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Sample records for high amine contents

  1. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  2. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

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    Radka Flasarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines have higher concentrations of biogenic amines.

  3. Effect of storage conditions on the biogenic amine content in wild boar meat

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    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of game meat depends on many factors during and after hunting. Freshness of meat is connected with the concentration of biogenic amines which is related to meat spoilage. The aim of this study was to assess changes in concentration of biogenic amines in raw meat of wild boar (n = 20, mean age 1–2 years during storage at different temperatures. Carcases of wild boars hunted in winter 2012 in hunting districts of south Moravia were stored unskinned during 21 days at various temperatures (0, 7 and 15 °C. Concentrations of biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine and spermidine were determined in the shoulder and leg muscles by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Good hygienic quality was maintained when wild boar carcasses were stored for a maximum of 14 days at 0 °C (content of biogenic amines in 3 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 21 of storage or a maximum of 7 days at 7 °C (content of biogenic amines in 4 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 14 of storage. The temperature of 15 °C should be considered as unsuitable storage temperature if good hygienic quality of game meat during storage is to be guaranteed (content of biogenic amines in 2 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg already on day 7 of storage. The study brings new information about the biogenic amine content and its changes in wild boar meat during the storage period of 21 days.

  4. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  5. The impact of drawing on the biogenic amines content in meat of pithed pheasant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing popularity of game meat, greater emphasis is being placed on ensuring high hygienic quality of this food. Biogenic amines are among possible indicators of the hygienic quality of meat. The aim of this study was to monitor biogenic amine concentrations in the muscle tissues of pheasants (n = 20 killed by pithing and treated by drawing (guts are removed from the body cavity through the cloaca using a specially fashioned hook. The pheasants’ bodies were stored hanged by the neck for 21 days at ±7 °C. Breast and thigh muscle samples were collected at weekly intervals (day 1, 7, 14 and 21 of storage. Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. In breast muscle, the most evident change was noted in the concentration of cadaverine (0.026 and 1.070 mg/kg for storage day 1 and 21, respectively and tyramine (0.001 and 0.958 mg/kg for storage day 1 and 21, respectively. Throughout the storage period, the concentration of 5 mg/kg (indicating a loss of high hygienic quality of meat was not exceeded by any of the assessed biogenic amines. In thigh muscle, the concentration indicating high hygienic quality of meat was exceed after 14 days of storage in the case of cadaverine, tyramine and putrescine (at the end of storage their concentrations were 9.058, 10.708 and 3.345 mg/kg, respectively. Hygienic quality of thigh muscle decreased faster compared to breast muscle. This study brings new information about the content of biogenic amines in the meat of pithed pheasants treated by drawing.

  6. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  7. Heavy metal contamination, microbiological spoilage and biogenic amine content in sushi available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawik, Piotr; Dordevic, Dani; Gambuś, Florian; Szczurowska, Katarzyna; Zając, Marzena

    2018-05-01

    The present study determined the heavy metal contamination (mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and nickel) of nori, restaurant-served sushi and ready-to-eat sushi meals available via retail chains. Moreover, both microbiological load and biogenic amine content in ready-to-eat sushi meals were analysed. All of the nori samples contained high levels of Cd (2.122 mg kg -1 ), Ni (0.715 mg kg -1 ), As (34.56 mg kg -1 ) and Pb (0.659 mg kg -1 ). The studied sushi samples contained high levels of Ni and Pb, reaching 0.194 and 0.142 mg kg -1 wet weight, respectively, being potentially hazardous to women during pregnancy and lactation and small children. None of the studied samples contained high levels of Hg. Overall, 37% of ready-to-eat sushi meals exceeded a microbiological load of 10 6  cfu g -1 . However, biogenic amine content in all of the samples was low, with a highest histamine content of 2.05 mg kg -1 . Sushi is not the source of high levels of biogenic amines even with high microbiological loads. Nevertheless, the high microbiological loads at the end of the shelf-life indicate that some processors might have problems with the distribution chain or implement a poor hygienic regime. Moreover as a result of possible risk associated with heavy metal contamination, the present study highlights the need to establish new regulations regarding the contamination of nori and sushi. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Amine promoted, metal enhanced degradation of Mirex under high temperature conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallad, Karim N. [American University of Sharjah, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 26666, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)]. E-mail: kjallad@runbox.com; Lynn, Bert C. [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry, Lexington, KY 40506-055 (United States); Alley, Earl G. [Mississippi State University, Department of Chemistry, MS State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2006-07-31

    In this study, zero-valent metal dehalogenation of mirex was conducted with amine solvents at high temperatures. Mirex was treated with excess amine in sealed glass tube reactors under nitrogen. The amines used were n-butyl amine (l), ethyl amine (l), dimethyl amine (g), diethyl amine (l), triethyl amine (l), trimethyl amine (g) and ammonia (g). The metals used were copper, zinc, magnesium, aluminum and calcium. The most suitable amine solvent and metal were selected by running a series of reactions with different amines and different zero-valent metals, in order to optimize the conditions under which complete degradation of mirex takes place. These dehalogenation reactions illustrated the role of zero-valent metals as reductants, whereas the amine solvents acted as proton donors. In this study, we report that mirex was completely degraded with diethyl amine (l) in the presence of copper at 100 deg. C and the hydrogenated products accounted for more than 94 of the degraded mirex.

  9. Solvent extraction of cerium (III) with high molecular weight amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Basu, S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of high molecular weight amines in the extraction of cerium (III) as EDTA complex from neutral aqueous medium is reported. The extraction condition was optimised from the study of effects of several variables like concentration of amine and EDTA pH nature of diluents etc. The method has been applied for the determination of cerium in few mineral samples. (author). 7 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Content of biogenic amines in Lemna minor (common duckweed) growing in medium contaminated with tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciak, Michał; Sikorski, Łukasz; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka I; Adomas, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Aquatic plants are continuously exposed to a variety of stress factors. No data on the impact of antibiotics on the biogenic amines in duckweed (Lemna minor) have been available so far, and such data could be significant, considering the ecological role of this plant in animal food chains. In the tissues of control (non-stressed) nine-day-old duckweed, the following biogenic amines were identified: tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine. Based on the tetracycline contents and the computed EC values, the predicted toxicity units have been calculated. The obtained results demonstrated phytoxicity caused by tetracycline in relation to duckweed growth rate, yield and the contents of chlorophylls a and b. The carotenoid content was not modified by tetracycline. It was found that tetracycline as a water pollutant was a stress factor triggering an increase in the synthesis of amines. Tetracycline at 19, 39 and 78μM concentrations increased biogenic amine synthesis by 3.5 times. Although the content of tyramine increased fourteen times with the highest concentration of the drug (and of spermidine - only three-fold) the increase of spermidine was numerically the highest. Among the biogenic amines the most responsive to tetracycline were spermine and tyramine, while the least affected were putrescine and spermidine. Despite putrescine and spermidine being the least sensitive, their sum of contents increased five-fold compared to the control. These studies suggest that tetracycline in water reservoirs is taken up by L. minor as the antibiotic clearly modifies the metabolism of this plant and it may likely pose a risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for highly efficient gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Lok, Martin C.; Jiang, Xulin; Hennink, Wim E.; Feijen, Jan; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.

    2007-01-01

    A series of novel bioreducible poly(amido amine)s containing multiple disulfide linkages (SS-PAAs) were synthesized and evaluated as nonviral gene vectors. These linear SS-PAAs could be easily obtained by Michael-type polyaddition of various primary amines to the disulfide-containing cystamine

  12. Effect of irradiation and storage on biogenic amine contents in ripened Egyptian smoked cooked sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, Mohamed A.; Toliba, Abbas O.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation upon the biogenic amine inventory in Egyptian smoked cooked sausages were investigated for the first time during storage for up to 90 days at 4 ° C. Typical contents of biogenic amines in non-irradiated sausages ranged between 125.50 and 596.18 mg/kgDW; irradiation with 4 and 6 kGy decreased said total contents to 105.20-94.82 and 104.98-26.44 mg/kgDW respectively, by the end of storage. Putrescine and cadaverine were the major amines in non-irradiated samples - where it accounted for 33% and 29% respectively, of the total by 90 days; however, tyramine dominated in irradiated samples with 2, 4 and 6 kGy, where it accounted for 44, 52 and 42%. On the other hand, the histamine content in non-irradiated sausage by 90 days of storage (i.e. 109.12 mg/kgDW) clearly exceeded the maximum allowable of 50 mg/kg, unlike happened in their irradiated counterparts. Therefore, the dramatic reduction observed in the histamine levels suggests use of this preservation technique for that traditional meat food. (author)

  13. Influence of Gamma Irradiation on Biogenic Amine Contents and Pathogenic Bacteria in Spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.A.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 1, 2, 4 and 6 kGy as compared with blanching at 95°C/3 min on biogenic amine contents and pathogenic bacteria in spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.). The results indicated that tryptamine and β- phenylethylamine were not detected while histamine was the major amine detected at concentration of 12.55 mg/100g of wet weight. Blanching at 95°C/3 min significantly reduced the content of histamine, putrescine and tyramine in spinach while significantly increased the content of cadaverine. Gamma irradiation at different doses significantly reduced the contents of histamine and tyramine while significantly increased the content of cadaverine. However, putrescine content was increased significantly after subjected to doses 1 and 2 kGy while the doses 4 and 6 kGy significantly reduced it. Regarding to microbiological analysis in spinach, it could be noticed that total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform group, yeast, mould, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. in fresh spinach were 5.97, 4.40, 2.53, 2.11, 1.40, 1.48 and 1.18 log cfu/g, respectively. Changes in microbiological characters (cfu/g) in spinach by different gamma irradiation doses and blanching were also followed. It could be noticed that the total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform group, yeast, mould, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were significantly decreased after treatment with blanching and gamma irradiation and these microorganisms were not detected after being subjected to 4 and 6 kGy. It could be concluded that blanching at 95°C/3 min or gamma irradiation at dose 2 kGy can be used to control the pathogenic bacteria and reduce biogenic amine (histamine, putrescine and tyramine) in spinach

  14. The impacts of temperature, alcoholic degree and amino acids content on biogenic amines and their precursor amino acids content in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, C; Bordiga, M; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Salinas, M R; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to study how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids supplementation are able to influence the content of tyramine, histamine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and their precursor amino acids in winemaking process. Biogenic amines and amino acids were quantified at the beginning, middle and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In general, samples produced with amino acid supplementation did not show the highest concentrations of biogenic amines, except for histamine, which content increased with the addition of the four amino acids. The synthesis of tyramine was mainly affected by the temperature and alcoholic degree, the formation of phenylethylamine was largely influenced by alcoholic degree, and tryptamine synthesis principally depended on temperature. Interestingly, there was interaction between these three factors for the biogenic amines studied. In conclusion, winemaking conditions should be established depending on the biogenic amine which synthesis is required to be controlled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of amines in wintertime ambient particulate material using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottenus, Courtney L. H.; Massoli, Paola; Sueper, Donna; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; VanderSchelden, Graham; Jobson, B. Thomas; VanReken, Timothy M.

    2018-05-01

    Significant amounts of amines were detected in fine particulate matter (PM) during ambient wintertime conditions in Yakima, WA, using a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the organic aerosol (OA) signal resulted in a six-factor solution that included two previously unreported amine OA factors. The contributions of the amine factors were strongly episodic, but the concentration of the combined amine factors was as high as 10-15 μg m-3 (2-min average) during those episodes. In one occasion, the Amine-II component was 45% of total OA signal. The Amine-I factor was dominated by spectral peaks at m/z 86 (C5H12N+) and m/z 100 (C6H14N+), while the Amine-II factor was dominated by spectral peaks at m/z 58 (C3H8N+ and C2H6N2+) and m/z 72 (C4H10N+ and C3H8N2+). The ions dominating each amine factor showed distinct time traces, suggesting different sources or formation processes. Investigation into the chemistry of the amine factors suggests a correlation with inorganic anions for Amine-I, but no evidence that the Amine-II was being neutralized by the same inorganic ions. We also excluded the presence of organonitrates (ON) in the OA. The presence of C2H4O2+ at m/z 60 (a levoglucosan fragment) in the Amine-I spectrum suggests some influence of biomass burning emissions (more specifically residential wood combustion) in this PMF factor, but wind direction suggested that the most likely sources of these amines were agricultural activities and feedlots to the S-SW of the site.

  16. Sponges with covalently tethered amines for high-efficiency carbon capture

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2014-12-12

    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Adsorption using solid amine sorbents is an attractive emerging technology for energy-efficient carbon capture. Current syntheses for solid amine sorbents mainly based on physical impregnation or grafting-to methods (for example, aminosilane-grafting) lead to limited sorbent performance in terms of stability and working capacity, respectively. Here we report a family of solid amine sorbents using a grafting-from synthesis approach and synthesized by cationic polymerization of oxazolines on mesoporous silica. The sorbent with high amount of covalently tethered amines shows fast adsorption rate, high amine efficiency and sorbent capacity well exceeding the highest value reported to date for lowerature carbon dioxide sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. The demonstrated efficiency of the new amine-immobilization chemistry may open up new avenues in the development of advanced carbon dioxide sorbents, as well as other nitrogen-functionalized systems.

  17. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn

    2011-01-19

    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  18. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn; Sai, Hiroaki; Cohen, Roy; Wang, Suntao; Bradbury, Michelle; Baird, Barbara; Gruner, Sol M.; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  19. Content of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pork, beef and chicken barbecued at home by Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslyng, Margit D.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Jensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that, when meat is barbecued, several harmful components, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), may be formed. The aim of this study was to determine the HCA and PAH content in meat (pork, chicken and beef) when barbecued at home...

  20. Dicationic and zwitterionic catalysts for the amine-initiated, immortal ring-opening polymerisation of rac-lactide: facile synthesis of amine-terminated, highly heterotactic PLA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, L.; Cushion, M.G.; Dyer, H.E.; Schwarz, A.D.; Duchateau, R.; Mountford, P.

    2010-01-01

    Dicationic, zwitterionic and conventional yttrium compounds act as catalysts for the primary or secondary amine-initiated immortal ROP of rac-lactide; amine-terminated, highly heterotactic poly(rac-lactides) with narrow polydispersities and well-controlled molecular weights are prepared in this

  1. Carbon dioxide adsorption on micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type: The role of the contents of zeolite and functionalized amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2CEM, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Federal University of Sergipe, Materials Science and Engineering Postgraduate Program P2CEM, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil))" >Santos, S.C.G.; Pedrosa, A.M.Garrido; Souza, M.J.B.; Cecilia, J.A.; Rodríguez-Castellón, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of the micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type. • Application of these adsorbents in the carbon dioxide adsorption. • Effects of the contents of zeolite and amino group in the material surface on the CO 2 capture efficiency. - Abstract: In this study ZSM-12/MCM-48 adsorbents have been synthesized at three ZSM-12 content, and also were functionalizated with amine groups by grafting. All the adsorbents synthesized were evaluated for CO 2 capture. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the ZSM-12/MCM-48 composite showed the main characteristic peaks of ZSM-12 and MCM-48, and after the functionalization, the structure of MCM-48 on the composite impregnated was affected due amine presence. For the composites without amine, the ZSM-12 content was the factor determining in the adsorption capacity of CO 2 and for the composites with amine the amount of amine was that influenced in the adsorption capacity

  2. [Age-related changes in biogenic amine content and oxidative stress profile in the rat hypothalamus in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyutina, Yu P; Pustygina, A V; Zaloznyaya, I V; Arutjunyan, A V

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a detailed analysis of correlations between the content of a variety of biogenic amines in the hypothalamic structures responsible for the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone synthesis and secretion (the medial preoptic area and median eminence) and such independent factors as total L-homocysteine plasma level elevation induced by L-methionine loading and aging. Both a nature and a pattern of changes in oxidative stress profile were evaluated. It was shown that ageing, when compared to hyperhomocysteinemia, is a determining factor influencing biogenic amine content in the studied hypothalamic structures. Unlike antioxidant defense system profile, considerable changes in macromolecule oxidative modification were not found, which evidences a balanced activity of pro- and antioxidant systems in the hypothalamus.

  3. Chiral Amine Synthesis Using ω-Transaminases: An Amine Donor that Displaces Equilibria and Enables High-Throughput Screening**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anthony P; Turner, Nicholas J; O'Reilly, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of ω-transaminases as biocatalysts for chiral amine synthesis has been hampered by fundamental challenges, including unfavorable equilibrium positions and product inhibition. Herein, an efficient process that allows reactions to proceed in high conversion in the absence of by-product removal using only one equivalent of a diamine donor (ortho-xylylenediamine) is reported. This operationally simple method is compatible with the most widely used (R)- and (S)-selective ω-TAs and is particularly suitable for the conversion of substrates with unfavorable equilibrium positions (e.g., 1-indanone). Significantly, spontaneous polymerization of the isoindole by-product generates colored derivatives, providing a high-throughput screening platform to identify desired ω-TA activity. PMID:25138082

  4. Contribution of the microbial and meat endogenous enzymes to the free amino acid and amine contents of dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro, E; de La Hoz, L; Ordóñez, J A

    1999-03-01

    The role of the starter culture and meat endogenous enzymes on the free amino acid and amine contents of dry fermented sausages was studied. Five batches of sausages were prepared. The control batch was manufactured with aseptic ingredients without microbial inoculation. The other four experimental batches were manufactured with aseptic ingredients inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum 4045 or Micrococcus-12 or L. plantarum 4045 and Micrococcus-12 or L. plantarum 4045 and Staphylococcus sp. Their effects on pH, a(w), myofibrillar proteins, and free amino acid and amine contents were studied. Sausages inoculated only with L. plantarum 4045 or with this starter combined with a Micrococcaceae had the lowest pH as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. In all batches similar patterns were observed for myofibrillar proteins and free amino acids which could indicate that meat endogenous proteases play an important role in proteolytic phenomena. No changes were observed in the amine fraction, indicating that the strains used as starter cultures did not show amino acid decarboxylase activity.

  5. Supported polytertiary amines: highly efficient and selective SO2 adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Ritesh; Abboud, Mohamed; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Tertiary amine containing poly(propyleneimine) second (G2) and third (G3) generation dendrimers as well as polyethyleneimine (PEI) were developed for the selective removal of SO2. N-Alkylation of primary and secondary amines into tertiary amines was confirmed by FTIR and NMR analysis. Such modified polyamines were impregnated on two nanoporous supports, namely, SBA-15PL silica with platelet morphology and ethanol-extracted pore-expanded MCM-41 (PME) composite. In the presence of 0.1% SO2/N2 at 23 °C, the uptake of modified PEI, G2, and G3 supported on SBA-15PL was 2.07, 2.35, and 1.71 mmol/g, respectively; corresponding to SO2/N ratios of 0.22, 0.4, and 0.3. Under the same conditions, the SO2 adsorption capacity of PME-supported modified PEI and G3 was significantly higher, reaching 4.68 and 4.34 mmol/g, corresponding to SO2/N ratios of 0.41 and 0.82, respectively. The working SO2 adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, reflecting the exothermic nature of the process. The adsorption capacity of these materials was enhanced dramatically in the presence of humidity in the gas mixture. FTIR data before SO2 adsorption and after adsorption and regeneration did not indicate any change in the materials. Nonetheless, the SO2 working capacity decreased in consecutive adsorption/regeneration cycles due to evaporation of impregnated polyamines, rather than actual deactivation. FTIR and (13)C and (15)N CP-MAS NMR of fresh and SO2 adsorbed modified G3 on PME confirmed the formation of a complexation adduct.

  6. Heterocyclic amines content of meat and fish cooked by Brazilian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Sharma, Sangita; Le Marchand, Loïc; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2010-02-01

    Heterocyclic amine (HCA) concentrations were measured in meat and fish samples cooked by pan-frying, grilling and churrasco (Brazilian barbecue) to various levels of doneness in accordance with the cooking methods most commonly used in Brazil. HCAs were extracted by the Blue-rayon absorption method and measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) were sharply increased in very well-done meats and fish. HCA levels varied somewhat across cooking methods: levels of PhIP (ng/g) in very well-done, non-marinated samples were particularly high for churrasco (31.8 in the exterior of the sample), compared to lower levels for grilled (16.3), and pan-fried beef (0.58). On comparison across foods, chicken contained higher HCA levels than other non-marinated samples. For example, PhIP levels (ng/g) in very well-done pan-fried foods were 34.6 for chicken with the skin, 0.58 for beef, 7.25 for pork, 2.28 for sardines, and 7.37 for salmon cooked with the skin. HCA levels were lower in marinated meats and fish than in non-marinated samples, except for pan-fried salmon. This study provides valuable information which will allow the estimation of dietary HCA exposure using an epidemiologic questionnaire and the investigation of the association of HCA intake with cancer risk in Brazil.

  7. Study of the effect of vintage, maturity degree, and irrigation on the amino acid and biogenic amine content of a white wine from the Verdejo variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Del-Villar-Garrachón, Vanesa; González-Huerta, Carlos; Moro Gonzalez, Luis Carlos; Guadarrama Rodríguez, Alberto; Villanueva Sanchez, Sonia; Gallo González, Rubén; Martín de la Helguera, Sara

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three factors directly related to the amino acid content of grapes and their interaction. These three factors were vintage, maturity degree and irrigation. The evolution of amino acid was also assessed during the winemaking along with the effect of maturity and irrigation on the biogenic amine formation. The grapes used for this study were of the Verdejo variety. The results indicated that there was a strong vintage effect on amino acid content in grapes, which seemed to be clearly related to climatic conditions. The effect of maturity on amino acid content depended on vintage, irrigation and the amino acid itself although it was observed that irrigation caused the increase of most amino acids present in the berry. Irrigation did not affect the evolution of nitrogen compounds during the alcoholic fermentation process but the maturity degree in some of the amino acids tested did so. No direct relationship could be established between irrigation or maturity degree and biogenic amines. However, it should be noted that the biogenic amine content was very low. Vintage has a strong effect on the amino acid content in grapes which appears to be related to weather conditions. No direct relationship has been found between irrigation or maturity degree and biogenic amines content. Furthermore, it is noted that biogenic amine content found in final wines was very low. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in high-temperature cooked meat and fish in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Jinap, S; Ang, S J; Abdul-Hamid, A; Hajeb, P; Lioe, H N; Zaidul, I S M

    2010-08-01

    The intake of heterocyclic amines is influenced by the amount and type of meat and fish ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking methods, cooking temperature, and duration of cooking. In this study, the dietary intake of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia and their main sources were investigated. Forty-two samples of meat and fish were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector to determine the concentration of the six predominant heterocyclic amines, namely: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline(MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary intake data were obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire when interviewing 600 Malaysian respondents. The level of total heterocyclic amines in food samples studies ranged from not detected to 38.7 ng g(-1). The average daily intake level of heterocyclic amine was 553.7 ng per capita day(-1). The intake of PhIP was the highest, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. The results reveal that fried and grilled chicken were the major dietary source of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia. However, the heterocyclic amine intake by the Malaysian population was lower than those reported from other regions.

  9. Effect of Steaming and Boiling on the Antioxidant Properties and Biogenic Amines Content in Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Varieties of Different Colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Preti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of boiling and steaming cooking methods were studied on total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and biogenic amines of three green bean varieties, purple, yellow, and green. The vegetables gave good values both for antioxidant capacity and for phenolics content, with the purple variety being the richest in healthful components. Both the heat treatments affected the antioxidant properties of these vegetables, with boiling that reduced the initial antioxidant capacity till 30% in the yellow variety, having the same trend for total polyphenols, with the major decrement of 43% in the green variety. On the contrary, biogenic amines significantly increased only after boiling in green and yellow variety, while purple variety did not show any changes in biogenic amines after cooking. The steaming method showed being better cooking approach in order to preserve the antioxidant properties of green beans varieties and to maintain the biogenic amines content at the lowest level.

  10. Effect of cooking time and temperature on the heterocyclic amine content of fried beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knize, M G; Dolbeare, F A; Carroll, K L; Moore, D H; Felton, J S

    1994-07-01

    The mutagenic heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) were measured in ground-beef patties fried at 150, 190 and 230 degrees C for 2-10 min on each side. Heterocyclic amines were purified using solid-phase extraction and analysed by HPLC. Recovery-corrected amounts of each heterocyclic amine were determined by the method of standard addition based on spiked samples with recoveries ranging from 40 to 70%. Mutagenic activity measured by the Ames/Salmonella test was determined for each sample. The amounts of MeIQx, PhIP, DiMeIQx and IQ increased with time and temperature of cooking. 3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A alpha C) were not detected in any sample. The mutagenic activity response measured for the meat extracts (TA98 revertants) was similar to the mutagenic activity calculated from the mass of heterocyclic amines present. The rate of formation of PhIP in a model system containing creatinine and phenylalanine heated in 80% diethylene glycol was compared with PhIP formation during meat frying. The apparent heats of activation were 6.5 kcal/mol in the model system compared with 6.0 kcal/mol in the fried meat patties. The increase in PhIP and MeIQx formation fitted an exponential function over the range 0 to 11 min and from 150 to 230 degrees C. This report shows clearly that increases in cooking temperature and time can have a profound effect on the amounts of heterocyclic amines generated and subsequently consumed in the diet.

  11. Chiral amine synthesis using ω-transaminases: an amine donor that displaces equilibria and enables high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anthony P; Turner, Nicholas J; O'Reilly, Elaine

    2014-09-26

    The widespread application of ω-transaminases as biocatalysts for chiral amine synthesis has been hampered by fundamental challenges, including unfavorable equilibrium positions and product inhibition. Herein, an efficient process that allows reactions to proceed in high conversion in the absence of by-product removal using only one equivalent of a diamine donor (ortho-xylylenediamine) is reported. This operationally simple method is compatible with the most widely used (R)- and (S)-selective ω-TAs and is particularly suitable for the conversion of substrates with unfavorable equilibrium positions (e.g., 1-indanone). Significantly, spontaneous polymerization of the isoindole by-product generates colored derivatives, providing a high-throughput screening platform to identify desired ω-TA activity. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  12. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United......An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  13. Heterocyclic amines content of meat and fish cooked by Brazilian methods

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Sharma, Sangita; Le Marchand, Loïc; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2010-01-01

    Heterocyclic amine (HCA) concentrations were measured in meat and fish samples cooked by pan-frying, grilling and churrasco (Brazilian barbecue) to various levels of doneness in accordance with the cooking methods most commonly used in Brazil. HCAs were extracted by the Blue-rayon absorption method and measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylim...

  14. Carbon dioxide adsorption on micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type: The role of the contents of zeolite and functionalized amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.C.G. [Federal University of Sergipe, Materials Science and Engineering Postgraduate Program P" 2CEM, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil); Pedrosa, A.M.Garrido [Federal University of Sergipe, Departament of Chemistry (DQI), São Cristovão/SE (Brazil); Souza, M.J.B., E-mail: mjbsufs@gmail.com [Federal University of Sergipe, Department of Chemical Engineering (DEQ), Av. Marechal Rondon S/N, 49100-000, São Cristovão/SE (Brazil); Cecilia, J.A.; Rodríguez-Castellón, E. [University of Málaga, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Crystallography and Mineralogy, Faculty of Sciences, 29071, Málaga (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of the micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type. • Application of these adsorbents in the carbon dioxide adsorption. • Effects of the contents of zeolite and amino group in the material surface on the CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. - Abstract: In this study ZSM-12/MCM-48 adsorbents have been synthesized at three ZSM-12 content, and also were functionalizated with amine groups by grafting. All the adsorbents synthesized were evaluated for CO{sub 2} capture. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the ZSM-12/MCM-48 composite showed the main characteristic peaks of ZSM-12 and MCM-48, and after the functionalization, the structure of MCM-48 on the composite impregnated was affected due amine presence. For the composites without amine, the ZSM-12 content was the factor determining in the adsorption capacity of CO{sub 2} and for the composites with amine the amount of amine was that influenced in the adsorption capacity.

  15. Heterocyclic amine content in beef cooked by different methods to varying degrees of doneness and gravy made from meat drippings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R; Rothman, N; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Brown, E D; Swanson, C A; Rhodes, D; Rossi, S; Felton, J S; Levander, O A

    1998-04-01

    Meats cooked at high temperatures sometimes contain heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that are known mutagens and animal carcinogens, but their carcinogenic potential in humans has not been established. To investigate the association between HCAs and cancer, sources of exposure to these compounds need to be determined. Beef is the most frequently consumed meat in the United States and for this study we determined HCA values in beef samples cooked in ways to represent US cooking practices, the results of which can be used in epidemiological studies to estimate HCA exposure from dietary questionnaires. We measured five HCAs [2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)] in different types of cooked beef using solid-phase extraction and HPLC. Steak and hamburger patties were pan-fried, oven-broiled, and grilled/barbecued to four levels of doneness (rare, medium, well done or very well done), while beef roasts were oven cooked to three levels of doneness (rare, medium or well done). The measured values of the specific HCAs varied with the cut of beef, cooking method, and doneness level. In general, MeIQx content increased with doneness under each cooking condition for steak and hamburger patties, up to 8.2 ng/g. PhIP was the predominant HCA produced in steak (1.9 to 30 ng/g), but was formed only in very well done fried or grilled hamburger. DiMeIQx was found in trace levels in pan-fried steaks only, while IQ and MeIQ were not detectable in any of the samples. Roast beef did not contain any of the HCAs, but the gravy made from the drippings from well done roasts had 2 ng/g of PhIP and 7 ng/g of MeIQx. Epidemiological studies need to consider the type of meat, cooking method and degree of doneness/surface browning in survey questions to adequately assess

  16. Chemoselective organocatalytic aerobic oxidation of primary amines to secondary imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Alison E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2012-06-01

    Biomimetic aerobic oxidation of primary benzylic amines has been achieved by using a quinone catalyst. Excellent selectivity is observed for primary, unbranched benzylic amines relative to secondary/tertiary amines, branched benzylic amines, and aliphatic amines. The exquisite selectivity for benzylic amines enables oxidative self-sorting within dynamic mixtures of amines and imines to afford high yields of cross-coupled imine products.

  17. Investigation and Analysis of the Content of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Alcoholic Beverage%发酵型饮料酒中生物胺含量的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬; 赵树欣; 薛洁; 张凤杰; 赵彩云

    2012-01-01

    利用反相高效液相色谱技术,以丹磺酰氯柱前衍生,分析了我国市场中32个啤酒样品、32个葡萄酒样品和12个黄酒样品中生物胺的含量。结果表明,我国啤酒、葡萄酒样品中含有较低的生物胺物质,平均含量分别为4.787 mg/L和11.240 mg/L,黄酒中生物胺含量较高,达到了78.304 mg/L。3种饮料酒含量较多的单体生物胺均为腐胺和酪胺,我国葡萄酒中的组胺含量低于国际现有组胺标准的最低限量要求。不同企业生产的啤酒样品和不同原产地的葡萄酒样品中组胺含量存在显著差异,黄酒样品中生物胺含量为18.603~140.010 mg/L,样品间差异很大。%Biogentic amines were analyzed in thirty two samples of beer,twenty seven samples of wine and twelve samples of Chinese rice wine from the Chinese market,using HPLC detection after pre-column derivatization with dansyl chloride.The results showed that the content of biogentic amines in Chinese beer and wine samples was in a relatively low level,with the average being 4.787 mg/L and 11.240 mg/L respectively.While the samples of rice wine contained a high level of biogenic amines,reaching 78.304 mg/L.The monomer biogenic amines that had a relatively high level of content in the three alcoholic beverage mentioned above were all putrescine and tyramine.The content of histamine in wine from Chinese market is below the minimum requirements of existing international histamine standard.Significant differences in the content of histamine were found both among the samples of beer from different enterprises and the samples of wine with different origins.The content of biogenic amines varied widely among the samples of the rice wine,which ranged from 18.603 mg/L to 140.010 mg/L.

  18. Comparison of γ-aminobutyric acid and biogenic amine content of different types of ewe’s milk cheese produced in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavina Manca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and biogenic amines (BA, together with protein-free amino acids, were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in ewe’s milk cheeses produced in Sardinia with different technological traits. The study included three types of cheese: Pecorino Sardo PDO, Pecorino and Casu Marzu. Farmhouse Casu Marzu and Pecorino showed GABA content (maximum levels: 1001.3 and 378.1 mg 100 g–1 respectively that had never been found so high in cheese before, suggesting that these types of cheese present ideal conditions to produce GABA. These two types of cheese also showed high levels of BA (their total maximum levels were 1035.7 and 288.0 mg 100 g–1 respectively. Pearson correlation analysis detected significant correlation between GABA and the main BA present in the cheeses (tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine, suggesting that the factors affecting the production of GABA are the same as those influencing BA formation.

  19. Theoretical investigation of some high-performance novel amine azide propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Debasis [Computational Fluid Dynamics Research Corp., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Raman, Sumathi [Department of Chemistry, Oakwood College, 2000 Adventist Blvd., Huntsville, AL 35896 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is currently the most widely used hypergolic propellant, due to its high performance and low ignition delay. However, its toxicity is a major concern. The present work aims at developing high-performance hypergolic fuels that are based on tertiary amine azide functionality. A number of potential amine azide candidates have been proposed, and some of their physical and chemical properties have been computed using state-of-the-art molecular modeling techniques. Gas-phase heats of formation have been calculated using the CBS-QB3 method, and the first-principle COSMO-RS method has been used to compute heats of vaporization and vapor pressures. A density correlation, based on molecular-volume calculation, has been established to predict the densities of the candidate molecules. Finally, the liquid-phase heats of formation and densities have been used to predict the specific and density impulses of the proposed candidate molecules. The results show that many of the molecules proposed here have much higher density impulse than that of MMH, and may be considered for experimental studies. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Action of fractionated X-irradiation, continuous and a combination of continuous and acute (Co60) γ-irradiation on the catechol-amine content of the cardiac muscle of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpovich, N.V.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in the catechol amine content of the cardiac muscle of white rats have been studied in the course and after the exposure to low-dose X- and gamma radiation. The data obtained show that the changes in the catechol amine content depend not merely on the cumulative dose of the ionizing radiation but also on its type and the time that has passed after irradiation

  1. Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines as highly efficient and reversible SO2 absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Yun; Kim, Heehwan; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Junkyo; Cheong, Minserk; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Hoon Sik; Lee, Je Seung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines physically and reversibly absorb SO 2 . • Tertiary alkanolamines chemically and irreversibly absorb SO 2 through OH group. • SO 2 absorption modes were studied by spectroscopy and computational calculations. -- Abstract: Three different types of nitrile-functionalized amines, including 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propionitrile (DEAPN), 3-(N,N-dibutylamino)propionitrile (DBAPN), and N-methyl-N,N-dipropionitrile amine (MADPN) were synthesized, and their SO 2 absorption performances were evaluated and compared with those of hydroxy-functionalized amines such as N,N-diethyl-N-ethanol amine (DEEA), N,N-dibutyl-N-ethanol amine (DBEA), and N-methyl-N,N-diethanol amine (MDEA). Absorption–desorption cycle experiments clearly demonstrate that the nitrile-functionalized amines are more efficient than the hydroxy-functionalized amines in terms of absorption rate and regenerability. Computational calculations with DBEA and DBAPN revealed that DBEA bearing a hydroxyethyl group chemically interacts with SO 2 through oxygen atom, forming an ionic compound with a covalently bound -OSO 2 − group. On the contrary, DBAPN bearing a nitrile group physically interacts with SO 2 through the nitrogen and the hydrogen atoms of the two methylene groups adjacent to the amino and nitrile functionalities

  2. Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines as highly efficient and reversible SO{sub 2} absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yun; Kim, Heehwan; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Junkyo; Cheong, Minserk [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyunjoo [Clean Energy Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoon Sik, E-mail: khs2004@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je Seung, E-mail: leejs70@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines physically and reversibly absorb SO{sub 2}. • Tertiary alkanolamines chemically and irreversibly absorb SO{sub 2} through OH group. • SO{sub 2} absorption modes were studied by spectroscopy and computational calculations. -- Abstract: Three different types of nitrile-functionalized amines, including 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propionitrile (DEAPN), 3-(N,N-dibutylamino)propionitrile (DBAPN), and N-methyl-N,N-dipropionitrile amine (MADPN) were synthesized, and their SO{sub 2} absorption performances were evaluated and compared with those of hydroxy-functionalized amines such as N,N-diethyl-N-ethanol amine (DEEA), N,N-dibutyl-N-ethanol amine (DBEA), and N-methyl-N,N-diethanol amine (MDEA). Absorption–desorption cycle experiments clearly demonstrate that the nitrile-functionalized amines are more efficient than the hydroxy-functionalized amines in terms of absorption rate and regenerability. Computational calculations with DBEA and DBAPN revealed that DBEA bearing a hydroxyethyl group chemically interacts with SO{sub 2} through oxygen atom, forming an ionic compound with a covalently bound -OSO{sub 2}{sup −} group. On the contrary, DBAPN bearing a nitrile group physically interacts with SO{sub 2} through the nitrogen and the hydrogen atoms of the two methylene groups adjacent to the amino and nitrile functionalities.

  3. Ag@polypyrrole: A highly efficient nanocatalyst for the N-alkylation of amines using alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandi, Usha; Kundu, Sudipta K; Salam, Noor; Bhaumik, Asim; Islam, Sk Manirul

    2016-04-01

    We have synthesized Ag@polypyrrole nanomaterial by dispersing ultrafine silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) over the organic polymer polypyrrole. The Ag@polypyrrole material has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-vis) and atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD pattern suggested the cubic crystalline phase of Ag NPs in Ag@polypyrrole. TEM image analysis revealed that silver nanoparticles are highly dispersed in the polymer matrix. The Ag@polypyrrole acts as an efficient and versatile heterogeneous nanocatalyst in the N-alkylation of amines using alcohols. The catalyst can be easily prepared, highly robust and reused several times without decrease in its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines as highly efficient and reversible SO2 absorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Yun; Kim, Heehwan; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Junkyo; Cheong, Minserk; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Hoon Sik; Lee, Je Seung

    2014-01-15

    Three different types of nitrile-functionalized amines, including 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propionitrile (DEAPN), 3-(N,N-dibutylamino)propionitrile (DBAPN), and N-methyl-N,N-dipropionitrile amine (MADPN) were synthesized, and their SO2 absorption performances were evaluated and compared with those of hydroxy-functionalized amines such as N,N-diethyl-N-ethanol amine (DEEA), N,N-dibutyl-N-ethanol amine (DBEA), and N-methyl-N,N-diethanol amine (MDEA). Absorption-desorption cycle experiments clearly demonstrate that the nitrile-functionalized amines are more efficient than the hydroxy-functionalized amines in terms of absorption rate and regenerability. Computational calculations with DBEA and DBAPN revealed that DBEA bearing a hydroxyethyl group chemically interacts with SO2 through oxygen atom, forming an ionic compound with a covalently bound OSO2(-) group. On the contrary, DBAPN bearing a nitrile group physically interacts with SO2 through the nitrogen and the hydrogen atoms of the two methylene groups adjacent to the amino and nitrile functionalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng; Wang, Yanbing; Estevez, Luis; Duan, Xiaonan; Anako, Nkechi; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Li, Wen; Jones, Christopher W.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. YCl3-Catalyzed Highly Selective Ring Opening of Epoxides by Amines at Room Temperature and under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttichai Natongchai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple, efficient, and environmentally benign approach for the synthesis of β-amino alcohols is herein described. YCl3 efficiently carried out the ring opening of epoxides by amines to produce β-amino alcohols under solvent-free conditions at room temperature. This catalytic approach is very effective, with several aromatic and aliphatic oxiranes and amines. A mere 1 mol % concentration of YCl3 is enough to deliver β-amino alcohols in good to excellent yields with high regioselectivity.

  7. Determination of the Content of Biogenic Amines in Food by HPLC%液相色谱法测定食品中的生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉澜; 蓝峻峰; 谢济运

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to look for a quick, easy way to determine biogenic amines in food. [ Method ] Using the dansyl chloride as a derivative agent,room temperature ionic liquids as extraction,enrichment and derivative media,as reaction conditions to ultrasonic liquid chromatography of biogenic amines in food. [ Result]The result showed that determination of biogenic amines derived ideal conditions was that derived dose of 1.5 ml,borate buffer of pH 9. 10,borate buffer volume of 2 ml,1 ml [OMIM] PF6 ionic liquid,ultrasonic time of 20 min. [Conclusion] Determination of liquid chromatography was the content of biogenic amines in a rapid and simple method.%[目的]为测定食品中的生物胺寻求一种快速、简单的方法.[方法]采用以丹磺酰氯作为衍生剂,室温离子液体作为萃取、富集和衍生介质,以超声作为反应条件的液相色谱法测定食品中的生物胺.[结果]测定食品中的生物胺较理想的衍生条件是:衍生剂量1.5ml,硼砂缓冲液的pH9.10,硼砂缓冲液量为2 ml,1 ml[OMIM]PF离子液,超声时间为20 min.[结论]液相色谱法是测定食品中生物胺含量的一种快速、简单的方法.

  8. Amine-Functionalized Amino Acid-based Ionic Liquids as Efficient and High-Capacity Absorbents for CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprised of ammonium cations and anions of naturally occurring amino acids containing an additional amine group (e.g., lysine, histidine, asparagine, and glutamine) were examined as high-capacity absorbents for CO2. An absorption capacity of 2.1 mol CO2 per mol of IL (3.5 mol...

  9. Sponges with covalently tethered amines for high-efficiency carbon capture

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng; Fu, Liling; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    for lowerature carbon dioxide sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. The demonstrated efficiency of the new amine-immobilization chemistry may open up new avenues in the development of advanced carbon dioxide sorbents, as well as other nitrogen

  10. High intake of heterocyclic amines from meat is associated with oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A M; Miranda, A M; Santos, F A; Loureiro, A P M; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2015-04-28

    High meat intake has been related to chronic diseases such as cancer and CVD. One hypothesis is that heterocyclic amines (HCA), which are formed during the cooking process of meat, can generate reactive species. These compounds can cause oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA, resulting in oxidative stress, cell damage and loss of biological function. This association has been seen in vitro; however, it remains unclear in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between oxidative stress and HCA intake, and oxidative stress and meat intake. Data were from the Health Survey for Sao Paulo--ISA-Capital (561 adult and elderly). Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR) complemented by a detailed FFQ with preferences of cooking methods and level of doneness for meat. HCA intake was estimated linking the meat from the 24HR to a database of HCA. Oxidative stress was estimated by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the plasma, after derivatisation with thiobarbituric acid and quantification by HPLC/diode array. Analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regressions adjusted for smoking, sex, age, BMI, skin colour, energy intake, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity. A positive association between HCA intake and MDA concentration (OR 1·17; 95% CI 1·01, 1·38) was observed, showing that HCA from meat may contribute to increase oxidative stress, and may consequently increase the risk of chronic diseases.

  11. Biogenic amine formation and nitrite reactions in meat batter as affected by high-pressure processing and chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Aller-Guiote, P; Carballo, J; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2006-12-27

    Changes in biogenic amine formation and nitrite depletion in meat batters as affected by pressure-temperature combinations (300 MPa/30 min/7, 20, and 40 degrees C), cooking process (70 degrees C/30 min), and storage (54 days/2 degrees C) were studied. Changes in residual nitrite concentration in raw meat batters were conditioned by the temperature and not by the pressure applied. Cooking process decreased (P nitrite concentration in all samples. High-pressure processing and cooking treatment increased (P nitrite concentration decreased with pressure processing, no effect was observed with the heating process of meat batters. High-pressure processing conditions had no effect on the rate of residual nitrite loss throughout the storage. The application of high pressure decreased (P processing conditions, generally, throughout storage biogenic amine levels did not change or increased, although quantitatively this effect was not very important.

  12. Low-fat frankfurters formulated with a healthier lipid combination as functional ingredient: microstructure, lipid oxidation, nitrite content, microbiological changes and biogenic amine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Solas, Maria Teresa; Triki, Mehdi; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Oil (healthier lipid combination of olive, linseed and fish oils)-in-water emulsions stabilized with different protein systems (prepared with sodium caseinate (SC), soy protein isolate (SPI), and microbial transglutaminase (MTG)) were used as pork backfat replacers in low-fat frankfurters. Microstructure, lipid oxidation, nitrite content, microbiological changes and biogenic amine formation of frankfurters were analyzed and found to be affected by the type of oil-in-water emulsion and by chilling storage (2° C, 41 days). Although the lipid oxidation levels attained were low, replacement of animal fat by healthier oil combinations in frankfurter formulation did promote a slight increase in lipid oxidation. Residual nitrite was affected (P nitrite was detectable in the product after processing and 17-46% at the end of storage. The microbial population was low in all formulations during chilling storage. Spermine was the most abundant amine (19-20 mg/kg), but similar in level to all samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The development of a neutralizing amines based reagent for maintaining the water chemistry for medium and high pressures steam boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakova, M. V.; Orlov, K. A.; Guseva, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    An overview of the development for neutralizing amine based reagent for water chemistry of steam boilers for medium and high pressures was given. Total values of the neutralization constants and the distribution coefficients of the compositions selected as a main criteria for reagent composition. Experimental results of using this new reagent for water chemistry in HRSG of power plant in oil-production company are discussed.

  14. Biogenic amine formation and bacterial contribution in Natto products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bitna; Byun, Bo Young; Mah, Jae-Hyung

    2012-12-01

    Twenty-one Natto products currently distributed in Korea were analysed for biogenic amine contents and tested to determine physicochemical and bacterial contributions to biogenic amine formation. Among them, nine products (about 43%) had β-phenylethylamine or tyramine contents greater than the toxic dose (30mg/kg and 100mg/kg, respectively) of each amine, although no products showed total amounts of biogenic amines above the harmful level (1000mg/kg), which indicates that the amounts of biogenic amines in some Natto products are not within the safe level for human health. From four different Natto products, that contained noticeable levels of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine, 80 bacterial strains were isolated. All the strains were identified to be Bacillus subtilis and highly capable of producing β-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Therefore, it seems likely that the remarkable contents of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine in Natto predominantly resulted from the strains highly capable of producing those amines present in the food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly efficient and diastereoselective gold(I)-catalyzed synthesis of tertiary amines from secondary amines and alkynes: substrate scope and mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Yuan; Guo, Zhen; Dong, Sijia S; Li, Xiao-Hua; Che, Chi-Ming

    2011-11-11

    An efficient method for the synthesis of tertiary amines through a gold(I)-catalyzed tandem reaction of alkynes with secondary amines has been developed. In the presence of ethyl Hantzsch ester and [{(tBu)(2)(o-biphenyl)P}AuCl]/AgBF(4) (2 mol %), a variety of secondary amines bearing electron-deficient and electron-rich substituents and a wide range of alkynes, including terminal and internal aryl alkynes, aliphatic alkynes, and electron-deficient alkynes, underwent a tandem reaction to afford the corresponding tertiary amines in up to 99 % yield. For indolines bearing a preexisting chiral center, their reactions with alkynes in the presence of ethyl Hantzsch ester catalyzed by [{(tBu)(2)(o-biphenyl)P}AuCl]/AgBF(4) (2 mol %) afforded tertiary amines in excellent yields and with good to excellent diastereoselectivity. All of these organic transformations can be conducted as a one-pot reaction from simple and readily available starting materials without the need of isolation of air/moisture-sensitive enamine intermediates, and under mild reaction conditions (mostly room temperature and mild reducing agents). Mechanistic studies by NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS, isotope labeling studies, and DFT calculations on this gold(I)-catalyzed tandem reaction reveal that the first step involving a monomeric cationic gold(I)-alkyne intermediate is more likely than a gold(I)-amine intermediate, a three-coordinate gold(I) intermediate, or a dinuclear gold(I)-alkyne intermediate. These studies also support the proposed reaction pathway, which involves a gold(I)-coordinated enamine complex as a key intermediate for the subsequent transfer hydrogenation with a hydride source, and reveal the intrinsic stereospecific nature of these transformations observed in the experiments. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Novel protocol for highly efficient gas-phase chemical derivatization of surface amine groups using trifluoroacetic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchoslav, Jiri; Kehrer, Matthias; Hinterreiter, Andreas; Duchoslav, Vojtech; Unterweger, Christoph; Fürst, Christian; Steinberger, Roland; Stifter, David

    2018-06-01

    In the current work, chemical derivatization of amine (NH2) groups with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) as an analytical method to improve the information scope of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is investigated. TFAA is known to successfully label hydroxyl (OH) groups. With the introduction of a newly developed gas-phase derivatization protocol conducted at ambient pressure and using a catalyst also NH2 groups can now efficiently be labelled with a high yield and without the formation of unwanted by-products. By establishing a comprehensive and self-consistent database of reference binding energies for XPS a promising approach for distinguishing hydroxyl from amine groups is presented. The protocol was verified on different polymers, including poly(allylamine), poly(ethyleneimine), poly(vinylalcohol) and chitosan, the latter one containing both types of addressed chemical groups.

  17. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  18. Susceptibility of dry-cured tuna to oxidative deterioration and biogenic amines generation: I. Effect of NaCl content, antioxidant type and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseiro, L C; Santos, C; Gonçalves, H; Serrano, C; Aleixo, C; Partidário, A; Lourenço, A R; Dias, M Abreu; da Ponte, D J B

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess lipid oxidation and biogenic amine (BA) development in "muxama", a dry-cured tuna muscle product, as affected by salt content, antioxidant type and ageing time. Overall, BA contents decreased with NaCl level (2785.1mgkg -1 , 1148.1mgkg -1 and 307.7mgkg -1 ) and increased with ageing time (366.2mgkg -1 , 1711.8mgkg -1 and 2959.2mgkg -1 in the final product (T0), and after 1 (T1) and 3 (T3) months of ageing, respectively). Regardless of the test conditions, the most concentrated BA was always tyramine. For the ageing periods considered in the present study, malondialdehyde formation was affected by the NaCl level, with the saltiest samples exhibiting lower content. Rosemary and sage extracts represented promising technological options for preserving muxama from oxidation and to minimize the presence of a fishy flavour and odour, but this treatment may cause the colour to lose some of its redness and become less appealing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High surface area V-Mo-N materials synthesized from amine intercalated foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawiec, Piotr; Narayan Panda, Rabi; Kockrick, Emanuel; Geiger, Dorin; Kaskel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ternary V-Mo nitrides were prepared via nitridation of amine intercalated oxide foams or bulk ternary oxides. Specific surface areas were in the range between 40 and 198 m 2 g -1 and strongly depended on the preparation method (foam or bulk oxide). Foamed precursors were favorable for vanadium rich materials, while for molybdenum rich samples bulk ternary oxides resulted in higher specific surface areas. The materials were characterized via nitrogen physisorption at 77 K, X-ray diffraction patterns, electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline ternary V-Mo nitrides were prepared via nitridation of amine intercalated oxide foams or bulk ternary oxides. Foamed precursors were favorable for vanadium rich materials, while for molybdenum rich samples bulk ternary oxides resulted in higher specific surface areas

  20. Fishmeal with different levels of biogenic amines in Aquafeed: Comparison of feed protein quality, fish growth performance, and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh; Wagner, Liane; Sundekilde, Ulrik Kræmer

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of fishmeal quality (low (LB) and high (HB) levels of endogenous biogenic amines) and feed extrusion temperatures (100 and 130 °C) on protein oxidation indicators and amino acids racemization (AAR) in extruded fish feed. Furthermore, the study investigated......, secondary oxidation products, and racemized methionine correlated positively with a low content of biogenic amines, whereas the primary oxidation product, protein hydroperoxides, and in vivo AAs digestibility correlated positively with high content of biogenic amines. At an extrusion temperature of 100 °C......, the growth performance of the fish decreased when the content of biogenic amines increased. In contrast, at an extrusion temperature of 130 °C, the growth performance was unaffected by the level of biogenic amines. The latter could be a consequence of the higher level of protein oxidation of LB fishmeal...

  1. Reductive amination of glutaraldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone using 2-picoline borane and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Sakamoto, Hironari; Ohno, Akiko; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2012-09-21

    A typical method for the measurement of glutaraldehyde (GLA) employs 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form GLA-DNPhydrazone derivatives. However, this method is subject to analytical errors because GLA-DNPhydrazone is a quaternary bis-derivative and forms three geometric isomers (E-E, E-Z and Z-Z) as a result of the two C[double bond, length as m-dash]N double bonds. To overcome this issue, a method for transforming the C[double bond, length as m-dash]N double bond into a C-N single bond, using reductive amination of DNPhydrazone derivatives, has been applied. The amination reaction of GLA-DNPhydrazones with 2-picoline borane is accelerated with catalytic amounts of acid and is completed within 10 minutes in the presence of 100 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid. Reduction of GLA-DNPhydrazone by 2-picoline borane is unique and results in the formation of N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-1-piperidinamine (DNPPA). NMR and LC-APCI-MS data confirmed the product identification. DNPPA is very stable and did not change when stored for at least four weeks at room temperature. DNPPA has excellent solubility of 14.6 g L(-1) at 20 °C in acetonitrile. The absorption maximum wavelength and the molar absorptivity of DNPPA were 351 nm and 4.2 × 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) respectively. Complete separation between the reduced forms of C1-C10 aldehyde DNPhydrazones, including DNPPA, can be achieved by operating the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatograph at 351 nm in gradient mode using a C18 amide column. The reductive amination method for GLA overcomes analytical errors caused by E-E, E-Z and Z-Z geometrical isomers.

  2. Detection of atmospheric gaseous amines and amides by a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer with protonated ethanol reagent ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Amines and amides are important atmospheric organic-nitrogen compounds but high time resolution, highly sensitive, and simultaneous ambient measurements of these species are rather sparse. Here, we present the development of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS method, utilizing protonated ethanol as reagent ions to simultaneously detect atmospheric gaseous amines (C1 to C6 and amides (C1 to C6. This method possesses sensitivities of 5.6–19.4 Hz pptv−1 for amines and 3.8–38.0 Hz pptv−1 for amides under total reagent ion signals of  ∼  0.32 MHz. Meanwhile, the detection limits were 0.10–0.50 pptv for amines and 0.29–1.95 pptv for amides at 3σ of the background signal for a 1 min integration time. Controlled characterization in the laboratory indicates that relative humidity has significant influences on the detection of amines and amides, whereas the presence of organics has no obvious effects. Ambient measurements of amines and amides utilizing this method were conducted from 25 July to 25 August 2015 in urban Shanghai, China. While the concentrations of amines ranged from a few parts per trillion by volume to hundreds of parts per trillion by volume, concentrations of amides varied from tens of parts per trillion by volume to a few parts per billion by volume. Among the C1- to C6-amines, the C2-amines were the dominant species with concentrations up to 130 pptv. For amides, the C3-amides (up to 8.7 ppb were the most abundant species. The diurnal and backward trajectory analysis profiles of amides suggest that in addition to the secondary formation of amides in the atmosphere, industrial emissions could be important sources of amides in urban Shanghai. During the campaign, photo-oxidation of amines and amides might be a main loss pathway for them in daytime, and wet deposition was also an important sink.

  3. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic compounds has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  4. Operational and layup cycle protection of high-pressure fossil-fired utility boilers using an organic filming amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verib, George J. [FirstEnergy Corp., Akron, OH (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Economic conditions have caused many fossil-fired units to either drastically cycle load or shut down during low demand periods, where previously the units had been under a constant-load operation. The most current cycle chemistry guidelines employed are excellent in protecting the steam-water cycle during constant-load operation, but they have not minimized corrosion and provided protection of unit equipment during economic reserve off periods. Alternate methods of off-line protection and transient-load operation have been explored to minimize corrosion during these periods. The FirstEnergy Corp. has been using an alternate proprietary, organic filming amine to protect units during operation and short-term non-operational periods. Explored are the initial issues of high steam cation conductivity, use of the filming amine to protect the cycle during idle production periods, and the chemical amounts needed. The proprietary chemistry has shown the ability to successfully and significantly reduce corrosion throughout the steam-water cycle during transient-load situations and during non-operational periods while maintaining the chemistry guidelines of the industry and OEMs. (orig.)

