather than only for L=0,1 proved previously. The identities for non-integer real value L were recently shown to be realized in high-energy compactified string scattering amplitudes [He S., Lee J.C., Yang Y., arXiv:1012.3158]. The parameter L is related to the mass level of an excited string state and can take non-integer values for Kaluza-Klein modes.

  16. Studies on the propagation of relativistic plasma waves in high density plasmas produced by hypersonic ionizing shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Johnson, J.A. III

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using an ionizing shock wave to produce high density plasmas suitable for the propagation large amplitude relativistic plasma waves is being investigated. A 20 kv arc driven shock tube of coaxial geometry produces a hypersonic shock wave (10 p > 10 17 cm -3 ). The shock can be made to reflect off the end of the tube, collide with its wake, and thus increase the plasma density further. After reflecting, the plasma is at rest. The shock speed is measured using piezoelectric pressure probes and the ion density is measured using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques on argon 488.0 nm and 422.8 nm lines. The future plans are to excite large amplitude relativistic plasma waves in this plasma by either injecting a short pulse laser (Laser Wake Field Scheme), two beating lasers (Plasma Beat Wave Scheme), or a short bunch of relativistic electrons (Plasma Wake Field Scheme). Results of recent computational and theoretical studies, as well as initial experimental measurements on the plasma using LIF, are reported. Implications for the application of high density plasmas produced in this way to such novel schemes as the plasma wave accelerator, photon accelerator, plasma wave undulator, and also plasma lens, are discussed. The effect of plasma turbulence is also discussed

  17. Shock ignition of high gain inertial fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtz, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Lebel, E.; Casner, A.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Inertial Confinement Fusion relies on the compression of small amounts of an equimolar mix of Deuterium and Tritium (DT) up to volumic masses of several hundreds of g/cm 3 . Such high densities are obtained by means of the implosion of a spherical shell made of cryogenic DT fuel. In the conventional scheme a hot spot is formed in the central part of the pellet at the end of the implosion. If the pressure of this hot spot is large enough (several hundreds of Gbars), thermonuclear heating occurs with a characteristic time shorter than the hydrodynamic confinement time and the target self ignites. Since the central hot spot pressure results from the conversion of the shell kinetic energy into thermal energy, the threshold for the ignition of a given mass of DT is a direct function of the implosion velocity. Typical implosion velocities for central self ignition are of the order of 400 km/s. Such high velocities imply both a strong acceleration of the shell and the use of large aspect ration shells in order to optimize the hydrodynamic efficiency of the implosion, at least in direct drive. These two features strongly enhance the risk of shell beak up at time of acceleration under the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Furthermore the formation of the hot spot may itself the unstable, this reducing its effective mass. High compression may be achieved at much lower velocities, thus reducing the energy budget and enhancing the implosion safety, but the corresponding fuel assembly requires an additional heating in order to reach ignition. This heating may be obtained from a 70-100 kJ laser pulse, delivered in 10-15 ps (Fast Ignition). An alternative idea is to boost up the central pressure of a target imploded at a sub-ignition velocity by means of a convergent strong shock launched at the end of the compression phase. This Shock Ignition (SI) concept has been suggested in 1983 by Scherbakov et al. More recently, R. Betti et al. developed

  18. Corrections to the leading eikonal amplitude for high-energy scattering and quasipotential approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Suan Hani; Nguyen Duy Hung

    2003-12-01

    Asymptotic behaviour of the scattering amplitude for two scalar particle at high energy and fixed momentum transfers is reconsidered in quantum field theory. In the framework of the quasipotential approach and the modified perturbation theory a systematic scheme of finding the leading eikonal scattering amplitudes and its corrections is developed and constructed. The connection between the solutions obtained by quasipotential and functional approaches is also discussed. (author)

  19. Carbothermal shock synthesis of high-entropy-alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yonggang; Huang, Zhennan; Xie, Pengfei; Lacey, Steven D.; Jacob, Rohit Jiji; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fengjuan; Nie, Anmin; Pu, Tiancheng; Rehwoldt, Miles; Yu, Daiwei; Zachariah, Michael R.; Wang, Chao; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Li, Ju; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-03-01

    The controllable incorporation of multiple immiscible elements into a single nanoparticle merits untold scientific and technological potential, yet remains a challenge using conventional synthetic techniques. We present a general route for alloying up to eight dissimilar elements into single-phase solid-solution nanoparticles, referred to as high-entropy-alloy nanoparticles (HEA-NPs), by thermally shocking precursor metal salt mixtures loaded onto carbon supports [temperature ~2000 kelvin (K), 55-millisecond duration, rate of ~105 K per second]. We synthesized a wide range of multicomponent nanoparticles with a desired chemistry (composition), size, and phase (solid solution, phase-separated) by controlling the carbothermal shock (CTS) parameters (substrate, temperature, shock duration, and heating/cooling rate). To prove utility, we synthesized quinary HEA-NPs as ammonia oxidation catalysts with ~100% conversion and >99% nitrogen oxide selectivity over prolonged operations.

  20. Dynamic force microscopy with quartz tuning forks at high oscillation amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labardi, M

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) with the self-oscillator (SO) method allows reasonably high scanning rates even with high Q-factors of the resonant force sensor, typical of cantilevers in ultra-high vacuum and of quartz tuning forks. However, due to simpler interpretation of force spectroscopy measurements, small oscillation amplitudes (sub-nm level) are generally preferred. In applications like 'apertureless' scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM), oscillation amplitudes of the order of 5-10 nm are needed to increase optical sensitivity and to apply standard optical artefact suppression methods. This motivates the study of the behaviour of tuning forks driven at such high amplitudes, as compared to usual air-operated cantilevers. Both constant-excitation-amplitude (CE) and constant-oscillation-amplitude (CA) modes of SO-DFM are analysed, since the CA mode is more convenient for SNOM applications, denoting remarkable differences. In particular, possible instability effects, previously found in CE mode, are not anticipated for CA mode. It is shown how resonance and approach ('isophase') curves in both modes can be conveniently described in terms of the usual 'normalized frequency shift' γ and of a 'normalized gain' η, defined as a measurement of surface dissipation

  1. Frequency- and amplitude-transitioned waveforms mitigate the onset response in high-frequency nerve block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerges, Meana; Foldes, Emily L.; Ackermann, D. Michael; Bhadra, Narendra; Bhadra, Niloy; Kilgore, Kevin L.

    2010-12-01

    High-frequency alternating currents (HFAC) have proven to be a reversible and rapid method of blocking peripheral nerve conduction, holding promise for treatment of disorders associated with undesirable neuronal activity. The delivery of HFAC is characterized by a transient period of neural firing at its inception, termed the 'onset response'. The onset response is minimized for higher frequencies and higher amplitudes, but requires larger currents. However, the complete block can be maintained at lower frequencies and amplitudes, using lower currents. In this in vivo study on whole mammalian peripheral nerves, we demonstrate a method to minimize the onset response by initiating the block using a stimulation paradigm with a high frequency and large amplitude, and then transitioning to a low-frequency and low-amplitude waveform, reducing the currents required to maintain the conduction block. In five of six animals, it was possible to transition from a 30 kHz to a 10 kHz waveform without inducing any transient neural firing. The minimum transition time was 0.03 s. Transition activity was minimized or eliminated with longer transition times. The results of this study show that this method is feasible for achieving a nerve block with minimal onset responses and current amplitude requirements.

  2. Surfing and drift acceleration at high mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Electron acceleration in high Mach number collisionless shocks relevant to supernova remnant is discussed. By performing one- and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of quasi-perpendicular shocks, we find that energetic electrons are quickly generated in the shock transition region through shock surfing and drift acceleration. The electron energization is strong enough to account for the observed injection at supernova remnant shocks. (author)

  3. Multiband carrierless amplitude/phase modulation for ultra-wideband high data rate wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Altabas, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of carrierless amplitude/phase modulation in a flexible multiband approach for ultrawideband high-data-rate wireless communications. An effective bitrate of 2 GB/s is achieved while complying with the restrictions on the effective radiated power...

  4. Association between pain episodes and high amplitude propagated pressure waves in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemens, C. H. M.; Samsom, M.; Roelofs, J. M. M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), both increased visceral sensitivity and altered colonic motility seem to play a role. The aim of this study was to quantify the temporal relationship between pain episodes and the occurrence of high amplitude propagated pressure

  5. BWR stability: analysis of cladding temperature for high amplitude oscillations - 146

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.; Wehle, F.

    2010-01-01

    Power oscillations associated with density waves in boiling water reactors (BWRs) have been studied widely. Industrial research in this area is active since the invention of the first BWR. Stability measurements have been performed in various plants during commissioning phase but especially the magnitude and divergent nature of the oscillations during the LaSalle Unit 2 nuclear power plant event on March 9, 1988, renewed concern about the state of knowledge on BWR instabilities and possible consequences to fuel rod integrity. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified stability tool, applicable for stability analysis in the non-linear regime, which extends to high amplitude oscillations where inlet reverse flow occurs. In case of high amplitude oscillations a cyclical dryout and rewetting process at the fuel rod may take place, which leads in turn to rapid changes of the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. The application of this stability tool allows for a conservative determination of the fuel rod cladding temperature in case of high amplitude oscillations during the dryout / re-wet phase. Moreover, it reveals in good agreement to experimental findings the stabilizing effect of the reverse bundle inlet flow, which might be obtained for large oscillation amplitudes. (authors)

  6. High shock load testing of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, J.; Marincic, N.

    1983-10-01

    Low rate cylindrical cells have been developed, capable of withstanding mechanical shocks up to 23,000 g's for one millisecond. The cells were based on the lithium-thionyl chloride battery system and totally hermetic stainless steel hardware incorporating a glass sealed positive terminal. Four cells in series were required to deliver 25 mA pulses at a minimum voltage of 10 V before and after such exposure to one mechanical shock. Batteries were contained in a hardened steel housing and mounted within a projectile accelerated by means of a gas gun. The velocity of the projectile was measured with electronic probes immediately before impact and the deceleration was effected using a special aluminum honeycomb structure from which the g values were calculated. A high survival rate for the cells was achieved in spite of some mechanical damage to the battery housing still present.

  7. Oscillations of non-isothermal N/S boundary with a high frequency and large amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuglyj, A.I.; Shklovskij, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the phenomenological approach based on the heat balance equation and the dependence of the critical temperature of the superconductor on the current value theoretically investigated the impact of high-frequency current of high amplitude and arbitrary shape on the non-isothermal balance of the oscillating N/S interface in a long superconductor. We introduce a self-consistent average temperature field of rapidly oscillating non-isothermal N/S boundary (heat kink), which allows to go beyond the well-known concept of mean-square heating and consider the impact of current waveform. With regard to experiments on the effects of microwave high-power radiation on the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) of superconducting films, we give the classification of the families of the CVC for inhomogeneous superconductors which carry a current containing a high frequency component of large amplitude. Several characteristics have hysteresis of thermal nature.

  8. High time resolution characteristics of intermediate ion distributions upstream of the earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    High time resolution particle data upstream of the bow shock during time intervals that have been identified as having intermediate ion distributions often show high amplitude oscillations in the ion fluxes of energy 2 and 6 keV. These ion oscillations, observed with the particle instruments of the University of California, Berkeley, on the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft, are at the same frequency (about 0.04 Hz) as the magnetic field oscillations. Typically, the 6-keV ion flux increases then the 2-keV flux increases followed by a decrease in the 2-keV flux and then the 6-keV flux decreases. This process repeats many times. Although there is no entirely satisfactory explanation, the presence of these ion flux oscillations suggests that distributions often are misidentified as intermediate ion distributions.

  9. High energy behaviour of the scattering amplitude in the presence of confined channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlen, G.; Rittenberg, V.

    1977-09-01

    The two-channel potential scattering problem in three space-dimensions is considered in the case when one channel is permanently confined. Two examples of confining potentials are considered: the harmonic oscillator and the infinite well. The two cases give radically different results: for the infinite well there is no high energy limit; in the case of the harmonic oscillator the amplitude has properties similar to that of dual absorptive models. (orig.) [de

  10. The high energy behavior of the forward scattering parameters - an amplitude analysis update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, M.M.; Margolis, B.; White, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing the most recent experimental data, we reanalyze high energy pp and pp data, using the asymptotic amplitude analysis, under the assumption that we have reached open-quotes asymptopiaclose quotes. This analysis gives strong evidence for a log (s/s 0 ) dependence at current energies and not log 2 (s/s 0 ), and also demonstrates that odderons are not necessary to explain the experimental data

  11. Study of High and Low Amplitude Wave Trains of Cosmic Ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Physics Department, Government T.R.S. College, Rewa (M.P.) 486 001, India. 2Physics Department, A.P.S. University, Rewa (M.P.) 486 003, India. ∗ e-mail: ambika.physics@gmail. .... stations are running parallel to each other. In Fig. 3, we show the frequency distribution of the occurrence of high and low amplitude wave ...

  12. A New Approach to Eliminate High Amplitude Artifacts in EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Teixeira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High amplitude artifacts represent a problem during EEG recordings in neuroscience research. Taking this into account, this paper proposes a method to identify high amplitude artifacts with no requirement for visual inspection, electrooscillogram (EOG reference channel or user assigned parameters. A potential solution to the high amplitude artifacts (HAA elimination is presented based on blind source separation methods. The assumption underlying the selection of components is that HAA are independent of the EEG signal and different HAA can be generated during the EEG recordings. Therefore, the number of components related to HAA is variable and depends on the processed signal, which means that the method is adaptable to the input signal. The results show, when removing the HAA artifacts, the delta band is distorted but all the other frequency bands are preserved. A case study with EEG signals recorded while participants performed on the Halstead Category Test (HCT is presented. After HAA removal, data analysis revealed, as expected, an error-related frontal ERP wave: the feedback-related negativity (FRN in response to feedback stimuli.

  13. A high-stability non-contact dilatometer for low-amplitude temperature-modulated measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckabauer, Martin; Sprengel, Wolfgang; Würschum, Roland [Institute of Materials Physics, Graz University of Technology, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-07-15

    Temperature modulated thermophysical measurements can deliver valuable insights into the phase transformation behavior of many different materials. While especially for non-metallic systems at low temperatures numerous powerful methods exist, no high-temperature device suitable for modulated measurements of bulk metallic alloy samples is available for routine use. In this work a dilatometer for temperature modulated isothermal and non-isothermal measurements in the temperature range from room temperature to 1300 K is presented. The length measuring system is based on a two-beam Michelson laser interferometer with an incremental resolution of 20 pm. The non-contact measurement principle allows for resolving sinusoidal length change signals with amplitudes in the sub-500 nm range and physically decouples the length measuring system from the temperature modulation and heating control. To demonstrate the low-amplitude capabilities, results for the thermal expansion of nickel for two different modulation frequencies are presented. These results prove that the novel method can be used to routinely resolve length-change signals of metallic samples with temperature amplitudes well below 1 K. This high resolution in combination with the non-contact measurement principle significantly extends the application range of modulated dilatometry towards high-stability phase transformation measurements on complex alloys.

  14. WEATHER ON OTHER WORLDS. III. A SURVEY FOR T DWARFS WITH HIGH-AMPLITUDE OPTICAL VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinze, Aren N.; Metchev, Stanimir; Kellogg, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    We have monitored 12 T dwarfs with the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope using an F814W filter (0.7-0.95 μm) to place in context the remarkable 10%-20% variability exhibited by the nearby T dwarf Luhman 16B in this wavelength regime. The motivation was the poorly known red optical behavior of T dwarfs, which have been monitored almost exclusively at infrared wavelengths, where variability amplitudes greater than 10% have been found to be very rare. We detect highly significant variability in two T dwarfs. The T2.5 dwarf 2MASS 13243559+6358284 shows consistent ∼17% variability on two consecutive nights. The T2 dwarf 2MASS J16291840+0335371 exhibits ∼10% variability that may evolve from night to night, similarly to Luhman 16B. Both objects were previously known to be variable in the infrared, but with considerably lower amplitudes. We also find evidence for variability in the T6 dwarf J162414.37+002915.6, but since it has lower significance, we conservatively refrain from claiming this object as a variable. We explore and rule out various telluric effects, demonstrating that the variations we detect are astrophysically real. We suggest that high-amplitude photometric variability for T dwarfs is likely more common in the red optical than at longer wavelengths. The two new members of the growing class of high-amplitude variable T dwarfs offer excellent prospects for further study of cloud structures and their evolution

  15. WEATHER ON OTHER WORLDS. III. A SURVEY FOR T DWARFS WITH HIGH-AMPLITUDE OPTICAL VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, Aren N.; Metchev, Stanimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Kellogg, Kendra, E-mail: aren.heinze@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: smetchev@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-03-10

    We have monitored 12 T dwarfs with the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope using an F814W filter (0.7-0.95 μm) to place in context the remarkable 10%-20% variability exhibited by the nearby T dwarf Luhman 16B in this wavelength regime. The motivation was the poorly known red optical behavior of T dwarfs, which have been monitored almost exclusively at infrared wavelengths, where variability amplitudes greater than 10% have been found to be very rare. We detect highly significant variability in two T dwarfs. The T2.5 dwarf 2MASS 13243559+6358284 shows consistent ∼17% variability on two consecutive nights. The T2 dwarf 2MASS J16291840+0335371 exhibits ∼10% variability that may evolve from night to night, similarly to Luhman 16B. Both objects were previously known to be variable in the infrared, but with considerably lower amplitudes. We also find evidence for variability in the T6 dwarf J162414.37+002915.6, but since it has lower significance, we conservatively refrain from claiming this object as a variable. We explore and rule out various telluric effects, demonstrating that the variations we detect are astrophysically real. We suggest that high-amplitude photometric variability for T dwarfs is likely more common in the red optical than at longer wavelengths. The two new members of the growing class of high-amplitude variable T dwarfs offer excellent prospects for further study of cloud structures and their evolution.

  16. High Strain Rate and Shock-Induced Deformation in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, Ramon

    2012-02-01

    Large-scale non-equilibrium molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are now commonly used to study material deformation at high strain rates (10^9-10^12 s-1). They can provide detailed information-- such as defect morphology, dislocation densities, and temperature and stress profiles, unavailable or hard to measure experimentally. Computational studies of shock-induced plasticity and melting in fcc and bcc single, mono-crystal metals, exhibit generic characteristics: high elastic limits, large directional anisotropies in the yield stress and pre-melting much below the equilibrium melt temperature for shock wave propagation along specific crystallographic directions. These generic features in the response of single crystals subjected to high strain rates of deformation can be explained from the changes in the energy landscape of the uniaxially compressed crystal lattice. For time scales relevant to dynamic shock loading, the directional-dependence of the yield strength in single crystals is shown to be due to the onset of instabilities in elastic-wave propagation velocities. The elastic-plastic transition threshold can accurately be predicted by a wave-propagation stability analysis. These strain-induced instabilities create incipient defect structures, which can be quite different from the ones, which characterize the long-time, asymptotic state of the compressed solid. With increase compression and strain rate, plastic deformation via extended defects gives way to amorphization associated with the loss in shear rigidity along specific deformation paths. The hot amorphous or (super-cooled liquid) metal re-crystallizes at rates, which depend on the temperature difference between the amorphous solid and the equilibrium melt line. This plastic-amorphous transition threshold can be computed from shear-waves stability analyses. Examples from selected fcc and bcc metals will be presented employing semi-empirical potentials of the embedded atom method (EAM) type as well as

  17. N=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills scattering amplitudes at high energies. The Regge cut contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Sabio Vera, A.

    2008-07-01

    We further investigate, in N=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theories, the high energy Regge behavior of six-point scattering amplitudes. In particular, for the new Regge cut contribution found in our previous paper, we compute in the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) the energy spectrum of the BFKL equation in the color octet channel, and we calculate explicitly the two loop corrections to the discontinuities of the amplitudes for the transitions 2→4 and 3→3. We find an explicit solution of the BFKL equation for the octet channel for arbitrary momentum transfers and investigate the intercepts of the Regge singularities in this channel. As an important result we find that the universal collinear and infrared singularities of the BDS formula are not affected by this Regge-cut contribution. (orig.)

  18. Tip radius preservation for high resolution imaging in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jorge R., E-mail: jorge.rr@cea.cu [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Canto Blanco, 28049 Madrid, España (Spain)

    2014-07-28

    The acquisition of high resolution images in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is correlated to the cantilever's tip shape, size, and imaging conditions. In this work, relative tip wear is quantified based on the evolution of a direct experimental observable in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy, i.e., the critical amplitude. We further show that the scanning parameters required to guarantee a maximum compressive stress that is lower than the yield/fracture stress of the tip can be estimated via experimental observables. In both counts, the optimized parameters to acquire AFM images while preserving the tip are discussed. The results are validated experimentally by employing IgG antibodies as a model system.

  19. High speed ultra-broadband amplitude modulators with ultrahigh extinction >65 dB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Cai, H; DeRose, C T; Davids, P; Pomerene, A; Starbuck, A L; Trotter, D C; Camacho, R; Urayama, J; Lentine, A

    2017-05-15

    We experimentally demonstrate ultrahigh extinction ratio (>65 dB) amplitude modulators (AMs) that can be electrically tuned to operate across a broad spectral range of 160 nm from 1480 - 1640 nm and 95 nm from 1280 - 1375 nm. Our on-chip AMs employ one extra coupler compared with conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI), thus form a cascaded MZI (CMZI) structure. Either directional or adiabatic couplers are used to compose the CMZI AMs and experimental comparisons are made between these two different structures. We investigate the performance of CMZI AMs under extreme conditions such as using 95:5 split ratio couplers and unbalanced waveguide losses. Electro-optic phase shifters are also integrated in the CMZI AMs for high-speed operation. Finally, we investigate the output optical phase when the amplitude is modulated, which provides us valuable information when both amplitude and phase are to be controlled. Our demonstration not only paves the road to applications such as quantum information processing that requires high extinction ratio AMs but also significantly alleviates the tight fabrication tolerance needed for large-scale integrated photonics.

  20. Shock-induced heating and millisecond boiling in gels and tissue due to high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canney, Michael S.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Bessonova, Olga V.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear propagation causes high intensity ultrasound waves to distort and generate higher harmonics, which are more readily absorbed and converted to heat than the fundamental frequency. Although such nonlinear effects have previously been investigated and found not to significantly alter high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, two results reported here change this paradigm. One is that at clinically relevant intensity levels, HIFU waves not only become distorted but form shock waves in tissue. The other is that the generated shock waves heat the tissue to boiling in much less time than predicted for undistorted or weakly distorted waves. In this study, a 2-MHz HIFU source operating at peak intensities up to 25,000 W/cm2 was used to heat transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver samples. Initiation of boiling was detected using high-speed photography, a 20-MHz passive cavitation detector, and fluctuation of the drive voltage at the HIFU source. The time to boil obtained experimentally was used to quantify heating rates and was compared to calculations using weak shock theory and the shock amplitudes obtained from nonlinear modeling and from measurements with a fiber optic hydrophone. As observed experimentally and predicted by calculations, shocked focal waveforms produced boiling in as little as 3 ms and the time to initiate boiling was sensitive to small changes in HIFU output. Nonlinear heating due to shock waves is therefore important to HIFU and clinicians should be aware of the potential for very rapid boiling since it alters treatments. PMID:20018433

  1. High-Amplitude Atlantic Hurricanes Produce Disparate Mortality in Small, Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Caleb; Allison, Jeroan; Broach, John; Smith, Mary-Elise; Milsten, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Hurricanes cause substantial mortality, especially in developing nations, and climate science predicts that powerful hurricanes will increase in frequency during the coming decades. This study examined the association of wind speed and national economic conditions with mortality in a large sample of hurricane events in small countries. Economic, meteorological, and fatality data for 149 hurricane events in 16 nations between 1958 and 2011 were analyzed. Mortality rate was modeled with negative binomial regression implemented by generalized estimating equations to account for variable population exposure, sequence of storm events, exposure of multiple islands to the same storm, and nonlinear associations. Low-amplitude storms caused little mortality regardless of economic status. Among high-amplitude storms (Saffir-Simpson category 4 or 5), expected mortality rate was 0.72 deaths per 100,000 people (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-1.28) for nations in the highest tertile of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) compared with 25.93 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI: 13.30-38.55) for nations with low per capita GDP. Lower per capita GDP and higher wind speeds were associated with greater mortality rates in small countries. Excessive fatalities occurred when powerful storms struck resource-poor nations. Predictions of increasing storm amplitude over time suggest increasing disparity between death rates unless steps are taken to modify the risk profiles of poor nations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:832-837).

  2. Some techniques and results from high-pressure shock-wave experiments utilizing the radiation from shocked transparent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, R.G.; Fritz, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    It has been known for many years that some transparent materials emit radiation when shocked to high pressures. This property was used to determine the temperature of shocked fused and crystal quartz, which in turn allowed the thermal expansion of SiO 2 at high pressure and also the specific heat to be calculated. Once the radiative energy as a function of pressure is known for one material it is shown how this can be used to determine the temperature of other transparent materials. By the nature of the experiments very accurate shock velocities can be measured and hence high quality equation of state data obtained. Some techniques and results are presented on measuring sound velocities from symmetrical impact of nontransparent materials using radiation emitting transparent analyzers, and on nonsymmetrical impact experiments on transparent materials. Because of special requirements in the later experiments, techniques were developed that lead to very high-precision shock-wave data. Preliminary results, using these techniques are presented for making estimates of the melting region and the yield strength of some metals under strong shock conditions

  3. Laboratory astrophysics with high energy and high power lasers: from radiative shocks to young star jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diziere, A.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics are a rapidly developing domain of the High Energy Density Physics. It aims to recreate at smaller scales physical processes that astronomical telescopes have difficulties observing. We shall approach, in this thesis, three major subjects: 1) Jets ejected from young stars, characterized by an important collimation degree and ending with a bow shock; 2) Radiative shocks in which radiation emitted by the shock front itself plays a dominant role in its structure and 3) Accretion shocks in magnetic cataclysmic variables whose important cooling factor allows them to reach stationarity. From the conception to experimental realization, we shall attempt to reproduce in laboratory each of these processes by respecting the scaling laws linking both situations (experimental and astrophysical) established beforehand. The implementation of a large array of visible and X-ray diagnostics will finally allow to completely characterize them and calculate the dimensionless numbers that validate the astrophysical relevance. (author) [fr

  4. High Frequency Measurements in Shock-Wave/Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction at Duplicated Flight Conditions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...

  5. High Frequency Measurements in Shock-Wave/Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction at Duplicated Flight Conditions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...

  6. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedeji, O.; Johnson, J.A. III

    1991-01-01

    We have finished the first stages of our experimental and theoretical investigations on models for energy and momentum transport and for photon-particle collision processes in a turbulent quasi-stationary high density plasma. The system is explored by beginning to determine the turbulence phenomenology associated with an ionizing shock wave. The theoretical underpinnings are explored for phonon particle collisions by determining the collisional redistribution function, using Lioville Space Green's Function, which will characterize the inelastic scattering of the radiation from one frequency to another. We have observed that a weak magnetic field tends to increase the apparent random-like behaviors in a collisional turbulent plasma. On the theoretical side, we have been able to achieve a form for the collisional redistribution function. It remains to apply these concepts to a stationary turbulent plasma in the reflected ionizing shock wave and to exercise the implications of evaluations of the collisional redistribution function for such a system when it is probed by a strong radiation source. These results are discussed in detail in the publications, which have resulted from the this effort, cited at the end of the report

  7. Highly trabeculated structure of the human endocardium underlies asymmetrical response to low-energy monophasic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Adam; Robson, Matthew D.; Schneider, Jürgen; Burton, Rebecca; Plank, Gernot; Bishop, Martin J.

    2017-09-01

    Novel low-energy defibrillation therapies are thought to be driven by virtual-electrodes (VEs), due to the interaction of applied monophasic electric shocks with fine-scale anatomical structures within the heart. Significant inter-species differences in the cardiac (micro)-anatomy exist, however, particularly with respect to the degree of endocardial trabeculations, which may underlie important differences in response to low-energy defibrillation protocols. Understanding the interaction of monophasic electric fields with the specific human micro-anatomy is therefore imperative in facilitating the translation and optimisation of these promising experimental therapies to the clinic. In this study, we sought to investigate how electric fields from implanted devices interact with the highly trabeculated human endocardial surface to better understand shock success in order to help optimise future clinical protocols. A bi-ventricular human computational model was constructed from high resolution (350 μm) ex-vivo MR data, including anatomically accurate endocardial structures. Monophasic shocks were applied between a basal right ventricular catheter and an exterior ground. Shocks of varying strengths were applied with both anodal [positive right ventricle (RV) electrode] and cathodal (negative RV electrode) polarities at different states of tissue refractoriness and during induced arrhythmias. Anodal shocks induced isolated positive VEs at the distal side of "detached" trabeculations, which rapidly spread into hyperpolarised tissue on the surrounding endocardial surfaces following the shock. Anodal shocks thus depolarised more tissue 10 ms after the shock than cathodal shocks where the propagation of activation from VEs induced on the proximal side of "detached" trabeculations was prevented due to refractory endocardium. Anodal shocks increased arrhythmia complexity more than cathodal shocks during failed anti-arrhythmia shocks. In conclusion, multiple detached

  8. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph with reduced amplitude zone detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as ''RAZs''. RAZs are displayed as ''go, no-go'' signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  9. Lightweight Potential of Welded High-strength Steel Joints from S700 Under Constant and Variable Amplitude Loading by High-frequency Mechanical Impact (HFMI) Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Halid Can; Marquis, Gary; Sonsino, Cetin Morris

    2015-01-01

    Investigations with longitudinal stiffeners of the steel grade S700 under fully-reversed, constant amplitude loading and under variable amplitude loading with a straight-line spectrum show impressive fatigue strength improvement by high-frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) treatment. However, the degree of improvement was for variable amplitude loading lower when compared to constant amplitude loading due to local plasticity which occurs during larger load levels and consequently reduces the be...

  10. Analog Amplitude Modulation of a High Voltage, Solid State Inductive Adder, Pulse Generator Using MOSFETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower, E J; Sullivan, J S

    2002-01-01

    High voltage, solid state, inductive adder, pulse generators have found increasing application as fast kicker pulse modulators for charged particle beams. The solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator is similar in operation to the linear induction accelerator. The main difference is that the solid state, adder couples energy by transformer action from multiple primaries to a voltage summing stalk, instead of an electron beam. Ideally, the inductive adder produces a rectangular voltage pulse at the load. In reality, there is usually some voltage variation at the load due to droop on primary circuit storage capacitors, or, temporal variations in the load impedance. Power MOSFET circuits have been developed to provide analog modulation of the output voltage amplitude of a solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator. The modulation is achieved by including MOSFET based, variable subtraction circuits in the multiple primary stack. The subtraction circuits can be used to compensate for voltage droop, or, to tailor the output pulse amplitude to provide a desired effect in the load. Power MOSFET subtraction circuits have been developed to modulate short, temporal (60-400 ns), voltage and current pulses. MOSFET devices have been tested up to 20 amps and 800 Volts with a band pass of 50 MHz. An analog modulation cell has been tested in a five cell high, voltage adder stack

  11. Adhesive bond strength evaluation in composite materials by laser-generated high amplitude ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perton, M; Blouin, A; Monchalin, J-P

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of composites laminates is highly efficient but is not used for joining primary aircraft structures, since there is presently no nondestructive inspection technique to ensure the quality of the bond. We are developing a technique based on the propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves to evaluate the adhesive bond strength. Large amplitude compression waves are generated by a short pulse powerful laser under water confinement and are converted after reflection by the assembly back surface into tensile waves. The resulting tensile stresses can cause a delamination inside the laminates or at the bond interfaces. The adhesion strength is evaluated by increasing the laser pulse energy until disbond. A good bond is unaffected by a certain level of stress whereas a weaker one is damaged. The method is shown completely non invasive throughout the whole composite assembly. The sample back surface velocity is measured by an optical interferometer and used to estimate stress history inside the sample. The depth and size of the disbonds are revealed by a post-test inspection by the well established laser-ultrasonic technique. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to differentiate weak bond from strong bonds and to estimate quantitatively their bond strength.

  12. The Dynamics of Very High Alfvén Mach Number Shocks in Space Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Torbjörn; Burgess, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Scholer, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Masters, Adam [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, Ali H., E-mail: torbjorn.sundberg@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Astrophysical shocks, such as planetary bow shocks or supernova remnant shocks, are often in the high or very-high Mach number regime, and the structure of such shocks is crucial for understanding particle acceleration and plasma heating, as well inherently interesting. Recent magnetic field observations at Saturn’s bow shock, for Alfvén Mach numbers greater than about 25, have provided evidence for periodic non-stationarity, although the details of the ion- and electron-scale processes remain unclear due to limited plasma data. High-resolution, multi-spacecraft data are available for the terrestrial bow shock, but here the very high Mach number regime is only attained on extremely rare occasions. Here we present magnetic field and particle data from three such quasi-perpendicular shock crossings observed by the four-spacecraft Cluster mission. Although both ion reflection and the shock profile are modulated at the upstream ion gyroperiod timescale, the dominant wave growth in the foot takes place at sub-proton length scales and is consistent with being driven by the ion Weibel instability. The observed large-scale behavior depends strongly on cross-scale coupling between ion and electron processes, with ion reflection never fully suppressed, and this suggests a model of the shock dynamics that is in conflict with previous models of non-stationarity. Thus, the observations offer insight into the conditions prevalent in many inaccessible astrophysical environments, and provide important constraints for acceleration processes at such shocks.

  13. Nature of dislocation hysteresis losses and nonlinear effect in lead at high vibration amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomakin, V.V.; Pal-Val, L.N.; Platkov, V.Y.; Roshchupkin, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of the dislocation hysteresis was established and changes in this hysteresis were determined by investigating the dependence of the dislocation-induced absorption of ultrasound (coefficient α) on the amplitude of ultrasound epsilon-c 0 in single crystals of pure lead and of lead containing Tl and Sn impurities. The investigation was carried out in a wide range of epsilon-c 0 under superconducting transition conditions. In the superconducting (s) state both pure Pb and that doped with T1 exhibited a maximum in the dependence α(epsilon-c 0 ) at high values of epsilon-c 0 ; on transition to the normal (n) state this maximum changed to a plateau. This provided a direct proof of a change in the static nature of the dislocation hysteresis to the dynamic process because of an increase in the coefficient of the electron drag of dislocations. Estimates were obtained of the range of lengths of dislocation loops: 2.4 x 10 - 4 cm - 4 cm. In the case of lead containing Sn the dynamic hysteresis occurred both in the normal and superconducting states. In the range of amplitudes above that of the maximum and at the beginning of the plateau all single crystals exhibited a rise of α on increase of epsilon-c 0 in the superconducting and normal states; this rise was due to nonlinear effects observed in the case of strong bending of L/sub N/ loops. An analysis was made of the amplitude dependence of the losses associated with this effect. The results were in good agreement with the experimental data

  14. High-order shock-fitted detonation propagation in high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romick, Christopher M.; Aslam, Tariq D.

    2017-03-01

    A highly accurate numerical shock and material interface fitting scheme composed of fifth-order spatial and third- or fifth-order temporal discretizations is applied to the two-dimensional reactive Euler equations in both slab and axisymmetric geometries. High rates of convergence are not typically possible with shock-capturing methods as the Taylor series analysis breaks down in the vicinity of discontinuities. Furthermore, for typical high explosive (HE) simulations, the effects of material interfaces at the charge boundary can also cause significant computational errors. Fitting a computational boundary to both the shock front and material interface (i.e. streamline) alleviates the computational errors associated with captured shocks and thus opens up the possibility of high rates of convergence for multi-dimensional shock and detonation flows. Several verification tests, including a Sedov blast wave, a Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Döring (ZND) detonation wave, and Taylor-Maccoll supersonic flow over a cone, are utilized to demonstrate high rates of convergence to nontrivial shock and reaction flows. Comparisons to previously published shock-capturing multi-dimensional detonations in a polytropic fluid with a constant adiabatic exponent (PF-CAE) are made, demonstrating significantly lower computational error for the present shock and material interface fitting method. For an error on the order of 10 m /s, which is similar to that observed in experiments, shock-fitting offers a computational savings on the order of 1000. In addition, the behavior of the detonation phase speed is examined for several slab widths to evaluate the detonation performance of PBX 9501 while utilizing the Wescott-Stewart-Davis (WSD) model, which is commonly used in HE modeling. It is found that the thickness effect curve resulting from this equation of state and reaction model using published values is dramatically more steep than observed in recent experiments. Utilizing the present fitting

  15. Assessment of high-resolution methods for numerical simulations of compressible turbulence with shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, Eric; Larsson, Johan; Bhagatwala, Ankit V.; Cabot, William H.; Moin, Parviz; Olson, Britton J.; Rawat, Pradeep S.; Shankar, Santhosh K.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H.C.; Zhong Xiaolin; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2010-01-01

    Flows in which shock waves and turbulence are present and interact dynamically occur in a wide range of applications, including inertial confinement fusion, supernovae explosion, and scramjet propulsion. Accurate simulations of such problems are challenging because of the contradictory requirements of numerical methods used to simulate turbulence, which must minimize any numerical dissipation that would otherwise overwhelm the small scales, and shock-capturing schemes, which introduce numerical dissipation to stabilize the solution. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of several numerical methods capable of simultaneously handling turbulence and shock waves. A comprehensive range of high-resolution methods (WENO, hybrid WENO/central difference, artificial diffusivity, adaptive characteristic-based filter, and shock fitting) and suite of test cases (Taylor-Green vortex, Shu-Osher problem, shock-vorticity/entropy wave interaction, Noh problem, compressible isotropic turbulence) relevant to problems with shocks and turbulence are considered. The results indicate that the WENO methods provide sharp shock profiles, but overwhelm the physical dissipation. The hybrid method is minimally dissipative and leads to sharp shocks and well-resolved broadband turbulence, but relies on an appropriate shock sensor. Artificial diffusivity methods in which the artificial bulk viscosity is based on the magnitude of the strain-rate tensor resolve vortical structures well but damp dilatational modes in compressible turbulence; dilatation-based artificial bulk viscosity methods significantly improve this behavior. For well-defined shocks, the shock fitting approach yields good results.

  16. Amplitude-to-code converter for photomultipliers operating at high loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangel'skij, B.V.; Evgrafov, G.N.; Pishchal'nikov, Yu.M.; Shuvalov, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    An 11-bit amplitude-to-code converter intended for the analysis of photomultiplier pulses under high loadings is described. To decrease the volume of digit electronics in the converter an analog memory on capacities is envisaged. A well-known bridge circuit with diodes on the main carriers is selected as a gating circuit. The gate control is realized by a switching circuit on fast-response transistors with boundary frequency of 1.2-1.5 GHz. The converter main characteristics are given, namely, maximum output signal amplitude equal to -1.5 V, minimum pulse selection duration of 10 ns, maximum number of counts at Usub(input)=-1.0 V and tsub(selection)=50 ns amounting to 1400, integral nonlinearity of +-0.1%, conversion temperature instability of 0.2%/deg C in the temperature range of (+10-+40) deg C, maximum time of data storage equal to 300 ms, conversion coefficient instability of 0.42 counts, number of channels in a unit CAMAC block equal to 12

  17. An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaofeng; Ye Tianchun; Mo Taishan; Ma Chengyan

    2012-01-01

    An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented. The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs. And what's more, the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to increase the step accuracy. A zero, which is composed by the source feedback resistance and the source capacity, is introduced to compensate for the pole. The AGC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The AGC shows a 62 dB gain control range by 1 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.2 dB. The AGC provides 3 dB bandwidth larger than 80 MHz and the overall power consumption is less than 1.8 mA, and the die area is 800 × 300 μm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Assessment of network perturbation amplitudes by applying high-throughput data to causal biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Florian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput measurement technologies produce data sets that have the potential to elucidate the biological impact of disease, drug treatment, and environmental agents on humans. The scientific community faces an ongoing challenge in the analysis of these rich data sources to more accurately characterize biological processes that have been perturbed at the mechanistic level. Here, a new approach is built on previous methodologies in which high-throughput data was interpreted using prior biological knowledge of cause and effect relationships. These relationships are structured into network models that describe specific biological processes, such as inflammatory signaling or cell cycle progression. This enables quantitative assessment of network perturbation in response to a given stimulus. Results Four complementary methods were devised to quantify treatment-induced activity changes in processes described by network models. In addition, companion statistics were developed to qualify significance and specificity of the results. This approach is called Network Perturbation Amplitude (NPA scoring because the amplitudes of treatment-induced perturbations are computed for biological network models. The NPA methods were tested on two transcriptomic data sets: normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells treated with the pro-inflammatory signaling mediator TNFα, and HCT116 colon cancer cells treated with the CDK cell cycle inhibitor R547. Each data set was scored against network models representing different aspects of inflammatory signaling and cell cycle progression, and these scores were compared with independent measures of pathway activity in NHBE cells to verify the approach. The NPA scoring method successfully quantified the amplitude of TNFα-induced perturbation for each network model when compared against NF-κB nuclear localization and cell number. In addition, the degree and specificity to which CDK

  19. Large-amplitude superexchange of high-spin fermions in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jürgensen, Ole; Heinze, Jannes; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2013-01-01

    We show that fermionic high-spin systems with spin-changing collisions allow one to monitor superexchange processes in optical superlattices with large amplitudes and strong spin fluctuations. By investigating the non-equilibrium dynamics, we find a superexchange dominated regime at weak interactions. The underlying mechanism is driven by an emerging tunneling-energy gap in shallow few-well potentials. As a consequence, the interaction-energy gap that is expected to occur only for strong interactions in deep lattices is re-established. By tuning the optical lattice depth, a crossover between two regimes with negligible particle number fluctuations is found: firstly, the common regime with vanishing spin-fluctuations in deep lattices and, secondly, a novel regime with strong spin fluctuations in shallow lattices. We discuss the possible experimental realization with ultracold 40 K atoms and observable quantities in double wells and two-dimensional plaquettes. (paper)

  20. High accuracy amplitude and phase measurements based on a double heterodyne architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Danyang; Wang Guangwei; Pan Weimin

    2015-01-01

    In the digital low level RF (LLRF) system of a circular (particle) accelerator, the RF field signal is usually down converted to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF). The ratio of IF and sampling frequency determines the processing required, and differs in various LLRF systems. It is generally desirable to design a universally compatible architecture for different IFs with no change to the sampling frequency and algorithm. A new RF detection method based on a double heterodyne architecture for wide IF range has been developed, which achieves the high accuracy requirement of modern LLRF. In this paper, the relation of IF and phase error is systematically analyzed for the first time and verified by experiments. The effects of temperature drift for 16 h IF detection are inhibited by the amplitude and phase calibrations. (authors)

  1. High efficiency processing for reduced amplitude zones detection in the HRECG signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarte, N.; Álvarez, A.; Balacco, J.; Mercado, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Dugarte, E.; Olivares, A.

    2016-04-01

    Summary - This article presents part of a more detailed research proposed in the medium to long term, with the intention of establishing a new philosophy of electrocardiogram surface analysis. This research aims to find indicators of cardiovascular disease in its early stage that may go unnoticed with conventional electrocardiography. This paper reports the development of a software processing which collect some existing techniques and incorporates novel methods for detection of reduced amplitude zones (RAZ) in high resolution electrocardiographic signal (HRECG).The algorithm consists of three stages, an efficient processing for QRS detection, averaging filter using correlation techniques and a step for RAZ detecting. Preliminary results show the efficiency of system and point to incorporation of techniques new using signal analysis with involving 12 leads.

  2. High-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furia, John P

    2008-03-01

    High-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy. The results of high-energy shock wave therapy for chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy have not been determined. Shock wave therapy is an effective treatment for noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Thirty-four patients with chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy were treated with a single dose of high-energy shock wave therapy (shock wave therapy group; 3000 shocks; 0.21 mJ/mm(2); total energy flux density, 604 mJ/mm(2)). Thirty-four patients with chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy were treated not with shock wave therapy but with additional forms of nonoperative therapy (control group). All shock wave therapy procedures were performed using regional anesthesia. Evaluation was by change in visual analog score and by Roles and Maudsley score. One month, 3 months, and 12 months after treatment, the mean visual analog scores for the control and shock wave therapy groups were 8.4 and 4.4 (P wave therapy and control groups were 12 and 0 (P wave therapy group than in the control group (P wave therapy is an effective treatment for chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy.

  3. Highly Resolved Measurements of a Developing Strong Collisional Plasma Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Park, H.-S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P. A.; Higginson, D. P.; Wilks, S. C.; Haberberger, D.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Keenan, B. D.; Vold, E. L.

    2018-03-01

    The structure of a strong collisional shock front forming in a plasma is directly probed for the first time in laser-driven gas-jet experiments. Thomson scattering of a 526.5 nm probe beam was used to diagnose temperature and ion velocity distribution in a strong shock (M ˜11 ) propagating through a low-density (ρ ˜0.01 mg /cc ) plasma composed of hydrogen. A forward-streaming population of ions traveling in excess of the shock velocity was observed to heat and slow down on an unmoving, unshocked population of cold protons, until ultimately the populations merge and begin to thermalize. Instabilities are observed during the merging, indicating a uniquely plasma-phase process in shock front formation.

  4. Analysis of pp and pp-bar elastic scattering amplitudes at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.; Kodama, T.; Kohara, A.K. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: A careful analysis of high energies elastic scattering data at 7 TeV for pp, 1800 - 1950 GeV for pp-bar and 540 -541 GeV for pp-bar in terms of its amplitudes has been performed as natural extension of previous analysis for lower energies. The disentanglement of the real and imaginary parts is written consistently with constraints from dispersion relations for amplitudes and for slopes, and also satisfying the universal asymptotic behavior for large |t| values due to the three gluon Exchange process. Values for the imaginary and real slopes and for the total cross section at 7 TeV, 1800-1950 GeV and 540-541 GeV are presented, and the shape of the differential cross section at 14 TeV, with a dip/bump structure more marked and at a smaller values of |t| is predicted. It is predicted that future measurements at large |t| will be connected smoothly with the perturbative tail observed in the interval 5.5 to 14.2 GeV{sup 2} at lower energies and that a marked dip would be observed in pp-bar scattering near this tail range. It is stressed for the consistent description of elastic pp and pp-bar data and pointed out the importance of the future measurements in the Coulomb interference range and in the transition range to the perturbative tail where the perturbative and non-perturbative effects appears together. (author)

  5. High-energy hadron spin-flip amplitude at small momentum transfer and new AN data from RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudell, J.-R.; Selyugin, O.V.; Predazzi, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of elastic high-energy hadron-hadron scattering, the impact of the large-distance contributions on the behaviour of the slopes of the spin-non-flip and of the spin-flip amplitudes is analysed. It is shown that the long tail of the hadronic potential in impact parameter space leads to a value of the slope of the reduced spin-flip amplitude larger than that of the spin-non-flip amplitude. This effect is taken into account in the calculation of the analysing power in proton-nucleus reactions at high energies. It is shown that the preliminary measurement of A N for p 12 C obtained by the E950 Collaboration indeed favours a spin-flip amplitude with a large slope. Predictions for A N at p L =250/ GeV/c are given. (orig.)

