WorldWideScience

Sample records for high affinity sites

  1. GHB receptor targets in the CNS: focus on high-affinity binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Tina; Eghorn, Laura F; Klein, Anders B; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2014-01-15

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound in the mammalian brain with both low- and high-affinity receptor targets. GHB is used clinically in the treatment of symptoms of narcolepsy and alcoholism, but also illicitly abused as the recreational drug Fantasy. Major pharmacological effects of exogenous GHB are mediated by GABA subtype B (GABAB) receptors that bind GHB with low affinity. The existence of GHB high-affinity binding sites has been known for more than three decades, but the uncovering of their molecular identity has only recently begun. This has been prompted by the generation of molecular tools to selectively study high-affinity sites. These include both genetically modified GABAB knock-out mice and engineered selective GHB ligands. Recently, certain GABA subtype A (GABAA) receptor subtypes emerged as high-affinity GHB binding sites and potential physiological mediators of GHB effects. In this research update, a description of the various reported receptors for GHB is provided, including GABAB receptors, certain GABAA receptor subtypes and other reported GHB receptors. The main focus will thus be on the high-affinity binding targets for GHB and their potential functional roles in the mammalian brain.

  2. Triazoloquinazolinediones as novel high affinity ligands for the benzodiazepine site of GABA(A) receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob; Gidlöf, Ritha; Nielsen, Elsebet Østergaard

    2011-01-01

    Based on a pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine-binding site of GABA(A) receptors, a series of 2-aryl-2,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]quinazoline-3,5-diones (structure type I) were designed, synthesized, and identified as high-affinity ligands of the binding site. For several compounds, K...

  3. Neurotransmitter/sodium symporter orthologue LeuT has a single high-affinity substrate site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, Chayne L; Krishnamurthy, Harini; Gouaux, Eric

    2010-12-23

    Neurotransmitter/sodium symporters (NSSs) couple the uptake of neurotransmitter with one or more sodium ions, removing neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft. NSSs are essential to the function of chemical synapses, are associated with multiple neurological diseases and disorders, and are the targets of therapeutic and illicit drugs. LeuT, a prokaryotic orthologue of the NSS family, is a model transporter for understanding the relationships between molecular mechanism and atomic structure in a broad range of sodium-dependent and sodium-independent secondary transporters. At present there is a controversy over whether there are one or two high-affinity substrate binding sites in LeuT. The first-reported crystal structure of LeuT, together with subsequent functional and structural studies, provided direct evidence for a single, high-affinity, centrally located substrate-binding site, defined as the S1 site. Recent binding, flux and molecular simulation studies, however, have been interpreted in terms of a model where there are two high-affinity binding sites: the central, S1, site and a second, the S2 site, located within the extracellular vestibule. Furthermore, it was proposed that the S1 and S2 sites are allosterically coupled such that occupancy of the S2 site is required for the cytoplasmic release of substrate from the S1 site. Here we address this controversy by performing direct measurement of substrate binding to wild-type LeuT and to S2 site mutants using isothermal titration calorimetry, equilibrium dialysis and scintillation proximity assays. In addition, we perform uptake experiments to determine whether the proposed allosteric coupling between the putative S2 site and the S1 site manifests itself in the kinetics of substrate flux. We conclude that LeuT harbours a single, centrally located, high-affinity substrate-binding site and that transport is well described by a simple, single-substrate kinetic mechanism.

  4. Purification of high affinity benzodiazepine receptor binding site fragments from rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    In central nervous system benzodiazepine recognition sites occur on neuronal cell surfaces as one member of a multireceptor complex, including recognition sites for benzodiazepines, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), barbiturates and a chloride ionophore. During photoaffinity labelling, the benzodiazepine agonist, /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam, is irreversibly bound to central benzodiazepine high affinity recognition sites in the presence of ultraviolet light. In these studies a /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam radiolabel was used to track the isolation and purification of high affinity agonist binding site fragments from membrane-bound benzodiazepine receptor in rat brain. The authors present a method for limited proteolysis of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam photoaffinity labeled rat brain membranes, generating photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site. Using trypsin chymotrypsin A/sub 4/, or a combination of these two proteases, they have demonstrated the extent and time course for partial digestion of benzodiazepine receptor, yielding photolabeled receptor binding site fragments. These photolabeled receptor fragments have been further purified on the basis of size, using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) as well as on the basis of hydrophobicity, using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) precolumn, several HPLC elution schemes, and two different HPLC column types. Using these procedures, they have purified three photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site which appear to have a molecular weight of less than 2000 daltons each.