  5. Amine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane as affinity membrane with high adsorption capacity for bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Luo, Mengying; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membrane was activated by sodium hydroxide and cyanuric chloride, and then the activated membranes were functionalized by 1,3-propanediamine, hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine to be affinity membranes for bilirubin removal, respectively. The chemical structures and morphologies of membranes were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XPS. And the adsorption ability of different amine-functionalized nanofibrous membranes for bilirubin was characterized. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, NaCl concentration and BSA concentration on the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane were studied. Results indicated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane could reach 85mg/g membrane when the initial bilirubin concentration was 200mg/L while the adsorption capacity could be increased to 110mg/g membrane if the initial bilirubin concentration was more than 400mg/L. The dynamic adsorption of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane showed that the ligands of amine groups on the membrane surface could be used as far as possible by recirculating the plasma with certain flow rates. Therefore, the diethylenetriamine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane possessed high adsorption capacity for bilirubin and it can be candidate as affinity membrane for bilirubin removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Gardini, Fausto

    2003-11-15

    Biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They can be naturally present in many foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, but they can also be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern because their not equilibrate assumption in human organism can generate different degrees of diseases determined by their action on nervous, gastric and intestinal systems and blood pressure. High microbial counts, which characterise fermented foods, often unavoidably lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines, especially tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the quali-quantitative composition of microbial microflora, the chemico-physical variables, the hygienic procedure adopted during production, and the availability of precursors. Dry fermented sausages are worldwide diffused fermented meat products that can be a source of biogenic amines. Even in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding the presence of these compounds in sausages and other fermented products, an increasing attention is given to biogenic amines, especially in relation to the higher number of consumers with enhanced sensitivity to biogenic amines determined by the inhibition of the action of amino oxidases, the enzymes involved in the detoxification of these substances. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages and to discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation. These include process and implicit factors as well as the role of starter and nonstarter microflora growing in the different steps of sausage production

  7. Characterization of particulate amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundel, L.A.; Chang, S.G.; Clemenson, M.S.; Markowitz, S.S.; Novakov, T.

    1979-01-01

    The reduced nitrogen compounds associated with ambient particulate matter are chemically characterized by means of ESCA and proton activation analysis. Ambient particulate samples collected on silver filters in Berkeley, California were washed with water and organic solvents, and ESCA and proton activation analysis were performed in order to determine the composition of various nitrogen compounds and the total nitrogen content. It is found that 85% of the amines originally present in ambient particulate matter can be removed by water extraction, whereas the ammonium and nitrate are completely removed. An observed increase in ammonium ion in the extract, compared with its concentration in the original sample, coupled with the commensurate decrease in amine concentration, is attributed to the hydrolysis of amide groups, which may cause analytical methods based on extraction to yield erroneous results

  8. Composition of amino acids and bioactive amines in common wines of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Carla Agustini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since most consumed wines in Brazil are common wines and since their representativeness is not accounted for in scientific research, current study quantifies bioactive amines and their precursors in Brazilian sweet and dry common wines, correlates the formation of amines with physical and chemical parameters and clusters studied areas by their amine and amino acid contents. Forty-seven wine samples varying in type, color and origin were analyzed simultaneously for seventeen amino acids, ammonium ion and five bioactive amines by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection after the derivation phase. Physical and chemical analyses comprised titratable acidity, pH, organic acids, sugar and alcohol contents. Sweet wines had lower concentrations of amino acids and bioactive amines. Dry white wines had higher amino acid contents when compared to those in dry red wines. Since multivariate data analysis confirmed similarities between the studied regions, their unity as potential viniculture area was reinforced. Amine levels in Brazilian common wines were reported for the first time and results reinforced the importance of bioactive amines quantification and the use of suitable vinification practices to reduce their formation.

  9. High Content Screening: Understanding Cellular Pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Zaffar Ali Mohamed Amiroudine; Daryl Jesus Arapoc; Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis

    2015-01-01

    High content screening (HCS) is the convergence between cell-based assays, high-resolution fluorescence imaging, phase-contrast imaging of fixed- or live-cell assays, tissues and small organisms. It has been widely adopted in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries for target identification and validation and as secondary screens to reveal potential toxicities or to elucidate a drugs mechanism of action. By using the ImageXpress® Micro XLS System HCS, the complex network of key players controlling proliferation and apoptosis can be reduced to several sentinel markers for analysis. Cell proliferation and apoptosis are two key areas in cell biology and drug discovery research. Understanding the signaling pathways in cell proliferation and apoptosis is important for new therapeutic discovery because the imbalance between these two events is predominant in the progression of many human diseases, including cancer. The DNA binding dye DAPI is used to determine the nuclear size and nuclear morphology as well as cell cycle phases by DNA content. Images together with MetaXpress® analysis results provide a convenient and easy to use solution to high volume image management. In particular, HCS platform is beginning to have an important impact on early drug discovery, basic research in systems cell biology, and is expected to play a role in personalized medicine or revealing off-target drug effects. (author)

  10. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Tavana, Mahdieh Molaee; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Different Shrimp Species for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Myat Thaw; Oo Aung; Aung Myint; Bisswanger, Hans

    2004-06-01

    This study is part of the project on the ''Quality Assurance of Different Shrimp Species for Export''. Local shrimp samples were collected from Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and various private enterprises. Contents of biogenic amines were determined by using benzoyl chloride derivatization method with HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). Based on the biogenic amines, quality index of shrimps were correlated with freshness index so that the grade of shrimp samples can be classified as excellent, good, and acceptable. All sizes of shrimps such as extra large, large, medium were found to excceptable respectively

  12. Effect of salt-tolerant yeast of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the production of biogenic amines during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Hou, Li-Hua; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Fu; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to enhance and improve the quality and safety of soy sauce. In the present work, the change of biogenic amines, such as histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine, was examined by the treatment of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and the influence of salt-tolerant yeast on biogenic amines was analysed during the whole fermentation process. The results showed that the content of biogenic amines was elevated after yeast treatment and the content of biogenic amines was influenced by using yeast. The dominating biogenic amine in soy sauce was tyramine. At the end of fermentation, the concentrations of biogenic amines produced by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis in the soy mash were 122.71 mg kg(-1) and 69.96 mg kg(-1) . The changes of biogenic amines in high-salt liquid soy mash during fermentation process indicated that a variety of biogenic amines were increased in the fermentation ageing period, which may be due to amino acid decarboxylation to form biogenic amines by yeast decarboxylase. The fermentation period of soy sauce should be longer than 5 months because biogenic amines began to decline after this time period. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The economics of amine usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountain, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Research carried out over the past decade in the USA (funded by EPRI) and by the CEGB/Nuclear Electric in the UK has identified several thermally stable, low-toxicity 'advanced' amines with good high-temperature basicity and low steam-water distribution ratio. As a direct result of this work several US PWR stations are now evaluating monoethanolamine (ETA) and Nuclear Electric's Wylfa Power Station (magnox) now doses 5 aminopentanol (5AP) instead of AMP, which had successfully combated erosion-corrosion for the past nine years. It has recently been stated that the use of 5AP ''...could save Nuclear Electric up to 1.5M pounds per year''. To provide US power station chemists with a tool for tailoring amine dosage to their own plant requirements EPRI has developed a computer model, Aminmod, which can, with user-defined circuit parameters and amine feed concentrations, calculate amine concentrations and pH(t) values at various points around the circuit. To complement this model a user-friendly spreadsheet program is being developed which will work in conjunction with Aminmod, via active links, to calculate the total operating cost associated with the selected amine dosing regime and compare alternative scenarios. This paper discusses the relationship between the technical and economic aspects of choosing an amine dosing regime and draws on combined Aminmod/spreadsheet results to illustrate how differences in amine properties can influence the optimum economic solution for a typical PWR. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  14. Photocatalytic organic transformation by layered double hydroxides: highly efficient and selective oxidation of primary aromatic amines to their imines under ambient aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Jie; Chen, Bin; Li, Xu-Bing; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho

    2014-06-25

    We report the first application of layered double hydroxide as a photocatalyst in the transformation of primary aromatic amines to their corresponding imines with high efficiency and selectivity by using oxygen in an air atmosphere as a terminal oxidant under light irradiation.

  15. IBX-mediated oxidation of unactivated cyclic amines: application in highly diastereoselective oxidative Ugi-type and aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, C; Bensch, L; van Lint, Matthijs J; Ruijter, E; Orru, R V A

    2015-10-28

    The first o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) mediated oxidation of unactivated amines to imines is described. A range of meso-pyrrolidines were shown to be suitable substrates. The chemical space was further explored with one-pot oxidative Ugi-type and aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions, which proved to be highly diastereoselective.

  16. High content screening in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Raymond; Paliwal, Saurabh; Levchenko, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Miniaturization is key to advancing the state-of-the-art in high content screening (HCS), in order to enable dramatic cost savings through reduced usage of expensive biochemical reagents and to enable large-scale screening on primary cells. Microfluidic technology offers the potential to enable HCS to be performed with an unprecedented degree of miniaturization. Areas covered in this review This perspective highlights a real-world example from the authors’ work of HCS assays implemented in a highly miniaturized microfluidic format. Advantages of this technology are discussed, including cost savings, high throughput screening on primary cells, improved accuracy, the ability to study complex time-varying stimuli, and ease of automation, integration, and scaling. What the reader will gain The reader will understand the capabilities of a new microfluidics-based platform for HCS, and the advantages it provides over conventional plate-based HCS. Take home message Microfluidics technology will drive significant advancements and broader usage and applicability of HCS in drug discovery. PMID:21852997

  17. Biogenic amines in the meat of hunted pheasant and hare during the course of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venison is becoming more and more interesting for consumers. Although treatment procedures of hunted game differ from slaughtered livestock, the hygienic quality of game meat must still be ensured. Potential indicators of meat hygienic quality include the content of biogenic amines. The aim of the present study was to assess the content and changes of biogenic amines in the muscles of selected kinds of small game (common pheasant and brown hare during storage, and based on the obtained results, to assess the hygienic quality of the meat. Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, and tryptamine in the breast and thigh muscles separated by reverse phase liquid chromatography and consequently were detected using tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the determined content of biogenic amines, both pheasant and hare meats complied with values of high quality meat. The sum of biogenic amines did not exceed the value of 5 mg/kg after 7 days at 0 °C or 7 °C in pheasant meat, and after 21 days at 0 °C or after 14 days at 7 °C in brown hare meat. The biogenic amine content and the speed of their formation in venison can be very helpful for the evaluation of both meat hygienic quality and safety of these foods during storage.

  18. Improving the Application of High Molecular Weight Biotinylated Dextran Amine for Thalamocortical Projection Tracing in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongsheng; Cui, Jingjing; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Zhiyun; She, Chen; Bai, Wanzhu

    2018-04-12

    High molecular weight biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) has been used as a highly sensitive neuroanatomical tracer for many decades. Since the quality of its labeling was affected by various factors, here, we provide a refined protocol for the application of high molecular weight BDA for studying optimal neural labeling in the central nervous system. After stereotactic injection of BDA into the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) of the thalamus in the rat through a delicate glass pipette, BDA was stained with fluorescent streptavidin-Alexa (AF) 594 and counterstained with fluorescent Nissl stain AF500/525. On the background of green Nissl staining, the red BDA labeling, including neuronal cell bodies and axonal terminals, was more distinctly demonstrated in the somatosensory cortex. Furthermore, double fluorescent staining for BDA and the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) was carried out to observe the correlation of BDA labeling and PV-positive interneurons in the cortical target, providing the opportunity to study the local neural circuits and their chemical characteristics. Thus, this refined method is not only suitable for visualizing high quality neural labeling with the high molecular weight BDA through reciprocal neural pathways between the thalamus and cerebral cortex, but also will permit the simultaneous demonstration of other neural markers with fluorescent histochemistry or immunochemistry.

  19. Selective N-alkylation of amines using nitriles under hydrogenation conditions: facile synthesis of secondary and tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Takashi; Fujita, Yuki; Mizusaki, Tomoteru; Betsuin, Sae; Takamatsu, Haruki; Maegawa, Tomohiro; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2012-01-14

    Nitriles were found to be highly effective alkylating reagents for the selective N-alkylation of amines under catalytic hydrogenation conditions. For the aromatic primary amines, the corresponding secondary amines were selectively obtained under Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenation conditions. Although the use of electron poor aromatic amines or bulky nitriles showed a lower reactivity toward the reductive alkylation, the addition of NH(4)OAc enhanced the reactivity to give secondary aromatic amines in good to excellent yields. Under the same reaction conditions, aromatic nitro compounds instead of the aromatic primary amines could be directly transformed into secondary amines via a domino reaction involving the one-pot hydrogenation of the nitro group and the reductive alkylation of the amines. While aliphatic amines were effectively converted to the corresponding tertiary amines under Pd/C-catalyzed conditions, Rh/C was a highly effective catalyst for the N-monoalkylation of aliphatic primary amines without over-alkylation to the tertiary amines. Furthermore, the combination of the Rh/C-catalyzed N-monoalkylation of the aliphatic primary amines and additional Pd/C-catalyzed alkylation of the resulting secondary aliphatic amines could selectively prepare aliphatic tertiary amines possessing three different alkyl groups. According to the mechanistic studies, it seems reasonable to conclude that nitriles were reduced to aldimines before the nucleophilic attack of the amine during the first step of the reaction.

  20. Microbiological quality and biogenic amines in ready-to-eat grilled chicken fillets under vacuum packing, freezing, and high-dose irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, R F; Lemos, M; Teixeira, C E; Vital, H C; Carneiro, C S; Mársico, E T; Conte Júnior, C A; Mano, S B

    2014-06-01

    The combined effects of cooking, vacuum packing, freezing, and high-dose gamma irradiation in the microbiological conservation and in biogenic amine (BA) contents of ready-to-eat grilled breast chicken fillets are investigated in this work. After seasoning, cooking, and vacuum packing, one-third of the samples were stored at -25°C (T1). The remaining two-thirds were treated with 48 kGy, one-third being stored at -25°C (T2) and the other one-third kept at room temperature (T3). All samples were periodically analyzed to determine growth of heterotrophic aerobic mesophilic bacteria (HAMB) and levels of BA (tyramine, TYM; putrescine, PUT; cadaverine, CAD; spermidine, SPD; histamine, HYM; and spermine, SPM). Variance analysis was performed to determine significant changes in the measured data. Grilling caused HAMB counts in seasoned samples to drop from 5.3 log cfu/g to zero. In addition, no viable HAMB cells were detected in the samples throughout the 12-mo storage time. Regarding the BA analyses, the highest mean levels were measured for SPM and CAD with significantly higher levels (P chicken breast fillets throughout the 12 mo of storage at room temperature. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Heterocyclic aromatic amine content in chicken burgers and chicken nuggets sold in fast food restaurants and effects of green tea extract and microwave thawing on their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants and the effects of green tea extract addition (GTE) to the covering material as wel...

  2. Highly efficient oxidation of amines to imines by singlet oxygen and its application in Ugi-type reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gaoxi; Chen, Jian; Huang, Jie-Sheng; Che, Chi-Ming

    2009-10-15

    A variety of secondary benzylic amines were oxidized to imines in 90% to >99% yields by singlet oxygen generated from oxygen and a porphyrin photosensitizer. On the basis of these reactions, a protocol was developed for oxidative Ugi-type reactions with singlet oxygen as the oxidant. This protocol has been used to synthesize C1- and N-functionalized benzylic amines in up to 96% yields.

  3. The immobilized NaHSO4·H2O on activated charcoal: a highly efficient promoter system for N-formylation of amines with ethyl formate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Zeynizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The immobilized NaHSO4·H2O on activated charcoal was used as a highly efficient promoter system for facile N-formylation of amines with ethyl formate. All reactions were carried out in refluxing ethyl formate (54 ºC under mild conditions within 10-100 min to afford the product formamides in high to excellent yields (80-94%.

  4. Observation of new particle formation and measurement of sulfuric acid, ammonia, amines and highly oxidized organic molecules at a rural site in central Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kürten

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The exact mechanisms for new particle formation (NPF under different boundary layer conditions are not known yet. One important question is whether amines and sulfuric acid lead to efficient NPF in the atmosphere. Furthermore, it is not clear to what extent highly oxidized organic molecules (HOMs are involved in NPF. We conducted field measurements at a rural site in central Germany in the proximity of three larger dairy farms to investigate whether there is a connection between NPF and the presence of amines and/or ammonia due to the local emissions from the farms. Comprehensive measurements using a nitrate chemical ionization–atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight (CI-APi-TOF mass spectrometer, a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, particle counters and differential mobility analyzers (DMAs, as well as measurements of trace gases and meteorological parameters, were performed. We demonstrate here that the nitrate CI-APi-TOF is suitable for sensitive measurements of sulfuric acid, amines, a nitrosamine, ammonia, iodic acid and HOMs. NPF was found to correlate with sulfuric acid, while an anti-correlation with RH, amines and ammonia is observed. The anti-correlation between NPF and amines could be due to the efficient uptake of these compounds by nucleating clusters and small particles. Much higher HOM dimer (C19/C20 compounds concentrations during the night than during the day indicate that these HOMs do not efficiently self-nucleate as no nighttime NPF is observed. Observed iodic acid probably originates from an iodine-containing reservoir substance, but the iodine signals are very likely too low to have a significant effect on NPF.

  5. Metal-mediated gem-Difluoroallylation of N-Acylhydrazones: Highly Efficient Synthesis of a,a-Difluorohomoallylic Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Xuyi; QIU Xiaolong; QING Fengling

    2009-01-01

    Indium-mediated gem-difluoroallylation of aldehyde-derived N-acylhydrazones 1a-1q and 4a-4g with 3-bromo-3,3-difluoropropene 2 afforded a,a-difluorohomoallylic hydrazides 3a-3q and 5a-5g in high yields, re-spectively. Functional groups such as nitro, phenolic hydroxyl, benzyloxy and even C=C bonds of a,fl-unsaturated aldehydes were compatible under this mild and operationally simple gem-difluoroallylic reaction condition. By means of substitution of Zn powder for indium, gem-difluoroallylation of ketone-derived N-acylhydrazones 6a-6d also provided the corresponding a,a-difluorohomoallylic hydrazides 7a-7d in medium yields. The N-N bond cleavage of the hydrazide 3a proceeded smoothly to give the corresponding primary gem-difluorohomoallylic amine 8, which could be converted to gem-difluoro-δ-substituted α,β-unsaturated lactam 11 via acryloylation fol-lowed by ring closing metathesis (RCM) reaction.

  6. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  7. VERSATILE, HIGH-RESOLUTION ANTEROGRADE LABELING OF VAGAL EFFERENT PROJECTIONS WITH DEXTRAN AMINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Gary C.; Phillips, Robert J.; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A.; Powley, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    None of the anterograde tracers used to label and investigate vagal preganglionic neurons projecting to the viscera has proved optimal for routine and extensive labeling of autonomic terminal fields. To identify an alternative tracer protocol, the present experiment evaluated whether dextran conjugates, which have produced superior results in the CNS, might yield widespread and effective labeling of long, fine-caliber vagal efferents in the peripheral nervous system. The dextran conjugates that were evaluated proved reliable and versatile for labeling the motor neuron pool in its entirety, for single- and multiple-labeling protocols, for both conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and for permanent labeling protocols for brightfield microscopy of the projections to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Using a standard ABC kit followed by visualization with DAB as the chromagen, Golgi-like labeling of the vagal efferent terminal fields in the GI wall was achieved with the biotinylated dextrans. The definition of individual terminal varicosities was so sharp and detailed that it was routinely practical to examine the relationship of putative vagal efferent contacts (by the criteria of high magnification light microscopy) with the dendritic and somatic architecture of counterstained neurons in the myenteric plexus. Overall, dextran conjugates provide high-definition labeling of an extensive vagal motor pool in the GI tract, and offer considerable versatility when multiple-staining protocols are needed to elucidate the complexities of the innervation of the gut. PMID:19056424

  8. Devulcanization of Waste Tire Rubber Using Amine Based Solvents and Ultrasonic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walvekar Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project focuses on an alternative pathway of devulcanizing waste tire rubber by using amine based chemicals. Waste tire rubbers are known to be as toxic, non-degradable material due to their vulcanized crosslink carbon structure, and disposing of such waste could impose hazardous impacts on the environment. The current rubber recycling methods that are practiced today are rather uneconomical, non-environmentally friendly, and also producing recycled rubber with low quality due to the alteration in the main polymeric chains of waste rubber. This project aims to answer the question of whether the usage of amine can produce high quality rubber, where the properties of recycled rubber is almost the same as new/virgin rubber. With known potential of amine, it is a challenge for the chemical to selectively cleave the sulfur bonds without affecting the main carbon backbone chain in the rubber structure and diminishing much of the rubber properties. To study this research, amine-treated rubber must undergo devulcanisation process by applying heat and sonication energy. Then, the properties of the amine-treated rubber were determined through a set of characterization tests and analysis which are: gel content test to determine the weight of rubber before and after devulcanization, the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to determine the thermal degradation and stability of rubber, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR to determine any structural change of the rubber. In this research so far, the first two preliminary analysis tests have been performed. The gel content test has shown that tertiary amine samples possessed a lower gel content (% of (77 – 63 %, compared to primary amine samples (falls within the range of 80%, as well as the TGA test in which tertiary amine samples degrade faster than primary amine samples (suggesting a higher degree of rubber structure breakdown. For each type of amine, the concertation of amine did

  9. Transgenerational hormonal imprinting caused by vitamin A and vitamin D treatment of newborn rats. Alterations in the biogenic amine contents of the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, Kornélia; Gyenge, Melinda; Hantos, Mónika; Csaba, György

    2009-10-01

    Biogenic amines (norepinephrine, dopamine, homovanillic acid, serotonin and 5-hyroxyindole acetic acid) were measured by HPLC method in adult F1 generation rats' brain regions (brainstem, hypothalamus, hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex), whose mothers (P generation) were treated with vitamin A or vitamin D neonatally (hormonal imprinting). Many significant differences were found, related to the maternally untreated controls. In the earlier studied P generation females, vitamin A consistently influenced the serotonerg system (5HIAA), while vitamin D the dopaminerg system (DA or HVA). Vitamin A imprinting always resulted in reduced, while that by vitamin D always in increased tissue levels. In the present case (directly untreated F1 generation) the transgenerational effect was not unidirectional, however biogenic amine tissue levels were strongly disturbed and brain-area dependent. The results call attention to the transgenerational effect of hormonal imprinting in the case of receptor level acting vitamins which are frequently used in the most imprinting-sensitive period (perinatally) of human life and suggests that caution is warranted.

  10. Determination of airborne, volatile amines from polyurethane foams by sorption onto a high-capacity cation-exchange resin based on poly(succinic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, G; Buchmeiser, M R; Bonn, G K; Bertsch, T

    1998-06-05

    A high-capacity carboxylic acid-functionalized resin prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization based on cross-linked endo,endo-poly(norborn-2-ene-5,6-dicarboxylic acid) was used for the sampling of volatile, airborne amines from polyurethane (PU) foams. Six tertiary amines which represent commonly used promotors for the formation of PUs from diisocyanates and polyols, namely pentamethyldiethylenetriamine, diazabicyclooctane, N-methylmorpholine, N-ethylmorphine, 1,4-dimethylpiperazine and N,N-dimethylethanolamine, were sorbed onto the new resin. The sorption behavior of the new material was investigated in terms of loading capacities, the influence of concentration, flow-rate as well as of the amount of resin. Breakthrough curves were recorded from each single component as well as of mixtures thereof. Finally, the resin was used for the sampling of amines evaporating from PU foams applied in buildings. Further information about time dependent concentration profiles were obtained using a combination of GC-MS and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy.

  11. Determination of aliphatic amines in mineral flotation liquors and reagents by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, F; Lwin, T; Bruckard, W J; Woodcock, J T

    2004-11-05

    The method described here fulfils the need for a suitable analytical method to determine the concentrations of single and mixed aliphatic amines in the range from hexylamine (C6) to octadecylamine (C18) in flotation test solutions and in commercial flotation collectors. Amines do not have a UV-vis spectrum in aqueous solution but by reacting an amine-containing solution with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan solution (chloro-NBD), derivatized products (amino-NBDs) are formed which have absorbance maxima at 470nm. Excess chloro-NBD and the amino-NBDs can be separated from each other by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and their concentrations measured with a UV-vis detector. Important variables in the derivatization stage are pH, temperature, chloro-NBD concentration, and reaction time, all of which interact with each other. A three-stage statistical procedure was used to determine the optimum conditions. In each stage, an 8-test design was used in which a high and low limit was set for each variable, and the chromatogram peak area of the derived amino-NBD was measured. The optimum derivatization conditions established were pH 8.9, chloro-NBD concentration 0.20% (w/v), temperature 70 degrees C, and reaction time 60 min. Optimum elution conditions for chromatography were an eluent containing 80% (v/v) acetonitrile in aqueous solution containing 40mM acetic acid at pH 4.5. With a flow rate of 2.0 ml/min, dodecylamine had a retention time of about 3 min, whereas octadecylamine had a retention time of 44 min. Straight-line calibration curves were obtained up to at least 200 ppm of amine in solution. The lower limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 microM (10ppb) with a signal to noise ratio of 3. No interfering substances were found. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of solutions from an actual flotation test and to a solid commercial amine.

  12. Reductive amination of aldehyde 2,4-dinitorophenylhydrazones using 2-picoline borane and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Inaba, Yohei; Matsumoto, Mariko; Suzuki, Gen

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the determination of carbonyls in air using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) has been developed. The traditional method for the measurement of carbonyl compounds, using DNPH to form the corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPhydrazone) derivatives, is subject to analytical errors because DNPhydrazones form both E- and Z-geometrical isomers as a result of the C=N double bond. To overcome this issue, a method for transforming the C=N double bond into a C-N single bond, using reductive amination of DNPhydrazone derivatives, has been developed. Reductive amination of aldehyde DNPhydrazones was carried out by adding 2-picoline borane acetonitrile solution in eluate through the DNPH-cartridge. The amination reactions of C(1)-C(10) aldehyde DNPhydrazones were completely converted into the reduced forms within 40 min in the presence of 1 mmol/L 2-picoline borane and 20 mmol/L of phosphoric acid. These reduced forms were very stable and did not change when stored for 2 weeks at room temperature. The absorption maximum wavelengths of the reduced forms from C(1)-C(10) aldehyde DNPhydrazones were 351-352 nm and shifted 6-7 nm toward shorter wavelengths when compared to the corresponding DNPhydrazones, and the molar absorption coefficients were 1.5 x 10(4) (C(1)) to 2.2 x 10(4) L/mol/cm (C(10)). Complete separation between C(1)-C(10) aldehyde DNPhydrazones and the corresponding reduced forms can be achieved by operating the HPLC in gradient mode using an Ascentis RP-Amide column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.). The RSDs of DNPhydrazone (Z + E) peak areas ranged from 0.40-0.66 and those of the corresponding reduced forms ranged from 0.26-0.41. It was shown that the reductive amination method gave improved HPLC analytical precision because of the absence of isomers.

  13. Reductive amination with zinc powder in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Giovenzana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc powder in aqueous alkaline media was employed to perform reductive amination of aldehydes with primary amines. The corresponding secondary amines were obtained in good yields along with minor amounts of hydrodimerization byproducts. The protocol is a green alternative to the use of complex hydrides in chlorinated or highly flammable solvents.

  14. Characterization of cure kinetics and physical properties of a high performance, glass fiber-reinforced epoxy prepreg and a novel fluorine-modified, amine-cured commercial epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, Bryan

    Kinetic equation parameters for the curing reaction of a commercial glass fiber reinforced high performance epoxy prepreg composed of the tetrafunctional epoxy tetraglycidyl 4,4-diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM), the tetrafunctional amine curing agent 4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) and an ionic initiator/accelerator, are determined by various thermal analysis techniques and the results compared. The reaction is monitored by heat generated determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by high speed DSC when the reaction rate is high. The changes in physical properties indicating increasing conversion are followed by shifts in glass transition temperature determined by DSC, temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC), step scan DSC and high speed DSC, thermomechanical (TMA) and dynamic mechanical (DMA) analysis and thermally stimulated depolarization (TSD). Changes in viscosity, also indicative of degree of conversion, are monitored by DMA. Thermal stability as a function of degree of cure is monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The parameters of the general kinetic equations, including activation energy and rate constant, are explained and used to compare results of various techniques. The utilities of the kinetic descriptions are demonstrated in the construction of a useful time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram and a continuous heating transformation (CHT) diagram for rapid determination of processing parameters in the processing of prepregs. Shrinkage due to both resin consolidation and fiber rearrangement is measured as the linear expansion of the piston on a quartz dilatometry cell using TMA. The shrinkage of prepregs was determined to depend on the curing temperature, pressure applied and the fiber orientation. Chemical modification of an epoxy was done by mixing a fluorinated aromatic amine (aniline) with a standard aliphatic amine as a curing agent for a commercial Diglycidylether of Bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy. The resulting cured network

  15. New sunflower seeds with high contents of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols have a positive nutritional impact because they contribute to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Accordingly, foods rich in phytosterols are required in a healthy diet. Vegetable oils are the richest source of phytosterols in the diet, though sunflower oil has lower phytosterol content than other seed oils such as rapeseed and corn. Increasing phytosterol content in sunflower oil requires optimizing first selection procedures. In this way, the development of accurate methods for analyzing phytosterol content in seeds instead of oils has opened up recently the way for large-scale screening for this trait. Large variability for seed phytosterol content has been identified in sunflower germplasm, from which we have developed a line, IASP-18, with about twofold seed phytosterol content than conventional sunflower. The trait is expressed across environments. Genetic studies are underway to characterize its inheritance and assess the feasibility of introgressing genes for high phytosterol content into elite sunflower germplasm.

  16. A highly bioactive poly (amido amine)/70S30C bioactive glass hybrid with photoluminescent and antimicrobial properties for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Dourbash, Fakhraddin; Alizadeh, Parvin; Nazari, Shahram; Farasat, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    The field of tissue engineering constantly calls for novel biomaterials that possess intrinsically multifunctional properties such as bioactivity, bioimaging ability and antibacterial properties. In this paper, poly (amido amine) generation 5/bioactive glass inorganic-organic hybrids have been developed through direct hybridization by 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as coupling agent. Results indicated that the degree of covalent coupling by GPTMS and the weight percent of inorganic and organic constituents highly influence hybrids properties. It was found that nanoscale integration of inorganic and organic chains by GPTMS significantly endows hybrids with high thermal stability. Furthermore, hybrids exhibited photoluminescent ability (emission 400-600nm and 700nm) without incorporating of any organic dyes or quantum dots. In addition, hydrophilicity of our hybrids indicated good cell/material interaction. The biological apatite was formed on the surface of calcium containing hybrids when soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1week. Hybrids also showed linear biodegradation behavior in SBF that could be controlled by the degree of covalent crosslinking which was indicative of their stable biodegradation ability. High inherent antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus was also observed from poly (amido amine)/silica hybrids. No adverse cytotoxicity for human gingival fibroblast cell lines (HGF) was detected after 4days. It is envisaged that our novel multifunctional hybrid system will confer intriguing potential in advancing the field of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Amines, Astrocytes and Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Bazargani, N.; Attwell, D.

    2017-01-01

    Amine neurotransmitters, such as noradrenaline, mediate arousal, attention, and reward in the CNS. New data suggest that, from flies to mammals, a major mechanism for amine transmitter action is to raise astrocyte [Ca2+]i and release gliotransmitters that modulate neuronal activity and behavior.

  18. High-Performance n-Channel Organic Transistors Using High-Molecular-Weight Electron-Deficient Copolymers and Amine-Tailed Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Hasegawa, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Mori, Takehiko; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi

    2018-03-01

    While high-performance p-type semiconducting polymers are widely reported, their n-type counterparts are still rare in terms of quantity and quality. Here, an improved Stille polymerization protocol using chlorobenzene as the solvent and palladium(0)/copper(I) as the catalyst is developed to synthesize high-quality n-type polymers with number-average molecular weight up to 10 5 g mol -1 . Furthermore, by sp 2 -nitrogen atoms (sp 2 -N) substitution, three new n-type polymers, namely, pBTTz, pPPT, and pSNT, are synthesized, and the effect of different sp 2 -N substitution positions on the device performances is studied for the first time. It is found that the incorporation of sp 2 -N into the acceptor units rather than the donor units results in superior crystalline microstructures and higher electron mobilities. Furthermore, an amine-tailed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is smoothly formed on a Si/SiO 2 substrate by a simple spin-coating technique, which can facilitate the accumulation of electrons and lead to more perfect unipolar n-type transistor performances. Therefore, a remarkably high unipolar electron mobility up to 5.35 cm 2 V -1 s -1 with a low threshold voltage (≈1 V) and high on/off current ratio of ≈10 7 is demonstrated for the pSNT-based devices, which are among the highest values for unipolar n-type semiconducting polymers. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Structural Influence on Excited State Dynamics in Simple Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Liv Bærenholdt

    experiments with calculations, provides new insight into the nature of the internal conversion processes that mediate the dynamical evolution between Rydberg states, and how structural variations in simple amine system have a large impact on the non-adiabatic processes. The experimental method of choice...... is femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron velocity map imaging (VMI), which is a newtechnique in the Copenhagen lab. The design, building and implementation of the VMI spectrometer has been a very substantial part of the thesis work. This techniques oers enhanced information content in the form of ecient...... and sensitive collection of photoelectron spectra. In particular, the angleresolved data available from the VMI approach provides highly detailed mechanistic insight about the relaxation pathways. One striking novel nding is that for tertiary amines, the critical factor driving the non-adiabatic dynamics...

  20. Enhancement of carcinogenesis and fatty infiltration in the pancreas in N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine-treated hamsters by high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Mika; Kitahashi, Tsukasa; Imai, Toshio; Ishigamori, Rikako; Takasu, Shinji; Mutoh, Michihiro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Takahashi, Mami

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk, although the mechanisms have yet to be detailed. This study aimed to elucidate promotion of pancreatic cancer by obesity and hyperlipidemia. Six-week-old female Syrian golden hamsters were treated with N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) and after 1 week were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or standard diet (STD) for 6 or 17 weeks. Body weight and serum levels of lipids and leptin were significantly higher in the HFD than the STD group at 14 weeks of age. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas developed only in the BOP + HFD group, with an incidence of 67% (P pancreas. High-fat diet is shown to increase serum lipid levels and enhance fatty infiltration in the pancreas with abnormal adipocytokine production, which may accelerate and enhance pancreatic cancer.

  1. Highly Chemoselective Reduction of Amides (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) to Alcohols using SmI2/Amine/H2O under Mild Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Highly chemoselective direct reduction of primary, secondary, and tertiary amides to alcohols using SmI2/amine/H2O is reported. The reaction proceeds with C–N bond cleavage in the carbinolamine intermediate, shows excellent functional group tolerance, and delivers the alcohol products in very high yields. The expected C–O cleavage products are not formed under the reaction conditions. The observed reactivity is opposite to the electrophilicity of polar carbonyl groups resulting from the nX → π*C=O (X = O, N) conjugation. Mechanistic studies suggest that coordination of Sm to the carbonyl and then to Lewis basic nitrogen in the tetrahedral intermediate facilitate electron transfer and control the selectivity of the C–N/C–O cleavage. Notably, the method provides direct access to acyl-type radicals from unactivated amides under mild electron transfer conditions. PMID:24460078

  2. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Guillerm, Vincent; Weselinski, Lukasz Jan; Alkordi, Mohamed H.; Mohideen, Mohamed Infas Haja; Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  3. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-28

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  4. Microbiological, physicochemical properties and biogenic amine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty three strained yoghurt samples were collected from local open markets in different provinces of Turkey (Afyon [AF], Aydın [AY], Burdur [B], Isparta [I] and Muğla [M]). Physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as biogenic amine content, were examined in each of the samples. The dry matter (17.90 to ...

  5. Determination of eight biogenic amines in merchant pickles by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相法测定市售腌制蔬菜商品中8种生物胺的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢茜; 陈浩; 曲桂芹; 殷丽君

    2013-01-01

    采用丹磺酰氯为衍生试剂,建立反相高效液相色谱法同时测定腌制蔬菜中色胺,β-苯乙胺,腐胺,尸胺,组胺,酪胺,亚精胺和精胺含量的方法.色谱条件:C18色谱柱分离,以水和乙腈为流动相梯度洗脱,流速0.8 mL/min,紫外检测器,检测波长:254 nm.在设定的试验条件下,8种生物胺在30 min内实现了良好的分离,待测生物胺峰面积同其相应浓度呈良好的线性相关性(R2 >0.998).仪器重复性良好(RSD<0.63%),方法重复性在可接收范围内(RSD< 10%),8种生物胺的平均回收率在89.19%~103.02%之间.结果表明生物胺的HPLC检测方法,灵敏度高,精密度和重复性好,可快捷、准确地对腌制蔬菜中的生物胺进行检测.对市售腌制蔬菜样品中的生物胺含量进行了分析,检测出生物胺总量范围在39.38 ~ 628.82 mg/kg,属于目前我国安全标准范围之内.%A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of tryptamine,β-phenylethylamine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,spermidine,and spermine in pickles.The samples in experiment derivatized with dansyl chloride.The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column.The gradient elution program with a mixture of ultrapure water and acetonitrile at the flow rate 0.8 mL/min was used under UV detector with a wavelength of 254 nm.Under this experimental condition,8 amines had a good resolution in 30 min and well linearity(R2 > 0.998) in detection range.The relative standard deviation (RSD) of precision and repeatability were lower than 0.63% and 10% respectively.The average recoveries ranged from 89.19% to 103.02% for all amines.The results showed that,with the merits of high sensitivity,precision and well repeatability,the HPLC method is convenient,rapid and reliable for biogenic amines detection.The contents of biogenic amines were ranging between 39.38 and 628.82 mg/kg in

  6. General Dialdehyde Click Chemistry for Amine Bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Sina; O'Brien, Paul J; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-17

    The development of methods for conjugating a range of molecules to primary amine functional groups has revolutionized the fields of chemistry, biology, and material science. The primary amine is a key functional group and one of the most important nucleophiles and bases used in all of synthetic chemistry. Therefore, tremendous interest in the synthesis of molecules containing primary amines and strategies to devise chemical reactions to react with primary amines has been at the core of chemical research. In particular, primary amines are a ubiquitous functional group found in biological systems as free amino acids, as key side chain lysines in proteins, and in signaling molecules and metabolites and are also present in many natural product classes. Due to its abundance, the primary amine is the most convenient functional group handle in molecules for ligation to other molecules for a broad range of applications that impact all scientific fields. Because of the primary amine's central importance in synthetic chemistry, acid-base chemistry, redox chemistry, and biology, many methods have been developed to efficiently react with primary amines, including activated carboxylic acids, isothiocyanates, Michael addition type systems, and reaction with ketones or aldehydes followed by in situ reductive amination. Herein, we introduce a new traceless, high-yield, fast click-chemistry method based on the rapid and efficient trapping of amine groups via a functionalized dialdehyde group. The click reaction occurs in mild conditions in organic solvents or aqueous media and proceeds in high yield, and the starting dialdehyde reagent and resulting dialdehyde click conjugates are stable. Moreover, no catalyst or dialdehyde-activating group is required, and the only byproduct is water. The initial dialdehyde and the resulting conjugate are both straightforward to characterize, and the reaction proceeds with high atom economy. To demonstrate the broad scope of this new click

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Shedding Light on Filovirus Infection with High-Content Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha G. Panchal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy has been instrumental in the discovery and characterization of microorganisms. Major advances in high-throughput fluorescence microscopy and automated, high-content image analysis tools are paving the way to the systematic and quantitative study of the molecular properties of cellular systems, both at the population and at the single-cell level. High-Content Imaging (HCI has been used to characterize host-virus interactions in genome-wide reverse genetic screens and to identify novel cellular factors implicated in the binding, entry, replication and egress of several pathogenic viruses. Here we present an overview of the most significant applications of HCI in the context of the cell biology of filovirus infection. HCI assays have been recently implemented to quantitatively study filoviruses in cell culture, employing either infectious viruses in a BSL-4 environment or surrogate genetic systems in a BSL-2 environment. These assays are becoming instrumental for small molecule and siRNA screens aimed at the discovery of both cellular therapeutic targets and of compounds with anti-viral properties. We discuss the current practical constraints limiting the implementation of high-throughput biology in a BSL-4 environment, and propose possible solutions to safely perform high-content, high-throughput filovirus infection assays. Finally, we discuss possible novel applications of HCI in the context of filovirus research with particular emphasis on the identification of possible cellular biomarkers of virus infection.

  9. Thermometric titrations of amines with nitrosyl perchlorate in acetonitrile solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, T; Kiliç, E; Cakirer, O

    1996-05-01

    Thirteen aliphatic and four aromatic amines, namely diethylamine, triethylamine, n-propylamine, di-n-propylamine, tri-n-butylamine, isopropylamine, di-isopropylamine, n-butylamine, di-n-butylamine, tri-n-butylamine, isobutylamine, sec-butylamine, tert-butylamine, aniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2-nitroaniline and 4-nitroaniline were titrated thermometrically with nitrosyl perchlorate in acetonitrile solvent. All the aliphatic amines gave very well-shaped thermometric titration curves. The calculated recovery values of the amines were very good. In comparison, the aromatic amines, aniline and N,N-dimethylaniline gave rather well-shaped titration curves, but the recovery values were fairly low. 2-Nitro- and 4-nitro anilines gave no thermometric response at all. The heats of reaction of the amines with nitrosyl perchlorate are rather high. However, the average heat of reaction of the aromatic amines is approximately two-thirds that of the average heat of the aliphatic amines. To support this method all the amines were also titrated potentiometrically and very similar results to those obtained with the thermometric method are seen. The nitrosyl ion is a Lewis acid, strong enough to titrate quantitatively aliphatic amines in acetonitrile solvent, but not strong enough to titrate aromatic amines at the required level in the same solvent.

  10. Target analysis of primary aromatic amines combined with a comprehensive screening of migrating substances in kitchen utensils by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, Yovana; Coscollà, Clara; Roca, Marta; Yusà, Vicent

    2015-06-01

    An analytical strategy including both the quantitative target analysis of 8 regulated primary aromatic amines (PAAs), as well as a comprehensive post-run target screening of 77 migrating substances, was developed for nylon utensils, using liquid chromatography-orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) operating in full scan mode. The accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50,000 FWHM (scan speed, 2 Hz), and by alternating two acquisition events, ESI+ with and without fragmentation. The target method was validated after statistical optimization of the main ionization and fragmentation parameters. The quantitative method presented appropriate performance to be used in official monitoring with recoveries ranging from 78% to 112%, precision in terms of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) was less than 15%, and the limits of quantification were between 2 and 2.5 µg kg(-1). For post-target screening, a customized theoretical database was built for food contact material migrants, including bisphenols, phthalates, and other amines. For identification purposes, accurate exact mass (<5 ppm) and some diagnostic ions including fragments were used. The strategy was applied to 10 real samples collected from different retailers in the Valencian Region (Spain) during 2014. Six out of eight target PAAs were detected in at least one sample in the target analysis. The most frequently detected compounds were 4,4'-methylenedianiline and aniline, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 19,715 µg kg(-1) and 2.5 to 283 µg kg(-1), respectively. Two phthalates were identified and confirmed in the post-run target screening analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Denuded zone in Czochralski silicon wafer with high carbon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiahe; Yang Deren; Ma Xiangyang; Que Duanlin

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of the denuded zone (DZ) created by high-low-high-temperature annealing in high carbon content (H[C]) and low carbon content (L[C]) Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has been investigated in a subsequent ramping and isothermal 1050 deg. C annealing. The tiny oxygen precipitates which might occur in the DZ were checked. It was found in the L[C] Cz-Si that the DZ shrank and the density of bulk micro-defects (BMDs) reduced with the increase of time spent at 1050 deg. C. Also, the DZs above 15 μm of thickness present in the H[C] Cz-Si wafers continuously and the density and total volume of BMDs first decreased then increased and finally decreased again during the treatments. Moreover, tiny oxygen precipitates were hardly generated inside the DZs, indicating that H[C] Cz-Si wafers could support the fabrication of integrated circuits

  12. Denuded zone in Czochralski silicon wafer with high carbon content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiahe; Yang, Deren; Ma, Xiangyang; Que, Duanlin

    2006-12-01

    The thermal stability of the denuded zone (DZ) created by high-low-high-temperature annealing in high carbon content (H[C]) and low carbon content (L[C]) Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has been investigated in a subsequent ramping and isothermal 1050 °C annealing. The tiny oxygen precipitates which might occur in the DZ were checked. It was found in the L[C] Cz-Si that the DZ shrank and the density of bulk micro-defects (BMDs) reduced with the increase of time spent at 1050 °C. Also, the DZs above 15 µm of thickness present in the H[C] Cz-Si wafers continuously and the density and total volume of BMDs first decreased then increased and finally decreased again during the treatments. Moreover, tiny oxygen precipitates were hardly generated inside the DZs, indicating that H[C] Cz-Si wafers could support the fabrication of integrated circuits.

  13. Carbon nanotube-supported Au-Pd alloy with cooperative effect of metal nanoparticles and organic ketone/quinone groups as a highly efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiping; Chen, Jiashu; Kang, Jincan; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Ye

    2016-05-21

    Functionalised carbon nanotube (CNT)-supported Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles were highly efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of amines. We achieved the highest turnover frequencies (>1000 h(-1)) for the oxidative homocoupling of benzylamine and the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine. We discovered a cooperative effect between Au-Pd nanoparticles and ketone/quinone groups on CNTs.

  14. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  15. Information management for high content live cell imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High content live cell imaging experiments are able to track the cellular localisation of labelled proteins in multiple live cells over a time course. Experiments using high content live cell imaging will generate multiple large datasets that are often stored in an ad-hoc manner. This hinders identification of previously gathered data that may be relevant to current analyses. Whilst solutions exist for managing image data, they are primarily concerned with storage and retrieval of the images themselves and not the data derived from the images. There is therefore a requirement for an information management solution that facilitates the indexing of experimental metadata and results of high content live cell imaging experiments. Results We have designed and implemented a data model and information management solution for the data gathered through high content live cell imaging experiments. Many of the experiments to be stored measure the translocation of fluorescently labelled proteins from cytoplasm to nucleus in individual cells. The functionality of this database has been enhanced by the addition of an algorithm that automatically annotates results of these experiments with the timings of translocations and periods of any oscillatory translocations as they are uploaded to the repository. Testing has shown the algorithm to perform well with a variety of previously unseen data. Conclusion Our repository is a fully functional example of how high throughput imaging data may be effectively indexed and managed to address the requirements of end users. By implementing the automated analysis of experimental results, we have provided a clear impetus for individuals to ensure that their data forms part of that which is stored in the repository. Although focused on imaging, the solution provided is sufficiently generic to be applied to other functional proteomics and genomics experiments. The software is available from: fhttp://code.google.com/p/livecellim/

  16. Fluorinated Amine Stereotriads via Allene Amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Gerstner, Nels C; Oxtoby, Lucas J; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-06-16

    The incorporation of fluorine into organic scaffolds often improves the bioactivity of pharmaceutically relevant compounds. C-F/C-N/C-O stereotriad motifs are prevalent in antivirals, neuraminidase inhibitors, and modulators of androgen receptors, but are challenging to install. An oxidative allene amination strategy using Selectfluor rapidly delivers triply functionalized triads of the form C-F/C-N/C-O, exhibiting good scope and diastereoselectivity for all syn products. The resulting stereotriads are readily transformed into fluorinated pyrrolidines and protected α-, β-, and γ-amino acids.

  17. The chemistry of amine radical cations produced by visible light photoredox catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amine radical cations are highly useful reactive intermediates in amine synthesis. They have displayed several modes of reactivity leading to some highly sought-after synthetic intermediates including iminium ions, α-amino radicals, and distonic ions. One appealing method to access amine radical cations is through one-electron oxidation of the corresponding amines under visible light photoredox conditions. This approach and subsequent chemistries are emerging as a powerful tool in amine synthesis. This article reviews synthetic applications of amine radical cations produced by visible light photocatalysis.

  18. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  19. INFLUENCE OF A SEROTONIN-RICH AND DOPAMINE-RICH DIET ON PLATELET SEROTONIN CONTENT AND URINARY-EXCRETION OF BIOGENIC-AMINES AND THEIR METABOLITES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KEMA, IP; SCHELLINGS, AMJ; MEIBORG, G; HOPPENBROUWERS, CJM; MUSKIET, FAJ

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, we reevaluated the 24-h influence of a serotonin- and dopamine-rich diet on platelet serotonin and serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and major catecholamine metabolites in the urine of 15 healthy adults. Although

  20. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchu, Nancy; Patel, Bhavini; Sebastian, Blaise; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium.

  1. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  2. Liquid alternative diesel fuels with high hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancsok, Jenoe; Varga, Zoltan; Eller, Zoltan; Poelczmann, Gyoergy [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon Processing; Kasza, Tamas [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    Mobility is a keystone of the sustainable development. In the operation of the vehicles as the tools of mobility internal combustion engines, so thus Diesel engines will play a remarkable role in the next decades. Beside fossil fuels - used for power these engines - liquid alternative fuels have higher and higher importance, because of their known advantages. During the presentation the categorization possibilities based on the chronology of their development and application will be presented. The importance of fuels with high hydrogen content will be reviewed. Research and development activity in the field of such kind of fuels will be presented. During this developed catalytic systems and main performance properties of the product will be presented which were obtained in case of biogasoils produced by special hydrocracking of natural triglycerides and in case of necessity followed by isomerization; furthermore in case of synthetic biogasoils obtained by the isomerization hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins produced from biomass based synthesis gas. Excellent combustion properties (cetane number > 65-75), good cold flow properties and reduced harmful material emission due to the high hydrogen content (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}) are highlighted. Finally production possibilities of linear and branched paraffins based on lignocelluloses are briefly reviewed. Summarizing it was concluded that liquid hydrocarbons with high isoparaffin content are the most suitable fuels regarding availability, economical and environmental aspects, namely the sustainable development. (orig.)

  3. Relative quantification of enantiomers of chiral amines by high-throughput LC–ESI-MS/MS using isotopic variants of light and heavy L-pyroglutamic acids as the derivatization reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Toshiki; Taniguchi, Sayuri; Tsutsui, Haruhito; Min, Jun Zhe; Inoue, Koichi; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Toyo’oka, Toshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development of chiral labeling reagent for a pair of amine enantiomers. ► High-throughput analysis of diastereomers by UPLC–ESI-MS/MS. ► Highly efficient separation and detection of the enantiomers. ► Differential analysis of enantiomer ratio in different sample groups using light and heavy labeling reagents. -- Abstract: L-Pyroglutamic acid (L-PGA) was evaluated as a chiral labeling reagent for the enantioseparation of chiral amines in terms of separation efficiency by reversed-phase chromatography and detection sensitivity by ESI-MS/MS. Several amines and amino acid methyl esters were used as typical representatives of the chiral amines. Both enantiomers of the chiral amines were easily labeled with L-PGAs at room temperature for 60 min in the presence of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide and 1-hydroxy-1H-benzotriazole as the activation reagents. The resulting diastereomers were completely separated by reversed-phase chromatography using the small particle (1.7 μm) ODS column (Rs = 1.6–6.8). A highly sensitive detection at a low-fmol level (1–4 fmol) was also obtained from the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) chromatograms. Therefore, a high-throughput determination was achieved by the present UPLC–ESI-MS/MS method. An isotope labeling strategy using light and heavy L-PGAs for the differential analysis of chiral amines in different sample groups was also proposed in this paper. As a model study, the differential analysis of the R and S ratio of 1-phenylethylamine (PEA) was performed according to the proposed procedure using light and heavy reagents, i.e., L-PGA and L-PGA-d 5 . The R/S ratio of PEA, spiked at the different concentrations in rat plasma, was almost similar to the theoretical values. Consequently, the proposed strategy using light and heavy chiral labeling reagents seems to be applicable for the differential analysis of chiral amine enantiomers in different sample groups, such as healthy persons and

  4. Effects of storage temperature on biogenic amine concentrations in meat of uneviscerated pheasants (Phasianus colchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the hygienic quality of the pheasants reared for high-quality meat production by the biogenic amine concentrations in their meat. The content of biogenic amines was measured in the meat of sixty male pheasants killed by pithing and stored uneviscerated for 21 days under different storage temperatures (0 °C, 7 °C and 15 °C. The samples of breast and thigh muscles of pheasant were tested at weekly intervals. Biogenic amines were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of biogenic amines (except spermin and spermidin in thigh muscle were higher than in breast muscle. Highly significant difference (P < 0.01 was found in tyramine (5.80 mg/kg and 1.38 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively, cadaverine (40.80 mg/kg and 14.43 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively, putrescine (13.42 mg/kg and 3.16 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively and histamine (5.51 mg/kg and 1.70 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively concentrations after 21 days of storage at 15 °C. This study provides information on the dynamics of biogenic amine formation in pheasant meat during 21 days of storage at different temperatures. Based on our results, we can recommend storing pithed uneviscerated pheasants at 0–7°C for up to 21 days, or at 15 °C for up to 7 days. Concentrations of biogenic amines gained in our study can be helpful in evaluating freshness and hygienic quality of the pheasant game meat.