  6. Magnetosheath High-Speed Jets: Coupling Bow Shock Processes to the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, H.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetosheath high-speed jets (HSJs) - dynamic pressure enhancements typically of 1 Earth radius in size - are the most common dayside transient. They impact the magnetopause many times per hour, especially during intervals of low interplanetary magnetic field cone-angle. Upon impact they cause large amplitude yet localized magnetopause indentations, and can couple to global dynamics by driving magnetospheric waves that alter radiation belt electron populations, and by affecting subsolar magnetopause reconnection. Previous observational studies have provided considerable insight into properties of the HSJs. Similarly, recent hybrid simulations have demonstrated the formation of jets downstream of the quasi-parallel shock with properties resembling the observed ones. Yet these studies were based on differing definitions of transients, have used varying terminology, methodology, data sets/simulations, and yielded, not unexpectedly, differing results on origin and characteristics of jets. In this talk we will present the first results towards a more unified understanding of these jets from a dedicated International Space Science Institute (ISSI) team. In particular, we compare the three selection criteria used in the recent observational statistical studies: (i) high dynamic pressure in the Sun-Earth direction with respect to the solar wind; (ii) enhancement of the total dynamic pressure with respect to the ambient magnetosheath plasma; (iii) enhancement of density with respect to the ambient plasma. We apply these criteria to global kinetic simulations and compare what structures they pick out. Consequently, we can effectively demonstrate where the different criteria agree and where they disagree.

  7. Highly Shocked Low Density Sedimentary Rocks from the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Spray, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of a detailed investigation of the shock effects in highly shocked, low density sedimentary rocks from the Haughton impact structure. We suggest that some textural features can be explained by carbonate-silicate immiscibility. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Efficient Ultra-High Speed Communication with Simultaneous Phase and Amplitude Regenerative Sampling (SPARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowitz, Christian; Girg, Thomas; Ghaleb, Hatem; Du, Xuan-Quang

    2017-09-01

    For ultra-high speed communication systems at high center frequencies above 100 GHz, we propose a disruptive change in system architecture to address major issues regarding amplifier chains with a large number of amplifier stages. They cause a high noise figure and high power consumption when operating close to the frequency limits of the underlying semiconductor technologies. Instead of scaling a classic homodyne transceiver system, we employ repeated amplification in single-stage amplifiers through positive feedback as well as synthesizer-free self-mixing demodulation at the receiver to simplify the system architecture notably. Since the amplitude and phase information for the emerging oscillation is defined by the input signal and the oscillator is only turned on for a very short time, it can be left unstabilized and thus come without a PLL. As soon as gain is no longer the most prominent issue, relaxed requirements for all the other major components allow reconsidering their implementation concepts to achieve further improvements compared to classic systems. This paper provides the first comprehensive overview of all major design aspects that need to be addressed upon realizing a SPARS-based transceiver. At system level, we show how to achieve high data rates and a noise performance comparable to classic systems, backed by scaled demonstrator experiments. Regarding the transmitter, design considerations for efficient quadrature modulation are discussed. For the frontend components that replace PA and LNA amplifier chains, implementation techniques for regenerative sampling circuits based on super-regenerative oscillators are presented. Finally, an analog-to-digital converter with outstanding performance and complete interfaces both to the analog baseband as well as to the digital side completes the set of building blocks for efficient ultra-high speed communication.

  9. High-velocity low-amplitude manipulation (thrust and athletic performance: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Santos Cerqueira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The high demand level in sports has encouraged the search for strategies to increase the yield. In this context, manual therapy through high-velocity low-amplitude (thrust has been employed in many sports. Despite the adhesion of manual therapists in clinical practice, there were no systematic reviews on this topic. Objective: To evaluate the effects of thrust on the performance of athletes in relation to the outcomes hand-grip strength, jump height and running speed. Methods: The databases used in the search were MEDLINE / PUBMED, LILACS, CINAHL, PEDro, WEB OF SCIENCE, CENTRAL and SCOPUS, and Randomized controlled trials were included, whose participants were professionals or recreational athletes and had thrust as intervention. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the PEDro scale of 10 points. Intervention effects were determined by the mean difference and confidence interval. The data analysis was done in the descriptive form due to the heterogeneity found among studies. Results: Five trials were included with a total of 95 individuals. The methodological quality of studies was low, with an average value of 5.6 on the PEDro scale. It was found two articles for each outcome, but in none of them was presented differences between the experimental and control groups considering the confidence interval. Conclusion: The current evidence is insufficient to determine the use or nonuse the MAVBA in sports in order to improve performance.

  10. The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Coronagraph (PIAAC): A High Performance Coronagraph for Exoplanet Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, O.; Pluzhnik, E.; Martinache, F.; Ridgway, S.; Galicher, R.

    2004-12-01

    Using 2 aspheric mirrors, it is possible to achromatically apodize a telescope beam without losing light (Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization, PIAA). We propose a coronagraph concept using this technique: the telescope pupil is first apodized to yield a high contrast focal plane image, on which an occulting mask is placed. The exit pupil is then de-apodized to regain a large field of view. We show that the PIAAC combines all the qualities needed for efficient exoplanet imaging: full throughput, small inner working angle (1.2 l/d), high angular resolution (l/d), low sensitivity to tip-tilt, and large field of view (more than 200 l/d in diameter). We conclude that PIAAC is well adapted for exoplanet imaging with a 4m to 6m space telescope (TPF mission). This work was carried out under JPL contract numbers 1254445 and 1257767 for Development of Technologies for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission, with the support and hospitality of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  11. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. © 2011 IEEE

  12. Analytical properties and behaviour of scattering amplitude at high energies in the localizable quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazur, V.Yu.; Khimich, I.V.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical properties of the elastic πN-scattering amplitude in in the cos THETA are proved in the Lehmann ellipse. The instrument for establishing analytical properties of the scattering amplitude in the cos THETA is the Jost-Lehmann-Dyson integral representation proved in terms of the localizable quantum field theory containing the strictly localizable theory and theory of moderate growth as particular cases. On this basis the Greenberg-Low restriction is obtained in frames of this class theories for the πN-scattering amplitude. This result gives a possibility to prove the ordinary dispersion relations with a finite number of subtraction in frames of the localizable quantum field theory

  13. High frequency, high amplitude and low energy earthquake study of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.; Lee, A.J.H.; Sobel, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are designed for a seismic input spectrum based on U.S. acceleration time histories. However, data recorded near several earthquakes, mostly in the Eastern U.S., are richer in high frequency energy. This paper focuses on the evaluation of one of these events, i.e., the 1986 Ohio earthquake approximately 10 miles from the Perry nuclear power plant. The Perry Seismic Category I structures were reanalyzed using the in-structure recorded earthquake motions. The calculated in-structure response spectra and recorded response spectra have the same general trends, which shows the buildings are capable of responding to high frequency earthquake motion. Dynamic stresses calculated using the Ohio earthquake recorded motions are substantially lower than the design stresses. The seismic qualification of a wide sample of equipment was reassessed using the Ohio earthquake recorded motions and the margins were found to be larger than one. The 1986 Ohio earthquake was also shown to possess much lower energy content and ductility demand than the design spectra. For the Perry case, the seismic design was shown to have adequate safety margins to accommodate the 1986 Ohio earthquake, even though the design spectra were exceeded at about 20 Hz. The NRC is evaluating the need to generically modify design spectra in light of the recent high frequency recordings. (orig.)

  14. Shock Ignition of Thermonuclear Fuel with High Areal Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, R.; Zhou, C. D.; Anderson, K. S.; Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Perkins, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    A novel method by C. Zhou and R. Betti [Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, 140 (2005)] to assemble and ignite thermonuclear fuel is presented. Massive cryogenic shells are first imploded by direct laser light with a low implosion velocity and on a low adiabat leading to fuel assemblies with large areal densities. The assembled fuel is ignited from a central hot spot heated by the collision of a spherically convergent ignitor shock and the return shock. The resulting fuel assembly features a hot-spot pressure greater than the surrounding dense fuel pressure. Such a nonisobaric assembly requires a lower energy threshold for ignition than the conventional isobaric one. The ignitor shock can be launched by a spike in the laser power or by particle beams. The thermonuclear gain can be significantly larger than in conventional isobaric ignition for equal driver energy

  15. Shock ignition of thermonuclear fuel with high areal density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R; Zhou, C D; Anderson, K S; Perkins, L J; Theobald, W; Solodov, A A

    2007-04-13

    A novel method by C. Zhou and R. Betti [Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, 140 (2005)] to assemble and ignite thermonuclear fuel is presented. Massive cryogenic shells are first imploded by direct laser light with a low implosion velocity and on a low adiabat leading to fuel assemblies with large areal densities. The assembled fuel is ignited from a central hot spot heated by the collision of a spherically convergent ignitor shock and the return shock. The resulting fuel assembly features a hot-spot pressure greater than the surrounding dense fuel pressure. Such a nonisobaric assembly requires a lower energy threshold for ignition than the conventional isobaric one. The ignitor shock can be launched by a spike in the laser power or by particle beams. The thermonuclear gain can be significantly larger than in conventional isobaric ignition for equal driver energy.

  16. High-energy air shock study in steel and grout pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, H.D.; Kratz, H.R.; Keough, D.D.; Duganne, D.A.; Ruffner, D.J.; Swift, R.P.; Baum, D.

    1979-01-01

    Voitenko compressors are used to generate 43 mm/μs air shocks in both a steel and a grout outlet pipe containing ambient atmospheric air. Fiber-optic ports provide diaphragm burst times, time-of-arrival (TOA) data, and velocities for the shock front along the 20-mm-ID exit pipes. Pressure profiles are obtained at higher enthalpy shock propagation than ever before and at many locations along the exit pipes. Numerous other electronic sensors and postshot observations are described, as well as experimental results. The primary objectives of the experiments are as follows: (1) provide a data base for normalization/improvement of existing finite-difference codes that describe high-energy air shocks and gas propagation; (2) obtain quantitative results on the relative attenuation effects of two very different wall materials for high-energy air shocks and gas flows. The extensive experimental results satisfy both objectives

  17. Joint Manipulation: Toward a General Theory of High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Thrust Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwich, Andrew S

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the initial stage of a generalized theory of high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust (HVLAT) techniques for joint manipulation. This study examined the movements described by authors from the fields of osteopathy, chiropractic, and physical therapy to produce joint cavitation in both the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint and the cervical spine apophysial joint. This study qualitatively compared the kinetics, the similarities, and the differences between MCP cavitation and cervical facet joint cavitation. A qualitative vector analysis of forces and movements was undertaken by constructing computer-generated, simplified graphical models of the MCP joint and a typical cervical apophysial joint and imposing the motions dictated by the clinical technique. Comparing the path to cavitation of 2 modes of HVLAT for the MCP joint, namely, distraction and hyperflexion, it was found that the hyperflexion method requires an axis of rotation, the hinge axis, which is also required for cervical HVLAT. These results show that there is an analogue of cervical HVLAT in one of the MCP joint HVLATs. The study demonstrated that in a theoretical model, the path to joint cavitation is the same for asymmetric separation of the joint surfaces in the cervical spine and the MCP joints.

  18. Low- and high-frequency subcortical SEP amplitude reduction during pure passive movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insola, Angelo; Padua, Luca; Mazzone, Paolo; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of pure passive movement on both cortical and subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Median nerve SEPs were recorded in 8 patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) and two patients with essential tremor. PD patients underwent electrode implantation in the subthalamic (STN) nucleus (3 patients) and pedunculopontine (PPTg) nucleus (5 patients), while 2 patients with essential tremor were implanted in the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus. In anesthetized patients, SEPs were recorded at rest and during a passive movement of the thumb of the stimulated wrist from the intracranial electrode contacts and from the scalp. Also the high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) were analyzed. Amplitudes of both deep and scalp components were decreased during passive movement, but the reduction was higher at cortical than subcortical level. Also the HFOs were reduced by movement. The different amount of the movement-related decrease suggests that the cortical SEP gating is not only the result of a subcortical somatosensory volley attenuation, but a further mechanism acting at cortical level should be considered. Our results are important for understanding the physiological mechanism of the sensory-motor interaction during passive movement. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High amplitude phase resetting in rev-erbalpha/per1 double mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Jud

    Full Text Available Over time, organisms developed various strategies to adapt to their environment. Circadian clocks are thought to have evolved to adjust to the predictable rhythms of the light-dark cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth around its own axis. The rhythms these clocks generate persist even in the absence of environmental cues with a period of about 24 hours. To tick in time, they continuously synchronize themselves to the prevailing photoperiod by appropriate phase shifts. In this study, we disrupted two molecular components of the mammalian circadian oscillator, Rev-Erbalpha and Period1 (Per1. We found that mice lacking these genes displayed robust circadian rhythms with significantly shorter periods under constant darkness conditions. Strikingly, they showed high amplitude resetting in response to a brief light pulse at the end of their subjective night phase, which is rare in mammals. Surprisingly, Cry1, a clock component not inducible by light in mammals, became slightly inducible in these mice. Taken together, Rev-Erbalpha and Per1 may be part of a mechanism preventing drastic phase shifts in mammals.

  20. Pulsations of the High-Amplitude δ Scuti star YZ Bootis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao-Zhi; Esamdin, Ali; Fu, Jian-Ning; Niu, Hu-Biao; Feng, Guo-Jie; Song, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Zhong; Ma, Lu

    2018-01-01

    We present a study on pulsations of the high-amplitude δ Scuti star YZ Boo based on photometric observations in Johnson V and R bands with both the Nanshan 1-m telescope of Xinjiang AstronomicalObservatory (XAO) and the Xinglong 85-cmtelescope of NationalAstronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC). Fourier analysis of the light curves reveals the fundamental radial mode and its five harmonics, with the fourth and fifth being newly detected. Thirty-nine new times of maximum light are determined from the light curves, and combined with those in the literature, we construct the O ‑ C diagram, derive a new ephemeris and determine a new value for the updated period of 0.104091579(2). In addition, the O ‑ C diagram reveals an increasing rate of period change for YZ Boo. Theoretical models are calculated and constrained with the observationally determined parameters of YZ Boo. The mass and age of YZ Boo are hence derived as M = 1.61±0.05 M ⊙ and age = (1.44±0.14)×109 yr, respectively.With both the frequency of the fundamental radial mode and the rate of period change, YZ Boo is located at the post main sequence stage.

  1. Digital pulse processing techniques for high resolution amplitude measurement of radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhai, P.; Roy, A.; Dhara, P.; Chatterjee, S.

    2012-01-01

    The digital pulse processing techniques for high resolution amplitude measurement of radiation detector pulse is an effective replacement of expensive and bulky analog processing as the digital domain offers higher channel density and at the same time it is cheaper. We have demonstrated a prototype digital setup with highspeed sampling ADC with sampling frequency of 80-125 MHz followed by series of IIR filters for pulse shaping in a trigger-less acquisition mode. The IIR filters, peak detection algorithm and the data write-out logic was written on VHDL and implemented on FPGA. We used CAMAC as the read out platform. In conjunction with the full hardware implementation we also used a mixed platform with VME digitizer card with raw-sample read out using C code. The rationale behind this mixed platform is to test out various filter algorithms quickly on C and also to benchmark the performance of the chip level ADCs against the standard commercial digitizer in terms of noise or resolution. The paper describes implementation of both the methods with performance obtained in both the methods. (author)

  2. Pseudo-shock waves and their interactions in high-speed intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnani, F.; Zare-Behtash, H.; Kontis, K.

    2016-04-01

    In an air-breathing engine the flow deceleration from supersonic to subsonic conditions takes places inside the isolator through a gradual compression consisting of a series of shock waves. The wave system, referred to as a pseudo-shock wave or shock train, establishes the combustion chamber entrance conditions, and therefore influences the performance of the entire propulsion system. The characteristics of the pseudo-shock depend on a number of variables which make this flow phenomenon particularly challenging to be analysed. Difficulties in experimentally obtaining accurate flow quantities at high speeds and discrepancies of numerical approaches with measured data have been readily reported. Understanding the flow physics in the presence of the interaction of numerous shock waves with the boundary layer in internal flows is essential to developing methods and control strategies. To counteract the negative effects of shock wave/boundary layer interactions, which are responsible for the engine unstart process, multiple flow control methodologies have been proposed. Improved analytical models, advanced experimental methodologies and numerical simulations have allowed a more in-depth analysis of the flow physics. The present paper aims to bring together the main results, on the shock train structure and its associated phenomena inside isolators, studied using the aforementioned tools. Several promising flow control techniques that have more recently been applied to manipulate the shock wave/boundary layer interaction are also examined in this review.

  3. High-Amplitude, Rapid Photometric Variation of the New Polar Master OT J132104.0+560957.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-05

    HIGH-AMPLITUDE, RAPID PHOTOMETRIC VARIATION OF THE NEW POLAR MASTER OT J132104.04+560957.8 LITTLEFIELD, COLIN;1,2 GARNAVICH, PETER;1 MAGNO, KATRINA;1...18.5 during each photometric cycle, becoming so faint that we could no longer detect it. The data showed a period of roughly 91 minutes with each...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High-Amplitude, Rapid Photometric Variation Of The New Polar Master OT

  4. Cool C-shocks and high-velocity flows in molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.D.; Brand, P.W.J.L.

    1990-01-01

    C-shocks can be driven through dense clouds when the neutrals and magnetic field interact weakly due to a paucity of ions. We develop a method for calculating C-shock properties with the aim of interpreting the observed high-velocity molecular hydrogen. A high Mach number approximation, corresponding to low temperatures, is employed. Under strong cooling conditions the flow is continuous even though a subsonic region may be present downstream. Analytic expressions for the maximum temperature, dissociation fraction, self-ionization level and J-shock transition are derived. (author)

  5. Analytic properties of high energy production amplitudes in N=4 SUSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, L.N.; Hamburg Univ.

    2010-08-01

    We investigate analytic properties of the six point planar amplitude in N=4 SUSY at the multi-Regge kinematics for final state particles. For inelastic processes the Steinmann relations play an important role because they give a possibility to fix the phase structure of the Regge pole and Mandelstam cut contributions. The analyticity and factorization constraints allow us to reproduce the two-loop correction to the 6- point BDS amplitude in N=4 SUSY obtained earlier in the leading logarithmic approximation with the use of the s-channel unitarity. The cut contribution has the Moebius invariant form in the transverse momentum subspace. The exponentiation hypothesis for the amplitude in the multi-Regge kinematics is also investigated in LLA. (orig.)

  6. Analytic properties of high energy production amplitudes in N=4 SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, L.N. [St. Petersburg Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-08-15

    We investigate analytic properties of the six point planar amplitude in N=4 SUSY at the multi-Regge kinematics for final state particles. For inelastic processes the Steinmann relations play an important role because they give a possibility to fix the phase structure of the Regge pole and Mandelstam cut contributions. The analyticity and factorization constraints allow us to reproduce the two-loop correction to the 6- point BDS amplitude in N=4 SUSY obtained earlier in the leading logarithmic approximation with the use of the s-channel unitarity. The cut contribution has the Moebius invariant form in the transverse momentum subspace. The exponentiation hypothesis for the amplitude in the multi-Regge kinematics is also investigated in LLA. (orig.)

  7. Remarks on the high-energy behavior of string scattering amplitudes in warped spacetimes. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    We study the Regge limit of string amplitudes within the model of Polchinski-Strassler for string scattering in warped spacetimes. We also present some numerical estimations of the Regge slopes and intercepts. It is quite remarkable that the real values of those are inside a range of ours

  8. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalographic activity is suppressed in preterm infants with high scores on illness severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; van Eykern, Leo A.; Bos, Arend F.

    Background: The neonatal acute physiology score. SNAP-II, reflects the severity of illness in newborns. In term newborns, amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG), is depressed following asphyxia. In preterm infants aEEG is discontinuous, and therefore more difficult to assess compared to term infants. Aims:

  9. A novel smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber for high temperatures and variable amplitude vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yanhong; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Dayi; Hong, Jie; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Liu, Baolong

    2014-01-01

    The work describes the design, manufacturing and testing of a smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber (SMA-MR) elements, able to provide variable stiffness and damping characteristics with temperature, motion amplitude and excitation frequency. Differences in damping behavior and nonlinear stiffness between SMA-MR and more traditional metal rubber supports are discussed. The mechanical performance shown by the prototype demonstrates the feasibility of using the SMA-MR concept for active vibration control in rotordynamics, in particular at high temperatures and large amplitude vibrations. (paper)

  10. A single high dose of escitalopram increases mismatch negativity without affecting processing negativity or P300 amplitude in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienberg, M; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jensen, K S

    2009-01-01

    processing. The present study was designed to replicate and further extent the results of our initial study on the effects of a low dose of escitalopram (10 mg) on MMN, PN and P300 amplitude. In a randomised, double-blind, cross-over experiment, 20 healthy male volunteers received either a single, orally...... administered dose of 15 mg escitalopram (a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) or placebo, after which their PN, MMN and P300 amplitude were assessed. Similar to our initial study with 10 mg escitalopram, 15 mg escitalopram significantly increased MMN, while it did not affect P300 amplitude....... In contrast to our initial study, however, the currently higher dose of escitalopram did not increase PN. Results support the view that a broad range of increased serotonergic activity enhances MMN, while the relationship between serotonin and PN seems more complex. The current study does not support...

  11. The influence of peak shock stress on the high pressure phase transformation in Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerreta, E K; Addessio, F L; Bronkhorst, C A; Brown, D W; Escobedo, J P; Fensin, S J; Gray, G T III; Lookman, T; Rigg, P A; Trujillo, C P

    2014-01-01

    At high pressures zirconium is known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP) alpha phase to the simple hexagonal omega phase. Under conditions of shock loading, a significant volume fraction of high-pressure omega phase is retained upon release. However, the hysteresis in this transformation is not well represented by equilibrium phase diagrams and the multi-phase plasticity under shock conditions is not well understood. For these reasons, the influence of peak shock stress and temperature on the retention of omega phase in Zr has been explored. VISAR and PDV measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to quantify the volume fraction of retained omega phase and qualitatively understand the kinetics of this transformation. In turn, soft recovered specimens with varying volume fractions of retained omega phase have been utilized to understand the contribution of omega and alpha phases to strength in shock loaded Zr.

  12. Collisionless Weibel shocks: Full formation mechanism and timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Stockem, A. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Narayan, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Silva, L. O. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    Collisionless shocks in plasmas play an important role in space physics (Earth's bow shock) and astrophysics (supernova remnants, relativistic jets, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays). While the formation of a fluid shock through the steepening of a large amplitude sound wave has been understood for long, there is currently no detailed picture of the mechanism responsible for the formation of a collisionless shock. We unravel the physical mechanism at work and show that an electromagnetic Weibel shock always forms when two relativistic collisionless, initially unmagnetized, plasma shells encounter. The predicted shock formation time is in good agreement with 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of counterstreaming pair plasmas. By predicting the shock formation time, experimental setups aiming at producing such shocks can be optimised to favourable conditions.

  13. Methodology for the investigation of ignition near hot surfaces in a high-pressure shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niegemann, P.; Fikri, M.; Wlokas, I.; Röder, M.; Schulz, C.

    2018-05-01

    Autoignition of fuel/air mixtures is a determining process in internal combustion engines. Ignition can start either homogeneously in the gas phase after compression or in the vicinity of hot surfaces. While ignition properties of commercial fuels are conventionally described by a single quantity (octane number), it is known that some fuels have a varying propensity to the two processes. We present a new experimental concept that generates well-controlled temperature inhomogeneities in the shock-heated gases of a high-pressure shock tube. A shock-heated reactive mixture is brought into contact with a heated silicon nitride ceramic glow plug. The glow-plug temperature can be set up to 1200 K, higher than the post-reflected-shock gas temperatures (650-1050 K). High-repetition-rate chemiluminescence imaging is used to localize the onset of ignition in the vicinity of the hot surface. In experiments with ethanol, the results show that in most cases under shock-heated conditions, the ignition begins inhomogeneously in the vicinity of the glow plug and is favored because of the high wall temperature. Additionally, the interaction of geometry, external heating, and gas-dynamic effects was investigated by numerical simulations of the shock wave in a non-reactive flow.

  14. Cosmic ray nucleonic intensity in low-amplitude days during the passage of high-speed solar wind streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.; Mishra, R.K.; Tiwari, S.; or rm_jbp@yahoo.co.in

    2008-01-01

    One of the most striking features of solar wind is its organization into high- and low- speed streams. It is now well established that the passage over the Earth of high-speed solar wind streams leads to geomagnetic disturbances. The high-speed plasma streams are thus a key element in the complex chain of events that link geomagnetic activity to the solar activity and are therefore of great interest to the solar terrestrial physics. Two types of high-speed solar wind streams - coronal-hole-associated (or corotating) and flare-generated - were studied based on magnetic field and solar wind plasma parameters. In the work, the dependence was obtained for cosmic ray (CR) depressions due to high-speed solar wind streams during low-amplitude days. The CR nucleonic intensity data were subjected to the superposed epoch analysis with respect to the start time of high-speed solar wind streams. It was found that streams of both types produce significant deviations in the CR intensity during low-amplitude anisotropic wave train events. At the onset of such streams the CR intensity reaches its minimum during low-amplitude events and then increases statistically. (Authors)

  15. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and high-speed photography of a shocked triaminotrinitrobenzene based explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Amans, C.; Hébert, P., E-mail: philippe.hebert@cea.fr; Doucet, M. [CEA, DAM, Le RIPAULT, F-37620 Monts (France); Resseguier, T. de [Institut P' , UPR CNRS 3346, ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, F-86961 Futuroscope, Chasseneuil (France)

    2015-01-14

    We have developed a single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiment to study at the molecular level the initiation mechanisms that can lead to sustained detonation of a triaminotrinitrobenzene-based explosive. Shocks up to 30 GPa were generated using a two-stage laser-driven flyer plate generator. The samples were confined by an optical window and shock pressure was maintained for at least 30 ns. Photon Doppler Velocimetry measurements were performed at the explosive/window interface to determine the shock pressure profile. Raman spectra were recorded as a function of shock pressure and the shifts of the principal modes were compared to static high-pressure measurements performed in a diamond anvil cell. Our shock data indicate the role of temperature effects. Our Raman spectra also show a progressive extinction of the signal which disappears around 9 GPa. High-speed photography images reveal a simultaneous progressive darkening of the sample surface up to total opacity at 9 GPa. Reflectivity measurements under shock compression show that this opacity is due to a broadening of the absorption spectrum over the entire visible region.

  16. SHOCK BREAKOUT IN TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE: PROSPECTS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, N.; Morokuma, T.; Blinnikov, S. I.; Nomoto, K.; Baklanov, P.; Sorokina, E. I.

    2011-01-01

    Shock breakout is the brightest radiative phenomenon in a supernova (SN) but is difficult to be observed owing to the short duration and X-ray/ultraviolet (UV)-peaked spectra. After the first observation from the rising phase reported in 2008, its observability at high redshift is attracting enormous attention. We perform multigroup radiation hydrodynamics calculations of explosions for evolutionary presupernova models with various main-sequence masses M MS , metallicities Z, and explosion energies E. We present multicolor light curves of shock breakouts in Type II plateau SNe, being the most frequent core-collapse SNe, and predict apparent multicolor light curves of shock breakout at various redshifts z. We derive the observable SN rate and reachable redshift as functions of filter x and limiting magnitude m x,lim by taking into account an initial mass function, cosmic star formation history, intergalactic absorption, and host galaxy extinction. We propose a realistic survey strategy optimized for shock breakout. For example, the g'-band observable SN rate for m g',lim = 27.5 mag is 3.3 SNe deg -2 day -1 and half of them are located at z ≥ 1.2. It is clear that the shock breakout is a beneficial clue for probing high-z core-collapse SNe. We also establish ways to identify shock breakout and constrain SN properties from the observations of shock breakout, brightness, timescale, and color. We emphasize that the multicolor observations in blue optical bands with ∼hour intervals, preferably over ≥2 continuous nights, are essential to efficiently detect, identify, and interpret shock breakout.

  17. Diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the leading order diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes by calculating the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. As in the case of the anomalous photon structure functions, the γγ generalized distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic lnQ 2 behavior and obey inhomogeneous QCD evolution equations.

  18. Theoretical treatment of high-frequency, large-amplitude ac voltammetry applied to ideal surface-confined redox systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Christopher G.; Anastassiou, Costas A.; O’Hare, Danny; Parker, Kim H.; Siggers, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Theory of ac voltammetry on ideal surface-confined redox systems. ► Analytical description of the harmonics and transient of the current response. ► Solution valid for high frequency, large-amplitude sinusoidal input voltage. ► Protocol for determining system parameters from experimental current responses. - Abstract: Large-amplitude ac voltammetry, where the applied voltage is a large-amplitude sinusoidal waveform superimposed onto a dc ramp, is a powerful method for investigating the reaction kinetics of surface-confined redox species. Here we consider the large-amplitude ac voltammetric current response of a quasi-reversible, ideal, surface-confined redox system, for which the redox reaction is described by Butler–Volmer theory. We derive an approximate analytical solution, which is valid whenever the angular frequency of the sine-wave is much larger than the rate of the dc ramp and the standard kinetic rate constant of the redox reaction. We demonstrate how the third harmonic and the initial transient of the current response can be used to estimate parameters of the electrochemical system, namely the kinetic rate constant, the electron transfer coefficient, the adsorption formal potential, the initial proportion of oxidised molecules and the linear double-layer capacitance.

  19. Thermally induced high frequency random amplitude fatigue damage at sharp notches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been performed using the SUPERSOMITE facility to investigate the initiation and growth of fatigue cracks at the tips of sharp surface notches subjected to random thermally-induced stress. The experimental situation is complex involving plasticity, random amplitude loading and heat transfer medium/surface coupling. Crack initiation and growth prediction have been considered using the Creager and Neuber methods to compute the strain ranges in the vicinity of the notch root. Good agreement has been obtained between the experimental results and theoretical predictions. The paper reports the results of the analysis of the notch behavior

  20. High-speed imaging of inhomogeneous ignition in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulgestke, A. M.; Johnson, S. E.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    Homogeneous and inhomogeneous ignition of real and surrogate fuels were imaged in two Stanford shock tubes, revealing the influence of small particle fragmentation. n-Heptane, iso-octane, and Jet A were studied, each mixed in an oxidizer containing 21% oxygen and ignited at low temperatures (900-1000 K), low pressures (1-2 atm), with an equivalence ratio of 0.5. Visible images (350-1050 nm) were captured through the shock tube endwall using a high-speed camera. Particles were found to arrive near the endwalls of the shock tubes approximately 5 ms after reflection of the incident shock wave. Reflected shock wave experiments using diaphragm materials of Lexan and steel were investigated. Particles collected from the shock tubes after each experiment were found to match the material of the diaphragm burst during the experiment. Following each experiment, the shock tubes were cleaned by scrubbing with cotton cloths soaked with acetone. Particles were observed to fragment after arrival near the endwall, often leading to inhomogeneous ignition of the fuel. Distinctly more particles were observed during experiments using steel diaphragms. In experiments exhibiting inhomogeneous ignition, flames were observed to grow radially until all the fuel within the cross section of the shock tube had been consumed. The influence of diluent gas (argon or helium) was also investigated. The use of He diluent gas was found to suppress the number of particles capable of causing inhomogeneous flames. The use of He thus allowed time history studies of ignition to extend past the test times that would have been limited by inhomogeneous ignition.

  1. Design and Implementation of a Dual-Mass MEMS Gyroscope with High Shock Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Huang, Libin; Ding, Xukai; Li, Hongsheng

    2018-03-30

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a dual-mass MEMS gyroscope with high shock resistance by improving the in-phase frequency of the gyroscope and by using a two-stage elastic stopper mechanism and proposes a Simulink shock model of the gyroscope equipped with the two-stage stopper mechanism, which is a very efficient method to evaluate the shock resistance of the gyroscope. The structural design takes into account both the mechanical sensitivity and the shock resistance. The design of the primary structure and the analysis of the stopper mechanism are first introduced. Based on the expression of the restoring force of the stopper beam, the analytical shock response model of the gyroscope is obtained. By this model, the shock response of the gyroscope is theoretically analyzed, and the appropriate structural parameters are obtained. Then, the correctness of the model is verified by finite element (FE) analysis, where the contact collision analysis is introduced in detail. The simulation results show that the application of the two-stage elastic stopper mechanism can effectively improve the shock resistance by more than 1900 g and 1500 g in the x - and y -directions, respectively. Finally, experimental verifications are carried out by using a machete hammer on the micro-gyroscope prototype fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) technology. The results show that the shock resistance of the prototype along the x -, y - and z -axes all exceed 10,000 g. Moreover, the output of the gyroscope can return to normal in about 2 s.

  2. A high-resolution two-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectrum using a spectral amplitude modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chenhui; Zhang, Shian; Wu, Meizhen; Jia, Tianqing; Sun, Zhenrong; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectra suffer from low spectral resolution because of the broadband laser spectrum. In this paper, we propose a feasible scheme to achieve a high-resolution two-pulse CARS spectrum by shaping both the pump and probe pulses using rectangular amplitude modulation. We show that a narrowband hole in the CARS spectrum can be created by the amplitude-shaped laser pulse, the position of which is correlated with the Raman resonant frequency of the molecule. Thus, by observing holes in the CARS spectrum, we are able to obtain a high-resolution CARS spectrum and the energy-level diagram of the molecule. (paper)

  3. Understanding the shock and detonation response of high explosives at the continuum and meso scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, C. A.; Lambourn, B. D.; Whitworth, N. J.; James, H. R.; Belfield, W. J.

    2018-03-01

    The shock and detonation response of high explosives has been an active research topic for more than a century. In recent years, high quality data from experiments using embedded gauges and other diagnostic techniques have inspired the development of a range of new high-fidelity computer models for explosives. The experiments and models have led to new insights, both at the continuum scale applicable to most shock and detonation experiments, and at the mesoscale relevant to hotspots and burning within explosive microstructures. This article reviews the continuum and mesoscale models, and their application to explosive phenomena, gaining insights to aid future model development and improved understanding of the physics of shock initiation and detonation propagation. In particular, it is argued that "desensitization" and the effect of porosity on high explosives can both be explained by the combined effect of thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, rather than the traditional hotspot-based explanations linked to pressure-dependent reaction rates.

  4. An induction heating device using planar coil with high amplitude alternating magnetic fields for magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuhe; Zhuo, Zihang; Cai, Dongyang; Wu, Jian'an; Wang, Jie; Tang, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    Induction heating devices using the induction coil and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are the way that the magnetic hyperthermia is heading. To facilitate the induction heating of in vivo magnetic nanoparticles in hyperthermia experiments on large animals. An induction heating device using a planar coil was designed with a magnetic field frequency of 328 kHz. The coil's magnetic field distribution and the device's induction heating performance on different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were measured. The alternating magnetic field produced in the axis position 165 mm away from the coil center is 40 Gs in amplitude; magnetic nanoparticles with a concentration higher than 80 mg. mL-1 can be heated up rapidly. Our results demonstrate that the device can be applied not only to in vitro and in small animal experiments of magnetic hyperthermia using MNPs, but also in large animal experiments.

  5. High-energy synchrotron X-ray radiography of shock-compressed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This presentation will discuss the development and application of a high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray imaging method to study shock-compressed, high-Z samples at Beamline I12 at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, UK). Shock waves are driven into materials using a portable, single-stage gas gun designed by the Institute of Shock Physics. Following plate impact, material deformation is probed in-situ by white-beam X-ray radiography and complimentary velocimetry diagnostics. The high energies, large beam size (13 x 13 mm), and appreciable sample volumes (~ 1 cm3) viable for study at Beamline I12 compliment existing in-house pulsed X-ray capabilities and studies at the Dynamic Compression Sector. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  6. Shock-induced decomposition of a high density glass (ZF6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianming; Liu, Xun; Li, Jiabo; Li, Jun; Cao, Xiuxia

    2011-07-01

    The dynamic high-pressure behavior of a high density glass (ZF6) was investigated in this study. The Hugoniot data, shock temperature (TH) and release sound velocity (C) of ZF6 were measured by a time-resolved multi-channel pyrometer in the shock pressure (PH) range of 50-170 GPa. The Hugoniot data is in accord with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) shock Hugoniot data and shows a good linearity over 21 GPa. Polymorphic phase transitions were identified by the kinks in the measured TH-PH and C-PH relationships. The onset pressures of the transformations are ˜75 and ˜128 GPa, respectively. A thermodynamic calculation suggests that the phase transition at 75 GPa is its disproportionation to massicot (high pressure phase of PbO) and melted silica while the transition at 128 GPa is from the melting of massicot.

  7. Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations

  8. Alfven shock trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, M.A.; Kennel, C.F.; Wu, C.C.; Pellat, R.; Shapiro, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Cohen--Kulsrud--Burgers equation (CKB) is used to consider the nonlinear evolution of resistive, quasiparallel Alfven waves subject to a long-wavelength, plane-polarized, monochromatic instability. The instability saturates by nonlinear steepening, which proceeds until the periodic waveform develops an interior scale length comparable to the dissipation length; a fast or an intermediate shock then forms. The result is a periodic train of Alfven shocks of one or the other type. For propagation strictly parallel to the magnetic field, there will be two shocks per instability wavelength. Numerical integration of the time-dependent CKB equation shows that an initial, small-amplitude growing wave asymptotes to a stable, periodic stationary wave whose analytic solution specifies how the type of shock embedded in the shock train, and the amplitude and speed of the shock train, depend on the strength and phase of the instability. Waveforms observed upstream of the Earth's bowshock and cometary shocks resemble those calculated here

  9. The MACHO Project Sample of Galactic Bulge High-Amplitude Scuti Stars: Pulsation Behavior and Stellar Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.P.; Cook, K.H.; Freeman, K.C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M.J.; Marshall, S.L.; McNamara, B.J.; Minniti, D.; Nelson, C.; Peterson, B.A.; Popowski, P.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Rodgers, A.W.; Sutherland, W.; Templeton, M.R.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We have detected 90 objects with periods and lightcurve structure similar to those of field(delta) Scuti stars, using the Massive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Project database of Galactic bulge photometry. If we assume similar extinction values for all candidates and absolute magnitudes similar to those of other field high-amplitude(delta) Scuti stars (HADS), the majority of these objects lie in or near the Galactic bulge. At least two of these objects are likely foreground(delta) Scuti stars, one of which may be an evolved nonradial pulsator, similar to other evolved, disk-population(delta) Scuti stars. We have analyzed the light curves of these objects and find that they are similar to the light curves of field(delta) Scuti stars and the(delta) Scuti stars found by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE). However, the amplitude distribution of these sources lies between those of low- and high-amplitude(delta) Scuti stars, which suggests that they may be an intermediate population. We have found nine double-mode HADS with frequency ratios ranging from 0.75 to 0.79, four probable double- and multiple-mode objects, and another four objects with marginal detections of secondary modes. The low frequencies (5-14 cycles d(sup -1)) and the observed period ratios of(approx)0.77 suggest that the majority of these objects are evolved stars pulsating in fundamental or first overtone radial modes

  10. The MACHO Project Sample of Galactic Bulge High-Amplitude {delta} Scuti Stars: Pulsation Behavior and Stellar Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Freeman, K. C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K. (and others)

    2000-06-20

    We have detected 90 objects with periods and light-curve structures similar to those of field {delta} Scuti stars using the Massive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Project database of Galactic bulge photometry. If we assume similar extinction values for all candidates and absolute magnitudes similar to those of other field high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars (HADS), the majority of these objects lie in or near the Galactic bulge. At least two of these objects are likely foreground {delta} Scuti stars, one of which may be an evolved nonradial pulsator, similar to other evolved, disk-population {delta} Scuti stars. We have analyzed the light curves of these objects and find that they are similar to the light curves of field {delta} Scuti stars and the {delta} Scuti stars found by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE). However, the amplitude distribution of these sources lies between those of low- and high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars, which suggests that they may be an intermediate population. We have found nine double-mode HADS with frequency ratios ranging from 0.75 to 0.79, four probable double- and multiple-mode objects, and another four objects with marginal detections of secondary modes. The low frequencies (5-14 cycles day-1) and the observed period ratios of {approx}0.77 suggest that the majority of these objects are evolved stars pulsating in fundamental or first overtone radial modes. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  11. Measuring the shock impedance mismatch between high-density carbon and deuterium at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, M.; Celliers, P. M.; Sterne, P. A.; Benedict, L. X.; Correa, A. A.; Hamel, S.; Ali, S. J.; Baker, K. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Biener, J.; Collins, G. W.; Coppari, F.; Divol, L.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Haan, S. W.; Le Pape, S.; Meezan, N. B.; Moore, A. S.; Moody, J. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Ross, J. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Thomas, C.; Turnbull, D. P.; Wild, C.; Eggert, J. H.

    2018-04-01

    Fine-grained diamond, or high-density carbon (HDC), is being used as an ablator for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate equation of state (EOS) knowledge over a wide range of phase space is critical in the design and analysis of integrated ICF experiments. Here, we report shock and release measurements of the shock impedance mismatch between HDC and liquid deuterium conducted during shock-timing experiments having a first shock in the ablator ranging between 8 and 14 Mbar. Using ultrafast Doppler imaging velocimetry to track the leading shock front, we characterize the shock velocity discontinuity upon the arrival of the shock at the HDC/liquid deuterium interface. Comparing the experimental data with tabular EOS models used to simulate integrated ICF experiments indicates the need for an improved multiphase EOS model for HDC in order to achieve a significant increase in neutron yield in indirect-driven ICF implosions with HDC ablators.

  12. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Gerard; Roudot, Marie; Genetier, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Composite HMX and NTO based high explosives (HE) are widely used in ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside HE. Comparing to a pressed HE, a composite HE is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain - binder interface leading to a different behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. An investigation of how shock-to-detonation transition occurs inside composite HE containing RDX and NTO is proposed in this lecture. Two composite HE have been studied. The first one is HMX - HTPB 82:18. The second one is HMX - NTO - HTPB 12:72:16. These HE have been submitted to plane sustained shock waves at different pressure levels using a laboratory powder gun. Pressure signals are measured using manganin gauges inserted at several distances inside HE. The corresponding run-distances to detonation are determined using wedge test experiments where the plate impact is performed using a powder gun. Both HE exhibit a single detonation buildup curve in the distance - time diagram of shock-to-detonation transition. This feature seems a common shock-to-detonation behavior for composite HE without porosity. This behavior is also confirmed for a RDX - HTPB 85:15 based composite HE. Such a behavior is exploited to determine the heterogeneous reaction rate versus the shock pressure using a method based on the Cauchy-Riemann problem inversion. The reaction rate laws obtained allow to compute both run-distance to detonation and pressure signals.

  13. Study of Bubble Size, Void Fraction, and Mass Transport in a Bubble Column under High Amplitude Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrouz Mohagheghian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical vibration is known to cause bubble breakup, clustering and retardation in gas-liquid systems. In a bubble column, vibration increases the mass transfer ratio by increasing the residence time and phase interfacial area through introducing kinetic buoyancy force (Bjerknes effect and bubble breakup. Previous studies have explored the effect of vibration frequency (f, but minimal effort has focused on the effect of amplitude (A on mass transfer intensification. Thus, the current work experimentally examines bubble size, void fraction, and mass transfer in a bubble column under relatively high amplitude vibration (1.5 mm < A <9.5 mm over a frequency range of 7.5–22.5 Hz. Results of the present work were compared with past studies. The maximum stable bubble size under vibration was scaled using Hinze theory for breakage. Results of this work indicate that vibration frequency exhibits local maxima in both mass transfer and void fraction. Moreover, an optimum amplitude that is independent of vibration frequency was found for mass transfer enhancements. Finally, this work suggests physics-based models to predict void fraction and mass transfer in a vibrating bubble column.

  14. The development of shock wave overpressure driven by channel expansion of high current impulse discharge arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jia-ming; Li, Lee; Dai, Hong-yu; Wu, Hai-bo; Peng, Ming-yang; Lin, Fu-chang

    2018-03-01

    During the formation of a high current impulse discharge arc, objects near the discharge arc will be strongly impacted. In this paper, a high power, high current gas switch is used as the site of the impulse discharge arc. The explosion wave theory and the arc channel energy balance equation are introduced to analyze the development of the shock wave overpressure driven by the high current impulse discharge arc, and the demarcation point of the arc channel is given, from which the energy of the arc channel is no longer converted into shock waves. Through the analysis and calculation, it is found that the magnitude of the shock wave overpressure caused by impulse discharge arc expansion is closely related to the arc current rising rate. The arc shock wave overpressure will undergo a slow decay process and then decay rapidly. The study of this paper will perform the function of deepening the understanding of the physical nature of the impulse arc discharge, which can be used to explain the damage effect of the high current impulse discharge arc.

  15. High-energy effective action from scattering of QCD shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Balitsky

    2005-07-01

    At high energies, the relevant degrees of freedom are Wilson lines - infinite gauge links ordered along straight lines collinear to the velocities of colliding particles. The effective action for these Wilson lines is determined by the scattering of QCD shock waves. I develop the symmetric expansion of the effective action in powers of strength of one of the shock waves and calculate the leading term of the series. The corresponding first-order effective action, symmetric with respect to projectile and target, includes both up and down fan diagrams and pomeron loops.

  16. Bandwidth Limitations in Characterization of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Fields in the Presence of Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, V. A.; Bessonova, O. V.; Soneson, J. E.; Canney, M. S.; Bailey, M. R.; Crum, L. A.

    2010-03-01

    Nonlinear propagation effects result in the formation of weak shocks in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields. When shocks are present, the wave spectrum consists of hundreds of harmonics. In practice, shock waves are modeled using a finite number of harmonics and measured with hydrophones that have limited bandwidths. The goal of this work was to determine how many harmonics are necessary to model or measure peak pressures, intensity, and heat deposition rates of the HIFU fields. Numerical solutions of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetzov-type (KZK) nonlinear parabolic equation were obtained using two independent algorithms, compared, and analyzed for nonlinear propagation in water, in gel phantom, and in tissue. Measurements were performed in the focus of the HIFU field in the same media using fiber optic probe hydrophones of various bandwidths. Experimental data were compared to the simulation results.

  17. High-speed photography of a 'switch-on' collisionless shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khalafawy, T.A.; El-Nicklawy, M.M.; Bashara, A.B.; El-Masry, M.A.; Rudnev, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigation of a 'switch-on' shock profile and the measurement of the wave velocity in the collisionless regime employing high-speed photography. Data for the electron temperature (Tsub(e)) ahead of and behind the wave front are presented here, and a Table with estimated and measured characteristic physical quantities. (author)

  18. Design of a high-pressure single pulse shock tube for chemical kinetic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, R. S.; Brezinsky, K.; Fulle, D.