  5. Experimental conditions can obscure the second high-affinity site in LeuT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Zehnpfennig, Britta; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2012-01-15

    Neurotransmitter:Na(+) symporters (NSSs), the targets of antidepressants and psychostimulants, recapture neurotransmitters from the synapse in a Na(+)-dependent symport mechanism. The crystal structure of the NSS homolog LeuT from Aquifex aeolicus revealed one leucine substrate in an occluded, centrally located (S1) binding site next to two Na(+) ions. Computational studies combined with binding and flux experiments identified a second substrate (S2) site and a molecular mechanism of Na(+)-substrate symport that depends upon the allosteric interaction of substrate molecules in the two high-affinity sites. Here we show that the S2 site, which has not yet been identified by crystallographic approaches, can be blocked during preparation of detergent-solubilized LeuT, thereby obscuring its crucial role in Na(+)-coupled symport. This finding points to the need for caution in selecting experimental environments in which the properties and mechanistic features of membrane proteins can be delineated.

  6. High affinity binding site-mediated prevention of chemical absorption across the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M V; Barker, T T; Silbart, L K

    2001-12-15

    Preventing mucosal absorption of low-molecular weight compounds such as carcinogens, toxins and drugs could help prevent many diseases. To characterize the effects of dose and timing on high-affinity binding site mediated sequestration of specific chemical ligands in the gastrointestinal tract, avidin was perorally-administered to mice either prior to or mixed with 3H-biotin. Avidin enhanced fecal 3H-biotin excretion in a dose-dependent manner, consistent with the accepted mechanism of egg white-induced biotin deficiency syndrome. Avidin administration up to 4 h before 3H-biotin administration also enhanced fecal 3H-biotin excretion. Activated charcoal (AC) reduced 3H-biotin absorption when mixed with 3H-biotin before ingestion, but was ineffective when ingested prior to 3H-biotin. These studies suggest that ingestion of high-affinity protein binding sites can establish an absorptive barrier at the gastrointestinal mucosa to prevent the uptake of unwanted low molecular-weight chemicals.

  7. Short-term desensitization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in mouse neuroblastoma cells: selective loss of agonist low-affinity and pirenzepine high-affinity binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioffi, C.L.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1986-09-01

    The effects of brief incubation with carbamylcholine on subsequent binding of (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine were investigated in mouse neuroblastoma cells (clone N1E-115). This treatment demonstrated that the muscarinic receptors in this neuronal clone can be divided into two types; one which is readily susceptible to regulation by receptor agonists, whereas the other is resistant in this regard. In control cells, both pirenzepine and carbamylcholine interacted with high- and low-affinity subsets of muscarinic receptors. Computer-assisted analysis of the competition between pirenzepine and carbamylcholine with (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine showed that the receptor sites remaining upon desensitization are composed mainly of pirenzepine low-affinity and agonist high-affinity binding sites. Furthermore, there was an excellent correlation between the ability of various muscarinic receptor agonists to induce a decrease in consequent (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine binding and their efficacy in stimulating cyclic GMP synthesis in these cells. Thus, only the agonists that are known to recognize the receptor's low-affinity conformation in order to elicit increases in cyclic GMP levels were capable of diminishing ligand binding. Taken together, our present results suggest that the receptor population that is sensitive to regulation by agonists includes both the pirenzepine high-affinity and the agonist low-affinity receptor binding states. In addition, the sensitivity of these receptor subsets to rapid regulation by agonists further implicates their involvement in desensitization of muscarinic receptor-mediated cyclic GMP formation.

  8. New Synthesis and Tritium Labeling of a Selective Ligand for Studying High-affinity γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Binding Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Vogensen, Stine B.; Marek, Aleš; Bay, Tina; Wellendorph, Petrine; Kehler, Jan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Frølund, Bente; Pedersen, Martin H. F.; Clausen, Rasmus P.

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA, 1) is a potent ligand for the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the CNS. An improved synthesis of 1 together with a very efficient synthesis of [3H]-1 is described. The radiosynthesis employs in situ generated lithium trimethoxyborotritide. Screening of 1 against different CNS targets establishes a high selectivity and we demonstrate in vivo brain penetration. In vitro characterization of [3H]-1 binding shows high specificity to the high-affin...