  5. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  6. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  7. Use of the Wilkinson catalyst for the ortho-C-H heteroarylation of aromatic amines: facile access to highly extended π-conjugated heteroacenes for organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yumin; Wu, Di; Huang, Jingsheng; Guo, Qiang; Li, Juan; You, Jingsong

    2014-11-03

    An unprecedented catalytic system composed of the Wilkinson catalyst [Rh(PPh3)3Cl] and CF3COOH enabled the highly regioselective cross-coupling of aromatic amines with a variety of heteroarenes through dual C-H bond cleavage. This protocol provided a facile and rapid route from readily available substrates to (2-aminophenyl)heteroaryl compounds, which may be conveniently transformed into highly extended π-conjugated heteroacenes. The experimental studies and calculations showed that thianaphtheno[3,2-b]indoles have large HOMO-LUMO energy gaps and low-lying HOMO levels, and could therefore potentially be high-performance organic semiconductors. Herein we report the first use of a rhodium(I) catalyst for oxidative C-H/C-H coupling reactions. The current innovative catalyst system is much less expensive than [RhCp*Cl2]2/AgSbF6 and could open the door for the application of this approach to other types of C-H activation processes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  9. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herrmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Monomethylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and diethylamine (DEA were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0–30 pg m−3 for MA, 130–360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5–110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2–520 pg m−3 for MA, 100–1400 pg m−3 for DMA and 90–760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm indicate that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC content ranged from 0.2–2.5% C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the nitrogen content in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the detected nitrogen species in sub-micrometer particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N–1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines. This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  10. Evaluation of amine inhibitors for suitability as crevice buffering agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Hettiarachchi, S.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the results of a research effort to evaluate the suitability of some selected amines and amino acids as a crevice-buffering agents in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators. The amines may be useful for buffering acid crevices, and the amino acids, because they contain both acidic and basic groups, may be useful for acidic and caustic crevices. Five commercially available amines and two amino acids were studied during this research. The study involved (1) the hydrolysis of these commercially available amines and amino acids, including measurement of their kinetics of decomposition, in simulated steam generator bulk water at 290 C, and (2) determination of their thermal stability in a simulated crevice environment. The study showed that, although the high-molecular-weight amines undergo hydrothermal decomposition, they have a better buffering capacity than their low-molecular-weight counterparts at 290 C. The amines provide effective crevice buffering by increasing the pH of the crevice solution by as much as 2.84 and to 4.24 units in the experimental setup used in this program. It was concluded that polyamines provide excellent buffering of the simulated crevice environment at 290 C and morpholine remains the best low-molecular-weight amine investigated. However, detailed volatility studies of the amines were not considered in this work. Such data would be needed before in-plant testing to ensure that the amines can concentrate in steam generator crevices to the levels assumed in this study

  11. Probing the Compound I-like reactivity of a bare high-valent oxo iron porphyrin complex: the oxidation of tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarino, Barbara; Cipollini, Romano; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta; Lanucara, Francesco; Lapi, Andrea

    2008-03-12

    The mechanisms of oxidative N-dealkylation of amines by heme enzymes including peroxidases and cytochromes P450 and by functional models for the active Compound I species have long been studied. A debated issue has concerned in particular the character of the primary step initiating the oxidation sequence, either a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) or an electron transfer (ET) event, facing problems such as the possible contribution of multiple oxidants and complex environmental effects. In the present study, an oxo iron(IV) porphyrin radical cation intermediate 1, [(TPFPP)*+ Fe(IV)=O]+ (TPFPP = meso-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl)porphinato dianion), functional model of Compound I, has been produced as a bare species. The gas-phase reaction with amines (A) studied by ESI-FT-ICR mass spectrometry has revealed for the first time the elementary steps and the ionic intermediates involved in the oxidative activation. Ionic products are formed involving ET (A*+, the amine radical cation), formal hydride transfer (HT) from the amine ([A(-H)]+, an iminium ion), and oxygen atom transfer (OAT) to the amine (A(O), likely a carbinolamine product), whereas an ionic product involving a net initial HAT event is never observed. The reaction appears to be initiated by an ET event for the majority of the tested amines which included tertiary aliphatic and aromatic amines as well as a cyclic and a secondary amine. For a series of N,N-dimethylanilines the reaction efficiency for the ET activated pathways was found to correlate with the ionization energy of the amine. A stepwise pathway accounts for the C-H bond activation resulting in the formal HT product, namely a primary ET process forming A*+, which is deprotonated at the alpha-C-H bond forming an N-methyl-N-arylaminomethyl radical, A(-H)*, readily oxidized to the iminium ion, [A(-H)]+. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for proton transfer (PT) increases as the acidity of the amine radical cation increases and the PT reaction to the base

  12. Characterization of polyoxyethylene tallow amine surfactants in technical mixtures and glyphosate formulations using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tush, Daniel; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the occurrence, fate, and effects of the ancillary additives in pesticide formulations. Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is a non-ionic surfactant used in many glyphosate formulations, a widely applied herbicide both in agricultural and urban environments. POEA has not been previously well characterized, but has been shown to be toxic to various aquatic organisms. Characterization of technical mixtures using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and mass spectrometry shows POEA is a complex combination of homologs of different aliphatic moieties and ranges of ethoxylate units. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments indicate that POEA homologs generate no product ions readily suitable for quantitative analysis due to poor sensitivity. A comparison of multiple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UHPLC analytical columns indicates that the stationary phase is more important in column selection than other parameters for the separation of POEA. Analysis of several agricultural and household glyphosate formulations confirms that POEA is a common ingredient but ethoxylate distributions among formulations vary.

  13. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of improving the immersive experience of the end user, High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity. Therefore, proper validation and performance benchmarking of HDR processing algorithms is a key step towards standardization and commercial deployment. A crucial...... component of such validation studies is the selection of a challenging and balanced set of source (reference) HDR content. In order to facilitate this, we present an objective method based on the premise that a more challenging HDR scene encapsulates higher contrast, and as a result will show up more...

  14. Amine-selective bioconjugation using arene diazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethelm, Stefan; Schafroth, Michael A; Carreira, Erick M

    2014-08-01

    A novel bioconjugation strategy is presented that relies on the coupling of diazonium terephthalates with amines in proteins. The diazonium captures the amine while the vicinal ester locks it through cyclization, ensuring no reversibility. The reaction is highly efficient and proceeds under mild conditions and short reaction times. Densely functionalized, complex natural products were directly coupled to proteins using low concentrations of coupling partners.

  15. Astramol polypropyleneimine dendrimers as Norrish Type II amine synergists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.F.G.A.; Dias, A.A.; Hartwig, H.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    UV-curable coatings for various applications . In most of these applications they serve a dual role ie as initiator and as oxygen scavenger. Dimethylethanolamine is one of the more frequently employed aliphatic amines. However, this amine is a highly volatile . AstramolTM polypropyleneimine

  16. Measuring levels of biogenic amines and their metabolites in rat brain tissue using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min-Jung; Jeon, Ji-Hyun; Oh, Myung Sook; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    We developed a method to detect biogenic amines and their metabolites in rat brain tissue using simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography and a photodiode array detection. Measurements were made using a Hypersil Gold C-18 column (250 × 2.1 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase was 5 mM perchloric acid containing 5 % acetonitrile. The correlation coefficient was 0.9995-0.9999. LODs (S/N = 3) and LOQs (S/N = 10) were as follows: dopamine 0.4 and 1.3 pg, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid 8.4 and 28.0 pg, serotonin 0.4 and 1.3 pg, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid 3.4 and 11.3 pg, and homovanillic acid 8.4 and 28.0 pg. This method does not require derivatization steps, and is more sensitive than the widely used HPLC-UV method.

  17. Free amino acids, biogenic amines, and ammonium profiling in tobacco from different geographical origins using microwave-assisted extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Xiang, Zhangmin; Li, Hongqin; Zhao, Huina; Lin, Yechun; Pan, Wenjie; Lei, Bo

    2017-12-01

    This work describes a rapid, stable, and accurate method for determining the free amino acids, biogenic amines, and ammonium in tobacco. The target analytes were extracted with microwave-assisted extraction and then derivatized with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate, followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis. The experimental design used to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction conditions showed that the optimal extraction time was 10 min with a temperature of 60°C. The stability of aminoenone derivatives was improved by keeping the pH near 9.0, and there was no obvious degradation during the 80°C heating and room temperature storage. Under optimal conditions, this method showed good linearity (R 2 > 0.999) and sensitivity (limits of detection 0.010-0.081 μg/mL). The extraction recoveries were between 88.4 and 106.5%, while the repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 0.48 to 5.12% and from 1.56 to 6.52%, respectively. The newly developed method was employed to analyze the tobacco from different geographical origins. Principal component analysis showed that four geographical origins of tobacco could be clearly distinguished and that each had their characteristic components. The proposed method also showed great potential for further investigations on nitrogen metabolism in plants. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electromembrane extraction of biogenic amines in food samples by a microfluidic-chip system followed by dabsyl derivatization prior to high performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghampour, Fereshteh; Yamini, Yadollah; Baharfar, Mahroo; Faraji, Mohammad

    2018-06-29

    In the present research, an on-chip electromembrane extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was developed for monitoring the trace levels of biogenic amines (BAs), including histamine, tryptamine, putrescine, cadaverine and spermidine in food samples. A porous polypropylene sheet membrane impregnated with an organic solvent was placed between the two parts of the chip device to separate the channels. Two platinum electrodes were mounted at the bottom of these channels, which were connected to a power supply, providing the electrical driving force for migration of ionized analytes from the sample solution through the porous sheet membrane into the acceptor phase. BAs were extracted from 2 mL aqueous sample solutions at neutral pH into 50 μL of acidified (HCl 90 mM) acceptor solution. Supported liquid membrane including NPOE containing 10% DEHP was used to ensure efficient extraction. Low voltage of 40 V was applied over the SLMs during extraction time. The influences of fundamental parameters affecting the transport of BAs were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the relative standard deviations based on four replicate measurements were less than 8.0% and limit of detections were in range of 3.0-8.0 μg L -1 . Finally, the method was successfully applied to determinate BAs in the food samples and satisfactory results (recovery > 95.6) were obtained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SCC with high volume of fly ash content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrakh Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete is a very perspective building material. It provides great benefits during the construction of heavily reinforced buildings. SCC has outstanding properties such as high flowability, dense structure and high strength due to specific quality of aggregates, fillers, their proportion in mix, use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers. Main disadvantages of SCC are high price and the difficulty of obtaining a proper mix. Use of fillers, such as fly ash type F, is a way to make SCC cheaper by replacing part of cement. Fly ash also provides some technological and operating advantages. In this paper the influence of high volume (60% from cement fly ash type F on the properties of concrete mixture and hardened concrete is investigated. The result of the work shows the possibility of reduction the cost of SCC using ordinary fillers and high amount of fly ash. The investigated SCC has low speed of hardening (7-day compressive strength at the range of 41.8 MPa and high volume of entrained air content (3.5%.

  20. Biogenic amines degradation by microorganisms isolated from cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Butor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of microorganisms able to degrade biogenic amines and their identification. Individual microorganisms were obtained by isolation from commercially available foodstuffs and food produced in the technological laboratories of Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín and subsequently identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The results of MALDI-TOF MS identification were verified by 16S rRNA sequenation. In this work was studied the ability of 5 bacterial strains positive to biogenic amines degradation isolated from dairy products to decrease biogenic amines content in vitro and quantified reduction in the concentration of biogenic amines tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine. The level of degradation (decrease of biogenic amines was determined on the base of the ability to grow in media with biogenic amines as the sole source carbon and nitrogen. The isolated strains with the ability of degradation of one or more biogenic amines were cultured in medium supplemented with relevant biogenic amines, the media derivatized with dansyl chloride and these amines separated by HPLC at a wavelength of 254 nm. From five tested strains identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter cloacae, Rhizobium radiobacter and Acinetobacter pitii, isolated from gouda type cheese, the greatest ability of degradation was observed in Bacillus subtilis, which was capable to degrade almost all amount of histamine, cadaverine and putrescine. Other four strains showed a lower rate of degradation than Bacillus subtilis, but the ability to degrade biogenic amines with these microorganisms was still significant.

  1. Design of amine modified polymer dispersants for liquid-phase exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets and their photodetective nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinseong; Hahnkee Kim, Richard; Yu, Seunggun; Babu Velusamy, Dhinesh; Lee, Hyeokjung; Park, Chanho; Cho, Suk Man; Jeong, Beomjin; Sol Kang, Han; Park, Cheolmin

    2017-12-01

    Liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanosheets is a facile, cost-effective approach to large-area photoelectric devices including photodetectors and non-volatile memories. Non-destructive exfoliation of nanosheets using macromolecular dispersing agents is beneficial in rendering the TMD nanocomposite films suitable for mechanically flexible devices. Here, an efficient LPE of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with an amine modified poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) co-polymer (AM-PSMA) is demonstrated, wherein the maleic anhydrides were converted into maleic imides with primary amines using N-Boc-(CH2) n -NH2. The exfoliation of nanosheets was facilitated through Lewis acid-base interaction between the primary amine and transition metal. The results demonstrate that the exfoliation depends upon both the fraction of primary amines in the polymer chain and their distance from the polymer backbone. Under optimized conditions of primary amine content and its distance from the backbone, AM-PSMA gave rise to a highly concentrated MoS2 nanosheet suspension that was stable for over 10 d. Exfoliation of several other TMDs was also achieved using the optimized AM-PSMA, indicating the scope of AM-PSMA applications. Furthermore, a flexible composite film of AM-PSMA and MoS2 nanosheets fabricated by vacuum-assisted filtration showed excellent photoconductive performances including a high I on/I off ratio of 102 and a fast photocurrent switching of 300 ms.

  2. A versatile family of degradable non-viral gene carriers based on hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Zhiyuan; Song, Y.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Lok, Martin C.; Hennink, Wim E.; Feijen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A variety of degradable hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s containing primary, secondary and tertiary amino groups, were synthesized and evaluated as non-viral gene carriers. The polymers were obtained in high yields through a Michael-type conjugate addition of diacrylate monomers with trifunctional

  3. Dithienylpyrrole- and Tris[4-(2-thienylphenyl]amine-Containing Copolymers as Promising Anodic Layers in High-Contrast Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzi-Yi Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Three dithienylpyrrole- and tris[4-(2-thienylphenyl]amine-containing copolymers (P(MPS-co-TTPA, P(MPO-co-TTPA, and P(ANIL-co-TTPA were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO surfaces using electrochemical polymerization. Spectroelectrochemical characterizations of polymer films revealed that P(MPS-co-TTPA film was light olive green, greyish-green, bluish grey, and grey in neutral state, intermediate state, oxidized state, and highly oxidized state, respectively, whereas P(MPO-co-TTPA film was green moss, foliage green, dark greyish-green, and bluish-grey in neutral state, intermediate state, oxidized state, and highly oxidized state, respectively. The ΔTmax of P(MPS-co-TTPA film at 964 nm, P(MPO-co-TTPA film at 914 nm, and P(ANIL-co-TTPA film at 960 nm were 67.2%, 60.7%, and 67.1%, respectively, and the coloration efficiency (η of P(MPS-co-TTPA film at 964 nm, P(MPO-co-TTPA film at 914 nm, and P(ANIL-co-TTPA film at 960 nm were calculated to be 260.3, 176.6, and 230.8 cm2 C−1, respectively. Dual type complementary colored electrochromic devices (ECDs were constructed using P(MPS-co-TTPA, P(MPO-co-TTPA, or P(ANIL-co-TTPA as anodic copolymer layer and PProDOT-Et2 as cathodic polymer layer. P(MPO-co-TTPA/PProDOT-Et2 ECD revealed high ΔT (55.1% and high η (766.5 cm2 C−1 at 580 nm. Moreover, P(MPS-co-TTPA/PProDOT-Et2, P(MPO-co-TTPA/PProDOT-Et2, and P(ANIL-co-TTPA/PProDOT-Et2 ECDs showed satisfactory long-term cycling stability and optical memory.

  4. A content analysis of tweets about high-potency marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Sowles, Shaina J; Krauss, Melissa J; Agbonavbare, Vivian; Grucza, Richard; Bierut, Laura

    2016-09-01

    "Dabbing" involves heating extremely concentrated forms of marijuana to high temperatures and inhaling the resulting vapor. We studied themes describing the consequences of using highly concentrated marijuana by examining the dabbing-related content on Twitter. Tweets containing dabbing-related keywords were collected from 1/1-1/31/2015 (n=206,854). A random sample of 5000 tweets was coded for content according to pre-determined categories about dabbing-related behaviors and effects experienced using a crowdsourcing service. An examination of tweets from the full sample about respiratory effects and passing out was then conducted by selecting tweets with relevant keywords. Among the 5000 randomly sampled tweets, 3540 (71%) were related to dabbing marijuana concentrates. The most common themes included mentioning current use of concentrates (n=849; 24%), the intense high and/or extreme effects from dabbing (n=763; 22%) and excessive/heavy dabbing (n=517; 15%). Extreme effects included both physiological (n=124/333; 37%) and psychological effects (n=55/333; 17%). The most common physiologic effects, passing out (n=46/333; 14%) and respiratory effects (n=30/333; 9%), were then further studied in the full sample of tweets. Coughing was the most common respiratory effect mentioned (n=807/1179; 68%), and tweeters commonly expressed dabbing with intentions to pass out (416/915; 45%). This study adds to the limited understanding of marijuana concentrates and highlights self-reported physical and psychological effects from this type of marijuana use. Future research should further examine these effects and the potential severity of health consequences associated with concentrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High GC content causes orphan proteins to be intrinsically disordered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Basile

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available De novo creation of protein coding genes involves the formation of short ORFs from noncoding regions; some of these ORFs might then become fixed in the population. These orphan proteins need to, at the bare minimum, not cause serious harm to the organism, meaning that they should for instance not aggregate. Therefore, although the creation of short ORFs could be truly random, the fixation should be subjected to some selective pressure. The selective forces acting on orphan proteins have been elusive, and contradictory results have been reported. In Drosophila young proteins are more disordered than ancient ones, while the opposite trend is present in yeast. To the best of our knowledge no valid explanation for this difference has been proposed. To solve this riddle we studied structural properties and age of proteins in 187 eukaryotic organisms. We find that, with the exception of length, there are only small differences in the properties between proteins of different ages. However, when we take the GC content into account we noted that it could explain the opposite trends observed for orphans in yeast (low GC and Drosophila (high GC. GC content is correlated with codons coding for disorder promoting amino acids. This leads us to propose that intrinsic disorder is not a strong determining factor for fixation of orphan proteins. Instead these proteins largely resemble random proteins given a particular GC level. During evolution the properties of a protein change faster than the GC level causing the relationship between disorder and GC to gradually weaken.

  6. Production of JET fuel containing molecules of high hydrogen content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasek Sz.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of aviation can only be reduced by using alternative fuels with excellent burning properties and a high hydrogen content in the constituent molecules. Due to increasing plastic consumption the amount of the plastic waste is also higher. Despite the fact that landfill plastic waste has been steadily reduced, the present scenario is not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to produce JET fuel containing an alternative component made from straight-run kerosene and the waste polyethylene cracking fraction. We carried out our experiments on a commercial NiMo/Al2O3/P catalyst at the following process parameters: T=200-300°C, P=40 bar, LHSV=1.0-3.0 h-1, hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio= 400 Nm3/m3. We investigated the effects of the feedstocks and the process parameters on the product yields, the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization efficiencies, and the main product properties. The liquid product yields varied between 99.7-99.8%. As a result of the hydrogenation the sulfur (1-1780 mg/kg and the aromatic contents (9.0-20.5% of the obtained products and the values of their smoke points (26.0-34.7 mm fulfilled the requirements of JET fuel standard. Additionally, the concentration of paraffins increased in the products and the burning properties were also improved. The freezing points of the products were higher than -47°C, therefore product blending is needed.

  7. Degradation of biogenetic amines by gamma radiation process and identification by GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, Monique; Souza, Stefania P. de; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine), aromatic (tyramine, phenylethylamine) or heterocyclic (histamine, tryptamine) structures that can be found in several foods, in which they are mainly produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. The reasons to control amines in food are their potential toxicity and their use like food quality markers. The consumption of food containing large amounts of biogenic amines can result in allergic reactions, characterized by difficulty in breathing, rash, vomiting, and hypertension. Biogenic amines are also known as possible precursors of carcinogens, such as N-nitrosamines. Traditionally, biogenic amine formation in food has been prevented, primarily by limiting microbial growth. However, control measures to reduce their levels once formed need to be also considered. The biogenic amines are frequently found in high concentrations and not reduced by high-temperature treatment, which makes difficult to use conventional methods of food preservation for this purpose. Food irradiation has been used in many countries for inhibition of sprouting, destruction of food borne insects, extension of shelf life or improvement of the technological of food. Irradiation is also known as a good method for inactivating pathogens and reducing microorganisms in food materials. Furthermore, besides the sanitary purpose, irradiation technology in new trials can be applied to induce radiolysis of toxic contaminants in food products reducing their content. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5kGy) in methanol solutions of three different biogenic amines: tryptamine, tyramine and b-phenylethylamine. The solutions were prepared using standard biogenic amines purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Brazil and methanol HPLC grade with a concentration of 100 {mu}g/mL. They were irradiated in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito

  8. Degradation of biogenetic amines by gamma radiation process and identification by GC/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, Monique; Souza, Stefania P. de; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S.

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine), aromatic (tyramine, phenylethylamine) or heterocyclic (histamine, tryptamine) structures that can be found in several foods, in which they are mainly produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. The reasons to control amines in food are their potential toxicity and their use like food quality markers. The consumption of food containing large amounts of biogenic amines can result in allergic reactions, characterized by difficulty in breathing, rash, vomiting, and hypertension. Biogenic amines are also known as possible precursors of carcinogens, such as N-nitrosamines. Traditionally, biogenic amine formation in food has been prevented, primarily by limiting microbial growth. However, control measures to reduce their levels once formed need to be also considered. The biogenic amines are frequently found in high concentrations and not reduced by high-temperature treatment, which makes difficult to use conventional methods of food preservation for this purpose. Food irradiation has been used in many countries for inhibition of sprouting, destruction of food borne insects, extension of shelf life or improvement of the technological of food. Irradiation is also known as a good method for inactivating pathogens and reducing microorganisms in food materials. Furthermore, besides the sanitary purpose, irradiation technology in new trials can be applied to induce radiolysis of toxic contaminants in food products reducing their content. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5kGy) in methanol solutions of three different biogenic amines: tryptamine, tyramine and b-phenylethylamine. The solutions were prepared using standard biogenic amines purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Brazil and methanol HPLC grade with a concentration of 100 μg/mL. They were irradiated in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito

  9. Cermet anode compositions with high content alloy phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschman, Steven C.; Davis, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Cermet electrode compositions comprising NiO-NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 -Cu-Ni, and methods for making, are disclosed. Addition of nickel metal prior to formation and densification of a base mixture into the cermet allows for an increase in the total amount of copper and nickel that can be contained in the NiO-NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 oxide system. Nickel is present in a base mixture weight concentration of from 0.1% to 10%. Copper is present in the alloy phase in a weight concentration of from 10% to 30% of the densified composition. Such cermet electrodes can be formed to have electrical conductivities well in excess of 100 ohm.sup.-1 cm.sup.-1. Other alloy and oxide system cermets having high content metal phases are also expected to be manufacturable in accordance with the invention.

  10. Automation in high-content flow cytometry screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, U; Wand, M P

    2009-09-01

    High-content flow cytometric screening (FC-HCS) is a 21st Century technology that combines robotic fluid handling, flow cytometric instrumentation, and bioinformatics software, so that relatively large numbers of flow cytometric samples can be processed and analysed in a short period of time. We revisit a recent application of FC-HCS to the problem of cellular signature definition for acute graft-versus-host-disease. Our focus is on automation of the data processing steps using recent advances in statistical methodology. We demonstrate that effective results, on par with those obtained via manual processing, can be achieved using our automatic techniques. Such automation of FC-HCS has the potential to drastically improve diagnosis and biomarker identification.

  11. Diffusion in a pure, high-vacancy-content crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that vacancies can follow a nonrandom walk in a solid has been developed and put into a quantitative form for diffusion in a pure, high-vacancy-content crystal. Intrinsic and tracer diffusion in a metal have been analyzed, and the electrical mobility in an ionic solid has been expressed in terms of the tracer diffusion coefficient and the separate correlation factors for atoms and vacancies. The description uses classical methods of diffusion theory, and generalized results that account for nonrandom vacancy walk have been shown to reduce to those obtained by Howard and Lidiard in a system where the vacancy moves randomly as an isolated point defect. Experimental data for carbon diffusion in fcc iron have been examined to illustrate an interstitial-vacancy analogy that was used in this analysis, and the general result has been applied specifically to discuss vacancy diffusion in Fe/sub 1-x/S

  12. Effect of amine structure on CO2 capture by polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Ikuo; Kinugasa, Kae; Toyoda, Mariko; Minezaki, Koki

    2017-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine)s (PAMAMs) incorporated into a cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) exhibited excellent CO 2 separation properties over H 2 . However, the CO 2 permeability should be increased for practical applications. Monoethanolamine (MEA) used as a CO 2 determining agent in the current CO 2 capture technology at demonstration scale was readily immobilized in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix by solvent casting of aqueous mixture of PVA and the amine. The resulting polymeric membranes can be self-standing with the thickness above 3 μm and the amine fraction less than 80 wt%. The gas permeation properties were examined at 40 °C and under 80% relative humidity. The CO 2 separation performance increased with increase of the amine content in the polymeric membranes. When the amine fraction was 80 wt%, the CO 2 permeability coefficient of MEA containing membrane was 604 barrer with CO 2 selectivity of 58.5 over H 2 , which was much higher than the PAMAM membrane (83.7 barrer and 51.8, respectively) under the same operation conditions. On the other hand, ethylamine (EA) was also incorporated into PVA matrix to form a thin membrane. However, the resulting polymeric membranes exhibited slight CO 2 -selective gas permeation properties. The hydroxyl group of MEA was crucial for high CO 2 separation performance.

  13. Introduction of various amine groups onto polyethylene bead prepared by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.S.; Choi, S.H.; Lee, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation-induced graft polymerization is a good method for modification of chemical and physical properties of polymeric materials because it can endow properties such as membrane quality, ion exchange, blood compatibility, dyeability, protein adsorption, and immobilization of bioactive materials. Polyethylene microbead is very useful material due to the following advantages; low price, simple purchase, high sensitivity, and simple analysis. On the other hand, the epoxy group of the glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) can easily be converted to the various functional groups such as amines, alcohols, phosphoric acid, sulfonic acid, and amino acid, etc. Cyclodextrin have been applied universally in various industries such as foods, cosmetics, pharmaceutical industry, analytical chemistry, and chemical industry. In order to obtain cyclodextrins, polyethylene microbead with the epoxy group were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of GMA onto polyethylene microbead. The physical and chemical properties of the GMA-induced polyethylene microbeads were investigated by IR, thermal analysis (TGA/DSC), and SEM, respectively. Subsequently, the various amine groups such as diethylamine. diethylenetriamine, triethylamine, triethylenetetramine, and 1,6-hexanediamine were induced onto the epoxy group in polyethylene microbead. Finally, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase were immobilized onto polyethylene microbead with various amines under the various experimental conditions, such as pH, amin content, immobilization time, and etc. The activity of CGTase-immobilized polyethylene microbead was determined by Phenolphthein method. The production of the cyclodextrins from starch is in progress

  14. Titanium dioxide modified with various amines used as sorbents of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapica-Kozar, Joanna; Pirog, Ewa; Kusiak-Nejman, Ewelina; Wrobel, Rafal J.; Gesikiewicz-Puchalska, Andzelika; Morawski, Antoni W.; Narkiewicz, Urszula; Michalkiewicz, Beata

    2017-01-01

    In this study, titanium dioxide was modified with various amines through hydrothermal treatment for adsorption of CO_2. The carbon dioxide adsorption performance of the prepared samples was measured using an STA 449 C thermo-balance (Netzsch Company, Germany). The morphological structures, functional groups and elemental compositions of the unmodified and amine-modified titanium dioxide sorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR/DR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that modification of TiO_2 with amines through hydrothermal treatment is a simple method to prepare CO_2 sorbents with high adsorption capacities. Moreover, the results revealed that TEPA-modified titanium dioxide shoved the highest adsorption capacity, enabling an increase in CO_2 uptake from 0.45 mmol CO_2 g"-"1 in the case of raw TiO_2 to 1.63 mmol CO_2 g"-"1. This result could be indirectly related to the fact that TEPA has the highest amino group content among the three amines used in our research. Additionally, durability tests performed by cyclic adsorption-desorption revealed that TEPA modified titanium dioxide also possesses excellent stability, despite a slight decrease in adsorption capacity over time. (authors)

  15. Solvent-free functionalization of carbon nanotube buckypaper with amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, Elena V.; Ramírez-Calera, Itzel J.; Meza-Laguna, Victor; Abarca-Morales, Edgar; Pérez-Rey, Luis A.; Re, Marilena; Prete, Paola; Lovergine, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: We demonstrate the possibility of fast and efficient solvent-free functionalization of buckypaper (BP) mats prefabricated from oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-ox), by using three representative amines of different structure: one monofunctional aliphatic amine, octadecylamine (ODA), one monofunctional aromatic amine, 1-aminopyrene (AP), and one aromatic diamine, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). The functionalization procedure, which relies on the formation of amide bonds with carboxylic groups of MWCNTs-ox, is performed at 150–180 °C under reduced pressure and takes about 4 h including auxiliary degassing. The amine-treated BP samples (BP-ODA, BP-AP and BP-DAN, respectively) were characterized by means of a variety of analytical techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning helium ion microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The highest amine content was found for BP-ODA, and the lowest one was observed for BP-DAN, with a possible contribution of non-covalently bonded amine molecules in all three cases. Despite of some differences in spectral and morphological characteristics for amine-functionalized BP samples, they have in common a dramatically increased stability in water as compared to pristine BP and, on the other hand, a relatively invariable electrical conductivity.

  16. Direct Amination of alpha-Hydroxy Amides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandgude, Ajay L.; Dömling, Alexander

    A TiCl4-mediated reaction for the direct amination of alpha-hydroxy amides has been developed. This simple, general, additive/base/ligand-free reaction is mediated by economical TiCl4. The reaction runs under mild conditions. This highly efficient C-N bond formation protocol is valid for diverse

  17. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  18. The economics of amine usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountain, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The EPRI computer programm, 'Aminemod', a PWR chemistry model, has been used to compare the technical advantages of the 'advanced' amines, ethanolamine, 1,2 diaminoethane and 5 aminopentanol over morpholine in generating an elevated pH in the moisture separator and the economics of using these amines has been assessed by using an MS Excel spreadsheet in conjunction with Aminemod. The advanced amines are capable of achieving 1 pH unit above neutrality, the EPRI target for prevention of erosion-corrison, at acceptable cost and, compared with 'conventional' amines, at considerably reduced ionic load on the condensate polisher. The exercise demonstrates that it is essential to evaluate the effect of an amine dosing regime on the total operating cost and that it is not possible to prejudge the economic outcome on the basis of an amine's purchase price. (orig.)

  19. Myeloperoxidase-catalyzed incorporation of amines into proteins: role of hypochlorous acid and dichloramines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E L; Jefferson, M M; Grisham, M B

    1982-11-23

    obtained by reacting RNCl2 with polyhistidine or polytyrosine, and to a lesser extent with polylysine at high pH, but not with other poly(amino acids). Precipitable derivatives were also obtained by incubating MPO-containing extracts from leukocyte granules with hydrogen peroxide, Cl-, and labeled amines. The extracts were found to have a high content of substances with primary amino groups, which competed for incorporation. The results account for oxidative incorporation of amines into proteins in leukocytes and provide evidence that HOCl and nitrogen-chlorine (N-Cl) derivatives are formed in these cells. The characteristics of the incorporation reaction suggest that it would not contribute significantly to the antimicrobial activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO). Nevertheless, the reaction may provide a sensitive method for studying MPO action in vivo.

  20. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  1. Amine-derived synthetic approach to color-tunable InP/ZnS quantum dots with high fluorescent qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Woo-Seuk; Lee, Hye-Seung; Lee, Ju Chul; Jang, Dong Seon; Choi, Yoonyoung; Choi, Moongoo; Yang, Heesun

    2013-01-01

    High-quality, Cd-free InP quantum dots (QDs) have been conventionally synthesized by exclusively selecting tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphine (P(TMS) 3 ) as a phosphorus (P) precursor, which is problematic from the standpoint of green and economic chemistry. Thus, other synthetic chemistries adopting alternative P sources to P(TMS) 3 have been introduced, however, they could not guarantee the production of satisfactorily fluorescence-efficient, color-pure InP QDs. In this study, the unprecedented controlled synthesis of a series of band-gap-tuned InP QDs is demonstrated through a hot-injection of a far safer and cheaper tris(dimethylamino)phosphine in the presence of a key coordinating solvent of oleylamine that enables successful QD nucleation/growth. Effects of the co-existence of Zn additive, the core growth temperature, and the amount of P source injected on the growth behaviors of InP QD are investigated. After ZnS overcoating by a successive injection of 1-dodecanethiol only, high-fluorescence-quality, green-to-red color emission-tunable core/shell QDs of InP/ZnS are obtained. The fluorescent characteristics of different color-emitting QDs desirably exhibit little fluctuations in quantum yield and emission bandwidth, specifically ranging 51–53 % and 60–64 nm, respectively. Lastly, the utility of the introduction of a secondary shelling process in rendering the QDs are more bright, photostable is also proved.

  2. Amine-derived synthetic approach to color-tunable InP/ZnS quantum dots with high fluorescent qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Seuk; Lee, Hye-Seung; Lee, Ju Chul; Jang, Dong Seon; Choi, Yoonyoung; Choi, Moongoo; Yang, Heesun

    2013-06-01

    High-quality, Cd-free InP quantum dots (QDs) have been conventionally synthesized by exclusively selecting tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphine (P(TMS)3) as a phosphorus (P) precursor, which is problematic from the standpoint of green and economic chemistry. Thus, other synthetic chemistries adopting alternative P sources to P(TMS)3 have been introduced, however, they could not guarantee the production of satisfactorily fluorescence-efficient, color-pure InP QDs. In this study, the unprecedented controlled synthesis of a series of band-gap-tuned InP QDs is demonstrated through a hot-injection of a far safer and cheaper tris(dimethylamino)phosphine in the presence of a key coordinating solvent of oleylamine that enables successful QD nucleation/growth. Effects of the co-existence of Zn additive, the core growth temperature, and the amount of P source injected on the growth behaviors of InP QD are investigated. After ZnS overcoating by a successive injection of 1-dodecanethiol only, high-fluorescence-quality, green-to-red color emission-tunable core/shell QDs of InP/ZnS are obtained. The fluorescent characteristics of different color-emitting QDs desirably exhibit little fluctuations in quantum yield and emission bandwidth, specifically ranging 51-53 % and 60-64 nm, respectively. Lastly, the utility of the introduction of a secondary shelling process in rendering the QDs are more bright, photostable is also proved.

  3. Amine-derived synthetic approach to color-tunable InP/ZnS quantum dots with high fluorescent qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Woo-Seuk; Lee, Hye-Seung [Hongik University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Chul; Jang, Dong Seon; Choi, Yoonyoung; Choi, Moongoo [LGE Advanced Research Institute, LG Electronics, Materials and Devices Laboratory (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Heesun, E-mail: hyang@hongik.ac.kr [Hongik University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    High-quality, Cd-free InP quantum dots (QDs) have been conventionally synthesized by exclusively selecting tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphine (P(TMS){sub 3}) as a phosphorus (P) precursor, which is problematic from the standpoint of green and economic chemistry. Thus, other synthetic chemistries adopting alternative P sources to P(TMS){sub 3} have been introduced, however, they could not guarantee the production of satisfactorily fluorescence-efficient, color-pure InP QDs. In this study, the unprecedented controlled synthesis of a series of band-gap-tuned InP QDs is demonstrated through a hot-injection of a far safer and cheaper tris(dimethylamino)phosphine in the presence of a key coordinating solvent of oleylamine that enables successful QD nucleation/growth. Effects of the co-existence of Zn additive, the core growth temperature, and the amount of P source injected on the growth behaviors of InP QD are investigated. After ZnS overcoating by a successive injection of 1-dodecanethiol only, high-fluorescence-quality, green-to-red color emission-tunable core/shell QDs of InP/ZnS are obtained. The fluorescent characteristics of different color-emitting QDs desirably exhibit little fluctuations in quantum yield and emission bandwidth, specifically ranging 51-53 % and 60-64 nm, respectively. Lastly, the utility of the introduction of a secondary shelling process in rendering the QDs are more bright, photostable is also proved.

  4. Simultaneous determination of various poisonous biogenic amines in firewoodfish by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法同时测定柴鱼干中的多种有毒生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊玉; 陈浩; 王碧生; 潘迎芬; 方成俊; 余晓薇; 朱海亮; 刘洁雯

    2014-01-01

    The method for the simultaneous determination of various biogenic amines in firewoodfish was developed by high perfor-mance liquid chromatography. The sample was extracted with perchloric acid solution twice, derivatived with dansyl chloride, using HPLC-uv detection for the qualitative and quantitative analysis various biogenic amines in firewoodfish at the same time.%建立了柴鱼干中多种生物胺的高效液相色谱测定方法。试样中的生物胺用高氯酸溶液提取两次,合并提取液,经丹酰氯衍生化后,用高效液相色谱-紫外检测外标法定量测定,同时对柴鱼干中的多种生物胺进行定性分析和定量分析。

  5. Gravel Mobility in a High Sand Content Riverbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    In sand-gravel channels, sand may modify gravel transport by changing conditions of entrainment and promoting longer displacements or gravel may inhibit sand transport if concentrated into distinct deposits, which restrict sand supply with consequences for migrating bedform size or form. This study reports on gravel mobility in the lower San Antonio River, Texas, where gravel content in the bed material ranges from about 1% to more than 20%. Sediment transport observations were collected at three U.S. Geological Survey gauging stations by deploying a Helley-Smith sampler with a 0.2 mm mesh bag from which transport rates and mobile grain sizes were determined. The flow rates sampled translate into an annual exceedance expectation from 0.2% to 98%. Gravel transport rates are generally two orders of magnitude smaller than the rates of sand transport. However, the finest gravels are transported at rates on the same order of magnitude as the coarsest sands. At all sites, the 2 and 2.8 mm fractions are transported at the lowest flow rate sampled, suggesting mobility for at least 38% to as much as 98% of the year. Fractions as large as 8 mm are mobilized at flow rates that are expected between 25% and 53% of the year. The largest fractions captured in the sampling (16 to 32 mm) require flows closer to bankfull conditions that occur no more than 0.8% of the year. Results document that some gravel sizes can be frequently transported in low gradient riverbeds with high sand content.

  6. A facile approach for the synthesis of monolithic hierarchical porous carbons – high performance materials for amine based CO2 capture and supercapacitor electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis

    2013-05-03

    An ice templating coupled with hard templating and physical activation approach is reported for the synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon monoliths with tunable porosities across all three length scales (macro- meso- and micro), with ultrahigh specific pore volumes [similar]11.4 cm3 g−1. The materials function well as amine impregnated supports for CO2 capture and as supercapacitor electrodes.

  7. Fully Biodegradable Biocomposites with High Chicken Feather Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibon Aranberri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop new biodegradable polymeric materials with high loadings of chicken feather (CF. In this study, the effect of CF concentration and the type of biodegradable matrix on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the biocomposites was investigated. The selected biopolymers were polylactic acid (PLA, polybutyrate adipate terephthalate (PBAT and a PLA/thermoplastic copolyester blend. The studied biocomposites were manufactured with a torque rheometer having a CF content of 50 and 60 wt %. Due to the low tensile strength of CFs, the resulting materials were penalized in terms of mechanical properties. However, high-loading CF biocomposites resulted in lightweight and thermal-insulating materials when compared with neat bioplastics. Additionally, the adhesion between CFs and the PLA matrix was also investigated and a significant improvement of the wettability of the feathers was obtained with the alkali treatment of the CFs and the addition of a plasticizer like polyethylene glycol (PEG. Considering all the properties, these 100% fully biodegradable biocomposites could be adequate for panel components, flooring or building materials as an alternative to wood–plastic composites, contributing to the valorisation of chicken feather waste as a renewable material.

  8. Analysis of aromatic amines in water samples by liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction with hollow fibers and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Limian; Zhu, Lingyan; Lee, Hian Kee

    2002-07-19

    Liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (LLLME) with hollow fibers in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied as a rapid and sensitive quantitative method for the detection of four aromatic amines (3-nitroaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline and 3,4-dichloroaniline) in environmental water samples. The preconcentration procedure was induced by the pH difference inside and outside the hollow fiber. The target compounds were extracted from 4-ml aqueous sample (donor solution, pH approximately 13) through a microfilm of organic solvent (di-n-hexyl ether), immobilized in the pores of a hollow fiber (1.5 cm length x 0.6 mm I.D.), and finally into 4 microl of acid acceptor solution inside the fiber. After a prescribed period of time, the acceptor solution inside the fiber was withdrawn into the microsyringe and directly injected into the HPLC system for analysis. Factors relevant to the extraction procedure were studied. Up to 500-fold enrichment of analytes could be obtained under the optimized conditions (donor solution: 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution with 20% sodium chloride and 2% acetone; organic phase: di-n-hexyl ether; acceptor solution: 0.5 M hydrochloric acid and 500 mM 18-crown-6 ether; extraction time of 30 min; stirring at 1,000 rev./min). The procedure also served as a sample clean-up step. The influence of humic acid on the extraction efficiency was also investigated, and more than 85% relative recoveries of the analytes at two different concentrations (20 and 100 microg/l) were achieved at various concentration of humic acid. This technique is a low cost, simple and fast approach to the analysis of polar compounds in aqueous samples.

  9. Development of automatic image analysis methods for high-throughput and high-content screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, Zi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of image analysis methods for ultra-high content analysis of high-throughput screens where cellular phenotype responses to various genetic or chemical perturbations that are under investigation. Our primary goal is to deliver efficient and robust image analysis

  10. Amine-tethered solid adsorbents coupling high adsorption capacity and regenerability for CO2 capture from ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunho; Gray, McMahan L; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-05-23

    Silica supported poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) materials are prepared via impregnation and demonstrated to be promising adsorbents for CO(2) capture from ultra-dilute gas streams such as ambient air. A prototypical class 1 adsorbent, containing 45 wt% PEI (PEI/silica), and two new modified PEI-based aminosilica adsorbents, derived from PEI modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (A-PEI/silica) or tetraethyl orthotitanate (T-PEI/silica), are prepared and characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. The modifiers are shown to enhance the thermal stability of the polymer-oxide composites, leading to higher PEI decomposition temperatures. The modified adsorbents present extremely high CO(2) adsorption capacities under conditions simulating ambient air (400 ppm CO(2) in inert gas), exceeding 2 mol(CO (2)) kg(sorbent)(-1), as well as enhanced adsorption kinetics compared to conventional class 1 sorbents. The new adsorbents show excellent stability in cyclic adsorption-desorption operations, even under dry conditions in which aminosilica adsorbents are known to lose capacity due to urea formation. Thus, the adsorbents of this type can be considered promising materials for the direct capture of CO(2) from ultra-dilute gas streams such as ambient air. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Deuterium exchange between hydrofluorocarbons and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, W.B.; Bigeleisen, J.; Tuccio, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The invention consists of a process for obtaining a compound enriched in deuterium which comprises the known method of exposing a gaseous hydrofluorocarbon to infrared laser radiation of a predetermined frequency to selectively cause a chemical reaction involving hydrofluorocarbon molecules containing deuterium without substantially affecting hydrofluorocarbon molecules not containing deuterium, thereby producing, as reaction products, a compound enriched in deuterium and hydrofluorocarbon depleted in deuterium; combined with a new method, which comprises enriching the deuterium content of the depleted hydrofluorocarbon by contacting the depleted hydrofluorocarbon with an alkali metal amide and an amine having a concentration of deuterium at least that which will yield an increase in deuterium concentration of the hydrofluorocarbon upon equilibration, whereby the amine becomes depleted in deuterium

  12. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  13. Simultaneous determination of the content of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in pancreatic islets isolated from fed and starved mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S E; Hedeskov, C J [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    A highly sensitive double isotope method for the simultaneous determination of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline has been developed. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The mentioned biogenic amines are all present in isolated pancreatic islet tissue from albino mice in concentrations ranging from approximately 5-30 ..mu..mol per kg wet weight (0.8-5 x 10/sup -3/ pmol/ng DNA). A somewhat higher content of these amines, especially dopamine, was found in pancreatic acinar tissue. The hypothesis that the impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion during starvation partly is caused by an increased content of biogenic amines in the pancreatic islets was not supported by our experiments which showed an unchanged islet content of these amines after 48 h starvation.

  14. Simultaneous determination of the content of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in pancreatic islets isolated from fed and starved mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.E.; Hedeskov, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    A highly sensitive double isotope method for the simultaneous determination of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline has been developed. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The mentioned biogenic amines are all present in isolated pancreatic islet tissue from albino mice in concentrations ranging from approximately 5-30 μmol per kg wet weight (0.8-5 x 10 -3 pmol/ng DNA). A somewhat higher content of these amines, especially dopamine, was found in pancreatic acinar tissue. The hypothesis that the impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion during starvation partly is caused by an increased content of biogenic amines in the pancreatic islets was not supported by our experiments which showed an unchanged islet content of these amines after 48 h starvation. (author)

  15. Design and Implementation of High Performance Content-Addressable Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    content addressability and two basic implementations of content addressing. The need and application of hardware CAM is presented to motivate the " topic...3r Pass 4th Ps4 Pass Figure 2.15 Maximum SearchUsing All-Parallel CAM - left-most position (the most significant bit) and the other IF bits are zeros

  16. Ozone Promotes Chloropicrin Formation by Oxidizing Amines to Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Daniel L; Quay, Amanda N; Mitch, William A

    2016-02-02

    Chloropicrin formation has been associated with ozonation followed by chlorination, but the reaction pathway and precursors have been poorly characterized. Experiments with methylamine demonstrated that ozonation converts methylamine to nitromethane at ∼100% yield. Subsequent chlorination converts nitromethane to chloropicrin at ∼50% yield under the conditions evaluated. Similarly high yields from other primary amines were limited to those with functional groups on the β-carbon (e.g., the carboxylic acid in glycine) that facilitate carbon-carbon bond cleavage to release nitromethyl anion. Secondary amines featuring these reactive primary amines as functional groups (e.g., secondary N-methylamines) formed chloropicrin at high yields, likely by facile dealkylation to release the primary nitro compound. Chloropicrin yields from tertiary amines were low. Natural water experiments, including derivatization to transform primary and secondary amines to less reactive carbamate functional groups, indicated that primary and secondary amines were the dominant chloropicrin precursors during ozonation/chlorination. Ozonation followed by chlorination of the primary amine side chain of lysine demonstrated low yields (∼0.2%) of chloropicrin, but high yields (∼17%) of dichloronitrolysine, a halonitroalkane structural analogue to chloropicrin. However, chloropicrin yields increased and dichloronitrolysine yields decreased in the absence of hydroxyl radical scavengers, suggesting that future research should characterize the potential occurrence of such halonitroalkane analogues relative to natural radical scavenger (e.g., carbonate) concentrations.

  17. GENERALIZATION, FORMULATION AND HEAT CONTENTS OF SIMULATED MSW WITH HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. JOHARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalization technique for the formulation of simulated municipal solid waste. This technique is used for the elimination of the inconsistency in the municipal solid waste (MSW characteristics due to its heterogeneous nature. The compositions of simulated municipal solid waste were formulated from four major municipal waste streams components in Malaysia namely paper, plastic, food and yard waste. The technique produced four simplified waste generalization categories with composition of paper (19%, plastic (25%, food (27% and green waste (29% respectively. Comparative study was conducted for proximate analysis for the determination of volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. Ultimate analysis was performed for carbon and hydrogen content. The heat content for simulated and actual municipal solid waste showed good agreement. The moisture content of the simulated municipal solid waste and actual municipal solid waste were established at 52.34% and 61.71% respectively. Overall results were considered to be representative of the actual compositions of municipal solid waste in Malaysia.

  18. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Rapid Cycle Amine Swing Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swingbed has been identified as a technology with high potential to meet the stringent requirements for the next generation spacesuit's...

  19. Dwarf mutant of Papaver somniferum with high morphine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, S.P.; Patra, N.K.; Srivastava, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L. is an important medicinal plant known for its morphine, codeine, and thebaine alkaloids. This Institute had earlier released two latex opium yielding poppy varieties, Shyama and Shweta, which are now cultivated by the farmers under the supervision of the Narcotic Department of the Government of India. However, both these varieties became susceptible to downy mildew (Peronospora arborescens). Lodging due to heavy capsule weight is another problem affecting latex yield. With these problems in mind, we undertook mutation breeding on the above mentioned two varieties employing gamma rays (5 kR, 15 kR, 20 kR) and EMS (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%) and combined mutagens (5 kR + 0.2% EMS, 5 kR + 0.4% EMS and 5 kR + 0.6% EMS). M 1 from the treated seeds (405 plants) was raised in winter 1984-85. M 2 generation of 13,500 plants (i.e. 270 M 1 progenies x 50 plants) was raised in winter 1985/86. A dwarf mutant with high morphine content was identified in M 2 from the variety Shweta treated with 5 kR + 0.4% EMS. The mutant differs by its dwarf stature, compact leaf arrangements, multilocular capsules, increased capsule number, and small capsule size. The mutant is under testing for its superior morphine production. It may be used as dwarf gene source in hybridization for improving lodging resistance. This mutant is a novel type, which was not available in our germplasm collection

  20. Calcium(ii)-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate additions of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Brice E; Dicken, Rachel D; Redfern, Louis R; Stern, Charlotte M; Krzywicki, Greg G; Scheidt, Karl A

    2018-02-14

    The direct enantioselective chiral calcium(ii)·phosphate complex (Ca[CPA] 2 )-catalyzed conjugate addition of unprotected alkyl amines to maleimides was developed. This mild catalytic system represents a significant advance towards the general convergent asymmetric amination of α,β-unsaturated electrophiles, providing medicinally relevant chiral aminosuccinimide products in high yields and enantioselectivities. Furthermore, the catalyst can be reused directly from a previously chromatographed reaction and still maintain both high yield and selectivity.

  1. Azobisisobutyronitrile initiated aerobic oxidative transformation of amines: coupling of primary amines and cyanation of tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianghui; Wang, Zikuan; Fu, Xuefeng; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2012-11-16

    In the presence of a catalytic amount of radical initiator AIBN, primary amines are oxidatively coupled to imines and tertiary amines are cyanated to α-aminonitriles. These "metal-free" aerobic oxidative coupling reactions may find applications in a wide range of "green" oxidation chemistry.

  2. Tandem catalytic allylic amination and [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement of tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Arash; Tambar, Uttam K

    2011-08-24

    We have developed a catalytic allylic amination involving tertiary aminoesters and allylcarbonates, which is the first example of the use of tertiary amines as intermolecular nucleophiles in metal-catalyzed allylic substitution chemistry. This process is employed in a tandem ammonium ylide generation/[2,3]-rearrangement reaction, which formally represents a palladium-catalyzed Stevens rearrangement. Low catalyst loadings and mild reaction conditions are compatible with an unprecedented substrate scope for the ammonium ylide functionality, and products are generated in high yields and diastereoselectivities. Mechanistic studies suggested the reversible formation of an ammonium intermediate.

  3. Soil sorption of two nitramines derived from amine-based CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Cathrine Brecke; Breedveld, Gijs D; Foseid, Lena; Vogt, Rolf D

    2017-06-21

    Nitramines are potentially carcinogens that form from the amines used in post-combustion CO 2 capture (PCCC). The soil sorption characteristics of monoethanol (MEA)- and dimethyl (DMA)-nitramines have been assessed using a batch experimental setup, and defined indirectly by measuring loss of nitramine (LC-MS/MS) from the aqueous phase (0.01 M CaCl 2 and 0.1% NaN 3 ) after equilibrium had been established with the soil (24 h). Nitramine soil sorption was found to be strongly dependent on the content of organic matter in the soil (r 2 = 0.72 and 0.95, p Soil sorption of MEA-nitramine was further influenced by the quality of the organic matter (Abs 254 nm , r 2 = 0.93, p soil organic matter. Estimated organic carbon normalized soil-water distribution coefficients (K OC ) are relatively low, and within the same range as for simple amines. Nevertheless, considering the high content of organic matter commonly found in the top layer of a forest soil, this is where most of the nitramines will be retained. Presented data can be used to estimate final concentrations of nitramines in the environment following emissions from amine-based PCCC plants.

  4. Evaluation of the characteristics of high burnup and high plutonium content mixed oxide (MOX) fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    Two kinds of MOX fuel irradiation tests, i.e., MOX irradiation test up to high burnup and MOX having high plutonium content irradiation test, have been performed from JFY 2007 for five years in order to establish technical data concerning MOX fuel behavior during irradiation, which shall be needed in safety regulation of MOX fuel with high reliability. The high burnup MOX irradiation test consists of irradiation extension and post irradiation examination (PIE). The activities done in JFY 2011 are destructive post irradiation examination (D-PIE) such as EPMA and SIMS at CEA (Commissariat a l'Enegie Atomique) facility. Cadarache and PIE data analysis. In the frame of irradiation test of high plutonium content MOX fuel programme, MOX fuel rods with about 14wt % Pu content are being irradiated at BR-2 reactor and corresponding PIE is also being done at PIE facility (SCK/CEN: Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etude l'Energie Nucleaire) in Belgium. The activities done in JFY 2011 are non-destructive post irradiation examination (ND-PIE) and D-PIE and PIE data analysis. In this report the results of EPMA and SIMS with high burnup irradiation test and the result of gamma spectrometry measurement which can give FP gas release rate are reported. (author)

  5. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Gadgil, Priyadarshini; Houser, Terry A; Hunt, Melvin C; Smith, J Scott

    2012-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers, are produced in meats cooked at high temperature. The aim of this study was to determine the HCA content in cooked meat products (beef, chicken, pork, fish) prepared by various cooking methods (pan frying, oven broiling, and oven baking at 170 to 230°C) that are preferred by U.S. meat consumers. The primary HCAs in these samples were PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) (1.49-10.89ng/g), MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-4.0ng/g), and DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-3.57ng/g). Type and content of HCAs in cooked meat samples were highly dependent on cooking conditions. The total HCA content in well-done meat was 3.5 times higher than that of medium-rare meat. Fried pork (13.91ng/g) had higher levels of total HCAs than fried beef (8.92ng/g) and fried chicken (7.00ng/g). Among the samples, fried bacon contained the highest total HCA content (17.59ng/g). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Corrosion resistance testing of high-boron-content stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrman, I.; Safek, V.

    1994-01-01

    Boron steels, i.e. stainless steels with boron contents of 0.2 to 2.25 wt.%, are employed in nuclear engineering for the manufacture of baskets or wells in which radioactive fissile materials are stored, mostly spent nuclear fuel elements. The resistance of such steels to intergranular corrosion and uniform corrosion was examined in the Strauss solution and in boric acid; the dependence of the corrosion rate of the steels on their chemical composition was investigated, and their resistance was compared with that of AISI 304 type steel. Corrosion resistance tests in actual conditions of ''wet'' compact storage (demineralized water or a weak boric acid solution) gave evidence that boron steels undergo nearly no uniform corrosion and, as electrochemical measurements indicated, match standard corrosion-resistant steels. Corrosion resistance was confirmed to decrease slightly with increasing boron content and to increase somewhat with increasing molybdenum content. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs

  7. Factors influencing the regioselectivity of the oxidation of asymmetric secondary amines with singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Dmitry B; Plutschack, Matthew B; Gilmore, Kerry; Seeberger, Peter H

    2015-04-20

    Aerobic amine oxidation is an attractive and elegant process for the α functionalization of amines. However, there are still several mechanistic uncertainties, particularly the factors governing the regioselectivity of the oxidation of asymmetric secondary amines and the oxidation rates of mixed primary amines. Herein, it is reported that singlet-oxygen-mediated oxidation of 1° and 2° amines is sensitive to the strength of the α-C-H bond and steric factors. Estimation of the relative bond dissociation energy by natural bond order analysis or by means of one-bond C-H coupling constants allowed the regioselectivity of secondary amine oxidations to be explained and predicted. In addition, the findings were utilized to synthesize highly regioselective substrates and perform selective amine cross-couplings to produce imines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Purification and characterization of amine oxidase from soybean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, F; Di Paolo, M L; Stevanato, R; Gasparini, R; Rigo, A

    1993-11-15

    A simple and rapid procedure for purification of soybean seedling amine oxidase is reported. The crude enzyme, obtained by ammonium sulfate fractionation was purified by ion-exchange chromatography on a cellulose phosphate column and batch affinity chromatography on 6-aminohexyl-Sepharose. Cyclohexylamine, a competitive inhibitor, was utilized to elute the enzyme. A homogeneous enzyme was obtained with a yield higher than 25%, the content of minor components being lauryl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme is a dimer and contains two Cu2+ ion per molecule. Its EPR spectrum is typical of Cu2+ in a tetragonal symmetry. The enzyme oxidizes cadaverine at high rate, the specific activity being 4.3 mukat/mg. Molecular, spectroscopic, and kinetic properties of this enzyme are reported.