    2001-01-01

    A single pulse shock tube has been designed and constructed in order to achieve extremely high pressures and temperatures to facilitate gas-phase chemical kinetic experiments. Postshock pressures of greater than 1000 atmospheres have been obtained. Temperatures greater than 1400 K have been achieved and, in principle, temperatures greater than 2000 K are easily attainable. These high temperatures and pressures permit the investigation of hydrocarbon species pyrolysis and oxidation reactions. Since these reactions occur on the time scale of 0.5--2 ms the shock tube has been constructed with an adjustable length driven section that permits variation of reaction viewing times. For any given reaction viewing time, samples can be withdrawn through a specially constructed automated sampling apparatus for subsequent species analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The details of the design and construction that have permitted the successful generation of very high-pressure shocks in this unique apparatus are described. Additional information is provided concerning the diaphragms used in the high-pressure shock tube

  19. Nanotwin Formation in High-Manganese Austenitic Steels Under Explosive Shock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadinc, D.; Uzer, B.; Elmadagli, M.; Guner, F.

    2018-04-01

    The micro-deformation mechanisms active in a high-manganese austenitic steel were investigated upon explosive shock loading. Single system of nanotwins forming within primary twins were shown to govern the deformation despite the elevated temperatures attained during testing. The benefits of nanotwin formation for potential armor materials were demonstrated.

  20. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)

  1. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An

  2. A high-speed, eight-wavelength visible light-infrared pyrometer for shock physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongbo; Li, Shengfu; Zhou, Weijun; Luo, Zhen-Xiong; Meng, Jianhua; Tian, Jianhua; He, Lihua; Cheng, Xianchao

    2017-09-01

    An eight-channel, high speed pyrometer for precise temperature measurement is designed and realized in this work. The addition of longer-wavelength channels sensitive at lower temperatures highly expands the measured temperature range, which covers the temperature of interest in shock physics from 1500K-10000K. The working wavelength range is 400-1700nm from visible light to near-infrared (NIR). Semiconductor detectors of Si and InGaAs are used as photoelectric devices, whose bandwidths are 50MHz and 150MHz respectively. Benefitting from the high responsivity and high speed of detectors, the time resolution of the pyrometer can be smaller than 10ns. By combining the high-transmittance beam-splitters and narrow-bandwidth filters, the peak spectrum transmissivity of each channel can be higher than 60%. The gray-body temperatures of NaI crystal under shock-loading are successfully measured by this pyrometer.

  3. Interpreting Changes in Surface EMG Amplitude During High-Level Fatiguing Contractions of the Brachioradialis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lowery, M

    2001-01-01

    .... It is proposed that using these relationships, under conditions where motor unit recruitment and synchronization can be assumed to be negligible, such as at high force levels or in smaller muscles...

  4. High amplitude ultrasound pulse generation using time-reversal through a multiple scattering medium

    OpenAIRE

    ARNAL , Bastien; Pernot , Mathieu; Fink , Mathias; Tanter , Mickaël

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In histotripsy, soft tissues can be fragmented using very high pressure ultrasound pulses. Using time-reversal cavity is a way to generate high pressure pulses with a limited number of acoustic sources. The principle was already demonstrated by Montaldo et al. using a solid metal cavity, but low transmission coefficient was obtained due to the strong impedance mismatch at the metal/water interface. We propose here to use a waveguide filled with water containing a 2D mu...

  5. A High-Purity Alumina for Use in Studies of Shock Loaded Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, David; Neel, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    We report the results of plate impact experiments on a potential new ``standard'' material, Coorstek Plasmapure-UC (99.9% purity) polycrystalline alumina, for use in non-conduction, impact environment, shock loading studies. This work was motivated by a desire to find a 99.9% purity alumina to replace the now unavailable Coors Vistal (99.9%) alumina, as it was hoped the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of the new standard would match the 9-11 GPa value of Vistal. Shock response data, including the HEL, Hugoniot particle velocities, Hugoniot shock velocities, stress vs volume, and release wave speeds, was obtained up to 14 GPa. This data will be compared with Hugoniot curve data for other high purity alumina to contrast differences in the shock response, and is intended to be useful in impedance matching calculations. We will show that the HEL of Plasmapure-UC alumina is 5.5 GPa and speculate on causes for this lower than expected value. We will also explore why the elastic-plastic response for Plasmapure-UC alumina differs from what has been observed from other high purity alumina. The final result of this work is to recommend a well-characterized, lower purity alumina (Coorstek AD-995) as a potential new ``standard'' material.

  6. Free radical production by high energy shock waves--comparison with ionizing irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T R; Laudone, V P; Heston, W D; Zeitz, L; Fair, W R

    1988-01-01

    Fricke chemical dosimetry is used as an indirect measure of the free radical production of ionizing irradiation. We adapted the Fricke ferrous sulfate radiation dosimeter to examine the chemical effects of high energy shock waves. Significant free radical production was documented. The reaction was dose dependent, predictably increased by acoustic impedance, but curvilinear. A thousand shocks at 18 kilovolts induced the same free radical oxidation as 1100 rad cobalt-60 gamma ionizing irradiation, increasing to 2900 rad in the presence of an air-fluid zone of acoustic impedance. The biological effect of these free radicals was compared to that of cobalt-60 ionizing irradiation by measuring the affect on Chinese hamster cells by clonogenic assay. While cobalt-60 irradiation produced a marked decrease in clonogenic survivors, little effect was noted with high energy shock waves. This suggested that the chemical effects produced by shock waves were either absent or attenuated in the cells, or were inherently less toxic than those of ionizing irradiation.

  7. Shock tube/time-of-flight mass spectrometer for high temperature kinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, Robert S.; Giri, Binod R.; Kiefer, John H.

    2007-01-01

    A shock tube (ST) with online, time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) detection has been constructed for the study of elementary reactions at high temperature. The ST and TOF-MS are coupled by a differentially pumped molecular beam sampling interface, which ensures that the samples entering the TOF-MS are not contaminated by gases drawn from the cold end wall thermal boundary layer in the ST. Additionally, the interface allows a large range of postshock pressures to be used in the shock tube while maintaining high vacuum in the TOF-MS. The apparatus and the details of the sampling system are described along with an analysis in which cooling of the sampled gases and minimization of thermal boundary layer effects are discussed. The accuracy of kinetic measurements made with the apparatus has been tested by investigating the thermal unimolecular dissociation of cyclohexene to ethylene and 1,3-butadiene, a well characterized reaction for which considerable literature data that are in good agreement exist. The experiments were performed at nominal reflected shock wave pressures of 600 and 1300 Torr, and temperatures ranging from 1260 to 1430 K. The rate coefficients obtained are compared with the earlier shock tube studies and are found to be in very good agreement. As expected no significant difference is observed in the rate constant between pressures of 600 and 1300 Torr

  8. Fundamental structure of steady plastic shock waves in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, A.; Ravichandran, G.

    2004-01-01

    The propagation of steady plane shock waves in metallic materials is considered. Following the constitutive framework adopted by R. J. Clifton [Shock Waves and the Mechanical Properties of Solids, edited by J. J. Burke and V. Weiss (Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N.Y., 1971), p. 73] for analyzing elastic-plastic transient waves, an analytical solution of the steady state propagation of plastic shocks is proposed. The problem is formulated in a Lagrangian setting appropriate for large deformations. The material response is characterized by a quasistatic tensile (compression) test (providing the isothermal strain hardening law). In addition the elastic response is determined up to second order elastic constants by ultrasonic measurements. Based on this simple information, it is shown that the shock kinetics can be quite well described for moderate shocks in aluminum with stress amplitude up to 10 GPa. Under the later assumption, the elastic response is assumed to be isentropic, and thermomechanical coupling is neglected. The model material considered here is aluminum, but the analysis is general and can be applied to any viscoplastic material subjected to moderate amplitude shocks. Comparisons with experimental data are made for the shock velocity, the particle velocity and the shock structure. The shock structure is obtained by quadrature of a first order differential equation, which provides analytical results under certain simplifying assumptions. The effects of material parameters and loading conditions on the shock kinetics and shock structure are discussed. The shock width is characterized by assuming an overstress formulation for the viscoplastic response. The effects on the shock structure of strain rate sensitivity are analyzed and the rationale for the J. W. Swegle and D. E. Grady [J. Appl. Phys. 58, 692 (1985)] universal scaling law for homogeneous materials is explored. Finally, the ability to deduce information on the viscoplastic response of

  9. Fundamental structure of steady plastic shock waves in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, A.; Ravichandran, G.

    2004-02-01

    The propagation of steady plane shock waves in metallic materials is considered. Following the constitutive framework adopted by R. J. Clifton [Shock Waves and the Mechanical Properties of Solids, edited by J. J. Burke and V. Weiss (Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N.Y., 1971), p. 73] for analyzing elastic-plastic transient waves, an analytical solution of the steady state propagation of plastic shocks is proposed. The problem is formulated in a Lagrangian setting appropriate for large deformations. The material response is characterized by a quasistatic tensile (compression) test (providing the isothermal strain hardening law). In addition the elastic response is determined up to second order elastic constants by ultrasonic measurements. Based on this simple information, it is shown that the shock kinetics can be quite well described for moderate shocks in aluminum with stress amplitude up to 10 GPa. Under the later assumption, the elastic response is assumed to be isentropic, and thermomechanical coupling is neglected. The model material considered here is aluminum, but the analysis is general and can be applied to any viscoplastic material subjected to moderate amplitude shocks. Comparisons with experimental data are made for the shock velocity, the particle velocity and the shock structure. The shock structure is obtained by quadrature of a first order differential equation, which provides analytical results under certain simplifying assumptions. The effects of material parameters and loading conditions on the shock kinetics and shock structure are discussed. The shock width is characterized by assuming an overstress formulation for the viscoplastic response. The effects on the shock structure of strain rate sensitivity are analyzed and the rationale for the J. W. Swegle and D. E. Grady [J. Appl. Phys. 58, 692 (1985)] universal scaling law for homogeneous materials is explored. Finally, the ability to deduce information on the viscoplastic response of

  10. Purinergic signaling triggers endfoot high-amplitude Ca2+ signals and causes inversion of neurovascular coupling after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Anthony C; Koide, Masayo; Wellman, George C

    2016-11-01

    Neurovascular coupling supports brain metabolism by matching focal increases in neuronal activity with local arteriolar dilation. Previously, we demonstrated that an emergence of spontaneous endfoot high-amplitude Ca 2+ signals (eHACSs) caused a pathologic shift in neurovascular coupling from vasodilation to vasoconstriction in brain slices obtained from subarachnoid hemorrhage model animals. Extracellular purine nucleotides (e.g., ATP) can trigger astrocyte Ca 2+ oscillations and may be elevated following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Here, the role of purinergic signaling in subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced eHACSs and inversion of neurovascular coupling was examined by imaging parenchymal arteriolar diameter and astrocyte Ca 2+ signals in rat brain slices using two-photon fluorescent and infrared-differential interference contrast microscopy. We report that broad-spectrum inhibition of purinergic (P2) receptors using suramin blocked eHACSs and restored vasodilatory neurovascular coupling after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Importantly, eHACSs were also abolished using a cocktail of inhibitors targeting G q -coupled P2Y receptors. Further, activation of P2Y receptors in brain slices from un-operated animals triggered high-amplitude Ca 2+ events resembling eHACSs and disrupted neurovascular coupling. Neither tetrodotoxin nor bafilomycin A1 affected eHACSs suggesting that purine nucleotides are not released by ongoing neurotransmission and/or vesicular release after subarachnoid hemorrhage. These results indicate that purinergic signaling via P2Y receptors contributes to subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced eHACSs and inversion of neurovascular coupling. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. FLARE VERSUS SHOCK ACCELERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that events omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 10 5 ) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ∼2 × 10 3 , similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20–W90) SEP events.

  12. The influence of temperature dynamics and dynamic finite ion Larmor radius effects on seeded high amplitude plasma blobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, Magnus; Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Thermal effects on the perpendicular convection of seeded pressure blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetised fusion plasmas are investigated. Our numerical study is based on a four field full-F gyrofluid model, which entails the consistent description of high fluctuation amplitudes and dynamic...... finite Larmor radius effects. We find that the maximal radial blob velocity increases with the square root of the initial pressure perturbation and that a finite Larmor radius contributes to highly compact blob structures that propagate in the poloidal direction. An extensive parameter study reveals...... that a smooth transition to this compact blob regime occurs when the finite Larmor radius effect strength, defined by the ratio of the magnetic field aligned component of the ion diamagnetic to the E × B vorticity, exceeds unity. The maximal radial blob velocities agree excellently with the inertial velocity...

  13. Amplitude-phase characteristics of regulators of high -speed automobile diesels

    OpenAIRE

    Тырловой, С. И.

    2009-01-01

    The regulator frequency response has been analyzed to work out a strategy for repairing and renewal of fuel equipment used by foreign high-speed automobile diesels. For taking into consideration the heavy gradients of kinetic energy of the regulator elements the Lagrange equation of the second kind that includes the partial derivative of kinetic energy along the axis of motion of a gauge clutch was used.  Such a record, which was not kept for the known models, allowed for considerable clarifi...

  14. Condensation shocks in high momentum two-phase flows in condensing injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, G.; Christensen, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study presents a phenomenological and mathematical model of condensation shocks in high momentum two-phase flows in condensing injectors. The characteristics of the shock were related to the mode of vapor bubble collapse. Using cavitation terminology, the bubble collapse can be classified as inertially controlled or thermally controlled. Inertial bubble collapse occurs rapidly whereas, a thermally controlled collapse results in a significantly longer collapse time. The interdependence between the bubble collapse mode and the momentum and pressure of the flow, was analyzed in this study. For low-temperature-high-velocity flows a steep pressure rise with complete condensation was obtained. For a high-temperature-low velocity flow with noncondensables, low pressure recovery with incomplete condensation was observed. These trends are in agreement with previous experimental observations

  15. Oscillations in the hadron scattering amplitude at high energy and small momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolescu, B. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France). Div. de Physique Theorique

    1997-12-31

    It is shown that the high precision dN/dt UA4/2 data at {radical}s = 541 GeV are compatible with the presence of Auberson - Kinoshita - Martin (AKM) type of oscillations at very small momentum transfers. These oscillations seem to be periodic in {radical}|t|, the corresponding period being {approx_equal} 2 x 10{sup -2} GeV. The existence of such visible oscillations suggests a general mechanism of saturation of axiomatic bounds. As an illustration the consequences for extracting the parameter {rho} = ReF/ImF from dN/dt data are also discussed. The necessity of specific future experiments in the crucially interesting TeV region of energy - at Tevatron, RHIC and LHC - is underlined. (author) 8 refs.

  16. High temperature mechanical properties and surface fatigue behavior improving of steel alloy via laser shock peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, N.F.; Yang, H.M.; Yuan, S.Q.; Wang, Y.; Tang, S.X.; Zheng, L.M.; Ren, X.D.; Dai, F.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The properties of 00C r 12 were improved by laser shock processing. • A deep layer of residual compressive stresses was introduced. • Fatigue life was enhanced about 58% at elevated temperature up to 600 °C. • The pinning effect is the reason of prolonging fatigue life at high temperature. - Abstract: Laser shock peening was carried out to reveal the effects on ASTM: 410L 00C r 12 microstructures and fatigue resistance in the temperature range 25–600 °C. The new conception of pinning effect was proposed to explain the improvements at the high temperature. Residual stress was measured by X-ray diffraction with sin 2 ψ method, a high temperature extensometer was utilized to measure the strain and control the strain signal. The grain and precipitated phase evolutionary process were observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results show that a deep layer of compressive residual stress is developed by laser shock peening, and ultimately the isothermal stress-controlled fatigue behavior is enhanced significantly. The formation of high density dislocation structure and the pinning effect at the high temperature, which induces a stronger surface, lower residual stress relaxation and more stable dislocation arrangement. The results have profound guiding significance for fatigue strengthening mechanism of components at the elevated temperature

  17. Effects of high shock pressures and pore morphology on hot spot mechanisms in HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, H. K.; Tarver, C. M.; Bastea, S.

    2017-01-01

    The shock initiation and detonation behavior of heterogeneous solid explosives is governed by its microstructure and reactive properties. New additive manufacturing techniques offer unprecedented control of explosive microstructures previously impossible, enabling us to develop novel explosives with tailored shock sensitivity and detonation properties. Since microstructure-performance relationships are not well established for explosives, there is little material design guidance for these manufacturing techniques. In this study, we explore the effects of high shock pressures (15-38 GPa) with long shock durations and different pore morphologies on hot spot mechanisms in HMX. HMX is chosen as the model material because we have experimental data on many of the chemical-thermal-mechanical properties required for pore collapse simulations. Our simulations are performed using the multi-physics arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian finite element hydrocode, ALE3D, with Cheetah-based models for the unreacted and the product equation-of-states. We use a temperature-dependent specific heat with the unreacted equation-of-state and a temperature-dependent viscosity model to ensure accurate shock temperatures for subsequent chemistry. The Lindemann Law model is used for shock melting in HMX. In contrast to previous pore collapse studies at lower shock pressures (≤10 GPa) in HMX and shorter post-collapse burning times, our calculations show that shock melting occurs above 15 GPa due to higher bulk heating and a prominent elongated ("jet-like") hot spot region forms at later times. The combination of the elongated, post-collapse hot spot region and the higher bulk heating with increasing pressure dramatically increases the growth rate of reaction. Our calculations show that the reaction rate, dF/dt, increases with increasing shock pressure. We decompose the reaction rate into ignition ((dF/dt)ig) and growth ((dF/dt)gr) phases to better analyze our results. We define the ignition phase

  18. HIGHLY EXCITED H2 IN HERBIG–HARO 7: FORMATION PUMPING IN SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, R. E.; Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.; Chrysostomou, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained K -band spectra at R ∼ 5000 and an angular resolution of 0.″3 of a section of the Herbig–Haro 7 (HH7) bow shock, using the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph at Gemini North. Present in the portion of the data cube corresponding to the brightest part of the bow shock are emission lines of H 2 with upper state energies ranging from ∼6000 K to the dissociation energy of H 2 , ∼50,000 K. Because of low signal-to-noise ratios, the highest excitation lines cannot be easily seen elsewhere in the observed region. However, excitation temperatures, measured throughout much of the observed region using lines from levels as high as 25,000 K, are a strong function of upper level energy, indicating that the very highest levels are populated throughout. The level populations in the brightest region are well fit by a two-temperature model, with 98.5% of the emitting gas at T = 1800 K and 1.5% at T = 5200 K. The bulk of the H 2 line emission in HH7, from the 1800 K gas, has previously been well-modeled by a continuous shock, but the 5200 K cozmponent is inconsistent with standalone standard continuous shock models. We discuss various possible origins for the hot component and suggest that this component is H 2 newly reformed on dust grains and then ejected from them, presumably following dissociation of some of the H 2 by the shock.

  19. Use of Z pinch radiation sources for high pressure shock wave studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.R.; Konrad, C.H.; Hall, C.A.; Trott, W.M.; Chandler, G.A.; Holland, K.G.; Fleming, K.J.; Trucano, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in pulsed power technology demonstrate use of intense radiation sources (Z pinches) for driving planar shock waves in samples with spatial dimensions larger than possible with other radiation sources. Initial indications are that the use of Z pinch sources can be used to produce planar shock waves in samples with diameters of a few millimeters and thicknesses approaching one half millimeter. These dimensions allow increased accuracy of both shock velocity and particle velocity measurements. The Z pinch radiation source uses imploding metal plasma induced by self-magnetic fields applied to wire arrays to produce high temperature x-ray environments in vacuum hohlraum enclosures. Previous experiments have demonstrated that planar shock waves can be produced with this approach. A photograph of a wire array located inside the vacuum hohlraum is shown here. Typically, a few hundred individual wires are used to produce the Z pinch source. For the shock wave experiments being designed, arrays of 120 to 240 tungsten wires with a diameter of 40 mm and with individual diameters of about 10 microm are used. Preliminary experiments have been performed on the Z pulsed radiation source to demonstrate the ability to obtain VISAR measurements in the Z accelerator environment. Analysis of these results indicate that another effect, not initially anticipated, is an apparent change in refractive index that occurs in the various optical components used in the system. This effect results in an apparent shift in the frequency of reflected laser light, and causes an error in the measured particle velocity. Experiments are in progress to understand and minimize this effect

  20. High-amplitude THz and GHz strain waves, generated by ultrafast screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; van Capel, P.J.S.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    Screening of large built-in piezoelectric fields in InGaN/GaN quantum wells leads to high-amplitude acoustic emission. We will compare acoustic emission by quantum wells with different thicknesses with photoluminescence; indicating screening.......Screening of large built-in piezoelectric fields in InGaN/GaN quantum wells leads to high-amplitude acoustic emission. We will compare acoustic emission by quantum wells with different thicknesses with photoluminescence; indicating screening....

  1. Liquid metal targets for high-power applications : pulsed heating and shock hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    2000-01-01

    Significant interest has recently focused on the use of liquid-metal targets flowing with high velocities for various high-power nuclear and high-energy physics applications such as fusion reactor first-walls, the Spallation Neutron Source, Isotope Separation On Line, and Muon Collider projects. This is because the heat generated in solid targets due to beam or plasma bombardment cannot be removed easily and the resulting thermal shock damage could be a serious lifetime problem for long-term operation. More recently, the use of free or open flying-liquid jets has been proposed for higher-power-density applications. The behavior of a free-moving liquid mercury or gallium jet subjected to proton beam deposition in a strong magnetic field has been modeled and analyzed for the Muon Collider project. Free-liquid-metal jets can offer significant advantages over conventional solid targets, particularly for the more demanding and challenging high-power applications. However, the use of free-moving liquid-metal targets raises a number of new and challenging problems such as instabilities of the jet in a strong magnetic field, induced eddy-current effects on jet shape, thermal-shock formation, and possible jet fragmentation. Problems associated with shock heating of liquid jets in a strong magnetic field are analyzed in this study

  2. High Strain Rate Response of 7055 Aluminum Alloy Subject to Square-spot Laser Shock Peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Zhu, Ying; Li, Liuhe; Guo, Wei; Peng, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The influences of laser pulse energy and impact time on high strain rate response of 7055 aluminum alloy subject to square-spot laser shock peening (SLSP) were investigate. Microstructural evolution was characterized by OM, SEM and TEM. Microhardness distribution and in-depth residual stress in 15 J with one and two impacts and 25 J with one and two impacts were analyzed. Results show that the original rolling structures were significantly refined due to laser shock induced recrystallization. High density of microdefects was generated, such as dislocation tangles, dislocation wall and stacking faults. Subgrains and nanograins were induced in the surface layer, resulting in grain refinement in the near surface layer after SLSP. Compressive residual stresses with maximum value of more than -200 MPa and affected depths of more than 1 mm can be generated after SLSP. Impact time has more effectiveness than laser pulse energy in increasing the magnitude of residual stress and achieving thicker hardening layer.

  3. High-fidelity phase and amplitude control of phase-only computer generated holograms using conjugate gradient minimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, D; Harte, T L; Chardonnet, V; De Groot, C; Denny, S J; Le Goc, G; Anderson, M; Ireland, P; Cassettari, D; Bruce, G D

    2017-05-15

    We demonstrate simultaneous control of both the phase and amplitude of light using a conjugate gradient minimisation-based hologram calculation technique and a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). A cost function, which incorporates the inner product of the light field with a chosen target field within a defined measure region, is efficiently minimised to create high fidelity patterns in the Fourier plane of the SLM. A fidelity of F = 0.999997 is achieved for a pattern resembling an LG10 mode with a calculated light-usage efficiency of 41.5%. Possible applications of our method in optical trapping and ultracold atoms are presented and we show uncorrected experimental realisation of our patterns with F = 0.97 and 7.8% light efficiency.

  4. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  5. Elastic moduli, damping and modulus of rupture changes in a high alumina refractory castable due to different types of thermal shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, A. H. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The work herein verifies the changes of the elastic moduli, damping and modulus of rupture (MOR of a high alumina refractory castable due to heating, cooling and heating-cooling thermal shock damage. Twelve prismatic specimens were prepared for the tests and divided into four groups. The thermal shocks were performed on three groups, each containing three specimens having abrupt temperature changes of 1100°C during heating in the first group, during cooling in the second and during heating followed by cooling in the third group. The fourth group, which was taken as a reference did not receive any thermal shock. The elastic moduli were measured after each thermal shock cycle. After 10 cycles, the MOR, the damping and the damping dependence on excitation amplitude were measured at room temperature for all specimens. The elastic moduli showed a similar decrease and the damping a similar increase due to the cooling and heating-cooling thermal shocks. The heating thermal shocks caused no significant changes on the elastic moduli and damping. However, the MOR appeared to be sensitive to the heating thermal shock. This work also shows that the damping for the studied refractory castable is non-linear (i.e., amplitude of excitation sensitive and that this non-linearity increases when the damage level rises.

    En este trabajo se investigaron las alteraciones de los módulos elásticos dinámicos, del amortiguamiento y del módulo de rotura (MOR de un material refractario moldeable de alta alúmina después de recibir choques térmicos de calentamiento, enfriamiento y calentamiento seguido de enfriamiento (calentamiento-enfriamiento. Para ello se prepararon doce cuerpos prismáticos dividiéndolos en cuatro grupos. Los choques térmicos se le aplicaron a sólo tres grupos, cada uno con tres muestras. Al primer grupo se le aplicó un cambio brusco de temperatura de 1100 °C en calentamiento, en enfriamiento al segundo grupo y calentamiento seguido

  6. Multi-channel logical circuit module used for high-speed, low amplitude signals processing and QDC gate signals generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Hong; Li Xiaogang; Zhu Haidong; Ma Xiaoli; Yin Weiwei; Li Zhuyu; Jin Genming; Wu Heyu

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of logical circuit will be introduced in brief. There are 16 independent channels in the module. The module receives low amplitude signals(≥40 mV), and processes them to amplify, shape, delay, sum and etc. After the processing each channel produces 2 pairs of ECL logical signal to feed the gate of QDC as the gate signal of QDC. The module consists of high-speed preamplifier unit, high-speed discriminate unit, delaying and shaping unit, summing unit and trigger display unit. The module is developed for 64 CH. 12 BIT Multi-event QDC. The impedance of QDC is 110 Ω. Each gate signal of QDC requires a pair of differential ECL level, Min. Gate width 30 ns and Max. Gate width 1 μs. It has showed that the outputs of logical circuit module satisfy the QDC requirements in experiment. The module can be used on data acquisition system to acquire thousands of data at high-speed ,high-density and multi-parameter, in heavy particle nuclear physics experiment. It also can be used to discriminate multi-coincidence events

  7. MULTI-FLUID APPROACH TO HIGH-FREQUENCY WAVES IN PLASMAS. I. SMALL-AMPLITUDE REGIME IN FULLY IONIZED MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Gómez, David; Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: david.martinez@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides an accurate description of low-frequency Alfvén waves in fully ionized plasmas. However, higher-frequency waves in many plasmas of the solar atmosphere cannot be correctly described by ideal MHD and a more accurate model is required. Here, we study the properties of small-amplitude incompressible perturbations in both the low- and the high-frequency ranges in plasmas composed of several ionized species. We use a multi-fluid approach and take into account the effects of collisions between ions and the inclusion of Hall’s term in the induction equation. Through the analysis of the corresponding dispersion relations and numerical simulations, we check that at high frequencies ions of different species are not as strongly coupled as in the low-frequency limit. Hence, they cannot be treated as a single fluid. In addition, elastic collisions between the distinct ionized species are not negligible for high-frequency waves, since an appreciable damping is obtained. Furthermore, Coulomb collisions between ions remove the cyclotron resonances and the strict cutoff regions, which are present when collisions are not taken into account. The implications of these results for the modeling of high-frequency waves in solar plasmas are discussed.

  8. Laser shock peening of titanium 6-4 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, N.S.; Hopkins, A.; Laber, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Laser shock peening of titanium 6-4 has been shown to improve its high cycle fatigue life. Residual compressive stresses generated on the surface of titanium 6-4, as a result of laser shocking, have shown dramatic improvement in the performance of aircraft turbine blades. Laser shocking of titanium was carried out with a 20 ns pulse width, 50 joule pulsed laser, operated by LSP Technologies, Columbus, OH. Titanium disks, 20-mm in diameter, and ranging in thicknesses from zero (bare LiF) to 3-mm were subjected to laser shock to monitor amplitude and temporal stress profiles of the pulsed laser. Laser shock stress amplitudes on the back of titanium disks were monitored with VISAR using LiF as the window material. The peak shock stress produced in LiF (titanium thickness zero) was measured to be 16±1 GPa. The laser shock amplitude decays to about 2.7 GPa while propagating through 3-mm thick disk of titanium 6-4

  9. Cosmic ray acceleration by shock waves in a diffusion medium. Research of high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1982-06-01

    The problem of galactic cosmic-ray acceleration is presented with the study of a new acceleration mechanism by supernova shock waves in a diffusive medium. The question is: do supernova shocks have enough time to accelerate cosmic rays beyond 10 4 -10 5 GeV. A firm upper limit to the energy that can be acquired by particles is established and it is considered that the mean free path of the particle has its lowest possible value and the most favorable model of supernova evolution. The diffusion coefficients which are relevant for the determination of the high energy cut off are investigated. The effect of the spatial dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the rate of acceleration of particles is examined. A more realistic cut off energy is calculated. We find E max = 2 10 4 GeV [fr

  10. High energy emission of supernova sn 1987a. Cosmic rays acceleration in mixed shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehoucq, Roland

    1992-01-01

    In its first part, this research thesis reports the study of the high energy emission of the sn 1987 supernova, based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the transfer of γ photons emitted during disintegration of radioactive elements (such as "5"6Ni, "5"6Co, "5"7Co and "4"4Ti) produced during the explosion. One of the studied problems is the late evolution (beyond 1200 days) of light curvature which is very different when it is powered by the radiation of a central object or by radioactivity. The second part reports the study of acceleration of cosmic rays in two-fluid shock waves in order to understand the different asymmetries noticed in hot spots of extragalactic radio-sources. This work comprises the resolution of structure equations of a shock made of a conventional fluid and a relativistic one, in presence or absence of a magnetic field [fr

  11. High thermal shock resistance of the hot rolled and swaged bulk W–ZrC alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.M.; Liu, R.; Miao, S.; Yang, X.D. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, T., E-mail: zhangtao@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fang, Q.F.; Wang, X.P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, C.S., E-mail: csliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Lian, Y.Y. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Liu, X., E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-02-15

    The thermal shock (single shot) resistance and mechanical properties of the W–0.5wt% ZrC (WZC) alloys manufactured by ordinary sintering followed by swaging or rolling process were investigated. No cracks or surface melting were detected on the surface of the rolled WZC alloy plates after thermal shock at a power density of 0.66 GW/m{sup 2} for 5 ms, while primary intergranular cracks appear on the surface of the swaged WZC samples after thermal shock at a power density of 0.44 GW/m{sup 2} for 5 ms. Three point bending tests indicate that the rolled WZC alloy has a flexural strength of ∼2.4 GPa and a total strain of 1.8% at room temperature, which are 100% and 260% higher than those of the swaged WZC, respectively. The fracture energy density of the rolled WZC alloy is 3.23 × 10{sup 7} J/m{sup 3}, about 10 times higher than that of the swaged WZC (2.9 × 10{sup 6} J/m{sup 3}). The high thermal shock resistance of the rolled WZC alloys can be ascribed to their extraordinary ductility and plasticity. - Graphical abstract: (Left panel) surface morphology observed by optical microscope after a single pulse for 5 ms with various absorbed power densities at RT on the rolled WZC. (Right panel) curves of flexural stress versus strain at RT (a) and the calculated fracture energy (b) for the swaged WZC and rolled WZC alloys. - Highlights: • No cracks or surface melting were detected on the rolled WZC alloy samples after thermal shock at 0.66 GW/m{sup 2} for 5 ms. • Hot rolled WZC alloy plates exhibit a flexural strength of 2.4 GPa and a strain of 1.8% at RT. • The fracture energy of the rolled WZC alloy is 3.23 × 10{sup 7} J/m{sup 3} at RT, about 10 times higher than that of the swaged WZC. • A detailed analysis of the relationships between the mechanical properties and the thermal shock resistance is given.

  12. High temperature science: future needs and anticipated development in high-density shock-wave research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.; Ahrens, T.J.; Nellis, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Shock-wave experiments on condensed matter currently achieve pressures up to 5 Mbar, and temperatures over 20,000 0 K. In this report we survey a number of experimental methods that, in the next decade, may increase the conditions by an order of magnitude. These advanced experiments will allow us to investigate a new range of physics problems

  13. HSD is a better resuscitation fluid for hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ming; Hu, De-Yao; Zhou, Xue-Wu; Liu, Jiang-Cang; Li, Ping

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the fluid tolerance of hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema (HSPE) at high altitude in unacclimated rats and the beneficial effect of 7.5% hypertonic saline/6% dextran (HSD). One hundred seventy-six Sprague-Dawley rats, transported to LaSa, Tibet, 3,760 m above the sea level, were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, i.p.) within 1 week. Hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema was induced by bloodletting (50 mmHg for 1 h) plus intravenous injection of oleic acid (50 microL/kg). Seventy-seven rats were equally divided into 11 groups (n = 7/group) including sham-operated control group; hemorrhagic shock control group; HSPE control group; HSPE plus 0.5-, 1.0-, 1.5-, 2.0-, or 3.0-fold volumes of lactated Ringer's solution (LR) groups; and HSPE plus 4, 6, and 8 mL/kg of HSD groups. Hemodynamic parameters including mean arterial blood pressure, left intraventricular systolic pressure, and the maximal change rate of intraventricular pressure rise or decline (+/-dp/dtmax) were observed at baseline and at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after infusion; blood gases were measured at 30 and 120 min after infusion, and the water content of lung and brain was determined at 120 min after infusion. Additional 99 rats were used to observe the effect of these treatments on the survival time of HSPE rats; 0.5 volume of LR infusion slightly increased the mean arterial blood pressure, left intraventricular systolic pressure, and +/-dp/dtmax and prolonged the survival time of HSPE animals as compared with the HSPE group (P solution infusion, 1.5, 2, and 3 volumes, significantly deteriorated the hemodynamic parameters, increased the water content of lung, and decreased the survival time of HSPE animals. Hypertonic saline/6% dextran (4 - 8 mL/kg) significantly increased the hemodynamic parameters, improved the blood gases, decreased the water content of lung and brain, and prolonged the survival time of HSPE rats. Among the three dosages of HSD, 6 mL/kg of HSD had the

  14. Numerical simulation of nonequilibrium flow in high-enthalpy shock tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, M.; Men' shov, I.; Nakamura, Y

    2005-03-01

    The flow field of a nozzle starting process with thermal and chemical nonequilibrium has been simulated. This flow is produced in high enthalpy impulse facilities such as the free piston shock tunnel. The governing equations are the axisymmetric, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, Park's two-temperature model, where air consists of five species, is used for defining the thermodynamic properties of air as a driven gas. The numerical scheme employed here is the hybrid scheme of the explicit and implicit methods, which was developed in our laboratory, along with AUSM{sup +} to evaluate inviscid fluxes. In the present simulation, the Mach number of an incident shock wave is set at M{sub s}=10.0. It corresponds to a specific enthalpy, h{sub 0}, of 12 MJ/kg. The results clearly show the complicated thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow field around the end of the shock tube section and at the nozzle inlet during the initial stage of the nozzle starting process. They also suggest that the phenomenon of nozzle melting might be associated with a flow separation at the nozzle inlet.

  15. Numerical results from a study of LiH: the proposed standard material for the high pressure shock experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    It is proposed to send a high pressure shock wave through a layer of LiH and then into a sample of high Z-material, resulting in a reflected shock wave back into the LiH. If the Hugoniot and some reflected Hugoniots for LiH are known the EOS of the sample can be obtained from the ''impedance matching method.'' The theory and its range of validity are described

  16. A new method for the determination of the real part of the hadron elastic scattering amplitude at small angles and high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, P. [Theory Group, Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), CNRS, and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)]. E-mail: gauron@in2p3.fr; Nicolescu, B. [Theory Group, Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), CNRS, and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)]. E-mail: nicolesc@lpnhep.in2p3.fr; Selyugin, O.V. [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: selugin@thsun1.jinr.ru

    2005-11-24

    A new method for the determination of the real part of the elastic scattering amplitude is examined for high energy proton-proton at small momentum transfer. This method allows us to decrease the number of model assumptions, to obtain the real part in a narrow region of momentum transfer and to test different models. The real part is computed at a given point t{sub min} near t=0 from the known Coulomb amplitude. Hence one obtains an important constraint on the real part of the forward scattering amplitude and therefore on the {rho}-parameter (measuring the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the scattering amplitude at t=0), which can be tested at LHC.

  17. Comparison of low-energy versus high-energy biphasic defibrillation shocks following prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory P; Melnick, Sharon B; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2010-01-01

    Since the initial development of the defibrillator, there has been concern that, while delivery of a large electric shock would stop fibrillation, it would also cause damage to the heart. This concern has been raised again with the development of the biphasic defibrillator. To compare defibrillation efficacy, postshock cardiac function, and troponin I levels following 150-J and 360-J shocks. Nineteen swine were anesthetized with isoflurane and instrumented with pressure catheters in the left ventricle, aorta, and right atrium. The animals were fibrillated for 6 minutes, followed by defibrillation with either low-energy (n = 8) or high-energy (n = 11) shocks. After defibrillation, chest compressions were initiated and continued until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Epinephrine, 0.01 mg/kg every 3 minutes, was given for arterial blood pressure < 50 mmHg. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded for four hours. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed and troponin I levels were measured at baseline and four hours following ventricular fibrillation (VF). Survival rates at four hours were not different between the two groups (low-energy, 5 of 8; high-energy, 7 of 11). Results for arterial blood pressure, positive dP/dt (first derivative of pressure measured over time, a measure of left ventricular contractility), and negative dP/dt at the time of lowest arterial blood pressure (ABP) following ROSC were not different between the two groups (p = not significant [NS]), but were lower than at baseline. All hemodynamic measures returned to baseline by four hours. Ejection fractions, stroke volumes, and cardiac outputs were not different between the two groups at four hours. Troponin I levels at four hours were not different between the two groups (12 +/- 11 ng/mL versus 21 +/- 26 ng/mL, p = NS) but were higher at four hours than at baseline (19 +/- 19 ng/mL versus 0.8 +/- 0.5 ng/mL, p < 0.05, groups combined). Biphasic 360-J shocks do not cause more cardiac damage

  18. High Power Proton Beam Shocks and Magnetohydrodynamics in a Mercury Jet Target for a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Fabich, A; Fabjan, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of liquid metal jet targets for secondary particle production with high power proton beams has been studied. The main aspects of the thesis were benchmark experiments covering the behaviour of liquid targets under thermal shock waves induced by high power proton beams, and also magnetohydrodynamic effects. Severe challenges were imposed by safety issues and the restricted beam time to the tests in ISOLDE at CERN and at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Grenoble. Restricted access times in high radiation level areas were of the order of minutes and in this short time span, the complete experimental setup had to be performed and verified. The involvement of mercury as liquid target material and its activation during beam tests demanded special confinement precautions. The setup for both experiments was based on the use of a high speed camera system for observation of the mercury target. The presence of high radiation or high magnetic field required the installation of the sensitive camera sy...

  19. Teaching and Assessment of High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Techniques for the Spine in Predoctoral Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, Millicent King

    2016-09-01

    Although national didactic criteria have been set for predoctoral education and assessment in osteopathic manipulative treatment, there is no criterion standard for teaching methods and assessments of osteopathic manipulative treatment competence in colleges of osteopathic medicine. This issue is more pressing with the creation of the single graduate medical education accreditation system by the American Osteopathic Association and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, which introduced the creation of "osteopathic recognition" for residencies that want to incorporate osteopathic principles and practice into their programs. Residencies with osteopathic recognition may include both osteopathic and allopathic graduates. Increased standardization at the predoctoral level, however, is recommended as osteopathic principles and practice training applications are expanded. The objectives of this article are to review the standards for teaching osteopathic medical students high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) techniques for the spine; to review and discuss the methods used to assess medical students' proficiency in using HVLA; and to propose baseline standards for teaching and assessing HVLA techniques among medical students.

  20. ELECTRON ACCELERATIONS AT HIGH MACH NUMBER SHOCKS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATIONS IN VARIOUS PARAMETER REGIMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yosuke [Department of Physics, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro, E-mail: ymatumot@astro.s.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 1-33, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-08-20

    Electron accelerations at high Mach number collisionless shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various Alfven Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron {beta}{sub e} (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We find electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (M{sub A} {approx} 30) with a mass ratio of M/m = 100 and {beta}{sub e} = 0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with a large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low.

  1. Focusing of high power ultrasound beams and limiting values of shock wave parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonova, O. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Bailey, M. R.; Canney, M. S.; Crum, L. A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work, the influence of nonlinear and diffraction effects on amplification factors of focused ultrasound systems is investigated. The limiting values of acoustic field parameters obtained by focusing of high power ultrasound are studied. The Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation was used for the numerical modeling. Solutions for the nonlinear acoustic field were obtained at output levels corresponding to both pre- and post-shock formation conditions in the focal area of the beam in a weakly dissipative medium. Numerical solutions were compared with experimental data as well as with known analytic predictions.

  2. High temperature shock tube experiments and kinetic modeling study of diisopropyl ketone ignition and pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barari, Ghazal

    2017-03-10

    Diisopropyl ketone (DIPK) is a promising biofuel candidate, which is produced using endophytic fungal conversion. In this work, a high temperature detailed combustion kinetic model for DIPK was developed using the reaction class approach. DIPK ignition and pyrolysis experiments were performed using the UCF shock tube. The shock tube oxidation experiments were conducted between 1093K and 1630K for different reactant compositions, equivalence ratios (φ=0.5–2.0), and pressures (1–6atm). In addition, methane concentration time-histories were measured during 2% DIPK pyrolysis in argon using cw laser absorption near 3400nm at temperatures between 1300 and 1400K near 1atm. To the best of our knowledge, current ignition delay times (above 1050K) and methane time histories are the first such experiments performed in DIPK at high temperatures. Present data were used as validation targets for the new kinetic model and simulation results showed fair agreement compared to the experiments. The reaction rates corresponding to the main consumption pathways of DIPK were found to have high sensitivity in controlling the reactivity, so these were adjusted to attain better agreement between the simulation and experimental data. A correlation was developed based on the experimental data to predict the ignition delay times using the temperature, pressure, fuel concentration and oxygen concentration.

  3. High temperature shock tube experiments and kinetic modeling study of diisopropyl ketone ignition and pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barari, Ghazal; Pryor, Owen; Koroglu, Batikan; Sarathy, Mani; Masunov, Artë m E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2017-01-01

    Diisopropyl ketone (DIPK) is a promising biofuel candidate, which is produced using endophytic fungal conversion. In this work, a high temperature detailed combustion kinetic model for DIPK was developed using the reaction class approach. DIPK ignition and pyrolysis experiments were performed using the UCF shock tube. The shock tube oxidation experiments were conducted between 1093K and 1630K for different reactant compositions, equivalence ratios (φ=0.5–2.0), and pressures (1–6atm). In addition, methane concentration time-histories were measured during 2% DIPK pyrolysis in argon using cw laser absorption near 3400nm at temperatures between 1300 and 1400K near 1atm. To the best of our knowledge, current ignition delay times (above 1050K) and methane time histories are the first such experiments performed in DIPK at high temperatures. Present data were used as validation targets for the new kinetic model and simulation results showed fair agreement compared to the experiments. The reaction rates corresponding to the main consumption pathways of DIPK were found to have high sensitivity in controlling the reactivity, so these were adjusted to attain better agreement between the simulation and experimental data. A correlation was developed based on the experimental data to predict the ignition delay times using the temperature, pressure, fuel concentration and oxygen concentration.

  4. The strengthening mechanism of a nickel-based alloy after laser shock processing at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinghong; Zhou, Liucheng; He, Weifeng; He, Guangyu; Wang, Xuede; Nie, Xiangfan; Wang, Bo; Luo, Sihai; Li, Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the strengthening mechanism of laser shock processing (LSP) at high temperatures in the K417 nickel-based alloy. Using a laser-induced shock wave, residual compressive stresses and nanocrystals with a length of 30–200 nm and a thickness of 1 μm are produced on the surface of the nickel-based alloy K417. When the K417 alloy is subjected to heat treatment at 900 °C after LSP, most of the residual compressive stress relaxes while the microhardness retains good thermal stability; the nanocrystalline surface has not obviously grown after the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, which shows a comparatively good thermal stability. There are several reasons for the good thermal stability of the nanocrystalline surface, such as the low value of cold hardening of LSP, extreme high-density defects and the grain boundary pinning of an impure element. The results of the vibration fatigue experiments show that the fatigue strength of K417 alloy is enhanced and improved from 110 to 285 MPa after LSP. After the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, the fatigue strength is 225 MPa; the heat treatment has not significantly reduced the reinforcement effect. The feature of the LSP strengthening mechanism of nickel-based alloy at a high temperature is the co-working effect of the nanocrystalline surface and the residual compressive stress after thermal relaxation. (paper)

  5. A high-density ERP study reveals latency, amplitude, and topographical differences in multiple sclerosis patients versus controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelan, R

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify latency, amplitude and topographical differences in event-related potential (ERP) components between multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls and to compare ERP findings with results from the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). METHODS: Fifty-four subjects (17 relapsing remitting (RRMS) patients, 16 secondary progressive (SPMS) patients, and 21 controls) completed visual and auditory oddball tasks while data were recorded from 134 EEG channels. Latency and amplitude differences, calculated using composite mean amplitude measures, were tested using an ANOVA. Topographical differences were tested using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). RESULTS: In the visual modality, P2, P3 amplitudes and N2 latency were significantly different across groups. In the auditory modality, P2, N2, and P3 latencies and N1 amplitude were significantly different across groups. There were no significant differences between RRMS and SPMS patients on any ERP component. There were topographical differences between MS patients and controls for both early and late components for the visual modality, but only in the early components for the auditory modality. PASAT score correlated significantly with auditory P3 latency for MS patients. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant ERP differences between MS patients and controls. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicated that both early sensory and later cognitive ERP components are impaired in MS patients relative to controls.

  6. Electromagnetic Structure and Electron Acceleration in Shock–Shock Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanotani, Masaru [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Hada, Tohru [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Mazelle, Christian X., E-mail: nakanot@esst.kyushu-u.ac.jp [IRAP, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III-CNRS, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2017-09-10

    A shock–shock interaction is investigated by using a one-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulation. The simulation reproduces the collision of two symmetrical high Mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks. The basic structure of the shocks and ion dynamics is similar to that obtained by previous hybrid simulations. The new aspects obtained here are as follows. Electrons are already strongly accelerated before the two shocks collide through multiple reflection. The reflected electrons self-generate waves upstream between the two shocks before they collide. The waves far upstream are generated through the right-hand resonant instability with the anomalous Doppler effect. The waves generated near the shock are due to firehose instability and have much larger amplitudes than those due to the resonant instability. The high-energy electrons are efficiently scattered by the waves so that some of them gain large pitch angles. Those electrons can be easily reflected at the shock of the other side. The accelerated electrons form a power-law energy spectrum. Due to the accelerated electrons, the pressure of upstream electrons increases with time. This appears to cause the deceleration of the approaching shock speed. The accelerated electrons having sufficiently large Larmor radii are further accelerated through the similar mechanism working for ions when the two shocks are colliding.