  9. High-affinity cannabinoid binding site in brain: A possible marijuana receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which delta{sup 9} tetrahydrocannabinol (delta{sup 9}THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana or hashish, produces its potent psychological and physiological effects is unknown. To find receptor binding sites for THC, we designed a water-soluble analog for use as a radioligand. 5{prime}-Trimethylammonium-delta{sup 8}THC (TMA) is a positively charged analog of delta-{sup 8}THC modified on the 5{prime} carbon, a portion of the molecule not important for its psychoactivity. We have studied the binding of ({sup 3}H)-5{prime}-trimethylammonium-delta-{sup 8}THC (({sup 3}H)TMA) to rat neuronal membranes. ({sup 3}H)TMA binds saturably and reversibly to brain membranes with high affinity to apparently one class of sites. Highest binding site density occurs in brain, but several peripheral organs also display specific binding. Detergent solubilizes the sites without affecting their pharmacologial properties. Molecular sieve chromatography reveals a bimodal peak of ({sup 3}H)TMA binding activity of approximately 60,000 daltons apparent molecular weight.

  10. New Synthesis and Tritium Labeling of a Selective Ligand for Studying High-affinity γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Binding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogensen, Stine B.; Marek, Aleš; Bay, Tina; Wellendorph, Petrine; Kehler, Jan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Frølund, Bente; Pedersen, Martin H.F.; Clausen, Rasmus P.

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA, 1) is a potent ligand for the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the CNS. An improved synthesis of 1 together with a very efficient synthesis of [3H]-1 is described. The radiosynthesis employs in situ generated lithium trimethoxyborotritide. Screening of 1 against different CNS targets establishes a high selectivity and we demonstrate in vivo brain penetration. In vitro characterization of [3H]-1 binding shows high specificity to the high-affinity GHB binding sites. PMID:24053696

  11. New synthesis and tritium labeling of a selective ligand for studying high-affinity γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogensen, Stine B; Marek, Aleš; Bay, Tina; Wellendorph, Petrine; Kehler, Jan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Frølund, Bente; Pedersen, Martin H F; Clausen, Rasmus P

    2013-10-24

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA, 1) is a potent ligand for the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the CNS. An improved synthesis of 1 together with a very efficient synthesis of [(3)H]-1 is described. The radiosynthesis employs in situ generated lithium trimethoxyborotritide. Screening of 1 against different CNS targets establishes a high selectivity, and we demonstrate in vivo brain penetration. In vitro characterization of [(3)H]-1 binding shows high specificity to the high-affinity GHB binding sites.

  12. New Synthesis and Tritium Labeling of a Selective Ligand for Studying High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine B.; Marek, Ales; Bay, Tina

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA, 1) is a potent ligand for the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the CNS. An improved synthesis of 1 together with a very efficient synthesis of [3H]-1 is described. The radiosynthesis employs in situ generated lithium trimethoxyborotritide....... Screening of 1 against different CNS targets establishes a high selectivity, and we demonstrate in vivo brain penetration. In vitro characterization of [3H]-1 binding shows high specificity to the high-affinity GHB binding sites....

  13. GHB receptor targets in the CNS: Focus on high-affinity binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Tina; Eghorn, Laura Friis; Klein, Anders Bue;

    2014-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound in the mammalian brain with both low- and high-affinity receptor targets. GHB is used clinically in the treatment of symptoms of narcolepsy and alcoholism, but also illicitly abused as the recreational drug Fantasy. Major pharmacological effects...

  14. Novel cyclic gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) analogs with high affinity and stereoselectivity of binding to GHB sites in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe; Greenwood, Jeremy R

    2005-01-01

    acid [(RS)-HOCHCA] and 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid [(RS)-HOCPCA], were found to be high-affinity GHB ligands, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range, and had 9 and 27 times, respectively, higher affinity than GHB. The stereo-selectively synthesized R,R-isomer of the trans-cyclopropyl GHB...... analog, HOCPrCA, proved to have 10-fold higher affinity than its enantiomer. Likewise, the R-enantiomers of HOCHCA and HOCPCA selectively inhibited [3H]NCS-382 binding. The best inhibitor of these, (R)-HOCPCA, has an affinity 39 times higher than GHB and is thus among the best GHB ligands reported......Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a psychotropic compound endogenous to the brain. Despite its potentially great physiological significance, its exact molecular mechanism of action is unknown. GHB is a weak agonist at GABA(B) receptors, but there is also evidence of specific GHB receptor sites...