  9. The Content of Literature in the High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Dwight L.

    The content of a literature program defined in terms of the structure of literature is proposed. A three-layer definition of structure is suggested which considers (1) the substance of literature, including man and his gods, man and the natural world, man and other men, and man and himself; (2) mode in literature, including the romantic, comic,…

  10. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Preparation of High School Physics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkina, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge--PCK). The program has been in place…

  11. Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium with a high phycoerythrin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, H; Rivas, J; Guerrero, M G; Losada, M

    1989-03-01

    The elemental and molecular composition, pigment content, and productivity of a phycoerythrin-rich nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium-an Anabaena strain isolated from the coastal lagoon Albufera de Valencia, Spain-has been investigated. When compared with other heterocystous species, this strain exhibits similar chlorophyll a, carotene, and total phycobiliprotein contents but differs remarkably in the relative proportion of specific phycobiliproteins; the content of C-phycoerythrin amounts to 8.3% (versus about 1% in the other species) of cell dry weight. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of intact phycobilisomes isolated from this Anabaena sp. corroborate the marked contribution of phycoerythrin as an antenna pigment, a circumstance that is unusual for cyanobacteria capable of fixing N(2). The pigment content of cells is affected by variations in irradiance and cell density, these adaptive changes being more patent for C-phycoerythrin than for phycocyanins. The Anabaena strain is clumpy and capable of rapid flocculation. It exhibits outdoor productivities higher than 20 g (dry weight) m day during summer.

  12. Tertiary-amine-containing thermo- and pH-sensitive hydrophilic ABA triblock copolymers: effect of different tertiary amines on thermally induced sol-gel transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Daniel M; Wright, Roger A E; Woodcock, Jeremiah W; Hu, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2014-03-11

    This Article reports on the synthesis of a series of well-defined, tertiary-amine-containing ABA triblock copolymers, composed of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) central block and thermo- and pH-sensitive outer blocks, and the study of the effect of different tertiary amines on thermally induced sol-gel transition temperatures (T(sol-gel)) of their 10 wt % aqueous solutions. The doubly responsive ABA triblock copolymers were prepared from a difunctional PEO macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization of methoxydi(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and ethoxydi(ethylene glycol) methacrylate at a feed molar ratio of 30:70 with ∼5 mol % of either N,N-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA), N,N-diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate, or N,N-di(n-butyl)aminoethyl methacrylate. The chain lengths of thermosensitive outer blocks and the molar contents of tertiary amines were very similar for all copolymers. Using rheological measurements, we determined the pH dependences of T(sol-gel) of 10 wt % aqueous solutions of these copolymers in a phosphate buffer. The T(sol-gel) versus pH curves of all polymers exhibited a sigmoidal shape. The T(sol-gel) increased with decreasing pH; the changes were small on both high and low pH sides. At a specific pH, the T(sol-gel) decreased with increasing the hydrophobicity of the tertiary amine, and upon decreasing pH the onset pH value for the T(sol-gel) to begin to increase noticeably was lower for the more hydrophobic tertiary amine-containing copolymer. In addition, we studied the effect of different tertiary amines on the release behavior of FITC-dextran from 10 wt % micellar gels in an acidic medium at 37 and 27 °C. The release profiles for three studied hydrogels at 37 °C were essentially the same, suggesting that the release was dominated by the diffusion of FITC-dextran. At 27 °C, the release was significantly faster for the DEAEMA-containing copolymer, indicating that both diffusion and gel dissolution contributed to the

  13. Oxidation of amines by flavoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2010-01-01

    Many flavoproteins catalyze the oxidation of primary and secondary amines, with the transfer of a hydride equivalent from a carbon-nitrogen bond to the flavin cofactor. Most of these amine oxidases can be classified into two structural families, the D-amino acid oxidase/sarcosine oxidase family and the monoamine oxidase family. This review discusses the present understanding of the mechanisms of amine and amino acid oxidation by flavoproteins, focusing on these two structural families. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Facile and Green Synthesis of Saturated Cyclic Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruje Hameed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-nitrogen containing saturated cyclic amines are an important part of both natural and synthetic bioactive compounds. A number of methodologies have been developed for the synthesis of aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, azepanes and azocanes. This review highlights some facile and green synthetic routes for the synthesis of unsubstituted, multisubstituted and highly functionalized saturated cyclic amines including one-pot, microwave assisted, metal-free, solvent-free and in aqueous media.

  15. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-04

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  16. Ideas and perspectives: on the emission of amines from terrestrial vegetation in the context of new atmospheric particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we summarise recent science which shows how airborne amines, specifically methylamines (MAs, play a key role in new atmospheric particle formation (NPF by stabilising small molecule clusters. Agricultural emissions are assumed to constitute the most important MA source, but given the short atmospheric residence time of MAs, they can hardly have a direct impact on NPF events observed in remote regions. This leads us to the presentation of existing knowledge focussing on natural vegetation-related MA sources. High MA contents as well as emissions by plants was already described in the 19th century. Strong MA emissions predominantly occur during flowering as part of a pollination strategy. The behaviour is species-specific, but examples of such species are common and widespread. In addition, vegetative plant tissue exhibiting high amounts of MAs might potentially lead to significant emissions. The decomposition of organic material constitutes another, potentially ubiquitous, source of airborne MAs. These mechanisms would provide sources, which could be crucial for the amine's role in NPF, especially in remote regions. Knowledge about vegetation-related amine emissions is, however, very limited, and thus it is also an open question how global change and the intensified cycling of reactive nitrogen over the last 200 years have altered amine emissions from vegetation with a corresponding effect on NPF.

  17. Pedagogical content knowledge and preparation of high school physics teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Etkina

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge—PCK). The program has been in place for 7 years and has a steady production rate of an average of six teachers per year who remain in the profession. The main purpose of the paper is t...

  18. Amine synergism in uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinelli, G.; Abbruzzese, C.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial products based on C 8 to C 12 tertiary amine mixtures are now widely used in the solvent extraction of uranium from sulphuric pregnant solutions. The satisfactory results generally obtained have never required an analysis of the synergistic effects of amine combinations similar to that carried out for the organo-phosphorus compounds. In the research described the increase in the extraction power of an organic phase composed of an amine binary mixture was studied with regard to an aqueous solution from the sulphuric acid treatment of uranium ore. On the basis of the experimental results obtained, it is possible to select the best composition of the amine mixture to ensure a percentage increase in uranium recovery. Bearing in mind the tendency for the yellow-cake price to rise, the study is considered to be a useful contribution in the context of commercial products currently available on the market. (author)

  19. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  20. High nitrogen availability reduces polyphenol content in Sphagnum peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. These plants contain peculiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphagnum mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim, we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availability, is accompanied by a decreasing concentration of polyphenols. This inverse relationship is consistent with reports that in Sphagnum mosses, polyphenol and protein biosynthesis compete for the same precursor. Our observation of modified Sphagnum litter chemistry under chronic nitrogen eutrophication has implications in the context of the global carbon balance, because a lower content of decay-inhibiting polyphenols would accelerate litter peat decomposition.

  1. Decomposition of some amines and amino acids in steam generator environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Hettiarachchi, S.; Millett, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrothermal decomposition rate constants and high temperature pH values of some selected high-molecular weight amines and amino acids were measured under simulated steam generator conditions. These amines and amino acids were evaluated as potential crevice buffering agents for steam generator applications in pressurized water reactors. The study showed that, although the high molecular weight amines undergo hydrothermal decomposition, they have a better buffer capacity than their low molecular weight counterparts at 290 C. The amines provide effective crevice buffering by increasing the pH of the simulated crevice solution by as much as 2.84 to 4.24 units. However, volatility data for the amines and amino acids are needed before in-plant testing to ensure that amines can concentrate sufficiently in steam generator crevices to provide effective buffering

  2. Development of I-123-labeled amines for brain studies: localization of I-123 iodophenylalkyl amines in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Baldwin, R.M.; Lin, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    Localization in rat brain of forty iodophenylalkyl amines labeled with I-123 was evaluated in an attempt to develop I-123-labeled amines useful for brain studies. For the amines studied, the highest activity in brain and the brain-to-blood activity ratios ranked p > m > o as related to iodine position on the benzene ring: for alkyl groups the rank order was α-methylethyl > ethyl > methyl > none; for N additions it was single lipophilic group > H > two lipophilic groups. It is suggested that introduction of a halogen into the ring structure of many amines results in greater concentration of the agent in brain than is seen with the nonhalogenated parent compound. The agent N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine was chosen for further study because, in the rat, it showed high brain activity (1.57%/g) and brain-blood ratio (12.6) at 5 min

  3. Pedagogical content knowledge and preparation of high school physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Etkina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge—PCK. The program has been in place for 7 years and has a steady production rate of an average of six teachers per year who remain in the profession. The main purpose of the paper is to provide information about a possible structure, organization, and individual elements of a program that prepares physics teachers. The philosophy of the program and the coursework can be implemented either in a physics department or in a school of education. The paper provides details about the program course work and teaching experiences and suggests ways to adapt it to other local conditions.

  4. Automated microscopy for high-content RNAi screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is one of the most powerful tools to investigate complex cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, or intracellular trafficking. The availability of RNA interference (RNAi) technology and automated microscopy has opened the possibility to perform cellular imaging in functional genomics and other large-scale applications. Although imaging often dramatically increases the content of a screening assay, it poses new challenges to achieve accurate quantitative annotation and therefore needs to be carefully adjusted to the specific needs of individual screening applications. In this review, we discuss principles of assay design, large-scale RNAi, microscope automation, and computational data analysis. We highlight strategies for imaging-based RNAi screening adapted to different library and assay designs. PMID:20176920

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Food-Related Biogenic Amines and Precursor Amino Acids Using in Situ Derivatization Ultrasound-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongrui; Zhao, Xian-En; Wang, Renjun; Wei, Na; Sun, Jing; Dang, Jun; Chen, Guang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Shuyun; You, Jinmao

    2016-11-02

    A simple, rapid, sensitive, selective, and environmentally friendly method, based on in situ derivatization ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ DUADLLME) coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode has been developed for the simultaneous determination of food-related biogenic amines and amino acids. A new mass-spectrometry-sensitive derivatization reagent 4'-carbonyl chloride rosamine (CCR) was designed, synthesized, and first reported. Parameters and conditions of in situ DUADLLME and UHPLC-MS/MS were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the in situ DUADLLME was completed speedily (within 1 min) with high derivatization efficiencies (≥98.5%). With the cleanup and concentration of microextraction step, good analytical performance was obtained for the analytes. The results showed that this method was accurate and practical for quantification of biogenic amines and amino acids in common food samples (red wine, beer, wine, cheese, sausage, and fish).

  6. Investigation of thermodynamic properties of magnesium chloride amines by HPDSC and TG. For application in a high-lift high-temperature chemical heat pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, E.R.T.; Oonk, H.A.J.; Haije, W.G.; Ekeren, P.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The formation as well as the decomposition of magnesium chloride ammonia complexes was studied by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HPDSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). HPDSC runs were performed under constant ammonia pressure conditions to determine the transition temperatures

  7. The mysterious trace amines: protean neuromodulators of synaptic transmission in mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Scott A; Hicks, T Philip

    2006-08-01

    The trace amines are a structurally related group of amines and their isomers synthesized in mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues. They are closely associated metabolically with the dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin neurotransmitter systems in mammalian brain. Like dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin the trace amines have been implicated in a vast array of human disorders of affect and cognition. The trace amines are unique as they are present in trace concentrations, exhibit high rates of metabolism and are distributed heterogeneously in mammalian brain. While some are synthesized in their parent amine neurotransmitter systems, there is also evidence to suggest other trace amines may comprise their own independent neurotransmitter systems. A substantial body of evidence suggests that the trace amines may play very significant roles in the coordination of biogenic amine-based synaptic physiology. At high concentrations, they have well-characterized presynaptic "amphetamine-like" effects on catecholamine and indolamine release, reuptake and biosynthesis; at lower concentrations, they possess postsynaptic modulatory effects that potentiate the activity of other neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine and serotonin. The trace amines also possess electrophysiological effects that are in opposition to these neurotransmitters, indicating to some researchers the existence of receptors specific for the trace amines. While binding sites or receptors for a few of the trace amines have been advanced, the absence of cloned receptor protein has impeded significant development of their detailed mechanistic roles in the coordination of catecholamine and indolamine synaptic physiology. The recent discovery and characterization of a family of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors responsive to trace amines such as beta-phenylethylamine, tyramine, and octopamine, including socially ingested psychotropic drugs such as amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, N

  8. Conversion of alcohols to enantiopure amines through dual-enzyme hydrogen-borrowing cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Francesco G; Knaus, Tanja; Scrutton, Nigel S; Breuer, Michael; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-09-25

    α-Chiral amines are key intermediates for the synthesis of a plethora of chemical compounds at industrial scale. We present a biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing amination of primary and secondary alcohols that allows for the efficient and environmentally benign production of enantiopure amines. The method relies on a combination of two enzymes: an alcohol dehydrogenase (from Aromatoleum sp., Lactobacillus sp., or Bacillus sp.) operating in tandem with an amine dehydrogenase (engineered from Bacillus sp.) to aminate a structurally diverse range of aromatic and aliphatic alcohols, yielding up to 96% conversion and 99% enantiomeric excess. Primary alcohols were aminated with high conversion (up to 99%). This redox self-sufficient cascade possesses high atom efficiency, sourcing nitrogen from ammonium and generating water as the sole by-product. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Highly biocompatible and water-dispersible, amine functionalized magnetite nanoparticles, prepared by a low temperature, air-assisted polyol process: a new platform for bio-separation and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Manasmita; Dhak, Prasanta; Gupta, Satyajit; Basak, Amit; Pramanik, Panchanan; Mishra, Debasish; Maiti, Tapas K

    2010-01-01

    A low temperature polyol process, based on glycolaldehyde mediated partial reduction of FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O at 120 deg. C in the presence of sodium acetate as an alkali source and 2, 2 ' -(ethylenedioxy)-bis-(ethylamine) as an electrostatic stabilizer has been used for the gram-scale preparation of biocompatible, water-dispersible, amine functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with an average diameter of 6 ± 0.75 nm. With a reasonably high magnetization (37.8 e.m.u.) and amine groups on the outer surface of the nanoparticles, we demonstrated the magnetic separation and concentration implications of these ultrasmall particles in immunoassay. MRI studies indicated that these nanoparticles had the desired relaxivity for T 2 contrast enhancement in vivo. In vitro biocompatibility, cell uptake and MR imaging studies established that these nanoparticles were safe in clinical dosages and by virtue of their ultrasmall sizes and positively charged surfaces could be easily internalized by cancer cells. All these positive attributes make these functional nanoparticles a promising platform for further in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

  10. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  11. Monomers for thermosetting and toughening epoxy resins. [glycidyl amine derivatives, propargyl-containing amines, and mutagenic testing of aromatic diamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Eight glycidyl amines were prepared by alkylating the parent amine with epichlorohydrin to form chlorohydrin, followed by cyclization with aqueous NaOH. Three of these compounds contained propargyl groups with postcuring studies. A procedure for quantitatively estimating the epoxy content of these glycidyl amines was employed for purity determination. Two diamond carbonates and several model propargly compounds were prepared. The synthesis of three new diamines, two which contain propargyloxy groups, and another with a sec-butyl group is in progress. These materials are at the dinitro stage ready for the final hydrogenation step. Four aromatic diamines were synthesized for mutagenic testing purposes. One of these compounds rapidly decomposes on exposure to air.

  12. Analysis of Biogenic Amines by GC/FID and GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Nakovich, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Low levels of biogenic amines occur naturally, but high levels (FDA sets 50 ppm of histamine in fish as the maximum allowable level) can lead to scombroid poisoning. Amines in general are difficult to analyze by Gas Chromatography (GC) due to their lack of volatility and their interaction with the GC column, often leading to significant tailing and poor reproducibility. Biogenic amines need to be derivatized before both GC and HPLC analyses. The objective of this research was to devel...

  13. Non-combustible nuclear radiation shields with high hydrogen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, W.C.; Peterson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to compositions, methods of production, and uses of non-combustible nuclear radiation shields, with particular emphasis on those containing a high concentration of hydrogen atoms, especially effective for moderating neutron energy by elastic scatter, dispersed as a discontinuous phase in a continuous phase of a fire resistant matrix

  14. An Introduction to Computing: Content for a High School Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jean B.

    A general outline of the topics that might be covered in a computers and computing course for high school students is provided. Topics are listed in the order in which they should be taught, and the relative amount of time to be spent on each topic is suggested. Seven units are included in the course outline: (1) general introduction, (2) using…

  15. Discharge efficiency in high-Xe-content plasma display panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hagelaar, G.J.M.; Heusler, G.

    2004-01-01

    We study theoretically the overall output performance and the dominating reaction processes of the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation production in high-Xe partial pressures in plasma display panels (PDPs) with Ne-Xe gas mixtures. A two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model is applied for the

  16. Highly ordered macroporous woody biochar with ultra-high carbon content as supercapacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Junhua; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xinying; Holm, Nancy; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Chen, Fanglin; Ma, Shuguo

    2013-01-01

    Woody biochar monolith with ultra-high carbon content and highly ordered macropores has been prepared via one-pot pyrolysis and carbonization of red cedar wood at 750 °C without the need of post-treatment. Energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies show that the original biochar has a carbon content of 98 wt% with oxygen as the only detectable impurity and highly ordered macroporous texture characterized by alternating regular macroporous regions and narrow porous regions. Moreover, the hierarchically porous biochar monolith has a high BET specific surface area of approximately 400 m 2 g −1 . We have studied the monolith material as supercapacitor electrodes under acidic environment using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. Electrochemical measurements show that the original biochar electrodes have a potential window of about 1.3 V and exhibit typical rectangular-shape voltammetric responses and fast charging–discharging behavior with a gravimetric capacitance of about 14 F g −1 . Simple activation of biochar in diluted nitric acid at room temperature leads to 7 times increase in the capacitance (115 F g −1 ). Because the HNO 3 -activation slightly decreases rather than increases the BET surface area of the biochar, an increase in the coverage of surface oxygen groups is the most likely origin of the substantial capacitance improvement. This is supported by EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman measurements. Preliminary life-time studies show that biochar supercapacitors using the original and HNO 3 -activated electrodes are stable over 5000 cycles without performance decays. These facts indicate that the use of woody biochar is promising for its low cost and it can be a good performance electrode with low environmental impacts for supercapacitor applications

  17. Fully Biodegradable Biocomposites with High Chicken Feather Content

    OpenAIRE

    Aranberri, Ibon; Montes, Sarah; Azcune, Itxaso; Rekondo, Alaitz; Grande, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop new biodegradable polymeric materials with high loadings of chicken feather (CF). In this study, the effect of CF concentration and the type of biodegradable matrix on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the biocomposites was investigated. The selected biopolymers were polylactic acid (PLA), polybutyrate adipate terephthalate (PBAT) and a PLA/thermoplastic copolyester blend. The studied biocomposites were manufactured with a to...

  18. Microstructure Characteristics of High Lift Factor MOCVD REBCO Coated Conductors With High Zr Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galstyan, E; Gharahcheshmeh, MH; Delgado, L; Xu, AX; Majkic, G; Selvamanickam, V

    2015-06-01

    We report the microstructural characteristics of high levels of Zr-added REBa2Cu3O7-x (RE = Gd, Y rare earth) coated conductors fabricated by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). The enhancements of the lift factor defined as a ratio of the in-field (3 T, B parallel to c-axis) critical current density (J(c)) at 30 K and self-field J(c) at 77 K have been achieved for Zr addition levels of 20 and 25 mol% via optimization of deposition parameters. The presence of strong flux pinning is attributed to the aligned nanocolumns of BaZrO3 and nanoprecipitates embedded in REBa2Cu3O7-x matrix with good crystal quality. A high density of BZO nanorods with a typical size 6-8 nm and spacing of 20 nm has been observed. Moreover, the high Zr content was found to induce a high density of intrinsic defects, including stacking faults and dislocations. The correlation between in-field performance along the c-axis and microstructure of (Gd, Y) BCO film with a high level of Zr addition is discussed.

  19. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Gu, Qinfen; Hemar, Yacine; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa

  20. A one-pot chemoselective synthesis of secondary amines by using a biomimetic electrocatalytic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Largeron, Martine

    2009-01-01

    A one-pot electrochemically induced oxidation-imine formation-reduction route to secondary amines is described in detail. The key step of the process consists of the o-iminoquinone-mediated chemoselective catalytic oxidation of a primary aliphatic amine substrate, in the presence of a second amine used as the alkylating agent. Through the examination of the scope of the reaction by systematically varying both amine substrate and amine alkylating agent, it can be shown that this reaction sequence, leaving ammonia as the sole by-product, allows the rapid synthesis of various secondary amines in moderate to good yields. This process, that highlights the pre-eminent green advantages of electrochemical synthesis, especially the utilization of electricity as energy instead of chemical reagents, high atom economy as well as ambient temperature and pressure, could be a mild alternative to already reported synthetic methods.

  1. A one-pot chemoselective synthesis of secondary amines by using a biomimetic electrocatalytic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Largeron, Martine [UMR CNRS 8638, Synthese et Structure de Molecules d' nteret Pharmacologique, Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France)], E-mail: martine.largeron@parisdescartes.fr

    2009-09-01

    A one-pot electrochemically induced oxidation-imine formation-reduction route to secondary amines is described in detail. The key step of the process consists of the o-iminoquinone-mediated chemoselective catalytic oxidation of a primary aliphatic amine substrate, in the presence of a second amine used as the alkylating agent. Through the examination of the scope of the reaction by systematically varying both amine substrate and amine alkylating agent, it can be shown that this reaction sequence, leaving ammonia as the sole by-product, allows the rapid synthesis of various secondary amines in moderate to good yields. This process, that highlights the pre-eminent green advantages of electrochemical synthesis, especially the utilization of electricity as energy instead of chemical reagents, high atom economy as well as ambient temperature and pressure, could be a mild alternative to already reported synthetic methods.

  2. High carotenoids content can enhance resistance of selected Pinctada fucata families to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zihao; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baosuo; Li, Haimei; Fan, Sigang; Yu, Dahui

    2017-02-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural antioxidants widely found in aquatic, and they have significant effects on the growth, survival, and immunity of these organisms. To investigate the mechanisms of carotenoids in high temperature resistance, we observed the immune response of selected pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Akoya pearl oyster) families with different carotenoids contents to high temperature stress. The results indicated that the survival rate (SR) of P. fucata decreased significantly with increase in temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C and with the decrease of total carotenoids content (TCC); when the TCC was higher, the SR tended to be higher. TCC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreased significantly at 30 °C with increasing stress time. Correlation analysis indicated that TAC was positively and linearly correlated with TCC, and SR was S-type correlated with TCC and TAC. Immune analysis indicated that levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in selected families (with higher TCC) under temperature stress (at 30 °C) were generally significantly lower than in the control group (with lowest TCC) and from 0 to 96 h, the levels of each of these substances varied significantly. Levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA within each family first rose from 0 to 3 h, then decreased to their lowest point after 24 h, and then rose again to their highest levels at 96 h. When TCC was higher, the levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA tended to be lower. These findings indicated that carotenoids play an important role in improving survival rates of P. fucata under high temperature stress by enhancing animals' antioxidant system, and could serve as an index for breeding stress-resistant lines in selective breeding practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid recovery of high content phytosterols from corn silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Cao, Xiaowan; Liu, Yong; Shang, Fude

    2017-10-18

    Phytosterols have important physiological and officinal function. An efficient ultrasonic assisted extraction, purification and crystallization procedure of phytosterols was established from corn silk for the first time. The orthogonal test was applied to optimize the process parameters and a maximum phytosterols recovery as high as 10.5886 mg/g was achieved by ultrasonic treatment for 55 min with liquid-solid ratio of 12:1 at 35 °C, 220 w. The ultrasonic extraction temperature (T, °C) has the most significant effect on extraction yield of phytosterols. An orthogonal crystallization test was performed and the optimal conditions [crystallization temperature of 8 °C, time of 12 h and solid-liquid ratio of 1:1 (g/ml)] afforded maximum phytosterols purity of 92.76 ± 0.43%. An efficient extraction and crystallization procedure was established.

  4. Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Kasbohm, J.

    2001-10-01

    A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m 3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is

  5. Sodium Perborate Oxidation of an Aromatic Amine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juestis, Laurence

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving the oxidation of aromatic primary amines to the corresponding azo compound; suggests procedures for studying factors that influence the yield of such a reaction, including the choice of solvent and the oxidant-amine ratio. (MLH)

  6. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed. PMID:22586423

  7. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluz eLatorre-Moratalla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  8. Catalyst- and Reagent-free Electrochemical Azole C-H Amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Youai; Struwe, Julia; Meyer, Tjark H; Oliveira, Joao Carlos Agostinho Carlos Agostinho; Ackermann, Lutz

    2018-06-14

    Catalyst-, and chemical oxidant-free electrochemical azole C-H aminations were accomplished via cross-dehydrogenative C-H/N-H functionalization. The catalyst-free electrochemical C-H amination proved feasible on azoles with high levels of efficacy and selectivity, avoiding the use of stoichiometric oxidants under ambient conditions. Likewise, the C(sp3)-H nitrogenation proved viable under otherwise identical conditions. The dehydrogenative C-H amination featured ample scope, including cyclic and acyclic aliphatic amines as well as anilines, and employed sustainable electricity as the sole oxidant. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Enhancing amine terminals in an amine-deprived collagen matrix.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2008-10-21

    Collagen, though widely used as a core biomaterial in many clinical applications, is often limited by its rapid degradability which prevents full exploitation of its potential in vivo. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a highly branched macromolecule, possesses versatile multiterminal amine surface groups that enable them to be tethered to collagen molecules and enhance their potential. In this study, we hypothesized that incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer in a collagen matrix through cross-linking will result in a durable, cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for further multi-biomolecular tethering. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of a G1 PAMAM cross-linked collagen matrix and its cellular sustainability in vitro. Different amounts of G1 PAMAM dendrimer (5 or 10 mg) were integrated into bovine-derived collagen matrices through a cross-linking process, mediated by 5 or 25 mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in 5 mM N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 50 mM 2-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid buffer at pH 5.5. The physicochemical properties of resultant matrices were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), collagenase degradation assay, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ninhydrin assay. Cellular sustainability of the matrices was assessed with Alamar Blue assay and SEM. There was no significant difference in cellular behavior between the treated and nontreated groups. However, the benefit of incorporating PAMAM in the cross-linking reaction was limited when higher concentrations of either agent were used. These results confirm the hypothesis that PAMAM dendrimer can be incorporated in the collagen cross-linking process in order to modulate the properties of the resulting cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for multi-biomolecular tethering.

  10. OSMOSE experiment: high minor actinides contents pellets and pins fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowiak, A.; Leorier, C.; Desmouliere, F.; Donnet, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/DEN/VRH/DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Antony, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/DEN/CAD/DER/SPEX/LPE, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance cedex (France); Bernard, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/DEN/ CAD/DER /SPRC/LEPh, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The OSMOSE program aims to provide accurate experimental data on integral neutron cross-sections of isotopes (i.e.: Th{sup 232}, U{sup 233}, U{sup 234}, U{sup 235}, U{sup 236}, U{sup 238}, Np{sup 237}, Pu{sup 238}, Pu{sup 239}, Pu{sup 240}, Pu{sup 241}, Pu{sup 242}, Am{sup 241}, Am{sup 243}, Cm{sup 244} and Cm{sup 245}). The study of these nuclides is performed on a large range of neutron spectra corresponding to specific experimental conditions (thermal, epithermal, moderated/fast, and fast spectra). This program will be used to provide guidance to all nuclear data programs in the world. This program has led to an optimized fabrication process for OSMOSE pellets and pins which were fabricated by the LEMA (Actinide based Materials Study Laboratory) in the ATALANTE facility both in glove box and shielded cell. The fabrication process made possible to obtain the required material characteristics including a high density, a good distribution of the isotopes in the uranium oxide matrices. A particular attention was paid to reduce chemical pollution of the samples. The program has been successfully achieved in July 2007 with the fabrication of the last two Cm doped samples. (authors)

  11. Readily Available Chiral Benzimidazoles-Derived Guanidines as Organocatalysts in the Asymmetric α-Amination of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavent, Llorenç; Puccetti, Francesco; Baeza, Alejandro; Gómez-Martínez, Melania

    2017-08-11

    The synthesis and the evaluation as organocatalysts of new chiral guanidines derived from benzimidazoles in the enantioselective α-amination of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds using di- t -butylazodicarboxylate as aminating agent is herein disclosed. The catalysts are readily synthesized through the reaction of 2-chlorobezimidazole and a chiral amine in moderate-to-good yields. Among all of them, those derived from ( R )-1-phenylethan-1-amine ( 1 ) and ( S )-1-(2-naphthyl)ethan-1-amine ( 3 ) turned out to be the most efficient for such asymmetric transformation, rendering good-to-high yields and moderate-to-good enantioselectivities for the amination products.

  12. The ozonolysis of primary aliphatic amines in fine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahardis, J.; Geddes, S.; Petrucci, G. A.

    2008-02-01

    The oxidative processing by ozone of the particulate amines octadecylamine (ODA) and hexadecylamine (HDA) is reported. Ozonolysis of these amines resulted in strong NO2- and NO3- ion signals that increased with ozone exposure as monitored by photoelectron resonance capture ionization aerosol mass spectrometry. These products suggest a mechanism of progressive oxidation of the particulate amines to nitroalkanes. Additionally, a strong ion signal at 125 m/z is assigned to the ion NO3- (HNO3). For ozonized mixed particles containing ODA or HDA + oleic acid (OL), with pO3≥3×10-7 atm, imine, secondary amide, and tertiary amide products were measured. These products most likely arise from reactions of amines with aldehydes (for imines) and stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI) or secondary ozonides (for amides) from the fatty acid. The routes to amides via SCI and/or secondary ozonides were shown to be more important than comparable amide forming reactions between amines and organic acids, using azelaic acid as a test compound. Finally, direct evidence is provided for the formation of a surface barrier in the ODA + OL reaction system that resulted in the retention of OL at high ozone exposures (up to 10-3 atm for 17 s). This effect was not observed in HDA + OL or single component OL particles, suggesting that it may be a species-specific surfactant effect from an in situ generated amide or imine. Implications to tropospheric chemistry, including particle bound amines as sources of oxidized gas phase nitrogen species (e.g.~NO2, NO3), formation of nitrogen enriched HULIS via ozonolysis of amines and source apportionment are discussed.

  13. The ozonolysis of primary aliphatic amines in fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zahardis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative processing by ozone of the particulate amines octadecylamine (ODA and hexadecylamine (HDA is reported. Ozonolysis of these amines resulted in strong NO2 and NO3 ion signals that increased with ozone exposure as monitored by photoelectron resonance capture ionization aerosol mass spectrometry. These products suggest a mechanism of progressive oxidation of the particulate amines to nitroalkanes. Additionally, a strong ion signal at 125 m/z is assigned to the ion NO3 (HNO3. For ozonized mixed particles containing ODA or HDA + oleic acid (OL, with pO3≥3×10–7 atm, imine, secondary amide, and tertiary amide products were measured. These products most likely arise from reactions of amines with aldehydes (for imines and stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI or secondary ozonides (for amides from the fatty acid. The routes to amides via SCI and/or secondary ozonides were shown to be more important than comparable amide forming reactions between amines and organic acids, using azelaic acid as a test compound. Finally, direct evidence is provided for the formation of a surface barrier in the ODA + OL reaction system that resulted in the retention of OL at high ozone exposures (up to 10−3 atm for 17 s. This effect was not observed in HDA + OL or single component OL particles, suggesting that it may be a species-specific surfactant effect from an in situ generated amide or imine. Implications to tropospheric chemistry, including particle bound amines as sources of oxidized gas phase nitrogen species (e.g.~NO2, NO3, formation of nitrogen enriched HULIS via ozonolysis of amines and source apportionment are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of ultra-high-performance-fiber reinforced concrete binder content using the response surface method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldahdooh, M.A.A.; Muhamad Bunnori, N.; Megat Johari, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a practical method for adjusting the binder content of UHP-FRC. • We adjust the binder content of UHP-FRC mixtures using RSM. • Increasing the cement content does not contribute to enhance strength. • Increasing the content of cement will increase the flow of UHP-FRC mixtures. - Abstract: One of the major disadvantages in ultra-high-performance-fiber reinforced concrete (UHP-FRC) is its high ordinary Portland cement (OPC) content, which directly translates into an increase in OPC production. More OPC production results in increased emission of greenhouse gases, as well increased electrical energy consumption and concrete price. This study is aimed at adjusting the binder content (OPC and silica fume (SF) contents) of UHP-FRC using the response surface method. The present investigation shows that, for a given water/binder and superplasticizer/OPC, the compressive strength is independent of the binder content, whereas the flow depends on the binder content. Increasing the binder content does not enhance the strength compared with the required design strength because the capillary porosity increases with increasing OPC content; however, the workability increases. The final result is the production of a UHP-FRC with an OPC content of 720.49 kg/m 3 , an SF content of 214.25 kg/m 3 , a compressive strength of 181.41 MPa, a direct tensile strength of 12.49 MPa, a bending tensile strength of 30.31 MPa, and a flow of 167 mm

  15. Advances in Predictive Toxicology for Discovery Safety through High Content Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Mikael; Hornberg, Jorrit J

    2016-12-19

    High content screening enables parallel acquisition of multiple molecular and cellular readouts. In particular the predictive toxicology field has progressed from the advances in high content screening, as more refined end points that report on cellular health can be studied in combination, at the single cell level, and in relatively high throughput. Here, we discuss how high content screening has become an essential tool for Discovery Safety, the discipline that integrates safety and toxicology in the drug discovery process to identify and mitigate safety concerns with the aim to design drug candidates with a superior safety profile. In addition to customized mechanistic assays to evaluate target safety, routine screening assays can be applied to identify risk factors for frequently occurring organ toxicities. We discuss the current state of high content screening assays for hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and genotoxicity, including recent developments and current advances.

  16. Production of Primary Amines by Reductive Amination of Biomass-Derived Aldehydes/Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanfeng; Wang, Aiqin; Li, Lin; Xu, Gang; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-06

    Transformation of biomass into valuable nitrogen-containing compounds is highly desired, yet limited success has been achieved. Here we report an efficient catalyst system, partially reduced Ru/ZrO 2 , which could catalyze the reductive amination of a variety of biomass-derived aldehydes/ketones in aqueous ammonia. With this approach, a spectrum of renewable primary amines was produced in good to excellent yields. Moreover, we have demonstrated a two-step approach for production of ethanolamine, a large-market nitrogen-containing chemical, from lignocellulose in an overall yield of 10 %. Extensive characterizations showed that Ru/ZrO 2 -containing multivalence Ru association species worked as a bifunctional catalyst, with RuO 2 as acidic promoter to facilitate the activation of carbonyl groups and Ru as active sites for the subsequent imine hydrogenation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Rumen Fluid by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography%反相高效液相色谱法测定瘤胃液中的生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东升; 霍文婕; 朱伟云; 毛胜勇

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish a method of simultaneously detecting concentration of biogenic amine in rumen fluid by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography ( RP-HPLC). Samples were extracted by hydrochloric acid (0. 5 mol/L) , and then derived using dansyl chloride, the mobile phase was a gradient elution program with a binary mixture of acetonitrile and 0. 1 mol/L ammonium acetate and the flow rate was 1 mL/min; the wavelength of UV detector was 254 nm, and the column temperature was 30 t. The method was then used to investigate the effect of diet forage-to-concentrate ratio on concentrations of the five biogenic amines in rumen fluid of goats. The results showed that a good separation of tryptamine, putrescine, methylamine, histamine and tyramine was seen within 40 min, and the average recovery were ranged from 88. 46% to 98. 49% , and the relative standard deviations were less than 10% ; Compared with goats fed low concentrate diet, tryptamine and histamine concentrations in rumen fluid of goats fed high concentrate diet were significantly higher (P 0. 05). The results indicate that this method presented here can be used to determine biogenic amine concentrations in rumen fluid, and concentrations of biogenic amine in rumen fluid of goats can be affected by diet forage-to-concentrate ratio.%本文旨在应用反相高效液相色谱法建立瘤胃液中生物胺的测定方法.样品经0.5 mol/L盐酸提取后,用丹磺酰氯柱前衍生,流动相为乙腈和0.1 mol/L乙酸铵溶液;采用梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL/min;紫外检测器波长254 nm,柱温30℃.应用该方法,研究高精料和低精料饲粮条件下瘤胃液中5种生物胺浓度的差异.结果表明:采用该方法,色胺、腐胺、甲胺、组胺和酪胺5种生物胺能在40 min内得到良好地分离,回收率为88.46%~98.49%,相对标准偏差小于10%.在高精料饲粮条件下,饲喂前山羊瘤胃液中的酪胺和甲胺浓度

  18. The influence of compound admixtures on the properties of high-content slag cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongxu, L.; Xuequan, W.; Jinlin, S.; Yujiang, W.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the activation theory of alkali and sulfate, the influence of compound admixtures on the properties of high-content slag cement was studied by testing the strength, pore structure, hydrates, and microstructure, Test results show that compound admixtures can obviously improve the properties of high-content slag cement. The emphasis of the present research is two-fold: substituting gypsum with anhydrite and calcining gypsum. These both can improve early and later performance.

  19. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Negmatov, Sh.I.; Barotov, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content. The research results on uranium extraction from the brine of Sasik-Kul Lake by means of sorption method were considered. The chemical composition of salt was determined. The process of uranium sorption was described and analyzed. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content was proposed.

  20. Environmentally friendly chemoselective oxidation of primary aliphatic amines by using a biomimetic electrocatalytic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeron, Martine; Chiaroni, Angèle; Fleury, Maurice-Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Environmentally friendly oxidation of primary aliphatic amines to imines has been successfully achieved, under metal-free conditions, by the use of diverse electrogenerated o-azaquinone mediators. High catalytic performance, together with high chemoselectivity, were observed with electron-poor o-azaquinone catalysts generated from 2-aminoresorcinol derivatives. Similar to copper amine oxidase enzymes, these mediators exhibited lower reactivity toward alpha-branched primary amines and no reactivity toward secondary amines. In the case of 3,4-aminophenol derivatives lacking a 2-hydroxy group, the generated o-azaquinone species failed to catalyze the oxidation of the amine to the corresponding imine. Further mechanistic considerations allowed a rationalization of the crucial role of the 2-hydroxy group in converting a catalytically inert species into a highly effective biomimetic catalyst.

  1. Photometric determination of niobium in materials with high content of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrotskaya, V.A.; Aleksandrova, E.I.; Kletenik, Yu.B.

    1982-01-01

    To determine niobium in various samples of niobium concentrates with a high phosphorus content, a photometric method with pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR) is used. It is shown that all the elements indicated (Fe, Si, Ti, Al, Ca) including phosphorus do not interfere with the niobium determination with the use of PAR. The method has been tried on artificial samples with different content of the base components. Variation coefficient constitutes 4.5%. No systematic errors, due to a high content of any concomitant element, are detected. The determination threshold is 10 - 2 %

  2. Grafting of model primary amine compounds to cellulose nanowhiskers through periodate oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalaxmi Dash; Thomas Elder; Arthur Ragauskas

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates regioselective oxidation of cellulose nanowhiskers using 2.80–10.02 mmols of sodium periodate per 5 g of whiskers followed by grafting with methyl and butyl amines through a Schiff base reaction to obtain their amine derivatives in 80–90 % yield. We found a corresponding increase in carbonyl content (0.06–0.14 mmols/g) of the dialdehyde...

  3. Poly(Amido Amine)s Containing Agmatine and Butanol Side Chains as Efficient Gene Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-Wook; Ankoné, Marc; Engbersen, Johan F J; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-04-01

    A new type of bioreducible poly(amido amine) copolymer is synthesized by the Michael addition polymerization of cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) with 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine, AGM) and 4-aminobutanol (ABOL). Since the positively charged guanidinium groups of AGM and the hydroxybutyl groups of ABOL in the side chains have shown to improve the overall transfection efficiency of poly(amido amine)s, it is hypothesized that poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) synthesized at the optimal ratio of both components would result in high transfection efficiency and minimal toxicity. In this study, a series of the poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) copolymers is synthesized as gene carriers. The polymers are characterized and luciferase transfection efficiencies of the polymers in various cell lines are investigated to select the ideal ratio between AGM and ABOL. The poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) containing 80% AGM and 20% ABOL has shown the best transfection efficiency with the lowest cytotoxicity, indicating that this polymer is very promising as a potent and nontoxic gene carrier. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production...... of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed...... for reactions containing 10mM alcohol and up to 280mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up....

  5. High oleic acid content materials of rapeseed (Brassica napus) produced by radiation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Chunyun; Liu Chunlin; Chen Sheyuan

    2006-01-01

    High oleic acid content rapeseed breeding has great significance, because high oleic acid oil is a healthy and nutritious oil, which is of a long shelflife and also propitious to producing biodiesel fuel. The high oleic acid content breeding materials of rapeseed (B. napus) were obtained by 80-100 kR ~(60)Co gamma ray ionizing radiation treatment of dry seeds and continuous selection. The results showed that the oleic acid contents of M (2), M (3) and M (4) progenies increased by different grades. Moreover, the oleic acid content of M (5) progeny increased greatly. The oleic acid contents were higher than 70% in the most of the plants and the highest one reached 93.5 %. The base G was transited by base A in fad (2) gene at the 270 site of high oleic acid mutation (M(6) 04-855). The location is at the beta folding area and conservative area of this protein. Base mutation at sites 1 044 and 1 062 also led to produce a stop condon. These changes in structure led to loss the function of fad (2). According to molecular mechanism of gene mutation, no matter what transvertion or transition happens, several replications are needed. That is to say several generations are needed. That was also the reason why high oleic acid content mutation occurred in later generations

  6. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  7. Effect of PVA fiber content on creep property of fiber reinforced high-strength concrete columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongnan; Wang, Tao; Wang, Weilun

    2018-04-01

    The effect of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) fiber content on the creep property of fiber reinforced high-strength concrete columns was investigated. The correction factor of PVA fiber content was proposed and the creep prediction model of ACI209 was modified. Controlling the concrete strength as C80, changing the content of PVA fiber (volume fraction 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% respectively), the creep experiment of PVA fiber reinforced concrete columns was carried out, the creep coefficient of each specimen was calculated to characterize the creep property. The influence of PVA fiber content on the creep property was analyzed based on the creep coefficient and the calculation results of several frequently used creep prediction models. The correction factor of PVA fiber content was proposed to modify the ACI209 creep prediction model.

  8. A new high-speed hollow fiber based liquid phase microextraction method using volatile organic solvent for determination of aromatic amines in environmental water samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafraz-Yazdi, A; Mofazzeli, F; Es'haghi, Z

    2009-07-15

    A new and fast hollow fiber based liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) method using volatile organic solvents coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for determination of aromatic amines in the environmental water samples. Analytes including 3-nitroaniline, 3-chloroaniline and 4-bromoaniline were extracted from 6 mL basic aqueous sample solution (donor phase, NaOH 1 mol L(-1)) into the thin film of organic solvent that surrounded and impregnated the pores of the polypropylene hollow fiber wall (toluene, 20 microL), then back-extracted into the 6 mL acidified aqueous solution (acceptor phase, HCl 0.5 mol L(-1)) in the lumen of the two-end sealed hollow fiber. After the extraction, 5 microL of the acceptor phase was withdrawn into the syringe and injected directly into the HPLC system for the analysis. The parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including the kind of organic solvent and its volume, composition of donor and acceptor phases and the volume ratio between them, extraction time, stirring rate, salt addition and the effect of the analyte complexation with 18-crown-6 ether were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions (donor phase: 6 mL of 1 mol L(-1) NaOH with 10% NaCl; organic phase: 20 microL of toluene; acceptor phase: 6 microL of 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl and 600 mmol L(-1) 18-crown-6 ether; pre-extraction and back-extraction times: 75 s and 10 min, respectively; stirring rate: 800 rpm), the obtained EFs were between 259 and 674, dynamic linear ranges were 0.1-1000 microg L(-1) (R>0.9991), and also the limits of detection were in the range of 0.01-0.1 micro gL(-1). The proposed procedure worked very well for real environmental water samples with microgram per liter level of the analytes, and good relative recoveries (91-102%) were obtained for the spiked sample solutions.

  9. Modeled effects on permittivity measurements of water content in high surface area porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Or, Dani

    2003-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become an important measurement technique for determination of porous media water content and electrical conductivity due to its accuracy, fast response and automation capability. Water content is inferred from the measured bulk dielectric constant based on travel time analysis along simple transmission lines. TDR measurements in low surface area porous media accurately describe water content using an empirical relationship. Measurement discrepancies arise from dominating influences such as bound water due to high surface area, extreme aspect ratio particles or atypical water phase configuration. Our objectives were to highlight primary factors affecting dielectric permittivity measurements for water content determination in porous mixtures, and demonstrate the influence of these factors on mixture permittivity as predicted by a three-phase dielectric mixture model. Modeled results considering water binding, higher porosity, constituent geometry or phase configuration suggest any of these effects individually are capable of causing permittivity reduction, though all likely contribute in high surface area porous media

  10. Kinethical Aspects of High Solid Contents Copoly(Styrene/Butylacrylate-Cloisite 30B Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzataheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High solid content poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate latex ( with 20% and 40% solid content including high amounts of Cloisite 30B (7 wt% and 10 wt% were kinetically investigated. Gravimetric method via measuring the rate of polymerization, number of particles and average number of radicals per particle was used. Results showed that by increasing the solid content; the average diameter of polymer particles decreased. Studies on the polymerization rate depict that the increase in polymer particle size provides more average reactive radicals per polymer particle, which increased from 0.48 to 0.88 for the sample containing 7 wt% clay and 20 wt% solid content. Observed armored particles with honeycomb morphology is the most novelty of this research work, which is suitable for making barrier packaging films.

  11. Seismic Performance Comparison of a High-Content SDA Frame and Standard RC Frame

    OpenAIRE

    van de Lindt, John W.; Rechan, R. Karthik

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the method and results of an experiment to study the seismic behavior of a concrete portal frame with fifty percent of its cement content replaced with a spray dryer ash (SDA). Based on multiple-shake-table tests, the high content SDA frame was found to perform as well as the standard concrete frame for two earthquakes exceeding design-level intensity earthquakes. Hence, from a purely seismic/structural standpoint, it may be possible to replace approximately fifty percen...

  12. UPLC柱前衍生法分析小黄鱼中生物胺%Determination of Biogenic Amines in Small Yellow Croakers by UPLC with Precolumn Dansylations and Analysis of the Characteristic Biogenic Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧; 刘晓琴; 晁鲁平; 蒋益虹

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the changes of biogenic amines and characteristic BAs in small yellow croakers.Methods:UPLC with UV detection was used to detect the content of 8 biogenic amines (BAs) including tyramine (Tyr),2-phenylethylamine(2-Phe),putrescine (Put),cadaverine (Cad),histamine (His),tryptamine (Try),spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd) in the small yellow croaker samples.Through the correlation between freshness index and biogenic amines,we determined the characteristic biogenic amines in small yellow croakers.The results showed that:TVC,TVB-N and biogenic amine contents increased significantly during storage.The contents of Put,Cad,His and Tyr were very high and they were significantly associated with the changes of TVC and TVB-N.Conclusion:Put,Cad and Tyr were determined to be characteristic BAs in small yellow croakers.%目的:研究非鲭科鱼类小黄鱼贮藏过程中生物胺变化规律及其特征生物胺.方法:采用丹酰氯柱前衍生UPLC方法检测鱼肉中的生物胺含量,通过分析菌落总数(TVC)、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)与主要生物胺的相关性,确定小黄鱼的特征生物胺.结果:随时间的延长,小黄鱼贮藏过程中TVC、TVB-N、生物胺含量均有所增加,且温度越高变化越剧烈;贮藏过程中小黄鱼的主要生物胺是腐胺、尸胺、酪胺、组胺,其变化与TVC、TVB-N相关性极高.结论:小黄鱼腐败过程中的特征生物胺是腐胺、尸胺、酪胺,建议其作为小黄鱼质量评价的参考指标.

  13. Chitosan-rectorite nanospheres embedded aminated polyacrylonitrile nanofibers via shoulder-to-shoulder electrospinning and electrospraying for enhanced heavy metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengtian; Tu, Hu; Chen, Jiajia; Liu, Rong; Liang, Zhaoyi; Jiang, Linbin; Shi, Xiaowen; Du, Yumin; Deng, Hongbing

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan (CS) has a high amine group content, while polyacrylonitrile (PAN) contains cyano-groups that can be easily converted to amine groups. Herein, a novel adsorbent consisting of PAN-CS mats was successfully prepared via the shoulder-to-shoulder electrospinning and electrospraying techniques, which could eliminate the obstacle of selecting a co-solvent system for dissolving PAN and CS together. The morphology of the resultant adsorbent with adherent nanofibers-nanospheres was observed due to the immobilization of the CS electrosprayed nanospheres into PAN electrospun nanofibrous mats. Furthermore, CS nanospheres and PAN nanofibers were alternately arranged which could enlarge the space between the nanofibers, facilitating the diffusion of heavy metals in solution. Afterwards, rectorite (REC) was introduced into the mats to achieve the predesigned intercalated structure formed between the CS chains and the interlayer of REC even acquired the desirable enhanced adsorption ability towards heavy metals. Based on this improvement, chemical modification was performed on the surface of PAN nanofibers to form aminated PAN (APAN) with more amine groups for reinforcing the adsorption performance. The adsorption experiments results showed that APAN-CS/REC mats exhibited at least a 2.0 times increase in the adsorption capacity of Pb2+ compared to the original PAN-CS composite mats.

  14. The distribution and adsorption behavior of aliphatic amines in marine and lacustrine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-chen; Lee, Cindy

    1990-10-01

    The methylated amines—monomethyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl amine (MMA, DMA, TMA)—are commonly found in aquatic environments, apparently as a result of decomposition processes. Adsorption of these amines to clay minerals and organic matter significantly influences their distribution in sediments. Laboratory measurements using 14C-radiolabelled amines and application of a linear partitioning model resulted in calculated adsorption coefficients of 2.4-4.7 (MMA), 3.3 (DMA), and 3.3-4.1 (TMA). Further studies showed that adsorption of amines is influenced by salinity of the porewaters, and clay mineral and organic matter content of the sediment solid phase. Concentrations of monomethyl- and dimethyl amine were measured in the porewaters and the solid phase of sediment samples collected from Flax Pond and Lake Ronkonkoma (NY), Long Island Sound, and the coastal Peru upwelling area. These two amines were present in all sediments investigated. A clear seasonal increase in the solid-phase concentration of MMA and DMA in Flax Pond sediments was likely related to the annual senescence of salt marsh grasses, either directly as a source of these compounds or indirectly by providing additional exchange capacity to the sediments. The distribution of amines in the solid and dissolved phases observed in all sediments investigated suggests that the distribution of these compounds results from a balance among production, decomposition, and adsorption processes.

  15. Reducing tube bundle deposition with alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Frattini, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Particle deposition rates have been measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates an order of magnitude greater than those measured for magnetite, although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) ammonia (0.51) : dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to two-phase forced convection through a thin film. (author)

  16. Reducing tube bundle deposition using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Frattini, P.L.

    1999-07-01

    Particle deposition rates were measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled, using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates 10 times greater than those measured for magnetite although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) : ammonia (0.51) dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to 2-phase forced-convection through a thin film. (author)

  17. Innovation management and marketing in the high-tech sector: A content analysis of advertisements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhard, D.; Brem, Alexander; Baccarella, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Advertizing high-technology products is a tricky and critical task for every company, since it means operating in an environment with high market uncertainty. The work presents results of a content analysis of 110 adverts for consumer electronics products which examines how these products and the...

  18. Enzymatic pre-treatment of high content cellulosic feedstock improves biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes with high lignin and cellulosic contents can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. However, these high lignin and cellulosic feedstocks are quite recalcitrant to be readily utilized by methanogens to produce ben...

  19. Maillard reaction of lactose and fluoxetine hydrochloride, a secondary amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, D D; Baertschi, S W; Johnson, R A; Maple, S R; Miller, M S; Hallenbeck, D K; Gregg, S M

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of commercially available generic formulations of fluoxetine HCl revealed the presence of lactose as the most common excipient. We show that such formulations are inherently less stable than formulations with starch as the diluent due to the Maillard reaction between the drug, a secondary amine hydrochloride, and lactose. The Amadori rearrangement product was isolated and characterized; the characterization was aided by reduction with sodium borohydride and subsequent characterization of this reduced adduct. The lactose-fluoxetine HCl reaction was examined in aqueous ethanol and in the solid state, in which factors such as water content, lubricant concentration, and temperature were found to influence the degradation. N-Formylfluoxetine was identified as a major product of this Maillard reaction and it is proposed that N-formyl compounds be used as markers for this drug-excipient interaction since they are easy to prepare synthetically. Many characteristic volatile products of the Maillard reaction have been identified by GC/MS, including furaldehyde, maltol, and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4 H-pyran-4-one. Close similarity between the degradation products of simple mixtures and formulated generic products was found; however, at least one product decomposed at a rate nearly 10 times that predicted from the simple models. Maillard products have also been identified in unstressed capsules. The main conclusion is that drugs which are secondary amines (not just primary amines as sometimes reported) undergo the Maillard reaction with lactose under pharmaceutically relevant conditions. This finding should be considered during the selection of excipients and stability protocols for drugs which are secondary amines or their salts, just as it currently is for primary amines.

  20. Austenitic stainless steel alloys with high nickel contents in high temperature liquid metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konvicka, H.R.; Schwarz, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Ni base alloys (nickel content: from 15 to 70 wt%, Chromium content: 15 wt%, iron: balance) together with stainless steel (W.Nr. 1.4981) have been exposed to flowing liquid sodium at 730 0 C in four intervals up to a cumulative exposure time of 1500 hours. Weight change data and the results of post-exposition microcharacterization of specimens are reported. The corrosion rates increase with increasing nickel content and tend to become constant after longer exposure times for each alloy. The corrosion rate of stainless steel is considerably reduced due to the presence of the base alloys. Different kinetics of nickel poor (up to 35% nickel) and nickel rich (> 50% nickel) alloys and nickel transport from nickel rich to nickel poor material is observed. (orig.)

  1. Nucleophilic addition of amines to the activated ethylene bond in non-aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perepichka, Igor F.; Popov, Anatolii F.