  7. Systematic search for very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Coffaro, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Richter, S.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Runaway stars form bow shocks by ploughing through the interstellar medium at supersonic speeds and are promising sources of non-thermal emission of photons. One of these objects has been found to emit non-thermal radiation in the radio band. This triggered the development of theoretical models predicting non-thermal photons from radio up to very-high-energy (VHE, E ≥ 0.1 TeV) gamma rays. Subsequently, one bow shock was also detected in X-ray observations. However, the data did not allow discrimination between a hot thermal and a non-thermal origin. Further observations of different candidates at X-ray energies showed no evidence for emission at the position of the bow shocks either. A systematic search in the Fermi-LAT energy regime resulted in flux upper limits for 27 candidates listed in the E-BOSS catalogue. Aim. Here we perform the first systematic search for VHE gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars. Methods: Using all available archival H.E.S.S. data we search for very-high-energy gamma-ray emission at the positions of bow shock candidates listed in the second E-BOSS catalogue release. Out of the 73 bow shock candidates in this catalogue, 32 have been observed with H.E.S.S. Results: None of the observed 32 bow shock candidates in this population study show significant emission in the H.E.S.S. energy range. Therefore, flux upper limits are calculated in five energy bins and the fraction of the kinetic wind power that is converted into VHE gamma rays is constrained. Conclusions: Emission from stellar bow shocks is not detected in the energy range between 0.14 and 18 TeV.The resulting upper limits constrain the level of VHE gamma-ray emission from these objects down to 0.1-1% of the kinetic wind energy.

  8. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.A. III.

    1997-01-01

    A broad-based set of measurements has begun on high density turbulent plasma processes. This includes determinations of new plasma physics and the initiation of work on new diagnostics for collisional plasmas as follows: (1) A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of prompt relaminarization or of any systematic influence of end-wall material thermal conductivities on the turbulence parameters. (2) Point fluorescence emissions and averaged spectral line evolutions in turbulent plasmas produced in both the primary and the reflected shock wave flows exhibit ergodicity in the standard turbulence parameters. The data show first evidence of a reverse energy cascade in the collisional turbulent plasma. This suggests that the fully turbulent environment can be described using a stationary state formulation. In these same data, the author finds compelling evidence for a turbulent Stark effect on neutral emission lines in these data which is associated with evidence of large coherent structures and dominant modes in the Fourier analyses of the fluctuations in the optical spectra. (3) A neutral beam generator has been assembled by coupling a Colutron Ion Gun to a charge exchange chamber. Beam-target collisions where the target species is neutral and the beam is either singly charged or neutral have been performed using argon as the working gas. Spectral analysis of the emission shows specific radiative transitions characteristic of both Ar I and Ar II, indicating that some ionization of the target gas results. Gas and plasma parameters such as density, pressure, temperature and flow velocity and their fluctuations can now be followed in real time by spectroscopic analysis of carefully chosen radiative emissions

  9. Density Functional Methods for Shock Physics and High Energy Density Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjarlais, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Molecular dynamics with density functional theory has emerged over the last two decades as a powerful and accurate framework for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties with broad application to dynamic compression, high energy density science, and warm dense matter. These calculations have been extensively validated against shock and ramp wave experiments, are a principal component of high-fidelity equation of state generation, and are having wide-ranging impacts on inertial confinement fusion, planetary science, and shock physics research. In addition to thermodynamic properties, phase boundaries, and the equation of state, one also has access to electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and lower energy optical properties. Importantly, all these properties are obtained within the same theoretical framework and are manifestly consistent. In this talk I will give a brief history and overview of molecular dynamics with density functional theory and its use in calculating a wide variety of thermodynamic and transport properties for materials ranging from ambient to extreme conditions and with comparisons to experimental data. I will also discuss some of the limitations and difficulties, as well as active research areas. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Level set methods for detonation shock dynamics using high-order finite elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrev, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grogan, F. C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolev, T. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rieben, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tomov, V. Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-26

    Level set methods are a popular approach to modeling evolving interfaces. We present a level set ad- vection solver in two and three dimensions using the discontinuous Galerkin method with high-order nite elements. During evolution, the level set function is reinitialized to a signed distance function to maintain ac- curacy. Our approach leads to stable front propagation and convergence on high-order, curved, unstructured meshes. The ability of the solver to implicitly track moving fronts lends itself to a number of applications; in particular, we highlight applications to high-explosive (HE) burn and detonation shock dynamics (DSD). We provide results for two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems as well as applications to DSD.

  11. Measurements of the spin rotation parameter R in high energy elastic scattering and helicity amplitudes at Serpukhov energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrard, J.; Bruneton, C.; Bystricky, J.; Cozzika, G.; Deregel, J.; Ducros, Y.; Gaidot, A.; Khantine-Langlois, F.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de; Merlo, J.P.; Miyashita, S.; Movchet, J.; Raoul, J.C.; Van Rossum, L.; Kanavets, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    The spin rotation parameter R in pp and π + p elastic scattering at 45GeV/c has been measured at the Serpukhov accelerator, for /t/ ranging from 0.2 to 0.5(GeV/c) 2 . The results are presented, together with previous R measurements at 3.8, 6, 16 and 40GeV/c, and are compared with the predictions of Regge pole models. The equality of the values for R in proton-proton and pion-proton scattering, within the experimental errors, is a test of factorization of the residues. An s-channel helicity amplitude analysis for pion-nucleon scattering at 40GeV/c is made using all available data. Significant results are obtained for the non flip amplitude in isoscalar exchange and for flip amplitudes on both isovector and isoscalar exchanges. The helicity flip in isoscalar exchange is non negligible. The energy dependence of this amplitude, at 6, 16 and 40GeV/c, is compared with predictions of Regge pole models [fr

  12. Practical use of the amplitude and phase modulation of a high-power RF pulse via feed-forward control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Keigo; Kato, Ryukou; Irizawa, Akinori; Isoyama, Goro; Kashiwagi, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    A new feed-forward control system to precisely control the amplitude and phase of the pulsed RF power in an electron linear accelerator (linac) is developed to make the accelerating field constant. Fast variations and ripples in the amplitude and phase in the RF pulses are compensated by modulating the amplitude and phase in the low-level system with a variable attenuator and phase shifter. The system is innovated the overdrive technique, which is commonly used in analog circuits, to speed up the slow response of the phase shifter, while the control signals are digitally processed; thus, the method is a hybrid of analog and digital techniques. By using the new control system, we find that the peak-to-peak variations in the amplitude and phase are reduced from 11.6% to 0.4% and from 6.1 degrees to 0.3 degrees, respectively, in 7.6-μs-long RF pulses for the L-band electron linac at Osaka University. (author)

  13. Theoretical Research on Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Focusing on the Adjustment of Stress Reduction Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daining Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal shock resistance of ceramics depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the external constraint and thermal condition. So, in order to study the actual situation in its service process, a temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance model for ultra-high temperature ceramics considering the effects of the thermal environment and external constraint was established based on the existing theory. The present work mainly focused on the adjustment of the stress reduction factor according to different thermal shock situations. The influences of external constraint on both critical rupture temperature difference and the second thermal shock resistance parameter in either case of rapid heating or cooling conditions had been studied based on this model. The results show the necessity of adjustment of the stress reduction factor in different thermal shock situations and the limitations of the applicable range of the second thermal shock resistance parameter. Furthermore, the model was validated by the finite element method.

  14. Observation of the shock wave propagation induced by a high-power laser irradiation into an epoxy material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecault, Romain; Boustie, Michel; Touchard, Fabienne; Berthe, Laurent; Lescoute, Emilien; Sollier, Arnaud; Mercier, Patrick; Benier, Jacky

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of laser-induced shock waves in a transparent epoxy sample is investigated by optical shadowgraphy. The shock waves are generated by a focused laser (3 ns pulse duration—1.2 to 3.4 TW cm −2 ) producing pressure from 44 to 98.9 GPa. It is observed that the shock wave and the release wave created by the shock reverberation at the rear face are both followed by a dark zone in the pictures. This corresponds to the creation of a tensile zone resulting from the crossing on the loading axis of the release waves coming from the edge of the impact area (2D effects). After the laser shock experiment, the residual stresses in the targets are identified and quantified through a photoelasticimetry analysis of the recovered samples. This work results in a new set of original data which can be directly used to validate numerical models implemented to reproduce the behaviour of epoxy under extreme strain rate loading. The residual stresses observed prove that the high-pressure shocks can modify the pure epoxy properties, which could have an influence on the use made of these materials. (paper)

  15. Dislocation-drag contribution to high-rate plastic deformation in shock-loaded tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonks, D.L.; Hixson, R.S.; Johnson, J.N.; Gray, G.T. III

    1994-01-01

    Time-resolved plastic waves in plate-impact experiments give information on the relationship between applied shear stress and plastic strain rate at low plastic strain. This information is essentially different from that obtained at intermediate strain rates using Hopkins on bar techniques, because in the former case the material deformation state is driven briefly into the regime dominated by dislocation drag rather than thermal activation. Two VISAR records of the particle velocity at the tantalum/sapphire (window) interface are obtained for symmetric impact producing peak in situ longitudinal stresses of approximately 75 kbar and 111 kbar. The risetimes of the plastic waves are about 100 ns and 60 ns, respectively, with peak strain rates of about 2x10 5 /s and 1x10 6 /s, respectively, as determined by weak-shock analysis [Wallace, Phys. Rev. B 22, 1487 (1980), and Tonks, Los Alamos DataShoP Report LA-12068-MS (1991)]. These data show a much stronger dependence of plastic strain rate on applied shear stress than previously predicted by linear viscous drag models in combination with thermal activation through a large Peierls barrier. The data also show complex evolution of the mobile dislocation density during early stages of high-rate plastic flow. This measurement and analysis aid significantly in establishing the fundamental picture of dynamic deformation of BCC metals and the evolution of the internal material state at early times following shock compression. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  16. High pulse number thermal shock tests on tungsten with steady state particle background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, M.; Kreter, A.; Linke, J.; Loewenhoff, Th; Pintsuk, G.; Sergienko, G.; Steudel, I.; Unterberg, B.; Wessel, E.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal fatigue of metallic materials, which will be exposed to severe environmental conditions e.g. plasma facing materials in future fusion reactors, is an important issue in order to predict the life time of complete wall components. Therefore experiments in the linear plasma device PSI-2 were performed to investigate the synergistic effects of high pulse number thermal shock events (L = 0.38 GW m-2, Δt = 0.5 ms) and stationary D/He (6%) plasma particle background on the thermal fatigue behavior of tungsten. Similar to experiments with pure thermal loads, the induced microstructural and surface modifications such as recrystallization and roughening as well as crack formation become more pronounced with increasing number of thermal shock events. However, the amount of damage significantly increases for synergistic loads showing severe surface roughening, plastic deformation and erosion resulting from the degradation of the mechanical properties caused by bombardment and diffusion of D/He to the surface and the bulk of the material. Additionally, D/He induced blistering and bubble formation were observed for all tested samples, which could change the thermal and mechanical properties of near surface regions.

  17. Crystalline and amorphous carbon nitride films produced by high-energy shock plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursilll, L.A.; Peng, Julin; Gurarie, V.N.; Orlov, A.V.; Prawer, S.

    1995-01-01

    High-energy shock plasma deposition techniques are used to produce carbon-nitride films containing both crystalline and amorphous components. The structures are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, parallel-electron-energy loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The crystalline phase appears to be face-centered cubic with unit cell parameter approx. a=0.63nm and it may be stabilized by calcium and oxygen at about 1-2 at % levels. The carbon atoms appear to have both trigonal and tetrahedral bonding for the crystalline phase. There is PEELS evidence that a significant fraction of the nitrogen atoms have sp 2 trigonal bonds in the crystalline phase. The amorphous carbon-nitride film component varies from essentially graphite, containing virtually no nitrogen, to amorphous carbon-nitride containing up to 10 at % N, where the fraction of sp 3 bonds is significant. 15 refs., 5 figs

  18. A new delirium phenotype with rapid high amplitude onset and nearly as rapid reversal: Central Coast Australia Delirium Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    delirium phenotype selects for a rapid high amplitude critical decline in attention, executive function, IADL, and apathy that recovers almost as rapidly.

  19. Measurement of high-pressure shock waves in cryogenic deuterium-tritium ice layered capsule implosions on NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H F; Moody, J D; Celliers, P M; Ross, J S; Ralph, J; Le Pape, S; Berzak Hopkins, L; Parham, T; Sater, J; Mapoles, E R; Holunga, D M; Walters, C F; Haid, B J; Kozioziemski, B J; Dylla-Spears, R J; Krauter, K G; Frieders, G; Ross, G; Bowers, M W; Strozzi, D J; Yoxall, B E; Hamza, A V; Dzenitis, B; Bhandarkar, S D; Young, B; Van Wonterghem, B M; Atherton, L J; Landen, O L; Edwards, M J; Boehly, T R

    2013-08-09

    The first measurements of multiple, high-pressure shock waves in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility have been performed. The strength and relative timing of these shocks must be adjusted to very high precision in order to keep the DT fuel entropy low and compressibility high. All previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [T. R. Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011), H. F. Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] have been performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas regions were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. This report presents the first experimental validation of the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique.

  20. On the Fielding of a High Gain, Shock-Ignited Target on the National Ignitiion Facility in the Near Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.; Betti, R.; Schurtz, G.P.; Craxton, R.S.; Dunne, A.M.; LaFortune, K.N.; Schmitt, A.J.; McKenty, P.W.; Bailey, D.S.; Lambert, M.A.; Ribeyre, X.; Theobald, W.R.; Strozzi, D.J.; Harding, D.R.; Casner, A.; Atzemi, S.; Erbert, G.V.; Andersen, K.S.; Murakami, M.; Comley, A.J.; Cook, R.C.; Stephens, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Shock ignition, a new concept for igniting thermonuclear fuel, offers the possibility for a near-term (∼3-4 years) test of high gain inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility at less than 1MJ drive energy and without the need for new laser hardware. In shock ignition, compressed fusion fuel is separately ignited by a strong spherically converging shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, fusion energy gains of ∼60 may be achievable on NIF at laser drive energies around ∼0.5MJ. Because of the simple all-DT target design, its in-flight robustness, the potential need for only 1D SSD beam smoothing, minimal early time LPI preheat, and use of present (indirect drive) laser hardware, this target may be easier to field on NIF than a conventional (polar) direct drive hotspot ignition target. Like fast ignition, shock ignition has the potential for high fusion yields at low drive energy, but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and spatial focusing requirements. Of course, conventional symmetry and stability constraints still apply. In this paper we present initial target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the immediate-term R and D program that must be performed in order to test the potential of a high gain shock ignition target on NIF in the near term.

  1. Ultra high-speed x-ray imaging of laser-driven shock compression using synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbinado, Margie P.; Cantelli, Valentina; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Grenzer, Joerg; Pelka, Alexander; Roedel, Melanie; Prencipe, Irene; Laso Garcia, Alejandro; Helbig, Uwe; Kraus, Dominik; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Tom; Scheel, Mario; Pradel, Pierre; De Resseguier, Thibaut; Rack, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    A high-power, nanosecond pulsed laser impacting the surface of a material can generate an ablation plasma that drives a shock wave into it; while in situ x-ray imaging can provide a time-resolved probe of the shock-induced material behaviour on macroscopic length scales. Here, we report on an investigation into laser-driven shock compression of a polyurethane foam and a graphite rod by means of single-pulse synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging with MHz frame rate. A 6 J, 10 ns pulsed laser was used to generate shock compression. Physical processes governing the laser-induced dynamic response such as elastic compression, compaction, pore collapse, fracture, and fragmentation have been imaged; and the advantage of exploiting the partial spatial coherence of a synchrotron source for studying low-density, carbon-based materials is emphasized. The successful combination of a high-energy laser and ultra high-speed x-ray imaging using synchrotron light demonstrates the potentiality of accessing complementary information from scientific studies of laser-driven shock compression.

  2. Particle acceleration at shocks in the inner heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard

    This dissertation describes a study of particle acceleration at shocks via the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. Results for particle acceleration at both quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks are presented to address the question of whether there are sufficient particles in the solar wind thermal core, modeled as either a Maxwellian or kappa- distribution, to account for the observed accelerated spectrum. Results of accelerating the theoretical upstream distribution are compared to energetic observations at 1 AU. It is shown that the particle distribution in the solar wind thermal core is sufficient to explain the accelerated particle spectrum downstream of the shock, although the shape of the downstream distribution in some cases does not follow completely the theory of diffusive shock acceleration, indicating possible additional processes at work in the shock for these cases. Results show good to excellent agreement between the theoretical and observed spectral index for one third to one half of both quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks studied herein. Coronal mass ejections occurring during periods of high solar activity surrounding solar maximum can produce shocks in excess of 3-8 shocks per day. During solar minimum, diffusive shock acceleration at shocks can generally be understood on the basis of single independent shocks and no other shock necessarily influences the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. In this sense, diffusive shock acceleration during solar minimum may be regarded as Markovian. By contrast, diffusive shock acceleration of particles at periods of high solar activity (e.g. solar maximum) see frequent, closely spaced shocks that include the effects of particle acceleration at preceding and following shocks. Therefore, diffusive shock acceleration of particles at solar maximum cannot be modeled on the basis of diffusive shock acceleration as a single, independent shock and the process is essentially non-Markovian. A

  3. Crystal structure of a small heat-shock protein from Xylella fastidiosa reveals a distinct high-order structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Emanuella Maria Barreto; Scorsato, Valéria; Dos Santos, Marcelo Leite; Júnior, Atilio Tomazini; Tada, Susely Ferraz Siqueira; Dos Santos, Clelton Aparecido; de Toledo, Marcelo Augusto Szymanski; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Polikarpov, Igor; Aparicio, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis is a disease that attacks economically important citrus plantations and is caused by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. In this work, the structure of a small heat-shock protein from X. fastidiosa (XfsHSP17.9) is reported. The high-order structures of small heat-shock proteins from other organisms are arranged in the forms of double-disc, hollow-sphere or spherical assemblies. Unexpectedly, the structure reported here reveals a high-order architecture forming a nearly square cavity.

  4. [High-dosage glucocorticoid therapy in acute heart infarct and in cardiogenic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosch, H; Schäbitz, J

    1977-11-15

    40 patients with cardiogenic shock in consequence of contractility insufficiency of the heart were treated with high doses of prednisolon for short time. In 10 cases a good result of the treatment was to be seen so that the lethality quota was smaller than that of a reference group of the same age. The pharmacodynamic effect is seen in an improvement of the micro-circulation by a peripheric vasodilatation. 10 patients with acute myocardial infarction got a therapy with glucocorticoid combined with a treatment with anti-coagulants during the first both weeks. In this connection modern experimental examinations of animals are discussed which showed that glucocorticoides improve the anoxy tolerance of the heart muscle cell.

  5. High-Pressure Shock Compression of Solids VIII The Science and Technology of High-Velocity Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Chhabildas, Lalit C; Horie, Yasuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Research in the field of shock physics and ballistic impact has always been intimately tied to progress in development of facilities for accelerating projectiles to high velocity and instrumentation for recording impact phenomena. The chapters of this book, written by leading US and European experts, cover a broad range of topics and address researchers concerned with questions of material behaviour under impulsive loading and the equations of state of matter, as well as the design of suitable instrumentation such as gas guns and high-speed diagnostics. Applications include high-speed impact dynamics, the inner composition of planets, syntheses of new materials and materials processing. Among the more technologically-oriented applications treated is the testing of the flight characteristics of aeroballistic models and the assessment of impacts in the aerospace industry.

  6. Can diffusive shock acceleration in supernova remnants account for high-energy galactic cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillas, A M

    2005-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration at the outer front of expanding supernova remnants has provided by far the most popular model for the origin of galactic cosmic rays, and has been the subject of intensive theoretical investigation. But several problems loomed at high energies-how to explain the smooth continuation of the cosmic-ray spectrum far beyond 10 14 eV, the very low level of TeV gamma-ray emission from several supernova remnants, and the very low anisotropy of cosmic rays (seeming to conflict with the short trapping times needed to convert a E -2 source spectrum into the observed E -2.7 spectrum of cosmic rays). However, recent work on the cosmic ray spectrum (especially at KASCADE) strongly indicates that about half of the flux does turn down rather sharply near 3 x 10 15 V rigidity, with a distinct tail extending to just beyond 10 17 V rigidity; whilst a plausible description (Bell and Lucek) of the level of self-generated magnetic fields at the shock fronts of young supernova remnants implies that many SNRs in varying environments might very well generate spectra extending smoothly to just this 'knee' position, and a portion of the exploding red supergiants could extend the spectrum approximately as needed. At low energies, recent progress in relating cosmic ray compositional details to modified shock structure also adds weight to the belief that the model is working on the right lines, converting energy into cosmic rays very efficiently where injection can occur. The low level of TeV gamma-ray flux from many young SNRs is a serious challenge, though it may relate to variations in particle injection efficiency with time. The clear detection of TeV gamma rays from SNRs has now just begun, and predictions of a characteristic curved particle spectrum give a target for new tests by TeV observations. However, the isotropy seriously challenges the assumed cosmic-ray trapping time and hence the shape of the spectrum of particles released from SNRs. There is

  7. High-resolution synchrotron terahertz investigation of the large-amplitude hydrogen bond librational band of (HCN)2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihrin, Dmytro; Jakobsen, P. W.; Voute, A.

    2018-01-01

    experimental value for the vibrational zero-point energy of 2.50 ± 0.05 kJ mol−1 arising from the entire class of large-amplitude intermolecular modes. The spectroscopic findings are complemented by CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pV5Z (electronic energies) and CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVQZ (force fields) electronic structure...... calculations, providing a (semi)-experimental value of 17.20 ± 0.20 kJ mol−1 for the dissociation energy D0 of this strictly linear weak intermolecular CH⋯N hydrogen bond....

  8. Standardized Laboratory Test Requirements for Hardening Equipment to Withstand Wave Impact Shock in Small High Speed Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-06

    axes. DRAFT NSWCCD-80-TR-2017/002 8 REFERENCES 1. Du Cane, P., The Planing Performance, Pressures , and Stresses in a High -Speed...Characterization of Individual Wave Slam Acceleration Responses for High Speed Craft, Proceedings of the 29 th American Towing Tank Conference...Methodologies for Small High -Speed Craft Structure, Equipment, Shock Isolation Seats, and Human Performance At-Sea, 10 th Symposium on High

  9. Equations of state and melting curve of boron carbide in the high-pressure range of shock compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molodets, A. M., E-mail: molodets@icp.ac.ru; Golyshev, A. A.; Shakhrai, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    We have constructed the equations of state for crystalline boron carbide B{sub 11}C (C–B–C) and its melt under high dynamic and static pressures. A kink on the shock adiabat for boron carbide has been revealed in the pressure range near 100 GPa, and the melting curve with negative curvature in the pressure range 0–120 GPa has been calculated. The results have been used for interpreting the kinks on the shock adiabat for boron carbide in the pressure range of 0–400 GPa.

  10. Suppressed phase variations in a high amplitude rapidly oscillating Ap star pulsating in a distorted quadrupole mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.; Saio, H.; Bowman, D. M.; Kurtz, D. W.; Sefako, R. R.; Joyce, M.; Lambert, T.; Smalley, B.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a multisite photometric observing campaign on the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star 2MASS 16400299-0737293 (J1640; V = 12.7). We analyse photometric B data to show the star pulsates at a frequency of 151.93 d-1 (1758.45 μHz; P = 9.5 min) with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 20.68 mmag, making it one of the highest amplitude roAp stars. No further pulsation modes are detected. The stellar rotation period is measured at 3.674 7 ± 0.000 5 d, and we show that rotational modulation due to spots is in antiphase between broad-band and B observations. Analysis and modelling of the pulsation reveals this star to be pulsating in a distorted quadrupole mode, but with a strong spherically symmetric component. The pulsational phase variation in this star is suppressed, leading to the conclusion that the contribution of ℓ > 2 components dictate the shape of phase variations in roAp stars that pulsate in quadrupole modes. This is only the fourth time such a strong pulsation phase suppression has been observed, leading us to question the mechanisms at work in these stars. We classify J1640 as an A7 Vp SrEu(Cr) star through analysis of classification resolution spectra.

  11. Laser shocks: A tool for experimental simulation of damage into materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustie, M.; Cuq Lelandais, J. P.; Berthe, L.; Ecault, R. [Institut PPRIME, Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, CNRS-ENSMA-Universite de Poitiers, 1 av Clement Ader, 86961 FUTUROSCOPE Cedex (France); CEA-DAM Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Laboratoire Procedes et Ingenierie en Mecanique et Materiaux (CNRS), Arts et Metiers ParisTech, 151 bd de l' Hopital, 75013 PARIS (France); Institut PPRIME, Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, CNRS-ENSMA-Universite de Poitiers, 1 av Clement Ader, 86961 FUTUROSCOPE Cedex (France)

    2012-07-30

    High power laser irradiation of solids results in a strong shock wave propagation, driving very high amplitude pressure loadings with very short durations. These particular characteristics offer the possibility to study the behaviour of matter under extreme dynamic conditions in continuity with what is possible with the conventional generators of shock (launchers of projectiles, explosives). An advantage of laser shocks is a possible recovery of the shocked samples presenting the metallurgical effects of the shock in most cases. We introduce the principle of the laser shock generation, the characterization of these shocks, the principal mechanisms and effects associated with their propagation in the solids. We show how laser shocks can be a laboratory tool for simulating shock effects at ultra high strain rate, providing a high in information experimental layout for validation of damage modelling on an extended strain rate range compared to conventional shock generators. New data have been obtained with ultra short femtosecond range irradiation. Experimental data gathered through post mortem observation, time resolved velocity measurement are shown along with numerical associated simulations, showing the possibility to predict the damage behaviour of metallic targets under extreme strain rate up to 10{sup 8} s{sup -1}.

  12. Generation of high-order Bessel vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum using multilayer amplitude-phase-modulated surfaces in radiofrequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Na; Yu, Shixing; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    A high-order Bessel vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is generated by using multilayer amplitude-phase-modulated surfaces (APMSs) at 10 GHz. The APMS transmitarray is composed of four-layer conformal square-loop (FCSL) surfaces with both amplitude and phase modulation. The APMS can transform a quasi-spherical wave emitted from the feeding source into a pseudo non-diffractive high-order Bessel vortex beam with OAM. The APMS for a second-order Bessel beam carrying OAM in the n = 2 mode is designed, fabricated, and measured. Full-wave simulation and measurement results confirm that Bessel vortex beams with OAM can be effectively generated using the proposed APMS transmitarray.

  13. High speed photography for studying the shock wave propagation at high Mach numbers through a reflection nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, S.G.; Lazareva, E.V.; Mikhailova, A.V.; Nikolaev-Kozlov, V.L.; Chebotareva, E.I.

    1979-01-01

    Propagation of intensive shock waves with a temperature of about 1 eV has been studied in a two-dimensional reflection nozzle mounted at the exit of a shock tube. The Toepler technique has been involved along with the interference scheme with a laser light source allowing the multiple-frame recording to be done. Density distribution in the nozzle as well as the wave pattern occurring at the shock propagation are presented. (author)

  14. Interaction of rippled shock wave with flat fast-slow interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhigang; Liang, Yu; Liu, Lili; Ding, Juchun; Luo, Xisheng; Zou, Liyong

    2018-04-01

    The evolution of a flat air/sulfur-hexafluoride interface subjected to a rippled shock wave is investigated. Experimentally, the rippled shock wave is produced by diffracting a planar shock wave around solid cylinder(s), and the effects of the cylinder number and the spacing between cylinders on the interface evolution are considered. The flat interface is created by a soap film technique. The postshock flow and the evolution of the shocked interface are captured by a schlieren technique combined with a high-speed video camera. Numerical simulations are performed to provide more details of flows. The wave patterns of a planar shock wave diffracting around one cylinder or two cylinders are studied. The shock stability problem is analytically discussed, and the effects of the spacing between cylinders on shock stability are highlighted. The relationship between the amplitudes of the rippled shock wave and the shocked interface is determined in the single cylinder case. Subsequently, the interface morphologies and growth rates under different cases are obtained. The results show that the shock-shock interactions caused by multiple cylinders have significant influence on the interface evolution. Finally, a modified impulsive theory is proposed to predict the perturbation growth when multiple solid cylinders are present.

  15. 3D dynamic simulation of crack propagation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijerathne, M. L. L.; Hori, Muneo; Sakaguchi, Hide; Oguni, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Some experimental observations of Shock Wave Lithotripsy(SWL), which include 3D dynamic crack propagation, are simulated with the aim of reproducing fragmentation of kidney stones with SWL. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of kidney stones by focusing an ultrasonic pressure pulse onto the stones. 3D models with fine discretization are used to accurately capture the high amplitude shear shock waves. For solving the resulting large scale dynamic crack propagation problem, PDS-FEM is used; it provides numerically efficient failure treatments. With a distributed memory parallel code of PDS-FEM, experimentally observed 3D photoelastic images of transient stress waves and crack patterns in cylindrical samples are successfully reproduced. The numerical crack patterns are in good agreement with the experimental ones, quantitatively. The results shows that the high amplitude shear waves induced in solid, by the lithotriptor generated shock wave, play a dominant role in stone fragmentation.

  16. Elastic high-energy proton scattering on 40Ca with exact expression for nucleon-nucleon amplitude and flucton correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Christov, Chr.V.; Nikolov, E.N.

    1989-01-01

    Differential cross-section of the 1.04 GeV - proton elastic scattering from 40 Ca is calculated within the Glauber-Sitenko theoretical scheme using the coherent density fluctuation model (CDFM). It is shown that the use of exact noneikonal expression for the two-body scattering amplitude (which describes the p-p data) leads to a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The influence of the flucton correlations on the differential cross-sections is considerable as the use of a realistic charge density distribution leads to a better agreement with the experimental data of the CDFM which is not for the case of the independent-particle model. 20 refs.; 4 figs

  17. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and θ Bn ∼20-86°. We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr ≤0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at ∼1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  18. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  19. Shock compression of diamond crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...

  20. Analysis and Mitigation of Mechanical Shock Effects on High Speed Planing Boats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keams, Sean

    2001-01-01

    .... Operation of these boats, particularly in rough seas, exposes the occupants to severe mechanical shock exposure that has been linked to significant increase in the rates of acute and chronic injury...

  1. Imaging Shock Waves in Diamond with Both High Temporal and Spatial Resolution at an XFEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Ping, Yuan; Hicks, Damien G; Beckwith, Martha A; Collins, Gilbert W; Higginbotham, Andrew; Wark, Justin S; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C; Arnold, Brice; Zastrau, Ulf; Hastings, Jerome B; Schroer, Christian G

    2015-06-18

    The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under extreme conditions, in this case by using the short XFEL pulse to image an elastic compression wave in diamond. The elastic wave was initiated by an intense optical laser pulse and was imaged at different delay times after the optical pump pulse using magnified x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The temporal evolution of the shock wave can be monitored, yielding detailed information on shock dynamics, such as the shock velocity, the shock front width, and the local compression of the material. The method provides a quantitative perspective on the state of matter in extreme conditions.

  2. Numerical Simulation on Seismic Response of the Filled Joint under High Amplitude Stress Waves Using Finite-Discrete Element Method (FDEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper numerically investigates the seismic response of the filled joint under high amplitude stress waves using the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM. A thin layer of independent polygonal particles are used to simulate the joint fillings. Each particle is meshed using the Delaunay triangulation scheme and can be crushed when the load exceeds its strength. The propagation of the 1D longitude wave through a single filled joint is studied, considering the influences of the joint thickness and the characteristics of the incident wave, such as the amplitude and frequency. The results show that the filled particles under high amplitude stress waves mainly experience three deformation stages: (i initial compaction stage; (ii crushing stage; and (iii crushing and compaction stage. In the initial compaction stage and crushing and compaction stage, compaction dominates the mechanical behavior of the joint, and the particle area distribution curve varies little. In these stages, the transmission coefficient increases with the increase of the amplitude, i.e., peak particle velocity (PPV, of the incident wave. On the other hand, in the crushing stage, particle crushing plays the dominant role. The particle size distribution curve changes abruptly with the PPV due to the fragments created by the crushing process. This process consumes part of wave energy and reduces the stiffness of the filled joint. The transmission coefficient decreases with increasing PPV in this stage because of the increased amount of energy consumed by crushing. Moreover, with the increase of the frequency of the incident wave, the transmission coefficient decreases and fewer particles can be crushed. Under the same incident wave, the transmission coefficient decreases when the filled thickness increases and the filled particles become more difficult to be crushed.

  3. Electrostatic Assembly Preparation of High-Toughness Zirconium Diboride-Based Ceramic Composites with Enhanced Thermal Shock Resistance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoxi; Zhang, Xinghong; Hong, Changqing; Qiu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Jia; Han, Jiecai; Hu, PingAn

    2016-05-11

    The central problem of using ceramic as a structural material is its brittleness, which associated with rigid covalent or ionic bonds. Whiskers or fibers of strong ceramics such as silicon carbide (SiC) or silicon nitride (Si3N4) are widely embedded in a ceramic matrix to improve the strength and toughness. The incorporation of these insulating fillers can impede the thermal flow in ceramic matrix, thus decrease its thermal shock resistance that is required in some practical applications. Here we demonstrate that the toughness and thermal shock resistance of zirconium diboride (ZrB2)/SiC composites can be improved simultaneously by introducing graphene into composites via electrostatic assembly and subsequent sintering treatment. The incorporated graphene creates weak interfaces of grain boundaries (GBs) and optimal thermal conductance paths inside composites. In comparison to pristine ZrB2-SiC composites, the toughness of (2.0%) ZrB2-SiC/graphene composites exhibited a 61% increasing (from 4.3 to 6.93 MPa·m(1/2)) after spark plasma sintering (SPS); the retained strength after thermal shock increased as high as 74.8% at 400 °C and 304.4% at 500 °C. Present work presents an important guideline for producing high-toughness ceramic-based composites with enhanced thermal shock properties.

  4. Hemorrhagic shock and surgical stress alter distribution of labile zinc within high- and low-molecular-weight plasma fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Edward; Mathew, Jeff; Kohler, Jonathan E; Blass, Amy L; Soybel, And David I

    2012-08-01

    Zinc ions (Zn) are essential for tissue repair following injury or stress. We hypothesize that during such stresses Zn is redistributed to labile pools in plasma components. Here we tested this hypothesis using a novel assay to monitor labile Zn in plasma in hemorrhagic shock. Adult rats in the shock group (S group) underwent hemorrhage and resuscitation. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and at 1, 4, and 24 h. The surgical control group (SC group) was anesthetized and instrumented, but not bled. Albumin, total Zn, and labile Zn levels were assayed in plasma. Binding capacity for Zn was assessed in high- and low-molecular-weight pools. Significant decreases in total Zn were observed by 24 h, in both S and SC groups. Albumin levels were significantly reduced in the S group at 1 and 4 h but restored at 24 h; significant changes were not observed in other groups. In whole plasma, labile Zn levels were stable initially in the S and SC groups, but declined at 24 h. In the high-molecular-weight pool, marked and significant impairment of binding was noted throughout all time periods following the shock period in the S group. Such changes were observed in the SC group of less intensity and duration. These experiments suggest that shock alters affinity of plasma proteins for Zn, promoting delivery to peripheral tissues during periods of increased Zn utilization.

  5. Multi-fluid Approach to High-frequency Waves in Plasmas. II. Small-amplitude Regime in Partially Ionized Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Gómez, David; Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: david.martinez@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2017-03-01

    The presence of neutral species in a plasma has been shown to greatly affect the properties of magnetohydrodynamic waves. For instance, the interaction between ions and neutrals through momentum transfer collisions causes the damping of Alfvén waves and alters their oscillation frequency and phase speed. When the collision frequencies are larger than the frequency of the waves, single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic approximations can accurately describe the effects of partial ionization, since there is a strong coupling between the various species. However, at higher frequencies, the single-fluid models are not applicable and more complex approaches are required. Here, we use a five-fluid model with three ionized and two neutral components, which takes into consideration Hall’s current and Ohm’s diffusion in addition to the friction due to collisions between different species. We apply our model to plasmas composed of hydrogen and helium, and allow the ionization degree to be arbitrary. By analyzing the corresponding dispersion relation and numerical simulations, we study the properties of small-amplitude perturbations. We discuss the effect of momentum transfer collisions on the ion-cyclotron resonances and compare the importance of magnetic resistivity, and ion–neutral and ion–ion collisions on the wave damping at various frequency ranges. Applications to partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere are performed.

  6. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lin; Wang Yangwei; Xu Xin; Liu Chengze

    2015-01-01

    Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy...

  7. Calibration of PCB-132 Sensors in a Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Dennis C.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    While PCB-132 sensors have proven useful for measuring second-mode instability waves in many hypersonic wind tunnels, they are currently limited by their calibration. Until now, the factory calibration has been all that was available, which is a single-point calibration at an amplitude three orders of magnitude higher than a second-mode wave. In addition, little information has been available about the frequency response or spatial resolution of the sensors, which is important for measuring high-frequency instability waves. These shortcomings make it difficult to compare measurements at different conditions and between different sensors. If accurate quantitative measurements could be performed, comparisons of the growth and breakdown of instability waves could be made in different facilities, possibly leading to a method of predicting the amplitude at which the waves break down into turbulence, improving transition prediction. A method for calibrating the sensors is proposed using a newly-built shock tube at Purdue University. This shock tube, essentially a half-scale version of the 6-Inch shock tube at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories at Caltech, has been designed to attain a moderate vacuum in the driven section. Low driven pressures should allow the creation of very weak, yet still relatively thin shock waves. It is expected that static pressure rises within the range of second-mode amplitudes should be possible. The shock tube has been designed to create clean, planar shock waves with a laminar boundary layer to allow for accurate calibrations. Stronger shock waves can be used to identify the frequency response of the sensors out to hundreds of kilohertz.

  8. Investigation of shock compression in toroidal geometry in the high voltage belt pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeldner, F.

    1977-06-01

    Fast magnetic compression in investigated in the High Voltage Belt Pinch at two initial densities nsub(eo) = 3 x 10 13 cm -3 and nsub(eo) = 7 x 10 13 cm -3 . At the lower density the electrons are heated to 3 keV in the piston region, the ions trapped in the piston obtaining an energy of 0.7 keV. A third of the ions are reflected off the piston attaining an energy of 2.5 keV. At the higher initial density a central β = 1 plasma in formed. Electrons are heated to 1 keV in the sheath, the piston ions obtaining an energy of 0.4 keV. The degree of ion reflection is 60%. Ion acoustic turbulence in both cases dominates the implosion phase and gives rise to the anomalous field diffusion and electron heating observed. Steep electron density and temperature gradients decisively enhance the effective drift velocity for wave growth. The experimental results are compared with numerical calculations using a hybrid code which includes anomalous transport. Scaling studies with the hybrid code in a wider density range show in agreement with the experiment increasing efficiency of shock heating for higher initial densities due to increasing ion reflection. (orig.) [de

  9. High level compressive residual stresses produced in aluminum alloys by laser shock processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocana, J.L; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J.A.; Chi-Moreno, W.; Morales, M.

    2005-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 1064 nm. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/cm 2 in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG, two laser spot diameters were used: 0.8 and 1.5 mm. Results using pulse densities of 2500 pulses/cm 2 in 6061-T6 aluminum samples and 5000 pulses/cm 2 in 2024 aluminum samples are presented. High level of compressive residual stresses are produced -1600 MPa for 6061-T6 Al alloy, and -1400 MPa for 2024 Al alloy. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is higher than that achieved by conventional shot peening and with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products

  10. Hemorrhagic Shock and Surgical Stress Alter Distribution of Labile Zinc within High and Low Molecular Weight Plasma Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Edward; Mathew, Jeff; Kohler, Jonathan E.; Blass, Amy L.; Soybel, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc ions (Zn2+) are essential for tissue repair following injury or stress. We hypothesize that during such stresses Zn2+ is redistributed to labile pools in plasma components. Here we tested this hypothesis utilizing a novel assay to monitor labile Zn2+ in plasma in hemorrhagic shock. Adult rats in the Shock (S) group underwent hemorrhage and resuscitation. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 1 hr, 4 hrs and 24 hrs. The Surgical Control (SC) group was anesthetized and instrumented, but not bled. Albumin, total Zn2+, and labile Zn2+ levels were assayed in plasma. Binding capacity for Zn2+ was assessed in high (HMW) and low (LMW) molecular weight pools. Significant decreases in total Zn2+ were observed by 24 hrs, in both S and SC groups. Albumin levels were significantly reduced in the S group at 1 hr and 4 hr but restored at 24 hrs; significant changes were not observed in other groups. In whole plasma, labile Zn2+ levels were stable initially in the S and SC groups, but declined at 24 hrs. In the HMW pool, marked and significant impairment of binding was noted throughout all time periods following the shock period in the S group. Such changes were observed in the SC group of less intensity and duration. These experiments suggest that Shock alters affinity of plasma proteins for Zn2+, promoting delivery to peripheral tissues during periods of increased Zn2+ utilization. PMID:22744307

  11. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  12. Design and Implementation of a High-Voltage Generator with Output Voltage Control for Vehicle ER Shock-Absorber Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-oscillating high-voltage generator is proposed to supply voltage for a suspension system in order to control the damping force of an electrorheological (ER fluid shock absorber. By controlling the output voltage level of the generator, the damping force in the ER fluid shock absorber can be adjusted immediately. The shock absorber is part of the suspension system. The high-voltage generator drives a power transistor based on self-excited oscillation, which converts dc to ac. A high-frequency transformer with high turns ratio is used to increase the voltage. In addition, the system uses the car battery as dc power supply. By regulating the duty cycle of the main switch in the buck converter, the output voltage of the buck converter can be linearly adjusted so as to obtain a specific high voltage for ER. The driving system is self-excited; that is, no additional external driving circuit is required. Thus, it reduces cost and simplifies system structure. A prototype version of the actual product is studied to measure and evaluate the key waveforms. The feasibility of the proposed system is verified based on experimental results.

  13. HIGHLY EXCITED H{sub 2} IN HERBIG–HARO 7: FORMATION PUMPING IN SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, R. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI (United States); Burton, M. G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Chrysostomou, A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-10

    We have obtained K -band spectra at R ∼ 5000 and an angular resolution of 0.″3 of a section of the Herbig–Haro 7 (HH7) bow shock, using the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph at Gemini North. Present in the portion of the data cube corresponding to the brightest part of the bow shock are emission lines of H{sub 2} with upper state energies ranging from ∼6000 K to the dissociation energy of H{sub 2}, ∼50,000 K. Because of low signal-to-noise ratios, the highest excitation lines cannot be easily seen elsewhere in the observed region. However, excitation temperatures, measured throughout much of the observed region using lines from levels as high as 25,000 K, are a strong function of upper level energy, indicating that the very highest levels are populated throughout. The level populations in the brightest region are well fit by a two-temperature model, with 98.5% of the emitting gas at T = 1800 K and 1.5% at T = 5200 K. The bulk of the H{sub 2} line emission in HH7, from the 1800 K gas, has previously been well-modeled by a continuous shock, but the 5200 K cozmponent is inconsistent with standalone standard continuous shock models. We discuss various possible origins for the hot component and suggest that this component is H{sub 2} newly reformed on dust grains and then ejected from them, presumably following dissociation of some of the H{sub 2} by the shock.

  14. Numerical study of turbulent channel flow perturbed by spanwise topographic heterogeneity: Amplitude and frequency modulation within low- and high-momentum pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Ankit; Anderson, William

    2018-04-01

    We have studied the effects of topographically driven secondary flows on inner-outer interaction in turbulent channel flow. Recent studies have revealed that large-scale motions in the logarithmic region impose an amplitude and frequency modulation on the dynamics of small-scale structures near the wall. This led to development of a predictive model for near-wall dynamics, which has practical relevance for large-eddy simulations. Existing work on amplitude modulation has focused on smooth-wall flows; however, Anderson [J. Fluid Mech. 789, 567 (2016), 10.1017/jfm.2015.744] addressed the problem of rough-wall turbulent channel flow in which the correlation profiles for amplitude modulation showed trends similar to those reported by Mathis et al. [Phys. Fluids 21, 111703 (2009), 10.1063/1.3267726]. For the present study, we considered flow over surfaces with a prominent spanwise heterogeneity, such that domain-scale turbulent secondary flows in the form of counter-rotating vortices are sustained within the flow. (We also show results for flow over a homogeneous roughness, which serves as a benchmark against the spanwise-perturbed cases.) The vortices are anchored to the topography such that prominent upwelling and downwelling occur above the low and high roughness, respectively. We have quantified the extent to which such secondary flows disrupt the distribution of spectral density across constituent wavelengths throughout the depth of the flow, which has direct implications for the existence of amplitude and frequency modulation. We find that the distinct outer peak associated with large-scale motions—the "modulators"—is preserved within the upwelling zone but vanishes in the downwelling zone. Within the downwelling zones, structures are steeper and shorter. Single- and two-point correlations for inner-outer amplitude and frequency modulation demonstrate insensitivity to resolution across cases. We also show a pronounced crossover between the single- and two

  15. Numerical Simulation Of Shock Response To Wall Changes In High Speed Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, J.; Taylor, N. V.

    2011-05-01

    Hypersonic flight presents a number of challenges to the designer, one of which is the intake behaviour. Minimising drag requires careful positioning of the intake shock structure, while accurate understanding of the dynamic behaviour is required to allow minimisation of margins. In this paper, a two shock external compression intake derived from the Reaction Engines Limited SABRE engine is examined using inviscid axisymmetric CFD analysis to determine the response of the normal shockwave to axial motion of the intake centrebody. An approximately linear relationship between centrebody position and both the normal shock position and additive drag in steady flow is demonstrated. Initial results from an unsteady analysis are also given, which show complex behaviours may be triggered by rapid motion of the centrebody in response to control input.

  16. The histomorphological findings of kidneys after application of high dose and high-energy shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aslan; Türker, Polat; Bozkurt, Suheyla Uyar; İlker, Yalcin Nazmi

    2015-01-01

    In this animal study, we reviewed the histomorphological findings in rabbit kidneys after a high number of high-energy shock wave applications and observed if there were any cumulative effects after repeated sessions. We formed 2 groups, each consisting of 8 rabbits. Group 1 received 1 session and group 2 received 3 sessions of ESWL with a 7 day interval between sessions, consisting of 3500 beats to the left kidney and 5500 beats to the right kidney per session. The specimens of kidneys were examined histomorphologically after bilateral nephrectomy was performed. For statistical analysis, 4 groups of specimens were formed. The first and second groups received 1 session, 3500 and 5500 beats, respectively. The third and fourth groups received 3 sessions, at 3500 and 5500 beats per each session, respectively. The sections were evaluated under a light microscope to determine subcapsular thickening; subcapsular, intratubular and parenchymal hemorrhage; subcapsular, intersitital, perivascular and proximal ureteral fibrosis; paranchymal necrosis; tubular epithelial vacuolization; tubular atrophy; glomerular destruction and calcification. In histopathological examinations capsular thickening, subcapsular hematoma, tubuloepithelial vacuolisation, glomerular destruction, parenchymal hemorrhage, interstitial fibrosis, and perivascular fibrosis were observed in all groups. In statistical analysis, on the basis of perivascular fibrosis and tubular atrophy, there was a beats per session dependent increase of both. The detrimental effects from ESWL are dose dependent but not cumulative for up to 3 sessions. Histopathological experimental animal studies will aid in understanding local and maybe, by means of these local effects, systemic effects.