  15. Autoradiographic imaging and quantification of the high-affinity GHB binding sites in rodent brain using (3)H-HOCPCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Bay, T; Villumsen, I S

    2016-01-01

    analogue, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) as a tritiated version ((3)H-HOCPCA) to radioactively label the specific GHB high-affinity binding site and gain further insight into the density, distribution and developmental profile of this protein. We show that, in low nanomolar concentrations......, (3)H-HOCPCA displays excellent signal-to-noise ratios using rodent brain autoradiography, which makes it a valuable ligand for anatomical quantification of native GHB binding site levels. Our data confirmed that (3)H-HOCPCA labels only the high-affinity specific GHB binding site, found in high...... density in cortical and hippocampal regions. The experiments revealed markedly stronger binding at pH 6.0 (Kd 73.8 nM) compared to pH 7.4 (Kd 2312 nM), as previously reported for other GHB radioligands but similar Bmax values. Using (3)H-HOCPCA we analyzed the GHB binding protein profile during mouse...

  16. Identification and properties of very high affinity brain membrane-binding sites for a neurotoxic phospholipase from the taipan venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambeau, G.; Barhanin, J.; Schweitz, H.; Qar, J.; Lazdunski, M. (Centre de Biochimie, Nice (France))

    1989-07-05

    Four new monochain phospholipases were purified from the Oxyuranus scutellatus (taipan) venom. Three of them were highly toxic when injected into mice brain. One of these neurotoxic phospholipases, OS2, was iodinated and used in binding experiments to demonstrate the presence of two families of specific binding sites in rat brain synaptic membranes. The affinities were exceptionally high, Kd1 = 1.5 +/- 0.5 pM and Kd2 = 45 +/- 10 pM, and the maximal binding capacities were Bmax 1 = 1 +/- 0.4 and Bmax 2 = 3 +/- 0.5 pmol/mg of protein. Both binding sites were sensitive to proteolysis and demonstrated to be located on proteins of Mr 85,000-88,000 and 36,000-51,000 by cross-linking and photoaffinity labeling techniques. The binding of {sup 125}I-OS2 to synaptic membranes was dependent on Ca2+ ions and enhanced by Zn2+ ions which inhibit phospholipase activity. Competition experiments have shown that, except for beta-bungarotoxin, a number of known toxic snake or bee phospholipases have very high affinities for the newly identified binding sites. A good correlation (r = 0.80) was observed between toxicity and affinity but not between phospholipase activity and affinity.

  17. Autoradiographic imaging and quantification of the high-affinity GHB binding sites in rodent brain using (3)H-HOCPCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A B; Bay, T; Villumsen, I S; Falk-Petersen, C B; Marek, A; Frølund, B; Clausen, R P; Hansen, H D; Knudsen, G M; Wellendorph, P

    2016-11-01

    GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) is a compound endogenous to mammalian brain with high structural resemblance to GABA. GHB possesses nanomolar-micromolar affinity for a unique population of binding sites, but the exact nature of these remains elusive. In this study we utilized the highly selective GHB analogue, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) as a tritiated version ((3)H-HOCPCA) to radioactively label the specific GHB high-affinity binding site and gain further insight into the density, distribution and developmental profile of this protein. We show that, in low nanomolar concentrations, (3)H-HOCPCA displays excellent signal-to-noise ratios using rodent brain autoradiography, which makes it a valuable ligand for anatomical quantification of native GHB binding site levels. Our data confirmed that (3)H-HOCPCA labels only the high-affinity specific GHB binding site, found in high density in cortical and hippocampal regions. The experiments revealed markedly stronger binding at pH 6.0 (Kd 73.8 nM) compared to pH 7.4 (Kd 2312 nM), as previously reported for other GHB radioligands but similar Bmax values. Using (3)H-HOCPCA we analyzed the GHB binding protein profile during mouse brain development. Due to the high sensitivity of this radioligand, we were able to detect low levels of specific binding already at E15 in mouse brain, which increased progressively until adulthood. Collectively, we show that (3)H-HOCPCA is a highly sensitive radioligand, offering advantages over the commonly used radioligand (3)H-NCS-382, and thus a very suitable in vitro tool for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography of the GHB high-affinity site.