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of addition of a number of primary and secondary aliphatic amines to trans-(2-furyl) nitro ethylene (1) has been studied in solvents of various polarities (from acetonitrile, ε 37.5, to heptane, ε 1.89). It has been shown that the reaction is catalysed both by the amine reagent and by tertiary amines. On the basis of analyzing the observed kinetic regularities a stepwise reaction mechanism has been proposed which involves formation of zwitterionic intermediate (3) at the first equilibrium step (k 1 , K 1 ) which is then converted into the reaction product by means of proton transfer in parallel routes, the non-catalytic one (k 2 ) and that catalysed by the initial (K 3 ) or tertiary (K 4 ) amine. The observed high values of the deuterium isotope effects in the reaction (K H /K D ∼ 2.3 - 8.9) confirm that proton transfer occurs in the rate-limiting step of the reaction (primary kinetic isotope effect). The third order by amine kinetic route is observed in low polar media which is due to participation of amine dimers (R 2 NH HNR 2 ) in the reaction. The observed kinetic regularities are compared with those for the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions in low-polar media, and the conclusion has been made that the reaction route of the third order by amine proceeds as reversible nucleophilic attack by amine dimer and following base-catalysed transformation of the intermediate into the product. (author)

  2. Platinum-Catalyzed, Terminal-Selective C(sp(3))-H Oxidation of Aliphatic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Sanford, Melanie S

    2015-10-14

    This Communication describes the terminal-selective, Pt-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H oxidation of aliphatic amines without the requirement for directing groups. CuCl2 is employed as a stoichiometric oxidant, and the reactions proceed in high yield at Pt loadings as low as 1 mol%. These transformations are conducted in the presence of sulfuric acid, which reacts with the amine substrates in situ to form ammonium salts. We propose that protonation of the amine serves at least three important roles: (i) it renders the substrates soluble in the aqueous reaction medium; (ii) it limits binding of the amine nitrogen to Pt or Cu; and (iii) it electronically deactivates the C-H bonds proximal to the nitrogen center. We demonstrate that this strategy is effective for the terminal-selective C(sp(3))-H oxidation of a variety of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines.

  3. Bioinspired aerobic oxidation of secondary amines and nitrogen heterocycles with a bifunctional quinone catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Alison E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2014-01-08

    Copper amine oxidases are a family of enzymes with quinone cofactors that oxidize primary amines to aldehydes. The native mechanism proceeds via an iminoquinone intermediate that promotes high selectivity for reactions with primary amines, thereby constraining the scope of potential biomimetic synthetic applications. Here we report a novel bioinspired quinone catalyst system consisting of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione/ZnI2 that bypasses these constraints via an abiological pathway involving a hemiaminal intermediate. Efficient aerobic dehydrogenation of non-native secondary amine substrates, including pharmaceutically relevant nitrogen heterocycles, is demonstrated. The ZnI2 cocatalyst activates the quinone toward amine oxidation and provides a source of iodide, which plays an important redox-mediator role to promote aerobic catalytic turnover. These findings provide a valuable foundation for broader development of aerobic oxidation reactions employing quinone-based catalysts.

  4. Iridium-Catalyzed Condensation of Primary Amines To Form Secondary Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh; Jensen, Paw; Madsen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Symmetric secondary amines are readily obtained by heating a neat primary amine with 0.5 mol% of bis(dichloro[eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]iridium). The products are isolated by direct distillation in good yields.......Symmetric secondary amines are readily obtained by heating a neat primary amine with 0.5 mol% of bis(dichloro[eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]iridium). The products are isolated by direct distillation in good yields....

  5. Production of microbial oil with high oleic acid content by Trichosporon capitatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong; Zong, Minhua [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lei [School of Biosciences and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Microbial oils with high unsaturated fatty acids content, especially oleic acid content, are good feedstock for high quality biodiesel production. Trichosporon capitatum was found to accumulate lipid with around 80% oleic acid and 89% total unsaturated fatty acids content on nitrogen-limited medium. In order to improve its lipid yield, effects of medium components and culture conditions on cell growth and lipid accumulation were investigated. Optimization of media resulted in a 61% increase in the lipid yield of T. capitatum after cultivation at 28 C and 160 rpm for 6 days. In addition, T. capitatum could grow well on cane molasses and afford a lipid yield comparable to that on synthetic nitrogen-limited medium. The biodiesel from the microbial oil produced by T. capitatum on cane molasses displayed a low cold filter plugging point (-15 C), and so T. capitatum might be a promising strain to provide lipid suitable for high quality biodiesel production. (author)

  6. Enhancing protein to extremely high content in photosynthetic bacteria during biogas slurry treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anqi; Zhang, Guangming; Meng, Fan; Lu, Pei; Wang, Xintian; Peng, Meng

    2017-12-01

    This work proposed a novel approach to achieve an extremely high protein content in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) using biogas slurry as a culturing medium. The results showed the protein content of PSB could be enhanced strongly to 90% in the biogas slurry, which was much higher than reported microbial protein contents. The slurry was partially purified at the same time. Dark-aerobic was more beneficial than light-anaerobic condition for protein accumulation. High salinity and high ammonia of the biogas slurry were the main causes for protein enhancement. In addition, the biogas slurry provided a good buffer system for PSB to grow. The biosynthesis mechanism of protein in PSB was explored according to theoretical analysis. During biogas slurry treatment, the activities of glutamate synthase and glutamine synthetase were increased by 26.55%, 46.95% respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of biogenic amines in fermented product from soya beans by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定大豆发酵制品中的生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王充; 易少凌

    2015-01-01

    目的:从生物胺角度初步探讨大豆发酵制品的食用安全性,为确定大豆发酵制品的推荐安全摄入水平提供初步参考。方法采用柱前衍生高效液相色谱法检测大豆发酵制品中生物胺的含量,以0.4 mol/L高氯酸为提取液,以丹酰氯为衍生试剂,紫外检测波长254 nm。结果样品组分分离及测定结果重现性较好,豆豉、豆酱、酱油3种大豆发酵制品均有部分品牌组胺含量超过危害作用水平(即500 mg/kg),8个样品中有7种超过100 mg/kg,同类不同品牌大豆发酵制品间组胺含量没有明显差别;色胺均未检出;除组胺外,3种大豆发酵制品中尚可能存在2-苯乙胺、腐胺及尸胺。结论大豆发酵制品的色胺未检出,组胺含量较高,大量食用可能影响人体健康。%ABSTRACT:Objective To assess the security of fermented product from soya beans, and give a reference for their reference intakes. Methods To determine biogenic amines in lobster sauce, soy sauce and soybean paste by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the biogenic amines were extracted with 0.4 mol/L perchloric acid solution, the pre-column derivatising agent was dansyl chloride, the mobile phase was acetonitrile and water (V:V=60:40), and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. UV detector was used to determine the biogenic amines, and the wavelength was 254 nm. Results Histamine was found in every kind of the fermented product with soya beans, and the concentration was higher than 500 mg/kg, which was the level in food that would cause harm to human body made by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in America. The average concentration of histamine in the fermented product with soya beans determined was 469.19 mg/kg, and different kinds of fermented products with soya beans had almost the same concentration of histamine. While no tryptamine was found in these samples, there were 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine and cadaverine in these fermented product from

  8. CO{sub 2} capture using fly ash-derived activated carbons impregnated with low molecular mass amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl M. Smith; Ana Arenillas; Trevor C. Drage; Colin E. Snape [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2005-07-01

    At the Nottingham Fuel and Energy centre, a program is underway to develop high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbents for flue gas from large point sources such as fossil-fuel power plants. Two different approaches are presented here. Firstly, the modification of the surface chemistry of low cost carbos by impregnation with a basic nitrogen-containing polymer and different amines is described. Secondly, the development of high nitrogen content carbon matrix adsorbents by carbonization and subsequent thermal or chemical activation of a range of materials is summarised. Such high nitrogen content adsorbents, generated at high temperature, are advantageous as their inherent thermal stability will minimise alteration during multiple adsorption and regeneration cycles. Relatively low MM amines, namely diethanolamine and (DEA, MM 105) and tetraethylenepentaamineacrylonitrile (TEPAN, MM 311) are used to produce high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbents from activated carbons derived form unburned carbon in fly ash, which have low mesoporosities. The unburned carbons were obtained through the froth flotation and dry-sieving of fly ash and their activation was performed using, variously, steam and CO{sub 2}. It was found that the impregnation of a fly-ash derived carbon with amines can produce CO{sub 2} sorbents, with uptakes up to 5 wt% at 75{degree}C. Nitrogen incorporation in carbon materials generally promotes the adsorption of CO{sub 2} with the process being totally reversible but, although the amount of nitrogen incorporated into the adsorbent is important, nitrogen functionality is also important. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Evaluation and application of microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines in hamburger patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeenehvand, Saeed; Toudehrousta, Zahra; Kamankesh, Marzieh; Mashayekh, Morteza; Tavakoli, Hamid Reza; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2016-01-01

    This study developed an analytical method based on microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of three polar heterocyclic aromatic amines from hamburger patties. Effective parameters controlling the performance of the microextraction process, such as the type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, microwave time, nature of alkaline aqueous solution, pH and salt amount, were optimized. The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 1-200 ng g(-1), with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) better than 0.9993. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for seven analyses were between 3.2% and 6.5%. The recoveries of those compounds in hamburger patties were from 90% to 105%. Detection limits were between 0.06 and 0.21 ng g(-1). A comparison of the proposed method with the existing literature demonstrates that it is a simple, rapid, highly selective and sensitive, and it gives good enrichment factors and detection limits for determining HAAs in real hamburger patties samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. iScreen: Image-Based High-Content RNAi Screening Analysis Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Dong, Xiaonan; Levine, Beth; Xie, Yang; Xiao, Guanghua

    2015-09-01

    High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) screening has opened up a path to investigating functional genomics in a genome-wide pattern. However, such studies are often restricted to assays that have a single readout format. Recently, advanced image technologies have been coupled with high-throughput RNAi screening to develop high-content screening, in which one or more cell image(s), instead of a single readout, were generated from each well. This image-based high-content screening technology has led to genome-wide functional annotation in a wider spectrum of biological research studies, as well as in drug and target discovery, so that complex cellular phenotypes can be measured in a multiparametric format. Despite these advances, data analysis and visualization tools are still largely lacking for these types of experiments. Therefore, we developed iScreen (image-Based High-content RNAi Screening Analysis Tool), an R package for the statistical modeling and visualization of image-based high-content RNAi screening. Two case studies were used to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of the iScreen package. iScreen is available for download on CRAN (http://cran.cnr.berkeley.edu/web/packages/iScreen/index.html). The user manual is also available as a supplementary document. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. A deep learning and novelty detection framework for rapid phenotyping in high-content screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christoph; Hoefler, Rudolf; Samwer, Matthias; Gerlich, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    Supervised machine learning is a powerful and widely used method for analyzing high-content screening data. Despite its accuracy, efficiency, and versatility, supervised machine learning has drawbacks, most notably its dependence on a priori knowledge of expected phenotypes and time-consuming classifier training. We provide a solution to these limitations with CellCognition Explorer, a generic novelty detection and deep learning framework. Application to several large-scale screening data sets on nuclear and mitotic cell morphologies demonstrates that CellCognition Explorer enables discovery of rare phenotypes without user training, which has broad implications for improved assay development in high-content screening. PMID:28954863

  12. Deposition of stable amine coating onto polycaprolactone nanofibers by low pressure cyclopropylamine plasma polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manakhov, Anton; Nečas, David; Čechal, Jan; Pavliňák, David; Eliáš, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Amine-rich films are of high interest for the bio-applications including drug delivery and tissue engineering thanks to their high reactivity allowing the formation of the covalent linkages between biomolecules and a surface. However, the bio-applications of amine-rich films require their good stability in water which is often achieved at large expenses of the amine concentration. Recently, non-toxic cyclopropylamine (CPA) has been applied for the plasma polymerization of films bearing high NH x environment combined with the moderate thickness loss (20%) after water immersion for 48 h. In this work, the amine-rich film with the NH x concentration over 7 at.% was deposited on Si substrates and polycaprolactone nanofiber meshes by using CPA plasma polymerization (pulsed mode) in a vertically oriented stainless steel reactor. The substrates were placed at the radio frequency electrode and the ion bombardment caused by direct-current self-bias was suppressed by using high pressure of 50 Pa. Analysis of samples by scanning electron microscopy did not reveal any cracks in the deposited layer formed during a sample immersion in water. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed a slight oxidation of amine groups in water but the film still contained 5 at.% of NH x (according to the N1s XPS fitting) after the immersion. The rapid oxidation of amine groups was observed during the aging experiment carried out in air at room temperature because FTIR revealed an increase of amide peaks that increased progressively with aging time. However, this oxidation was significantly reduced if the plasma polymer was stored at − 20 °C. Since the films exhibit high amine concentration and very good water stability they have great potential for applications as biocompatible functional coatings. - Highlights: • Cyclopropylamine plasma polymers deposited on polycaprolactone nanofibers • Amine-rich films with high water stability

  13. Changes in the biogenic amine content of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens of rats submitted to single and repeated sessions of the elevated plus-maze test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that exposure to a variety of stressful experiences enhances fearful reactions when behavior is tested in current animal models of anxiety. Until now, no study has examined the neurochemical changes during the test and retest sessions of rats submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM. The present study uses a new approach (HPLC by looking at the changes in dopamine and serotonin levels in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens in animals upon single or double exposure to the EPM (one-trial tolerance. The study involved two experiments: i saline or midazolam (0.5 mg/kg before the first trial, and ii saline or midazolam before the second trial. For the biochemical analysis a control group injected with saline and not tested in the EPM was included. Stressful stimuli in the EPM were able to elicit one-trial tolerance to midazolam on re-exposure (61.01%. Significant decreases in serotonin contents occurred in the prefrontal cortex (38.74%, amygdala (78.96%, dorsal hippocampus (70.33%, and nucleus accumbens (73.58% of the animals tested in the EPM (P < 0.05 in all cases in relation to controls not exposed to the EPM. A significant decrease in dopamine content was also observed in the amygdala (54.74%, P < 0.05. These changes were maintained across trials. There was no change in the turnover rates of these monoamines. We suggest that exposure to the EPM causes reduced monoaminergic neurotransmission activity in limbic structures, which appears to underlie the "one-trial tolerance" phenomenon.

  14. New insights into controlling tube-bundle fouling using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Guzonas, D.A.; Frattini, P.L.; Fruzzetti, K.

    2002-01-01

    A volatile amine is added to the secondary heat-transport system of a nuclear power plant to reduce the rate of corrosion and corrosion product transport in the feedwater and to protect steam generator (SG) crevices and materials exposed to steam condensate. Volatility and base strength of the amine at the SG operating temperature are two important considerations when choosing the optimum amine (or mixture of amines) for corrosion control in the steam cycle. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have been collaborating in an extensive investigation of the effectiveness of amines at controlling the rate of tube-bundle fouling under SG operating conditions. Tests have been performed using a radiotracing technique in a high-temperature fouling loop facility at Chalk River Laboratories operated by AECL. This investigation has provided new insights into the role played by the amine in determining the rate of tube-bundle fouling in the SG. These insights are being used by AECL and EPRI to develop criteria for the selection of an amine that has optimum properties for both corrosion control and deposit control in the secondary heat transport system. The investigation has found that the rate of tube-bundle fouling is strongly dependent upon the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. For example, the fouling rates of fully oxidized iron oxides, such as hematite and lepidocrocite, are at least an order of magnitude greater than the fouling rate of magnetite under identical operating conditions. The difference is related to the sign of the surface charge on the corrosion products at temperature. The choice of amine for pH-control also influences the fouling rate. This was originally thought to be a surface-charge effect as well, but recent tests have suggested that it is related to the role that the amine plays in governing the rate of deposit consolidation on the heat-transfer surface. Amines that promote a high rate of

  15. Effect of immobilized amine density on cadmium(II) adsorption capacities for ethanediamine-modified magnetic poly-(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Tingting [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Liangrong, E-mail: lryang@ipe.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Pan, Feng; Xing, Huifang; Wang, Li; Yu, Jiemiao [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qu, Hongnan [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Rong, Meng [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Huizhou, E-mail: hzliu@ipe.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-04-01

    A series of ethanediamine (EDA) – modified magnetic poly-(glycidyl methacrylate) (m-PGMA-EDA)microspheres with different amine density were synthesized and their cadmium saturation adsorption capacities were examined. The results showed that the cadmium saturation adsorption capacity increased with the immobilized amine density. However, they did not show strong positive linear correlation in the whole range of amine density examined. The molar ratio of amine groups to the adsorbed cadmium decreased with the increase of amine density and eventually reached a minimum value about 4. It suggested that low immobilized amine density led to low coordination efficiency of the amine. It is hypothesized that the immobilized amine groups needed to be physically close enough to form stable amine-metal complex. When the amine density reached to a critical value 1.25 m mol m{sup −2}, stable amine-cadmium complex (4:1 N/Cd) was proposed to form. To illustrate the coordination mechanism (structure and number) of amine and Cd, FT-IR spectra of m-PGMA-EDA and m-PGMA-EDA-Cd , and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of PGMA–EDA and PGMA-EDA-Cd were examined and analyzed. - Highlights: • A series of magnetic poly-(glycidyl methacrylate) (m-PGMA-EDA)microspheres with different amine density were synthesized and their cadmium saturation adsorption capacities were examined. • The molar ratio of amine groups to adsorbed cadmium decreased with the increase of amine density and eventually reached a minimum value about 4. • when the amine density reached high enough, 4:1 N/Cd complex was proposed to form, and the hydroxyl also participated in the chelating with Cd.

  16. Calcium content and high calcium adaptation of plants in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rocky desertification is a major ecological problem of land degradation in karst areas. In these areas, the high soil calcium (Ca content has become an important environmental factor that can affect the restoration of vegetation. Consequently, the screening of plant species that can adapt to high Ca soil environments is a critical step in vegetation restoration. In this study, three grades of rocky desertification sample areas were selected in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China (LRD: light rocky desertification; MRD: moderate rocky desertification; and IRD: intense rocky desertification. Each grade of these sample areas had three sample plots in different slope positions, each of which had four small quadrats (one in rocky-side areas, three in non-rocky-side areas. We measured the Ca content of leaves, branches, and roots from 41 plant species, as well as soil total Ca (TCa and exchangeable Ca (ECa at depths of 0–15, 15–30, and 30–45 cm in each small quadrat. The results showed that the soil Ca2+ content in rocky-side areas was significantly higher than that in non-rocky-side areas (p < 0.05. The mean soil TCa and ECa content increased gradually along with the grade of rocky desertification, in the order IRD > MRD > LRD. For all plant functional groups, the plant Ca content of aboveground parts was significantly higher than that of the belowground parts (p < 0.05. The soil ECa content had significant effects on plant Ca content of the belowground parts but had no significant effects on plant Ca content of the aboveground parts. Of the 41 plant species that were sampled, 17 were found to be dominant (important value > 1. The differences in Ca2+ content between the aboveground and belowground parts of the 17 dominant species were calculated, and their correlations with soil ECa content were analyzed. The results showed that these 17 species can be divided into three categories: Ca-indifferent plants, high

  17. Induced mutations in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., for high protein and lysine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, P.; Fuentes, R.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of producing cultivars adapted to the Lakes Region of Chile (latitude 39-44 deg. South) with better protein content and high grain yield, in 1975 spring wheat seeds of genotypes Express and UACH-2-75 were irradiated with gamma rays in doses of 15, 25 and 35 Krad. The M 1 generation was field sown and harvested individually, initiating plant selection in the M 2 generation. The selection process, through six generations, has permitted to identify some mutants of high protein content. Two mutants UACH-2-I and UACH-3-I have been included in the National Co-operative Wheat Program for yield. A second experiment was initiated in 1981 with the objective of obtaining mutants not only for high protein content but also for high lysine content. For this purpose seeds of the spring wheat genotypes Huenufen and Austral were irradiated with gamma rays in doses of 10 and 25 Krad. The M 1 generation was sown at a high density and harvested in bulk. Selection per plant will start in the M 2 generation, continuing in the following. (author)

  18. Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys with iron contents as high as 82 at%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jin-Feng; Liu, Xue; Zhao, Shao-Fan; Ding, Hong-Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yao, Ke-Fu, E-mail: kfyao@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs) with high Fe contents are advantageous due to their high saturation magnetization and low cost. However, preparing Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents higher than 80 at% is difficult due to their poor glass forming abilities (GFA). In this study, an Fe{sub 81}P{sub 8.5}C{sub 5.5}B{sub 2}Si{sub 3} BAA with a diameter of 1 mm and a saturation magnetization of 1.56 T was successfully prepared using the fluxing and copper mold casting methods. In addition, by introducing a small amount of elemental Mo to the alloy, an Fe{sub 82}Mo{sub 1}P{sub 6.5}C{sub 5.5}B{sub 2}Si{sub 3} BAA rod with a diameter of 1 mm, a high saturation magnetization of 1.59 T, a high yield stress of 3265 MPa, and a clear plasticity of 1.3% was prepared in the same way. The cost effectiveness and good magnetic properties of these newly-developed Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents as high as 82 at% would be advantageous and promising for industrial applications. - Highlights: • Novel Fe-based BAA with no other metallic element except 81 at% Fe was prepared. • Fe-based bulk amorphous alloy (BAA) with the highest Fe content (82%) was prepared. • Very high saturation magnetization of 1.59 T has been achieved. • A new thought for designing Fe-based BAA with high Fe content was provided.

  19. High-content screening of yeast mutant libraries by shotgun lipidomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarasov, Kirill; Stefanko, Adam; Casanovas, Albert

    2014-01-01

    To identify proteins with a functional role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis we designed a high-throughput platform for high-content lipidomic screening of yeast mutant libraries. To this end, we combined culturing and lipid extraction in 96-well format, automated direct infusion...... factor KAR4 precipitated distinct lipid metabolic phenotypes. These results demonstrate that the high-throughput shotgun lipidomics platform is a valid and complementary proxy for high-content screening of yeast mutant libraries....... nanoelectrospray ionization, high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry, and a dedicated data processing framework to support lipid phenotyping across hundreds of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants. Our novel approach revealed that the absence of genes with unknown function YBR141C and YJR015W, and the transcription...

  20. Improvement of cassava for high dry matter, starch and low cyanogenic glucoside content by mutation induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, E C; Mbanaso, E N.A.; Ene, L S.O. [Plant Breeding Div., National Root Crops Research Inst., Umudike, Umuahia (Nigeria)

    1997-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food in Nigeria. One drawback in its use as a staple food is the presence of cyanogenic glucosides which on hydrolysis produce the very toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To reduce the cyanogenic levels by mutation induction, three locally adopted and high yielding varieties of cassava, TMS 30572, NR 8817 and NR 84111 were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 Gy gamma rays. There were a wide variation in HCN, dry matter and starch content of irradiated cassava plants, screened in the MV{sub 2} propagation. Fourteen cassavavariant lines were selected for low HCN content, and 22 lines for high dry matter content. These will be further tested for yield in replicated field trials. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs.

  1. High content analysis of phagocytic activity and cell morphology with PuntoMorph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Ali, Hassan; Gao, Han; Dalby-Hansen, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    methods for quantifying phagocytic activity in multiple dimensions including speed, accuracy, and resolution. Conclusions We provide a framework to facilitate the development of high content assays suitable for drug screening. For convenience, we implemented our algorithm in a standalone software package...... with image-based quantification of phagocytic activity. New method We present a robust algorithm and cell-based assay system for high content analysis of phagocytic activity. The method utilizes fluorescently labeled beads as a phagocytic substrate with defined physical properties. The algorithm employs...... content screening. Results We tested our assay system using microglial cultures. Our results recapitulated previous findings on the effects of microglial stimulation on cell morphology and phagocytic activity. Moreover, our cell-level analysis revealed that the two phenotypes associated with microglial...

  2. Improvement of cassava for high dry matter, starch and low cyanogenic glucoside content by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanaso, E.N.A.; Ene, L.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food in Nigeria. One drawback in its use as a staple food is the presence of cyanogenic glucosides which on hydrolysis produce the very toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To reduce the cyanogenic levels by mutation induction, three locally adopted and high yielding varieties of cassava, TMS 30572, NR 8817 and NR 84111 were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 Gy gamma rays. There were a wide variation in HCN, dry matter and starch content of irradiated cassava plants, screened in the MV 2 propagation. Fourteen cassavavariant lines were selected for low HCN content, and 22 lines for high dry matter content. These will be further tested for yield in replicated field trials. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs

  3. High Neonatal Blood Iron Content Is Associated with the Risk of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nyholm Kyvsgaard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Iron requirement increases during pregnancy and iron supplementation is therefore recommended in many countries. However, excessive iron intake may lead to destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, we aim to test if higher neonatal iron content in blood is associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D in childhood; (2 Methods: A case-control study was conducted, including 199 children diagnosed with T1D before the age of 16 years from 1991 to 2005 and 199 controls matched on date of birth. Information on confounders was available in 181 cases and 154 controls. Iron was measured on a neonatal single dried blood spot sample and was analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate if iron content in whole blood was associated with the risk of T1D; (3 Results: A doubling of iron content increased the odds of developing T1D more than two-fold (odds ratio (95% CI, 2.55 (1.04; 6.24. Iron content increased with maternal age (p = 0.04 and girls had higher content than boys (p = 0.01; (4 Conclusions: Higher neonatal iron content associates to an increased risk of developing T1D before the age of 16 years. Iron supplementation during early childhood needs further investigation, including the causes of high iron in neonates.

  4. Electron beam induced electronic transport in alkyl amine-intercalated VOx nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dwyer, C.; Lavayen, V.; Clavijo-Cedeno, C.; Torres, C.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The electron beam induced electronic transport in primary alkyl amine-intercalated V 2 O 5 nanotubes is investigated where the organic amine molecules are employed as molecular conductive wires to an aminosilanized substrate surface and contacted to Au interdigitated electrode contacts. The results demonstrate that the high conductivity of the nanotubes is related to the non-resonant tunnelling through the amine molecules and a reduced polaron hopping conduction through the vanadium oxide itself. Both nanotube networks and individual nanotubes exhibit similarly high conductivities where the minority carrier transport is bias dependent and nanotube diameter invariant. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. New insights into controlling tube-bundle fouling using alternative amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Guzonas, D.A.; Fruzzetti, K. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (Canada); Frattini, P.L. [Electric Power Research Inst. (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A volatile amine is added to the secondary heat-transport system of a nuclear power plant to reduce the rate of corrosion and corrosion product transport in the feedwater and to protect steam generator (SG) crevices and materials exposed to steam condensate. Volatility and base strength of the amine at the SG operating temperature are two important considerations when choosing the optimum amine (or mixture of amines) for corrosion control in the steam cycle. The investigation has found that the rate of tube-bundle fouling is strongly dependent upon the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. For example, the fouling rates of fully oxidized iron oxides, such as hematite and lepidocrocite, are at least an order of magnitude greater than the fouling rate of magnetite under identical operating conditions. The difference is related to the sign of the surface charge on the corrosion products at temperature. The choice of amine for pH-control also influences the fouling rate. This was originally thought to be a surface-charge effect as well, but recent tests have suggested that it is related to the role that the amine plays in governing the rate of deposit consolidation on the heat-transfer surface. Amines that promote a high rate of deposit consolidation result in a low rate of deposit removal and a high fouling rate. Conversely, amines that tend to inhibit deposit consolidation produce a higher rate of deposit removal and a lower fouling rate. Dimethyl-amine and dodecyl-amine have been identified as two amines that inhibit the rate of deposit consolidation and, consequently, result in fouling rates that are up to 5 times lower than rates measured for amines that promote consolidation. A significant difference between morpholine (high fouling rate) and dimethyl-amine (low fouling rate) is that the latter desorbs more slowly from the surface of magnetite. How to account for a correlation between slow desorption kinetics and lower rate constants for deposition and

  6. New insights into controlling tube-bundle fouling using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Guzonas, D.A.; Fruzzetti, K.; Frattini, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    A volatile amine is added to the secondary heat-transport system of a nuclear power plant to reduce the rate of corrosion and corrosion product transport in the feedwater and to protect steam generator (SG) crevices and materials exposed to steam condensate. Volatility and base strength of the amine at the SG operating temperature are two important considerations when choosing the optimum amine (or mixture of amines) for corrosion control in the steam cycle. The investigation has found that the rate of tube-bundle fouling is strongly dependent upon the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. For example, the fouling rates of fully oxidized iron oxides, such as hematite and lepidocrocite, are at least an order of magnitude greater than the fouling rate of magnetite under identical operating conditions. The difference is related to the sign of the surface charge on the corrosion products at temperature. The choice of amine for pH-control also influences the fouling rate. This was originally thought to be a surface-charge effect as well, but recent tests have suggested that it is related to the role that the amine plays in governing the rate of deposit consolidation on the heat-transfer surface. Amines that promote a high rate of deposit consolidation result in a low rate of deposit removal and a high fouling rate. Conversely, amines that tend to inhibit deposit consolidation produce a higher rate of deposit removal and a lower fouling rate. Dimethyl-amine and dodecyl-amine have been identified as two amines that inhibit the rate of deposit consolidation and, consequently, result in fouling rates that are up to 5 times lower than rates measured for amines that promote consolidation. A significant difference between morpholine (high fouling rate) and dimethyl-amine (low fouling rate) is that the latter desorbs more slowly from the surface of magnetite. How to account for a correlation between slow desorption kinetics and lower rate constants for deposition and

  7. Evaluation of biogenic amines and microbial counts throughout the ripening of goat cheeses from pasteurized and raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella-Rodríguez, Sonia; Veciana-Nogués, M Teresa; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Trujillo-Mesa, Antonio J; Vidal-Carou, M Carmen

    2004-05-01

    The effect of the hygienic quality of milk on changes in microbial counts and biogenic amine content was evaluated during ripening of goat cheeses manufactured from pasteurized and raw milks at 1, 14, 30, 60 and 90 d. The original milk, rennet, curd and whey were also included in the study. The pH, salt content and extent of proteolysis in the cheese were also evaluated. Spermidine and spermine were the main amines in raw milk, while they were minor amines in cheeses. Other amines increased markedly during ripening, tyramine being the main amine in cheese made from raw milk and cadaverine and putrescine in those produced from pasteurized milk. Enterobacteriaceae counts decreased during ripening whereas those of lactic acid bacteria increased, especially lactobacilli and enterococci. Cheese made from raw milk showed higher microbial counts during ripening than those made from pasteurized milk, especially for Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, counts being 2 or 3 log units higher. Raw milk cheese showed remarkably higher biogenic amines compared with pasteurized milk cheeses. Therefore, pasteurization of milk causes a decrease in final biogenic amine content of cheese as a result of the reduction of its microbial counts.

  8. The content and role of formal contracts in high-tech alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gjalt; Woolthuis, Rosalinde Ja Klein

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate the governance structure of innovation processes in high-tech alliances, focusing on the content and role of formal contracts. The design of a formal agreement is one of the most important strategic decisions for alliance partners. Drawing upon transaction cost arguments

  9. Cultural Parallax and Content Analysis: Images of Black Women in High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyshner, Christine; Schocker, Jessica B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the representation of Black women in high school history textbooks. To examine the extent to which Black women are represented visually and to explore how they are portrayed, the authors use a mixed-methods approach that draws on analytical techniques in content analysis and from visual culture studies. Their findings…

  10. Exceptional heat stability of high protein content dispersions containing whey protein particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to aggregation and/or gelation during thermal treatment, the amount of whey proteins that can be used in the formulation of high protein foods e.g. protein drinks, is limited. The aim of this study was to replace whey proteins with whey protein particles to increase the total protein content and

  11. Anti-cancer agents in Saudi Arabian herbals revealed by automated high-content imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjar, Dina A.; Kremb, Stephan Georg; Sioud, Salim; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Ravasi, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    in cancer therapy. Here, we used cell-based phenotypic profiling and image-based high-content screening to study the mode of action and potential cellular targets of plants historically used in Saudi Arabia's traditional medicine. We compared the cytological

  12. Chemical segregation of progeny of camphor trees with high camphor c.q. Linalool content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khien, P.V.; Chien, Ho Trung; Dung, N.X.; Leclercq, A.X.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    The propagation of open pollinated seed from two camphor trees with a high camphor and linalool content, respectively, yielded 115 progeny. The chemical composition of the leaf oils of these trees was analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC/MS. Four chemotypes could be distinguished among

  13. [Fe(F20 TPP)Cl]-catalyzed amination with arylamines and {[Fe(F20 TPP)(NAr)](PhI=NAr)} + . Intermediate assessed by high-resolution ESI-MS and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungen; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Tse, Chun-Wai; Guan, Xianguo; Xu, Zheng-Jiang; Huang, Jie-Sheng; Che, Chi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Amination of CH bonds catalyzed by transition metal complexes via nitrene/imide insertion is an appealing strategy for CN bond formation, and the use of iminoiodinanes, or their in situ generated forms from 'PhI(OAc)2 +primary amides (such as sulfonamides, sulfamates, and carbamates)', as nitrogen sources for the amination reaction has been well documented. In this work, a 'metal catalyst+PhI(OAc)2 +primary arylamines' amination protocol has been developed using [Fe(F20 TPP)Cl] (H2 F20 TPP=meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin) as a catalyst. This catalytic method is applicable for both intra- and intermolecular amination of sp(2) and sp(3) CH bonds (>27 examples), affording the amination products, including natural products such as rutaecarpine, in moderate-to-good yields. ESI-MS analysis and DFT calculations lend support for the involvement of {[Fe(F20 TPP)(NC6 H4 -p-NO2 )](PhI=NC6 H4 -p-NO2 )} + . intermediate in the catalysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Comparative analysis of the in vitro cytotoxicity of the dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Ladero, Victor; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-04-15

    Tyramine and histamine, the most toxic biogenic amines (BA), are often found in high concentrations in certain foods. Prompted by the limited knowledge of BA toxicity, and increasing awareness of the risks associated with high intakes of dietary BA, the in vitro cytotoxicity of tyramine and histamine was investigated. Tyramine and histamine were toxic for HT29 intestinal cell cultures at concentrations commonly found in BA-rich food, as determined by real-time cell analysis. Surprisingly, tyramine had a stronger and more rapid cytotoxic effect than histamine. Their mode of action was also different, while tyramine caused cell necrosis, histamine induced apoptosis. To avoid health risks, the BA content of foods should be reduced and legal limits established for tyramine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  16. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  17. Method for the production of primary amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldenius, Kai-Uwe; Ditrich, Klaus; Breurer, Michael; Navickas, Vaidotas; Janssen, Dick; Crismaru, Ciprian; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel enzymatically catalyzed method for the production of aliphatic primary amines, which method comprises the enzymatic oxidation of a primary aliphatic alcohol catalyzed by an alcohol dehydrogenase, amination of the resulting oxocompound catalyzed by a

  18. Sillica Gel-Amine from Geothermal Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muljani, S.; Pujiastuti, C.; Wicaksono, P.; Lutfianingrum, R.

    2018-01-01

    Silica Gel-Amine (SGA) has been made from geothermal sludge by grafting amine method. Sodium silicate solution is prepared by extracted geothermal sludge powder using sodium hidroxide solution then acidification in the range of pH 5 - 9 by using tartaric acid 1N. The grafting process uses 1 ml of ammonia solution and 10 ml of toluene at a rate of 0.1 ml min-1 accompanied by a reflux process. The amine grafting is done in two methods. The first method is grafting amine in silicate solution and the second method is grafting amine in washed gel. Product SGA was confirmed by FTIR, TGA-DTG and BET characterization. The results show that the pH affects the amount of amine that is grafted onto silica gel. Differences in grafting method affect the size of the pore and surface area. SGA product prepared by grafting washed gel at pH 8 have pore diameter of 12.06 nm, surface area of 173.44 m2g-1, and mass of decomposed amine compound 0.4 mg. In the presence of amine groups on the silica gel surface, these adsorbents may be able to selectively adsorb CO2 gas from natural gas.

  19. Calcium content and high calcium adaptation of plants in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaocong; Deng, Xiangwen; Xiang, Wenhua; Lei, Pifeng; Ouyang, Shuai; Wen, Hongfang; Chen, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Rocky desertification is a major ecological problem of land degradation in karst areas. In these areas, the high soil calcium (Ca) content has become an important environmental factor that can affect the restoration of vegetation. Consequently, the screening of plant species that can adapt to high Ca soil environments is a critical step in vegetation restoration. In this study, three grades of rocky desertification sample areas were selected in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China (LRD: light rocky desertification; MRD: moderate rocky desertification; and IRD: intense rocky desertification). Each grade of these sample areas had three sample plots in different slope positions, each of which had four small quadrats (one in rocky-side areas, three in non-rocky-side areas). We measured the Ca content of leaves, branches, and roots from 41 plant species, as well as soil total Ca (TCa) and exchangeable Ca (ECa) at depths of 0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 cm in each small quadrat. The results showed that the soil Ca2+ content in rocky-side areas was significantly higher than that in non-rocky-side areas (p desertification, in the order IRD > MRD > LRD. For all plant functional groups, the plant Ca content of aboveground parts was significantly higher than that of the belowground parts (p 1). The differences in Ca2+ content between the aboveground and belowground parts of the 17 dominant species were calculated, and their correlations with soil ECa content were analyzed. The results showed that these 17 species can be divided into three categories: Ca-indifferent plants, high-Ca plants, and low-Ca plants. These findings provide a vital theoretical basis and practical guide for vegetation restoration and ecosystem reconstruction in rocky desertification areas.

  20. Influence on wine biogenic amine composition of modifications to soil N availability and grapevine N by cover crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Cabrita, Maria João; García-Escudero, Enrique; Peregrina, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Vineyard soil management can modify the nitrogen soil availability and, therefore, grape amino acid content. These compounds are precursors of biogenic amines, which have negative effects on wine quality and human health. The objective was to study whether the effect of conventional tillage and two cover crops (barley and clover) on grapevine nitrogen status could be related to wine biogenic amines. Over 4 years, soil NO 3 - -N, nitrogen content in leaf and wine biogenic amine concentration were determined. Barley reduced soil NO 3 - -N availability and clover increased it. In 2011, at bloom, nitrogen content decreased with barley treatment in both blade and petiole. In 2012, nitrogen content in both leaf tissues at bloom was greater with clover than with tillage and barley treatments. Also, total biogenic amines decreased in barley with respect to tillage and clover treatments. There were correlations between some individual and total biogenic amine concentrations with respect to nitrogen content in leaf tissues. Wine biogenic amine concentration can be affected by the grapevine nitrogen status, provoked by changes in the soil NO 3 - -N availability with both cover crop treatments. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Amine Measurements in Boreal Forest Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmilä, Marja; Hellén, Heidi; Makkonen, Ulla; Hakola, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    Amines are reactive, volatile bases in the air with a general formula of RNH2, R2NH or R3N. Especially small amines can stabilize sulphuric acid clusters and hence affect nucleation. Amines react rapidly with hydroxyl radical (OH˙) thus affecting oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. The amine concentrations are higher in forest air than in urban air (Hellén et al., 2014), but the sources are not known. In order to get more information concerning amine sources, we conducted a measurement campaign in a boreal forest. At SMEAR II station at Hyytiälä, Southern Finland (61°510'N, 24°170'E, 180 m a.s.l.) The measurements cover seven months, from June to December 2014. For sampling and measuring we used MARGA (The instrument for Measuring AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air) which is an on-line ion chromatograph (IC) connected to a sampling system. The IC component of the MARGA system was coupled to an electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) to improve sensitivity of amine measurements. This new set-up enabled amine concentration measurements in ambient air both in aerosol and gas phases with a time resolution of only 1 hour. With MARGA-MS we analysed 7 different amines: monomethylamine (MMA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA), propylamine (PA) and butylamine (BA). In preliminary data-analysis we found out, that in June and July most of the measured amines were in gas phase, and particle phase amine concentrations were mostly under detection limits (<1.7 pptv). In June the gaseous amine concentrations were higher than in July. The measured concentrations of gaseous amines followed temperature variation, which could indicate that amines are produced and emitted from the environment or re-emitted from the surfaces as temperature rises after deposition during night-time. All measured amines had similar diurnal variation with maxima during afternoon and minima during night. Results from other months will also

  2. Gamma and electron radiation effects on agricultural by-products with high fibre content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Baer, M.; Nehring, K.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw, rye straw and dried green fodder are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestibility of these agricultural by-products with high fibre content can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerization of the cellulose and hemicellulose. (author)

  3. The effect of High Pressure and High Temperature processing on carotenoids and chlorophylls content in some vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Celia; Baranda, Ana Beatriz; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2014-11-15

    The effect of High Pressure (HP) and High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) processing on carotenoid and chlorophyll content of six vegetables was evaluated. In general, carotenoid content was not significantly influenced by HP or HPHT treatments (625 MPa; 5 min; 20, 70 and 117 °C). Regarding chlorophylls, HP treatment caused no degradation or slight increases, while HPHT processes degraded both chlorophylls. Chlorophyll b was more stable than chlorophyll a at 70 °C, but both of them were highly degraded at 117 °C. HPHT treatment at 117 °C provided products with a good retention of carotenoids and colour in the case of red vegetables. Even though the carotenoids also remained in the green vegetables, their chlorophylls and therefore their colour were so affected that milder temperatures need to be applied. As an industrial scale equipment was used, results will be useful for future industrial implementation of this technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Internal friction in iron-aluminium alloys having a high aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillairet, J.; Delaplace, J.; Silvent, A.

    1966-01-01

    By using a torsion pendulum to measure the internal friction of iron-aluminium alloys containing between 25 and 50 atom per cent of aluminium, it has been possible to show the existence of three damping peaks due to interstitial carbon. Their evolution is followed as a function of the carbon content, of the thermal treatment and of the aluminium content. A model based on the preferential occupation of tetrahedral sites is proposed as an interpretation of the results. A study of the Zener peak in these substitution alloys shows also that a part of the short distance disorder existing at high temperatures can be preserved by quenching. (author) [fr

  5. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boirie, Ch.

    1959-05-01

    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [fr

  6. Visible Light Induced Green Transformation of Primary Amines to Imines Using a Silicate Supported Anatase Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sifani Zavahir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic oxidation of amine to imine is of intense present interest since imines are important intermediates for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. However, considerable efforts have been made to develop efficient methods for the oxidation of secondary amines to imines, while little attention has until recently been given to the oxidation of primary amines, presumably owing to the high reactivity of generated imines of primary amines that are easily dehydrogenated to nitriles. Herein, we report the oxidative coupling of a series of primary benzylic amines into corresponding imines with dioxygen as the benign oxidant over composite catalysts of TiO2 (anatase-silicate under visible light irradiation of λ > 460 nm. Visible light response of this system is believed to be as a result of high population of defects and contacts between silicate and anatase crystals in the composite and the strong interaction between benzylic amine and the catalyst. It is found that tuning the intensity and wavelength of the light irradiation and the reaction temperature can remarkably enhance the reaction activity. Water can also act as a green medium for the reaction with an excellent selectivity. This report contributes to the use of readily synthesized, environmentally benign, TiO2 based composite photocatalyst and solar energy to realize the transformation of primary amines to imine compounds.

  7. Visible light induced green transformation of primary amines to imines using a silicate supported anatase photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavahir, Sifani; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2015-01-26

    Catalytic oxidation of amine to imine is of intense present interest since imines are important intermediates for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. However, considerable efforts have been made to develop efficient methods for the oxidation of secondary amines to imines, while little attention has until recently been given to the oxidation of primary amines, presumably owing to the high reactivity of generated imines of primary amines that are easily dehydrogenated to nitriles. Herein, we report the oxidative coupling of a series of primary benzylic amines into corresponding imines with dioxygen as the benign oxidant over composite catalysts of TiO2 (anatase)-silicate under visible light irradiation of λ > 460 nm. Visible light response of this system is believed to be as a result of high population of defects and contacts between silicate and anatase crystals in the composite and the strong interaction between benzylic amine and the catalyst. It is found that tuning the intensity and wavelength of the light irradiation and the reaction temperature can remarkably enhance the reaction activity. Water can also act as a green medium for the reaction with an excellent selectivity. This report contributes to the use of readily synthesized, environmentally benign, TiO2 based composite photocatalyst and solar energy to realize the transformation of primary amines to imine compounds.

  8. The stability study of myristyl dimethyl amine oxide as an amphoteric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability study of myristyl dimethyl amine oxide as an amphoteric surfactant in strong oxidant media containing 5 % m/m sodium hypochlorite through measurement of decomposing rate using high performance liquid chromatography and two phase titration.

  9. Anomalous length dependence of conductance of aromatic nanoribbons with amine anchoring groups

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante; Sanvito, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    for longer members of the series. The oligoperylene nanoribbons, with dual amine groups at both terminals, show the potential to fully harness the highly conjugated system of π molecular orbitals across the junction. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  10. The effect of manganese content on mechanical properties of high titanium microalloyed steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaolin, E-mail: lixiaolinwork@163.com [Shougang Research Institute of Technology, Beijing 100041 (China); Li, Fei; Cui, Yang; Xiao, Baoliang [Shougang Research Institute of Technology, Beijing 100041 (China); Wang, Xuemin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-11-20

    In this work, in order to achieve an optimum combination of high strength, ductility and toughness of high Ti microalloyed steel, extensive research efforts were exerted to study the effect of soaking temperature, manganese and sulfur content on properties of titanium steels. Precipitation hardening of Ti-bearing steels has been found to vary with different soaking temperature. Higher strength was achieved in these steels at higher soaking temperature due to dissolution of more TiC, Ti{sub 4}S{sub 2}C{sub 2} and little TiN, which lead to re-precipitation of fine carbides with greater volume fraction. The results of transmission electron microscope (TEM)analysis indicates that there were more and finer TiC precipitates coherent or semi-coherent with the ferrite matrix in the high manganese content steel than in low manganese content steel. The marked improvement in strength is also associated with low sulfur content. TiC particles smaller than 20 nm in 8Ti-8Mn steel help enhance strength to higher than 302 MPa compared with 8Mn steel.

  11. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Zubair; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

  12. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  13. Investigation of water content in primary upper shield of high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Mogi, Haruyoshi; Itahashi, Shuuji; Kitami, Toshiyuki; Akutu, Youichi; Fuchita, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Toru; Moriya, Masahiro

    1999-09-01

    A primary upper shield of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is composed of concrete (grout) which is packed into iron frames. The main function of the primary upper shield is to attenuate neutron and gamma ray from the core, that leads to satisfy dose equivalent rate limit of operating floor and stand-pipe room. Water content in the concrete is one of the most important things because it strongly affects neutron-shielding ability. Then, we carried out out-of-pile experiments to investigate relationship between temperature and water content in the concrete. Based on the experimental results, a hydrolysis-diffusion model was developed to investigate water release behavior from the concrete. The model showed that water content used for shielding design in the primary upper shield of the HTTR will be maintained if temperature during operating life is under 110degC. (author)

  14. Designing novel bulk metallic glass composites with a high aluminum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z P; Gao, J E; Wu, Y; Wang, H; Liu, X J; Lu, Z P

    2013-11-27

    The long-standing challenge for forming Al-based BMGs and their matrix composites with a critical size larger than 1 mm have not been answered over the past three decades. In this paper, we reported formation of a series of BMG matrix composites which contain a high Al content up to 55 at.%. These composites can be cast at extraordinarily low cooling rates, compatible with maximum rod diameters of over a centimetre in copper mold casting. Our results indicate that proper additions of transition element Fe which have a positive heat of mixing with the main constituents La and Ce can appreciably improve the formability of the BMG matrix composites by suppressing the precipitation of Al(La,Ce) phase resulted from occurrence of the phase separation. However, the optimum content of Fe addition is strongly dependant on the total amount of the Al content in the Al-(CoCu)-(La,Ce) alloys.

  15. Formulation and make-up of simulated concentrated water, high ionic content aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of a thousand higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal thousand times higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the water that would result from the wetting of salts which have been previously deposited on a container surface

  16. Peel and pulp of baru (Dipteryx Alata Vog. provide high fiber, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Lima SANTIAGO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is a native fruit of the Brazilian Savannah that can be used in the food industry and may contribute to the economy of the Brazilian Midwest. The proximate composition, the phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of the peel, pulp and raw and roasted baru almond were examined and compared. Peel showed higher concentrations of dietary fibers (24.1 g/100 g followed by pulp and roasted almond (18 g/100 g and 16 g/100 g, respectively, and raw almond (12.0 g/100 g. However, the almonds presented the highest lipid and protein concentrations compared to baru peel and pulp. In addition, raw almond showed the highest total phenolic contents (1,107.0 mg GAE/100 g and antioxidant capacity, but the roasted almond, and baru peel with its pulp, also presented high phenolic contents. The correlation coefficients between phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (via ABTS and FRAP were strong and significant. The chemical composition of baru peel has not previously been reported. The results showed promising prospects for the consumption of baru pulp with its peel, the fruit component richest in fiber, whose phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are comparable to those of the baru almond.

  17. Changes in biogenic amine concentrations in meat of eviscerated pheasants (Phasianus colchicus during storage at 7 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we tested biogenic amine concentrations in 20 eviscerated pheasants killed by pithing (the slaughtering technique in which the spinal cord of the animals is severed and their brain is destroyed and stored at 7 °C for 21 days. Biogenic amine concentrations in breast and thigh muscles were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography. In the thigh muscle, the highest increases during the storage time were found in cadaverine (20.17 ± 18.66 mg/kg, putrescine (4.39 ± 4.17 mg/kg and tyramine (15.20 ± 16.88 mg/kg concentrations. Changes of biogenic amine concentrations in the breast muscle were minimal during the whole storage time. The concentration of biogenic amines in meat is associated with the presence of contaminating microorganisms. For that reason, biogenic amines are often used as markers of meat spoilage in various livestock species. Based on our results, the biogenic amines cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine may be considered the main indicators of hygienic quality of pheasant meat. We can recommend storing pithed pheasants treated by evisceration no longer than for seven days at 7 °C. After that period, biogenic amine concentrations in meat begin to change. The main significance of this study lies in the extension of the lack information about the content of biogenic amines in the meat of eviscerated pithed pheasant and also about changes of their concentrations during the course of storage.

  18. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  19. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  20. Organocatalyzed Asymmetric α-Oxidation, α-Aminoxylation and α-Amination of Carbonyl Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawan Bhanthumnavin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organocatalytic asymmetric α-oxidation and amination reactions of carbonyl compounds are highly useful synthetic methodologies, especially in generating chiral building blocks that previously have not been easily accessible by traditional methods. The concept is relatively new and therefore the list of new catalysts, oxidizing and aminating reagents, as well as new substrates, are expanding at an amazing rate. The scope of this review includes new reactions and catalysts, mechanistic aspects and synthetic applications of α-oxidation, hydroxylation, aminoxylation, amination, hydrazination, hydroxyamination and related α-heteroatom functionalization of aldehydes, ketones and related active methylene compounds published during 2005–2009.

  1. Regularities of synthesis and mechanism of polycondensation of aromatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matnishyan, Hagob

    2002-01-01

    Full text.Aniline polymers and its derivatives are widely used in modern electronics, electrical engineering and manufacturing of various appliances. They are used for production of electrical power sources, probes and sensors, composite materials absorbing high frequency radiations, anticorrosion coatings, nonlinear optical devices-such as lasers, cathode ray tubes, photodiodes etc. Such a wide usage of aromatic amine polymers brings up new demands to their structure and properties, which is dependent on conditions of synthesis and forming of the hard phase. The presented article describes regularities and mechanisms of oxidative polycondensation of aromatic amines. Several types of polymers have been synthesized by chemical and electrochemical oxidation of aniline and its chlor-, brom-, iodo-, nitro-, p-substituted derivatives; diphenylamine, benzidine and phenylenediamines in nonwater media. On the basis of kinetic and electrochemical studies and literature analysis we suggested a mechanism of polycondensation of aromatic amines. According to it, oxidation of amines starts with the electron transfer with cation-radical formation on the first stage, which stabilizes in acid environments due to complex formation with initial amine. Dimer formation and further growth of chain takes place upon another electron transfer from formed complex, which results in forming of macromolecules. We also suggested a scheme for obtaining of structures defect in media assisting in deprotonizing of cation radicals and formation of arylamine radical centers. Those processes lead to formation of azo- and diphenyl fragments in the main chain of the polymer and predetermine the possibility of chain disruption. We also considered reactions leading to formation of branched polymers and cyclic structures, such as phenazine in particular. The peculiarity of electrochemical process lies in regulation of concentration of active centres on the positive electrode surface

  2. Risk assessment related to biogenic amines occurrence in ready-to-eat baby foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska-Mysłek, Anna; Leszczyńska, Joanna

    2017-07-01

    Potential adverse reactions among infants and young children could appear after consumption of food containing small amounts of bioactive amines. This study presents the first assessment of biogenic amines occurrence in ready-to-eat vegetable without/with fish, meat and fruit baby products intended for the youngest consumers. The biogenic amine profiles and quantities of 6 amines were evaluated in 68 commercial baby foods produced by 10 leading manufacturers available in Poland, using HPLC-APCI-MS method. The total amine contents in analyzed products were obtained in the range of 1283-101421 ng/g. The maximum level of histamine (2375 ng/g) was found in the sample with spinach, tyramine (1667 ng/g) in fruit sample with banana, and of di- and polyamines (1263-53416 ng/g) in samples containing green peas. The results of amine analysis in baby foods indicated the presence of food ingredients which may be necessary to remove (tuna, possibly spinach) or reduce the amount added (spinach, green peas), either reduce their use by infants under 12 months of age (beef). Special attention should also be given to control the consumption of fruit baby products containing banana (higher tyramine and putrescine level). On the basis of obtained results a potential %ARfD, and the BAI were also evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Content Analysis of the Concept of Addiction in High School Textbooks of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzamohammadi, Mohammad Hasan; Mousavi, Sayedeh Zainab; Massah, Omid; Farhoudian, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This research sought to determine how well the causes of addiction, addiction harms, and prevention of addiction have been noticed in high school textbooks. We used descriptive method to select the main related components of the addiction concept and content analysis method for analyzing the content of textbooks. The study population comprised 61 secondary school curriculum textbooks and study sample consisted of 14 secondary school textbooks selected by purposeful sampling method. The tools for collecting data were "content analysis inventory" which its validity was confirmed by educational and social sciences experts and its reliability has been found to be 91%. About 67 components were prepared for content analysis and were divided to 3 categories of causes, harms, and prevention of addiction. The analysis units in this study comprised phrases, topics, examples, course topics, words, poems, images, questions, tables, and exercises. Results of the study showed that the components of the addiction concept have presented with 212 remarks in the textbooks. Also, the degree of attention given to any of the 3 main components of the addiction concept were presented as follows: causes with 52 (24.52%) remarks, harm with 89 (41.98%) remarks, and prevention with 71 (33.49%) remarks. In high school textbooks, little attention has been paid to the concept of addiction and mostly its biological dimension were addressed while social, personal, familial, and religious dimensions of addiction have been neglected.

  4. A Categorical Content Analysis of Highly Cited Literature Related to Trends and Issues in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Sarah V; Pentimonti, Jill M; Cooray, Rochana; Jackson, Stephanie

    2017-07-01

    This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cross-categorical journal recognized for its impact in the field. Results indicated trends in the article type (i.e., commentary and position papers), content (i.e., reading and behavior), and methodology (i.e., small proportions of experimental and quasi-experimental designs). Results also revealed stability in the proportion of intervention research studies when compared to previous analyses and a decline in the proportion of those that disaggregated data specifically for students with LD.

  5. Design of a small scale boiler package for testing high moisture content biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design a prototype, small-scale boiler (0.88 MWth output) to enable clean and efficient combustion of high moisture content (>30%) biomass fuels. The boiler was based on an open bottom smoke tube design, modified to incorporate water tubes in the combustion chamber running from front to back. These were added to support refractory bricks to create an extra pass in the boiler combustion chamber such that the reflected heat from the refractory increased the rate of evaporation of moisture from the fuel. A chain grate stoker was employed. The combustion tests involved three biofuels: wood pellets with a low moisture content (8-10%) (to provide combustion rates for a commercially proven biofuel); wood chips from forestry waste with a 30-40% moisture content; and spent mushroom compost with 70-75% moisture. The tests on the wood chips required a number of modifications to the fuel feeding system and to the boiler in order to achieve limited success and the tests with the mushroom compost were unsuccessful due to the combination of the high moisture content and the fuel's low calorific value. Experience gained with the wood chips suggested a number of improvements for a future boiler design. As well as describing the experimental work and test results, the report offers an economic analysis (capital costs, fuel costs, running costs) of the scheme.