  17. The histomorphological findings of kidneys after application of high dose and high-energy shock wave lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Polat; Bozkurt, Suheyla Uyar; İlker, Yalcin Nazmi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In this animal study, we reviewed the histomorphological findings in rabbit kidneys after a high number of high-energy shock wave applications and observed if there were any cumulative effects after repeated sessions. Material and methods We formed 2 groups, each consisting of 8 rabbits. Group 1 received 1 session and group 2 received 3 sessions of ESWL with a 7 day interval between sessions, consisting of 3500 beats to the left kidney and 5500 beats to the right kidney per session. The specimens of kidneys were examined histomorphologically after bilateral nephrectomy was performed. For statistical analysis, 4 groups of specimens were formed. The first and second groups received 1 session, 3500 and 5500 beats, respectively. The third and fourth groups received 3 sessions, at 3500 and 5500 beats per each session, respectively. The sections were evaluated under a light microscope to determine subcapsular thickening; subcapsular, intratubular and parenchymal hemorrhage; subcapsular, intersitital, perivascular and proximal ureteral fibrosis; paranchymal necrosis; tubular epithelial vacuolization; tubular atrophy; glomerular destruction and calcification. Results In histopathological examinations capsular thickening, subcapsular hematoma, tubuloepithelial vacuolisation, glomerular destruction, parenchymal hemorrhage, interstitial fibrosis, and perivascular fibrosis were observed in all groups. In statistical analysis, on the basis of perivascular fibrosis and tubular atrophy, there was a beats per session dependent increase of both. Conclusions The detrimental effects from ESWL are dose dependent but not cumulative for up to 3 sessions. Histopathological experimental animal studies will aid in understanding local and maybe, by means of these local effects, systemic effects. PMID:25914842

  18. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases exhibits various strain rate hardening effects, both failure through adiabatic shear band. Ti-5553 alloy with Widmannstatten microstructure exhibit more obvious strain rate hardening effect, lower critical strain rate for ASB nucleation, compared with the alloy with Bimodal microstructures. Under dynamic compression, shock-induced beta to alpha” martensite transformation occurs.

  19. [Effect of different volumes of fluid resuscitation on hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema at high altitude in the unacclimated rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-ming; Hu, De-yao; Liu, Jian-cang; Li, Ping; Liu, Hou-dong; Xiao, Nan; Zhou, Xue-wu; Tian, Kun-lun; Huo, Xiao-ping; Shi, Quan-gui; He, Yan-mei; Yin, Zuo-ming

    2003-05-01

    To study the effects of different volumes of fluid resuscitation on hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema at high altitude in the unacclimated rat. One hundred and twenty-six SD rats transported to Lasa, Tibet, 3 760 meters above the sea level, were anesthetized one week later with sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema model was induced by hemorrhage (50 mm Hg for 1 hour, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) plus intravenous injection of oleic acid (50 microl/kg). Experiments were then conducted in two parts. Sixty-three rats in part I were equally divided into nine groups (n=7): normal control, hemorrhagic shock control, hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema (HSPE) without fluid infusion, HSPE plus infusing lactated Ringer's solution (LR) with 0.5-, 1-, 1.5-, 2- or 3- fold volume shed blood, and 1 volume of LR plus mannitol (10 ml/kg). Hemodynamic parameters including mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), left intraventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and the maximal change rate of intraventricular pressure rise or decline (+/- dp/dt max) were observed at 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after infusion, blood gases were measured at 30 and 120 minutes after infusion and the water content of lung and brain was determined at 120 minutes after infusion. In part II, additional 63 rats were used to observe the effect of different volumes of fluid resuscitation on survival time of HSPE rats. 0.5 volume of LR infusion significantly improved MAP, LVSP and +/- dp/dt max, prolonged the survival time of HSPE animals (all P<0.01), while it did not increase the water content of lung and brain and had no marked influence on blood gases. One volume of LR infusion slightly improved hemodynamic parameters, prolonged the survival time and increased the water content of lung. More than 1 volume of LR infusion including 1.5-, 2- and 3- fold volume LR deteriorated the hemodynamic parameters and decreased the survival time of shocked animal, meanwhile they

  20. Metal-organic frameworks as potential shock absorbers: the case of the highly flexible MIL-53(Al).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yot, Pascal G; Boudene, Zoubeyr; Macia, Jasmine; Granier, Dominique; Vanduyfhuys, Louis; Verstraelen, Toon; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Devic, Thomas; Serre, Christian; Férey, Gérard; Stock, Norbert; Maurin, Guillaume

    2014-08-28

    The mechanical energy absorption ability of the highly flexible MIL-53(Al) MOF material was explored using a combination of experiments and molecular simulations. A pressure-induced transition between the large pore and the closed pore forms of this solid was revealed to be irreversible and associated with a relatively large energy absorption capacity. Both features make MIL-53(Al) the first potential MOF candidate for further use as a shock absorber.

  1. Particle injection and cosmic ray acceleration at collisionless parallel shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quest, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of collisionless parallel shocks is studied using one-dimensional hybrid simulations, with emphasis on particle injection into the first-order Fermi acceleration process. It is argued that for sufficiently high Mach number shocks, and in the absence of wave turbulence, the fluid firehose marginal stability condition will be exceeded at the interface between the upstream, unshocked, plasma and the heated plasma downstream. As a consequence, nonlinear, low-frequency, electromagnetic waves are generated and act to slow the plasma and provide dissipation for the shock. It is shown that large amplitude waves at the shock ramp scatter a small fraction of the upstream ions back into the upstream medium. These ions, in turn, resonantly generate the electromagnetic waves that are swept back into the shock. As these waves propagate through the shock they are compressed and amplified, allowing them to non-resonantly scatter the bulk of the plasma. Moreover, the compressed waves back-scatter a small fraction of the upstream ions, maintaining the shock structure in a quasi-steady state. The back-scattered ions are accelerated during the wave generation process to 2 to 4 times the ram energy and provide a likely seed population for cosmic rays. 49 refs., 7 figs

  2. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P. [ITB, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Tecnology (Indonesia); BMKG (Indonesia)

    2012-06-20

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance ({Delta}) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log {Delta}+ 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  3. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P.

    2012-06-01

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance (Δ) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log Δ + 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  4. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance (Δ) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log Δ+ 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  5. A simple, robust and efficient high-order accurate shock-capturing scheme for compressible flows: Towards minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwada, Taku; Shibata, Yuki; Kato, Takuma; Nakamura, Taichi

    2018-06-01

    Developed is a high-order accurate shock-capturing scheme for the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations; the formal accuracy is 5th order in space and 4th order in time. The performance and efficiency of the scheme are validated in various numerical tests. The main ingredients of the scheme are nothing special; they are variants of the standard numerical flux, MUSCL, the usual Lagrange's polynomial and the conventional Runge-Kutta method. The scheme can compute a boundary layer accurately with a rational resolution and capture a stationary contact discontinuity sharply without inner points. And yet it is endowed with high resistance against shock anomalies (carbuncle phenomenon, post-shock oscillations, etc.). A good balance between high robustness and low dissipation is achieved by blending three types of numerical fluxes according to physical situation in an intuitively easy-to-understand way. The performance of the scheme is largely comparable to that of WENO5-Rusanov, while its computational cost is 30-40% less than of that of the advanced scheme.

  6. A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reached the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. Here, a study to compare two thickness values, 0.125 and 0.250 in. of five materials, GE RTV 630, HS II Silicone, Polysulfide Rubber, Sylgard 184, and Teflon for their shock mitigating characteristics with a split Hopkinson bar configuration has been completed. The five materials have been tested in both unconfined and confined conditions at ambient temperature and with two applied loads of 750 με peak (25 fps peak) with a 100 micros duration, measured at 10% amplitude, and 1500 με peak (50 fps peak) with a 100 micros duration, measured at 10% amplitude. The five materials have been tested at ambient, cold (-65 F), and hot (+165 F) for the unconfined condition with the 750 με peak (25 fps peak) applied load. Time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare how these materials lengthen the shock pulse, attenuate the shock pulse, reflect high

  7. ON SHOCKS DRIVEN BY HIGH-MASS PLANETS IN RADIATIVELY INEFFICIENT DISKS. II. THREE-DIMENSIONAL GLOBAL DISK SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, Wladimir; Richert, Alexander J. W.; Boley, Aaron; Turner, Neal; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Flock, Mario; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recent high-resolution, near-infrared images of protoplanetary disks have shown that these disks often present spiral features. Spiral arms are among the structures predicted by models of disk–planet interaction and thus it is tempting to suspect that planetary perturbers are responsible for these signatures. However, such interpretation is not free of problems. The observed spirals have large pitch angles, and in at least one case (HD 100546) it appears effectively unpolarized, implying thermal emission of the order of 1000 K (465 ± 40 K at closer inspection). We have recently shown in two-dimensional models that shock dissipation in the supersonic wake of high-mass planets can lead to significant heating if the disk is sufficiently adiabatic. Here we extend this analysis to three dimensions in thermodynamically evolving disks. We use the Pencil Code in spherical coordinates for our models, with a prescription for thermal cooling based on the optical depth of the local vertical gas column. We use a 5M J planet, and show that shocks in the region around the planet where the Lindblad resonances occur heat the gas to substantially higher temperatures than the ambient gas. The gas is accelerated vertically away from the midplane to form shock bores, and the gas falling back toward the midplane breaks up into a turbulent surf. This turbulence, although localized, has high α values, reaching 0.05 in the inner Lindblad resonance, and 0.1 in the outer one. We find evidence that the disk regions heated up by the shocks become superadiabatic, generating convection far from the planet’s orbit

  8. On Shocks Driven by High-mass Planets in Radiatively Inefficient Disks. II. Three-dimensional Global Disk Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Wladimir; Richert, Alexander J. W.; Boley, Aaron; Turner, Neal; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Flock, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Recent high-resolution, near-infrared images of protoplanetary disks have shown that these disks often present spiral features. Spiral arms are among the structures predicted by models of disk-planet interaction and thus it is tempting to suspect that planetary perturbers are responsible for these signatures. However, such interpretation is not free of problems. The observed spirals have large pitch angles, and in at least one case (HD 100546) it appears effectively unpolarized, implying thermal emission of the order of 1000 K (465 ± 40 K at closer inspection). We have recently shown in two-dimensional models that shock dissipation in the supersonic wake of high-mass planets can lead to significant heating if the disk is sufficiently adiabatic. Here we extend this analysis to three dimensions in thermodynamically evolving disks. We use the Pencil Code in spherical coordinates for our models, with a prescription for thermal cooling based on the optical depth of the local vertical gas column. We use a 5MJ planet, and show that shocks in the region around the planet where the Lindblad resonances occur heat the gas to substantially higher temperatures than the ambient gas. The gas is accelerated vertically away from the midplane to form shock bores, and the gas falling back toward the midplane breaks up into a turbulent surf. This turbulence, although localized, has high α values, reaching 0.05 in the inner Lindblad resonance, and 0.1 in the outer one. We find evidence that the disk regions heated up by the shocks become superadiabatic, generating convection far from the planet’s orbit.

  9. Immediate Dose-Response Effect of High-Energy Versus Low-Energy Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Cutaneous Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Robert; Sorg, Heiko; Forstmeier, Vinzent; Knobloch, Karsten; Liodaki, Eirini; Stang, Felix Hagen; Mailaender, Peter; Kisch, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    Elucidation of the precise mechanisms and therapeutic options of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is only at the beginning. Although immediate real-time effects of ESWT on cutaneous hemodynamics have recently been described, the dose response to different ESWT energies in cutaneous microcirculation has never been examined. Thirty-nine Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups that received either focused high-energy shock waves (group A: total of 1000 impulses, 10 J) to the lower leg of the hind limb, focused low-energy shock waves (group B: total of 300 impulses, 1 J) or placebo shock wave treatment (group C: 0 impulses, 0 J) using a multimodality shock wave delivery system (Duolith SD-1 T-Top, Storz Medical, Tägerwilen, Switzerland). Immediate microcirculatory effects were assessed with the O2C (oxygen to see) system (LEA Medizintechnik, Giessen, Germany) before and for 20 min after application of ESWT. Cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation increased significantly higher after high-energy ESWT than after low-energy and placebo ESWT (A: 29.4% vs. B: 17.3% vs. C: 3.3%; p = 0.003). Capillary blood velocity was significantly higher after high-energy ESWT and lower after low-energy ESWT versus placebo ESWT (group A: 17.8% vs. group B: -22.1% vs. group C: -5.0%, p = 0.045). Post-capillary venous filling pressure was significantly enhanced in the high-energy ESWT group in contrast to the low-energy ESWT and placebo groups (group A: 25% vs. group B: 2% vs. group C: -4%, p = 0.001). Both high-energy and low-energy ESWT affect cutaneous hemodynamics in a standard rat model. High-energy ESWT significantly increases parameters of cutaneous microcirculation immediately after application, resulting in higher tissue oxygen saturation, venous filling pressure and blood velocity, which suggests higher tissue perfusion with enhanced oxygen saturation, in contrast to low-energy as well as placebo ESWT. Low-energy ESWT also increased tissue oxygen

  10. Creation of ultra-high-pressure shocks by the collision of laser-accelerated disks: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Price, R.H.; Campbell, E.M.; Obenschain, S.P.; Whitlock, R.R.; McLean, E.A.; Ripin, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    We have used the SHIVA laser system to accelerate carbon disks to speeds in excess of 100 km/sec. The 3KJ/3 ns pulse, on a 1 mm diameter spot of a single disk produced a conventional shock of about 5 MB. The laser energy can, however, be stored in kinetic motion of this accelerated disk and delivered (reconverted to thermal energy) upon impact with another carbon disk. This collision occurs in a time much shorter than the 3 ns pulse, thus acting as a power amplifier. The shock pressures measured upon impact are estimated to be in the 20 MB range, thus demonstrating the amplification power of this colliding disk technique in creating ultra-high pressures. Theory and computer simulations of this process will be discussed, and compared with the experiment

  11. A gamma-ray burst with a high-energy spectral component inconsistent with the synchrotron shock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M M; Dingus, B L; Kaneko, Y; Preece, R D; Dermer, C D; Briggs, M S

    2003-08-14

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most powerful events in nature. These events release most of their energy as photons with energies in the range from 30 keV to a few MeV, with a smaller fraction of the energy radiated in radio, optical, and soft X-ray afterglows. The data are in general agreement with a relativistic shock model, where the prompt and afterglow emissions correspond to synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated electrons. Here we report an observation of a high-energy (multi-MeV) spectral component in the burst of 17 October 1994 that is distinct from the previously observed lower-energy gamma-ray component. The flux of the high-energy component decays more slowly and its fluence is greater than the lower-energy component; it is described by a power law of differential photon number index approximately -1 up to about 200 MeV. This observation is difficult to explain with the standard synchrotron shock model, suggesting the presence of new phenomena such as a different non-thermal electron process, or the interaction of relativistic protons with photons at the source.

  12. On the high-temperature combustion of n-butanol: Shock tube data and an improved kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Vasu, Subith S.

    2013-11-21

    The combustion of n-butanol has received significant interest in recent years, because of its potential use in transportation applications. Researchers have extensively studied its combustion chemistry, using both experimental and theoretical methods; however, additional work is needed under specific conditions to improve our understanding of n-butanol combustion. In this study, we report new OH time-history data during the high-temperature oxidation of n-butanol behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1300-1550 K and at pressures near 2 atm. These data were obtained at Stanford University, using narrow-line-width ring dye laser absorption of the R1(5) line of OH near 306.7 nm. Measured OH time histories were modeled using comprehensive n-butanol literature mechanisms. It was found that n-butanol unimolecular decomposition rate constants commonly used in chemical kinetic models, as well as those determined from theoretical studies, are unable to predict the data presented herein. Therefore, an improved high-temperature mechanism is presented here, which incorporates recently reported rate constants measured in a single pulse shock tube [C. M. Rosado-Reyes and W. Tsang, J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, 116, 9825-9831]. Discussions are presented on the validity of the proposed mechanism against other literature shock tube experiments. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Impulsive shock induced single drop steam explosion visualized by high-speed x-ray radiography and photography - metallic melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. S.; Hansson, R. C.; Sehgal, B. R.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental investigation of fine fragmentation process during vapor explosion was conducted in a small-scale single drop system employing continuous high-speed X-ray radiography and photography. A molten tin drop of about 0.7 g at approximately 1000 .deg. C was dropped into a water pool, at temperatures ranging from 20 to 90 .deg. C, and the explosion was triggered by an external shock pulse of about 1 MPa. X-ray radiographs show that finely fragmented melt particles accelerates to the vapor bubble boundary and forms a particle shell during the period of vapor bubble expansion due to vapor explosions. From the photographs, it was possible to observe a number of counter-jets on the vapor boundary. For tests with highly subcooled coolant, local explosion due to external impulsive shock trigger initiates the stratified mode of explosion along the entire melt surface. For tests with lower subcooled coolant local explosions were initiated by an external impulsive shock trigger and by collapse of vapor/gas pocket attached on the top of the melt drop. Transient spatial distribution map of melt fragments during vapor explosion was obtained by a series of image processing and calibration tests

  14. Computations of the Shock Waves at Hypersonic Velocities Taken into Account the Chemical Reactions that Appear in the Air at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Leonida NICULESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The temperature in the nose region of a hypersonic vehicle can be extremely high, for example, reaching approximately 11 000 K at a Mach number of 36 (Apollo reentry. The bow shock wave is normal, or nearly normal, in the nose region of a blunt body, and the gas temperature behind this shock wave can be enormous at hypersonic speeds. In this case, the assumption of a calorically perfect nonreacting gas with the ratio of specific heats  of 1.4 gives an unrealistically high value of temperature. Therefore, the proper inclusion of chemically reacting effects is vital to the calculation of an accurate normal shock wave temperature.

  15. A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil, rock, and ice penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact of 125 fps. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these more sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reaches the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. As part of the investigation of packaging techniques, a two phase study of shock mitigating materials is being conducted. The purpose of the first phase reported here is to examine the performance of a joint that consists of shock mitigating material sandwiched in between steel and to compare the performance of the shock mitigating materials. A split Hopkinson bar experimental configuration simulates this joint and has been used to study the shock mitigating characteristics of seventeen, unconfined materials. The nominal input for these tests is an incident compressive wave with 50 fps peak (1,500 micro var-epsilon peak) amplitude and a 100 micros duration (measured at 10% amplitude)

  16. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Color guided amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Amplitudes in gauge thoeries obtain contributions from color and kinematics. While these two parts of the amplitude seem to exhibit different symmetry structures, it turns out that they can be reorganized in a way to behave equally, which leads to the so-called color-kinematic dual representations of amplitudes. Astonishingly, the existence of those representations allows squaring to related gravitational theories right away. Contrary to the Kawaii-Levellen-Tye relations, which have been used to relate gauge theories and gravity previously, this method is applicable not only to tree amplitudes but also at loop level. In this talk, the basic technique is introduced followed by a discussion of the existence of color-kinematic dual representations for amplitudes derived from gauge theory actions which are deformed by higher-operator insertions. In addition, it is commented on the implications for deformed gravitational theories.

  18. High-pressure phase transition in silicon carbide under shock loading using ultrafast x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, S. J.; Smith, R. F.; Wicks, J. K.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C.; Speziale, S.; Appel, K.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Fernandez Panella, A.; Lee, H. J.; MacKinnon, A.; Eggert, J.; Duffy, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    The behavior of silicon carbide (SiC) under shock loading was investigated through a series of time-resolved pump-probe x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. SiC is found at impact sites and has been put forward as a possible constituent in the proposed class of extra-solar planets known as carbon planets. Previous studies have used wave profile measurements to identify a phase transition under shock loading near 1 Mbar, but crystal structure information was not obtained. We have carried out an in situ XRD study of shock-compressed SiC using the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The femtosecond time resolution of the x-ray free electron laser allows for the determination of time-dependent atomic arrangements during shock loading and release. Two high-powered lasers were used to generate ablation-driven compression waves in the samples. Time scans were performed using the same drive conditions and nominally identical targets. For each shot in a scan, XRD data was collected at a different probe time after the shock had entered the SiC. Probe times extended up to 40 ns after release. Scans were carried out for peak pressures of 120 and 185 GPa. Our results demonstrate that SiC transforms directly from the ambient tetrahedrally-coordinated phase to the octahedral B1 structure on the nanosecond timescale of laser-drive experiments and reverts to the tetrahedrally coordinated ambient phase within nanoseconds of release. The data collected at 120 GPa exhibit diffraction peaks from both compressed ambient phase and transformed B1 phase, while the data at 185 GPa show a complete transformation to the B1 phase. Densities determined from XRD peaks are in agreement with an extrapolation of previous continuum data as well as theoretical predictions. Additionally, a high degree of texture was retained in both the high-pressure phase as well as on back transformation. Two-dimensional fits to the XRD data reveal details of the

  19. Modeling Small-Amplitude Perturbations in Inertial Confinement Fusion Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesak, Steven; Metzler, N.; Velikovich, A. L.; Gardner, J. H.; Manheimer, W.

    2005-10-01

    Recent advances in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology serve to ensure that imploding laser-driven ICF pellets will spend a significantly larger portion of their time in what is regarded as the ``linear'' portion of their perturbation evolution, i.e., in the presence of small-amplitude but nonetheless evolving perturbations. Since the evolution of these linear perturbations collectively form the initial conditions for the subsequent nonlinear evolution of the pellet, which in turn determines the energy yield of the pellet, the accurate numerical modeling of these small-amplitude perturbations has taken on an increased importance. This modeling is difficult despite the expected linear evolution of the perturbations themselves, because these perturbations are embedded in a highly nonlinear, strongly-shocked, and highly complex flow field which in and of itself stresses numerical computation capabilities, and whose simulation often employs numerical techniques which were not designed with the proper treatment of small-amplitude perturbations in mind. In this paper we will review some of the techniques that we have recently found to be of use toward this end.

  20. The form of electron-atom excitation amplitudes at high momentum transfers in the Faddeev-Watson approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, G.; Roberts, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A form of the off-shell Coulomb T matrix, which has a well defined on-shell limit, is used in the Faddeev-Watson multiple-scattering expansion for a direct three-body collision process. Using the excitation of atomic hydrogen by electron impact as an example, approximations to the second-order terms, which are valid for high momentum transfers of the incident electron, are derived. It is shown how the resulting asymptotic behaviour of the second-order Faddeev-Watson approximation is related to the high momentum transfer limit of the second Born approximation. The results are generalised to the excitation of more complex atoms. The asymptotic forms of the Faddeev-Watson and Born approximations are compared with other theories and with measurements of differential cross sections and angular correlation parameters for the excitation of H(2p) and He(2 1 P). The results indicate that the Faddeev-Watson approximation converges more rapidly at high momentum transfers than does the Born approximation. (author)

  1. The AKM theorem and oscillations in the hadron scattering amplitude at high energy and small momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Selyugin, O.V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1996-10-01

    It is shown that the high precision UA4/2 data for differential cross sections p-barp scattering are compatible with the presence of Auberson -Kinoshita - Martin (AKM) type of oscillations at very small momentum transfers. These oscillations seem to be periodic in {radical}|t|. The existence of such visible oscillations suggests a general mechanism of saturation of axiomatic bounds. As an illustration the consequences for extracting the parameter {rho} = ReF/ImF from dN/dt data are also discussed. (K.A.). 19 refs.

  2. Energy of a shock wave generated in different metals under irradiation by a high-power laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-01-01

    The energies of a shock wave generated in different metals under irradiation by a high-power laser beam were determined experimentally. The experiments were performed with the use of targets prepared from a number of metals, such as aluminum, copper, silver and lead (which belong to different periods of the periodic table) under irradiation by pulses of the first and third harmonics of the PALS iodine laser at a radiation intensity of approximately 10 14 W/cm 2 . It was found that, for heavy metals, like for light solid materials, the fraction of laser radiation energy converted into the energy of a shock wave under irradiation by a laser pulse of the third harmonic considerably (by a factor of 2-3) exceeds the fraction of laser radiation energy converted under irradiation by a laser pulse of the first harmonic. The influence of radiation processes on the efficiency of conversion of the laser energy into the energy of the shock wave was analyzed

  3. THE HIGH ENERGY BUDGET ALLOCATIONS IN SHOCKS AND GAMMA RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, David; Guetta, Dafne; Pohl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The statistical distribution of energies among particles responsible for long gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission is analyzed in light of recent results of the Fermi Observatory. The all-sky flux, F γ , recorded by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is shown, despite its larger energy range, to be not significantly larger than that reported by the Burst and Transient Explorer, suggesting a relatively small flux in the 3-30 MeV energy range. The present-day energy input rate in γ-rays recorded by the GBM from long GRBs is found, assuming star formation rates in the literature, to be W-dot(0)=0.5 F γ H/c=5x10 42 erg Mpc -3 yr -1 . The Large Area Telescope fluence, when observed, is about 5%-10% per decade of the total, in good agreement with the predictions of saturated, nonlinear shock acceleration. The high-energy component of long GRBs, as measured by Fermi, is found to contain only ∼10 -2.5 of the energy needed to produce ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 4 EeV, assuming the latter to be extragalactic, when various numerical factors are carefully included, if the cosmic-ray source spectrum has a spectral index of -2. The observed γ-ray fraction of the required UHECR energy is even smaller if the source spectrum is softer than E -2 . The AMANDA II limits rule out such a GRB origin for UHECRs if much more than 10 -2 of the cosmic-ray energy goes into neutrinos that are within, and simultaneous with, the γ-ray beam. It is suggested that 'orphan' neutrinos out of the γ-ray beam might be identifiable via orphan afterglow or other wide angle signatures of GRBs in lieu of coincidence with prompt γ-rays, and it is recommended that feasible single neutrino trigger criteria be established to search for such coincidences.

  4. High-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy for nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Mao, Yuanqing; Qu, Xinhua; Dai, Kerong; Jia, Qingwei; Zhu, Zhenan; Yan, Mengning

    2018-02-02

    Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is treated with a series of methods. High-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is an option with promising mid-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of ESWT for ONFH. Fifty-three hips in 39 consecutive patients were treated with ESWT in our hospital between January 2005 and July 2006. Forty-four hips in 31 patients with stage I-III nontraumatic ONFH, according to the Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) system, were reviewed in the current retrospective study. The visual analog pain scale (VAS), Harris hip score, radiography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used to estimate treatment results. The progression of ONFH was evaluated by imaging examination and clinical outcomes. The results were classified as clinical success (no progression of hip symptoms) and imaging success (no progression of stage or substage on radiography and MRI). The mean follow-up duration was 130.6 months (range, 121 to 138 months). The mean VAS decreased from 3.8 before ESWT to 2.2 points at the 10-year follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean Harris hip score improved from 77.4 before ESWT to 86.9 points at the 10-year follow-up. The clinical success rates were 87.5% in ARCO stage I patients, 71.4% in ARCO stage II patients, and 75.0% in ARCO stage III patients. Imaging success was observed in all stage I hips, 64.3% of stage II hips, and 12.5% of stage III hips. Seventeen hips showed progression of the ARCO stage/substage on imaging examination. Eight hips showed femoral head collapse at the 10-year follow-up. Four hips in ARCO stage III and one hip in ARCO stage II were treated with total hip arthroplasty during the follow-up. Three were performed 1 year after ESWT, one at 2 years, and one at 5 years. The results of the current study indicated that ESWT is an effective treatment method for nontraumatic ONFH, resulting in pain relief and function restoration

  5. Effects of high- and low-energy radial shock waves therapy combined with physiotherapy in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiangzheng; Li, Zhongli; Liu, Zhengsheng; Shi, Teng; Xue, Chao

    2017-06-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of high- and low-energy radial shock waves combined with physiotherapy for rotator cuff tendinopathy patients. Data from rotator cuff tendinopathy patients received high- or low-energy radial shock waves combined with physiotherapy or physiotherapy alone were collected. The Constant and Murley score and visual analog scale score were collected to assess the effectiveness of treatment in three groups at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. In total, 94 patients were involved for our retrospective study. All groups showed remarkable improvement in the visual analog scale and Constant and Murley score compared to baseline at 24 weeks. The high-energy radial shock waves group had more marked improvement in the Constant and Murley score compared to the physiotherapy group at 4 and 8 weeks and at 4 weeks when compared with low-energy group. Furthermore, high-energy radial shock waves group had superior results on the visual analog scale at 4, 8, and 12 weeks compared to low-energy and physiotherapy groups. This retrospective study supported the usage of high-energy radial shock waves as a supplementary therapy over physiotherapy alone for rotator cuff tendinopathy by relieving the symptoms rapidly and maintaining symptoms at a satisfactory level for 24 weeks. Implications for Rehabilitation High-energy radial shock waves can be a supplemental therapy to physiotherapy for rotator cuff tendinopathy. We recommend the usage of high-energy radial shock waves during the first 5 weeks, at an interval of 7 days, of physiotherapy treatment. High-energy radial shock waves treatment combined with physiotherapy can benefit rotator cuff tendinopathy by relieving symptoms rapidly and maintain these improvements at a satisfactory level for quite a long time.

  6. Mid-Holocene onset of high-amplitude decadal to centennial scale variability along the Peru Chile Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazen, C. R.; Altabet, M.; Herbert, T. D.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the natural climate variations in the eastern tropical Pacific is crucial for predicting the evolution of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) system and for anticipating the ways in which increases in atmospheric CO2 will affect climate. Here we present the first continuous, high-resolution (11-12 yr) climate record across the mid-Holocene transition (10ka-1.4ka) from the Peru-Chile Margin near the epicenter of the modern ENSO system. Although the high productivity of the Peru margin should promote high deposition rates, and the anaerobic bottom water conditions should inhibit sediment mixing by benthic organisms, nearly all sediment cores recovered from this region suffer from major gaps in Holocene sedimentation. Our data comes from a ~5 meter piston core collected from the mid-Peruvian shelf (15° 15"S, 75° 58"W, ~250mwd) in the heart of the oxygen minimum/denitrification zone that provides the first uninterrupted archive of conditions along the Peru-Chile margin. A suite of geochemical proxies allow us to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST- Uk'37), phytoplankton productivity (C37total and %BSi), and thermocline ventilation (δ15N), variables that are tightly correlated to ENSO events today. Despite the observation that the mean late Holocene state of all three variables did not change over the last 10,000 years, our data reveal a dramatic increase in climate variability after the mid Holocene (~5ka); represented by prolonged periods (50-200yrs) of climate extremes, which are absent in the early Holocene. To further investigate these climate extremes we examine benthic foraminiferal assemblages and oxygen isotopes in combination with our other proxy records in selected late Holocene sections. The roughly centennial-scale oscillations do not show typical El Niño-La Niña correlations between proxies. We therefore posit that a significant fraction of super-ENSO variance during the course of the Holocene may originate outside the tropics

  7. Electronic energy gap of molecular hydrogen from electrical conductivity measurements at high shock pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellis, W. J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Mccandless, P. C.; Erskine, D. J.; Weir, S. T.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical conductivities were measured for liquid D2 and H2 shock compressed to pressures of 10-20 GPa (100-200 kbar), molar volumes near 8 cu cm/mol, and calculated temperatures of 2900-4600 K. The semiconducting energy gap derived from the conductivities is 12 eV, in good agreement with recent quasi-particle calculations and with oscillator frequencies measured in diamond-anvil cells.

  8. Elucidation of the Dynamics for Hot-Spot Initiation at Nonuniform Interfaces of Highly Shocked Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    with nonuniform interfaces plays an essential role in the interfacial instabilities in iner- tial confinement fusion (ICF), in shock-induced...involved in interfacial instabilities at the atomic scale, providing insights on such phenomenon. Thus ReaxFF provides the possibility of realistic...on the IPDI and DOA to determine the charges and structures for the binder model. These QM results and model preparation procedure are provided as part

  9. High-energy Emission from Nonrelativistic Radiative Shocks: Application to Gamma-Ray Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurm, Indrek; Metzger, Brian D.

    2018-01-01

    The observation of GeV gamma-rays from novae by Fermi/LAT demonstrates that the nonrelativistic radiative shocks in these systems can accelerate particles to energies of at least ∼10 GeV. The low-energy extension of the same nonthermal particle distribution inevitably gives rise to emission in the hard X-ray band. Above ≳ 10 {keV}, this radiation can escape the system without significant absorption/attenuation, and can potentially be detected by NuSTAR. We present theoretical models for hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission from radiative shocks in both leptonic and hadronic scenarios, accounting for the rapid evolution of the downstream properties due to the fast cooling of thermal plasma. We find that due to strong Coulomb losses, only a fraction of {10}-4{--}{10}-3 of the gamma-ray luminosity is radiated in the NuSTAR band; nevertheless, this emission could be detectable simultaneously with the LAT emission in bright gamma-ray novae with a ∼50 ks exposure. The spectral slope in hard X-rays is α ≈ 0 for typical nova parameters, thus serving as a testable prediction of the model. Our work demonstrates how combined hard X-ray and gamma-ray observations can be used to constrain properties of the nova outflow (velocity, density, and mass outflow rate) and particle acceleration at the shock. A very low X-ray to gamma-ray luminosity ratio ({L}{{X}}/{L}γ ≲ 5× {10}-4) would disfavor leptonic models for the gamma-ray emission. Our model can also be applied to other astrophysical environments with radiative shocks, including SNe IIn and colliding winds in massive star binaries.

  10. DO COROTATING INTERACTION REGION ASSOCIATED SHOCKS SURVIVE WHEN THEY PROPAGATE INTO THE HELIOSHEATH?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provornikova, E.; Opher, M.; Izmodenov, V.; Toth, G.

    2012-01-01

    During the solar minimum at the distance of 42-52 AU from the Sun, Voyager 2 observed recurrent sharp, shock-like increases in the solar wind speed that look very much like forward shocks (Lazarus et al.). The shocks were produced by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) that originated near the Sun. After the termination shock (TS) crossing in 2007, Voyager 2 entered the heliosheath and has been observing the plasma emanated during the recent solar minima. Measurements show high variable flow, but there were no shocks detected in the heliosheath. When CIR-driven shocks propagate to the outer heliosphere, their structure changes due to collision and merging processes of CIRs. In this Letter, we explore an effect of the merging of CIRs on the structure of CIR-associated shocks. We use a three-dimensional MHD model to study the outward propagation of the shocks with characteristics similar to those observed by Voyager 2 at ∼45 AU (Lazarus et al. 1999). We show that due to merging of CIRs (1) reverse shocks disappear, (2) forward shocks become weaker due to interaction with rarefaction regions from preceding CIRs, and (3) forward shocks significantly weaken in the heliosheath. Merged CIRs produce compression regions in the heliosheath with small fluctuations of plasma parameters. Amplitudes of the fluctuations diminish as they propagate deeper in the sheath. We conclude that interaction of shocks and rarefaction regions could be one of the explanations, why shocks produced by CIRs are not observed in the heliosheath by Voyager 2 while they were frequently observed upstream the TS.

  11. A semi-analytical model of a time reversal cavity for high-amplitude focused ultrasound applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, J.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.

    2017-09-01

    Time reversal cavities (TRC) have been proposed as an efficient approach for 3D ultrasound therapy. They allow the precise spatio-temporal focusing of high-power ultrasound pulses within a large region of interest with a low number of transducers. Leaky TRCs are usually built by placing a multiple scattering medium, such as a random rod forest, in a reverberating cavity, and the final peak pressure gain of the device only depends on the temporal length of its impulse response. Such multiple scattering in a reverberating cavity is a complex phenomenon, and optimisation of the device’s gain is usually a cumbersome process, mostly empirical, and requiring numerical simulations with extremely long computation times. In this paper, we present a semi-analytical model for the fast optimisation of a TRC. This model decouples ultrasound propagation in an empty cavity and multiple scattering in a multiple scattering medium. It was validated numerically and experimentally using a 2D-TRC and numerically using a 3D-TRC. Finally, the model was used to determine rapidly the optimal parameters of the 3D-TRC which had been confirmed by numerical simulations.

  12. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    wavelength, they are called shallow water waves. In the ... Deep and intermediate water waves are dispersive as the velocity of these depends on wavelength. This is not the ..... generation processes, the finite amplitude wave theories are very ...

  13. Real topological string amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, K.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Piazzalunga, N. [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3636 (United States); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy); Tanzini, A. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G{sub χ}, at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g{sup ′}=−χ+1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F{sub g}.

  14. High-energy extracorporeal shock-wave therapy for calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J-D; Meadeb, J; Guggenbuhl, P; Marin, F; Benkalfate, T; Thomazeau, H; Chalès, G

    2007-03-01

    In a prospective randomised trial of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff, we compared the efficacy of dual treatment sessions delivering 2500 extracorporeal shock waves at either high- or low-energy, via an electromagnetic generator under fluoroscopic guidance. Patients were eligible for the study if they had more than a three-month history of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff, with calcification measuring 10 mm or more in maximum dimension. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Constant and Murley Score. A total of 80 patients were enrolled (40 in each group), and were re-evaluated at a mean of 110 (41 to 255) days after treatment when the increase in Constant and Murley score was significantly greater (t-test, p = 0.026) in the high-energy treatment group than in the low-energy group. The improvement from the baseline level was significant in the high-energy group, with a mean gain of 12.5 (-20.7 to 47.5) points (p energy group. Total or subtotal resorption of the calcification occurred in six patients (15%) in the high-energy group and in two patients (5%) in the low-energy group. High-energy shock-wave therapy significantly improves symptoms in refractory calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder after three months of follow-up, but the calcific deposit remains unchanged in size in the majority of patients.

  15. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DETONATION ENGINES FOR HIGH-SPEED AEROSPACE AIRCRAFTS AND THE PROBLEM OF TRIPLE CONFIGURATIONS OF SHOCK WAVES. Part II - Research of counterpropagating shock waves and triple shock wave configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with current issues of the interference theory development of gas-dynamic discontinuities as applied to a problem of propulsion refinement for the air-spacecrafts, designed for hypersonic flight speeds. In the first part of the review we have presented the history of detonation study and different concepts of detonation engines, as well as air intakes designed for hypersonic flight speeds. The second part provides an overview of works on the interference theory development for gas-dynamic discontinuities. We report about classification of the gas-dynamic discontinuities, shock wave propagation, shock-wave structures and triple configurations of shock waves. We have shown that many of these processes are accompanied by a hysteresis phenomenon, there are areas of ambiguity; therefore, in the design of engines and air intakes optimal shock-wave structures should be provided and their sustainability should be ensured. Much attention has recently been given to the use of the air intakes in the shock-wave structures with the rereflection of shock waves and the interference of shock waves in the opposite directions. This review provides increased focus on it, contains references to landmark works, the last calculated and experimental results. Unfortunately, foreign surveys missed many landmark works of the Soviet and Russian researchers, as they were not published in English. At the same time, it was the Soviet school of gas dynamics that has formulated the interference theory of gas-dynamic discontinuities in its present form. To fill this gap is one of this review scopes. The review may be recommended for professionals, engineers and scientists working in the field of aerospace engineering.

  16. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  17. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. I - Pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions are derived for the pressure distribution in the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. The undisturbed boundary layer is characterized by the law of the wall and the law of the wake for compressible flow. In the limiting case considered, for 'high' transonic speeds, the sonic line is very close to the wall. Comparisons with experiment are shown, with corrections included for the effect of longitudinal wall curvature and for the boundary-layer displacement effect in a circular pipe.

  18. Effects of the shock duration on the response of CFRP composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Elise; Berthe, Laurent; Boustie, Michel; Arrigoni, Michel; Buzaud, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Shock loads induce a local tensile stress within a sample. The location and amplitude of this high strain rate stress can be monitored respectively by the duration and intensity of the shock. The process is applied to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites, involved in aeronautic or defense industry. This paper describes the response of CFRP laminates of different thicknesses to a shock load normal to the fibres direction. The effects of the shock duration on the wave propagation are key issues of this work. Experiments have been performed on high power laser facilities and on a high power pulsed generator to get a wide range of pulse duration from fs to µs. Numerical simulation provides a comprehensive approach of the wave propagation and tensile stress generation within these complex materials. The main result concerns the relation between the load duration, the tensile stress and the induced delamination within 1, 4 and 8 ply composite laminates. (paper)

  19. Evolution of Shock Waves in Silicon Carbide Rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagansky, I. A.; Balagansky, A. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Utkin, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of shock waves in self-bonded silicon carbide bars in the shape of 20 mm x 20 mm square prisms of varying lengths (20 mm, 40 mm, and 77.5 mm) is investigated. The density and porosity of the test specimens were 3.08 g/cm3 and 2%, respectively. Shock waves were generated by detonating a cylindrical shaped (d=40 mm and 1=40 mm) stabilized RDX high explosive charge of density 1.60 g/cm3. Embedded manganin gauges at various distances from the impact face were used to monitor the amplitude of shock pressure profiles. Propagation velocity of the stress pulse was observed to be equal to the elastic bar wave velocity of 11 km/s and was independent of the amplitude of the impact pulse. Strong fuzziness of the stress wave front is observed. This observation conforms to the theory on the instability of the shock formation in a finite size elastic body. This phenomenon of wave front fuzziness may be useful for desensitization of heterogeneous high explosives

  20. Occurrence of high-beta superthermal plasma events in the close environment of Jupiter's bow shock as observed by Ulysses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhavilas, P. K.; Sarris, E. T.; Anagnostopoulos, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure (or of their energy densities) which is known as the plasma parameter 'beta'(β) has important implications to the propagation of energetic particles and the interaction of the solar wind with planetary magnetospheres. Although in the scientific literature the contribution of the superthermal particles to the plasma pressure is generally assumed negligible, we deduced, by analyzing energetic particles and magnetic field measurements recorded by the Ulysses spacecraft, that in a series of events, the energy density contained in the superthermal tail of the particle distribution is comparable to or even higher than the energy density of the magnetic field, creating conditions of high-beta plasma. More explicitly, in this paper we analyze Ulysses/HI-SCALE measurements of the energy density ratio (parameter β ep ) of the energetic ions'(20 keV to ∼5 MeV) to the magnetic field's in order to find occurrences of high-beta (β ep >1) superthermal plasma conditions in the environment of the Jovian magnetosphere, which is an interesting plasma laboratory and an important source of emissions in our solar system. In particular, we examine high-beta ion events close to Jupiter's bow shock, which are produced by two processes: (a) bow shock ion acceleration and (b) ion leakage from the magnetosphere.

  1. Thermal shock behaviour of H and H/He-exposed tungsten at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemahieu, N; Linke, J; Pintsuk, G; Wirtz, M; Greuner, H; Maier, H; Oost, G Van; Noterdaeme, J-M

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline tungsten samples were characterized and exposed to a pure H beam or mixed H/He beam containing 6% He in GLADIS at a surface temperature of 600 °C, 1000 °C, or 1500 °C. After 5400 s of exposure time with a heat flux of 10.5 MW m −2 , the total accumulated fluence of 2 × 10 25 m −2 was reached. Thereafter, edge localized mode (ELM)-like thermal shocks with a duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of 190 MW m −2 and 380 MW m −2 were applied on the samples in JUDITH 1. During the thermal shocks, the base temperature was kept at 1000 °C. The ELM-experiments with the lowest transient power density did not result in any detected damage. The other tests showed the beginning of crack formation for every sample, except the sample pre-exposed with the pure H-beam at 1500 °C in GLADIS. This sample was roughened, but did not show any crack initiation. With exception to the roughened sample, the category of ELM-induced damage for the pre-exposed samples is identical to the reference tests without pre-exposure to a particle flux. (paper)

  2. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, genuine nonlinearity is always present in an ideal gas. The conservation form of the equation (25) brings in shocks which cut off the growing part of the amplitUde as shown in. Figure 15. Acknowledgements. The author sincerely thanks the two referees whose valuable comments led to an improvement of the ...

  3. Intergranular stress study of TC11 titanium alloy after laser shock peening by synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, R.; Li, L.; Wang, Y. D.; Nie, Z. H.; Ren, Y.; Zhou, X.; Wang, J.

    2018-05-01

    The distribution of residual lattice strain as a function of depth were carefully investigated by synchrotron-based high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) in TC11 titanium alloy after laser shock peening (LSP). The results presented big compressive residual lattice strains at surface and subsurface, then tensile residual lattice strains in deeper region, and finally close to zero lattice strains in further deep interior with no plastic deformation thereafter. These evolutions in residual lattice strains were attributed to the balance of direct load effect from laser shock wave and the derivative restriction force effect from surrounding material. Significant intergranular stress was evidenced in the processed sample. The intergranular stress exhibited the largest value at surface, and rapidly decreased with depth increase. The magnitude of intergranular stress was proportional to the severity of the plastic deformation caused by LSP. Two shocks generated larger intergranular stress than one shock.

  4. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2014-03-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  5. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  6. The effect of high-energy extracorporeal shock waves on hyaline cartilage of adult rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Wagner, Susanne; Ernst, Judith; Maier, Markus; Chiquet, Matthias; Joos, Helga; Müller, Peter E; Jansson, Volkmar; Sievers, Birte; Hausdorf, Jörg

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in vivo affects the structural integrity of articular cartilage. A single bout of ESWT (1500 shock waves of 0.5 mJ/mm(2)) was applied to femoral heads of 18 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Two sham-treated animals served as controls. Cartilage of each femoral head was harvested at 1, 4, or 10 weeks after ESWT (n = 6 per treatment group) and scored on safranin-O-stained sections. Expression of tenascin-C and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (Chi3L1) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine collagen (II)alpha(1) (COL2A1) expression and chondrocyte morphology was investigated by transmission electron microscopy no changes in Mankin scores were observed after ESWT. Positive immunostaining for tenascin-C and Chi3L1 was found up to 10 weeks after ESWT in experimental but not in control cartilage. COL2A1 mRNA was increased in samples 1 and 4 weeks after ESWT. Alterations found on the ultrastructural level showed expansion of the rough-surfaced endoplasmatic reticulum, detachment of the cell membrane and necrotic chondrocytes. Extracorporeal shock waves caused alterations of hyaline cartilage on a molecular and ultrastructural level that were distinctly different from control. Similar changes were described before in the very early phase of osteoarthritis (OA). High-energy ESWT might therefore cause degenerative changes in hyaline cartilage as they are found in initial OA. Copyright 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A low or high BMI is a risk factor for renal hematoma after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussberger, Fabio; Roth, Beat; Metzger, Tobias; Kiss, Bernhard; Thalmann, George N; Seiler, Roland

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for renal hematoma after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for kidney stones in a matched case-control analysis of a subgroup of patients recruited from a prospective randomized cohort. Between 06/2010 and 03/2013, 418 patients underwent SWL with the MODULITH ® -SLX-F2-lithotripter for kidney stones. In 39/418 patients (9 %), ultrasound at post-treatment day 1 revealed renal hematomas. For 37 of these patients, a matched group without hematoma could be selected according to the following matching criteria: age, gender, number and energy of shock waves, stone burden and localization. Risk factors for renal hematoma after SWL were compared between the two groups. The rates of diabetes, stopped anticoagulant/antiplatelet medications and arterial hypertension were not different between the two groups (p > 0.2). The skin-kidney distance was virtually the same in both groups (p = 0.5). In the hematoma group, significantly more patients had a high (>30: n = 16) as well as a low (hematomas after SWL. Patients with a high (>30) or low (<21.5) BMI had a higher risk for renal damage after SWL. Therefore, alternative endoscopic treatment options should be considered in these patients.