  18. Neuroimaging of the serotonin reuptake site requires high-affinity ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, Betina; Madsen, Jacob; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2007-11-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to develop suitable radiolabeled tracers for positron emission tomography or single photon emission computed tomography imaging of the serotonin transporter (SERT), but most often, negative outcomes are reported. The aim of this study is to define characteristics of a good SERT radioligand and to investigate species differences. We examined seven different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and that except for one all have been previously tested as emission tomography ligands. The outcome of the ligands as emission tomography tracers was compared in relation with receptor density (Bmax) and/or ligand affinity (Kd) in rat and monkey cerebrum and cerebellum (reference region) membranes. [3H]-(S)-Citalopram and [3H]-(+)-McN5652 display statistically significantly lower affinity, whereas [3H]paroxetine displays statistically significantly higher affinity for SERT in monkey cortex when compared with the rat cerebrum. The affinity of [3H]MADAM, [123I]ADAM, and [11C]DASB for SERT obtained with rat cerebrum and monkey cortex are similar. In monkey cortex, Kd and Bmax could not be determined with [3H]fluoxetine. Of the seven SSRIs, [3H]-(S)-citalopram, [3H]MADAM, and [11C]DASB displayed significant specific binding to SERT in monkey cerebellum, with Bmax cortex:cerebellum ratios being 17, 3, and 4, respectively. In rat brain tissue the ratios were 12, 6, and 3, respectively. In conclusion, it can be estimated that imaging of the human SERT in a high-density region requires radioligands with Kd values between 0.03 and a maximum of 0.3 nM (at 37 degrees C). The differential specific cerebellar binding raises the question of the suitability of cerebellum as a reference region for nonspecific binding.

  19. Structural characterization of a high affinity mononuclear site in the copper(II)-α-synuclein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolus, Marco; Bisaglia, Marco; Zoleo, Alfonso; Fittipaldi, Maria; Benfatto, Maurizio; Bubacco, Luigi; Maniero, Anna Lisa

    2010-12-29

    Human α-Synuclein (aS), a 140 amino acid protein, is the main constituent of Lewy bodies, the cytoplasmatic deposits found in the brains of Parkinson's disease patients, where it is present in an aggregated, fibrillar form. Recent studies have shown that aS is a metal binding protein. Moreover, heavy metal ions, in particular divalent copper, accelerate the aggregation process of the protein. In this work, we investigated the high affinity binding mode of truncated aS (1-99) (aS99) with Cu(II), in a stoichiometric ratio, to elucidate the residues involved in the binding site and the role of copper ions in the protein oligomerization. We used Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy on the Cu(II)-aS99 complex at pH 6.5, performing both multifrequency continuous wave experiments and pulsed experiments at X-band. The comparison of 9.5 and 95 GHz data showed that at this pH only one binding mode is present. To identify the nature of the ligands, we performed Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation, Hyperfine Sublevel Correlation Spectroscopy, and pulsed Davies Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance (Davies-ENDOR) experiments. We determined that the EPR parameters are typical of a type-II copper complex, in a slightly distorted square planar geometry. Combining the results from the different pulsed techniques, we obtained that the equatorial coordination is {N(Im), N(-), H(2)O, O}, where N(im) is the imino nitrogen of His50, N(-) a deprotonated amido backbone nitrogen that we attribute to His50, H(2)O an exchangeable water molecule, and O an unidentified oxygen ligand. Moreover, we propose that the free amino terminus (Met1) participates in the complex as an axial ligand. The MXAN analysis of the XAS k-edge absorption data allowed us to independently validate the structural features proposed on the basis of the magnetic parameters of the Cu(II)-aS99 complex and then to further refine the quality of the proposed structural model.

  20. Radiosynthesis and Evaluation of [(11)C]3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic Acid as Potential PET Ligand for the High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus H; Hansen, Hanne D; Bay, Tina

    2017-01-01

    the (11)C-labeling and subsequent evaluation of [(11)C]HOCPCA in a domestic pig, as a PET-radioligand for visualization of the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the live pig brain. To investigate the regional binding of HOCPCA in pig brain prior to in vivo PET studies, in vitro quantitative......γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous neuroactive substance and proposed neurotransmitter with affinity for both low- and high-affinity binding sites. A radioligand with high and specific affinity toward the high-affinity GHB binding site would be a unique tool toward a more complete...... understanding of this population of binding sites. With its high specific affinity and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) mediated transport across the blood-brain barrier in pharmacological doses, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) seems like a suitable PET radiotracer candidate. Here, we report...