  6. Influence of Ta Content in High Purity Niobium on Cavity Performance Preliminary Results*

    CERN Document Server

    Kneisel, P

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper* a program designed to study the influence of the residual tantalum content on the superconducting properties of pure niobium metal for RF cavities was outlined. The main rationale for this program was based on a potential cost reduction for high purity niobium, if a less strict limit on the chemical specification for Ta content, which is not significantly affecting the RRR–value, could be tolerated for high performance cavities. Four ingots with different Ta contents have been melted and transformed into sheets. In each manufacturing step the quality of the material has been monitored by employing chemical analysis, neutron activation analysis, thermal conductivity measurements and evaluation of the mechanical properties. The niobium sheets have been scanned for defects by an eddy current device. From three of the four ingots—Ta contents 100, 600 and 1,200 wppm—two single cell cavities each of the CEBAF variety have been fabricated and a series of tests on each ...

  7. Manganese-catalysed benzylic C(sp3)-H amination for late-stage functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph R; Feng, Kaibo; Sookezian, Anasheh; White, M Christina

    2018-06-01

    Reactions that directly install nitrogen into C-H bonds of complex molecules are significant because of their potential to change the chemical and biological properties of a given compound. Although selective intramolecular C-H amination reactions are known, achieving high levels of reactivity while maintaining excellent site selectivity and functional-group tolerance remains a challenge for intermolecular C-H amination. Here, we report a manganese perchlorophthalocyanine catalyst [MnIII(ClPc)] for intermolecular benzylic C-H amination of bioactive molecules and natural products that proceeds with unprecedented levels of reactivity and site selectivity. In the presence of a Brønsted or Lewis acid, the [MnIII(ClPc)]-catalysed C-H amination demonstrates unique tolerance for tertiary amine, pyridine and benzimidazole functionalities. Mechanistic studies suggest that C-H amination likely proceeds through an electrophilic metallonitrene intermediate via a stepwise pathway where C-H cleavage is the rate-determining step of the reaction. Collectively, these mechanistic features contrast with previous base-metal-catalysed C-H aminations and provide new opportunities for tunable selectivities.

  8. Optimizing cationic and neutral lipids for efficient gene delivery at high serum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chia-Ling; Ewert, Kai K; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Liang, Keng S; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential application in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for application is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of a high serum content on TE, even though this may provide design guidelines for application in vivo. We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid [1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol], the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, particularly at a high serum content. Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We propose guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Preparation of novel ceramics with high CaO content from steel slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lihua; Li, Yu; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Cang, Daqiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficiently utilize such solid waste with high CaO content. • A novel ceramics was put forward by traditional ceramic process. • The novel ceramics attained high strength. • Sintering mechanisms of the novel ceramics were discussed. - Abstract: Steel slag, an industrial waste discharged from steelmaking process, cannot be extensively used in traditional aluminosilicate based ceramics manufacturing for its high content of calcium oxide. In order to efficiently utilize such solid waste, a method of preparing ceramics with high CaO content was put forward. In this paper, steel slag in combination with quartz, talcum, clay and feldspar was converted to a novel ceramic by traditional ceramic process. The sintering mechanism, microstructure and performances were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, combined experimenting of linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength. The results revealed that all crystal phases in the novel ceramic were pyroxene group minerals, including diopsite ferrian, augite and diopsite. Almost all raw materials including quartz joined the reaction and transformed into pyroxene or glass phase in the sintering process, and different kinds of clays and feldspars had no impact on the final crystal phases. Flexural strength of the ceramic containing 40 wt.% steel slag in raw materials can reach 143 MPa at sintering temperature of 1210 °C and its corresponding water absorption, weight loss, linear shrinkage were 0.02%, 8.8%, 6.0% respectively. Pyroxene group minerals in ceramics would contribute to the excellent physical and mechanical properties

  10. Active Learning Strategies for Phenotypic Profiling of High-Content Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin; Horvath, Peter

    2014-06-01

    High-content screening is a powerful method to discover new drugs and carry out basic biological research. Increasingly, high-content screens have come to rely on supervised machine learning (SML) to perform automatic phenotypic classification as an essential step of the analysis. However, this comes at a cost, namely, the labeled examples required to train the predictive model. Classification performance increases with the number of labeled examples, and because labeling examples demands time from an expert, the training process represents a significant time investment. Active learning strategies attempt to overcome this bottleneck by presenting the most relevant examples to the annotator, thereby achieving high accuracy while minimizing the cost of obtaining labeled data. In this article, we investigate the impact of active learning on single-cell-based phenotype recognition, using data from three large-scale RNA interference high-content screens representing diverse phenotypic profiling problems. We consider several combinations of active learning strategies and popular SML methods. Our results show that active learning significantly reduces the time cost and can be used to reveal the same phenotypic targets identified using SML. We also identify combinations of active learning strategies and SML methods which perform better than others on the phenotypic profiling problems we studied. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Iron content and solubility in dust from high-alpine snow along a north-south transect of High Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guangjian; Zhang, Chenglong; Li, Zhongqin; Zhang, Xuelei; Gao, Shaopeng

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the dissolved and insoluble iron fraction of dust (mineral aerosol) in high-alpine snow samples collected along a north-south transect across High Asia (Eastern Tien Shan, Qilian Shan, and Southern Tibetan Plateau). This dust provides the basic chemical properties of mid- and high-level tropospheric Asian dust that can supply the limiting iron nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the North Pacific. The iron content in Asian dust averages 4.95% in Eastern Tien Shan, 3.38–5...

  12. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. [Low caloric value and high salt content in the meals served in school canteens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Isabel; Pinto, Carlos; Queirós, Laurinda; Meister, Maria Cristina; Saraiva, Margarida; Bruno, Paula; Antunes, Delfina; Afonso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    School lunch can contribute to aggravate food quality, by excess or deficiency, or it can contribute to compensate and alleviate them. This school meal should be an answer to combating the epidemic of obesity, and to feed some grace children. The objective was to study the nutritional composition of catering in canteens of public schools, from Northern municipalities in the District of Porto: Vila do Conde, Póvoa de Varzim, Santo Tirso and Trofa. Meals were subjected to laboratory analysis. Thirty two meals, four per each school were analysed, reference values for the analysis of the nutritional composition of meals were dietary reference intakes (USA) and eating well at school (UK). The average energy meal content was 447 kcal and the median 440 kcal (22% of daily calories). The average values of nutrients, per meal, were: lipids 9, 8 g, carbohydrate 65,7 g and proteins 24,0 g. In average the contribution for the meal energy was: 20% fat, 59% carbohydrate and 21% protein. In more than 75% of meals the contribution of lipid content was below the lower bound of the reference range. The average content of sodium chloride per meal was 3.4 g, and the confidence interval 95% to average 3.0 to 3.8 g, well above the recommended maximum value of 1.5 grams. The average content fiber per meal was 10.8 g higher than the minimum considered appropriate. In conclusion, the value low caloric meals was mainly due to the low fat content, and content salt of any of the components of the meal was very high.

  14. Determination of oxygen content in high Tc superconductors by deuteron particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zhenlan; Yao, Y.D.; Kao, Y.H.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental method for determining the oxygen content in high T c superconductors is described in detail. This method is applied to determination of oxygen content in high T c Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O samples in which the stoichiometry is varied by reducing the copper and bismuth concentrations. The oxygen concentration is found to vary linearly with Cu(x = 0-0.2) and Bi (x = 0-0.4) deficiencies in YBa 2 Cu 3(1-x )O y and Bi 2(1-x) Sr 2 CaCu 2 O y respectively. X-ray powder diffraction measurements show that the compound of YBa 2 Cu 3(1-x) O y is orthorhombic in the variation range of x = 0-0.2

  15. Localization-based super-resolution imaging meets high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, Anne; Kechkar, Adel; Butler, Corey; Levet, Florian; Cabillic, Marine; Rossier, Olivier; Giannone, Gregory; Galland, Rémi; Choquet, Daniel; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-12-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy techniques have proven to be essential tools for quantitatively monitoring biological processes at unprecedented spatial resolution. However, these techniques are very low throughput and are not yet compatible with fully automated, multiparametric cellular assays. This shortcoming is primarily due to the huge amount of data generated during imaging and the lack of software for automation and dedicated data mining. We describe an automated quantitative single-molecule-based super-resolution methodology that operates in standard multiwell plates and uses analysis based on high-content screening and data-mining software. The workflow is compatible with fixed- and live-cell imaging and allows extraction of quantitative data like fluorophore photophysics, protein clustering or dynamic behavior of biomolecules. We demonstrate that the method is compatible with high-content screening using 3D dSTORM and DNA-PAINT based super-resolution microscopy as well as single-particle tracking.

  16. Biobleaching chemistry of laccase-mediator systems on high-lignin-content kraft pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakar, F.S.; Ragauskas, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    A high-lignin-content softwood kraft pulp was reacted with laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), N-acetyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (NHA), and violuric acid (VA). The biodelignification response with violuric acid was superior to both 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and N-acetyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine. NMR analysis of residual lignins isolated before and after the biobleaching treatments revealed that the latter material was highly oxidized and that the magnitude of structural changes was most pronounced with the laccase - violuric acid biobleaching system. An increase in the content of carboxylic acid groups and a decrease in methoxyl groups were noted with all three laccase-mediator systems. The oxidation biobleaching pathway is directed primarily towards noncondensed C5 phenolic lignin functional structures for all three laccase-mediated systems. The laccase - violuric acid system was also reactive towards C5-condensed phenolic lignin structures. (author)

  17. Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Pakamon

    2013-01-01

    Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min−1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E) for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14%) and high (42%) CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal. PMID:24250259

  18. Seismic Performance Comparison of a High-Content SDA Frame and Standard RC Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. van de Lindt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the method and results of an experiment to study the seismic behavior of a concrete portal frame with fifty percent of its cement content replaced with a spray dryer ash (SDA. Based on multiple-shake-table tests, the high content SDA frame was found to perform as well as the standard concrete frame for two earthquakes exceeding design-level intensity earthquakes. Hence, from a purely seismic/structural standpoint, it may be possible to replace approximately fifty percent of cement in a concrete mix with SDA for the construction of structural members in high seismic zones. This would help significantly redirect spray dryer ash away from landfills, thus, providing a sustainable greener alternative to concrete that uses only Portland cement, or only a small percentage of SDA or fly ash.

  19. Preventing performance drops of coal mills due to high moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.

    2007-01-01

    Coal mills pulverize and dry the coal dust before it is blown into the furnace in coal-fired power plants. The coal mills can only deliver the requested coal flow if certain conditions are fulfilled. These are normally considered as constraints on individual variables. However, combinations of more...... than one variable might cause problems even though these individually variables are in an acceptable region. This paper deals with such a problem. The combination of a high load of the power plant, a large load change and high moisture content in the coal, can force the coal mill into a state where...... coal is accumulated instead of being blown into the furnace. This paper suggests a simple method for preventing the accumulation of the coal in the mill, by limiting the requested coal flow considering the coal moisture content and the temperature outside the mill.  ...

  20. Nanoscale high-content analysis using compositional heterogeneities of single proteoliposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Signe; Christensen, Sune M.; Fung, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Proteoliposome reconstitution is a standard method to stabilize purified transmembrane proteins in membranes for structural and functional assays. Here we quantified intrareconstitution heterogeneities in single proteoliposomes using fluorescence microscopy. Our results suggest that compositional...... heterogeneities can severely skew ensemble-average proteoliposome measurements but also enable ultraminiaturized high-content screens. We took advantage of this screening capability to map the oligomerization energy of the β2-adrenergic receptor using ∼10(9)-fold less protein than conventional assays....

  1. Investigation of the photoluminescence properties of composite optical resins containing high lanthanide content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongmei; Wang Fuxiang; Peng Weixian

    2012-01-01

    Novel composite optical resins with high lanthanide content have been synthesized through a free radical copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA), styrene (St) and Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals. We characterized the structure, the thermal properties, dimensions and photoluminescence properties of Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals. Our results indicated that the diameters of the Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals were within the range of 30 to 300 nm. These materials exhibited characteristic europium ion luminescence. The europium-bearing nanocrystals and were then incorporated into the copolymer systems of MA/St and luminescence functional optical resins with high lanthanide content (50 wt%) were obtained. The combination of these particles and optical resins is facile because the diameter of Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O is decreased. These copolymer-based optical resins not only possess good transparency and mechanical performance, but also exhibit an intense narrow band emission of lanthanide complexes and longer fluorescence lifetimes under UV excitation at room temperature. - Highlights: ► Novel composite optical resins with high lanthanide content have been synthesized. ► The Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals were within the range of 30 to 300 nm. ► Fluorescent resins with high lanthanide content (50 wt%) were obtained. ► Resins exhibit intense emission of lanthanide and longer fluorescence lifetimes. ► Variety properties of Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals were characterized.

  2. Dexterous robotic manipulation of alert adult Drosophila for high-content experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall, Joan; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Huang, Cheng; Maxey, Jessica R; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2015-07-01

    We present a robot that enables high-content studies of alert adult Drosophila by combining operations including gentle picking; translations and rotations; characterizations of fly phenotypes and behaviors; microdissection; or release. To illustrate, we assessed fly morphology, tracked odor-evoked locomotion, sorted flies by sex, and dissected the cuticle to image neural activity. The robot's tireless capacity for precise manipulations enables a scalable platform for screening flies' complex attributes and behavioral patterns.

  3. Tunable, chemoselective amination via silver catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Jared W; Weatherly, Cale D; Alderson, Juliet M; Vo, Brian T; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2013-11-20

    Organic N-containing compounds, including amines, are essential components of many biologically and pharmaceutically important molecules. One strategy for introducing nitrogen into substrates with multiple reactive bonds is to insert a monovalent N fragment (nitrene or nitrenoid) into a C-H bond or add it directly to a C═C bond. However, it has been challenging to develop well-defined catalysts capable of promoting predictable and chemoselective aminations solely through reagent control. Herein, we report remarkable chemoselective aminations that employ a single metal (Ag) and a single ligand (phenanthroline) to promote either aziridination or C-H insertion by manipulating the coordination geometry of the active catalysts.

  4. Biogenic amines and radiosensitivity of solitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    Different stability of cells to ionizing radiation is considered from a position of the ''elevated biochemical radioresistance background'' concept. Experimental evidence presented indicates an important role of endogenic amines (serotonin and histamine) possessing radioprotector properties in the cell radioresistance formation. The concept about their effect as being solely a result of circulatory hypoxia is critically discussed. The experimental results favor the existence of a ''cellular'' component, along with the ''hypoxic'' one, in the mechanism of action of biogenic amines. These compounds can affect the initial stages of peroxide oxidation of lipids, thereby favoring a less intensive oxidation induced by radiation. Biogenic amines can also exert influence on the cyclic nucleotide system

  5. The development of high-content screening (HCS) technology and its importance to drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraietta, Ivan; Gasparri, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    High-content screening (HCS) was introduced about twenty years ago as a promising analytical approach to facilitate some critical aspects of drug discovery. Its application has spread progressively within the pharmaceutical industry and academia to the point that it today represents a fundamental tool in supporting drug discovery and development. Here, the authors review some of significant progress in the HCS field in terms of biological models and assay readouts. They highlight the importance of high-content screening in drug discovery, as testified by its numerous applications in a variety of therapeutic areas: oncology, infective diseases, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. They also dissect the role of HCS technology in different phases of the drug discovery pipeline: target identification, primary compound screening, secondary assays, mechanism of action studies and in vitro toxicology. Recent advances in cellular assay technologies, such as the introduction of three-dimensional (3D) cultures, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and genome editing technologies (e.g., CRISPR/Cas9), have tremendously expanded the potential of high-content assays to contribute to the drug discovery process. Increasingly predictive cellular models and readouts, together with the development of more sophisticated and affordable HCS readers, will further consolidate the role of HCS technology in drug discovery.

  6. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  7. Towards high-siderophore-content foods: optimisation of coprogen production in submerged cultures of Penicillium nalgiovense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emri, Tamás; Tóth, Viktória; Nagy, Csilla Terézia; Nagy, Gábor; Pócsi, Imre; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Antal, Károly; Balla, József; Balla, György; Román, Gyula; Kovács, István; Pócsi, István

    2013-07-01

    Fungal siderophores are likely to possess atheroprotective effects in humans, and therefore studies are needed to develop siderophore-rich food additives or functional foods to increase the siderophore uptake in people prone to cardiovascular diseases. In this study the siderophore contents of mould-ripened cheeses and meat products were analysed and the coprogen production by Penicillium nalgiovense was characterised. High concentrations of hexadentate fungal siderophores were detected in penicillia-ripened Camembert- and Roquefort-type cheeses and also in some sausages. In one sausage fermented by P. nalgiovense, the siderophore content was comparable to those found in cheeses. Penicillium nalgiovense produced high concentrations of coprogen in submerged cultures, which were affected predominantly by the available carbon and nitrogen sources under iron starvation. Considerable coprogen yields were still detectable in the presence of iron when the fermentation medium was supplemented with the iron chelator Na₂-EDTA or when P. nalgiovense was co-cultivated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data may be exploitable in the future development of high-siderophore-content foods and/or food additives. Nevertheless, the use of P. nalgiovense fermentation broths for these purposes may be limited by the instability of coprogen in fermentation media and by the β-lactam production by the fungus. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Gu, Qinfen; Hemar, Yacine; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed. PMID:27219066

  9. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*. The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed three-component reaction of N-tosyl hydrazones, isonitriles and amines leading to amidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qiang; Jiang, Yan; Yu, Jin-Tao; Cheng, Jiang

    2015-12-04

    A palladium-catalyzed three-component reaction between N-tosyl hydrazones, aryl isonitriles and amines was developed, leading to amidines in moderate to good yields. This procedure features the rapid construction of amidine frameworks with high diversity and complexity. Ketenimines serve as intermediates, which encounter nucleophilic attack by amines to produce amidines.

  11. Ionic liquids as silica deactivating agents in gas chromatography for direct analysis of primary amines in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, A.; Weggemans, W.M.A.; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of primary amines in aqueous samples remains a challenging analytical issue. The preferred approach by gas chromatography is hampered by interactions of free silanol groups with the highly reactive amine groups, resulting in inconsistent measurements. Here, we report a method for direct

  12. Ionic liquids as silica deactivating agents in gas chromatography for direct analysis or primary amines in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, A.; Weggemans, W.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of primary amines in aqueous samples remains a challenging analytical issue. The preferred approach by gas chromatography is hampered by interactions of free silanol groups with the highly reactive amine groups, resulting in inconsistent measurements. Here, we report a method for direct

  13. Facile preparation of amine and amino acid adducts of [60]fullerene using chlorofullerene C60Cl6 as a precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornev, Alexey B; Khakina, Ekaterina A; Troyanov, Sergey I; Kushch, Alla A; Peregudov, Alexander; Vasilchenko, Alexey; Deryabin, Dmitry G; Martynenko, Vyacheslav M; Troshin, Pavel A

    2012-06-04

    We report a general synthetic approach to the preparation of highly functionalized amine and amino acid derivatives of [60]fullerene starting from readily available chlorofullerene C(60)Cl(6). The synthesized water-soluble amino acid derivative of C(60) demonstrated pronounced antiviral activity, while the cationic amine-based compound showed strong antibacterial action in vitro.

  14. New formulations of sunflower based bio-lubricants with high oleic acid content – VOSOLUB project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leao J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available VOSOLUB project is a demonstration project supported by Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME that aims at testing under real operating conditions new formulations of sunflower-based biolubricants with high oleic acid content. These biolubricant formulations (including hydraulic fluids, greases, and neat oil metal-working fluids will be tested in three European demonstrating sites. Their technical performance will be evaluated and compared to corresponding mineral lubricants ones. In order to cover the demand for the sunflower base oil, a European SMEs network will be established to ensure the supply of the base at a competitive market price. Results presented concerns the base oil quality confirmed to be in accordance with the specification required, in particular on Free Fatty acid content, Phosphorus content, rancimat induction time and oleic acid content (ITERG. The oil characteristics specific for lubricant application analyzed by BfB Oil Research under normalized methods, match with lubricant specifications requirement such as viscosity, cold & hot properties, surface properties, anti-oxidant properties and thermal stability, anti-wear and EP properties, anti-corrosion properties Performance of the new biolubricant have been assessed by formulators and TEKNIKER First results on the use of new lubricant on real condition for rail Grease (produced by RS CLARE and tested with Sheffield Supertram, Hydraulic oil (produced by BRUGAROLAS and cutting oil (produced by MOTUL TECH and tested with innovative machining, turning are described.

  15. The Role of Content Knowledge in Ill-Structured Problem Solving for High School Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourne, Jeff; Wiebe, Eric

    2018-02-01

    While Physics Education Research has a rich tradition of problem-solving scholarship, most of the work has focused on more traditional, well-defined problems. Less work has been done with ill-structured problems, problems that are better aligned with the engineering and design-based scenarios promoted by the Next Generation Science Standards. This study explored the relationship between physics content knowledge and ill-structured problem solving for two groups of high school students with different levels of content knowledge. Both groups of students completed an ill-structured problem set, using a talk-aloud procedure to narrate their thought process as they worked. Analysis of the data focused on identifying students' solution pathways, as well as the obstacles that prevented them from reaching "reasonable" solutions. Students with more content knowledge were more successful reaching reasonable solutions for each of the problems, experiencing fewer obstacles. These students also employed a greater variety of solution pathways than those with less content knowledge. Results suggest that a student's solution pathway choice may depend on how she perceives the problem.

  16. Enhancement of lipid accumulation by oleaginous yeast through phosphorus limitation under high content of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangfeng; Luo, Huijuan; Mu, Tianshuai; Shen, Yi; Yuan, Ming; Liu, Jia

    2018-04-18

    Low concentrations of acetic acid were used as carbon source to cultivate Cryptococcus curvatus MUCL 29819 for lipid production under high content of ammonia. Phosphorus limitation combined with initial pH regulation (pH = 6) weakened inhibition of free ammonia and promoted lipid accumulation. In batch cultivation, the produced lipid content and yield was 30.3% and 0.92 g/L, higher than those under unlimited condition (18.3% and 0.64 g/L). The content of monounsaturated fatty acid also increased from 37.3% (unlimited condition) to 45.8% (phosphorus-limited condition). During sequencing batch cultivation (SBC), the lipid content reached up to 51.02% under phosphorus-limited condition while only 31.88% under unlimited condition, which can be explained by the higher conversion efficiency of the carbon source to lipid. The total energy consumption including lipid extraction, transesterification and purification was 7.47 and 8.33 GJ under phosphorus-limited and unlimited condition, respectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Synthesis of pure colloidal silver nanoparticles with high electroconductivity for printed electronic circuits: the effect of amines on their formation in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuki, Jun; Abe, Takao

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes a practical and convenient method to prepare stable colloidal silver nanoparticles for use in printed electronic circuits. The method uses a dispersant and two kinds of reducing agents including 2-(dimethylamino) ethanol (DMAE), which play important roles in the reduction of silver ions in an aqueous medium. The effect of DMAE and dispersant, as well as the factors affecting particle size and morphology are investigated. In the formation of the silver nanoparticles, reduction occurs rapidly at room temperature and the silver particles can be separated easily from the mixture in a short time. In addition, organic solvents are not used. Pure, small and relatively uniform particles with a diameter less than 10 nm can be obtained that exhibit high electroconductivity. The silver nanoparticles are stable, and can be isolated as a dried powder that can be fully redispersed in deionized water. This method of producing colloidal silver nanoparticles will find practical use in electronics applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanoscale assembly of amine-functionalized colloidal iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barick, K.C. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Aslam, M. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Prasad, Pottumarthi V. [Department of Radiology, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States); Dravid, Vinayak P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); International Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)], E-mail: v-dravid@northwestern.edu; Bahadur, Dhirendra [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)], E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in

    2009-05-15

    We demonstrate a single-step facile approach for highly water-stable assembly of amine-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles using thermal decomposition of Fe-chloride precursors in ethylene glycol medium in the presence of ethylenediamine. The average size of nanoassemblies is 40{+-}1 nm, wherein the individual nanoparticles are about 6 nm. Amine-functionalized properties are evident from Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), thermal and elemental analyses. The saturation magnetization and spin-echo r{sub 2} of the nanoassemblies were measured to be 64.3 emu/g and 314.6 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The higher value of relaxivity ratio (r{sub 2}/r{sub 1}=143) indicates that nanoassemblies are a promising high-efficiency T2 contrast agent platform.

  19. Nanoscale assembly of amine-functionalized colloidal iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barick, K.C.; Aslam, M.; Prasad, Pottumarthi V.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-step facile approach for highly water-stable assembly of amine-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles using thermal decomposition of Fe-chloride precursors in ethylene glycol medium in the presence of ethylenediamine. The average size of nanoassemblies is 40±1 nm, wherein the individual nanoparticles are about 6 nm. Amine-functionalized properties are evident from Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), thermal and elemental analyses. The saturation magnetization and spin-echo r 2 of the nanoassemblies were measured to be 64.3 emu/g and 314.6 mM -1 s -1 , respectively. The higher value of relaxivity ratio (r 2 /r 1 =143) indicates that nanoassemblies are a promising high-efficiency T2 contrast agent platform.

  20. Cleavage and synthesis function of high and low redox potential laccases towards 4-morpholinoaniline and aminated as well as chlorinated phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Veronika; Mikolasch, Annett; Schauer, Frieder

    2014-02-01

    Laccases are able to mediate both cleavage and synthesis processes. The basis for this dual reaction capability lies in the property of the enzyme laccase to oxidize phenolic, and to some extent non-phenolic substances, to reactive radicals which can undergo on the one hand separations of small substitutents or large molecule parts from the parent compound and on the other hand coupling reactions with other radicals or molecules which are not themselves oxidizable by laccase. The cleavage of the non-phenolic compound 4-morpholinoaniline as well as the deamination of 4-aminophenol and the dechlorination of 4-chlorophenol resulted in the formation of 1,4-hydroquinone which is immediately oxidized by laccase to 1,4-benzoquinone. The formation of the 1,4-hydroquinone/1,4-benzoquinone is the rate limiting step for the synthesis of the heteromolecular dimers and trimers composed of 1,4-benzoquinone and one or two molecules of morpholine. In addition to the synthesis of new compounds from the cleavage products, 4-morpholinoaniline polymerized probably via azo groups and C-N bonds to a homomolecular dimer and trimer. Similarities and differences in cleavage and synthesis reactions catalyzed by the low redox potential laccase of Myceliophthora thermophila (0.46 V) and the high redox potential laccase of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (0.79 V) were determined. In addition, the dependency of the cleavage and synthesis efficiencies on the (a) structure and redox potential of the laccase, (b) structure and redox potential of the substrate, (c) pH value of the buffer used, (d) incubation temperature, (e) solvent concentration, and (f) laccase activity is discussed in general.

  1. Iodine(III)-Mediated Selective Intermolecular C-H Amination for the Chemical Diversification of Tryptamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnidou, Alexandra E; Millán, Alba; Ceballos, Javier; Martínez, Claudio; Muñiz, Kilian

    2016-08-05

    Defined hypervalent iodine reagents of the general structure PhI[N(SO2R)(SO2R')]2 promote the selective direct C-H-amination of the indole core of various tryptamines. Starting from a general C2-amination strategy, subsequent transformations enable a variety of site-selective functionalizations, which proceed with noteworthy high chemoselectivity and provide an overall access to structurally diversified products.

  2. Organocatalyzed Asymmetric α-Oxidation, α-Aminoxylation and α-Amination of Carbonyl Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Worawan Bhanthumnavin; Tirayut Vilaivan

    2010-01-01

    Organocatalytic asymmetric α-oxidation and amination reactions of carbonyl compounds are highly useful synthetic methodologies, especially in generating chiral building blocks that previously have not been easily accessible by traditional methods. The concept is relatively new and therefore the list of new catalysts, oxidizing and aminating reagents, as well as new substrates, are expanding at an amazing rate. The scope of this review includes new reactions and catalysts, mechanistic aspects ...

  3. Determination of biogenic amines in wine by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定葡萄酒中生物胺的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈念原; 王秀芹

    2011-01-01

    葡萄酒是经过发酵而制成的,很容易存在生物胺,对人体可能存在危害,因此本文检测了几种葡萄酒中甲胺、乙胺、色按、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺和亚精胺的含量.实验选用高效液相色谱仪,紫外检测器,0.l mol/L盐酸溶液提取,丹磺酰氯衍生化的方法进行检测.实验结果表明,此法相关系数大于99.8%,最低检测限在0.55~1.03 μg/L,回收率大于95%,相对标准偏差在6.33%以下.实验结果检测出葡萄酒中甲胺含量为5.53±0.028~6.67±0.04mg/L,乙胺含量为5.41±0.07~6.99±0.19mg/L,色胺含量为10.35±0.068~14.18±0.42mg/L,腐胺含量为9.10±0.28~11.75±0.49mg/L,均在安全标准范围内,可安全食用.%Wine is easy to exist biogenic amines after fermentation and they may be harmful to humans. So this research studied methylamine,ethylamine,tryptamine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,and spermidine in several kinds of wine. The method involved extraction with 0.1 mol/L HCI solution, pre-column derivatization of the amines with dansyl chloride and subsequent analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The results showed that the correlation coefficients were greater than 99.8%, the limit of detection was from 0.55μg/L to 1.03μg/L, recovery was more than 95%, relative standard deviations were below 6.33%.Levels of methylamine ethylamine tryptamine putrescine were 5.53 ± 0.028 ~ 6.67 ± 0.04mg/L,5.41 ± 0.07 ~6.99 ± 0.19mg/L,1 0.35 ± 0.068 ~ 14. 1 8 ± 0.42mg/L,9.10 ± 0.28 ~ 11.75 ± 0.49mg/L, respectively. The results were in the safety standards and the wine could be safe to consume.

  4. Explosive mixture of high power and high total energy content, and process for its manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, M.A.; Udy, L.L.

    1973-05-10

    This explosive consists of a viscous suspension of an inorganic oxidizer, finely divided aluminum, water, and a liquid organic material miscible with water; a thickener may also be added. The mixture contains 45 to 55% of a strong inorganic oxidizer, of which at least two-thirds is ammonium nitrate; 32 to 43% aluminum powder; 11 to 18% or liquid, mostly water with an organic water-soluble liquid such as ethylene glycol; and a high temperature resistant, gel-forming thickener made of crosslinked guar gum and not crosslinked xanthane gum made from a polysaccharide through bacterial action.

  5. Effect of High Intensity Ultrasound and Pasteurization on Anthocyanin Content in Strawberry Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dubrović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation is to study the influence of high intensity ultrasound and pasteurization on the stability of anthocyanins and their content in strawberry juice. Different ultrasound process parameters for the treatment of juices are compared to the classical thermal treatments. For ultrasound treatments, three parameters were varied according to the statistical experimental design. Central composite design was used to optimize and design experimental parameters: temperature (25, 40 and 55 °C, amplitude (60, 90 and 120 μm and time (3, 6, and 9 min. It was found that the anthocyanin content after pasteurization (85 °C for 2 min was reduced by 5.3 to 5.8 % compared to untreated juices. After treatment with ultrasound (20 °C for 3, 6 or 9 min or thermosonication (40 °C for 3, 6 or 9 min and 60 °C for 3 or 6 min, the degradation of anthocyanins was generally less intensive and was 0.7–4.4 % compared to the untreated juices. Only in the case of ultrasonic treatment at a temperature of 55 °C and treatment time of 9 min the total content of anthocyanins, compared to untreated juice, was reduced by 5.8 to 7.1 %, and their degradation was greater than that of pasteurized juices. From the results it can be concluded that total anthocyanin content was greater in more than 85 % of the selected ultrasound treatments compared to pasteurized juices. Ultrasound treatment can replace pasteurization in terms of preserving total anthocyanin content. The modelling approaches using response surface methodology (RSM developed in this study exploit data in order to identify the optimal processing parameters for lowering degradation of anthocyanins in strawberry juice during ultrasound processing.

  6. Effect of alkali metal content of carbon on retention of iodine at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Activated carbon for filters in reactor confinement systems is intentionally impregnated with iodine salts to enhance the removal of radioiodine from air streams containing organic iodides. When a variety of commercial impregnated carbons were evaluated for iodine retention at elevated temperatures (4 hours at 180 0 C), wide variations in iodine penetration were observed. The alkali metal and iodine content of carbon samples was determined by neutron activation analysis, and a strong correlation was shown between the atom ratio of iodine to alkali metals in the carbons and the high-temperature retention performance. Carbons containing excess alkali (especially potassium) have iodine penetration values 10 to 100 times lower than carbons containing excess iodine. Both low I/K ratios and high pH values were shown essential to high efficiency iodine retention; therefore, conversion of elemental iodine to ionic iodine is the basic reaction mechanism. The natural high K + content and high pH coconut carbons make coconut the preferred natural base material for nuclear air cleaning applications. Studies show, however, that treatment of low potassium carbons with a mixture of KOH and I 2 may produce a product equal to or better than I 2 -impregnated coconut carbons at a lower cost. (U.S.)

  7. Recent advances in quantitative high throughput and high content data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsatsos, Ioannis K; Parker, Christian N

    2016-01-01

    High throughput screening has become a basic technique with which to explore biological systems. Advances in technology, including increased screening capacity, as well as methods that generate multiparametric readouts, are driving the need for improvements in the analysis of data sets derived from such screens. This article covers the recent advances in the analysis of high throughput screening data sets from arrayed samples, as well as the recent advances in the analysis of cell-by-cell data sets derived from image or flow cytometry application. Screening multiple genomic reagents targeting any given gene creates additional challenges and so methods that prioritize individual gene targets have been developed. The article reviews many of the open source data analysis methods that are now available and which are helping to define a consensus on the best practices to use when analyzing screening data. As data sets become larger, and more complex, the need for easily accessible data analysis tools will continue to grow. The presentation of such complex data sets, to facilitate quality control monitoring and interpretation of the results will require the development of novel visualizations. In addition, advanced statistical and machine learning algorithms that can help identify patterns, correlations and the best features in massive data sets will be required. The ease of use for these tools will be important, as they will need to be used iteratively by laboratory scientists to improve the outcomes of complex analyses.

  8. Leaching of copper concentrates with high arsenic content in chlorine-chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreros, O.; Fuentes, G.; Quiroz, R.; Vinals, J.

    2003-01-01

    This work reports the results of copper concentrates leaching which have high arsenic concepts (up to 2.5%). The treatments were carried out using chlorine that forms from sodium hypochlorite and sulphuric acid. The aim of this work is to obtain a solution having high copper content 4 to 6 g/l and 5 to 7 g/l free acid in order to submit it directly to a solvent extraction stage. In addition, this solution should have minimum content of arsenic and chloride ions. To carry out this investigation, an acrylic reactor was constructed where the leaching tests were made at constant temperature in a thermostatic bath under atmospheric pressure. The concentrate samples were obtained from mineral processing plants from Antofagasta, Chile. Typical variables were studied, such as leaching agent concentration, leaching time, pulp density and temperature among others. Some of the residues were analyzed by XRD and EPS. On the other hand, the solutions were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results indicate solutions having the contents stated above can be obtained. (Author) 19 refs

  9. Anodic selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Onomura, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Anodic reactions are desirable methods from the viewpoint of Green Chemistry, since no toxic oxidants are necessary for the oxidation of organic molecules. This review introduces usefulness of anodic oxidation and successive reaction for selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives.

  10. Transition metals in the amination of chloroarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdyuk, O V [Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse an der Universitaet Rostock (Germany); Abaev, Vladimir T [North-Ossetia State University, Vladikavkaz (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    The review is devoted to the catalytic amination of chloroarenes and chlorohetarenes. Examples of the formation of the C-N bond in the presence of iron-, nickel- and copper-based catalytic systems are given.

  11. Combined high-power ultrasound and high-pressure homogenization nanoemulsification: The effect of energy density, oil content and emulsifier type and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Sonia; Plazzotta, Stella; Valoppi, Fabio; Anese, Monica

    2018-05-01

    Combinations of ultrasound (US) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) at low-medium energy densities were studied as alternative processes to individual US and HPH to produce Tween 80 and whey protein stabilized nanoemulsions, while reducing the energy input. To this aim, preliminary trials were performed to compare emulsification efficacy of single and combined HPH and US treatments delivering low-medium energy densities. Results highlighted the efficacy of US-HPH combined process in reducing the energy required to produce nanoemulsions stabilized with both Tween 80 and whey protein isolate. Subsequently, the effect of emulsifier content (1-3% w/w), oil amount (10-20% w/w) and energy density (47-175 MJ/m 3 ) on emulsion mean particle diameter was evaluated by means of a central composite design. Particles of 140-190 nm were obtained by delivering 175 MJ/m 3 energy density at emulsions containing 3% (w/w) Tween 80 and 10% (w/w) oil. In the case of whey protein isolate stabilized emulsions, a reduced emulsifier amount (1% w/w) and intermediate energy density (120 MJ/m 3 ) allowed a minimum droplet size around 220-250 nm to be achieved. Results showed that, in both cases, at least 50% of the energy density should be delivered by HPH to obtain the minimum particle diameter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Method for evaluating building materials with a high content of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1979-01-01

    In order to avoid increased radiation doses to the population due to the introduction of building materials with an unusually high content of radioactivity, a method for evaluating building materials has been developed. An expression for the gamma radiation due to radium, thorium and potassium 40 has been proposed by a Scandinavian group. When this value for a given material does not exceed 1, then no restriction is placed. Should it exceed 1, then the material is subjected to further investigation. Similarly, since the radon concentration depends on the radium content, an expression for this is proposed. Should this be less than unity the material may be sold freely. Should it exceed unity, further investigations must be made. Measurements have also been made on the exhalation of radon from concrete, and the results are given. An expression including this exhalation rate and the ventilation rate, giving the radon concentration is given. (JIW)

  13. Application of Titanium Compounds to Reduce Fluoride Ion in Water Resources with High Fluoride Ion Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Riahi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes studies on the sorption of fluoride ions from water by titanium compounds used in water treatment to reduce fluoride content in water resources. There are different methods of reducing fluoride ion in water, each associated with specific problems such as secondary contamination, environmental contamination, high costs, or the need for primary and secondary treatment. In this study, application of titanium sulfate and Metatitanic acid produced from titanium ore concentrate (ileminite is investigated in the removal of fluoride ion and the possibility of complete purification of fluorine containing wastewater is examined to determine the optimal conditions. Metatitanic acid has a great sorption property for fluoride ion. Also titanium sulfate is a suitable and more effective material for this purpose. Efficiency of this material in reducing fluoride ion content is 99.9% and it is possible to refresh sorbet material for reuse without problems arising from Ti+4 ion contamination.

  14. Synthesis and properties of hydroxy acrylic resin with high solid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Hu, Mingguang; Cui, Han; Xiao, Jijun

    2017-10-01

    Manufacturers of automotive repair finishes are tending to reduce more and more the level of volatile organic compounds in their paints in order to comply with increasingly strict environmental legislation. A high solid hydroxy acrylic resin was synthesised using CARDURA E10 and a type of hydroxyacrylic acid resin, its' acid value, hydroxylvalue, viscosity, structure, morphology was measured and film-forming properties after curing were characterised. The results show that the addition of CARDURA E10 in the copolymer composition significantly reduced the viscosity of the polymer system, improved the solid content of the resin and the physical properties of the coating. The hydroxyl acrylate resin with solid content of 90% and excellent comprehensive performance were successfully prepared by controlling the initiator dosage, polymerization temperature and monomer ratio.

  15. Reducing the energy penalty costs of postcombustion CCS systems with amine-storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Hoppock, David C

    2012-01-17

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) can significantly reduce the amount of CO(2) emitted from coal-fired power plants but its operation significantly reduces the plant's net electrical output and decreases profits, especially during times of high electricity prices. An amine-based CCS system can be modified adding amine-storage to allow postponing 92% of all its energy consumption to times of lower electricity prices, and in this way has the potential to effectively reduce the cost of CO(2) capture by reducing the costs of the forgone electricity sales. However adding amine-storage to a CCS system implies a significant capital cost that will be outweighed by the price-arbitrage revenue only if the difference between low and high electricity prices is substantial. In this paper we find a threshold for the variability in electricity prices that make the benefits from electricity price arbitrage outweigh the capital costs of amine-storage. We then look at wholesale electricity markets in the Eastern Interconnect of the United States to determine profitability of amine-storage systems in this region. Using hourly electricity price data from years 2007 and 2008 we find that amine storage may be cost-effective in areas with high price variability.

  16. Microspheres with an ultra high holmium content for brachytherapy of malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Raphael A.; Myamoto, Douglas M.; Souza, Jaime R.; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de; Osso Junior, Joao A.; Martinelli, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop biodegradable microspheres intended for internal radiation therapy which provides an improved treatment for hepatic carcinomas. The most studied brachytherapy system employing microspheres made of holmium-biopolymer system is composed by poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc). The importance of the holmium high content in the microspheres can be interpreted as follow from a therapeutic standpoint, to achieve an effective use of microspheres loaded with HoAcAc, a high content of holmium is required to yield enough radioactivity with a relatively low amount of microspheres.The usual amounts of holmium that are incorporated in the microspheres composed by poly(L-lactic acid) and HoAcAc are 17.0 ± 0.5% (w/w) of holmium, which corresponds to a loading of about 50% of HoAcAc. Different approaches have been investigated to increase that value. One updated approach towards this direction is the production of microspheres with ultrahigh holmium as matrix using HoAcAc crystals as the sole starting material without the use of biopolymer. Likewise, in the search of microspheres with increased holmium content , it has been demonstrated that by changing the HoAcAc crystal structure by its recrystallization from crystal phase to the amorphous there is lost of acetylacetonate and water molecules causing the increasing of the holmium content. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation, using holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) crystals as the sole ingredient. Microspheres were characterized by using light and scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-rays diffraction, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. (author)

  17. Microspheres with an ultra high holmium content for brachytherapy of malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira, Raphael A.; Myamoto, Douglas M.; Souza, Jaime R.; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia; Martinelli, Jose R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop biodegradable microspheres intended for internal radiation therapy which provides an improved treatment for hepatic carcinomas. The most studied brachytherapy system employing microspheres made of holmium-biopolymer system is composed by poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc). The importance of the holmium high content in the microspheres can be interpreted as follow from a therapeutic standpoint, to achieve an effective use of microspheres loaded with HoAcAc, a high content of holmium is required to yield enough radioactivity with a relatively low amount of microspheres.The usual amounts of holmium that are incorporated in the microspheres composed by poly(L-lactic acid) and HoAcAc are 17.0 {+-} 0.5% (w/w) of holmium, which corresponds to a loading of about 50% of HoAcAc. Different approaches have been investigated to increase that value. One updated approach towards this direction is the production of microspheres with ultrahigh holmium as matrix using HoAcAc crystals as the sole starting material without the use of biopolymer. Likewise, in the search of microspheres with increased holmium content , it has been demonstrated that by changing the HoAcAc crystal structure by its recrystallization from crystal phase to the amorphous there is lost of acetylacetonate and water molecules causing the increasing of the holmium content. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation, using holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) crystals as the sole ingredient. Microspheres were characterized by using light and scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-rays diffraction, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. (author)

  18. High Hydrogen Content Graphene Hydride Compounds & High Cross-Section Cladding Coatings for Fast Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekhar, MVS

    2017-01-01

    The objective is to develop and implement a superior low-cost, large area (potentially >32in), easily deployable, close proximity, harsh environment innovative neutron sensor needed for next generation fuel cycle monitoring. We will exploit recent breakthroughs at the PI's lab on the electrochemistry of epitaxial graphene (EG) formed on commercial SiC wafers, a transformative nanomaterial system with superior radiation detection and durability properties to develop a new paradigm in detection for fast neutrons, a by-product of fission reactors. There are currently few effective detection/monitoring schemes, especially solid-state ones at present. This is essential for monitoring and control of future fuel cycles to make them more efficient and reliable. By exploiting these novel materials, as well as innovative hybrid SiC/EG/Cladding device architectures conceived by the team, will develop low-cost, high performance solutions to fast-neutron detection. Finally, we will also explore 3-terminal device implementations for neutron detectors with built-in electronic gain to further shrink these devices and improve their sensitivity.

  19. Ni-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reductive Amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Christoph; Lutz, J Patrick; Simmons, Eric M; Miller, Michael M; Ewing, William R; Doyle, Abigail G

    2018-02-14

    This report describes a three-component, Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling that enables the convergent synthesis of tertiary benzhydryl amines, which are challenging to access by traditional reductive amination methodologies. The reaction makes use of iminium ions generated in situ from the condensation of secondary N-trimethylsilyl amines with benzaldehydes, and these species undergo reaction with several distinct classes of organic electrophiles. The synthetic value of this process is demonstrated by a single-step synthesis of antimigraine drug flunarizine (Sibelium) and high yielding derivatization of paroxetine (Paxil) and metoprolol (Lopressor). Mechanistic investigations support a sequential oxidative addition mechanism rather than a pathway proceeding via α-amino radical formation. Accordingly, application of catalytic conditions to an intramolecular reductive coupling is demonstrated for the synthesis of endo- and exocyclic benzhydryl amines.

  20. Reaction of iminopropadienones with amines: mechanistic explanations of zwitterionic intermediate, ketene and ketenimine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Rainer; Finnerty, Justin J; Bruhn, Torsten; Borget, Fabien; Wentrup, Curt

    2008-09-25

    The complex reaction of thermally generated iminopropadienones with amines in the gas phase and upon matrix deposition and its varying product composition is investigated using density functional theory. In the high energy gas phase addition a single amine molecule reacts readily with iminopropadienone with the decisive step being a 1,3-hydrogen shift and activation barriers of at least 100 kJ/mol. In accordance with the experiment, the formation of ketenes is favored. In the condensed phase of an amine matrix, the utilization of amine dimers both as reagents and as explicit solvents lowers the activation energy required to a feasible 20-30 kJ/mol and predicts ketenimines as the main products, as observed experimentally.

  1. Alkylselenite-catalyzed Oxidative Carbonylation of Amines: Density Functional Theory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sun; Kim, Hoon Sik; Cheong, Minserk [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Ureas and carbamates have been conventionally produced by the reaction of amines with phosgene. However, phosgenation processes raise severe environmental concerns, which are attributed to the toxicity of phosgene and the formation of corrosive hydrogen chloride as a co-product. The considerable industrial interest in replacing current phosgene-based processes prompted several methods using non-phosgene routes including carbonylation of amines or nitro compounds and carbomethoxylation of amines with dialkylcarbonates. Among these, catalytic oxidative carbonylation of an amine in the presence of alcohol has been studied most extensively. Catalytic systems based on precious metals such as Rh and Pd are commonly used for this purpose, but most of these catalytic systems suffer from either low reactivity or severe reaction conditions such as high temperature and pressures. In conclusion, the facile change of selenium oxidation state by CO and O{sub 2} might be the main reason for the activity of the selenium catalyst for this reaction.

  2. Alkylselenite-catalyzed Oxidative Carbonylation of Amines: Density Functional Theory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sun; Kim, Hoon Sik; Cheong, Minserk

    2012-01-01

    Ureas and carbamates have been conventionally produced by the reaction of amines with phosgene. However, phosgenation processes raise severe environmental concerns, which are attributed to the toxicity of phosgene and the formation of corrosive hydrogen chloride as a co-product. The considerable industrial interest in replacing current phosgene-based processes prompted several methods using non-phosgene routes including carbonylation of amines or nitro compounds and carbomethoxylation of amines with dialkylcarbonates. Among these, catalytic oxidative carbonylation of an amine in the presence of alcohol has been studied most extensively. Catalytic systems based on precious metals such as Rh and Pd are commonly used for this purpose, but most of these catalytic systems suffer from either low reactivity or severe reaction conditions such as high temperature and pressures. In conclusion, the facile change of selenium oxidation state by CO and O 2 might be the main reason for the activity of the selenium catalyst for this reaction

  3. High content analysis of phagocytic activity and cell morphology with PuntoMorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Hassan; Gao, Han; Dalby-Hansen, Camilla; Peters, Vanessa Ann; Shi, Yan; Brambilla, Roberta

    2017-11-01

    Phagocytosis is essential for maintenance of normal homeostasis and healthy tissue. As such, it is a therapeutic target for a wide range of clinical applications. The development of phenotypic screens targeting phagocytosis has lagged behind, however, due to the difficulties associated with image-based quantification of phagocytic activity. We present a robust algorithm and cell-based assay system for high content analysis of phagocytic activity. The method utilizes fluorescently labeled beads as a phagocytic substrate with defined physical properties. The algorithm employs statistical modeling to determine the mean fluorescence of individual beads within each image, and uses the information to conduct an accurate count of phagocytosed beads. In addition, the algorithm conducts detailed and sophisticated analysis of cellular morphology, making it a standalone tool for high content screening. We tested our assay system using microglial cultures. Our results recapitulated previous findings on the effects of microglial stimulation on cell morphology and phagocytic activity. Moreover, our cell-level analysis revealed that the two phenotypes associated with microglial activation, specifically cell body hypertrophy and increased phagocytic activity, are not highly correlated. This novel finding suggests the two phenotypes may be under the control of distinct signaling pathways. We demonstrate that our assay system outperforms preexisting methods for quantifying phagocytic activity in multiple dimensions including speed, accuracy, and resolution. We provide a framework to facilitate the development of high content assays suitable for drug screening. For convenience, we implemented our algorithm in a standalone software package, PuntoMorph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. OMASAL MORPHOLOGY OF DAIRY COWS FED WITH HIGH OR LOW GRAIN CONTENT DIET PRIOR PARTURITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Oliveira Rocha Bhering Santoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little is known about the morphological response of the omasum in dairy cows that consume a high-energy diet pre-partum. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a transitional diet with high grain content is able to induce changes in omasum morphology. Six weeks before the expected calving, four Holstein cows were fed a standardization diet, and four weeks before delivery, the cows were fed a diet with high grain content (HGC or low (LGC grain content. After calving, all of the cows were fed a high energy lactation diet. The cows that were fed the HGC diet pre-partum had higher dry matter and nutrient intake than the cows that were fed the LGC diet. The mitotic index of the omasum epithelium was higher than the mitotic index in the rumen, but apparently the response to the diet stimuli was slower. In the cows that were fed the HGC diet, the omasum papillae were taller one week before parturition and two weeks post-partum. Cows that were fed the HGC diet had a thinner epithelium due to thinner non-keratinized layers of the omasum epithelium. We conclude that the omasum mucosa of dairy cows responds to the stimuli of a pre-partum HGC diet, which was indicated by the greater height of the omasum papillae and by the reduced thickness of the omasum epithelium. It seems that the mitotic index responds a little more slowly, but the response to the diet stimuli is stronger in the omasum epithelium than in the rumen.

  5. High-content profiling of cell responsiveness to graded substrates based on combinyatorially variant polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Er; Treiser, Matthew D; Patel, Hiral; Sung, Hak-Joon; Roskov, Kristen E; Kohn, Joachim; Becker, Matthew L; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2009-08-01

    We have developed a novel approach combining high information and high throughput analysis to characterize cell adhesive responses to biomaterial substrates possessing gradients in surface topography. These gradients were fabricated by subjecting thin film blends of tyrosine-derived polycarbonates, i.e. poly(DTE carbonate) and poly(DTO carbonate) to a gradient temperature annealing protocol. Saos-2 cells engineered with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter for farnesylation (GFP-f) were cultured on the gradient substrates to assess the effects of nanoscale surface topology and roughness that arise during the phase separation process on cell attachment and adhesion strength. The high throughput imaging approach allowed us to rapidly identify the "global" and "high content" structure-property relationships between cell adhesion and biomaterial properties such as polymer chemistry and topography. This study found that cell attachment and spreading increased monotonically with DTE content and were significantly elevated at the position with intermediate regions corresponding to the highest "gradient" of surface roughness, while GFP-f farnesylation intensity descriptors were sensitively altered by surface roughness, even in cells with comparable levels of spreading.

  6. Synthesis and bioelectrochemical behavior of aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Safeer; Bolte, Michael; McKee, Vickie

    2017-12-01

    Four aromatic amines 1-amino-4-phenoxybenzene (A 1 ), 4-(4-aminophenyloxy) biphenyl (A 2 ), 1-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene (A 3 ) and 2-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene (A 4 ) were synthesized and characterized by elemental, spectroscopic (FTIR, NMR), mass spectrometric and single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The compounds crystallized in monoclinic crystal system with space group P2 1 . Intermolecular hydrogen bonds were observed between the amine group and amine/ether acceptors of neighboring molecules. Electrochemical investigations were done using cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). CV studies showed that oxidation of aromatic amines takes place at about 0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and the electron transfer (ET) process has irreversible nature. After first scan reactive intermediate were generated electrochemically and some other cathodic and anodic peaks also appeared in the succeeding scans. DPV study revealed that ET process is accompanied by one electron. DNA binding study of aromatic amines was performed by CV and UV-visible spectroscopy. These investigations revealed groove binding mode of interaction of aromatic amines with DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Debromination of endo-(+)-3-bromocamphor with primary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Svetlana; Markovic, Violeta; Joksovic, Milan D.; Joksovic, Ljubinka, E-mail: ljubinka@kg.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac (Serbia); Todorovic, Nina [Institute for Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Serbia); Divjakovic, Vladimir [Department of Physics, University of Novi Sad (Serbia); Trifunovic, Snezana [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, (Serbia)

    2013-07-15

    Reductive debromination of endo-(+)-3-bromocamphor with different primary amines followed by imine formation was investigated. This reaction requires simple experimental procedure without any organic solvent, metal or conventional reducing agent. A strong influence of amine polarity on the efficacy of debromination process was observed, and ethanolamine and ethylene diamine having sufficiently high boiling points can debrominate 3-bromocamphor giving corresponding camphanimines in good isolated yields. The mechanisms of debromination of 3-bromocamphor with ethanolamine and n-hexylamine were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. The radical mechanism was revealed, and it was shown that the reaction with more polar ethanolamine is energetically more favorable. (author)

  8. Profiling stem cell states in three-dimensional biomaterial niches using high content image informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Anandika; Brenner, Matthew; Wolujewicz, Paul; Zhang, Zheng; Mao, Yong; Batish, Mona; Kohn, Joachim; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2016-11-01

    A predictive framework for the evolution of stem cell biology in 3-D is currently lacking. In this study we propose deep image informatics of the nuclear biology of stem cells to elucidate how 3-D biomaterials steer stem cell lineage phenotypes. The approach is based on high content imaging informatics to capture minute variations in the 3-D spatial organization of splicing factor SC-35 in the nucleoplasm as a marker to classify emergent cell phenotypes of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The cells were cultured in varied 3-D culture systems including hydrogels, electrospun mats and salt leached scaffolds. The approach encompasses high resolution 3-D imaging of SC-35 domains and high content image analysis (HCIA) to compute quantitative 3-D nuclear metrics for SC-35 organization in single cells in concert with machine learning approaches to construct a predictive cell-state classification model. Our findings indicate that hMSCs cultured in collagen hydrogels and induced to differentiate into osteogenic or adipogenic lineages could be classified into the three lineages (stem, adipogenic, osteogenic) with ⩾80% precision and sensitivity, within 72h. Using this framework, the augmentation of osteogenesis by scaffold design exerted by porogen leached scaffolds was also profiled within 72h with ∼80% high sensitivity. Furthermore, by employing 3-D SC-35 organizational metrics, differential osteogenesis induced by novel electrospun fibrous polymer mats incorporating decellularized matrix could also be elucidated and predictably modeled at just 3days with high precision. We demonstrate that 3-D SC-35 organizational metrics can be applied to model the stem cell state in 3-D scaffolds. We propose that this methodology can robustly discern minute changes in stem cell states within complex 3-D architectures and map single cell biological readouts that are critical to assessing population level cell heterogeneity. The sustained development and validation of bioactive

  9. Factor analysis in optimization of formulation of high content uniformity tablets containing low dose active substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Ivana; Muselík, Jan; Franc, Aleš; Goněc, Roman; Mika, Filip; Vetchý, David

    2017-11-15

    Warfarin is intensively discussed drug with narrow therapeutic range. There have been cases of bleeding attributed to varying content or altered quality of the active substance. Factor analysis is useful for finding suitable technological parameters leading to high content uniformity of tablets containing low amount of active substance. The composition of tabletting blend and technological procedure were set with respect to factor analysis of previously published results. The correctness of set parameters was checked by manufacturing and evaluation of tablets containing 1-10mg of warfarin sodium. The robustness of suggested technology was checked by using "worst case scenario" and statistical evaluation of European Pharmacopoeia (EP) content uniformity limits with respect to Bergum division and process capability index (Cpk). To evaluate the quality of active substance and tablets, dissolution method was developed (water; EP apparatus II; 25rpm), allowing for statistical comparison of dissolution profiles. Obtained results prove the suitability of factor analysis to optimize the composition with respect to batches manufactured previously and thus the use of metaanalysis under industrial conditions is feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  11. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Effects of High-Content Limstone Addition on Combustion Characteristics of Taixi Anthracite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; LI Mei; SUN Min; WEI Xian-yong

    2004-01-01

    Combustion characteristics of Taixi anthracite admixed with high content of limestone addition were investigated with thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that limestone addition has a little promoting effect on the ignition of raw coals as a whole. The addition of limestone is found to significantly accelerate the combustion and burnout of raw coals. The higher the sample mass is, the more significant the effect will be. The results also show that the change of limestone proportion between 45%-80% has little effect on ignition temperatures of coal in the blended samples. Increasing limestone content lowers the temperature corresponding to the maximum weight loss. Although higher maximum mass loss rates are observed with higher limestone content, the effect is found not ascribed to changing limestone addition, but to the decrease of absolute coal mass in the sample. The change of limestone proportion has little effect on its burnout temperature. Mechanism analysis indicates that these phenomena result mainly from improved heat conduction due to limestone addition.