  8. X-ray absorption radiography for high pressure shock wave studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Batani, D.; Baton, S. D.; Brambrink, E.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Koenig, M.; Le Bel, E.; Maheut, Y.; Nguyen-Bui, T.; Richetta, M.; Rousseaux, C.; Ribeyre, X.; Schiavi, A.; Trela, J.

    2018-01-01

    The study of laser compressed matter, both warm dense matter (WDM) and hot dense matter (HDM), is relevant to several research areas, including materials science, astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion. X-ray absorption radiography is a unique tool to diagnose compressed WDM and HDM. The application of radiography to shock-wave studies is presented and discussed. In addition to the standard Abel inversion to recover a density map from a transmission map, a procedure has been developed to generate synthetic radiographs using density maps produced by the hydrodynamics code DUED. This procedure takes into account both source-target geometry and source size (which plays a non negligible role in the interpretation of the data), and allows to reproduce transmission data with a good degree of accuracy.

  9. The CHESS survey of the L1157-B1 bow-shock: high and low excitation water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, G.; Lefloch, B.; Benedettini, M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Codella, C.; Cabrit, S.; Nisini, B.; Viti, S.; Gómez-Ruiz, A. I.; Gusdorf, A.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Molecular outflows powered by young protostars strongly affect the kinematics and chemistry of the natal molecular cloud through strong shocks. This results in substantial modifications of the abundance of several species. In particular, water is a powerful tracer of shocked material because of its sensitivity to both physical conditions and chemical processes. Aims: As part of the Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star-forming regions (CHESS) guaranteed time key program, we aim at investigating the physical and chemical conditions of H2O in the brightest shock region B1 of the L1157 molecular outflow. Methods: We observed several ortho- and para-H2O transitions using the HIFI and PACS instruments on board Herschel toward L1157-B1, providing a detailed picture of the kinematics and spatial distribution of the gas. We performed a large velocity gradient (LVG) analysis to derive the physical conditions of H2O shocked material, and ultimately obtain its abundance. Results: We detected 13 H2O lines with both instruments probing a wide range of excitation conditions. This is the largest data set of water lines observed in a protostellar shock and it provides both the kinematics and the spatial information of the emitting gas. The PACS maps reveal that H2O traces weak and extended emission associated with the outflow identified also with HIFI in the o-H2O line at 556.9 GHz, and a compact (~10'') bright, higher excitation region. The LVG analysis of H2O lines in the bow-shock show the presence of two gas components with different excitation conditions: a warm (Tkin ≃ 200-300 K) and dense (n(H2) ≃ (1-3) × 106 cm-3) component with an assumed extent of 10'', and a compact (~2''-5'') and hot, tenuous (Tkin ≃ 900-1400 K, n(H2) ≃ 103-4 cm-3) gas component that is needed to account for the line fluxes of high Eu transitions. The fractional abundance of the warm and hot H2O gas components is estimated to be (0.7-2) × 10-6 and (1-3) × 10-4, respectively. Finally, we

  10. INTERFERENCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.

  11. Amplitude and Ascoli analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the partial wave analysis of two, three and four meson systems. The difference between the two approaches, referred to as amplitude and Ascoli analysis is discussed. Some of the results obtained with these methods are shown. (B.R.H.)

  12. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  13. Study on manufacturing technique of synthetic shock-absorbers for underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Takashi; Onodera, Yoshio; Hayashi, Hiromichi; Ebina, Takeo; Nagase, Takako; Torii, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    On the cse of underground disposal of high level radioactive wastes, natural bentonite is planned to be used for artificial barrier shock-absorber. This is due to expectation of sealing water or adsorbing nuclear materials using swelling and ion-exchanging capacities of smectite, which is a main component of bentonite. In this study, some swelling laminar compounds with various compositions and structures are synthesized to investigate their water sealing and nuclear adsorbing properties. And, according to their results, an optimum material is selected to develop its economic manufacturing method and investigate its alternative possibility for natural bentonite. From such reason, following two titled studies have been executed; 1) Synthesis of the swelling laminar compounds, and 2) Development of manufacturing technique of artificial shock-absorber. In 1995 FY, 1) Detail investigation on synthetic condition of double octahedral type smectite and 2) modeling of the smectite and stability of same type displacement for base of inducing the computer simulation for estimating creation process of optimum materials, were conducted. (G.K.)

  14. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  15. Retrospectively reported month-to-month variation in sleeping problems of people naturally exposed to high-amplitude annual variation in daylength and/or temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady A. Putilov

    Full Text Available Compared to literature on seasonal variation in mood and well-being, reports on seasonality of trouble sleeping are scarce and contradictive. To extend geography of such reports on example of people naturally exposed to high-amplitude annual variation in daylength and/or temperature. Participants were the residents of Turkmenia, West Siberia, South and North Yakutia, Chukotka, and Alaska. Health and sleep-wake adaptabilities, month-to-month variation in sleeping problems, well-being and behaviors were self-assessed. More than a half of 2398 respondents acknowledged seasonality of sleeping problems. Four of the assessed sleeping problems demonstrated three different patterns of seasonal variation. Rate of the problems significantly increased in winter months with long nights and cold days (daytime sleepiness and difficulties falling and staying asleep as well as in summer months with either long days (premature awakening and difficulties falling and staying asleep or hot nights and days (all 4 sleeping problems. Individual differences between respondents in pattern and level of seasonality of sleeping problems were significantly associated with differences in several other domains of individual variation, such as gender, age, ethnicity, physical health, morning-evening preference, sleep quality, and adaptability of the sleep-wake cycle. These results have practical relevance to understanding of the roles playing by natural environmental factors in seasonality of sleeping problems as well as to research on prevalence of sleep disorders and methods of their prevention and treatment in regions with large seasonal differences in temperature and daylength.

  16. Collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Kennel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Collisionless shocks cannot occur naturally on the earth, because nearly all matter here consists of electrically neutral atoms and molecules. In space, however, high temperatures and ultraviolet radiation from hot stars decompose atoms into their constituent nuclei and electrons, producing a soup of electrically charged particles known as a plasma. Plasma physicists proposed that the collective electrical and magnetic properties of plasmas could produce interactions that take the place of collisions and permit shocks to form. In 1964 the theoretical work found its first experimental confirmation. Norman F. Ness and his colleagues at the Goddard Space Flight Center, using data collected from the iMP-1 spacecraft, detected clear signs that a collisionless shock exists where the solar wind encounters the earth's magnetic field. More recent research has demonstrated that collisionless shocks appear in a dazzling array of astronomical settings. For example, shocks have been found in the solar wind upstream (sunward) of all the planet and comets that have been visited by spacecraft. Violent flares on the sun generate shocks that propagate to the far reaches of the solar system; tremendous galactic outbursts create disruptions in the intergalactic medium that are trillions of times larger. In addition, many astrophysicists think that shocks from supernova explosions in our galaxy accelerate cosmic rays, a class of extraordinarily energetic elementary particles and atomic nuclei that rain down on the earth from all directions

  17. Interfacial instability induced by a shock wave in a gas-liquid horizontal stratified system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutradhar, S.C.; Chang, J.S.; Yoshida, H.

    1987-01-01

    The experiments are performed in a rectangular lucite duct equipped with the facility of generating shock waves. Piezo-type pressure transducers are used to monitor the strength and propagation velocity of the shock wave. As the liquid phase has high sound velocity, a prepulse wave system of flow amplitude travels in this phase at a speed faster than the principal shock wave. The magnitude of the transmitted wave in the liquid phase is estimated using a transmission coefficient for gas-liquid system. From the initial pressure ratio of the shock wave, the amplitude of the prepulse as well as the induced interfacial fluid velocity are calculated. The wave length and height of the ripples during the passage of the shock wave are estimated for a specific strength of shock wave moving through the phases. From the high speed photographs, the wave length of the ripples can be assessed. The interfacial friction factor is calculated using colebrook's equation for high speed flow. At least five distinct phenomena are observed to exist during the propagation of a shock wave. These are - (1) the energy carried by the pre-pulse is utilized in perturbing the interface; (2) shock wave induces a mass velocity at the interface; (3) the wavelength of the ripples at the interface is the product of induced interfacial mass velocity and the time period of the prepulse; (4) a portion of the liquid mass of the perturbed interface is entrained in the gas phase may be due to the hydrodynamic lift in that phase; and finally (5) waves with long wavelength are established at the interface

  18. High dynamic range emission measurements of shocked energetic materials: Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    A new emission apparatus with high time resolution and high dynamic range was used to study shock-induced ignition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in the form of ultrafine powder (4 ± 3 μm particle size), over a range of impact velocities (0.8-4.3 km s-1) and impact durations (2.5-16 ns). A graybody model was used to extract graybody emissivities and time-dependent temperatures from a few ns to 100 μs. The emission transients consisted of three parts: a 6700 K nanosecond burst during the shocks, a 4000-4500 K temperature spike near 0.3 μs followed by a ˜3300 K tail extending out to ˜100 μs. These temperatures varied remarkably little with impact velocity and duration, while the emission intensities and emissivities changed by over an order of magnitude. The emissivity changes were interpreted with a hot spot model, where hot spot temperatures reached a maximum of 6700 K and the hot spot volume fractions increased from 5% to 100% as impact velocity increased from 1 to 3 km s-1. Changing shock durations in the 2.5-16 ns range had noticeable effects on the microsecond emission. The 0.3 μs temperature spike was much smaller or absent with 2.5 ns shocks, but prominent with longer durations. An explanation for these effects was put forth that invoked the formation of carbon-rich clusters during the shock. In this view, cluster formation was minimal with 2.5 ns shocks, but longer-duration shocks produced increasingly larger clusters, and the 0.3 μs temperature spikes represented cluster ignition.

  19. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CHARACTER OF PRE-EXPLOSION CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SHOCK MOTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, Adam; Dolence, Joshua C.; Murphy, Jeremiah W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the stalled supernova shock in both two and three dimensions (2D and 3D, respectively) and explore the differences in the effects of neutrino heating and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). We find that early on the amplitude of the dipolar mode of the shock is factors of ∼2-3 smaller in 3D than in 2D. However, later in both 3D and 2D, the monopole and dipole modes start to grow until explosion. Whereas in 2D, the (l, m) = (1, 0) mode changes sign quasi-periodically, producing the 'up-and-down' motion always seen in modern 2D simulations, in 3D this almost never happens. Rather, in 3D when the dipolar mode starts to grow, it grows in magnitude and wanders stochastically in direction until settling before explosion to a particular patch of solid angle. Furthermore, in 2D, we find that the amplitude of the dipolar shock deformation separates into two classes. For the first, identified with the SASI and for a wide range of 'low' neutrino luminosities, this amplitude remains small and roughly constant. For the other, identified with higher luminosities and neutrino-driven convection, the dipolar amplitude grows sharply. Importantly, it is only for this higher luminosity class that we see neutrino-driven explosions within ∼1 s of bounce. Moreover, for the 'low' luminosity runs (including zero), the power spectra of these dipolar oscillations peak in the 30-50 Hz range associated with advection timescales, while for the high-luminosity runs the power spectra at lower frequencies are significantly more prominent. We associate this enhanced power at lower frequencies with slower convective effects and the secular growth of the dipolar shock amplitude. Though our study involves a simplified, parameterized approach, on the basis of it we hypothesize that neutrino-driven buoyant convection should almost always dominate the SASI when the supernova explosion is neutrino-driven.

  20. demystifying the shock of shocking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (with a pulse), atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. The energy dose in cardioversion is less (0.5. - 2 J/kg) than in defibrillation (2 - 4 J/kg). In cardioversion the shock is discharged synchronously with the native R wave of the patient. Without synchronisation,. VF can be induced if a shock is delivered during the refractory period ...

  1. Light Meson Distribution Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, R.; Brommel, D.; Donnellan, M.A.; Flynn, J.M.; Juttner, A.; de Lima, H.Pedroso; Rae, T.D.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Samways, B.

    2010-01-01

    We calculated the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes for the pseudoscalar mesons ($\\pi$ and $K$) and the longitudinally polarised vector mesons ($\\rho$, $K^*$ and $\\phi$) as part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme. These quantities were obtained with a good precision and, in particular, the expected effects of $SU(3)$-flavour symmetry breaking were observed. Operators were renormalised non-perturbatively and extrapolations to the physical point were made, guided by leading order chiral perturbation theory. The main results presented are for two volumes, $16^3\\times 32$ and $24^3\\times 64$, with a common lattice spacing. Preliminary results for a lattice with a finer lattice spacing, $32^3\\times64$, are discussed and a first look is taken at the use of twisted boundary conditions to extract distribution amplitudes.

  2. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth's bow shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaykowska, A.; Bauer, T.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Treumann, R.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Garching (Germany); International Space Science Inst. (ISSI), Bern (Switzerland); Baumjohann, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Inst. fuer Weltraumforschung der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Graz (Austria)

    2001-03-01

    We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700) bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes upstream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle {theta}{sub Bn} between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-{beta}. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger ({delta}B {proportional_to} 4 nT for frequencies 0.01-0.04 Hz) than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Downstream of the quasi-perpendicular low-{beta} bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-{beta} regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular ({theta}{sub Bn} {approx} 90 ) high-{beta} crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic field overshoots in the Venus blow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatrallyay, M.; Luhmann, J.G.; Russell, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    An examination of Pioneer Venus Orbiter fluxgate magnetometer data has shown that magnetic field overshoots occur not only behind quasi-perpendicular bow shocks but also behind quasi-parallel shocks. Overshoots are assocciated only with supercritical shocks. Their amplitudes increase with increasing fast Mach number. Solar wind beta has a lesser effect. The thickness of the overshoot increases with decreasing Theta-BN. The thickness of apparent overshoots detected behind 4 strong fast interplanetary shocks (M greater than M/crit) is about 3 orders of magnitude larger. Multiple crossings of the Venus bow shock were observed mainly at turbulent shocks. Their occurence is not influenced by Theta-BN. 15 references

  4. Electromagnetically driven radiative shocks and their measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Watanabe, M.; Nakajima, M.; Kawamura, T.; Horioka, K.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on a generation of strong shocks in a compact pulse power device are reported. The characteristics of strong shocks are different from hydrodynamical shocks' because they depend on not only collisions but radiation processes. Radiative shocks are relevant to high energy density phenomena such as the explosions of supernovae. When initial pressure is lower than about 50 mtorr, an interesting structure is confirmed at the shock front, which might indicate a phenomenon proceeded by the radiative process. (author)

  5. Effect of back-pressure forcing on shock train structures in rectangular channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnani, F.; Zare-Behtash, H.; White, C.; Kontis, K.

    2018-04-01

    The deceleration of a supersonic flow to the subsonic regime inside a high-speed engine occurs through a series of shock waves, known as a shock train. The generation of such a flow structure is due to the interaction between the shock waves and the boundary layer inside a long and narrow duct. The understanding of the physics governing the shock train is vital for the improvement of the design of high-speed engines and the development of flow control strategies. The present paper analyses the sensitivity of the shock train configuration to a back-pressure variation. The complex characteristics of the shock train at an inflow Mach number M = 2 in a channel of constant height are investigated with two-dimensional RANS equations closed by the Wilcox k-ω turbulence model. Under a sinusoidal back-pressure variation, the simulated results indicate that the shock train executes a motion around its mean position that deviates from a perfect sinusoidal profile with variation in oscillation amplitude, frequency, and whether the pressure is first increased or decreased.

  6. Life shocks and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide.

  7. Effects of Cervical High-Velocity Low-Amplitude Techniques on Range of Motion, Strength Performance, and Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindez-Ibarbengoetxea, Xabier; Setuain, Igor; Andersen, Lars L; Ramírez-Velez, Robinson; González-Izal, Miriam; Jauregi, Andoni; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-09-01

    Cervical high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation technique is among the oldest and most frequently used chiropractic manual therapy, but the physiologic and biomechanics effects were not completely clear. This review aims to describe the effects of cervical HVLA manipulation techniques on range of motion, strength, and cardiovascular performance. A systematic search was conducted of the electronic databases from January 2000 to August 2016: PubMed (n = 131), ScienceDirect (n = 101), Scopus (n = 991), PEDro (n = 33), CINAHL (n = 884), and SciELO (n = 5). Two independent reviewers conducted the screening process to determine article eligibility. The intervention that included randomized controlled trials was thrust, or HVLA, manipulative therapy directed to the cervical spine. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The initial search rendered 2145 articles. After screening titles and abstracts, 11 articles remained for full-text review. The review shows that cervical HVLA manipulation treatment results in a large effect size (d > 0.80) on increasing cervical range of motion and mouth opening. In patients with lateral epicondylalgia, cervical HVLA manipulation resulted in increased pain-free handgrip strength, with large effect sizes (1.44 and 0.78, respectively). Finally, in subjects with hypertension the blood pressure seemed to decrease after cervical HVLA manipulation. Higher quality studies are needed to develop a stronger evidence-based foundation for HVLA manipulation techniques as a treatment for cervical conditions.

  8. Negative response of photosynthesis to natural and projected high seawater temperatures estimated by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry in a temperate coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroselli, Erik; Falini, Giuseppe; Goffredo, Stefano; Dubinsky, Zvy; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Balanophyllia europaea is a shallow water solitary zooxanthellate coral, endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Extensive field studies across a latitudinal temperature gradient highlight detrimental effects of rising temperatures on its growth, demography, and skeletal characteristics, suggesting that depression of photosynthesis at high temperatures might cause these negative effects. Here we test this hypothesis by analyzing, by means of pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry, the photosynthetic efficiency of B. europaea specimens exposed in aquaria to the annual range of temperatures experienced in the field (13, 18, and 28°C), and two extreme temperatures expected for 2100 as a consequence of global warming (29 and 32°C). The indicators of photosynthetic performance analyzed (maximum and effective quantum yield) showed that maximum efficiency was reached at 20.0-21.6°C, slightly higher than the annual mean temperature in the field (18°C). Photosynthetic efficiency decreased from 20.0 to 13°C and even more strongly from 21.6 to 32°C. An unusual form of bleaching was observed, with a maximum zooxanthellae density at 18°C that strongly decreased from 18 to 32°C. Chlorophyll a concentration per zooxanthellae cell showed an opposite trend as it was minimal at 18°C and increased from 18 to 32°C. Since the areal chlorophyll concentration is the product of the zooxanthellae density and its cellular content, these trends resulted in a homogeneous chlorophyll concentration per coral surface across temperature treatments. This confirms that B. europaea photosynthesis is progressively depressed at temperatures >21.6°C, supporting previous hypotheses raised by the studies on growth and demography of this species. This study also confirms the threats posed to this species by the ongoing seawater warming.

  9. Negative response of photosynthesis to natural and projected high seawater temperatures estimated by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry in a temperate coral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eCaroselli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Balanophyllia europaea is a shallow water solitary zooxanthellate coral, endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Extensive field studies across a latitudinal temperature gradient highlight detrimental effects of rising temperatures on its growth, demography and skeletal characteristics, suggesting that depression of photosynthesis at high temperatures might cause these negative effects. Here we test this hypothesis by analyzing, by means of pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry, the photosynthetic efficiency of B. europaea specimens exposed in aquaria to the annual range of temperatures experienced in the field (13°C, 18°C, and 28°C, and two extreme temperatures expected for 2100 as a consequence of global warming (29°C and 32°C. The indicators of photosynthetic performance analyzed (maximum and effective quantum yield showed that maximum efficiency was reached at 20.0-21.6°C, slightly higher than the annual mean temperature in the field (18°C. Photosynthetic efficiency decreased from 20.0°C to 13°C and even more strongly from 21.6°C to 32°C. An unusual form of bleaching was observed, with a maximum zooxanthellae density at 18°C that strongly decreased from 18°C to 32°C. Chlorophyll a concentration per zooxanthellae cell showed an opposite trend as it was minimal at 18°C and increased from 18°C to 32°C. Since the areal chlorophyll concentration is the product of the zooxanthellae density and its cellular content, these trends resulted in a homogeneous chlorophyll concentration per coral surface across temperature treatments. This confirms that B. europaea photosynthesis is progressively depressed at temperatures >21.6°C, supporting previous hypotheses raised by the studies on growth and demography of this species. This study also confirms the threats posed to this species by the ongoing seawater warming.

  10. Did the onset of high amplitude glacio-eustatic cycles trigger mass-transport processes on the Northwest Shelf of Australia? Insights from IODP expedition 356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, S. J.; McCaffrey, J.; Wallace, M. W.; Keep, M.; Fulthorpe, C.; Bogus, K.; McHugh, C.

    2017-12-01

    Mass-transport processes on continental margins may have catastrophic consequences, causing tsunamis, major rock falls and avalanches and can destroy offshore hydrocarbon installations. Mass-transport deposits (MTD's) with volumes 17 to >162 km3 are common along the northwest margin of Australia. One of the largest is the Gorgon slide which is offshore from Barrow Island with a minimum volume of 250 km3. Age estimates for slides on the Northwest Shelf are variable and range from Miocene to Recent (Gorgon MTD), late Pliocene to Recent (Thebe/Bonaventure MTD's) and Pleistocene to Recent. This age uncertainty is related to a lack of cored sections through these slides and relies on pre-existing ages and correlations from poorly dated sections (usually industry well sections with minimal samples in the upper 500 m) distal from the MTD's. Therefore, the age, origin and history of these MTD's is not well known. A recent International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition (IODP Expedition 356) to the region obtained a series of continuous cores from the upper 600m to 1.1 km of the Northern Carnarvon and Roebuck Basins. Four sites were cored adjacent to hydrocarbon wells; West Tryal Rocks-2 (Site U1461), Fisher-1 (Site U1462), Picard-1 (Site U1463) and Minilya-1 (Site U1464). Site U1461 yielded 100% core recovery through the Gorgon Slide. Preliminary data from this section suggests that it is relatively young (activity from 0.5 Ma continuing to today. We suggest neotectonism combined with the onset of high amplitude glacio-eustatic cycles may have been triggering factors for this slide.

  11. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth’s bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czaykowska

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700 bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes up-stream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle θBn between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-β. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger (δB ~ 4 nT for frequencies 0.01–0.04 Hz than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Down-stream of the quasi-perpendicular low-β bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-β regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular (θBn ≈ 90° high-β crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and

  12. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth’s bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czaykowska

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700 bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes up-stream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle θBn between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-β. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger (δB ~ 4 nT for frequencies 0.01–0.04 Hz than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Down-stream of the quasi-perpendicular low-β bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-β regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular (θBn ≈ 90° high-β crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities

  13. Hypovolemic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person's position unless they are in immediate danger. Do not give fluids by mouth. If person ... the patient with shock. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  15. Oscillations in the hadron scattering amplitude at high energy and small momentum transfer; Oscillations dans l`amplitude de diffusion hadronique a haute energie et petites moments de transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, Pierre; Basarab Nicolescu [Theoretical Physics Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Selyugin, O.V. [Lab. of Theoretical Physics, Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1999-10-01

    We show that the high precision dN/dt UA4/2 data at {radical} = 541 GeV are compatible with the presence of Auberson-Kinoshita-Martin (AKM) type of oscillations at very small momentum transfer. These oscillations seem to be periodic in {radical}|t|, the corresponding period being {approx_equal} 2 {center_dot}10{sup -2} GeV. The existence of such visible oscillations suggests a general mechanism of saturation of axiomatic bounds. As an illustration the consequences for extracting the parameter {rho} = ReF/ImF from dN/dt data are also discussed. (authors) 1 ref., 2 figs.

  16. Altered spontaneous brain activity pattern in patients with high myopia using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang X

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xin Huang,1,2,* Fu-Qing Zhou,3,* Yu-Xiang Hu,1 Xiao-Xuan Xu,1 Xiong Zhou,4 Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Jun Wang,4 Xiao-Rong Wu1 1Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang City, Jiujiang, 3Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Medical Imaging Research Institute, 4Second Department of Respiratory Disease, Jiangxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Many previous reports have demonstrated significant neural anatomy changes in the brain of high myopic (HM patients, whereas the spontaneous brain activity changes in the HM patients at rest are not well studied. Our objective was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF method to investigate the changes in spontaneous brain activity in HM patients and their relationships with clinical features. Methods: A total of 38 patients with HM (17 males and 21 females and 38 healthy controls (HCs (17 males and 21 females closely matched in age, sex, and education underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The ALFF method was used to assess local features of spontaneous brain activity. The relationship between the mean ALFF signal values in many brain regions and the clinical features in HM patients was calculated by correlation analysis. Results: Compared with HCs, the HM patients had significantly lower ALFF in the right inferior and middle temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus/putamen, right inferior frontal gyrus/putamen/insula, right middle frontal gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule and higher ALFF values in the bilateral midcingulate cortex, left postcentral gyrus, and left precuneus/inferior parietal lobule. However, no relationship was found between the mean ALFF

  17. High-energy extracorporeal shock-wave therapy for treating chronic calcific tendinitis of the shoulder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannuru, Raveendhara R; Flavin, Nina E; Vaysbrot, Elizaveta; Harvey, William; McAlindon, Timothy

    2014-04-15

    Calcific and noncalcific tendinitis of the shoulder can be unresponsive to conventional therapies. Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) has been suggested as an alternative treatment. To assess the efficacy of ESWT in patients with calcific and noncalcific tendinitis. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched up to 1 November 2013. Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing high-energy versus low-energy ESWT or placebo for treatment of calcific or noncalcific tendinitis of the shoulder. Outcome measures included pain (visual analogue scale score), functional assessment (Constant-Murley score), and resolution of calcifications. Three independent reviewers abstracted data and determined eligibility and quality by consensus. Twenty-eight RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Studies were heterogeneous. Twenty RCTs compared ESWT energy levels and placebo and consistently showed that high-energy ESWT was significantly better than placebo in decreasing pain and improving function and resorption of calcifications in calcific tendinitis. No significant difference was found between ESWT and placebo in treatment of noncalcific tendinitis. The number of RCTs was small, and the studies were heterogeneous. High-energy ESWT is effective for improving pain and shoulder function in chronic calcific shoulder tendinitis and can result in complete resolution of calcifications. This therapy may be underutilized for a condition that can be difficult to manage. None.

  18. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The same argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions

  19. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  20. A review of recent developments in the understanding of transonic shock buffet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelis, Nicholas F.; Vio, Gareth A.; Levinski, Oleg

    2017-07-01

    Within a narrow band of flight conditions in the transonic regime, interactions between shock-waves and intermittently separated shear layers result in large amplitude, self-sustained shock oscillations. This phenomenon, known as transonic shock buffet, limits the flight envelope and is detrimental to both platform handling quality and structural integrity. The severity of this instability has incited a plethora of research to ascertain an underlying physical mechanism, and yet, with over six decades of investigation, aspects of this complex phenomenon remain inexplicable. To promote continual progress in the understanding of transonic shock buffet, this review presents a consolidation of recent investigations in the field. The paper begins with a conspectus of the seminal literature on shock-induced separation and modes of shock oscillation. The currently prevailing theories for the governing physics of transonic shock buffet are then detailed. This is followed by an overview of computational studies exploring the phenomenon, where the results of simulation are shown to be highly sensitive to the specific numerical methods employed. Wind tunnel investigations on two-dimensional aerofoils at shock buffet conditions are then outlined and the importance of these experiments for the development of physical models stressed. Research considering dynamic structural interactions in the presence of shock buffet is also highlighted, with a particular emphasis on the emergence of a frequency synchronisation phenomenon. An overview of three-dimensional buffet is provided next, where investigations suggest the governing mechanism may differ significantly from that of two-dimensional sections. Subsequently, a number of buffet suppression technologies are described and their efficacy in mitigating shock oscillations is assessed. To conclude, recommendations for the direction of future research efforts are given.

  1. On the Numerical Modeling of Fluid Instabilities in the Small-Amplitude Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesak, Steven; Schmitt, A. J.; Velikovich, A. L.

    2008-11-01

    The problem we wish to address is that of accurately modeling the evolution of small-amplitude perturbations to a time- dependent flow, where the unperturbed flow itself exhibits large-amplitude temporal and spatial variations. In particular, we wish to accurately model the evolution of small-amplitude perturbations to an imploding ICF pellet, which is subject to both Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. This modeling is difficult despite the expected linear evolution of the perturbations themselves, because these perturbations are embedded in a highly nonlinear, strongly- shocked, and highly complex flow field which in and of itself stresses numerical computation capabilities, and whose simulation often employs numerical techniques which were not designed with the proper treatment of small-amplitude perturbations in mind. We will review some of the techniques that we have found to be of use toward this end, including the imposition of a ``differentiability condition'' on the component numerical algorithms of the codes which implement such modeling, the appropriate representation of interfaces in an Eulerian hydrodynamics context, and the role of exact energy conservation.

  2. Structure of boron nitride after the high-temperature shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdyumov, A.V.; Ostrovskaya, N.F.; Pilipenko, V.A.; Pilyankevich, A.N.; Savvakin, G.I.; Trefilov, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    Boron nitride structure changes as a result of high temperature dynamic compression are studied. The X-ray technique and transmission electron microscopy have been applied. The data on the structure and regularities of formation of diamond-like modifications of boron nitride at high temperature impact compression permit to consider martensite transformation as the first stage of formation of the sphalerite phase stable at high pressures. The second stage is possible if the temperature at the impact moment is sufficiently high for intensive diffusion processes

  3. Experimental validation of GASDECOM for High Heating Value Processed Gas mixtures (58 MJ/m3) by specialized shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, K.K.; Geerligs, J.; Carlson, L.; Reed, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental requirements of the design of pipelines is the control of propagating ductile fracture, in which the Battelle two-curve method still forms the basis of the analytical framework used throughout the industry. The GASDECOM (GAS DECOMpression) tool is typically used for calculating decompression wave speed, which is one of these two curves. It uses the BWRS (Benedict–Webb–Rubin–Starling) equation of state to idealize the decompression process as isentropic and one-dimensional. While this equation of state was developed and validated against a quite restricted range of gas compositions, GASDECOM continues to perform relatively well for compositions slightly outside the original range of BWRS. The present research was focused on examining the performance of GASDECOM for mixture compositions up to a High (gross) Heating Value (HHV) of 58 MJ/m 3 . Four tests were conducted using a specialized high pressure shock tube (42 m long, I.D. = 38.1 mm) to experimentally determine the decompression wave speeds and compare them to the predictions by GASDECOM. Two tests were conducted on a gas mixture of HHV = 52 MJ/m 3 and the other two on even richer gas mixture of HHV = 58 MJ/m 3 , all were from nominal initial pressures of 15 MPa and initial temperatures of 40 °C. The results from these tests show that decompression wave speeds are consistent with predictions of GASDECOM for gases of HHV typical of the previously validated range of BWRS. Predictions of the saturation pressure represented by the plateau pressure in the decompression wave speed curve were also in good agreement with measurements despite the fact that they occurred close to the critical point of the respective mixture compositions. -- Highlights: • Performance of GASDECOM for mixture up to HHV of 58 MJ/m3 was examined. • Experiments were conducted using a specialized high pressure shock. • Results show that decompression speeds are consistent with predictions of GASDECOM.

  4. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX, HMX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G; Roudot, M; Genetier, M; Mateille, P; Lefrançois, A

    2014-01-01

    HMX, RDX and NTO based cast-cured plastic bounded explosive (PBX) are widely used in insensitive ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside PBX. Comparing to a pressed PBX, a cast-cured PBX is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain-binder interface leading to a different burning behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. Here, we review the shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) and its modeling for cast-cured PBX containing HMX, RDX and NTO. Future direction is given in conclusion.

  5. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX, HMX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, G.; Roudot, M.; Genetier, M.; Mateille, P.; Lefrançois, A.

    2014-05-01

    HMX, RDX and NTO based cast-cured plastic bounded explosive (PBX) are widely used in insensitive ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside PBX. Comparing to a pressed PBX, a cast-cured PBX is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain-binder interface leading to a different burning behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. Here, we review the shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) and its modeling for cast-cured PBX containing HMX, RDX and NTO. Future direction is given in conclusion.

  6. Comparison of procalcitonin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock in the oldest old patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmin; Wang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Qing; Xia, Ying; Liu, Dawei

    2017-08-01

    Although the role of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock is well studied, it has not been investigated among oldest old patients. The aim of our study is to determine the role of PCT and hs-CRP in the assessment of sepsis and septic shock in this specific group of patients in the ICU. This is a prospective observational study. Patients >85 years of age admitted to the ICU from May 1st, 2016 to February 1st, 2017 were evaluated. Patients were divided into a sepsis and septic shock group(sepsis/SS) and a non-sepsis group. Serum levels of PCT, hs-CRP and the WBC were measured within 12 h of admission. A total of 70 patients aged 85 years and older were enrolled in this study. Fifty patients were labelled as sepsis/SS and the other 20 were labelled non-sepsis. A ROC analysis showed that the area under the curves (AUC) of hs-CRP and PCT for the discrimination of sepsis/SS patients were 0.825 (95% confidence interval[CI]: 0.73-0.92; P sepsis/SS group, 27 patients had sepsis, while the other 23 patients had septic shock. The ROC analysis showed that the AUCs of hs-CRP and PCT for the discrimination of septic shock patients from sepsis patients were 0.751 (95% CI: 0.62-0.88; P = 0.002) and 0.719 (95% CI:0.57-0.86; p = 0.007), respectively. For the oldest old patients, hs-CRP is not inferior to PCT in the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock.

  7. Time-amplitude converter; Convertisseur temps-amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banner, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    It is normal in high energy physics to measure the time of flight of a particle in order to determine its mass. This can be done by the method which consists in transforming the time measurement into an analysis of amplitude, which is easier; a time-amplitude converter has therefore been built for this purpose. The apparatus here described uses a double grid control tube 6 BN 6 whose resolution time, as measured with a pulse generator, is 5 x 10{sup -11} s. The analysis of the response of a particle counter, made up of a scintillator and a photomultiplier, indicates that a time of resolution of 5 x 10{sup -10} s. can be obtained. A time of this order of magnitude is obtained experimentally with the converter. This converter has been used in the study of the time of flight of particles in a secondary beam of the accelerator Saturne. It has thus been possible to measure the energy spectrum of {pi}-mesons, of protons, and of deutons emitted from a polyethylene target bombarded by 1,4 and 2 GeV protons. (author) [French] Pour determiner la masse d'une particule, il est courant, en physique des hautes energies, de mesurer le temps de vol de cette particule. Cela peut etre fait par la methode qui consiste a transformer la mesure d'un temps en une analyse d'amplitude, plus aisee; aussi a-t-on, a cet effet, cree un convertisseur temps-amplitude. L'appareillage decrit dans cet article utilise un tube a double grille de commande 6 BN 6 dont le temps de resolution mesure avec un generateur d'impulsion est de 5.10{sup -11} s. L'analyse de la reponse d'un compteur de particules, constitue par un scintillateur et un photomultiplicateur, indique qu'un temps de resolution de 5.10{sup -10} s peut etre obtenu. Un temps de cet ordre est atteint experimentalement avec le convertisseur. Ce convertisseur a servi a l'etude du temps de vol des particules dans un faisceau secondaire de l'accelerateur Saturne. On a mesure ainsi le spectre d'energie des mesons {pi}, des protons, des deutons

  8. The 9th Grade Shock and the High School Dropout Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Hirschman, Charles; Willhoft, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective questions on educational attainment in national surveys and censuses tend to over-estimate high school graduation rates by 15 to 20 percentage points relative to administrative records. Administrative data on educational enrollment are, however, only available at the aggregate level (state, school district, and school levels) and the recording of inter-school transfers are generally incomplete. With access to linked individual-level administrative records from a very large “West Coast metropolitan school district” we track patterns of high school attrition and on-time high school graduation of individual students. Even with adjustments for the omission of out-of-district transfers (estimates of omission are presented), the results of this study show that failure in high school, as indexed by retention and attrition, are almost as common as on-time high school graduation. In addition to the usual risk factors of disadvantaged background, we find that the “9th grade shock”—an unpredicted decline in academic performance upon entering high school—is a key mechanism behind the continuing crisis of high school attrition. PMID:23017804

  9. The Use of Shock Isolation mounts in Small High-Speed Craft to Protect Equipment from Wave Slam Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    hardware, but caution is advised because effective solutions will likely only be achieved by experienced shock isolation designers who pursue unique...provide tractable isolation solutions for craft, but caution is advised because effective solutions will likely only be achieved by experienced...very short duration of local vibration oscillations (e.g., nominal 25 to 50 msec or less) rather than rigid body shock pulse durations (e.g., 100

  10. Gravitational shock waves and extreme magnetomaterial shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichnerowicz, Andre.

    1975-01-01

    Within an astrophysical context corresponding to high densities, a self-gravitating model is studied, which is the set of an extreme material medium of infinite conductivity and of a magnetic field. Corresponding shock waves generate necessarily, in general, gravitational shock waves [fr

  11. Radiation- and pair-loaded shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2018-06-01

    We consider the structure of mildly relativistic shocks in dense media, taking into account the radiation and pair loading, and diffusive radiation energy transfer within the flow. For increasing shock velocity (increasing post-shock temperature), the first important effect is the efficient energy redistribution by radiation within the shock that leads to the appearance of an isothermal jump, whereby the flow reaches the final state through a discontinuous isothermal transition. The isothermal jump, on scales much smaller than the photon diffusion length, consists of a weak shock and a quick relaxation to the isothermal conditions. Highly radiation-dominated shocks do not form isothermal jump. Pair production can mildly increase the overall shock compression ratio to ≈10 (4 for matter-dominated shocks and 7 of the radiation-dominated shocks).

  12. Algorithm Development and Application of High Order Numerical Methods for Shocked and Rapid Changing Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-06

    high order well-balanced schemes to a class of hyperbolic systems with source terms, Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Matematica Aplicada, v34 (2006...schemes to a class of hyperbolic systems with source terms, Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Matematica Aplicada, v34 (2006), pp.69-80. 39. Y. Xu and C.-W

  13. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  14. A blinded, randomized, controlled trial of three doses of high-dose insulin in poison-induced cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J B; Stellpflug, S J; Ellsworth, H; Anderson, C P; Adams, A B; Engebretsen, K M; Holger, J S

    2013-05-01

    High dose insulin (HDI) has proven superior to glucagon and catecholamines in the treatment of poison-induced cardiogenic shock (PICS) in previous animal studies. Standard recommendations for dosing of insulin vary and the optimal dose of HDI in PICS has not been established. Our hypothesis was a dose of 10 U/kg/hr of HDI would be superior to 1 U/kg/hr with cardiac output (CO) as our primary outcome measure in pigs with propranolol-induced PICS. This was a blinded, prospective, randomized trial with 4 arms consisting of 4 pigs in each arm. The arms were as follows: placebo (P), 1 U/kg/hr (HDI-1), 5 U/kg/hr (HDI-5), and 10 U/kg/hr (HDI-10). Cardiogenic shock was induced with a bolus of 0.5 mg/kg of propranolol followed by an infusion of 0.25 mg/kg/min until the point of toxicity, defined as 0.75 x (HR x MAP) was reached. At this point the propranolol infusion was decreased to 0.125 mg/kg/min and a 20 mL/kg bolus of normal saline (NS) was administered. The protocol was continued for 6 hours or until the animals died. 2 pigs died in the P arm, 1 pig died each in the HDI-1 and HDI-5 arms, and all pigs lived in the HDI-10 arm. There was a statistically significant difference in dose by time interaction on CO of 1.13 L/min over the 6 hr study period (p = < 0.001). There was also a statistically significant difference in dose by time interaction on MAP, HR, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). No statistically significant difference was found between any of the arms regarding glucose utilization. HDI was statistically and clinically significantly superior to placebo in this propranolol model of PICS. Furthermore a dose response over time was found where CO increased corresponding to increases in doses of HDI.

  15. Shock waves in weakly compressed granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; van Loo, Rogier; van Hecke, Martin

    2013-11-22

    We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media and observe a crossover from quasilinear sound waves at low impact to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover impact grows with the confining pressure P0, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of P0-two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit surprising power law attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that shock dissipation is weak and qualitatively different from other granular dissipation mechanisms. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.

  16. High Efficiency Low Cost CO2 Compression Using Supersonic Shock Wave Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J; Aarnio, M; Grosvenor, A; Taylor, D; Bucher, J

    2010-12-31

    Development and testing results from a supersonic compressor are presented. The compressor achieved record pressure ratio for a fully-supersonic stage and successfully demonstrated the technology potential. Several tasks were performed in compliance with the DOE award objectives. A high-pressure ratio compressor was retrofitted to improve rotordynamics behavior and successfully tested. An outside review panel confirmed test results and design approach. A computational fluid dynamics code used to analyze the Ramgen supersonic flowpath was extensively and successfully modified to improve use on high-performance computing platforms. A comprehensive R&D implementation plan was developed and used to lay the groundwork for a future full-scale compressor demonstration. Conceptual design for a CO2 demonstration compressor was developed and reviewed.

  17. Shocks from high-energy nuclear-interacting particles in the mountain Chakaltajya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1975-06-01

    Experimental investigations of extensive air showers at the height of 5200 m above the sea level have been performed. The behaviour of high energy nuclear active particles in the cores of the showers has been studied using the nuclear knock-on method. The cross section of the proton inelastic interaction with the air is shown to increase with energy in the energy range of 3-9 TeV.

  18. PDV-based estimation of high-speed ejecta particles density from shock-loaded tin plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzkowiak, Jean-Eloi; Prudhomme, Gabriel; Mercier, Patrick; Lauriot, Séverine; Dubreuil, Estelle; Berthe, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    A machine-grooved metallic tin surface is explosively driven by a detonator with a shock-induced pressure of 25 GPa. The resulting dynamic fragmentation process called micro-jetting is the creation of high-speed jets of matter moving faster than the bulk metallic surface. The resulting fragmentation into micron-sized metallic particles generates a self-expanding cloud of droplets, whose areal mass, velocity and size distributions are unknown. Lithium-Niobate (LN) piezoelectric pin measured areal mass and Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) was employed to get a time-velocity spectrogram of the cloud. We present both experimental mass and velocity results and relate the integrated areal mass of the cloud to the PDV power spectral density under the assumption of a power law distribution for particle sizes. A model of PDV spectrograms is described, for which speckle fluctuations are averaged out. Finally, we use our model for a Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the cloud's parameters from PDV data. The integrated areal mass deduced from the PDV analysis is in good agreement with piezoelectric results. We underline the relevance of analyzing PDV data and correlating different diagnostics to retrieve the macro-physical properties of ejecta particles.

  19. Combustion of Shock-Dispersed Flake Aluminum - High-Speed Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A

    2006-06-19

    Charges of 0.5 g PETN were used to disperse 1 g of flake aluminum in a rectangular test chamber of 4 liter inner volume and inner dimensions of approximately 10 cm x 10 cm x 40 cm. The subsequent combustion of the flake aluminum with the ambient air in the chamber gave rise to a highly luminous flame. The evolution of the luminous region was studied by means of high-speed cinematography. The high-speed camera is responsive to a broad spectral range in the visible and near infra-red. For a number of tests this response range was narrowed down by means of a band-pass filter with a center wavelength of 488 nm and a half-width of 23 nm. The corresponding images were expected to have a stronger temperature dependence than images obtained without the filter, thus providing better capability to highlight hot-spots. Emission in the range of the pass-band of the filter can be due to continuous thermal radiation from hot Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles or to molecular band emission from gaseous AlO. A time-resolving spectrometer was improvised to inspect this topic. The results suggest that AlO emission occurs, but that the continuous spectrum is the dominating effect in our experiments.

  20. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  1. Rise and Shock: Optimal Defibrillator Placement in a High-rise Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in high-rise buildings experience lower survival and longer delays until paramedic arrival. Use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) can improve survival, but "vertical" placement has not been studied. We aim to determine whether elevator-based or lobby-based AED placement results in shorter vertical distance travelled ("response distance") to OHCAs in a high-rise building. We developed a model of a single-elevator, n-floor high-rise building. We calculated and compared the average distance from AED to floor of arrest for the two AED locations. We modeled OHCA occurrences using floor-specific Poisson processes, the risk of OHCA on the ground floor (λ 1 ) and the risk on any above-ground floor (λ). The elevator was modeled with an override function enabling direct travel to the target floor. The elevator location upon override was modeled as a discrete uniform random variable. Calculations used the laws of probability. Elevator-based AED placement had shorter average response distance if the number of floors (n) in the building exceeded three quarters of the ratio of ground-floor OHCA risk to above-ground floor risk (λ 1 /λ) plus one half (n ≥ 3λ 1 /4λ + 0.5). Otherwise, a lobby-based AED had shorter average response distance. If OHCA risk on each floor was equal, an elevator-based AED had shorter average response distance. Elevator-based AEDs travel less vertical distance to OHCAs in tall buildings or those with uniform vertical risk, while lobby-based AEDs travel less vertical distance in buildings with substantial lobby, underground, and nearby street-level traffic and OHCA risk.

  2. Free-flight measurement technique in the free-piston high-enthalpy shock tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, H.; Komuro, T.; Sato, K.; Fujita, K.; Laurence, S. J.

    2014-04-01

    A novel multi-component force-measurement technique has been developed and implemented at the impulse facility JAXA-HIEST, in which the test model is completely unrestrained during the test and thus experiences free-flight conditions for a period on the order of milliseconds. Advantages over conventional free-flight techniques include the complete absence of aerodynamic interference from a model support system and less variation in model position and attitude during the test itself. A miniature on-board data recorder, which was a key technology for this technique, was also developed in order to acquire and store the measured data. The technique was demonstrated in a HIEST wind-tunnel test campaign in which three-component aerodynamic force measurement was performed on a blunted cone of length 316 mm, total mass 19.75 kg, and moment of inertia 0.152 kgm2. During the test campaign, axial force, normal forces, and pitching moment coefficients were obtained at angles of attack from 14° to 32° under two conditions: H0 = 4 MJ/kg, P0 = 14 MPa; and H0 = 16 MJ/kg, P0 = 16 MPa. For the first, low-enthalpy condition, the test flow was considered a perfect gas; measurements were thus directly compared with those obtained in a conventional blow-down wind tunnel (JAXA-HWT2) to evaluate the accuracy of the technique. The second test condition was a high-enthalpy condition in which 85% of the oxygen molecules were expected to be dissociated; high-temperature real-gas effects were therefore evaluated by comparison with results obtained in perfect-gas conditions. The precision of the present measurements was evaluated through an uncertainty analysis, which showed the aerodynamic coefficients in the HIEST low enthalpy test agreeing well with those of JAXA-HWT2. The pitching-moment coefficient, however, showed significant differences between low- and high-enthalpy tests. These differences are thought to result from high-temperature real-gas effects.