  1. Recombinant human nerve growth factor is biologically active and labels novel high-affinity binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altar, C.A.; Burton, L.E.; Bennett, G.L.; Dugich-Djordjevic, M. (Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Iodinated recombinant human nerve growth factor (125I-rhNGF) stimulated neurite formation in PC12 cell cultures with a half-maximal potency of 35-49 pg/ml, compared with 39-52 pg/ml for rhNGF. In quantitative ligand autoradiography, the in vitro equilibrium binding of 125I-rhNGF to brain sections showed a 10-fold regional variation in density and was saturable, reversible, and specifically displaced by up to 74% with rhNGF or murine NGF (muNGF). At equilibrium, 125I-rhNGF bound to these sites with high affinity and low capacity (Bmax less than or equal to 13.2 fmol/mg of protein). Calculation of 125I-rhNGF binding affinity by kinetic methods gave average Kd values of 24 and 31 pM. Computer-generated maps revealed binding in brain regions not identified previously with 125I-muNGF, including hippocampus; dentate gyrus; amygdala; paraventricular thalamus; frontal, parietal, occipital, and cingulate cortices; nucleus accumbens; olfactory tubercle; subiculum; pineal gland; and medial geniculate nucleus. NGF binding sites were distributed in a 2-fold increasing medial-lateral gradient in the caudate-putamen and a 2-fold lateral-medial gradient in the nucleus accumbens. 125I-rhNGF binding sites were also found in most areas labeled by 125I-muNGF, including the interpedunucular nucleus, cerebellum, forebrain cholinergic nuclei, caudoventral caudate-putamen, and trigeminal nerve nucleus. 125I-rhNGF binding sites were absent from areas replete with low-affinity NGF binding sites, including circumventricular organs, myelinated fiber bundles, and choroid plexus. The present analysis provides an anatomical differentiation of high-affinity 125I-rhNGF binding sites and greatly expands the number of brain structures that may respond to endogenous NGF or exogenously administered rhNGF.

  2. Novel cyclic gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) analogs with high affinity and stereoselectivity of binding to GHB sites in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe; Greenwood, Jeremy R; de Lichtenberg, Anne; Nielsen, Birgitte; Frølund, Bente; Brehm, Lotte; Clausen, Rasmus P; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2005-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a psychotropic compound endogenous to the brain. Despite its potentially great physiological significance, its exact molecular mechanism of action is unknown. GHB is a weak agonist at GABA(B) receptors, but there is also evidence of specific GHB receptor sites, the molecular cloning of which remains a challenge. Ligands with high affinity and specificity for the reported GHB binding site are needed for pharmacological dissection of the GHB and GABA(B) effects and for mapping the structural requirements of the GHB receptor-ligand interactions. For this purpose, we have synthesized and assayed three conformationally restricted GHB analogs for binding against the GHB-specific ligand [3H]NCS-382 [(E,RS)-(6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzocyclohept-6-ylidene-)acetic acid] in rat brain homogenate. The cyclohexene and cyclopentene analogs, 3-hydroxycyclohex-1-enecarboxylic acid [(RS)-HOCHCA] and 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid [(RS)-HOCPCA], were found to be high-affinity GHB ligands, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range, and had 9 and 27 times, respectively, higher affinity than GHB. The stereo-selectively synthesized R,R-isomer of the trans-cyclopropyl GHB analog, HOCPrCA, proved to have 10-fold higher affinity than its enantiomer. Likewise, the R-enantiomers of HOCHCA and HOCPCA selectively inhibited [3H]NCS-382 binding. The best inhibitor of these, (R)-HOCPCA, has an affinity 39 times higher than GHB and is thus among the best GHB ligands reported to date. Neither of the cycloalkenes showed any affinity (IC50 > 1 mM) for GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors. These compounds show excellent potential as lead structures and novel tools for studying specific GHB receptor-mediated pharmacology.