  12. Correlation between the mechanical property and microstructure of porcelain with high alumina contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulart, E.P.; Jordao, M.A.P.; Souza, D.D.D. de; Kiyohara, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The substitution of quartz by a alumina in porcelain bodies produces high increase in mechanical strenght of the fired body. In the present paper, body microstruture variations caused by gradual quartz by alumina substitution have been studied and correlated to physical characteristics variations. Several bodies with quartz content varying from 22% to 0% and accordingly, the alumina content varying from 0% to 22% have been prepared. Other quartz-free bodies and the alumina content going up to 40% have been prepared. Three different alumina types have been used: two of them were of microcrystal type, the original crystal size between 1-5μm and obtained by calcining aluminum hydroxide from Bayer process; the third one is an originally macrocrystal type alumina obtained by grinding electrofused material. The sintering temperature ranged from 1250 0 C to 1400 0 C with 50 0 C of intervals between each firing. Tests on specimens covered flexural strenght, water absortion, apparent density and porosity. Microstruture variations and new mineral formation was continuously detected by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction [pt

  13. FeNbB bulk metallic glass with high boron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, M.; Das, Jayanta; Eckert, Juergen [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 270016, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Hajlaoui, Khalil; Yavari, Alain Reza [LTPCM-CNRS, I.N.P. Grenoble, 1130 Rue de la Piscine, BP 75, F-38402 University Campus (France)

    2007-07-01

    Fe-based alloys able to form magnetic bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are of the type transition metal - metalloid and often contain 5 or more elements. Usually, the metalloid content is around 20 atomic %. Very recently, the Fe{sub 66}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 30} alloy was found to be able to form BMG by copper mold casting technique, despite its high metalloid content. Several composition with boron contents around 30 at. % or even higher were calculated since 1993 as possible compositions of the remaining amorphous matrix after the first stage of nanocrystallization of Finemet-type Fe{sub 77}Si{sub 14}B{sub 9} glassy ribbons with 0.5 to 1 atomic % Cu and a few percent Nb addition. Melt-spun ribbons of all calculated compositions were found to be glassy. The composition of the ternary Fe-based BMG investigated in the present study resulted as an optimization of all possibilities. The alloy is ferromagnetic with glass transition temperature T{sub g}=845 K, crystallisation temperature T{sub x}=876 K, liquidus temperature T{sub liq}=1451 K and mechanical strength of 4 GPa. The coercivity of as-cast samples is very low, around 1.5 A/m. The present contribution aims at discussing the thermal stability, mechanical and magnetic properties of the Fe{sub 66}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 30} BMG.

  14. Dynamics of CO 2 Adsorption on Amine Adsorbents. 2. Insights Into Adsorbent Design

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen

    2012-11-21

    Packed bed breakthrough experiments are reported for commercial zeolite 13X and 3-aminopropyl-functionalized SBA-15 silica materials with three different amine loadings. Mass and heat transfer dynamics for all four materials are modeled successfully. Amine adsorbents with open pores are found to exhibit faster mass diffusion rates compared to zeolite 13X. When amine loading is increased by coupling aminopropyl groups, premature breakthrough combined with a long tail is observed. Contrary to conventional physisorbants, finite heat losses to the column wall do not explain the long breakthrough tail. A rate model that accounts for heterogeneity in diffusion was found to accurately capture the breakthrough shape of the high loading material. Batch uptake measurements support the hypothesis that slow diffusion through the polymer phase is what hampers adsorption kinetics in the high amine loading adsorbent. The results emphasize the importance of designing materials that are not overloaded with amine sites, as excessive amine loadings can lead to depressed adsorption kinetics and premature column breakthrough. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Mutational breeding and genetic engineering in the development of high grain protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Linscombe, Steve D

    2013-12-04

    Cereals are the most important crops in the world for both human consumption and animal feed. Improving their nutritional values, such as high protein content, will have significant implications, from establishing healthy lifestyles to helping remediate malnutrition problems worldwide. Besides providing a source of carbohydrate, grain is also a natural source of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, specific oils, and other disease-fighting phytocompounds. Even though cereal grains contain relatively little protein compared to legume seeds, they provide protein for the nutrition of humans and livestock that is about 3 times that of legumes. Most cereal seeds lack a few essential amino acids; therefore, they have imbalanced amino acid profiles. Lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine (Met), and tryptophan (Trp) are among the most critical and are a limiting factor in many grain crops for human nutrition. Tremendous research has been put into the efforts to improve these essential amino acids. Development of high protein content can be outlined in four different approaches through manipulating seed protein bodies, modulating certain biosynthetic pathways to overproduce essential and limiting amino acids, increasing nitrogen relocation to the grain through the introduction of transgenes, and exploiting new genetic variance. Various technologies have been employed to improve protein content including conventional and mutational breeding, genetic engineering, marker-assisted selection, and genomic analysis. Each approach involves a combination of these technologies. Advancements in nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics continue to improve public knowledge at a rapid pace on the importance of specific aspects of food nutrition for optimum fitness and health. An understanding of the molecular basis for human health and genetic predisposition to certain diseases through human genomes enables individuals to personalize their nutritional requirements. It is critically important

  16. Depth-resolved incoherent and coherent wide-field high-content imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Peter T.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in depth-resolved wide-field imaging technique has enabled many high throughput applications in biology and medicine. Depth resolved imaging of incoherent signals can be readily accomplished with structured light illumination or nonlinear temporal focusing. The integration of these high throughput systems with novel spectroscopic resolving elements further enable high-content information extraction. We will introduce a novel near common-path interferometer and demonstrate its uses in toxicology and cancer biology applications. The extension of incoherent depth-resolved wide-field imaging to coherent modality is non-trivial. Here, we will cover recent advances in wide-field 3D resolved mapping of refractive index, absorbance, and vibronic components in biological specimens.

  17. Influence of molybdenum content on transformation behavior of high performance bridge steel during continuous cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun; Tang, Shuai; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Guodong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The bainite transformation field was refined. ► The empirical equation to estimate the GF s was established. ► Transformation behavior was studied with serially increasing Mo addition. ► The molybdenum content can be lowered as the cooling rate is increased. ► GF transformation field is also shifted to right by increasing Mo content. - Abstract: The continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of high performance bridge steel with different molybdenum content were plotted by means of a combined method of dilatometry and metallography. The results show that the molybdenum addition of 0.17 wt% does not noticeably alter the transformation behavior, whereas 0.38 wt% significantly. In addition, the molybdenum addition of 0.38 wt% completely eliminates the formation of polygonal ferrite (PF) and significantly lower the granular ferrite (GF) transformation starting temperatures throughout the range of cooling rates studied. At lower cooling rates, with the increase of the molybdenum content, the martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents are noticeably refined, whereas the effects are not obvious at higher cooling rates. Moreover, the molybdenum addition of 0.38 wt% can significantly increase the Vickers hardness, but the Vickers hardness increments (by comparison of Mo-0.17wt% steel and Mo-0.38wt% steel) are sharply reduced at the cooling rate of 30 °C/s, indicating that at higher cooling rate, the molybdenum usage can be saved and the higher strengthen can be also gained. It could be found the GF transformation starting temperature is linear with the cooling rate. The empirical equation was established to calculate GF transformation starting temperatures, and the calculated values are in good agreement with measured ones

  18. Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan W; Dumke, Kelly A; Goran, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    Excess fructose consumption is hypothesized to be associated with risk for metabolic disease. Actual fructose consumption levels are difficult to estimate because of the unlabeled quantity of fructose in beverages. The aims of this study were threefold: 1) re-examine the fructose content in previously tested beverages using two additional assay methods capable of detecting other sugars, especially maltose, 2) compare data across all methods to determine the actual free fructose-to-glucose ratio in beverages made either with or without high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and 3) expand the analysis to determine fructose content in commonly consumed juice products. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and fruit juice drinks that were either made with or without HFCS were analyzed in separate, independent laboratories via three different methods to determine sugar profiles. For SSBs, the three independent laboratory methods showed consistent and reproducible results. In SSBs made with HFCS, fructose constituted 60.6% ± 2.7% of sugar content. In juices sweetened with HFCS, fructose accounted for 52.1% ± 5.9% of sugar content, although in some juices made from 100% fruit, fructose concentration reached 65.35 g/L accounting for 67% of sugars. Our results provide evidence of higher than expected amounts of free fructose in some beverages. Popular beverages made with HFCS have a fructose-to-glucose ratio of approximately 60:40, and thus contain 50% more fructose than glucose. Some pure fruit juices have twice as much fructose as glucose. These findings suggest that beverages made with HFCS and some juices have a sugar profile very different than sucrose, in which amounts of fructose and glucose are equivalent. Current dietary analyses may underestimate actual fructose consumption. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrochemical treatment of organic wastewater with high salt content. Ko enbun yuki haisui no denkai shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Hideo; Kitamura, Takao; Kato, Shunsaku; Oyashiki, Satoru (Goverment Industrial Research Inst. Shikoku, Takamatsu, (Japan) Toyo Engineering Work Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-01-31

    Wastewater containing organic pollutants is generally treated by the biological methods like the activated sludge process, etc. But these biological methods are not necessarily applied to the wastewater with high salt content generated at pickles making plants, etc.. In this report, with the objective of application of the electrolytic oxidation treatment to the organic wastewater with high salt content of pickles making plants, the effects of such conditions as pH, temperature and current, etc. on the treatment rate and treatment efficiency were examined, furthermore, the treatment process was simulated on the basis of a simple reaction model, and its simulation results were compared for study with the experimental results. The results are shown below: No effect of pH was observed, hence no pH control is required; The higher temperature of the wastewater accelerates the treatment rate; It was considered that in high temperature, a loss due to autolysis of hypochlorous acid increases, but the current efficiency of generating hypochlorous acid increases too and since the latter effect is bigger, the above phenomenon occurs. The current has a small effect on the treatment efficiency. With the simple reaction model, the change of residual chlorine concentration, etc. with time can be reproduced semiquantitatively. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Silica removal in industrial effluents with high silica content and low hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Isabel; Miranda, Ruben; Blanco, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    High silica content of de-inked paper mill effluents is limiting their regeneration and reuse after membrane treatments such as reverse osmosis (RO). Silica removal during softening processes is a common treatment; however, the effluent from the paper mill studied has a low hardness content, which makes the addition of magnesium compounds necessary to increase silica removal. Two soluble magnesium compounds (MgCl₂∙6H₂O and MgSO₄∙7H₂O) were tested at five dosages (250-1,500 mg/L) and different initial pH values. High removal rates (80-90%) were obtained with both products at the highest pH tested (11.5). With these removal efficiencies, it is possible to work at high RO recoveries (75-85%) without silica scaling. Although pH regulation significantly increased the conductivity of the waters (at pH 11.5 from 2.1 to 3.7-4.0 mS/cm), this could be partially solved by using Ca(OH)₂ instead of NaOH as pH regulator (final conductivity around 3.0 mS/cm). Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained with caustic soda was lower than with lime (15 vs. 30%). Additionally, the combined use of a polyaluminum coagulant during the softening process was studied; the coagulant, however, did not significantly improve silica removal, obtaining a maximum increase of only 10%.

  1. Automated analysis of high-content microscopy data with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Oren Z; Grys, Ben T; Ba, Jimmy; Chong, Yolanda; Frey, Brendan J; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2017-04-18

    Existing computational pipelines for quantitative analysis of high-content microscopy data rely on traditional machine learning approaches that fail to accurately classify more than a single dataset without substantial tuning and training, requiring extensive analysis. Here, we demonstrate that the application of deep learning to biological image data can overcome the pitfalls associated with conventional machine learning classifiers. Using a deep convolutional neural network (DeepLoc) to analyze yeast cell images, we show improved performance over traditional approaches in the automated classification of protein subcellular localization. We also demonstrate the ability of DeepLoc to classify highly divergent image sets, including images of pheromone-arrested cells with abnormal cellular morphology, as well as images generated in different genetic backgrounds and in different laboratories. We offer an open-source implementation that enables updating DeepLoc on new microscopy datasets. This study highlights deep learning as an important tool for the expedited analysis of high-content microscopy data. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  2. Hot forging of roll-cast high aluminum content magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Tomohiro; Watari, Hisaki; Suzuki, Mayumi; Haga, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on hot forging of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using horizontal twin-roll casting. AZ111 and AZ131 were applied for twin-roll casting, and a hot-forging test was performed to manufacture high-strength magnesium alloy components economically. For twin-roll casting, the casting conditions of a thick sheet for hot forging were investigated. It was found that twin-roll casting of a 10mm-thick magnesium alloy sheet was possible at a roll speed of 2.5m/min. The grain size of the cast strip was 50 to 70µm. In the hot-forging test, blank material was obtained from as-cast strip. A servo press machine with a servo die cushion was used to investigate appropriate forging conditions (e.g., temperature, forging load, and back pressure) for twin-roll casts (TRCs) AZ111 and AZ131. It was determined that high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using twin-roll casting could be forged with a forging load of 150t and a back pressure of 3t at 420 to 430°C. Applying back pressure during hot forging effectively forged a pin-shaped product.

  3. Determination of limonin and nomilin contents in different citrus cultivars using high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, H.; Hassan, S.; Sahar, S.; Akram, W.; Sahar, S.

    2013-01-01

    High perlorrnance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was done to quantify the amount of limonoids (nomilin and nomilin) in seven selected citrus cultivars. According to the HPLC analysis red blood orange (Citrus sinensis var red blood orange) had maximum amount of limonin (479.77 ug/rnl.), while rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) had no limonin content. in case of nomonin, rough lemon (Citrus jambhir) had maximum amount of nomilin (54.23 micro g/ML)) while succari (citrus sinensis var succari) had very low amount of nomilin (0.37 micro g/Ml). (author)

  4. Autoclave-hardening slag-alkali binder with high water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenevskij, V.V.; Kozyrin, N.A.; Melikhova, N.I.; Narkevich, N.K.; Ryabov, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The results of investigations into properties of slag-alkali binder, that may be used for concretes of reactor radiation and thermal shieldings, are presented. These concretes have increased chemical stability and mechanical strength, high content of chemically bound water (approximately 14%), that is not lost under heating up to 550 deg C. Dumping and granulated slags of blast-furnace process, sodium-bicarbonate-alkali fusion cake formed at burning of adipic acid residues, technical sodium hydroxide and sodium liquid glass are used as raw material for slag-alkali binder

  5. Robust, Reliable Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustion of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret Stacy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Im, Hong Geum [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The effects of high hydrogen content fuels were studied using experimental, computational and theoretical approaches to understand the effects of mixture and state conditions on the ignition behavior of the fuels. A rapid compression facility (RCF) was used to measure the ignition delay time of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures. The data were combined with results of previous studies to develop ignition regime criteria. Analytical theory and direct numerical simulation were used to validate and interpret the RCF ignition data. Based on the integrated information the ignition regime criteria were extended to non-dimensional metrics which enable application of the results to practical gas turbine combustion systems.

  6. Porous glass with high silica content for nuclear waste storage : preparation, characterization and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, M.A.; Santos, D.I. dos; Ventura, P.C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Aqueous solutions simulating radioactive nuclear wastes (like Savanah River Laboratory) were incorporated in porous glass matrix with high silica content prepared by decomposition of borosilicate glass like Na 2 O - B 2 O 3 - SiO 2 . After sintering, the samples were submitted, during 28 days, to standard leaching tests MCC1, MCC5 (Soxhlet) and stagnating. The total weight loss, ph, as well as the integral and differential leaching rates and the accumulated concentrations in the leach of Si, Na, B, Ca, Mn, Al, Fe and Ni. The results are compared with the results from reference borosilicate glass, made by fusion, ceramic, synroc, concrets, etc... (E.G.) [pt

  7. Heterocyclic amines in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye BULGAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic amines (HA are the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds which generate as a result of cooking of red meat, poultry meat and fish fillets at high temperatures. Up to 20 different HAs were detected and classified in the researches that conducted on these types of meats cooked at high temperatures. HAs are the products of Maillard reactions and the Strecker degredation of main precursors such as creatine/creatinine, aminoacid and the polysaccharides. Many physical and chemical factors effect the formation of HAs. Thus, it was reported by many researchers that utilizing coating and marination processes in addition to using natural and synthetic antioxidants and seasonings-plant extracts were effective on inhibiting/decreasing the formation of HAs. Additionally, boiling/steaming and microwave cooking methodologies were recommended instead of barbecuing, grilling or frying to inhibit/decrease the formation of HAs. The HAs formed in meat and meat products and the factors which have effects on the formation of HAs are presented in this review.

  8. Highly luminescent, high-indium-content InGaN film with uniform composition and full misfit-strain relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A. M.; Wei, Y. O.; Ponce, F. A.; Moseley, M.; Gunning, B.; Doolittle, W. A.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the properties of thick InxGa1-xN films, with indium content ranging from x ˜ 0.22 to 0.67, grown by metal-modulated epitaxy. While the low indium-content films exhibit high density of stacking faults and dislocations, a significant improvement in the crystalline quality and optical properties has been observed starting at x ˜ 0.6. Surprisingly, the InxGa1-xN film with x ˜ 0.67 exhibits high luminescence intensity, low defect density, and uniform full lattice-mismatch strain relaxation. The efficient strain relaxation is shown to be due to a critical thickness close to the monolayer range. These films were grown at low temperatures (˜400 °C) to facilitate indium incorporation and with precursor modulation to enhance surface morphology and metal adlayer diffusion. These findings should contribute to the development of growth techniques for nitride semiconductors under high lattice misfit conditions.

  9. Bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for non-viral gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and development of bioreducible poly(amido amine)s as non-viral vectors for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. The structural influences of these polymers on their physico-chemical properties and gene delivery properties, transfection capability and cytotoxicity in

  10. Platinum-Catalyzed Terminal-Selective C(sp3)–H Oxidation of Aliphatic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the terminal-selective Pt-catalyzed C(sp3)–H oxidation of aliphatic amines without the requirement for directing groups. CuCl2 is employed as a stoichiometric oxidant, and the reactions proceed in high yield at Pt loadings as low as 1 mol %. These transformations are conducted in the presence of sulfuric acid, which reacts with the amine substrates in situ to form ammonium salts. We propose that protonation of the amine serves at least three important roles: (i) it renders the substrates soluble in the aqueous reaction medium; (ii) it limits binding of the amine nitrogen to Pt or Cu; and (ii) it electronically deactivates the C–H bonds proximal to the nitrogen center. We demonstrate that this strategy is effective for the terminal-selective C(sp3)–H oxidation of a variety of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. PMID:26439251

  11. Experiences of High School Students about the Predictors of Tobacco Use: a Directed Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tobacco use is one of the most important risk factors that increases the burden of diseases worldwide. Based on the increasing speed of tobacco use, the aim of the present study was to explain the experiences of high school students about the determiners of use and non-use of tobacco (cigarettes and hookah based on the theory of protection motivation. Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative study based on content analysis that has been carried out for five months from 22, November of 2014 to 20, April of 2015 on male high schools in Noshahr. Data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews from 21 male high school students of whom 7 smoked cigarettes, 7 used hookah and 7 of them did not use any type of tobacco. Data analysis was carried out through the use of directed qualitative content analysis. Results: Data analysis led to the extraction of 99 primary codes that were categorized into 9 predetermined levels of protection motivation theory including perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity, fear, perceived self-efficacy, response expense, efficiency of the perceived answer, external perceived reward, internal perceived reward, protection motivation. The findings of the study showed that the most important predictors for the use of tobacco were the structures of response expense and high perceived rewards and the most important predictors for non-use of tobacco were perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity and high self-efficacy of students. Conclusions: the findings of the present study showed that the pressure from peers, being present in a group using tobacco and the absence of alternative recreational activities are among the most important factors of using tobacco. So, it is suggested that planners of the health department take the comprehensive interventions to improve effective individual and environmental factors of using tobacco so that they could reduce smoking cigarettes

  12. New procedure of selected biogenic amines determination in wine samples by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasta, Anna M.; Jastrzębska, Aneta, E-mail: aj@chem.uni.torun.pl; Krzemiński, Marek P.; Muzioł, Tadeusz M.; Szłyk, Edward

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We proposed new procedure for derivatization of biogenic amines. • The NMR and XRD analysis confirmed the purity and uniqueness of derivatives. • Concentration of biogenic amines in wine samples were analyzed by RP-HPLC. • Sample contamination and derivatization reactions interferences were minimized. - Abstract: A new procedure for determination of biogenic amines (BA): histamine, phenethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine, based on the derivatization reaction with 2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-benzene (CNBF), is proposed. The amines derivatives with CNBF were isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography and {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy in solution. The novelty of the procedure is based on the pure and well-characterized products of the amines derivatization reaction. The method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of the above mentioned biogenic amines in wine samples by the reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The procedure revealed correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) between 0.9997 and 0.9999, and linear range: 0.10–9.00 mg L{sup −1} (histamine); 0.10–9.36 mg L{sup -1} (tyramine); 0.09–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (tryptamine) and 0.10–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (phenethylamine), whereas accuracy was 97%–102% (recovery test). Detection limit of biogenic amines in wine samples was 0.02–0.03 mg L{sup −1}, whereas quantification limit ranged 0.05–0.10 mg L{sup −1}. The variation coefficients for the analyzed amines ranged between 0.49% and 3.92%. Obtained BA derivatives enhanced separation the analytes on chromatograms due to the inhibition of hydrolysis reaction and the reduction of by-products formation.

  13. Evaluation of bio-materials’ rejuvenating effect on binders for high-reclaimed asphalt content mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jiménez del Barco-Carrión

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interest in using bio-materials in pavement engineering has grown significantly over the last decades due to environmental concerns about the use of non-recoverable natural resources. In this paper, bio-materials are used together with Reclaimed Asphalt (RA to restore some of the properties of the aged bitumen present in mixtures with high RA content. For this purpose, two bio-materials are studied and compared to conventional and polymer modified bitumens. Blends of these materials with RA bitumen were produced and studied to simulate a 50% RA mixture. The rejuvenating effect of the two bio-materials on RA has been assessed and compared with the effect of the conventional binders. Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution of the samples (obtained by the ?-method and different rheological parameters were used for this purpose. Results revealed the power of bio-materials to rejuvenate RA bitumen, showing their capability to be used as fresh binders in high-RA content mixtures.

  14. Glassy slags as novel waste forms for remediating mixed wastes with high metal contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Ebert, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing a glassy slag final waste form for the remediation of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes with high metal contents. This waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. This work indicates that glassy slag shows promise as final waste form because (1) it has similar or better chemical durability than high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses, (2) it can incorporate large amounts of metal wastes, (3) it can incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components (boron and alkalis), (4) it has less stringent processing requirements (e.g., viscosity and electric conductivity) than glass waste forms, (5) its production can require little or no purchased additives, which can result in greater reduction in waste volume and overall treatment costs. By using glassy slag waste forms, minimum additive waste stabilization approach can be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than those amenable only to glass waste forms

  15. A Liposomal Formulation Able to Incorporate a High Content of Paclitaxel and Exert Promising Anticancer Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Kan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A liposome formulation for paclitaxel was developed in this study. The liposomes, composed of naturally unsaturated and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholines, with significant phase transition temperature difference, were prepared and characterized. The liposomes exhibited a high content of paclitaxel, which was incorporated within the segregated microdomains coexisting on phospholipid bilayer of liposomes. As much as 15% paclitaxel to phospholipid molar ratio were attained without precipitates observed during preparation. In addition, the liposomes remained stable in liquid form at 4∘C for at least 6 months. The special composition of liposomal membrane which could reduce paclitaxel aggregation could account for such a capacity and stability. The cytotoxicity of prepared paclitaxel liposomes on the colon cancer C-26 cell culture was comparable to Taxol. Acute toxicity test revealed that LD50 for intravenous bolus injection in mice exceeded by 40 mg/kg. In antitumor efficacy study, the prepared liposomal paclitaxel demonstrated the increase in the efficacy against human cancer in animal model. Taken together, the novel formulated liposomes can incorporate high content of paclitaxel, remaining stable for long-term storage. These animal data also demonstrate that the liposomal paclitaxel is promising for further clinical use.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of the Stressed Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels of High Nitrogen Content in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almubarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of high nitrogen content on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels in seawater under severe conditions such as tensile stresses and existence of sensitization in the structure. A constant tensile stress has been applied to sensitized specimens types 304, 316L, 304LN, 304NH, and 316NH stainless steels. Microstructure investigation revealed various degrees of stress corrosion cracking. SCC was severe in type 304, moderate in types 316L and 304LN, and very slight in types 304NH and 316NH. The electrochemical polarization curves showed an obvious second current peak for the sensitized alloys which indicated the existence of second phase in the structure and the presence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking. EPR test provided a rapid and efficient nondestructive testing method for showing passivity, degree of sensitization and determining IGSCC for stainless steels in seawater. A significant conclusion was obtained that austenitic stainless steels of high nitrogen content corrode at a much slower rate increase pitting resistance and offer an excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking in seawater.

  17. Evaluation of bio-materials’ rejuvenating effect on binders for high-reclaimed asphalt content mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez del Barco-Carrión, A.; Pérez-Martínez, M.; Themeli, A.; Lo Presti, D.; Marsac, P.; Pouget, S.; Hammoum, F.; Chailleux, E.; Airey, G.D.

    2017-01-01

    The interest in using bio-materials in pavement engineering has grown significantly over the last decades due to environmental concerns about the use of non-recoverable natural resources. In this paper, bio-materials are used together with Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) to restore some of the properties of the aged bitumen present in mixtures with high RA content. For this purpose, two bio-materials are studied and compared to conventional and polymer modified bitumens. Blends of these materials with RA bitumen were produced and studied to simulate a 50% RA mixture. The rejuvenating effect of the two bio-materials on RA has been assessed and compared with the effect of the conventional binders. Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution of the samples (obtained by the ?-method) and different rheological parameters were used for this purpose. Results revealed the power of bio-materials to rejuvenate RA bitumen, showing their capability to be used as fresh binders in high-RA content mixtures. [es

  18. High-content analysis of single cells directly assembled on CMOS sensor based on color imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Saeki, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-12-15

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor was applied to high-content analysis of single cells which were assembled closely or directly onto the CMOS sensor surface. The direct assembling of cell groups on CMOS sensor surface allows large-field (6.66 mm×5.32 mm in entire active area of CMOS sensor) imaging within a second. Trypan blue-stained and non-stained cells in the same field area on the CMOS sensor were successfully distinguished as white- and blue-colored images under white LED light irradiation. Furthermore, the chemiluminescent signals of each cell were successfully visualized as blue-colored images on CMOS sensor only when HeLa cells were placed directly on the micro-lens array of the CMOS sensor. Our proposed approach will be a promising technique for real-time and high-content analysis of single cells in a large-field area based on color imaging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin

    Full Text Available BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC, and (ii heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of some microorganisms producing biogenic amines in some foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Bassiony, K.R.A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the proximate chemical composition ( moisture content , protein , fat, ash) chemical freshness tests (TBA, TVB-N, TMA, FAN, ph) and microbiological changes (total bacterial count, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts counts) occurred in sardine fish and pastirma during cold storage at (4 ± 1 degree C) were fully investigated. Furthermore, the bacterial activity causing the formation of biogenic amines were also studied. In addition, the determination of biogenic amines in sardine fish and pastirma produced by these bacteria were explored. The effects of irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) which were applied as a trial to reduce biogenic amines formation in sardine fish and pastirma were also investigated. In addition, the effect of the tested irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) on organoleptic properties of the treated sardine fish and pastirma were determined.

  1. Electrophysiological effects of trace amines on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada eLedonne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trace amines (TAs are a class of endogenous compounds strictly related to classic monoamine neurotransmitters with regard to their structure, metabolism and tissue distribution. Although the presence of TAs in mammalian brain has been recognized for decades, until recently they were considered to be by-products of amino acid metabolism or as ‘false’ neurotransmitters. The discovery in 2001 of a new family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, namely trace amines receptors, has re-ignited interest in TAs. In particular, two members of the family, trace amine receptor 1 (TA1 and trace amine receptor 2 (TA2, were shown to be highly sensitive to these endogenous compounds. Experimental evidence suggests that TAs modulate the activity of catecholaminergic neurons and that TA dysregulation may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and Parkinson’s disease, all of which are characterised by altered monoaminergic networks. Here we review recent data concerning the electrophysiological effects of TAs on the activity of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. In the context of recent data obtained with TA1 receptor knockout mice, we also discuss the mechanisms by which the activation of these receptors modulates the activity of these neurons. Three important new aspects of TAs action have recently emerged: (a inhibition of firing due to increased release of dopamine; (b reduction of D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory responses (excitatory effects due to dysinhibition; and (c a direct TA1 receptor-mediated activation of GIRK channels which produce cell membrane hyperpolarization. While the first two effects have been well documented in our laboratory, the direct activation of GIRK channels by TA1 receptors has been reported by others, but has not been seen in our laboratory (Geracitano et al., 2004. Further research is needed to address this point, and to further

  2. Cheminformatics Modeling of Amine Solutions for Assessing their CO2 Absorption Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenemann, Melaine A; Fourches, Denis

    2017-07-01

    As stricter regulations on CO 2 emissions are adopted worldwide, identifying efficient chemical processes to capture and recycle CO 2 is of critical importance for industry. The most common process known as amine scrubbing suffers from the lack of available amine solutions capable of capturing CO 2 efficiently. Tertiary amines characterized by low heats of reaction are considered good candidates but their absorption properties can significantly differ from one analogue to another despite high structural similarity. Herein, after collecting and curating experimental data from the literature, we have built a modeling set of 41 amine structures with their absorption properties. Then we analyzed their chemical composition using molecular descriptors and non-supervised clustering. Furthermore, we developed a series of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) to assess amines' CO 2 absorption properties from their structural characteristics. These models afforded reasonable prediction performances (e. g., Q 2 LOO =0.63 for CO 2 absorption amount) even though they are solely based on 2D chemical descriptors and individual machine learning techniques (random forest and neural network). Overall, we believe the chemical analysis and the series of QSPR models presented in this proof-of-concept study represent new knowledge and innovative tools that could be very useful for screening and prioritizing hypothetical amines to be synthesized and tested experimentally for their CO 2 absorption properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Selective fluorescence quenching of nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoping; McGuffin, Victoria L.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, primary, secondary, and tertiary amines are evaluated for their efficiency and selectivity as fluorescence quenchers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). In general, the quenching efficiency tends to increase from primary to tertiary amine due to a greater number of alkyl groups that increase the electron-donating ability. However, the selectivity decreases from primary to tertiary amine. The effect of low concentrations of water is also examined. Because water can form hydrogen bonds with amines, the nonbonding electron pair is not available for interaction with the fluorophore, thus the quenching constant is decreased. These aliphatic amines are then applied to PAHs and N-PAHs and some interesting trends are observed. Whereas amino-PAHs remain virtually unquenched by different amines, aza-PAHs are all quenched well. The selectivity between aza-PAHs and amino-PAHs is as high as several hundred. This trend provides an easy and effective method to discriminate between these classes of N-PAHs. Moreover, the alternant aza-PAHs are quenched more than their corresponding alternant PAHs

  4. Using Amines and Alkanes as Thermal-Runaway Retardants for Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang

    Thermal runaway imposes major challenges to large-scale lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The working temperature of a LIB is usually around room temperature. However, upon mechanical abuse such as an impact or nail penetration, LIB cell components may fail and internal short circuits could be formed. As a result, a series of exothermic electrochemical reactions and decompositions would take place and the local temperature can rapidly increase. In this thesis, a few novel techniques are investigated to mitigate thermal runaway of LIBs. Mechanically triggered approach has been employed. Thermal-runaway retardant (TRR) is encapsulated in mechanically responsive packages made of materials inert to the battery environment, and upon external mechanical loadings the packages can be broken apart and release the TRR. This mechanism allows for the use of aggressive chemicals to suppress the short circuit discharge and reduce the subsequent exothermic phenomena, immediately after the battery is damaged even before temperature increase begins. The best TRR candidates are identified to be amines and alkanes. Among amines, secondary amines and tertiary amines perform better than primary amines. The reduction in electrolyte ionic conductivity and the displacement of electrolyte are the thermal-runaway-mitigation mechanisms of the secondary and the tertiary amines, respectively. Pentadecane is the best candidate among the alkanes under investigation, with the major working mechanism being electrolyte displacement. Impact tests on large pouch cells and high-energy battery chemistry were also performed; the results were quite encouraging.

  5. A rapid detection method for policy-sensitive amines real-time supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haixu; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Pengkun

    2018-02-01

    Many organic amines that comprise a benzene ring are policy-sensitive because of their toxicity and links to social harm. However, to date, detection of such compounds mainly relies on offline methods. This study proposes an online pptv (parts per trillion by volume) level of detection method for amines, using the recently-built vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer (VUV-PIMS) combined with a new doping technique. Thus, the dichloromethane doping-assisted photoionization mass spectra of aniline, benzylamine, phenethylamine, amphetamine, and their structural isomers were recorded. The dominant characteristic mass peaks for all amines are those afforded by protonated amines and the amino radical-loss. The signal intensities of the amines were enhanced by 60-130 times compared to those recorded without doping assistance. Under 10s detection time, the sensitivities of aniline and benzylamine in the gas phase were determined as 4.0 and 2.7 countspptv -1 , with limits of detection (LODs) of 36 and 22 pptv, respectively. Notably, the detection efficiency of this method can be tenfold better in future applications since the ion transmission efficiency of the mass spectrometer was intentionally reduced to ~ 10% in this study. Therefore, dichloromethane doping-assisted photoionization mass spectrometry has proven to be a highly promising on-line approach to amine detection in environmental and judicial supervision and shows great potential for application in the biological field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. DETERMINATION OF STRONTIUM IONS IN WATERS WITH A HIGH CONTENT OF SODIUM IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mitina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the influence of sodium ions on experimental determination of strontium ions concentration in waters with a high content of sodium ions by using emission flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. For the method of emission flame photometry it was shown that at a wavelength of 460.7 nm (spectral emission line of strontium the emission is linearly dependent on the concentration of sodium ions. The greatest impact of high concentrations of sodium ions on the result of determination the strontium ions concentration has been registered at low levels of strontium. The influence of nitric acid on the results is also discussed. In the case of using atomic absorption spectroscopy method no influence of sodium ions and nitric acid on the results of determination the strontium ions concentration was revealed. The metrological characteristics of both methods are evaluated.

  7. Interaction genotype by season and its influence on the identification of beans with high content of zinc and iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Andrade Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral contents in common bean seeds are influenced, in addition to genetic variation, by environmental crop conditions, especially by the soil type and chemical composition and by the genotype x environment interaction. This study was carried out to verify if the zinc and iron contents are affected by the crop growing period. Ten lines with high iron and zinc contents and ten with low contents were assessed in three seasons: "wet season" of 2009/2010 (sowing in November; "dry season" of 2010 (sowing in February and "winter season" of 2010 (sowing in July, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with three replications and plots consisting of two rows of two meters, with a spacing of 0.50 m. The seeds harvested were assessed in regard to iron and zinc mineral contents. The greatest contents were observed in the winter season and the smallest ones in the dry season, with sowing in February. It was observed that in the mean of the three harvests, the lines classified as having high iron and zinc content exhibited an iron quantity 11.0% and a zinc quantity 6.8% above those of low content. The lines by seasons interaction occurs. However, its interference in identification of the groups with high and low content of the two nutrients is not great.

  8. An Extremely Halophilic Proteobacterium Combines a Highly Acidic Proteome with a Low Cytoplasmic Potassium Content*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deole, Ratnakar; Challacombe, Jean; Raiford, Douglas W.; Hoff, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Halophilic archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that function only at high salinity. We examined osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris. Genome sequencing and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis showed that the proteome of H. halophila is acidic. In line with this finding, H. halophila accumulated molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt medium as detected by x-ray microanalysis and plasma emission spectrometry. This result extends the taxonomic range of organisms using KCl as a main osmoprotectant to the Proteobacteria. The closely related organism H. halochloris does not exhibit an acidic proteome, matching its inability to accumulate K+. This observation indicates recent evolutionary changes in the osmoprotection strategy of these organisms. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt medium, its cytoplasmic K+ content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. First, we conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K+ ions and acidic side chains but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. Second, we propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K+-binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface. PMID:23144460

  9. High water contents in basaltic melt inclusions from Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, J. A.; Plank, T.; Hauri, E. H.; Melson, W. G.; Soto, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    Despite the importance of water to arc magma genesis, fractionation and eruption, few quantitative constraints exist on the water content of Arenal magmas. Early estimates, by electron microprobe sum deficit, suggested up to 4 wt% H2O in olivine-hosted basaltic andesite melt inclusions (MI) from pre-historic ET-6 tephra (Melson, 1982), and up to 7 wt% H2O in plagioclase and orthopyroxene-hosted dacitic MI from 1968 lapilli (Anderson, 1979). These high water contents are consistent with abundant hornblende phenocrysts in Arenal volcanics, but inconsistent with geochemical tracers such as 10Be and Ba/La that suggest a low flux of recycled material (and presumably water) from the subduction zone. In order to test these ideas, and provide the first direct measurements of water in mafic Arenal magmas, we have studied olivine-hosted MI from the prehistoric (900 yBP; Soto et al., 1998) ET3 tephra layer. MI range from andesitic (> 58% SiO2) to basaltic compositions ( 4 wt%) found here for Arenal basaltic MI support the semi-quantitative data from earlier studies, but are somewhat unexpected given predictions from slab tracers. Arenal water contents (4%) approach those of the 1995 eruption of Cerro Negro in Nicaragua (4-5 wt% in basaltic MI; Roggensack et al., 1997), despite the fact that the latter has Ba/La of > 100, while Arenal has Ba/La Journal of Geology; Melson, William G. (1982) Boletin de Volcanologia; Roggensack et al. (1997) Science; Soto et al. (1998) OSIVAM; Williams-Jones et al. (2001) Journal of Volc. and Geoth. Res.

  10. Remedial measures in Czech houses with high radium content in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Thomas, J.

    1999-01-01

    Three groups of houses built from materials having elevated natural radioactivity content were found in the Czech republic. These are: 1) about hundred old houses in Jachymov (Joachimstal) in Northern Bohemia, where residues from factory producing uranium paints were used as plaster and mortar before the World War II (radium concentration up to 1 MBq/kg, indoor gamma dose rate up to 10-100 μGy/h); 2) some 20 000 family houses built from highly emanating aerated concrete with radium content 500-1000 Bq/kg (produced from flying ash) in the period 1963-1980; 3) more than 2000 family houses from slag concrete of radium content about 3 kBq/kg in average (indoor gamma dose rate up to 2 μGy/h) made in the period 1972-83. Remedy measures were undertaken with state financial support. Intervention levels were laid down 200 Bq/m 3 for EEC (equivalent equilibrium radon concentration - it is equivalent to radon gas concentration 500 Bq/m 3 ), 2 μGy/h for indoor gamma dose rate. Weighted sum of indoor radon and indoor gamma dose rate was used if the latter was above 0,5 μGy/h. The central heat recovery ventilation units were used largely as the remedy measures. Some houses were demolished, in some houses local contamination of plasters was removed. Other tested measures (removal of the contaminated building material in great amount, gamma shielding, wall coating, etc.) proved to be not effective or not acceptable in practice. (author)

  11. Effects of carbon content on high-temperature mechanical and thermal fatigue properties of high-boron austenitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature mechanical properties of high-boron austenitic steels (HBASs were studied at 850 °C using a dynamic thermal-mechanical simulation testing machine. In addition, the thermal fatigue properties of the alloys were investigated using the self-restraint Uddeholm thermal fatigue test, during which the alloy specimens were cycled between room temperature and 800°C. Stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the surface cracks and cross-sectional microstructure of the alloy specimens after the thermal fatigue tests. The effects of carbon content on the mechanical properties at room temperature and high-temperature as well as thermal fatigue properties of the HBASs were also studied. The experimental results show that increasing carbon content induces changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties of the HBASs. The boride phase within the HBAS matrix exhibits a round and smooth morphology, and they are distributed in a discrete manner. The hardness of the alloys increases from 239 (0.19wt.% C to 302 (0.29wt.% C and 312 HV (0.37wt.% C; the tensile yield strength at 850 °C increases from 165.1 to 190.3 and 197.1 MPa; and the compressive yield strength increases from 166.1 to 167.9 and 184.4 MPa. The results of the thermal fatigue tests (performed for 300 cycles from room temperature to 800 °C indicate that the degree of thermal fatigue of the HBAS with 0.29wt.% C (rating of 2–3 is superior to those of the alloys with 0.19wt.% (rating of 4–5 and 0.37wt.% (rating of 3–4 carbon. The main cause of this difference is the ready precipitation of M23(C,B6-type borocarbides in the alloys with high carbon content during thermal fatigue testing. The precipitation and aggregation of borocarbide particles at the grain boundaries result in the deterioration of the thermal fatigue properties of the alloys.

  12. From caffeine to fish waste: amine compounds present in food and drugs and their interactions with primary amine oxidase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Olivieri, Aldo

    2011-07-01

    Tissue bound primary amine oxidase (PrAO) and its circulating plasma-soluble form are involved, through their catalytic activity, in important cellular roles, including the adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells during various inflammatory conditions, the regulation of cell growth and maturation, extracellular matrix deposition and maturation and glucose transport. PrAO catalyses the oxidative deamination of several xenobiotics and has been linked to vascular toxicity, due to the generation of cytotoxic aldehydes. In this study, a series of amines and aldehydes contained in food and drugs were tested via a high-throughput assay as potential substrates or inhibitors of bovine plasma PrAO. Although none of the compounds analyzed were found to be substrates for the enzyme, a series of molecules, including caffeine, the antidiabetics phenformin and tolbutamide and the antimicrobial pentamidine, were identified as PrAO inhibitors. Although the inhibition observed was in the millimolar and micromolar range, these data show that further work will be necessary to elucidate whether the interaction of ingested biogenic or xenobiotic amines with PrAO might adversely affect its biological roles.

  13. A prototype method for diagnosing high ice water content probability using satellite imager data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher R.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Strapp, J. Walter; Palikonda, Rabindra; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Spangenberg, Douglas; Smith, William L., Jr.; Protat, Alain; Delanoe, Julien

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have found that ingestion of high mass concentrations of ice particles in regions of deep convective storms, with radar reflectivity considered safe for aircraft penetration, can adversely impact aircraft engine performance. Previous aviation industry studies have used the term high ice water content (HIWC) to define such conditions. Three airborne field campaigns were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to better understand how HIWC is distributed in deep convection, both as a function of altitude and proximity to convective updraft regions, and to facilitate development of new methods for detecting HIWC conditions, in addition to many other research and regulatory goals. This paper describes a prototype method for detecting HIWC conditions using geostationary (GEO) satellite imager data coupled with in situ total water content (TWC) observations collected during the flight campaigns. Three satellite-derived parameters were determined to be most useful for determining HIWC probability: (1) the horizontal proximity of the aircraft to the nearest overshooting convective updraft or textured anvil cloud, (2) tropopause-relative infrared brightness temperature, and (3) daytime-only cloud optical depth. Statistical fits between collocated TWC and GEO satellite parameters were used to determine the membership functions for the fuzzy logic derivation of HIWC probability. The products were demonstrated using data from several campaign flights and validated using a subset of the satellite-aircraft collocation database. The daytime HIWC probability was found to agree quite well with TWC time trends and identified extreme TWC events with high probability. Discrimination of HIWC was more challenging at night with IR-only information. The products show the greatest capability for discriminating TWC ≥ 0.5 g m-3. Product validation remains challenging due to vertical TWC uncertainties and the typically coarse spatio-temporal resolution of the GEO data.

  14. Development and Application of High-Content Biological Screening for Modulators of NET Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria J. Chicca

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs are DNA-based antimicrobial web-like structures whose release is predominantly mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS; their purpose is to combat infections. However, unbalanced NET production and clearance is involved in tissue injury, circulation of auto-antibodies and development of several chronic diseases. Currently, there is lack of agreement regarding the high-throughput methods available for NET investigation. This study, therefore, aimed to develop and optimize a high-content analysis (HCA approach, which can be applied for the assay of NET production and for the screening of compounds involved in the modulation of NET release. A suitable paraformaldehyde fixation protocol was established to enable HCA of neutrophils and NETs. Bespoke and in-built bioinformatics algorithms were validated by comparison with standard low-throughput approaches for application in HCA of NETs. Subsequently, the optimized protocol was applied to high-content screening (HCS of a pharmaceutically derived compound library to identify modulators of NETosis. Of 56 compounds assessed, 8 were identified from HCS for further characterization of their effects on NET formation as being either inducers, inhibitors or biphasic modulators. The effects of these compounds on naïve neutrophils were evaluated by using specific assays for the induction of ROS and NET production, while their modulatory activity was validated in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. Results indicated the involvement of glutathione reductase, Src family kinases, molecular-target-of-Rapamycin, and mitogen-activated-protein-kinase pathways in NET release. The compounds and pathways identified may provide targets for novel therapeutic approaches for treating NET-associated pathologies.

  15. Adaptive platform for fluorescence microscopy-based high-content screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbauer, Matthias; Röder, Thorsten; Chen, Yang; Knoll, Alois; Uhl, Rainer

    2010-04-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has become a widely used tool for the study of medically relevant intra- and intercellular processes. Extracting meaningful information out of a bulk of acquired images is usually performed during a separate post-processing task. Thus capturing raw data results in an unnecessary huge number of images, whereas usually only a few images really show the particular information that is searched for. Here we propose a novel automated high-content microscope system, which enables experiments to be carried out with only a minimum of human interaction. It facilitates a huge speed-increase for cell biology research and its applications compared to the widely performed workflows. Our fluorescence microscopy system can automatically execute application-dependent data processing algorithms during the actual experiment. They are used for image contrast enhancement, cell segmentation and/or cell property evaluation. On-the-fly retrieved information is used to reduce data and concomitantly control the experiment process in real-time. Resulting in a closed loop of perception and action the system can greatly decrease the amount of stored data on one hand and increases the relative valuable data content on the other hand. We demonstrate our approach by addressing the problem of automatically finding cells with a particular combination of labeled receptors and then selectively stimulate them with antagonists or agonists. The results are then compared against the results of traditional, static systems.

  16. Changes in the Diaphragm Lipid Content after Administration of Streptozotocin and High-Fat Diet Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Lukaszuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The diaphragm is a dome-shaped skeletal muscle indispensable for breathing. Its activity contributes up to 70% of the total ventilatory function at rest. In comparison to other skeletal muscles, it is distinguished by an oxidative phenotype and uninterrupted cyclic contraction pattern. Surprisingly, the research regarding diaphragm diabetic phenotype particularly in the light of lipid-induced insulin resistance is virtually nonexistent. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 3 groups: control, streptozotocin-induced (STZ type-1 diabetes, and rodents fed with high-fat diet (HFD. Additionally, half of the animals from each group were administered with myriocin, a robust, selective inhibitor of ceramide synthesis and, therefore, a potent agent ameliorating insulin resistance. Diaphragm lipid contents were evaluated using chromatography. Fatty acid transporter expression was determined by Western blot. The STZ and HFD rats had increased concentration of lipids, namely, ceramides (CER and diacylglycerols (DAG. Interestingly, this coincided with an increased concentration of long-chain (C ≥ 16 saturated fatty acid species present in both the aforementioned lipid fractions. The CER/DAG accumulation was accompanied by an elevated fatty acid transporter expression (FATP-1 in HFD and FATP-4 in STZ. Surprisingly, we observed a significantly decreased triacylglycerol content in the diaphragms of STZ-treated rats.

  17. A Simple and Sensitive High-Content Assay for the Characterization of Antiproliferative Therapeutic Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengl, Andreas; Hörl, David; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Helma, Jonas

    2017-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become a central class of therapeutic agents in particular as antiproliferative compounds. Their often complex modes of action require sensitive assays during early, functional characterization. Current cell-based proliferation assays often detect metabolites that are indicative of metabolic activity but do not directly account for cell proliferation. Measuring DNA replication by incorporation of base analogues such as 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) fills this analytical gap but was previously restricted to bulk effect characterization in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay formats. Here, we describe a cell-based assay format for the characterization of antiproliferative mAbs regarding potency and mode of action in a single experiment. The assay makes use of single cell-based high-content-analysis (HCA) for the reliable quantification of replicating cells and DNA content via 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), respectively, as sensitive measures of antiproliferative mAb activity. We used trastuzumab, an antiproliferative therapeutic antibody interfering with HER2 cell surface receptor-mediated growth signal transduction, and HER2-overexpressing cell lines BT474 and SKBR3 to demonstrate up to 10-fold signal-to-background (S/B) ratios for treated versus untreated cells and a shift in cell cycle profiles indicating antibody-induced cell cycle arrest. The assay is simple, cost-effective, and sensitive, providing a cell-based format for preclinical characterization of therapeutic mAbs.

  18. High content image based analysis identifies cell cycle inhibitors as regulators of Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Krishna P; Benko, Jacqueline G; Mudhasani, Rajini; Retterer, Cary; Tran, Julie P; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G

    2012-09-25

    Viruses modulate a number of host biological responses including the cell cycle to favor their replication. In this study, we developed a high-content imaging (HCI) assay to measure DNA content and identify different phases of the cell cycle. We then investigated the potential effects of cell cycle arrest on Ebola virus (EBOV) infection. Cells arrested in G1 phase by serum starvation or G1/S phase using aphidicolin or G2/M phase using nocodazole showed much reduced EBOV infection compared to the untreated control. Release of cells from serum starvation or aphidicolin block resulted in a time-dependent increase in the percentage of EBOV infected cells. The effect of EBOV infection on cell cycle progression was found to be cell-type dependent. Infection of asynchronous MCF-10A cells with EBOV resulted in a reduced number of cells in G2/M phase with concomitant increase of cells in G1 phase. However, these effects were not observed in HeLa or A549 cells. Together, our studies suggest that EBOV requires actively proliferating cells for efficient replication. Furthermore, multiplexing of HCI based assays to detect viral infection, cell cycle status and other phenotypic changes in a single cell population will provide useful information during screening campaigns using siRNA and small molecule therapeutics.

  19. High Content Image Based Analysis Identifies Cell Cycle Inhibitors as Regulators of Ebola Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Bavari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses modulate a number of host biological responses including the cell cycle to favor their replication. In this study, we developed a high-content imaging (HCI assay to measure DNA content and identify different phases of the cell cycle. We then investigated the potential effects of cell cycle arrest on Ebola virus (EBOV infection. Cells arrested in G1 phase by serum starvation or G1/S phase using aphidicolin or G2/M phase using nocodazole showed much reduced EBOV infection compared to the untreated control. Release of cells from serum starvation or aphidicolin block resulted in a time-dependent increase in the percentage of EBOV infected cells. The effect of EBOV infection on cell cycle progression was found to be cell-type dependent. Infection of asynchronous MCF-10A cells with EBOV resulted in a reduced number of cells in G2/M phase with concomitant increase of cells in G1 phase. However, these effects were not observed in HeLa or A549 cells. Together, our studies suggest that EBOV requires actively proliferating cells for efficient replication. Furthermore, multiplexing of HCI based assays to detect viral infection, cell cycle status and other phenotypic changes in a single cell population will provide useful information during screening campaigns using siRNA and small molecule therapeutics.

  20. Growth Mechanism and Origin of High s p3 Content in Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Miguel A.; Deringer, Volker L.; Koskinen, Jari; Laurila, Tomi; Csányi, Gábor

    2018-04-01

    We study the deposition of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films from molecular dynamics simulations based on a machine-learned interatomic potential trained from density-functional theory data. For the first time, the high s p3 fractions in excess of 85% observed experimentally are reproduced by means of computational simulation, and the deposition energy dependence of the film's characteristics is also accurately described. High confidence in the potential and direct access to the atomic interactions allow us to infer the microscopic growth mechanism in this material. While the widespread view is that ta-C grows by "subplantation," we show that the so-called "peening" model is actually the dominant mechanism responsible for the high s p3 content. We show that pressure waves lead to bond rearrangement away from the impact site of the incident ion, and high s p3 fractions arise from a delicate balance of transitions between three- and fourfold coordinated carbon atoms. These results open the door for a microscopic understanding of carbon nanostructure formation with an unprecedented level of predictive power.