  3. Summation of the high orders of perturbation theory for the parity nonconcerving E1-amplitude of 6s-7s-transition in Caesium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyuba, V.A.; Flambaum, V.V.; Sushkov, O.P.

    1989-01-01

    Three dominating subsequences of diagrams in the correlation correction to amplitude are summed: screening of the electron-electron interaction, particle-hole interaction and the iterations of the self-energy. The result of calculations is: E1(6s-7s)=(0.91±0.01)x10 -11 iea B (-Q W /N), Q W is the weak charge of nucleus, N is the number of neutrons. The calculations give the following value of the Weinberg angle: sin 2 Θ W =0.226±0.007(exp.)±0.004(theor.). 30 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Wide range scaling laws for radiation driven shock speed, wall albedo and ablation parameters for high-Z materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gaurav; Ghosh, Karabi; Ray, Aditi; Gupta, N. K.

    2018-06-01

    Radiation hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations for four different potential high-Z hohlraum materials, namely Tungsten (W), Gold (Au), Lead (Pb), and Uranium (U) are performed in order to investigate their performance with respect to x-ray absorption, re-emission and ablation properties, when irradiated by constant temperature drives. A universal functional form is derived for estimating time dependent wall albedo for high-Z materials. Among the high-Z materials studied, it is observed that for a fixed simulation time the albedo is maximum for Au below 250 eV, whereas it is maximum for U above 250 eV. New scaling laws for shock speed vs drive temperature, applicable over a wide temperature range of 100 eV to 500 eV, are proposed based on the physics of x-ray driven stationary ablation. The resulting scaling relation for a reference material Aluminium (Al), shows good agreement with that of Kauffman's power law for temperatures ranging from 100 eV to 275 eV. New scaling relations are also obtained for temperature dependent mass ablation rate and ablation pressure, through RHD simulation. Finally, our study reveals that for temperatures above 250 eV, U serves as a better hohlraum material since it offers maximum re-emission for x-rays along with comparable mass ablation rate. Nevertheless, traditional choice, Au works well for temperatures below 250 eV. Besides inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the new scaling relations may find its application in view-factor codes, which generally ignore atomic physics calculations of opacities and emissivities, details of laser-plasma interaction and hydrodynamic motions.

  5. Shock compression experiments on Lithium Deuteride single crystals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Lemke, Raymond W.

    2014-10-01

    S hock compression exper iments in the few hundred GPa (multi - Mabr) regime were performed on Lithium Deuteride (LiD) single crystals . This study utilized the high velocity flyer plate capability of the Sandia Z Machine to perform impact experiments at flyer plate velocities in the range of 17 - 32 km/s. Measurements included pressure, density, and temperature between %7E200 - 600 GPa along the Principal Hugoniot - the locus of end states achievable through compression by large amplitude shock waves - as well as pressure and density of re - shock states up to %7E900 GPa . The experimental measurements are compared with recent density functional theory calculations as well as a new tabular equation of state developed at Los Alamos National Labs.

  6. Radiation damage and thermal shock response of carbon-fiber-reinforced materials to intense high-energy proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Simos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the effects of energetic protons on carbon-fiber composites and compounds under consideration for use as low-Z pion production targets in future high-power accelerators and low-impedance collimating elements for intercepting TeV-level protons at the Large Hadron Collider has been undertaken addressing two key areas, namely, thermal shock absorption and resistance to irradiation damage. Carbon-fiber composites of various fiber weaves have been widely used in aerospace industries due to their unique combination of high temperature stability, low density, and high strength. The performance of carbon-carbon composites and compounds under intense proton beams and long-term irradiation have been studied in a series of experiments and compared with the performance of graphite. The 24-GeV proton beam experiments confirmed the inherent ability of a 3D C/C fiber composite to withstand a thermal shock. A series of irradiation damage campaigns explored the response of different C/C structures as a function of the proton fluence and irradiating environment. Radiolytic oxidation resulting from the interaction of oxygen molecules, the result of beam-induced radiolysis encountered during some of the irradiation campaigns, with carbon atoms during irradiation with the presence of a water coolant emerged as a dominant contributor to the observed structural integrity loss at proton fluences ≥5×10^{20}  p/cm^{2}. The carbon-fiber composites were shown to exhibit significant anisotropy in their dimensional stability driven by the fiber weave and the microstructural behavior of the fiber and carbon matrix accompanied by the presence of manufacturing porosity and defects. Carbon-fiber-reinforced molybdenum-graphite compounds (MoGRCF selected for their impedance properties in the Large Hadron Collider beam collimation exhibited significant decrease in postirradiation load-displacement behavior even after low dose levels (∼5×10^{18}

  7. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  8. Boundary Layer Transition and Trip Effectiveness on an Apollo Capsule in the JAXA High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Lindsay C.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Olejniczak, Joseph; Tanno, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Computational assessments were performed to size boundary layer trips for a scaled Apollo capsule model in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) facility at the JAXA Kakuda Space Center in Japan. For stagnation conditions between 2 MJ/kg and 20 MJ/kg and between 10 MPa and 60 MPa, the appropriate trips were determined to be between 0.2 mm and 1.3 mm high, which provided kappa/delta values on the heatshield from 0.15 to 2.25. The tripped configuration consisted of an insert with a series of diamond shaped trips along the heatshield downstream of the stagnation point. Surface heat flux measurements were obtained on a capsule with a 250 mm diameter, 6.4% scale model, and pressure measurements were taken at axial stations along the nozzle walls. At low enthalpy conditions, the computational predictions agree favorably to the test data along the heatshield centerline. However, agreement becomes less favorable as the enthalpy increases conditions. The measured surface heat flux on the heatshield from the HIEST facility was under-predicted by the computations in these cases. Both smooth and tripped configurations were tested for comparison, and a post-test computational analysis showed that kappa/delta values based on the as-measured stagnation conditions ranged between 0.5 and 1.2. Tripped configurations for both 0.6 mm and 0.8 mm trip heights were able to effectively trip the flow to fully turbulent for a range of freestream conditions.

  9. Preferential effects of low volume versus high volume replacement with crystalloid fluid in a hemorrhagic shock model in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponschab, Martin; Schöchl, Herbert; Keibl, Claudia; Fischer, Henrik; Redl, Heinz; Schlimp, Christoph J

    2015-10-06

    Fluid resuscitation is a core stone of hemorrhagic shock therapy, and crystalloid fluids seem to be associated with lower mortality compared to colloids. However, as redistribution starts within minutes, it has been suggested to replace blood loss with a minimum of a three-fold amount of crystalloids. The hypothesis was that in comparison to high volume (HV), a lower crystalloid volume (LV) achieves a favorable coagulation profile and exerts sufficient haemodynamics in the acute phase of resuscitation. In 24 anaesthetized pigs, controlled arterial blood loss of 50 % of the estimated blood volume was either (n = 12) replaced with a LV (one-fold) or a HV (three-fold) volume of a balanced, acetated crystalloid solution at room temperature. Hemodynamic parameters, dilution effects and coagulation profile by standard coagulation tests and thromboelastometry at baseline and after resuscitation were determined in both groups. LV resuscitation increased MAP significantly less compared to the HV, 61 ± 7 vs. 82 ± 14 mmHg (p controlled blood loss, a one fold LV crystalloid replacement strategy is sufficient to adequately raise blood pressure up to a mean arterial pressure >50 mm Hg. The concept of damage control resuscitation (DCR) with permissive hypotension may be better met by using LV as compared to a three fold HV resuscitation strategy. High volume administration of an acetated balanced crystalloid does not lead to hyperchloraemic acidosis, but may negatively influence clinical parameters, such as higher blood pressure, lower body temperature and impaired coagulation parameters, which could potentially increase bleeding after trauma. Replacement of acute blood loss with just an equal amount of an acetated balanced crystalloid appears to be the preferential treatment strategy in the acute phase after controlled bleeding.

  10. Initial ISEE magnetometer results: shock observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    ISEE-1 and -2 magnetic field profiles across 6 terrestrial bow shock and one interplanetary shock are examined. The inteplanetary shock illustrates the behavior of a low Mach number shock. Three examples of low or moderate β, high Mach number, quasi-perpendicular shocks are examined. These did not have upstream waves, but rather had waves growing in the field gradient. Two examples of high β shocks showed little coherence in field variation even though the two vehicles were only a few hundred kilometers apart. The authors present the joint behavior of wave, particle and field data across some of these shocks to show some of the myriad of shock features whose behavior they are now beginning to investigate. (Auth.)

  11. Inferior vena cava obstruction and shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megri Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock is one of the most challenging life-threatening conditions with high mortality and morbidity; the outcomes are highly dependent on the early detection and management of the condition. Septic shock is the most common type of shock in the Intensive Care Unit. While not as common as other subsets of shock, obstructive shock is a significant subtype due to well defined mechanical and pathological causes, including tension pneumothorax, massive pulmonary embolism, and cardiac tamponade. We are presenting a patient with obstructive shock due to inferior vena cava obstruction secondary to extensive deep venous thrombosis. Chance of survival from obstructive shock in our patient was small; however, there was complete and immediate recovery after treatment of the obstruction on recognizing the affected vessels. This case alerts the practicing intensivist and the emergency medicine physician to consider occlusion of the great vessels other than the pulmonary artery or aorta as causes of obstructive shock.

  12. Report from LHC MD 1391: First tests of the variation of amplitude detuning with crossing angle as an observable for high-order errors in low-β∗ colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear errors in experimental insertions can pose a significant challenge to the operability of low-β∗ colliders. When crossing schemes are applied high-order errors, such as decapole and dodecapole multipole components in triplets and separation dipoles, can feed-down to give a normal octupole perturbation. Such fields may contribute to distortion of the assumed tune footprint, influencing lifetime and the Landau damping of instabilities. Conversely, comparison of amplitude detuning coefficients with and without crossing schemes applied should allow for the beam-based study of such high-order errors. In this note first measurements of amplitude detuning with crossing bumps in the experimental insertions are reported.

  13. Shocking matter to extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Y.M.; Sharma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A good understanding of the thermodynamic response of matter at high compression and high energy densities is important to several areas of physics. Shock-wave experiments are uniquely suited for obtaining data at extreme conditions, and a shock-compressed matter can be viewed as a condensed system with or without dissociation or as a strongly coupled plasma. This article reviews work by Da Silva et al. in which irradiances ranging from 5x10 superscript 12 to 2x10 superscript 14 W/cm 2 were used to generate 8- to 10-ns square pulses in liquid deuterium. The authors demonstrated negligible pre-heating of the sample, steady propagation of the shock wave, and direct determination of the shock wave velocity along with particle velocity and density in the shocked state. Da Silva et al. results are compared with models and other experimental information, and the usefulness of the data in other areas is assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig

  14. Statistics of peak overpressure and shock steepness for linear and nonlinear N-wave propagation in a kinematic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuldashev, Petr V; Ollivier, Sébastien; Karzova, Maria M; Khokhlova, Vera A; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Linear and nonlinear propagation of high amplitude acoustic pulses through a turbulent layer in air is investigated using a two-dimensional KZK-type (Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov) equation. Initial waves are symmetrical N-waves with shock fronts of finite width. A modified von Kármán spectrum model is used to generate random wind velocity fluctuations associated with the turbulence. Physical parameters in simulations correspond to previous laboratory scale experiments where N-waves with 1.4 cm wavelength propagated through a turbulence layer with the outer scale of about 16 cm. Mean value and standard deviation of peak overpressure and shock steepness, as well as cumulative probabilities to observe amplified peak overpressure and shock steepness, are analyzed. Nonlinear propagation effects are shown to enhance pressure level in random foci for moderate initial amplitudes of N-waves thus increasing the probability to observe highly peaked waveforms. Saturation of the pressure level is observed for stronger nonlinear effects. It is shown that in the linear propagation regime, the turbulence mainly leads to the smearing of shock fronts, thus decreasing the probability to observe high values of steepness, whereas nonlinear effects dramatically increase the probability to observe steep shocks.

  15. Unifying relations for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao

    2018-02-01

    We derive new amplitudes relations revealing a hidden unity among a wideranging variety of theories in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. Our results rely on a set of Lorentz invariant differential operators which transmute physical tree-level scattering amplitudes into new ones. By transmuting the amplitudes of gravity coupled to a dilaton and two-form, we generate all the amplitudes of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, Dirac-Born-Infield theory, special Galileon, nonlinear sigma model, and biadjoint scalar theory. Transmutation also relates amplitudes in string theory and its variants. As a corollary, celebrated aspects of gluon and graviton scattering like color-kinematics duality, the KLT relations, and the CHY construction are inherited traits of the transmuted amplitudes. Transmutation recasts the Adler zero as a trivial consequence of the Weinberg soft theorem and implies new subleading soft theorems for certain scalar theories.

  16. High strain rate deformation and fracture of the magnesium alloy Ma2-1 under shock wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkushin, G. V.; Kanel', G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of the dynamic elastic limit and spall strength under shock wave loading of specimens of the magnesium alloy Ma2-1 with a thickness ranging from 0.25 to 10 mm at normal and elevated (to 550°C) temperatures. From the results of measurements of the decay of the elastic precursor of a shock compression wave, it has been found that the plastic strain rate behind the front of the elastic precursor decreases from 2 × 105 s-1 at a distance of 0.25 mm to 103 s-1 at a distance of 10 mm. The plastic strain rate in a shock wave is one order of magnitude higher than that in the elastic precursor at the same value of the shear stress. The spall strength of the alloy decreases as the solidus temperature is approached.

  17. Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...

  18. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released

  19. Hidden beauty in multiloop amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2006-01-01

    Planar L-loop maximally helicity violating amplitudes in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are believed to possess the remarkable property of satisfying iteration relations in L. We propose a simple new method for studying iteration relations for four-particle amplitudes which involves the use of certain linear differential operators and eliminates the need to fully evaluate any loop integrals. We carry out this procedure in explicit detail for the two-loop amplitude and prove that this method can be applied to any multiloop integral, allowing a conjectured iteration relation for any given amplitude to be tested up to polynomials in logarithms

  20. Two-Loop Splitting Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  1. Two-loop splitting amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  2. X-ray line broadening studies on aluminum nitride, titanium carbide and titanium diboride modified by high pressure shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosin, B.; Graham, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Powders of AlN, TiC and TiB 2 have been subjected to controlled shock loading with peak pressures in the samples between 14 to 27 GPa and preserved for post-shock study. Broadened x-ray diffraction peak profiles are analyzed by a simplified method and show increases in residual lattice strain and small decreases in crystallite size. Strain values range from 10 -5 to 10 -4 for TiB 2 and to values larger than 10 -3 for TiC and AlN

  3. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. II - Wall shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Asymptotic methods are used to calculate the shear stress at the wall for the interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. A mixing length model is used for the eddy viscosity. The shock wave is taken to be strong enough that the sonic line is deep in the boundary layer and the upstream influence is thus very small. It is shown that unlike the result found for laminar flow an asymptotic criterion for separation is not found; however, conditions for incipient separation are computed numerically using the derived solution for the shear stress at the wall. Results are compared with available experimental measurements.

  4. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  5. Simulations of Converging Shock Collisions for Shock Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Joshua; Dodd, Evan; Loomis, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Shock ignition (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to achieving high gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. A central hot spot below the ignition threshold is created by an initial compression pulse, and a second laser pulse drives a strong converging shock into the fuel. The collision between the rebounding shock from the compression pulse and the converging shock results in amplification of the converging shock and increases the hot spot pressure above the ignition threshold. We investigate shock collision in SI drive schemes for cylindrical targets with a polystyrene foam interior using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RAGE code. The configuration is similar to previous targets fielded on the Omega laser. The CH interior results in a lower convergence ratio and the cylindrical geometry facilitates visualization of the shock transit using an axial X-ray backlighter, both of which are important for comparison to potential experimental measurements. One-dimensional simulations are used to determine shock timing, and the effects of low mode asymmetries in 2D computations are also quantified. LA-UR-16-24773.

  6. Iron Damage and Spalling Behavior below and above Shock Induced α ε Phase Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltz, Christophe; Buy, Francois; Roy, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    The study of dynamic damage and fracture of iron has been undertaken below and above phase transition by series of time resolved experiments using both light gas launcher and powder gun. Shock wave tests were conducted by symmetrical impacts of high purity iron. To reveal the material behavior we have done shock experiments where the target is covered with a window in order to limit release amplitude and to avoid specimen fragmentation. Metallurgical analysis of soft recovered samples yields information about damage and fracture processes related to thermo-mechanical loading paths. Tests conducted without window allow studying effects of both phase change and release transition. Optical and SEM characterizations lead us to observe several modes of damage: brittle, ductile diffuse with void growth and heavily localized smooth one. These figures are related with: rarefaction shock waves or interfaces between transformed and not transformed iron. Simulations are performed with the 1D to compare experimental data with numerical results. We explain post-mortem observations by the complex shock wave structure interactions: P1 and P2 shock fronts associated with some corresponding shock release during unloading stages

  7. Interaction of a weak and a strong shock in reacting high enthalpy flow; Wechselwirkung einer starken und einer schwachen Stosswelle in reagierender Hochenthalpiestroemung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnieder, M.

    1998-11-01

    In the free piston driven shock tunnel HEG the interaction of shock waves in front of a blunt body is studied in reacting high enthalpy flow. The influence of high temperature effects is of interest. The so called type IV interaction produces a free jet that impinges onto the body and creates high pressure and heat loads on the body surface. A cylinder wedge model is used. At the cylinder surface pressure and heat flux are measured. Holographic interferometry and schlieren optic are applied to visualize the flow. The measured loads show unsteady behaviour. At higher Reynolds numbers the upper bow shock shows a strong disturbance. It is assumed that this disturbance is caused by an unstable shear layer if the convective Mach number (i.e. the Mach number of the flow relative to a frame of reference moving with the shear layer structures) is larger than one. A study of the influence of dissociation on the convective Mach number shows, that the convective Mach number increases. Numerical calculations and an analytical model, which is based on the ideal dissociating gas model and the Fay Riddell solution to stagnation point flows are discussed in comparison with the experiments. (orig.)

  8. Shock waves in gas and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, K.

    1996-01-01

    A shock wave is a discontinuous surface that connects supersonic flow with subsonic flow. After a shock wave, flow velocity is reduced, and pressure and temperature increase; entropy especially increases across a shock wave. Therefore, flow is in nonequilibrium, and irreversible processes occur inside the shock layer. The thickness of a shock wave in neutral gas is of the order of the mean free path of the fluid particle. A shock wave also appears in magnetized plasma. Provided that when the plasma flow is parallel to the magnetic field, a shock wave appears if the governing equation for velocity potential is in hyperbolic type in relation with the Mach number and the Alfven number. When the flow is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the Maxwell stress, in addition to the pressure, plays a role in the shock wave in plasma. When the plasma temperature is so high, as the plasma becomes collision-free, another type of shock wave appears. In a collision-free shock wave, gyromotions of electrons around the magnetic field lines cause the shock formation instead of collisions in a collision-dominant plasma or neutral gas. Regardless of a collision-dominant or collision-free shock wave, the fluid that passes through the shock wave is heated in addition to being compressed. In inertial confinement fusion, the fuel must be compressed. Really, implosion motion performs fuel compression. A shock wave, appearing in the process of implosion, compresses the fuel. The shock wave, however, heats the fuel more intensively, and it makes it difficult to compress the fuel further because high temperatures invite high pressure. Adiabatic compression of the fuel is the desired result during the implosion, without the formation of a shock wave. (Author)

  9. Observation of a spark channel generated in water with shock wave assistance in plate-to-plate electrode configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelmashuk, V., E-mail: vitalij@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-15

    When a high voltage pulse with an amplitude of 30 kV is applied to a pair of disk electrodes at a time when a shock wave is passing between them, an electrical spark is generated. The dynamic changes in the spark morphology are studied here using a high-speed framing camera. The primary result of this work is the provision of experimental evidence of plasma instability that was observed in the channel of the electric spark.

  10. ULF/ELF electromagnetic waves associated with the quasi-perpendicular earth's bow shock crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozdrachev, M.N.; Petrukovich, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper is dedicated to the analysis of electromagnetic turbulence in the frequency range 0.1-75 Hz, associated with crossing of Earth's Bow Shock recorded by the Prognoz-8 and -10 satellites. The quasimonochromatic waves are identified in the shock transition region. Their frequencies, laying in the range from 2 Hz to 6 Hz upstream the shock ramp shift to the values less than 1 Hz in the downstream region. The amplitudes of these narrow emissions are high enough to provide the dissipation in the flow of the solar wind plasma. It is argued that spectra shapes in this frequency range 0.1-75 Hz are strongly affected by the Doppler shift

  11. Shock compression experiments on Lithium Deuteride (LiD) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Lemke, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    Shock compression experiments in the few hundred GPa (multi-Mbar) regime were performed on Lithium Deuteride single crystals. This study utilized the high velocity flyer plate capability of the Sandia Z Machine to perform impact experiments at flyer plate velocities in the range of 17-32 km/s. Measurements included pressure, density, and temperature between ˜190 and 570 GPa along the Principal Hugoniot—the locus of end states achievable through compression by large amplitude shock waves—as well as pressure and density of reshock states up to ˜920 GPa. The experimental measurements are compared with density functional theory calculations, tabular equation of state models, and legacy nuclear driven results that have been reanalyzed using modern equations of state for the shock wave standards used in the experiments.

  12. Electron transport and shock ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, A R; Tzoufras, M, E-mail: t.bell1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) offers one possible route to commercial energy generation. In the proposed 'shock ignition' route to fusion, the target is compressed at a relatively low temperature and then ignited using high intensity laser irradiation which drives a strong converging shock into the centre of the fuel. With a series of idealized calculations we analyse the electron transport of energy into the target, which produces the pressure responsible for driving the shock. We show that transport in shock ignition lies near the boundary between ablative and heat front regimes. Moreover, simulations indicate that non-local effects are significant in the heat front regime and might lead to increased efficiency by driving the shock more effectively and reducing heat losses to the plasma corona.

  13. Importance of post-shock streams and sheath region as drivers of intense magnetospheric storms and high-latitude activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. J. Huttunen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere can be very different depending on the type of solar wind driver. We have determined the solar wind causes for intense magnetic storms (DstDst index was more difficult to model for a sheath region or a post-shock stream driven storm than for a storm caused by a magnetic cloud.

  14. On Shocks Driven by High-mass Planets in Radiatively Inefficient Disks. III. Observational Signatures in Thermal Emission and Scattered Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Blake; Lyra, Wladimir; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2017-11-01

    Recent observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Be star HD 100546 show two bright features in infrared (H and {L}{\\prime } bands) at about 50 au,with one so far unexplained. We explore the observational signatures of a high-mass planet causing shock heating in order to determine if it could be the source of the unexplained infrared feature in HD 100546. More fundamentally, we identify and characterize planetary shocks as an extra, hitherto ignored, source of luminosity in transition disks. The RADMC-3D code is used to perform dust radiative transfer calculations on the hydrodynamical disk models, including volumetric heating. A stronger shock heating rate by a factor of 20 would be necessary to qualitatively reproduce the morphology of the second infrared source. Instead, we find that the outer edge of the gap carved by the planet heats up by about 50% relative to the initial reference temperature, which leads to an increase in the scale height. The bulge is illuminated by the central star, producing a lopsided feature in scattered light, as the outer gap edge shows an asymmetry in density and temperature attributable to a secondary spiral arm launched not from the Lindblad resonances but from the 2:1 resonance. We conclude that high-mass planets lead to shocks in disks that may be directly observed, particularly at wavelengths of 10 μm or longer, but that they are more likely to reveal their presence in scattered light by puffing up their outer gap edges and exciting multiple spiral arms.

  15. Shocking revelations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, L.A.; Matula, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    In single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) a small gas bubble that has been acoustically levitated in a liquid driven into large amplitude volume oscillations by the sound fields, radiation visible light each and every acoustic cycle. These emissions could potentially lead to thermonuclear fusion. This paper reports on the background of SBSL, what the current research is, and what questions need to be answered in the future. 26 refs., 1 fig

  16. A surface-micromachining-based inertial micro-switch with compliant cantilever beam as movable electrode for enduring high shock and prolonging contact time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiu [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, School of Electronics Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Zhuoqing, E-mail: yzhuoqing@sjtu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, School of Electronics Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Fu, Bo; Li, Jianhua; Wu, Hao [Huaihai Industrial Group Co., Ltd., Changzhi, Shanxi Province, 046012 (China); Zhang, Qihuan; Sun, Yunna; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, School of Electronics Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The designed cantilever beam attached to the proof mass can endure a larger shock acceleration (∼1000 g order of magnitude) compared to those traditional designs (∼100 g order of magnitude). • Effect of the pulse width on the threshold acceleration, the response time and the contact time is investigated. • A constraint sleeve structure is introduced to lower the off-axis sensitivity. - Abstract: A novel laterally-driven inertial micro-switch with two L-shaped elastic cantilever beams as the movable electrode, which is attached to the proof mass, is proposed in this paper. The advantage of this design is that the contact time of the inertial micro-switch can be prolonged. Meanwhile, the micro-switch can withstand a higher shock than the traditional designs whose cantilever beams are attached to the fixed electrode. The designed inertial micro-switch was simulated and optimized with ANSYS software and fabricated on a quartz substrate by surface micromachining technology. The simulated result demonstrates that the threshold acceleration (a{sub ths}) under stable switch-on state is about 288 g and the contact time is about 198 μs when the pulse width of acceleration loads is 1 ms. At the same time, it indicates that the threshold acceleration, the response time and the contact time of designed micro-switch all increase with the pulse width of acceleration loads. The simulation of impact process in non-sensitive direction shows that the introduced constraint sleeve structure in the novel inertial micro-switch can lower the off-axis sensitivity. The fabricated micro-switch prototype has been tested by a standard dropping hammer system under shock accelerations with various amplitudes and pulse widths. The experimental measurements show that the contact time is about 150 μs when the threshold acceleration is about 288 g. It also indicates that the response time and the contact time both increase with the pulse width, which is consistent with the

  17. CARS measurement of vibrational and rotational temperature with high power laser and high speed visualization of total radiation behind hypervelocity shock waves of 5-7km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kotaro; Bindu, Venigalla Hima; Niinomi, Shota; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2010-09-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) method is commonly used for measuring molecular structure or condition. In the aerospace technology, this method is applies to measure the temperature in thermic fluid with relatively long time duration of millisecond or sub millisecond. On the other hand, vibrational/rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity shock wave are important for heat-shield design in phase of reentry flight. The non-equilibrium flow with radiative heating from strongly shocked air ahead of the vehicles plays an important role on the heat flux to the wall surface structure as well as convective heating. In this paper CARS method is applied to measure the vibrational/rotational temperature of N2 behind hypervelocity shock wave. The strong shock wave in front of the reentering space vehicles can be experimentally realigned by free-piston, double-diaphragm shock tube with low density test gas. However CARS measurement is difficult for our experiment. Our measurement needs very short pulse which order of nanosecond and high power laser for CARS method. It is due to our measurement object is the momentary phenomena which velocity is 7km/s. In addition the observation section is low density test gas, and there is the strong background light behind the shock wave. So we employ the CARS method with high power, order of 1J/pulse, and very short pulse (10ns) laser. By using this laser the CARS signal can be acquired even in the strong radiation area. Also we simultaneously try to use the CCD camera to obtain total radiation with CARS method.

  18. Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Yeol Wan [Ammunition Engineering Team, Defense Agency for Technology and Quality, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hoon [Aerodynamics Research Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji Young [Transportation Environmental Research Team, Green Transport and Logistics Institute, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation.

  19. Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young; Seong, Yeol Wan; Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation

  20. Ferrites based infrared radiation coatings with high emissivity and high thermal shock resistance and their application on energy-saving kettle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianyi; Fan, Xi’an; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangqiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The ferrites based infrared radiation coating was prepared by HVOF for the first time. • The infrared radiation coatings were applied firstly on the household kettle. • The bonding strength between the coating and substrate could reach 30.7 MPa. • The coating kept intact when cycle reached 27 by quenching from 1000 °C using water. • The energy-saving efficiency of the kettle with coating could reach 30.5%. - Abstract: Starting from Fe 2 O 3 , MnO 2 , Co 2 O 3 and NiO powders, the ferrites based infrared radiation coatings with high emissivity and high thermal shock resistance were successfully prepared on the surface of carbon steel by high velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF). The coating thickness was about 120–150 μm and presented a typical flat lamellar structure. The coating surface was rough and some submicron grade grains distributed on it. The infrared emissivity of the ferrites based coating by HVOF was over 0.74 in 3–20 μm waveband at 800 °C, which was obviously higher than that of the coating by brushing process in the short waveband. The bonding strength was 30.7 MPa between the coating and substrate, which was five times more than that of conventional coatings by brushing process. The combined effect of the superior bonding strength, typical lamellar structure, pre-existing microcracks and newly generated pores made the cycle times reach 27 when the coating samples were quenched from 1000 °C using water. Lastly, the infrared radiation coatings were applied on the underside of household kettle, and the energy-saving efficiency could reach 30.5%. The ferrites based infrared radiation coatings obtained in this work are good candidates for saving energy in the field of cookware and industrial high temperature furnace

  1. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  2. Low carbon content and carbon-free refractory materials with high thermal shock resistance; Thermoschockbestaendige feuerfeste Erzeugnisse mit geringerem Kohlenstoffgehalt bzw. kohlenstofffreie Erzeugnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachhold, Nora; Aneziris, C.G.; Stein, Volker; Roungos, Vasileios; Moritz, Kirsten [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF) (DE). Inst. fuer Keramik, Glas- und Baustofftechnik (IKGB)

    2012-07-01

    Carbon bonded refractories are essential for steelmaking due to their excellent thermal shock resistance. The research on carbon reduced and carbon-free materials is necessary to manufacture high quality stainless steels tending carbon pick-up in contact to conventional refractory materials. Further advantages are reduced emissions of CO{sub 2} and energy saving potentials due to better heat insulation properties. The challenge is to develop alternative materials with lower carbon contents but with the necessary thermal shock resistance. The Priority Programme 1418 funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) concentrates on this problem. In this article two materials are presented. First, the carbon content could be reduced by nanoscaled additives resulting in better bonding between matrix and oxidic components. Second, an AL{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich carbon-free material is presented showing a very good thermal shock resistance due to its designed microstructure. Finally, a steel casting simulator is introduced to test the new materials under nearly real conditions. (orig.)

  3. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, C.S., E-mail: Lam@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Q.C., H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Yao, York-Peng, E-mail: yyao@umich.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Cachazo–He–Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  4. Ward identities for amplitudes with reggeized gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartles, J.; Vacca, G.P.

    2012-05-01

    Starting from the effective action of high energy QCD we derive Ward identities for Green's functions of reggeized gluons. They follow from the gauge invariance of the effective action, and allow to derive new representations of amplitudes containing physical particles as well as reggeized gluons. We explicitly demonstrate their validity for the BFKL kernel, and we present a new derivation of the kernel.

  5. Shock Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  6. Characteristics of a Bulk High-Critical Temperature Superconductor Fabricated by the Shock Compaction Method: Possible Use as a Highly Sensitive Magnetic Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H; Maeji, Y; Yamagata, K; Itoh, M; Kezuka, H; Kikuchi, M; Atou, T; Kawasaki, M; Fukuoka, K

    2006-01-01

    A magnetic sensor, constructed of bulk Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BPSCCO), was fabricated by use of the shock compaction method, employing a propellant gun-system, and then sintered under through use of an electronic furnace. The specimen as a magnetic sensor was maintained in the superconducting state at 77.4 K, under a current density J of approximately 40 A/cm 2 in the absence of an excitation magnetic field B ex . The superconducting state was then broken and the specimen exposed to a B ex value of 40x10 -4 T. That is, the resistance R meas of the specimen occurred when exposed to 40x10 -4 T under a constant J of 40 A/cm 2 . The magnetic sensitivity S of the specimen was approximately 13 %/(10 -4 T) over the range of measurement of the magnetic field B meas from 0 to ±5x10 -4 T, under a constant 40x10 -4 T for the value of B ex , being approximately 13 times greater than that of a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor. It was, consequently, determined that it was possible to apply the bulk BPSCCO specimen as a highly sensitive magnetic sensor

  7. Characteristics of a Bulk High-Critical Temperature Superconductor Fabricated by the Shock Compaction Method: Possible Use as a Highly Sensitive Magnetic Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H [Interdisci. Grad. School of Sci. and Engi., Grad. School of Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Maeji, Y [Interdisci. Grad. School of Sci. and Engi., Grad. School of Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Yamagata, K [Relia. Eval. Technol. Center, Nitto Denko Corp., Onomichi, Hiroshima 722-0212 (Japan); Itoh, M [Interdisci. Grad. School of Sci. and Engi., Grad. School of Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Kezuka, H [Faculty of Bionics, Tokyo University of Technol., Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Kikuchi, M [Kansen Fukushi Research Center, Tohoku Fukushi University Sendai, Miyagi 989-3201 (Japan); Atou, T [Insti. for Mate. Research, Tohoku University Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Kawasaki, M [Insti. for Mate. Research, Tohoku University Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Fukuoka, K [Insti. for Mate. Research, Tohoku University Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    A magnetic sensor, constructed of bulk Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BPSCCO), was fabricated by use of the shock compaction method, employing a propellant gun-system, and then sintered under through use of an electronic furnace. The specimen as a magnetic sensor was maintained in the superconducting state at 77.4 K, under a current density J of approximately 40 A/cm{sup 2} in the absence of an excitation magnetic field B{sub ex}. The superconducting state was then broken and the specimen exposed to a B{sub ex} value of 40x10{sup -4} T. That is, the resistance R{sub meas} of the specimen occurred when exposed to 40x10{sup -4} T under a constant J of 40 A/cm{sup 2}. The magnetic sensitivity S of the specimen was approximately 13 %/(10{sup -4} T) over the range of measurement of the magnetic field B{sub meas} from 0 to {+-}5x10{sup -4} T, under a constant 40x10{sup -4} T for the value of B{sub ex}, being approximately 13 times greater than that of a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor. It was, consequently, determined that it was possible to apply the bulk BPSCCO specimen as a highly sensitive magnetic sensor.

  8. Removal of residual nuclei following a cavitation event using low-amplitude ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Alexander P; Cain, Charles A; Tamaddoni, Hedieh A; Roberts, William W; Hall, Timothy L

    2014-10-01

    Microscopic residual bubble nuclei can persist on the order of 1 s following a cavitation event. These bubbles can limit the efficacy of ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, because they attenuate pulses that arrive subsequent to their formation and seed repetitive cavitation activity at a discrete set of sites (cavitation memory). Here, we explore a strategy for the removal of these residual bubbles following a cavitation event, using low-amplitude ultrasound pulses to stimulate bubble coalescence. All experiments were conducted in degassed water and monitored using high-speed photography. In each case, a 2-MHz histotripsy transducer was used to initiate cavitation activity (a cavitational bubble cloud), the collapse of which generated a population of residual bubble nuclei. This residual nuclei population was then sonicated using a 1 ms pulse from a separate 500-kHz transducer, which we term the bubble removal pulse. Bubble removal pulse amplitudes ranging from 0 to 1.7 MPa were tested, and the backlit area of shadow from bubbles remaining in the field following bubble removal was calculated to quantify efficacy. It was found that an ideal amplitude range exists (roughly 180 to 570 kPa) in which bubble removal pulses stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of residual bubble nuclei, effectively removing them from the field. Further optimization of bubble removal pulse sequences stands to provide an adjunct to cavitation-based ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, mitigating the effects of residual bubble nuclei that currently limit their efficacy.

  9. An in situ Comparison of Electron Acceleration at Collisionless Shocks under Differing Upstream Magnetic Field Orientations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, A. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Stawarz, Ł. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Reville, B. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Sergis, N. [Office of Space Research and Technology, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efesiou 4, 11527 Athens (Greece); Fujimoto, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Burgess, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Coates, A. J., E-mail: a.masters@imperial.ac.uk [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Space and Climate Physics, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-10

    A leading explanation for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays is acceleration at high-Mach number shock waves in the collisionless plasma surrounding young supernova remnants. Evidence for this is provided by multi-wavelength non-thermal emission thought to be associated with ultrarelativistic electrons at these shocks. However, the dependence of the electron acceleration process on the orientation of the upstream magnetic field with respect to the local normal to the shock front (quasi-parallel/quasi-perpendicular) is debated. Cassini spacecraft observations at Saturn’s bow shock have revealed examples of electron acceleration under quasi-perpendicular conditions, and the first in situ evidence of electron acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock. Here we use Cassini data to make the first comparison between energy spectra of locally accelerated electrons under these differing upstream magnetic field regimes. We present data taken during a quasi-perpendicular shock crossing on 2008 March 8 and during a quasi-parallel shock crossing on 2007 February 3, highlighting that both were associated with electron acceleration to at least MeV energies. The magnetic signature of the quasi-perpendicular crossing has a relatively sharp upstream–downstream transition, and energetic electrons were detected close to the transition and immediately downstream. The magnetic transition at the quasi-parallel crossing is less clear, energetic electrons were encountered upstream and downstream, and the electron energy spectrum is harder above ∼100 keV. We discuss whether the acceleration is consistent with diffusive shock acceleration theory in each case, and suggest that the quasi-parallel spectral break is due to an energy-dependent interaction between the electrons and short, large-amplitude magnetic structures.

  10. Orientation Dependence in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Shocked Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germann, Timothy C.; Holian, Brad Lee; Lomdahl, Peter S.; Ravelo, Ramon

    2000-01-01

    We use multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study shock wave propagation in fcc crystals. As shown recently, shock waves along the direction form intersecting stacking faults by slippage along {111} close-packed planes at sufficiently high shock strengths. We find even more interesting behavior of shocks propagating in other low-index directions: for the case, an elastic precursor separates the shock front from the slipped (plastic) region. Shock waves along the direction generate a leading solitary wave train, followed (at sufficiently high shock speeds) by an elastic precursor, and then a region of complex plastic deformation. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.O'C.; Axford, W.I.; Summers, D.

    1982-01-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed. (author)

  12. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Axford, W.I. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.)); Summers, D. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada))

    1982-03-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed.

  13. Shock formation within sonoluminescence bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, V.Q.; Szeri, A.J.; Young, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    A strong case has been made by several authors that sharp, spherically symmetric shocks converging on the center of a spherical bubble driven by a strong acoustic field give rise to rapid compression and heating that produces the brief flash of light known as sonoluminescence. The formation of such shocks is considered. It is found that, although at the main collapse the bubble wall does indeed launch an inwardly-traveling compression wave, and although the subsequent reflection of the wave at the bubble center produces a very rapid temperature peak, the wave is prevented from steepening into a sharp shock by an adverse gradient in the sound speed caused by heat transfer. It is shown that the mathematical characteristics of the flow can be prevented from accumulating into a shock front by this adverse sound speed gradient. A range of results is presented for a variety of bubble ambient radii and sound field amplitudes suggested by experiments. The time scale of the peak temperature in the bubble is set by the dynamics of the compression wave: this is typically in the range 100 - 300 ps (FWHM) in concert with recent measurements of the sonoluminescence pulse width. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  14. Multiscalar production amplitudes beyond threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H

    1993-01-01

    We present exact tree-order amplitudes for $H^* \\to n~H$, for final states containing one or two particles with non-zero three-momentum, for various interaction potentials. We show that there are potentials leading to tree amplitudes that satisfy unitarity, not only at threshold but also in the above kinematical configurations and probably beyond. As a by-product, we also calculate $2\\to n$ tree amplitudes at threshold and show that for the unbroken $\\phi^4$ theory they vanish for $n>4~$, for the Standard Model Higgs they vanish for $n\\ge 3~$ and for a model potential, respecting tree-order unitarity, for $n$ even and $n>4~$. Finally, we calculate the imaginary part of the one-loop $1\\to n$ amplitude in both symmetric and spontaneously broken $\\phi^4$ theory.

  15. Amplitude damping of vortex modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...

  16. Reflection and Transmission of a Focused Finite Amplitude Sound Beam Incident on a Curved Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Inder Raj Singh

    Reflection and transmission of a finite amplitude focused sound beam at a weakly curved interface separating two fluid-like media are investigated. The KZK parabolic wave equation, which accounts for thermoviscous absorption, diffraction, and nonlinearity, is used to describe the high intensity focused beam. The first part of the work deals with the quasilinear analysis of a weakly nonlinear beam after its reflection and transmission from a curved interface. A Green's function approach is used to define the field integrals describing the primary and the nonlinearly generated second harmonic beam. Closed-form solutions are obtained for the primary and second harmonic beams when a Gaussian amplitude distribution at the source is assumed. The second part of the research uses a numerical frequency domain solution of the KZK equation for a fully nonlinear analysis of the reflected and transmitted fields. Both piston and Gaussian sources are considered. Harmonic components generated in the medium due to propagation of the focused beam are evaluated, and formation of shocks in the reflected and transmitted beams is investigated. A finite amplitude focused beam is observed to be modified due to reflection and transmission from a curved interface in a manner distinct from that in the case of a small signal beam. Propagation curves, beam patterns, phase plots and time waveforms for various parameters defining the source and media pairs are presented, highlighting the effect of the interface curvature on the reflected and transmitted beams. Relevance of the current work to biomedical applications of ultrasound is discussed.

  17. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.K.; Goncharov, A.B.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf n (ℙ 3 ) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A 7,2 M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Conf n (ℙ 3 ). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A 7,2 M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  18. Search Coil vs. Fluxgate Magnetometer Measurements at Interplanetary Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.B., III

    2012-01-01

    We present magnetic field observations at interplanetary shocks comparing two different sample rates showing significantly different results. Fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar supercritical shock transitions at roughly 11 samples/s. Search coil magnetometer measurements at 1875 samples/s, however, show large amplitude (dB/B as large as 2) fluctuations that are not resolved by the fluxgate magnetometer. We show that these fluctuations, identified as whistler mode waves, would produce a significant perturbation to the shock transition region changing the interpretation from laminar to turbulent. Thus, previous observations of supercritical interplanetary shocks classified as laminar may have been under sampled.

  19. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  20. Target design for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtz, G; Ribeyre, X; Lafon, M

    2010-01-01

    The conventional approach of laser driven inertial fusion involves the implosion of cryogenic shells of deuterium-tritium ice. At sufficiently high implosion velocities, the fuel ignites by itself from a central hot spot. In order to reduce the risks of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to large implosion velocities, it was proposed to compress the fuel at low velocity, and ignite the compressed fuel by means of a convergent shock wave driven by an intense spike at the end of the laser pulse. This scheme, known as shock ignition, reduces the risks of shell break-up during the acceleration phase, but it may be impeded by a low coupling efficiency of the laser pulse with plasma at high intensities. This work provides a relationship between the implosion velocity and the laser intensity required to ignite the target by a shock. The operating domain of shock ignition at different energies is described.

  1. Diaphragmless shock wave generators for industrial applications of shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, M. S.; Janardhanraj, S.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    2011-06-01

    The prime focus of this study is to design a 50 mm internal diameter diaphragmless shock tube that can be used in an industrial facility for repeated loading of shock waves. The instantaneous rise in pressure and temperature of a medium can be used in a variety of industrial applications. We designed, fabricated and tested three different shock wave generators of which one system employs a highly elastic rubber membrane and the other systems use a fast acting pneumatic valve instead of conventional metal diaphragms. The valve opening speed is obtained with the help of a high speed camera. For shock generation systems with a pneumatic cylinder, it ranges from 0.325 to 1.15 m/s while it is around 8.3 m/s for the rubber membrane. Experiments are conducted using the three diaphragmless systems and the results obtained are analyzed carefully to obtain a relation between the opening speed of the valve and the amount of gas that is actually utilized in the generation of the shock wave for each system. The rubber membrane is not suitable for industrial applications because it needs to be replaced regularly and cannot withstand high driver pressures. The maximum shock Mach number obtained using the new diaphragmless system that uses the pneumatic valve is 2.125 ± 0.2%. This system shows much promise for automation in an industrial environment.

  2. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  3. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  4. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  5. On Modeling Risk Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Victor; Lee, Gabriel; Salyer, Kevin; Strobel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a financial accelerator model, we model time-varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) through the use of a mixture Normal model with time variation in the weights applied to the underlying distributions characterizing entrepreneur productivity. Specifically, we model capital producers (i.e. the entrepreneurs) as either low-risk (relatively small second moment for productivity) and high-risk (relatively large second moment for productivity) and the fraction of both types is...

  6. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  7. Exploratory laser-driven shock wave studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.

    1977-11-01

    We show the results of a feasibility study for investigating shock structure and for measuring equation-of-state parameters using high-energy, short-pulse lasers. We discuss the temporal and spatial structure of the luminosity from laser-driven shock unloading in aluminum foils. We demonstrate that shock velocity can be measured by observing the time interval between shock emergence across two thicknesses and show data for shocks of 1.3 and 2.1 Mbar. The fact that we observe shock fronts cleanly breaking through steps as small as 3 μm indicates that the shock front thickness is very small in the few megabar region; this is the first experimental verification that these fronts are not more than a few micrometers thick. We present approximate measurements of free-surface velocity. Finally, we speculate on the use of these techniques to obtain detailed equation-of-state data

  8. Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

    2011-01-20

    The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

  9. Do oil shocks predict economic policy uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mobeen Ur

    2018-05-01

    Oil price fluctuations have influential role in global economic policies for developed as well as emerging countries. I investigate the role of international oil prices disintegrated into structural (i) oil supply shock, (ii) aggregate demand shock and (iii) oil market specific demand shocks, based on the work of Kilian (2009) using structural VAR framework on economic policies uncertainty of sampled markets. Economic policy uncertainty, due to its non-linear behavior is modeled in a regime switching framework with disintegrated structural oil shocks. Our results highlight that Indian, Spain and Japanese economic policy uncertainty responds to the global oil price shocks, however aggregate demand shocks fail to induce any change. Oil specific demand shocks are significant only for China and India in high volatility state.

  10. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  11. Experimental investigation of a PCM-HP heat sink on its thermal performance and anti-thermal-shock capacity for high-power LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuxuan; Tang, Yong; Li, Zongtao; Ding, Xinrui; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Xuezhi; Yu, Binhai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A phase-change material (PCM) base heat pipe heat sink (PCM-HP heat sink) is designed. • The PCM-HP heat sink can significantly lower the LED heating rate and temperature. • The PCM-HP heat sink achieves a best anti-thermal-shock capacity in LED cyclic working modes. - Abstract: High-power LEDs demonstrate a number of benefits compared with conventional incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps, including a longer lifetime, higher brightness and lower power consumption. However, owing to their severe high heat flux, it is difficult to develop effective thermal management of high-power LEDs, especially under cyclic working modes, which cause serious periodic thermal stress and limit further development. Focusing on the above problem, this paper designed a phase-change material (PCM) base heat pipe heat sink (PCM-HP heat sink) that consists of a PCM base, adapter plate, heat pipe and finned radiator. Different parameters, such as three types of interior materials to fill the heat sink, three LED power inputs and eight LED cyclic working modes, were separately studied to investigate the thermal performance and anti-thermal-shock capacity of the PCM-HP heat sink. The results show that the PCM-HP heat sink possesses remarkable thermal performance owing to the reduction of the LED heating rate and peak temperature. More importantly, an excellent anti-thermal-shock capacity of the PCM-HP heat sink is also demonstrated when applied in LED cyclic working modes, and this capacity demonstrates the best range.