  3. Irreversible blockade of the high and low affinity ( sup 3 H) naloxone binding sites by C-6 derivatives of morphinane-6-ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krizsan, D. (EGIS Pharmaceutical Works, Budapest (Hungary)); Varga, E.; Benyhe, S.; Szucs, M.; Borsodi, A. (Biological Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary)); Hosztafi, S. (Alkaloida Chemical Works, Tiszavasvari (Hungary))

    1991-01-01

    C-6 derivatives-hydrazones, phenylhydrazones, dinitrophenylhydrazones, oximes and semicarbazones - of morphinane-6-ones were synthesized and their binding characteristics were studied on rat brain membranes. The dihydromorphinone and oxymorphone derivatives compete for the ({sup 3}H)naloxone binding sites with high affinity, while the dihydrocodeinone and oxycodone derivatives are less potent. The affinity of the new compounds is decreased for the delta sites as compared to the parent ligands. The ligands bearing bulky substituents also bind with low affinity to the kappa sites. The modification decreased the Na{sup +}-index of compounds indicating their mixed agonist-antagonist character. The dihydromorphinone derivatives are all capable to block irreversibly the high affinity binding site of ({sup 3}H)naloxone, whereas the dihydrocodeinone derivatives block irreversibly the low affinity site. A possible mechanism for the inhibition is suggested.

  4. Targeted deletion of a high-affinity GATA-binding site in the GATA-1 promoter leads to selective loss of the eosinophil lineage in vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Channing; Cantor, Alan B; Yang, Haidi; Browne, Carol; Wells, Richard A; Fujiwara, Yuko; Orkin, Stuart H

    2002-01-01

    .... Here we demonstrate that deletion of a high-affinity GATA-binding site in the GATA-1 promoter, an element presumed to mediate positive autoregulation of GATA-1 expression, leads to selective loss...

  5. Positive allosteric modulation of the GHB high-affinity binding site by the GABAA receptor modulator monastrol and the flavonoid catechin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eghorn, Laura Friis; Høstgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann

    2014-01-01

    conformational changes in the binding site, demonstrating a positive allosteric modulation of radioligand binding. Surprisingly, binding of [3H]GHB and the GHB high-affinity site-specific radioligands [125I]BnOPh-GHB and [3H]HOCPCA was either decreased or only weakly increased, indicating that the observed......γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and a proposed neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. We recently identified α4βδ GABAA receptors as possible high-affinity GHB targets. GABAA receptors are highly sensitive to allosteric modulation. Thus to investigate...... whether GHB high-affinity binding sites are also sensitive to allosteric modulation, we screened both known GABAA receptor ligands and a library of natural compounds in the rat cortical membrane GHB specific high-affinity [3H]NCS-382 binding assay. Two hits were identified: Monastrol, a positive...

  6. Radiosynthesis and Evaluation of [(11)C]3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic Acid as Potential PET Ligand for the High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Claus H; Hansen, Hanne D; Bay, Tina; Vogensen, Stine B; Lehel, Szabolcs; Thiesen, Louise; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Clausen, Rasmus P; Knudsen, Gitte M; Herth, Matthias M; Wellendorph, Petrine; Frølund, Bente

    2017-01-18

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous neuroactive substance and proposed neurotransmitter with affinity for both low- and high-affinity binding sites. A radioligand with high and specific affinity toward the high-affinity GHB binding site would be a unique tool toward a more complete understanding of this population of binding sites. With its high specific affinity and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) mediated transport across the blood-brain barrier in pharmacological doses, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) seems like a suitable PET radiotracer candidate. Here, we report the (11)C-labeling and subsequent evaluation of [(11)C]HOCPCA in a domestic pig, as a PET-radioligand for visualization of the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the live pig brain. To investigate the regional binding of HOCPCA in pig brain prior to in vivo PET studies, in vitro quantitative autoradiography on sections of pig brain was performed using [(3)H]HOCPCA. In vivo evaluation of [(11)C]HOCPCA showed no brain uptake, possibly due to a limited uptake of HOCPCA by the MCT1 transporter at tracer doses of [(11)C]HOCPCA.

  7. High- and low-affinity binding sites for Cd on the bacterial cell walls of Bacillus subtilis and Shewanella oneidensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim; Bunker, Bruce A.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2010-08-01