  1. Transglutaminase-catalyzed amination of pea protein peptides using the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyao; Hrynets, Yuliya; Betti, Mirko

    2017-06-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are produced by the enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids, and are well-known for their toxicity to humans. This study describes a new method using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) to covalently link BAs such as histamine (HIS) and tyramine (TYR) to the glutamine residues of alcalase-hydrolyzed pea protein (PPH). The incubation of PPH and HIS and TYR in the presence of MTGase at 37 °C led to the formation of conjugates, as determined by liquid chromatography, after derivatization with dansyl chloride. Seventy-six % of HIS and 65% of TYR were covalently incorporated to PPH by MTGase. The incubation of PPH and TYR in the presence of MTGase exhibited a 52% DPPH radical scavenging activity at 10 mg mL -1 . Conjugation via MTGase improved the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation. This study emphasizes that the application of MTGase can effectively reduce histamine and tyramine content while simultaneously enhancing antioxidative capacity of PPH. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [fr

  3. Iron content and solubility in dust from high-alpine snow along a north-south transect of High Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian Wu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the dissolved and insoluble iron fraction of dust (mineral aerosol in high-alpine snow samples collected along a north-south transect across High Asia (Eastern Tien Shan, Qilian Shan, and Southern Tibetan Plateau. This dust provides the basic chemical properties of mid- and high-level tropospheric Asian dust that can supply the limiting iron nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the North Pacific. The iron content in Asian dust averages 4.95% in Eastern Tien Shan, 3.38–5.41% along Qilian Shan and 3.85% in the Southern Tibetan Plateau. The iron fractional solubility averages about 0.25% in Eastern Tien Shan, 0.05–2% along Qilian Shan and 1.5% in the Southern Tibetan Plateau. Among the controlling factors that can affect iron solubility in Asian dust, such as dust composition and particle grain size, acidity seems to be the most significant and can increase the iron solubility by one or two orders of magnitude with acidification of pH=0.66. Our results reveal that iron solubility of dust in the remote downwind sites is higher than that in high-alpine snow, confirming the strong pH-dependence of iron solubility, and indicating that Asian dust shows a large variation in iron solubility on a regional scale.

  4. The preparation and characterization of CNx film with high nitrogen content by cathode electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.-T.; Cao, C.-B.; Lv Qiang; Li Chao; Zhu Hesun

    2003-01-01

    CN x thin film with high nitrogen content was prepared on ITO conductive glass substrates by cathode electrodeposition, using dicyandiamide (C 2 H 4 N 4 ) in acetone as precursors. The surface morphologies, atomic bonding state, and chemical composition were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The CN x particles got nanometer level with the average size of 80 nm. The maximum value of the N/C atomic ratio was more than 1. Carbon and nitrogen existed mainly in the form of tetrahedral C-N bonds, with a few C-N bonds. From UV-Vis absorption spectrum, we found that during near-ultraviolet area the deposited CN x films appeared nonlinear optical absorption phenomena, and the ultraviolet light (200-280 nm) could be transmitted. The electrical resistivities of the films were in the range of 10 12 -10 16 Ω cm

  5. Doping of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} with high As content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levander, A.X.; Novikov, S.V.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; dos Reis, R.; Dubon, O.D.; Wu, J.; Foxon, C.T.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2011-09-22

    Recent work has shown that GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} can be grown across the entire composition range by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy with intermediate compositions being amorphous, but control of the electrical properties through doping is critical for functionalizing this material. Here we report the bipolar doping of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} with high As content to conductivities above 4 S/cm at room temperature using Mg or Te. The carrier type was confirmed by thermopower measurements. Doping requires an increase in Ga flux during growth resulting in a mixed phase material of polycrystalline GaAs:N embedded in amorphous GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x}.

  6. High content screening for G protein-coupled receptors using cell-based protein translocation assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grånäs, Charlotta; Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Heydorn, Arne

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been one of the most productive classes of drug targets for several decades, and new technologies for GPCR-based discovery promise to keep this field active for years to come. While molecular screens for GPCR receptor agonist- and antagonist-based drugs...... will continue to be valuable discovery tools, the most exciting developments in the field involve cell-based assays for GPCR function. Some cell-based discovery strategies, such as the use of beta-arrestin as a surrogate marker for GPCR function, have already been reduced to practice, and have been used...... as valuable discovery tools for several years. The application of high content cell-based screening to GPCR discovery has opened up additional possibilities, such as direct tracking of GPCRs, G proteins and other signaling pathway components using intracellular translocation assays. These assays provide...

  7. Optimum tungsten content in high strength 9 to 12% chromium containing creep resistant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Muraki, T.; Mimura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Tungsten containing ferritic creep resistant steels are the candidate materials for ultra-super-critical fossil power plant because of their high creep rupture strength. But the strengthening mechanisms by tungsten addition have not yet been completely studied. In this report, creep rupture time and creep strain rate measurement decided the optimum tungsten content in 9 to 12% chromium ferritic steels. The precipitation behavior of Laves phase and the precise discussion of creep strain rate analyses explain the contribution of Laves phase at the lath boundary and the contribution of tungsten in solid solution. P92 contains the optimum amount of tungsten and chromium, 1.8 mass% and 9 mass% respectively judging from the creep rupture strength point of view. (orig.)

  8. Subfamily logos: visualization of sequence deviations at alignment positions with high information content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beitz Eric

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.

  9. Understanding a High School Physics Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlan; Buck, Gayle A.

    2016-08-01

    Scientific argumentation is an important learning objective in science education. It is also an effective instructional approach to constructivist science learning. The implementation of argumentation in school settings requires science teachers, who are pivotal agents of transforming classroom practices, to develop sophisticated knowledge of argumentation. However, there is a lack of understanding about science teachers' knowledge of argumentation, especially the dialogic meaning of argumentation. In this case study, we closely examine a high school physics teacher's argumentation-related pedagogic content knowledge (PCK) in the context of dialogic argumentation. We synthesize the teacher's performed PCK from his argumentation practices and narrated PCK from his reflection on the argumentation practices, from which we summarize his PCK of argumentation from the perspectives of orientation, instructional strategies, students, curriculum, and assessment. Finally, we describe the teacher's perception and adaption of argumentation in his class. We also identity the barriers to argumentation implementation in this particular case and suggest solutions to overcome these barriers.

  10. General Staining and Segmentation Procedures for High Content Imaging and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kevin M; Mandavilli, Bhaskar S; Dolman, Nick J; Janes, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Automated quantitative fluorescence microscopy, also known as high content imaging (HCI), is a rapidly growing analytical approach in cell biology. Because automated image analysis relies heavily on robust demarcation of cells and subcellular regions, reliable methods for labeling cells is a critical component of the HCI workflow. Labeling of cells for image segmentation is typically performed with fluorescent probes that bind DNA for nuclear-based cell demarcation or with those which react with proteins for image analysis based on whole cell staining. These reagents, along with instrument and software settings, play an important role in the successful segmentation of cells in a population for automated and quantitative image analysis. In this chapter, we describe standard procedures for labeling and image segmentation in both live and fixed cell samples. The chapter will also provide troubleshooting guidelines for some of the common problems associated with these aspects of HCI.

  11. A tailing genome walking method suitable for genomes with high local GC content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taian; Fang, Yongxiang; Yao, Wenjuan; Guan, Qisai; Bai, Gang; Jing, Zhizhong

    2013-10-15

    The tailing genome walking strategies are simple and efficient. However, they sometimes can be restricted due to the low stringency of homo-oligomeric primers. Here we modified their conventional tailing step by adding polythymidine and polyguanine to the target single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The tailed ssDNA was then amplified exponentially with a specific primer in the known region and a primer comprising 5' polycytosine and 3' polyadenosine. The successful application of this novel method for identifying integration sites mediated by φC31 integrase in goat genome indicates that the method is more suitable for genomes with high complexity and local GC content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Remote operation of microwave systems for solids content analysis and chemical dissolution in highly radioactive environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturcken, E.F.; Floyd, T.S.; Manchester, D.P.

    1986-10-01

    Microwave systems provide quick and easy determination of solids content of samples in high-level radioactive cells. In addition, dissolution of samples is much faster when employing microwave techniques. These are great advantages because work in cells,using master-slave manipulators through leaded glass walls, is normally slower by an order of magnitude than direct contact methods. This paper describes the modifiction of a moisture/solids analyzer microwave system and a drying/digestion microwave system for remote operation in radiation environments. The moisture/solids analyzer has operated satisfactorily for over a year in a gamma radiation field of 1000 roentgens per hour and the drying/digestion system is ready for installation in a cell

  13. CellProfiler and KNIME: open source tools for high content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöter, Martin; Niederlein, Antje; Barsacchi, Rico; Meyenhofer, Felix; Brandl, Holger; Bickle, Marc

    2013-01-01

    High content screening (HCS) has established itself in the world of the pharmaceutical industry as an essential tool for drug discovery and drug development. HCS is currently starting to enter the academic world and might become a widely used technology. Given the diversity of problems tackled in academic research, HCS could experience some profound changes in the future, mainly with more imaging modalities and smart microscopes being developed. One of the limitations in the establishment of HCS in academia is flexibility and cost. Flexibility is important to be able to adapt the HCS setup to accommodate the multiple different assays typical of academia. Many cost factors cannot be avoided, but the costs of the software packages necessary to analyze large datasets can be reduced by using Open Source software. We present and discuss the Open Source software CellProfiler for image analysis and KNIME for data analysis and data mining that provide software solutions which increase flexibility and keep costs low.

  14. Computers in the investigation of the impurity content of high-purity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, Yu.B.; Yan'kov, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The efficiency of the concept of data banks for the accumulation and processing of information is now generally acknowledged. In scientific investigations not only bibliographic but also factual data banks are becoming more and more prevalent. In this article, the authors consider the possibilities of providing a data bank on high-purity materials for the study of impurity contents. Also in this paper, the authors distinguish the following groups of problems that arise in the study of impurity composition and presents examples of their proposed solutions to these problems: the analysis of error and the determination of the most probably value of impurity concentration; the estimation of average properties of impurity composition with respect to groups of impurities and samples, and the forecast of the complete impurity composition

  15. Characterization of SPAD Array for Multifocal High-Content Screening Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Tsikouras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Current instruments used to detect specific protein-protein interactions in live cells for applications in high-content screening (HCS are limited by the time required to measure the lifetime. Here, a 32 × 1 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD array was explored as a detector for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM in HCS. Device parameters and characterization results were interpreted in the context of the application to determine if the SPAD array could satisfy the requirements of HCS-FLIM. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using a known fluorescence standard; and the recovered fluorescence lifetime matched literature reported values. The design of a theoretical 32 × 32 SPAD array was also considered as a detector for a multi-point confocal scanning microscope.

  16. Organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content: syntheses and applications of silsesquioxanes

    KAUST Repository

    Croissant, Jonas G.

    2016-11-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials garner properties from their organic and inorganic matrices as well as synergistic features, and therefore have recently attracted much attention at the nanoscale. Non-porous organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content such as silsesquioxanes (R-SiO, with R organic groups) and bridged silsesquioxanes (OSi-R-SiO) are especially attractive hybrids since they provide 20 to 80 weight percent of organic functional groups in addition to the known chemistry and stability of silica. In the organosilica family, silsesquioxanes (R-SiO) stand between silicas (SiO) and silicones (RSiO), and are variously called organosilicas, ormosil (organically-modified silica), polysilsesquioxanes and silica hybrids. Herein, we comprehensively review non-porous silsesquioxane and bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials and their applications in nanomedicine, electro-optics, and catalysis.

  17. Identifying Content Knowledge for Teaching Energy: Examples from High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Amy D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Daane, Abigail R.; Gray, Kara E.; Aker, Leanna B.

    2017-01-01

    "Content knowledge for teaching" is the specialized content knowledge that teachers use in practice the content knowledge that serves them for tasks of teaching such as revoicing students' ideas, choosing an instructional activity to address a student misunderstanding, and evaluating student statements. We describe a methodology for…

  18. High content live cell imaging for the discovery of new antimalarial marine natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Serena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human malaria parasite remains a burden in developing nations. It is responsible for up to one million deaths a year, a number that could rise due to increasing multi-drug resistance to all antimalarial drugs currently available. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new drug therapies. Recently, our laboratory developed a simple one-step fluorescence-based live cell-imaging assay to integrate the complex biology of the human malaria parasite into drug discovery. Here we used our newly developed live cell-imaging platform to discover novel marine natural products and their cellular phenotypic effects against the most lethal malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Methods A high content live cell imaging platform was used to screen marine extracts effects on malaria. Parasites were grown in vitro in the presence of extracts, stained with RNA sensitive dye, and imaged at timed intervals with the BD Pathway HT automated confocal microscope. Results Image analysis validated our new methodology at a larger scale level and revealed potential antimalarial activity of selected extracts with a minimal cytotoxic effect on host red blood cells. To further validate our assay, we investigated parasite's phenotypes when incubated with the purified bioactive natural product bromophycolide A. We show that bromophycolide A has a strong and specific morphological effect on parasites, similar to the ones observed from the initial extracts. Conclusion Collectively, our results show that high-content live cell-imaging (HCLCI can be used to screen chemical libraries and identify parasite specific inhibitors with limited host cytotoxic effects. All together we provide new leads for the discovery of novel antimalarials.

  19. High content live cell imaging for the discovery of new antimalarial marine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Serena; Stout, Paige E; Prudhomme, Jacques; Engel, Sebastian; Bruton, Matthew; Cervantes, Michael; Carter, David; Tae-Chang, Young; Hay, Mark E; Aalbersberg, William; Kubanek, Julia; Le Roch, Karine G

    2012-01-03

    The human malaria parasite remains a burden in developing nations. It is responsible for up to one million deaths a year, a number that could rise due to increasing multi-drug resistance to all antimalarial drugs currently available. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new drug therapies. Recently, our laboratory developed a simple one-step fluorescence-based live cell-imaging assay to integrate the complex biology of the human malaria parasite into drug discovery. Here we used our newly developed live cell-imaging platform to discover novel marine natural products and their cellular phenotypic effects against the most lethal malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. A high content live cell imaging platform was used to screen marine extracts effects on malaria. Parasites were grown in vitro in the presence of extracts, stained with RNA sensitive dye, and imaged at timed intervals with the BD Pathway HT automated confocal microscope. Image analysis validated our new methodology at a larger scale level and revealed potential antimalarial activity of selected extracts with a minimal cytotoxic effect on host red blood cells. To further validate our assay, we investigated parasite's phenotypes when incubated with the purified bioactive natural product bromophycolide A. We show that bromophycolide A has a strong and specific morphological effect on parasites, similar to the ones observed from the initial extracts. Collectively, our results show that high-content live cell-imaging (HCLCI) can be used to screen chemical libraries and identify parasite specific inhibitors with limited host cytotoxic effects. All together we provide new leads for the discovery of novel antimalarials. © 2011 Cervantes et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  20. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO 2 , HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g -1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  1. Adsorption of sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine antibiotics in high organic content soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuen-Lin; Liu, Li-Chun; Chen, Wan-Ru

    2017-12-01

    Many antibiotics, including sulfonamides, are being frequently detected in soil and groundwater. Livestock waste is an important source of antibiotic pollution, and sulfonamides may be present along with organic-rich substances. This study aims to investigate the sorption reaction of two sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) and sulfapyridine (SPY) in two organic-rich sorbents: a commercial peat soil (38.41% carbon content) and a composted manure (24.33% carbon content). Batch reactions were conducted to evaluate the impacts of pH (4.5-9.5) and background ions (0.001 M-0.1 M CaCl 2 ) on their sorption. Both linear partitioning and Freundlich sorption isotherms fit the reaction well. The n values of Freundlich isotherm were close to 1 in most conditions suggesting that the hydrophobic partition is the major adsorption mechanism. In terms of SMZ, K d declined with increases in the pH. SPY has a pyridine group that is responsible for adsorption at high pH values, and thus, no significant trend between K d and pH was observed. At high pH ranges, SPY sorption deviated significantly from linear partitioning. The results suggested the sorption mechanism of these two sulfonamide antibiotics tended to be hydrophobic partitioning under most of the experimental conditions, especially at pH values lower than their corresponding pK a2. The fluorescence excitation emission matrix and dissolved organic carbon leaching test suggested composted manure has higher fulvic acid organics and that peat soil has higher humus-like organics. Small organic molecules showed stronger affinity toward sulfonamide antibiotics and cause the composted manure to exhibit higher sorption capacity. Overall, this study suggests that the chemical structure and properties of sulfonamides antibiotics and the type of organic matter in soils will greatly influence the fate and transport of these contaminants into the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-08

    Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall

  3. Amine Chemistry at Aqueous Interfaces: The Study of Organic Amines in Neutralizing Acidic Gases at an Air/Water Surface Using Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, L.; Wren, S. N.; Valley, N. A.; Richmond, G.

    2014-12-01

    Small organic bases have been measured in atmospheric samples, with their sources ranging from industrial processing to animal husbandry. These small organic amines are often highly soluble, being found in atmospheric condensed phases such as fogwater and rainwater. Additionally, they display acid-neutralization ability often greater than ammonia, yet little is known regarding their kinetic and thermodynamic properties. This presentation will describe the molecular level details of a model amine system at the vapor/liquid interface in the presence of acidic gas. We find that this amine system shows very unique properties in terms of its bonding, structure, and orientation at aqueous surfaces. The results of our studies using a combination of computation, vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy, and surface tension will report the properties inherent to these atmospherically relevant species at aqueous surfaces.

  4. Effect of total cementitious content on shear strength of high-volume fly ash concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezoumandi, Mahdi; Volz, Jeffery S.; Ortega, Carlos A.; Myers, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Existing design standards conservatively predicted the capacity of the HVFAC beams. ► In general, the HVFAC beams exceeded the code predicted shear strengths. ► The cementitious content did not have effect on the shear behavior of the HVFAC beams. - Abstract: The production of portland cement – the key ingredient in concrete – generates a significant amount of carbon dioxide. However, due to its incredible versatility, availability, and relatively low cost, concrete is the most consumed manmade material on the planet. One method of reducing concrete’s contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is the use of fly ash to replace a significant amount of the cement. This paper compares two experimental studies that were conducted to investigate the shear strength of full-scale beams constructed with high-volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) – concrete with at least 50% of the cement replaced with fly ash. The primary difference between the two studies involved the amount of cementitious material, with one mix having a relatively high total cementitious content (502 kg/m 3 ) and the other mix having a relatively low total cementitious content (337 kg/m 3 ). Both mixes utilized a 70% replacement of portland cement with a Class C fly ash. Each of these experimental programs consisted of eight beams (six without shear reinforcing and two with shear reinforcing in the form of stirrups) with three different longitudinal reinforcement ratios. The beams were tested under a simply supported four-point loading condition. The experimental shear strengths of the beams were compared with both the shear provisions of selected standards (US, Australia, Canada, Europe, and Japan) and a shear database of conventional concrete (CC) specimens. Furthermore, statistical data analyses (both parametric and nonparametric) were performed to evaluate whether or not there is any statistically significant difference between the shear strength of both mixes. Results of these

  5. Base metal dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacquiere, Johanna Marie [Ottawa, CA; Keaton, Richard Jeffrey [Pearland, TX; Baker, Ralph Thomas [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-06-09

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane having the formula R.sup.1H.sub.2N--BH.sub.2R.sup.2 using base metal catalyst. The method generates hydrogen and produces at least one of a [R.sup.1HN--BHR.sup.2].sub.m oligomer and a [R.sup.1N--BR.sup.2].sub.n oligomer. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources, such as, but not limited to, fuel cells.

  6. Catalyst for hydrogen-amine D exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Johnson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A process is claimed for deuterium isotopic enrichment (suitable for use in heavy water production) by amine-hydrogen exchange in which the exchange catalyst comprises a mixture of alkyl amides of two metals selected from the group consisting of the alkali metals. Catalyst mixtures comprising at least one of the alkali amides of lithium and potassium are preferred. At least one of the following benefits are obtained: decreased hydride formation, decreased thermal decomposition of alkyl amide, increased catalyst solubility in the amine phase, and increased exchange efficiency. 11 claims

  7. Corrosion inhibition of brass by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, K. K.; Sheshadri, B. S; Ahmed, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    Aliphatic amines hexylamine (HCA), octylamine (OCA) and decylamine (DCA) have been used as corrosion inhibitors for (70/30) brass in 0.I M HCIO 4 . The inhibitor efficiency (%P) calculated using weight loss, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization and impedance methods was found to be in the order DCA> OCA> HCA. These adsorb on brass surface following bockris-swinkels' isotherm. DCA, OCA and HCA displaced 4, 3 and 2 molecules of water from interface respectively. Displacement of water molecules brought a great reorganization of double layer at the interface. These amines during corrosion form complexes with dissolved zinc and copper ions.(Author)

  8. Extraction of uranyl sulfate with primary amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnka, M.; Bizek, V.; Nekovar, P.; Cizevska, S.; Schroetterova, D.

    1984-01-01

    PRIMENE JM-T was used for extraction. Its composition was found to approach the general formula C 21 H 43 NH 2 . It was found that the extraction of uranyl sulfate is lower in case of a higher steady-state concentration of sulfuric acid in the aqueous phase. Extraction is accompanied with coextraction of water. The results obtained showed that uranyl sulfate passes into the organic phase by two mechanisms: extraction with amine sulfate and extraction with free amine. A mathematical description of the process was made based on the obtained results. (E.S.)

  9. The treatment of large quantities of high fluorin contents UO2 by ammonium double uranate (ADU) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bangwu; Chen Ying

    2010-01-01

    The paper has discussed the sinter action of UO 2 in low temperature. The study indicates the over hot part of UO 2 by the deoxidization hot of oxidation uranate mostly results in the sinter in the process of trans form ADU into UO 2 . The UO 2 settling times in kiln little influences the sinter performance of UO 2 in the same condition of high fluorin contents UO 2 returning kiln, and high fluorin contents UO 2 returning kiln does not sinter UO 2 again. Experiment on large quantities of high fluorin contents UO 2 by Ammonium Double Uranate (ADU) techniques direct returning kiln, the result shows the sinter performance of UO 2 doesn't drop in the process of high fluor in contents UO 2 direct returning kiln, and the performance of UO 2 can meet specification. (authors)

  10. Deposition of stable amine coating onto polycaprolactone nanofibers by low pressure cyclopropylamine plasma polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manakhov, Anton [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Nečas, David [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Čechal, Jan [CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technická 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Pavliňák, David [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Eliáš, Marek [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-04-30

    Amine-rich films are of high interest for the bio-applications including drug delivery and tissue engineering thanks to their high reactivity allowing the formation of the covalent linkages between biomolecules and a surface. However, the bio-applications of amine-rich films require their good stability in water which is often achieved at large expenses of the amine concentration. Recently, non-toxic cyclopropylamine (CPA) has been applied for the plasma polymerization of films bearing high NH{sub x} environment combined with the moderate thickness loss (20%) after water immersion for 48 h. In this work, the amine-rich film with the NH{sub x} concentration over 7 at.% was deposited on Si substrates and polycaprolactone nanofiber meshes by using CPA plasma polymerization (pulsed mode) in a vertically oriented stainless steel reactor. The substrates were placed at the radio frequency electrode and the ion bombardment caused by direct-current self-bias was suppressed by using high pressure of 50 Pa. Analysis of samples by scanning electron microscopy did not reveal any cracks in the deposited layer formed during a sample immersion in water. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed a slight oxidation of amine groups in water but the film still contained 5 at.% of NH{sub x} (according to the N1s XPS fitting) after the immersion. The rapid oxidation of amine groups was observed during the aging experiment carried out in air at room temperature because FTIR revealed an increase of amide peaks that increased progressively with aging time. However, this oxidation was significantly reduced if the plasma polymer was stored at − 20 °C. Since the films exhibit high amine concentration and very good water stability they have great potential for applications as biocompatible functional coatings. - Highlights: • Cyclopropylamine plasma polymers deposited on polycaprolactone nanofibers • Amine-rich films with high

  11. Effect of cooking methods on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and duck breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2010-05-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), potent mutagens/carcinogens, are pyrolysis formed during the cooking of meat and fish. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods, pan-frying, deep-frying, charcoal grilling and roasting on the formation of HAAs in chicken breast and duck breast were studied. The various HAAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that chicken breast cooked by charcoal grilling contained the highest content of total HAAs, as high as 112 ng/g, followed by pan-fried duck breast (53.3 ng/g), charcoal grilled duck breast (32 ng/g), pan-fried chicken breast (27.4 ng/g), deep-fried chicken breast (21.3 ng/g), deep-fried duck breast (14 ng/g), roasted duck breast (7 ng/g) and roasted chicken breast (4 ng/g). For individual HAA, the most abundant HAA was 9H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole (Norharman), which was detected in charcoal grilled chicken breast at content as high as 32.2 ng/g, followed by 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Harman) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine(PhIP) at 32 and 31.1 ng/g in charcoal grilled chicken breast, respectively. The content of PhIP in pan-fried duck and chicken breast were 22 and 18.3 ng/g, respectively. Generally, the type and content of HAAs in cooked poultry meat varies with cooking method and cooking conditions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-content screening of small compounds on human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaric, Ivana; Gokhale, Paul J; Andrews, Peter W

    2010-08-01

    Human ES (embryonic stem) cells and iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells have been heralded as a source of differentiated cells that could be used in the treatment of degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease or diabetes. Despite the great potential for their use in regenerative therapy, the challenge remains to understand the basic biology of these remarkable cells, in order to differentiate them into any functional cell type. Given the scale of the task, high-throughput screening of agents and culture conditions offers one way to accelerate these studies. The screening of small-compound libraries is particularly amenable to such high-throughput methods. Coupled with high-content screening technology that enables simultaneous assessment of multiple cellular features in an automated and quantitative way, this approach is proving powerful in identifying both small molecules as tools for manipulating stem cell fates and novel mechanisms of differentiation not previously associated with stem cell biology. Such screens performed on human ES cells also demonstrate the usefulness of human ES/iPS cells as cellular models for pharmacological testing of drug efficacy and toxicity, possibly a more imminent use of these cells than in regenerative medicine.

  13. High content analysis of differentiation and cell death in human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan-Xuan, Quang Minh; Sarvari, Anitta K; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin; Balajthy, Zoltan; Fesus, Laszlo; Bacso, Zsolt

    2013-10-01

    Understanding adipocyte biology and its homeostasis is in the focus of current obesity research. We aimed to introduce a high-content analysis procedure for directly visualizing and quantifying adipogenesis and adipoapoptosis by laser scanning cytometry (LSC) in a large population of cell. Slide-based image cytometry and image processing algorithms were used and optimized for high-throughput analysis of differentiating cells and apoptotic processes in cell culture at high confluence. Both preadipocytes and adipocytes were simultaneously scrutinized for lipid accumulation, texture properties, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation. Adipocyte commitment was found after incubation in adipogenic medium for 3 days identified by lipid droplet formation and increased light absorption, while terminal differentiation of adipocytes occurred throughout day 9-14 with characteristic nuclear shrinkage, eccentric nuclei localization, chromatin condensation, and massive lipid deposition. Preadipocytes were shown to be more prone to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced apoptosis compared to mature adipocytes. Importantly, spontaneous DNA fragmentation was observed at early stage when adipocyte commitment occurs. This DNA damage was independent from either spontaneous or induced apoptosis and probably was part of the differentiation program. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. G protein-coupled receptor internalization assays in the high-content screening format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasen, Dorothea; Schnapp, Andreas; Valler, Martin J; Heilker, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    High-content screening (HCS), a combination of fluorescence microscopic imaging and automated image analysis, has become a frequently applied tool to study test compound effects in cellular disease-modeling systems. This chapter describes the measurement of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization in the HCS format using a high-throughput, confocal cellular imaging device. GPCRs are the most successful group of therapeutic targets on the pharmaceutical market. Accordingly, the search for compounds that interfere with GPCR function in a specific and selective way is a major focus of the pharmaceutical industry today. This chapter describes methods for the ligand-induced internalization of GPCRs labeled previously with either a fluorophore-conjugated ligand or an antibody directed against an N-terminal tag of the GPCR. Both labeling techniques produce robust assay formats. Complementary to other functional GPCR drug discovery assays, internalization assays enable a pharmacological analysis of test compounds. We conclude that GPCR internalization assays represent a valuable medium/high-throughput screening format to determine the cellular activity of GPCR ligands.

  15. Breeding bread wheat cultivars for high protein content by transfer of protein genes from Triticum dicoccoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, A.; Gerechter-Amitai, Z.K.; Blum, A.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Triticum dicoccoides sel. G-25, a selection of wild emmer with a protein content of 20.5% and a kernel weight of 31.5 mg, was used as the donor of protein genes. Since this selection is highly resistant to stripe rust, the object of the crossing programme was to transfer this resistance, together with the high protein potential, to durum and bread wheat cultivars susceptible to the disease. In the tetraploid lines obtained from the T. dicoccoides/T. durum cross, the protein values ranged from 17 to 22%. These lines had resistance to stripe rust from the wild emmer and to stem rust from the durum. After two further crosses between these tetraploid lines and T. aestivum cultivars, several lines were selected which combined good yield, high protein level and resistance to rust diseases. These lines attained protein levels of 14 to 19% in the whole grain and 14 to 17% in the flour, combined with yields of 4.5 to 6.0 t/ha. They had also inherited resistance to stem rust, and in some instances also to leaf rust, from the cultivated wheat parental lines. (author)

  16. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.

    2007-01-01

    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  17. SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED REACTIONS OF AROMATIC AMINES. 2. QSAR DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of aromatic amines in soils and sediments is dominated by irreversible binding through nucleophilic addition and oxidative radical coupling. Despite the common occurrence of the aromatic amine functional group in organic chemicals, the molecular properties useful for pr...

  18. A high content, high throughput cellular thermal stability assay for measuring drug-target engagement in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    Determining and understanding drug target engagement is critical for drug discovery. This can be challenging within living cells as selective readouts are often unavailable. Here we describe a novel method for measuring target engagement in living cells based on the principle of altered protein thermal stabilization / destabilization in response to ligand binding. This assay (HCIF-CETSA) utilizes high content, high throughput single cell immunofluorescent detection to determine target protein levels following heating of adherent cells in a 96 well plate format. We have used target engagement of Chk1 by potent small molecule inhibitors to validate the assay. Target engagement measured by this method was subsequently compared to target engagement measured by two alternative methods (autophosphorylation and CETSA). The HCIF-CETSA method appeared robust and a good correlation in target engagement measured by this method and CETSA for the selective Chk1 inhibitor V158411 was observed. However, these EC50 values were 23- and 12-fold greater than the autophosphorylation IC50. The described method is therefore a valuable advance in the CETSA method allowing the high throughput determination of target engagement in adherent cells.

  19. Enrichment Mechanism of Semiconducting Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes by Surfactant Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Sang-Yong; Utz, Marcel; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Utilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in high-end applications hinges on separating metallic (met-) from semiconducting (sem-) SWNTs. Surfactant amines, like octadecylamine (ODA) have proven instrumental for the selective extraction of sem-SWNTs from tetrahydrofuran (THF) nanotube suspensions. The chemical shift differences along the tail of an asymmetric, diacetylenic surfactant amine were used to probe the molecular dynamics in the presence and absence of nanotubes via NMR. The results suggest that the surfactant amine head is firmly immobilized onto the nanotube surface together with acidic water, while the aliphatic tail progressively gains larger mobility as it gets farther from the SWNT. X-ray and high-resolution TEM studies indicate that the sem-enriched sample is populated mainly by small nanotube bundles containing ca. three SWNTs. Molecular simulations in conjunction with previously determined HNO3/H2SO4 oxidation depths for met- and sem-SWNTs indicate that the strong pinning of the amine surfactants on the sem-enriched SWNTs bundles is a result of a well-ordered arrangement of nitrate/amine salts separated with a monomolecular layer of H2O. Such continuous 2D arrangement of nitrate/amine salts shields the local environment adjacent to sem-enriched SWNTs bundles and maintains an acidic pH that preserves nanotube oxidation (i.e. SWNTn+). This, in turn, results in strong interactions with charge-balancing NO3- counter ions that through their association with neutralized surfactant amines provide effective THF dispersion and consequent sem-enrichment. PMID:19397291

  20. Metal Monolithic Amine-grafted Zeolite for CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Steven

    2011-03-31

    The solid amine sorbent for CO{sub 2} capture process has advantages of simplicity and low operating cost compared to the MEA (monoethanolamine) process. Solid amine sorbents reported so far suffered from either low CO{sub 2} capture capacity or low stability. The solid amine sorbent developed in this project exhibited more than 3.2 mmol/g and degraded less than 10% even after 500 cycles of heating and cooling in absence of steam. The presence of steam further enhanced CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The cost of the sorbent is estimated to be less than $7.00/lb. This sorbent was developed using the results of in situ infrared spectroscopic study. Infrared results showed that CO{sub 2} adsorbs on TEPA (tetraethylenepentamine)/PEG (polyethylene glycol) as carbamates and bicarbonates. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and oxidation resistance of the amine sorbent can be enhanced by the interactions between NH{sub 2} of TEPA molecules with the OH group of PEG molecules. PEG was also found to be effectively disperse and immobilize the aromatic amines for SO{sub 2} adsorption. The infrared study also showed that SiO{sub 2} is a significantly better support than zeolites due to its proper hydrophobicity. The results of this study led to the development of a high performance solid amine sorbent under simulated gas flow condition in a fixed bed, a fluidized bed, and a metal monolith unit. This study showed heat transfer could become a major technical issue in scaling up a fixed bed adsorber. The use of the fluidized bed and metal monoliths can alleviate the heat transfer issue. The metal monolith could be suitable for small scale applications due to the high cost of manufacturing; the fluidized bed mode would be most suitable for large scale applications. Preliminary economic analysis suggested that the Akron solid amine process would cost 45% less than that of MEA process.

  1. Determination of oxygen content in high T/sub c/ superconductors by a charged particle activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Z.; Alburger, D.E.; Jones, K.W.; Yao, Y.D.; Kao, Y.H.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for determining the oxygen content in high T/sub c/ superconductors has been demonstrated using a charged particle activation technique. This method allows a measurement of the concentration of 16 O atoms in the superconducting material by detection of the 17 F produced with the 16 O(d,n) 17 F nuclear reaction. By way of example, this technique is applied to the determination of oxygen content in a series of high T/sub c/ Y-Ba-Cu-O samples in which the stoichiometry is varied by reducing the copper concentration. The stabilized oxygen content shows a nonlinear dependence on the copper deficiency in these specimens

  2. Reduction of Biogenic Amines during Miso Fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum as a Starter Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Kung, Hsien-Feng; Huang, Ya-Ling; Wu, Chien-Hui; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum D-103 isolated from a miso product that possesses amine-degrading activity was used as a starter culture in miso fermentation (25°C for 120 days) in this study. The salt content in control samples (without starter culture) and inoculated samples (inoculated with L. plantarum D-103) remained constant at 10.4% of the original salt concentration throughout fermentation, whereas the pH value decreased from 6.2 to 4.6 during fermentation. The inoculated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) levels of total volatile basic nitrogen than control samples after 40 days of fermentation. After 120 days of fermentation, the histamine and overall biogenic amine contents in inoculated samples were reduced by 58 and 27%, respectively, compared with control samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that application of a starter culture with amine-degrading activity in miso products was effective in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines.

  3. Ozonization, Amination and Photoreduction of Graphene Oxide for Triiodide Reduction Reaction: An Experimental and Theoretical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Hongyu; Ren, Suzhen; Shi, Yantao; Song, Xuedan; Yang, Ying; Guo, Yanan; An, Yonglin; Hao, Ce

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a mild and environmentally-friendly approach to prepare a highly efficient functional graphene (termed as AGO-hv) using methods of ozone oxidation, solvothermal synthesis, and photoreduction. The use of ozone oxidation in the first step can effectively increase the interlaminar distance between graphite oxide sheets, and create active sites for nucleophilic attack on the epoxy carbon from ammonia. The amino groups were successfully grafted on the surface of graphene as evidenced by the amidation reaction, with a maximum nitrogen content of 10.46 wt% and a C/N molar ratio of 8.46. After further photoreduction of the aminated graphite oxide (AGO), the residual oxygen functionalities, such as C-OH, were effectively removed and the conductivity of the graphene sheet was further recovered. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.51% based on AGO-hv counter electrode (CE), close to that of Pt counterpart (7.79%). The experimental results indicated that the amidation and photoreduction processes were significantly facilitated by the initial ozonization of graphene oxide, and this process significantly improved the electrochemical activity and the conductivity of graphene oxide. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that AGO-hv had the lowest ionization energy (a better electron-donating ability) and also suitable binding energy with I atoms as well. The combination of ozonization, amination and photoreduction is an efficient route to obtain electrocatalysts with desired compositional distributions and performance for triiodide reduction reaction in DSCs.

  4. Wild plants as tools for the remediation of abandoned mining sites with a high arsenic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez, Lucia B.; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental risk posed by arsenic when new vegetation types are introduced, analyzing the transfer of arsenic in different plant species that grow spontaneously in mining areas of SE Spain (Sierra Minera of Cartagena), and the contribution of such plants to the environmental risk represented by their ingestion by animals living in the same ecosystems. When dealing with remediation projects in zones affected by mining activities, the risk posed by the ingestion of the plants by fauna is often forgotten. To study the transfer to the trophic chain, two mammals, sheep and vole, were selected. The risk analysis was centered in the contribution of these natural plants to the ingestion calculated. For this study, 21 vegetal species naturally growing in the soils were collected from the Sierra Minera. The vegetal material studied is clearly associated with the Mediterranean Region (S.E. of Spain) and the plant species collected are endemisms and plants characteristic of the zone. Physico-chemical properties were obtained by means of the usual procedures. To determine the arsenic content, the soil samples and plant materials were digested in a microwave system and the arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation system. A semiquantitative estimation of the mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction analysis. The soils were classified into three groups: Low (group 1) (7-35 mg/kg) medium (group 2) (35-327 mg/kg) and high (group 3) (> 327 mg/kg), according to their As content. The mineralogy and As content of the soils studied depends on the materials related with mining activity. The descriptive statistical analysis of the population of plants studied showed the As range in roots to be 0.31-150 mg/kg while leaf concentrations were lower (0.21-83.4 mg/kg). The potential risk of As entering the food chain through of the plant

  5. Aromatic claw: A new fold with high aromatic content that evades structural prediction: Aromatic Claw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachleben, Joseph R. [Biomolecular NMR Core Facility, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Adhikari, Aashish N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Gawlak, Grzegorz [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Hoey, Robert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Liu, Gaohua [Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG), Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Biological Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois; Montelione, Gaetano T. [Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG), Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey; Sosnick, Tobin R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Koide, Shohei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and the Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York New York

    2016-11-10

    We determined the NMR structure of a highly aromatic (13%) protein of unknown function, Aq1974 from Aquifex aeolicus (PDB ID: 5SYQ). The unusual sequence of this protein has a tryptophan content five times the normal (six tryptophan residues of 114 or 5.2% while the average tryptophan content is 1.0%) with the tryptophans occurring in a WXW motif. It has no detectable sequence homology with known protein structures. Although its NMR spectrum suggested that the protein was rich in β-sheet, upon resonance assignment and solution structure determination, the protein was found to be primarily α-helical with a small two-stranded β-sheet with a novel fold that we have termed an Aromatic Claw. As this fold was previously unknown and the sequence unique, we submitted the sequence to CASP10 as a target for blind structural prediction. At the end of the competition, the sequence was classified a hard template based model; the structural relationship between the template and the experimental structure was small and the predictions all failed to predict the structure. CSRosetta was found to predict the secondary structure and its packing; however, it was found that there was little correlation between CSRosetta score and the RMSD between the CSRosetta structure and the NMR determined one. This work demonstrates that even in relatively small proteins, we do not yet have the capacity to accurately predict the fold for all primary sequences. The experimental discovery of new folds helps guide the improvement of structural prediction methods.

  6. Direct electrochemical imidation of aliphatic amines via anodic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Su, Ji-Hu; Wang, Sujing; Wan, Changfeng; Zha, Zhenggen; Du, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhiyong

    2011-05-21

    Direct electrochemical synthesis of sulfonyl amidines from aliphatic amines and sulfonyl azides was realized with good to excellent yields. Traditional tertiary amine substrates were broadened to secondary and primary amines. The reaction intermediates were observed and a reaction mechanism was proposed and discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  7. The high-ion content and kinematics of low-redshift Lyman limit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Tumlinson, Jason; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher; Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Werk, Jessica K.; O'Meara, John M.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Davé, Romeel

    2013-01-01

    We study the high-ion content and kinematics of the circumgalactic medium around low-redshift galaxies using a sample of 23 Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at 0.08 < z < 0.93 observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. In Lehner et al., we recently showed that low-z LLSs have a bimodal metallicity distribution. Here we extend that analysis to search for differences between the high-ion and kinematic properties of the metal-poor and metal-rich branches. We find that metal-rich LLSs tend to show higher O VI columns and broader O VI profiles than metal-poor LLSs. The total H I line width (Δv 90 statistic) in LLSs is not correlated with metallicity, indicating that the H I kinematics alone cannot be used to distinguish inflow from outflow and gas recycling. Among the 17 LLSs with O VI detections, all but two show evidence of kinematic sub-structure, in the form of O VI-H I centroid offsets, multiple components, or both. Using various scenarios for how the metallicities in the high-ion and low-ion phases of each LLS compare, we constrain the ionized hydrogen column in the O VI phase to lie in the range log N(H II) ∼ 17.6-20. The O VI phase of LLSs is a substantial baryon reservoir, with M(high-ion) ∼ 10 8.5-10.9 (r/150 kpc) 2 M ☉ , similar to the mass in the low-ion phase. Accounting for the O VI phase approximately doubles the contribution of low-z LLSs to the cosmic baryon budget.

  8. The high-ion content and kinematics of low-redshift Lyman limit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Tumlinson, Jason; Bordoloi, Rongmon [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier; Werk, Jessica K. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); O' Meara, John M. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael' s College, One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States); Oppenheimer, Benjamin D. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Davé, Romeel, E-mail: afox@stsci.edu [University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-12-01

    We study the high-ion content and kinematics of the circumgalactic medium around low-redshift galaxies using a sample of 23 Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at 0.08 < z < 0.93 observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. In Lehner et al., we recently showed that low-z LLSs have a bimodal metallicity distribution. Here we extend that analysis to search for differences between the high-ion and kinematic properties of the metal-poor and metal-rich branches. We find that metal-rich LLSs tend to show higher O VI columns and broader O VI profiles than metal-poor LLSs. The total H I line width (Δv {sub 90} statistic) in LLSs is not correlated with metallicity, indicating that the H I kinematics alone cannot be used to distinguish inflow from outflow and gas recycling. Among the 17 LLSs with O VI detections, all but two show evidence of kinematic sub-structure, in the form of O VI-H I centroid offsets, multiple components, or both. Using various scenarios for how the metallicities in the high-ion and low-ion phases of each LLS compare, we constrain the ionized hydrogen column in the O VI phase to lie in the range log N(H II) ∼ 17.6-20. The O VI phase of LLSs is a substantial baryon reservoir, with M(high-ion) ∼ 10{sup 8.5-10.9} (r/150 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉}, similar to the mass in the low-ion phase. Accounting for the O VI phase approximately doubles the contribution of low-z LLSs to the cosmic baryon budget.

  9. Disposition of smoked cannabis with high Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content: A kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunault, Claudine C.; Eijkeren, Jan C.H. van; Mensinga, Tjeert T.; Vries, Irma de; Leenders, Marianne E.C.; Meulenbelt, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: No model exists to describe the disposition and kinetics of inhaled cannabis containing a high THC dose. We aimed to develop a kinetic model providing estimates of the THC serum concentrations after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing high THC doses (up to 69 mg THC). Methods: Twenty-four male non-daily cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes containing 29.3 mg, 49.1 mg, and 69.4 mg THC. Blood samples were collected over a period of 0-8 h and serum THC concentrations were measured. A two-compartment open model was fitted on the individual observed data. Results: Large inter-individual variability was observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters. The median pharmacokinetic parameters generated by the model were C max = 175 ng/mL, T max = 14 min, and AUC 0-8h = 8150 ng x min/mL for the 69.4 mg THC dose. Median model results show an almost linear dose response relation for C max /Dose = 2.8 x 10 -6 /mL and AUC 0-8h /Dose = 136 x 10 -6 min/mL. However, for increasing dose level, there was a clear decreasing trend: C max /Dose = 3.4, 2.6 and 2.5 x 10 -6 /mL and AUC 0-8h /Dose = 157, 133 and 117 x 10 -6 min/mL for the 29.3, 49.1 and 69.4 mg dose, respectively. Within the restriction of 8 h of observation, the apparent terminal half life of THC was 150 min. Conclusion: The model offers insight into the pharmacokinetics of THC in recreational cannabis users smoking cannabis containing high doses of THC mixed with tobacco. The model is an objective method for providing serum THC concentrations up to 8 h after smoking cannabis with a high THC content (up to 23%).

  10. Combined effects of displacement damage and high gas content in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, K.; Houston, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A solid solution alloy of 2300 at. ppM of 6 Li isotope in aluminum was neutron irradiated at about 0.36 T/sub m/ in high, fast and thermal fluxes producing a damage level of 2 to 3 dpa and simultaneously inducing a gas content of about 2200 at. ppM each of helium and tritium from burnup of 6 Li. The gases significantly increased the nucleation of structural defects but did not change the degree of swelling; cavity concentrations were increased approximately 1000-fold, cavity sizes were decreased approximately 10-fold and there was approximately 10-fold increase in the concentrations of dislocations. Also, large cavities were developed on grain boundaries. The cavities were consistent with their being gas-filled bubbles. The refinement of damage structure by the gases caused a considerable increase in radiation hardening. Bend tests at 77 and 296 0 K revealed severe embrittlement and intergranular fracture. Comparison with data from material irradiated to produce comparable gas levels but relatively little displacement damage indicates that premature intergranular failure is much enhanced by the presence of a defect-hardened matrix. Postirradiation annealing tests showed the cavity and dislocation structures to have high resistance to annealing. Annealing also encouraged the development of a secondary population of large cavities believed to be associated with migration and precipitation of tritium

  11. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  12. Combination of Sardine and Shark Oil High Content of Omega-3 and Squalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Musbah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sardine oil contain high concentration of  EPA but low of  DHA while shark is reverse. Shark oil  high contain of DHA and squalene but low EPA. This research aim to fortify the quality of  fish oil withomega-3 and squalen and improve the quality of fish oil. The combination of fish oil (sardine:shark 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 2: 1, 3: 1 and 4:1 showed significant results on peroxide, anisidine, and total oxidation value, however free fatty acids analysis did not show the influence to the content value.  The best oxidation parameters value werefound (sardine: shark (1:4 with peroxide was 5.44±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidine was 8.3±0.72 mEq/kg and total oxidation was 19.27±0.7mEq/kg. Fatty acids profile between  sardines and shark oil containedvarious SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Sardine oil which was added more to combination ratio will increase omega-3. Sample 1:4 had 43.16% squalene.

  13. Teachable, high-content analytics for live-cell, phase contrast movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Samuel V; Watanabe, Hirotada; Lee, James S J

    2010-09-01

    CL-Quant is a new solution platform for broad, high-content, live-cell image analysis. Powered by novel machine learning technologies and teach-by-example interfaces, CL-Quant provides a platform for the rapid development and application of scalable, high-performance, and fully automated analytics for a broad range of live-cell microscopy imaging applications, including label-free phase contrast imaging. The authors used CL-Quant to teach off-the-shelf universal analytics, called standard recipes, for cell proliferation, wound healing, cell counting, and cell motility assays using phase contrast movies collected on the BioStation CT and BioStation IM platforms. Similar to application modules, standard recipes are intended to work robustly across a wide range of imaging conditions without requiring customization by the end user. The authors validated the performance of the standard recipes by comparing their performance with truth created manually, or by custom analytics optimized for each individual movie (and therefore yielding the best possible result for the image), and validated by independent review. The validation data show that the standard recipes' performance is comparable with the validated truth with low variation. The data validate that the CL-Quant standard recipes can provide robust results without customization for live-cell assays in broad cell types and laboratory settings.

  14. Effect of Simulated High Hydrogen Content Combustion Environments on Abradable Properties of Ceramic Turbine Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Majumder, Madhura

    Air plasma sprayed (APS) abradable coatings are used in the turbine hot section to reduce the stator-rotor gap, minimizing gas leakage. These coatings are designed to exhibit controlled removal of material in thin layers when the turbine blades sweep through the coating, which protects the mechanical integrity of the turbine blade. In an effort to lower CO2 emissions, high H2 content fuel is being explored. This change in chemical composition of the fuel may affect the microstructure, abradability and durability of the coatings at turbine operational temperatures. The presence of high water vapor in the combustion chamber leads to accelerated degradation of the sacrificial coating materials. In this work, zirconia based composite materials with a machinable phase and varied porosity have been used to study microstructural evolution, thermal and chemical stability of the phases and abradable characteristics of baseline coating systems in both humid and dry environments. Investigation of the mechanisms that control the removal of materials and performance of abradable coatings through thermo-mechanical tests will be discussed.

  15. GPS scintillations and total electron content climatology in the southern low, middle and high latitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Spogli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several groups have installed high-frequency sampling receivers in the southern middle and high latitude regions, to monitor ionospheric scintillations and the total electron content (TEC changes. Taking advantage of the archive of continuous and systematic observations of the ionosphere on L-band by means of signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS, we present the first attempt at ionospheric scintillation and TEC mapping from Latin America to Antarctica. The climatology of the area considered is derived through Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology, a method that can identify ionospheric sectors in which scintillations are more likely to occur. This study also introduces the novel ionospheric scintillation 'hot-spot' analysis. This analysis first identifies the crucial areas of the ionosphere in terms of enhanced probability of scintillation occurrence, and then it studies the seasonal variation of the main scintillation and TEC-related parameters. The results produced by this sophisticated analysis give significant indications of the spatial/ temporal recurrences of plasma irregularities, which contributes to the extending of current knowledge of the mechanisms that cause scintillations, and consequently to the development of efficient tools to forecast space-weather-related ionospheric events.

  16. Technological pedagogical content knowledge of junior high school mathematics teachers in teaching linear equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, S.; Fitriana, L.; Mardiyana

    2018-04-01

    Linear equation is one of the topics in mathematics that are considered difficult. Student difficulties of understanding linear equation can be caused by lack of understanding this concept and the way of teachers teach. TPACK is a way to understand the complex relationships between teaching and content taught through the use of specific teaching approaches and supported by the right technology tools. This study aims to identify TPACK of junior high school mathematics teachers in teaching linear equation. The method used in the study was descriptive. In the first phase, a survey using a questionnaire was carried out on 45 junior high school mathematics teachers in teaching linear equation. While in the second phase, the interview involved three teachers. The analysis of data used were quantitative and qualitative technique. The result PCK revealed teachers emphasized developing procedural and conceptual knowledge through reliance on traditional in teaching linear equation. The result of TPK revealed teachers’ lower capacity to deal with the general information and communications technologies goals across the curriculum in teaching linear equation. The result indicated that PowerPoint constitutes TCK modal technological capability in teaching linear equation. The result of TPACK seems to suggest a low standard in teachers’ technological skills across a variety of mathematics education goals in teaching linear equation. This means that the ability of teachers’ TPACK in teaching linear equation still needs to be improved.

  17. MC Carbide Characterization in High Refractory Content Powder-Processed Ni-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Stoichko; Chen, Wei; Huo, Jiajie; Feng, Qiang; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Sun, Eugene; Tin, Sammy

    2018-04-01

    Carbide precipitates in Ni-based superalloys are considered to be desirable phases that can contribute to improving high-temperature properties as well as aid in microstructural refinement of the material; however, they can also serve as crack initiation sites during fatigue. To date, most of the knowledge pertaining to carbide formation has originated from assessments of cast and wrought Ni-based superalloys. As powder-processed Ni-based superalloys are becoming increasingly widespread, understanding the different mechanisms by which they form becomes increasingly important. Detailed characterization of MC carbides present in two experimental high Nb-content powder-processed Ni-based superalloys revealed that Hf additions affect the resultant carbide morphologies. This morphology difference was attributed to a higher magnitude of elastic strain energy along the interface associated with Hf being soluble in the MC carbide lattice. The composition of the MC carbides was studied through atom probe tomography and consisted of a complex carbonitride core, which was rich in Nb and with slight Hf segregation, surrounded by an Nb carbide shell. The characterization results of the segregation behavior of Hf in the MC carbides and the subsequent influence on their morphology were compared to density functional theory calculations and found to be in good agreement, suggesting that computational modeling can successfully be used to tailor carbide features.

  18. Combined effects of displacement damage and high gas content in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, K.; Houston, J.T.

    1976-05-01

    A solid solution alloy of 2300 appm of 6 Li isotope in aluminum was neutron irradiated at about 0.36 T/sub m/ in high, fast and thermal fluxes producing a damage level of 2 to 3 dpa and simultaneously inducing a gas content of about 2200 appm each of helium and tritium from burnup of 6 Li. The gases significantly increased the nucleation of structural defects but did not change the degree of swelling; cavity concentrations were increased approximately 1000-fold, cavity sizes were decreased approximately 10-fold and there was approximately 10-fold increase in the concentrations of dislocations. Also, large cavities were developed on grain boundaries. The cavities were consistent with their being gas-filled bubbles. The refinement of damage structure by the gases caused a considerable increase in radiation hardening. Bend tests at 77 and 296 K revealed severe embrittlement and intergranular fracture. Comparison with data from material irradiated to produce comparable gas levels but relatively little displacement damage indicates that premature intergranular failure is much enhanced by the presence of a defect-hardened matrix. Postirradiation annealing tests showed the cavity and dislocation structures to have high resistance to annealing. Annealing also encouraged the development of a secondary population of large cavities believed to be associated with migration and precipitation of tritium

  19. High-content live cell imaging with RNA probes: advancements in high-throughput antimalarial drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Serena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, a major public health issue in developing nations, is responsible for more than one million deaths a year. The most lethal species, Plasmodium falciparum, causes up to 90% of fatalities. Drug resistant strains to common therapies have emerged worldwide and recent artemisinin-based combination therapy failures hasten the need for new antimalarial drugs. Discovering novel compounds to be used as antimalarials is expedited by the use of a high-throughput screen (HTS to detect parasite growth and proliferation. Fluorescent dyes that bind to DNA have replaced expensive traditional radioisotope incorporation for HTS growth assays, but do not give additional information regarding the parasite stage affected by the drug and a better indication of the drug's mode of action. Live cell imaging with RNA dyes, which correlates with cell growth and proliferation, has been limited by the availability of successful commercial dyes. Results After screening a library of newly synthesized stryrl dyes, we discovered three RNA binding dyes that provide morphological details of live parasites. Utilizing an inverted confocal imaging platform, live cell imaging of parasites increases parasite detection, improves the spatial and temporal resolution of the parasite under drug treatments, and can resolve morphological changes in individual cells. Conclusion This simple one-step technique is suitable for automation in a microplate format for novel antimalarial compound HTS. We have developed a new P. falciparum RNA high-content imaging growth inhibition assay that is robust with time and energy efficiency.

  20. High-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Fang, Jiaru; Zou, Ling; Wan, Hao; Pan, Yuxiang; Su, Kaiqi; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Cell-based bioassays were effective method to assess the compound toxicity by cell viability, and the traditional label-based methods missed much information of cell growth due to endpoint detection, while the higher throughputs were demanded to obtain dynamic information. Cell-based biosensor methods can dynamically and continuously monitor with cell viability, however, the dynamic information was often ignored or seldom utilized in the toxin and drug assessment. Here, we reported a high-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording method via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology. The dynamic cell viability, inhibition ratio and growth rate were derived from the dynamic response curves from the cell-based impedance biosensor. The results showed that the biosensors has the dose-dependent manners to diarrhetic shellfish toxin, okadiac acid based on the analysis of the dynamic cell viability and cell growth status. Moreover, the throughputs of dynamic cytotoxicity were compared between cell-based biosensor methods and label-based endpoint methods. This cell-based impedance biosensor can provide a flexible, cost and label-efficient platform of cell viability assessment in the shellfish toxin screening fields.