  12. Electric field scales at quasi-perpendicular shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Walker

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the short scale structures that are observed in the electric field during crossings of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock using data from the Cluster satellites. These structures exhibit large amplitudes, as high as 70 m Vm-1 and so make a significant contribution to the overall change in potential at the shock front. It is shown that the scale size of these short-lived electric field structures is of the order of a few cpe. The relationships between the scale size and the upstream Mach number and θBn are studied. It is found that the scale size of these structures decreases with increasing plasma β and as θBn→90°. The amplitude of the spikes remains fairly constant with increasing Ma and appears to increase as θBn→90°.

  13. Generation of ultra-high-pressure shocks by collision of a fast plasma projectile driven in the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration scheme with a solid target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.; Krouský, Eduard; Kucharik, M.; Liska, R.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-11, č. článku 032709. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk LM2010014 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * ultra-high-pressure shocks * laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2015

  14. Jet formation and shock wave emission during collapse of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their role in the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brujan, E A; Ikeda, T; Matsumoto, Y

    2005-10-21

    The dynamics of inertial cavitation bubbles produced by short pulses of high-intensity focused ultrasound near a rigid boundary are studied to get a better understanding of the role of jet formation and shock wave emission during bubble collapse in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound. The bubble dynamics are investigated by high-speed photography with up to 2 million frames/s and acoustic measurements, as well as by numerical calculations. The significant parameter of this study is the dimensionless stand-off, gamma, which is defined as the distance of the bubble centre at its maximum expansion scaled by the maximum bubble radius. High-speed photography is applied to observe the bubble motion and the velocity of the liquid jet formed during bubble collapse. Hydrophone measurements are used to determine the pressure and the duration of the shock wave emitted during bubble rebound. Calculations yield the variation with time of the bubble wall, the maximum velocity and the kinetic energy of the re-entrant jet. The comparisons between experimental and numerical data are favourable with regard to both shape history and translational motion of the bubble. The acoustic energy constitutes the largest individual amount in the energy balance of bubble collapse. The ratio of the shock wave energy, measured at 10 mm from the emission centre, to the cavitation bubble energy was 1:2.4 at gamma = 1.55 and 1:3.5 at gamma = 1. At this distance, the shock wave pressure ranges from 0.122 MPa, at gamma = 1, to 0.162 MPa, at gamma = 1.55, and the temporal duration at the half maximum level is 87 ns. The maximum jet velocity ranges from 27 m s(-1), at gamma = 1, to 36 m s(-1), at gamma = 1.55. For gamma < 1.2, the re-entrant jet can generate an impact pressure on the nearby boundary larger than 50 MPa. We discuss the implications of the results for the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

  15. Jet formation and shock wave emission during collapse of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their role in the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brujan, E A; Ikeda, T; Matsumoto, Y

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of inertial cavitation bubbles produced by short pulses of high-intensity focused ultrasound near a rigid boundary are studied to get a better understanding of the role of jet formation and shock wave emission during bubble collapse in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound. The bubble dynamics are investigated by high-speed photography with up to 2 million frames/s and acoustic measurements, as well as by numerical calculations. The significant parameter of this study is the dimensionless stand-off, γ, which is defined as the distance of the bubble centre at its maximum expansion scaled by the maximum bubble radius. High-speed photography is applied to observe the bubble motion and the velocity of the liquid jet formed during bubble collapse. Hydrophone measurements are used to determine the pressure and the duration of the shock wave emitted during bubble rebound. Calculations yield the variation with time of the bubble wall, the maximum velocity and the kinetic energy of the re-entrant jet. The comparisons between experimental and numerical data are favourable with regard to both shape history and translational motion of the bubble. The acoustic energy constitutes the largest individual amount in the energy balance of bubble collapse. The ratio of the shock wave energy, measured at 10 mm from the emission centre, to the cavitation bubble energy was 1:2.4 at γ = 1.55 and 1:3.5 at γ = 1. At this distance, the shock wave pressure ranges from 0.122 MPa, at γ = 1, to 0.162 MPa, at γ 1.55, and the temporal duration at the half maximum level is 87 ns. The maximum jet velocity ranges from 27 m s -1 , at γ = 1, to 36 m s -1 , at γ = 1.55. For γ < 1.2, the re-entrant jet can generate an impact pressure on the nearby boundary larger than 50 MPa. We discuss the implications of the results for the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound

  16. Energy of a shock wave generated in different metals under irradiation by a high-power laser pulse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 4 (2007), s. 793-802 ISSN 1063-7761 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Grant - others:HPC Europa(XE) RII3-CT-2003-506350 Program:FP6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : shock waves * laser radiation * laser plasma * inertial confinement * PALS laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.075, year: 2007

  17. Effect of long-term water immersion or thermal shock on mechanical properties of high-impact acrylic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hirono; Hamanaka, Ippei; Takahashi, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term water immersion or thermal shock on the mechanical properties of high-impact acrylic denture base resins. Two high-impact acrylic denture base resins were selected for the study. Specimens of each denture base material tested were fabricated according to the manufacturers' instructions (n=10). The flexural strength at the proportional limit, the elastic modulus and the impact strength of the specimens were evaluated. The flexural strength at the proportional limit of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins did not change after six months' water immersion or thermocycling 50,000 times. The elastic moduli of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins significantly increased after six months' water immersion or thermocycling 50,000 times. The impact strengths of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins significantly decreased after water immersion or thermocycling as described above.

  18. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  19. High pressure generation by laser driven shock waves: application to equation of state measurement; Generation de hautes pressions par choc laser: application a la mesure d'equations d'etat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benuzzi, A

    1997-12-15

    This work is dedicated to shock waves and their applications to the study of the equation of state of compressed matter.This document is divided into 6 chapters: 1) laser-produced plasmas and abrasion processes, 2) shock waves and the equation of state, 3) relative measuring of the equation of state, 4) comparison between direct and indirect drive to compress the target, 5) the measurement of a new parameter: the shock temperature, and 6) control and measurement of the pre-heating phase. In this work we have reached relevant results, we have shown for the first time the possibility of generating shock waves of very high quality in terms of spatial distribution, time dependence and of negligible pre-heating phase with direct laser radiation. We have shown that the shock pressure stays unchanged as time passes for targets whose thickness is over 10 {mu}m. A relative measurement of the equation of state has been performed through the simultaneous measurement of the velocity of shock waves passing through 2 different media. The great efficiency of the direct drive has allowed us to produce pressures up to 40 Mbar. An absolute measurement of the equation of state requires the measurement of 2 parameters, we have then performed the measurement of the colour temperature of an aluminium target submitted to laser shocks. A simple model has been developed to infer the shock temperature from the colour temperature. The last important result is the assessment of the temperature of the pre-heating phase that is necessary to know the media in which the shock wave propagates. The comparison of the measured values of the reflectivity of the back side of the target with the computed values given by an adequate simulation has allowed us to deduce the evolution of the temperature of the pre-heating phase. (A.C.)

  20. Laser shock processing on microstructure and hardness of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tools with and without nanodiamond powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melookaran, Roslyn; Melaibari, Ammar; Deng, Cheng; Molian, Pal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Laser shock waves hardened polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tools by up to 15%. ► Laser shock waves can build layer-by-layer of nanodiamond to form micro-diamond tools. ► Multiple laser shocks induce significant phase transitions in cBN and nanodiamond. -- Abstract: High amplitude, short duration shock waves created by a 1064 nm, 10 ns Q-switched Nd:YAG laser were used to increase the hardness as well as build successive layers of nanodiamond on sintered polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PcBN) tools. Multiple scans of laser shocking were applied. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Tukon microhardness tester, and optical surface profilometer were used to evaluate the microstructure, phase change, Vicker’s microhardness and surface roughness. Results indicated that laser shock processing of plain PcBN changed the binder concentration, caused phase transition from cubic to hexagonal form, increased the hardness, and almost unaffected surface roughness. Laser shock wave sintering of nanodiamond powders on PcBN resulted in deagglomeration and layer-by-layer build-up of nanoparticles for a thickness of 30 μm inferring that a novel solid freeform technique designated as “shock wave induced freeform technique (SWIFT)” is being discovered for making micro-tools. Depending on the number of multiple laser shocks, the hardness of nanodiamond compact was lower or higher than that of PcBN. It is hypothesized that nanodiamond particles could serve as crack deflectors, increasing the fracture toughness of PcBN.

  1. Inverted topographic features, now submerged beneath the water of Lake Nasser, document a morphostratigraphic sequence of high-amplitude late-Pleistocene climate oscillation in Egyptian Nubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegengack, Robert; Zaki, Abdallah S.

    2017-12-01

    The Nile Valley between the Second Cataract at Wadi Halfa and the First Cataract at Aswan has been inundated behind two dams - the Aswan Dam, first built in 1902, and the High Dam (Sa'ad el A'ali), that blocked the flow of the Nile in 1964. The anticipated loss of archeological monuments in Lake Nasser, the reservoir behind the High Dam, initiated an international campaign to protect, move, or at least document as many of those monuments as possible.

  2. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  3. Typhi–Induced Septic Shock and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Teenage Patient Treated With High-Dose Dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Brosset Ugas MD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is commonly characterized by fever and abdominal pain. Rare complications include intestinal hemorrhage, bowel perforation, delirium, obtundation, and septic shock. Herein we describe the case of a previously healthy 16-year-old male without history of travel, diagnosed with typhoid fever complicated by septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with high-dose dexamethasone. This case details severe complications of typhoid fever that are uncommonly seen in developed countries, and the successful response to high-dose dexamethasone as adjunct therapy. High-dose dexamethasone treatment has reportedly decreased Salmonella Typhi mortality, but controlled studies specifically performed in children are lacking, and most reports of its use are over 30 years old and all have originated in developing countries. Providers should include Salmonella Typhi in the differential diagnosis of the pediatric patient with fever, severe abdominal pain, and enteritis, and be aware of its potentially severe complications and the limited data on safety and efficacy of adjunctive therapies that can be considered in addition to antibiotics.

  4. Mechanical properties and thermal shock performance of W-Y2O3 composite prepared by high-energy-rate forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Youyun; Liu, Xiang; Feng, Fan; Song, Jiupeng; Yan, Binyou; Wang, Yingmin; Wang, Jianbao; Chen, Jiming

    2017-12-01

    The effects of the addition of Y2O3 and hot-deformation on the mechanical properties of tungsten (W) have been studied. The processing route comprises a doping technique for the distribution of Y2O3 particles in a tungsten matrix, conventional sintering in a hydrogen environment, and high-energy-rate forging (HERF). The microstructure of the composite was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction imaging technique, and its mechanical properties were studied by means of tensile testing. The thermal shock response of the HERF processed W-Y2O3 was evaluated by applying edge-localized mode-like loads (100 pulses) with a pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1 GW m-2 at various temperatures between room temperature and 200 °C. HERF processing has produced elongated W grains with preferred orientations and a high density of structure defects in the composite. The composite material exhibits high tensile strength and good ductility, and a thermal shock cracking threshold lower than 100 °C.

  5. INTERFERENCE OF COUNTERPROPAGATING SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study. We examined the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves. The necessity of counterpropagating shock waves studying occurs at designing of high Mach number modern internal compression air intakes, Ramjets with subsonic and supersonic combustion, in asymmetrical supersonic nozzles and in some other cases. In a sense, this problem is a generalization of the case of an oblique shock reflection from the wall or from the plane of symmetry. With the renewed vigor, the interest to this problem emerged at the end of the 90s. This was due to the start of the programs for flight study at hypersonic speeds. The first experiments performed with air intakes, which realized the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves have shown that the change in flow velocity is accompanied by abrupt alteration of shock-wave structure, the occurrence of nonstationary and oscillatory phenomena. With an increase of flow velocity these phenomena undesirable for aircraft structure became more marked. The reason is that there are two fundamentally different modes of interaction of counterpropagating shock waves: a four-wave regular and a five-wave irregular. The transition from one mode to another can be nonstationary abrupt or gradual, it can also be accompanied by hysteresis. Main results. Criteria for the transition from regular reflection of counterpropagating shock waves to irregular are described: the criterion of von Neumann and the stationary Mach configuration criterion. We described areas in which the transition from one reflection type to another is possible only in abrupt way, as well as areas of possible gradual transition. Intensity dependences of the reflected shock waves from the intensity of interacting counterpropagating shocks were given. Qualitative pictures of shock-wave structures arising from the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves were shown. Calculation results of the intensity of outgoing gas

  6. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  7. A FOCUSED TRANSPORT APPROACH TO THE TIME-DEPENDENT SHOCK ACCELERATION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES AT A FAST TRAVELING SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most sophisticated models for solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejection driven shocks are based on standard diffusive shock acceleration theory. However, this theory, which only applies when SEP pitch-angle anisotropies are small, might have difficulty in describing first-order Fermi acceleration or the shock pre-heating and injection of SEPs into first-order Fermi acceleration accurately at lower SEP speeds where SEP pitch-angle anisotropies upstream near the shock can be large. To avoid this problem, we use a time-dependent focused transport model to reinvestigate first-order Fermi acceleration at planar parallel and quasi-parallel spherical traveling shocks between the Sun and Earth with high shock speeds associated with rare extreme gradual SEP events. The focused transport model is also used to investigate and compare three different shock pre-heating mechanisms associated with different aspects of the nonuniform cross-shock solar wind flow, namely, the convergence of the flow (adiabatic compression), the shear tensor of the flow, and the acceleration of the flow, and a fourth shock pre-heating mechanism associated with the cross-shock electric field, to determine which pre-heating mechanism contributes the most to injecting shock pre-heated source particles into the first-order Fermi acceleration process. The effects of variations in traveling shock conditions, such as increasing shock obliquity and shock slowdown, and variations in the SEP source with increasing shock distance from the Sun on the coupled processes of shock pre-heating, injection, and first-order Fermi acceleration are analyzed. Besides the finding that the cross-shock acceleration of the solar wind flow yields the dominant shock pre-heating mechanism at high shock speeds, we find that first-order Fermi acceleration at fast traveling shocks differs in a number of respects from the predictions and assumptions of standard steady-state diffusive shock

  8. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  9. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  10. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu

    2015-07-15

    Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  11. Cluster polylogarithms for scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, John; Paulos, Miguel F; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the cluster structure of two-loop scattering amplitudes in N=4 Yang-Mills theory we define cluster polylogarithm functions. We find that all such functions of weight four are made up of a single simple building block associated with the A 2 cluster algebra. Adding the requirement of locality on generalized Stasheff polytopes, we find that these A 2 building blocks arrange themselves to form a unique function associated with the A 3 cluster algebra. This A 3 function manifests all of the cluster algebraic structure of the two-loop n-particle MHV amplitudes for all n, and we use it to provide an explicit representation for the most complicated part of the n = 7 amplitude as an example. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras in mathematical physics’. (paper)

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, Nirmol K.

    2009-01-01

    In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1-20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas

  13. A Shocking Solar Nebula?

    OpenAIRE

    Liffman, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that shock waves in the solar nebula formed the high temperature materials observed in meteorites and comets. It is shown that the temperatures at the inner rim of the solar nebula could have been high enough over a sufficient length of time to produce chondrules, CAIs, refractory dust grains and other high-temperature materials observed in comets and meteorites. The solar bipolar jet flow may have produced an enrichment of 16O in the solar nebula over time and the chond...

  14. Spatially distributed patterns of oscillatory coupling between high-frequency amplitudes and low-frequency phases in human iEEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, Eric; van Vugt, Marieke; Kahana, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spatially distributed coherent oscillations provide temporal windows of excitability that allow for interactions between distinct neuronal groups. It has been hypothesized that this mechanism for neuronal communication is realized by bursts of high-frequency oscillations that are phase-coupled to a

  15. Topological amplitudes in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Taylor, T.R.

    1993-07-01

    We show that certain type II string amplitudes at genus g are given by the topological partition F g discussed recently by Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa. These amplitudes give rise to a term in the four-dimensional effective action of the form Σ g F g W 2g , where W is the chiral superfield of N = 2 supergravitational multiplet. The holomorphic anomaly of F g is related to non-localities of the effective action due to the propagation of massless states. This result generalizes the holomorphic anomaly of the one loop case which is known to lead to non-harmonic gravitational couplings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs

  16. New rigorous asymptotic theorems for inverse scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomsadze, Sh.Yu.; Lomsadze, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    The rigorous asymptotic theorems both of integral and local types obtained earlier and establishing logarithmic and in some cases even power correlations aetdeen the real and imaginary parts of scattering amplitudes Fsub(+-) are extended to the inverse amplitudes 1/Fsub(+-). One also succeeds in establishing power correlations of a new type between the real and imaginary parts, both for the amplitudes themselves and for the inverse ones. All the obtained assertions are convenient to be tested in high energy experiments when the amplitudes show asymptotic behaviour

  17. Effect of shock interactions on mixing layer between co-flowing supersonic flows in a confined duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. M. V.; Asano, S.; Imani, I.; Saito, T.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments are conducted to observe the effect of shock interactions on a mixing layer generated between two supersonic streams of Mach number M _{1} = 1.76 and M _{2} = 1.36 in a confined duct. The development of this mixing layer within the duct is observed using high-speed schlieren and static pressure measurements. Two-dimensional, compressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the k-ω SST turbulence model in Fluent. Further, adverse pressure gradients are imposed by placing inserts of small ( boundary layer thickness) thickness on the walls of the test section. The unmatched pressures cause the mixing layer to bend and lead to the formation of shock structures that interact with the mixing layer. The mixing layer growth rate is found to increase after the shock interaction (nearly doubles). The strongest shock is observed when a wedge insert is placed in the M _{2} flow. This shock interacts with the mixing layer exciting flow modes that produce sinusoidal flapping structures which enhance the mixing layer growth rate to the maximum (by 1.75 times). Shock fluctuations are characterized, and it is observed that the maximum amplitude occurs when a wedge insert is placed in the M _{2} flow.

  18. Simple model for vibration-translation exchange at high temperatures: effects of multiquantum transitions on the relaxation of a N2 gas flow behind a shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliat, A; Vedula, P; Josyula, E

    2011-02-01

    In this paper a simple model is proposed for computation of rate coefficients related to vibration-translation transitions based on the forced harmonic oscillator theory. This model, which is developed by considering a quadrature method, provides rate coefficients that are in very good agreement with those found in the literature for the high temperature regime (≳10,000 K). This model is implemented to study a one-dimensional nonequilibrium inviscid N(2) flow behind a plane shock by considering a state-to-state approach. While the effects of ionization and chemical reactions are neglected in our study, our results show that multiquantum transitions have a great influence on the relaxation of the macroscopic parameters of the gas flow behind the shock, especially on vibrational distributions of high levels. All vibrational states are influenced by multiquantum processes, but the effective number of transitions decreases inversely according to the vibrational quantum number. For the initial conditions considered in this study, excited electronic states are found to be weakly populated and can be neglected in modeling. Moreover, the computing time is considerably reduced with the model described in this paper compared to others found in the literature. ©2011 American Physical Society

  19. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  20. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  1. Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Turbulent Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrel, Christian; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz; Pisokas, Theophilos

    2018-05-01

    Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA) cannot efficiently accelerate particles without the presence of self-consistently generated or pre-existing strong turbulence (δB/B ˜ 1) in the vicinity of the shock. The problem we address in this article is: if large amplitude magnetic disturbances are present upstream and downstream of a shock then Turbulent Reconnection (TR) will set in and will participate not only in the elastic scattering of particles but also in their heating and acceleration. We demonstrate that large amplitude magnetic disturbances and Unstable Current Sheets (UCS), spontaneously formed in the strong turbulence in the vicinity of a shock, can accelerate particles as efficiently as DSA in large scale systems and on long time scales. We start our analysis with "elastic" scatterers upstream and downstream and estimate the energy distribution of particles escaping from the shock, recovering the well known results from the DSA theory. Next we analyze the additional interaction of the particles with active scatterers (magnetic disturbances and UCS) upstream and downstream of the shock. We show that the asymptotic energy distribution of the particles accelerated by DSA/TR has very similar characteristics with the one due to DSA alone, but the synergy of DSA with TR is much more efficient: The acceleration time is an order of magnitude shorter and the maximum energy reached two orders of magnitude higher. We claim that DSA is the dominant acceleration mechanism in a short period before TR is established, and then strong turbulence will dominate the heating and acceleration of the particles. In other words, the shock serves as the mechanism to set up a strongly turbulent environment, in which the acceleration mechanism will ultimately be the synergy of DSA and TR.

  2. Particle acceleration at quasi-perpendicular shock waves: Theory and observations at 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Zank, G. P.; Hu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    The injection of particles into the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism at highly perpendicular (where θ Bn > 70°) interplanetary shocks is investigated. This extends the previous study of Neergaard Parker and Zank which focused on the injection problem at quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks. We use observations at 1 AU to construct upstream Maxwellian and κ-distributions that are then diffusively accelerated by the shock, thus yielding the downstream accelerated particle distribution. We compare the theoretical accelerated particle distribution to observations at 1 AU using Advanced Composition Explorer data. We classify our results for quasi-perpendicular shocks into three subcategories: those with ratios of the theoretical spectral index to observed power law of >1, ∼ 1, and <1, and compare the magnetic power spectral density plots of these categories. We find that in general the assumed upstream particle distribution that best fits the energetic particle observations is best represented by a κ-distribution, with κ = 4. The magnetic field fluctuations were representative of quasi-perpendicular shocks and showed no particular bias toward our spectral ratio subcategories. The subcategory with spectral ratio <0.9 yielded the largest injection energies for all groups. In all but two of the cases in this study, there were enough particles in the solar wind thermal core to account for the accelerated distribution, thereby giving a lower limit to the required injection energy needed to diffusively accelerate particles at a quasi-perpendicular interplanetary shock. In the remaining two cases, an additional population of particles was required to match the appropriate amplitude of the spectral index. For these cases, we used a low energy (1-50 keV) v –5 spectrum advocated by Fisk and Gloeckler.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of laser shock phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Ichirou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan).

    2001-10-01

    Recently, ultrashort-pulse lasers with high peak power have been developed, and their application to materials processing is expected as a tool of precision microfabrication. When a high power laser irradiates, a shock wave propagates into the material and dislocations are generated. In this paper, laser shock phenomena of the metal were analyzed using the modified molecular dynamics method, which has been developed by Ohmura and Fukumoto. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The shock wave induced by the Gaussian beam irradiation propagates radially from the surface to the interior. (2) A lot of dislocations are generated at the solid-liquid interface by the propagation of a shock wave. (3) Some dislocations are moved instantaneously with the velocity of the longitudinal wave when the shock wave passes, and their velocity is not larger than the transverse velocity after the shock wave has passed. (author)

  4. N-loop string amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelstam, S.

    1986-06-01

    Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture

  5. Scattering Amplitudes from Intersection Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, Sebastian

    2018-04-06

    We use Picard-Lefschetz theory to prove a new formula for intersection numbers of twisted cocycles associated with a given arrangement of hyperplanes. In a special case when this arrangement produces the moduli space of punctured Riemann spheres, intersection numbers become tree-level scattering amplitudes of quantum field theories in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulation.

  6. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez, John C; Christensen, J Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (e iS ) rather than imaginary-time e -S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model

  7. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moult, I.; Stewart, I.W.; Tackmann, F.J.; Waalewijn, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are

  8. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2015-08-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e + e - and e - p collisions.

  9. Discontinuity formulas for multiparticle amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1976-03-01

    It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality condition. The discontinuity formulas to be derived are the basis of multi-particle fixed-t dispersion relations

  10. Distribution amplitudes of vector mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, V.M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Broemmel, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2007-11-15

    Results are presented for the lowest moment of the distribution amplitude for the K{sup *} vector meson. Both longitudinal and transverse moments are investigated. We use two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions, together with a non-perturbative renormalisation of the matrix element. (orig.)

  11. On the inverse problem in high-energy elastic hadron scattering and the applicability of a representation for the real part of the amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, Daniel Almeida

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical description of high-energy elastic hadron scattering constitutes an open problem in both, the underlying quantum field theory of strong interactions (QCD) and the phenomenological context. In this work the inverse problem in elastic hadron scattering is discussed in the impact parameter and eikonal frameworks, specifically a study on the empirical extraction of the profile, the inelastic overlap and the eikonal functions, from the experimental data and some principles and high-energy theorems (model independent). The analysis is limited to elastic proton-proton scattering in the center of momentum energy interval 19.4 - 62.5 GeV. In particular, a novel representation for the Martin's Real Part Formula is introduced but without the scaling property and suitable for empirical analysis. By means of this representation, and two other parametrizations previously introduced (constrained and unconstrained), several properties of the inelastic overlap function and the imaginary part of the eikonal (opacity) in the momentum transfer space are determined, in special: (1) evidence of a peripheral effect (tail) in the inelastic overlap function in the parameter impact space above 2 fm; (2) development of analytical parametrizations for this function leading to three gaussian components with centers at 0.0, ∼0.7 and ∼1.3 fm; (3) evidence of a finite zero (change of sign) in the opacity function in the momentum transfer space; (4) development of empirical parametrization for this function consistent with form factors as a product of two monopoles with constrained masses (not a dipole type) and a term with zero; (5) detailed discussion on the determination of the opacity function in the momentum transfer space through the semi-analytical approach. The applicability of these empirical results in the development of eikonal models (mainly those inspired in QCD) is also discussed. (author)

  12. High-energy versus low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy for calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder: which is superior? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, F U; In den Kleef, N J H M; Jansen, L; Morrenhof, J W

    2014-09-01

    There are several treatment options for calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder. The next step treatment after conservative treatment fails is still a matter of dispute. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to be a good alternative to surgery, but the best treatment intensity remains unknown. High-energy ESWT is much more painful, more expensive, and usually is done in an inpatient setting, whereas low-energy ESWT can be performed in an outpatient setting by a physical therapist. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials was performed to answer two clear research questions: (1) Is there a greater increase in the Constant-Murley score in patients treated with high-energy ESWT compared with those treated with low-energy ESWT by 3 months and by 6 months? (2) Is there a greater chance of complete resorption of the calcifications in patients treated with high-energy ESWT compared with those treated with low-energy ESWT by 3 months and by 6 months? Five relevant electronic online databases, Medline (through PubMed), EMBASE (through OVID), Cinahl (through EBSCO), Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, were systematically searched. We also crosschecked the reference lists of articles and reviews for possible relevant studies. Eligible for inclusion were all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared high-energy ESWT (> 0.28 mJ/mm(2)) with low-energy ESWT (energy ESWT compared with patients treated with low-energy ESWT at 3 and 6 months. The 3-month mean difference was 9.88 (95% CI, 9.04-10.72, p energy ESWT more often resulted in complete resorption of the deposits at 3 months. The corresponding odds ratio was 3.40 (95% CI, 1.35-8.58) and p = 0.009 (6-month data could not be pooled). When shock wave therapy is chosen, high-energy shock wave therapy is more likely to result in improved Constant-Murley score and resorption of the deposits compared with low-energy therapy. Level I, therapeutic study

  13. Shock-tube study of the decomposition of tetramethylsilane using gas chromatography and high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, P; Peukert, S; Herzler, J; Fikri, M; Schulz, C

    2018-04-25

    The decomposition of tetramethylsilane was studied in shock-tube experiments in a temperature range of 1270-1580 K and pressures ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 bar behind reflected shock waves combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HRR-TOF-MS). The main observed products were methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H6), and acetylene (C2H2). In addition, the formation of a solid deposit was observed, which was identified to consist of silicon- and carbon-containing nanoparticles. A kinetics sub-mechanism with 13 silicon species and 20 silicon-containing reactions was developed. It was combined with the USC_MechII mechanism for hydrocarbons, which was able to simulate the experimental observations. The main decomposition channel of TMS is the Si-C bond scission forming methyl (CH3) and trimethylsilyl radicals (Si(CH3)3). The rate constant for TMS decomposition is represented by the Arrhenius expression ktotal[TMS → products] = 5.9 × 1012 exp(-267 kJ mol-1/RT) s-1.

  14. High frequency jet ventilation through a supraglottic airway device: a case series of patients undergoing extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, D J; Dhara, S S

    2009-12-01

    High frequency jet ventilation has been shown to be beneficial during extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy as it reduces urinary calculus movement which increases lithotripsy efficiency with better utilisation of shockwave energy and less patient exposure to tissue trauma. In all reports, sub-glottic high frequency jet ventilation was delivered through a tracheal tube or a jet catheter requiring paralysis and direct laryngoscopy. In this study, a simple method using supraglottic jet ventilation through a laryngeal mask attached to a circle absorber anaesthetic breathing system is described. The technique avoids the need for dense neuromuscular blockade for laryngoscopy and the potential complications associated with sub-glottic instrumentation and sub-glottic jet ventilation. The technique was successfully employed in a series of patients undergoing lithotripsy under general anaesthesia as an outpatient procedure.

  15. High Pressure In Situ X-ray Diffraction Study of MnO to 120 GPa and Comparison with Shock Compression Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Takehiko; Kondo, Tadashi; Syono, Yasuhiko

    1997-07-01

    In order to clarify the nature of the phase transformation in MnO observed at around 90 GPa by shock compression experiment (Syono et al., this symposium), high pressure in situ x-ray experiments were carried out up to 120 GPa. Powdered sample was directly compressed in Mao-Bell type diamond anvil and x-ray experiments were carried out using angle dispersive technique by combining synchrotron radiation and imaging plate detector. Distortion of the B1 structured phase into hexagonal unit cell was observed from 25-40 GPa, which continues to increase up to 90 GPa. At around 90 GPa, discontinuous change of the diffraction was observed. This new phase cannot be explained by a simple B2 structure and the analysis of this phase is in progress. This high pressure phase has metallic appearance, which reverses to transparent MnO on release of pressure.

  16. Integrable spin chains and scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J.; Prygarin, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Lipatov, L.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sankt-Peterburgskij Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    In this review we show that the multi-particle scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM at large N{sub c} and in the multi-Regge kinematics for some physical regions have the high energy behavior appearing from the contribution of the Mandelstam cuts in the complex angular momentum plane of the corresponding t-channel partial waves. These Mandelstam cuts or Regge cuts are resulting from gluon composite states in the adjoint representation of the gauge group SU(N{sub c}). In the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) their contribution to the six point amplitude is in full agreement with the known two-loop result. The Hamiltonian for the Mandelstam states constructed from n gluons in LLA coincides with the local Hamiltonian of an integrable open spin chain. We construct the corresponding wave functions using the integrals of motion and the Baxter-Sklyanin approach. (orig.)

  17. Scruncher phase and amplitude control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHaven, R.A.; Morris, C.L.; Johnson, R.; Davis, J.; O'Donnell, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The analog controller for phase and amplitude control of a 402.5 MHz super conducting cavity is described in this paper. The cavity is a single cell with niobium explosively bonded to a copper cavity. It is used as an energy compressor for pions at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The controller maintains cavity frequency to within 4 degrees in phase of the LAMPF beam frequency. Field amplitude is maintained to within 2 percent. This control is accomplished at critical coupling (Q load of 1 x 10 9 ) with the use of only a 30 watt rf amplifier for accelerating fields of 6 MV/m. The design includes the use of piezoelectric crystals for fast resonance control. Three types of control, self excited, VCO, and a reference frequency driven, were tried on this cavity and we present a comparison of their performance. (Author) 4 figs., ref

  18. SCRUNCHER phase and amplitude control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHaven, R.A.; Morris, C.L.; Johnson, R.; Davis, J.; O'Donnell, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The analog controller for phase and amplitude control of a 402.5 MHz super conducting cavity is described in this paper. The cavity is a single cell with niobium explosively bonded to a copper cavity. It is used as an energy compressor for pions at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The controller maintains cavity frequency to within 4 degrees in phase of the LAMPF beam frequency. Field amplitude is maintained to within 2 percent. This control is accomplished at critical coupling (Q loaded of 1 x 10 9 ) with the use of only a 30 watt rf amplifier for accelerating fields of 6 MV/m. The design includes the use of piezoelectric crystals for fast resonance control. Three types of control, self excited VCO, and a reference frequency driven, were tried on this cavity and we present a comparison of their performance

  19. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  20. Determination of the scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangal, A.D.; Kupsch, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problem to determine the elastic scattering amplitude from the differential cross-section by the unitarity equation is reexamined. We prove that the solution is unique and can be determined by a convergent iteration if the parameter lambda=sin μ of Newton and Martin is bounded by lambda 2 approx.=0.86. The method is based on a fixed point theorem for holomorphic mappings in a complex Banach space. (orig.)

  1. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  2. Semiclassical approach to fidelity amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Mata, Ignacio; Vallejos, Raúl O; Wisniacki, Diego A

    2011-01-01

    The fidelity amplitude (FA) is a quantity of paramount importance in echo-type experiments. We use semiclassical theory to study the average FA for quantum chaotic systems under external perturbation. We explain analytically two extreme cases: the random dynamics limit - attained approximately by strongly chaotic systems - and the random perturbation limit, which shows a Lyapunov decay. Numerical simulations help us to bridge the gap between both the extreme cases. (paper)

  3. Effects of Alfvénic Drift on Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Weak Cluster Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2018-03-01

    Non-detection of γ-ray emission from galaxy clusters has challenged diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of cosmic-ray (CR) protons at weak collisionless shocks that are expected to form in the intracluster medium. As an effort to address this problem, we here explore possible roles of Alfvén waves self-excited via resonant streaming instability during the CR acceleration at parallel shocks. The mean drift of Alfvén waves may either increase or decrease the scattering center compression ratio, depending on the postshock cross-helicity, leading to either flatter or steeper CR spectra. We first examine such effects at planar shocks, based on the transport of Alfvén waves in the small amplitude limit. For the shock parameters relevant to cluster shocks, Alfvénic drift flattens the CR spectrum slightly, resulting in a small increase of the CR acceleration efficiency, η. We then consider two additional, physically motivated cases: (1) postshock waves are isotropized via MHD and plasma processes across the shock transition, and (2) postshock waves contain only forward waves propagating along with the flow due to a possible gradient of CR pressure behind the shock. In these cases, Alfvénic drift could reduce η by as much as a factor of five for weak cluster shocks. For the canonical parameters adopted here, we suggest η ∼ 10‑4–10‑2 for shocks with sonic Mach number M s ≈ 2–3. The possible reduction of η may help ease the tension between non-detection of γ-rays from galaxy clusters and DSA predictions.

  4. Shock Tube Ignition Delay Data Affected by Localized Ignition Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour; Badra, J.; Jaasim, Mohammed; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Labastida, M.F.; Chung, Suk-Ho; Im, Hong G.; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Shock tubes have conventionally been used for measuring high-temperature ignition delay times ~ O(1 ms). In the last decade or so, the operating regime of shock tubes has been extended to lower temperatures by accessing longer observation times

  5. Emission of OH* and CO2* during the high-temperature oxidation of acetone in reflected shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereza, A. M.; Smirnov, V. N.; Vlasov, P. A.; Shumova, V. V.; Garmash, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental and kinetic modeling study of the ignition of a stoichiometric mixture of acetone with oxygen diluted by argon was carried out behind reflected shock waves within the temperature range of 1350-1810 K for the total mixture concentration [M 50] ~ 10-5 mol/cm3. Emission signals were recorded simultaneously for three different wavelengths: OH* (λ = 308 nm) and {{{CO}}}2* (λ1 = 365 nm; λ2 = 451 nm). It was revealed that the time it takes to reach the maximum of emission of OH* and {{{CO}}}2* is practically the same over the whole temperature range. At the same time, the emission profiles of {{{CO}}}2* after the maximum was attained, recorded at λ2 = 451 nm, differ noticeably from the profiles recorded at λ1 = 365 nm. For numerical modeling of the emission profiles of OH* and {{{CO}}}2* , the corresponding sets of excitation and quenching reactions available in the literature were used. In the course of our numerical simulations we succeeded in good agreement of our own experimental and simulation results on acetone ignition and the results available in the literature for conditions under consideration.

  6. High Cycle Fatigue Performance in Laser Shock Peened TC4 Titanium Alloys Subjected to Foreign Object Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sihai; Nie, Xiangfan; Zhou, Liucheng; Li, Yiming; He, Weifeng

    2018-03-01

    During their service, titanium alloys are likely to suffer from the foreign object damage (FOD), resulting in a decrease in their fatigue strength. Laser shock peening (LSP) has been proved to effectively increase the damage tolerance of military engine components by introducing a magnitude compressive residual stress in the near-surface layer of alloys. In this paper, smooth specimens of a TC4 titanium alloy were used and treated by LSP and subsequently exposed to FOD, which was simulated by firing a steel sphere with a nominal velocity of 300 m/s, at 90° with the leading edge of the LSP-treated region using a light gas gun. All impacted specimens were then subjected to fatigue loading. The results showed that LSP could effectively improve the fatigue strength of the damaged specimens. The effect of LSP on the fatigue strength was assessed through fracture observations, microhardness tests and residual stress analyses. The residual stresses due to the plastic deformation caused by LSP and the FOD impact, which were found to play a crucial role on the fatigue strength, were determined using the commercial software ABAQUS.

  7. Miniature shock tube for laser driven shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We describe in this paper the design of a miniature shock tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative shocks, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics."

  8. Are Credit Shocks Supply or Demand Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Bijapur, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new insights into the relationship between the supply of credit and the macroeconomy. We present evidence that credit shocks constitute shocks to aggregate supply in that they have a permanent effect on output and cause inflation to rise in the short term. Our results also suggest that the effects on aggregate supply have grown stronger in recent decades.

  9. Nuclear Spiral Shocks and Induced Gas Inflows in Weak Oval Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong-Tae [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Nuclear spirals are ubiquitous in galaxy centers. They exist not only in strong barred galaxies but also in galaxies without noticeable bars. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of nuclear gas spirals driven by weak bar-like and oval potentials. The amplitude of the spirals increases toward the center by a geometric effect, readily developing into shocks at small radii even for very weak potentials. The shape of the spirals and shocks depends rather sensitively on the background shear. When shear is low, the nuclear spirals are loosely wound and the shocks are almost straight, resulting in large mass inflows toward the center. When shear is high, on the other hand, the spirals are tightly wound and the shocks are oblique, forming a circumnuclear disk through which gas flows inward at a relatively lower rate. The induced mass inflow rates are enough to power black hole accretion in various types of Seyfert galaxies as well as to drive supersonic turbulence at small radii.

  10. Generation and Micro-scale Effects of Electrostatic Waves in an Oblique Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, K.; Ergun, R.; Schwartz, S. J.; Newman, D.; Johlander, A.; Argall, M. R.; Wilder, F. D.; Torbert, R. B.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Gershman, D. J.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present an analysis of large amplitude (>100 mV/m), high frequency (≤1 kHz), electrostatic waves observed by MMS during an oblique bow shock crossing event. The observed waves primarily consist of electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and oblique ion plasma waves (IPWs). ESWs typically include nonlinear structures such as double layers, ion phase-space holes, and electron phase-space holes. Oblique IPWs are observed to be similar to ion acoustic waves, but can propagate up to 70° from the ambient magnetic field direction. Both wave-modes, particularly IPWs, are observed to have very short wavelengths ( 100 m) and are highly localized. While such wave-modes have been previously observed in the terrestrial bow shock, instrumental constraints have limited detailed insight into their generation and their effect on their plasma shock environment. Analysis of this oblique shock event shows evidence that ESWs and oblique IPWs can be generated through field-aligned currents associated with magnetic turbulence and through a counterstreaming ion instability respectively. We also present evidence that this wave activity can facilitate momentum exchange between ion populations, resulting in deceleration of incoming solar wind, and localized electron heating.

  11. ION INJECTION AT QUASI-PARALLEL SHOCKS SEEN BY THE CLUSTER SPACECRAFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Retinò, A.; Dandouras, I.

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks in space plasma are known to be capable of accelerating ions to very high energies through diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). This process requires an injection of suprathermal ions, but the mechanisms producing such a suprathermal ion seed population are still not fully understood. We study acceleration of solar wind ions resulting from reflection off short large-amplitude magnetic structures (SLAMSs) in the quasi-parallel bow shock of Earth using in situ data from the four Cluster spacecraft. Nearly specularly reflected solar wind ions are observed just upstream of a SLAMS. The reflected ions are undergoing shock drift acceleration (SDA) and obtain energies higher than the solar wind energy upstream of the SLAMS. Our test particle simulations show that solar wind ions with lower energy are more likely to be reflected off the SLAMS, while high-energy ions pass through the SLAMS, which is consistent with the observations. The process of SDA at SLAMSs can provide an effective way of accelerating solar wind ions to suprathermal energies. Therefore, this could be a mechanism of ion injection into DSA in astrophysical plasmas

  12. Shock absorbing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)

  13. Melting under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.I.

    1980-10-01

    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  14. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  15. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  16. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  17. A high-temperature shock tube kinetic study for the branching ratios of isobutene+OH reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi

    2016-10-11

    Isobutene is an important intermediate formed during the oxidation of branched alkanes. It also appears as a byproduct during the combustion of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) which is used as octane enhancer in gasolines. To understand better the oxidation kinetics of isobutene, we have measured the rate coefficients for the reaction of OH radicals with isobutene (HCC(CH)) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 830-1289K and pressures near 1.5atm. The reaction progress was followed by measuring mole fraction of OH radicals near 306.7nm using UV laser absorption technique. Three deuterated isotopes, isobutene-1-d2 (DCC(CH)), isobutene-3-d6 (HCC(CD)) and isobutene-d8 (DCC(CD)) were employed to elucidate branching ratios of the allylic and vinylic H-abstraction from isobutene by OH radicals. H-abstraction from the allylic sites was found to be dominant and constituted about 75% of the total rate in the entire temperature range of the current work. The derived three-parameter Arrhenius expressions for site-specific H- and D- abstraction rates over 830-1289K are (units:cm mol s):k3,H=6.98×106(TK)1.77exp(-136.6KT) k3,D=4.42×106(TK)1.8exp(-361.7KT) k1,H=6.25×105(TK)2.16exp(-711.6KT) k1,D=3.13×107(TK)1.67exp(-1814KT) The subscript of . k identifies the position of H or D atom in isobutene according to the IUPAC nomenclature of alkenes.

  18. A high-temperature shock tube kinetic study for the branching ratios of isobutene+OH reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi; Giri, Binod; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Isobutene is an important intermediate formed during the oxidation of branched alkanes. It also appears as a byproduct during the combustion of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) which is used as octane enhancer in gasolines. To understand better the oxidation kinetics of isobutene, we have measured the rate coefficients for the reaction of OH radicals with isobutene (HCC(CH)) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 830-1289K and pressures near 1.5atm. The reaction progress was followed by measuring mole fraction of OH radicals near 306.7nm using UV laser absorption technique. Three deuterated isotopes, isobutene-1-d2 (DCC(CH)), isobutene-3-d6 (HCC(CD)) and isobutene-d8 (DCC(CD)) were employed to elucidate branching ratios of the allylic and vinylic H-abstraction from isobutene by OH radicals. H-abstraction from the allylic sites was found to be dominant and constituted about 75% of the total rate in the entire temperature range of the current work. The derived three-parameter Arrhenius expressions for site-specific H- and D- abstraction rates over 830-1289K are (units:cm mol s):k3,H=6.98×106(TK)1.77exp(-136.6KT) k3,D=4.42×106(TK)1.8exp(-361.7KT) k1,H=6.25×105(TK)2.16exp(-711.6KT) k1,D=3.13×107(TK)1.67exp(-1814KT) The subscript of . k identifies the position of H or D atom in isobutene according to the IUPAC nomenclature of alkenes.

  19. Constructing QCD one-loop amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forde, D

    2008-01-01

    other new methods have also proved fruitful for calculating rational terms [8]. Such developments have again refocused attention on the optimization of the derivation of the cut-constructable pieces of the amplitude. Deriving cut-constructible terms for any one-loop amplitude reduces to the computation of coefficients of a set of scalar bubble, scalar triangle and scalar box integral functions. Box coefficients may be found with very little work, directly from the quadruple cut of the relevant box function [9]. A unique box coefficient contributes to each distinct quadruple cut. Unfortunately triangle and bubble coefficients cannot be derived in quite so direct a manner. Multiple scalar integral coefficients appear inside a two-particle cut or triple cut. It is therefore necessary to disentangle the relevant bubble or triangle coefficients from any other coefficients sharing the same cut [1, 4, 10, 11]. The large number of NLO processes of interest for the LHC suggests that a completely automated computational procedure is highly desired. To this end we discuss, in this proceeding, a recently proposed method [12, 13] for the direct, efficient and systematic extraction of bubble and triangle coefficients which is well suited to automation

  20. High-temperature shock tube and modeling studies on the reactions of methanol with D-atoms and CH3-radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, S L; Michael, J V

    2013-10-10

    The shock tube technique has been used to study the hydrogen abstraction reactions D + CH3OH → CH2O + H + HD (A) and CH3 + CH3OH → CH2O + H + CH4 (B). For reaction A, the experiments span a T-range of 1016 K ≤ T ≤ 1325 K, at pressures 0.25 bar ≤ P ≤ 0.46 bar. The experiments on reaction B, CH3 + CH3OH, cover a T-range of 1138 K ≤ T ≤ 1270 K, at pressures around 0.40 bar. Reflected shock tube experiments, monitoring the depletion of D-atoms by applying D-atom atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS), were performed on reaction A using gas mixtures of C2D5I and CH3OH in Kr bath gas. C2D5I was used as precursor for D-atoms. For reaction B, reflected shock tube experiments monitoring H-atom formation with H-ARAS, were carried out using gas mixtures of diacetyl ((CH3CO)2) and CH3OH in Kr bath gas. (CH3CO)2 was used as the source of CH3-radicals. Detailed reaction models were assembled to fit the D-atom and H-atom time profiles in order to obtain experimental rate constants for reactions A and B. Total rate constants from the present experiments on D + CH3OH and CH3 + CH3OH can be represented by the Arrhenius equations kA(T) = 1.51 × 10(-10) exp(-3843 K/T) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) (1016 K ≤ T ≤ 1325 K) and kB(T) = 9.62 × 10(-12) exp(-7477 K/T) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) (1138 K ≤ T ≤ 1270 K). The experimentally obtained rate constants were compared with available rate data from the literature. The results from quantum chemical studies on reaction A were found to be in good agreement with the present results. The present work represents the first direct experimental study on these bimolecular reactions at combustion temperatures and is important to the high-temperature oxidation of CH3OH.