    Bulk Cd adsorption isotherm experiments, thermodynamic equilibrium modeling, and Cd K edge EXAFS were used to constrain the mechanisms of proton and Cd adsorption to bacterial cells of the commonly occurring Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Shewanella oneidensis, respectively. Potentiometric titrations were used to characterize the functional group reactivity of the S. oneidensis cells, and we model the titration data using the same type of non-electrostatic surface complexation approach as was applied to titrations of B. subtilis suspensions by Fein et al. (2005). Similar to the results for B. subtilis, the S. oneidensis cells exhibit buffering behavior from approximately pH 3-9 that requires the presence of four distinct sites, with p Ka values of 3.3 ± 0.2, 4.8 ± 0.2, 6.7 ± 0.4, and 9.4 ± 0.5, and site concentrations of 8.9(±2.6) × 10 -5, 1.3(±0.2) × 10 -4, 5.9(±3.3) × 10 -5, and 1.1(±0.6) × 10 -4 moles/g bacteria (wet mass), respectively. The bulk Cd isotherm adsorption data for both species, conducted at pH 5.9 as a function of Cd concentration at a fixed biomass concentration, were best modeled by reactions with a Cd:site stoichiometry of 1:1. EXAFS data were collected for both bacterial species as a function of Cd concentration at pH 5.9 and 10 g/L bacteria. The EXAFS results show that the same types of binding sites are responsible for Cd sorption to both bacterial species at all Cd loadings tested (1-200 ppm). Carboxyl sites are responsible for the binding at intermediate Cd loadings. Phosphoryl ligands are more important than carboxyl ligands for Cd binding at high Cd loadings. For the lowest Cd loadings studied here, a sulfhydryl site was found to dominate the bound Cd budgets for both species, in addition to the carboxyl and phosphoryl sites that dominate the higher loadings. The EXAFS results suggest that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell walls have a low concentration of very high-affinity

  8. Positive allosteric modulation of the GHB high-affinity binding site by the GABAA receptor modulator monastrol and the flavonoid catechin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghorn, Laura F; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Bay, Tina; Higgins, David; Frølund, Bente; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2014-10-05

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and a proposed neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. We recently identified α4βδ GABAA receptors as possible high-affinity GHB targets. GABAA receptors are highly sensitive to allosteric modulation. Thus to investigate whether GHB high-affinity binding sites are also sensitive to allosteric modulation, we screened both known GABAA receptor ligands and a library of natural compounds in the rat cortical membrane GHB specific high-affinity [3H]NCS-382 binding assay. Two hits were identified: Monastrol, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA function at δ-containing GABAA receptors, and the naturally occurring flavonoid catechin. These compounds increased [3H]NCS-382 binding to 185-272% in high micromolar concentrations. Monastrol and (+)-catechin significantly reduced [3H]NCS-382 dissociation rates and induced conformational changes in the binding site, demonstrating a positive allosteric modulation of radioligand binding. Surprisingly, binding of [3H]GHB and the GHB high-affinity site-specific radioligands [125I]BnOPh-GHB and [3H]HOCPCA was either decreased or only weakly increased, indicating that the observed modulation was critically probe-dependent. Both monastrol and (+)-catechin were agonists at recombinant α4β3δ receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. When monastrol and GHB were co-applied no changes were seen compared to the individual responses. In summary, we have identified the compounds monastrol and catechin as the first allosteric modulators of GHB high-affinity binding sites. Despite their relatively weak affinity, these compounds may aid in further characterization of the GHB high-affinity sites that are likely to represent certain GABAA receptors.

  9. Decavanadate binding to a high affinity site near the myosin catalytic centre inhibits F-actin-stimulated myosin ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiago, Teresa; Aureliano, Manuel; Gutiérrez-Merino, Carlos

    2004-05-11

    Decameric vanadate (V(10)) inhibits the actin-stimulated myosin ATPase activity, noncompetitively with actin or with ATP upon interaction with a high-affinity binding site (K(i) = 0.27 +/- 0.05 microM) in myosin subfragment-1 (S1). The binding of V(10) to S1 can be monitored from titration with V(10) of the fluorescence of S1 labeled at Cys-707 and Cys-697 with N-iodo-acetyl-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine (IAEDANS) or 5-(iodoacetamido) fluorescein, which showed the presence of only one V(10) binding site per monomer with a dissociation constant of 0.16-0.7 microM, indicating that S1 labeling with these dyes produced only a small distortion of the V(10) binding site. The large quenching of AEDANS-labeled S1 fluorescence produced by V(10) indicated that the V(10) binding site is close to Cys-697 and 707. Fluorescence studies demonstrated the following: (i) the binding of V(10) to S1 is not competitive either with actin or with ADP.V(1) or ADP.AlF(4); (ii) the affinity of V(10) for the complex S1/ADP.V(1) and S1/ADP.AlF(4) is 2- and 3-fold lower than for S1; and (iii) it is competitive with the S1 "back door" ligand P(1)P(5)-diadenosine pentaphosphate. A local conformational change in S1 upon binding of V(10) is supported by (i) a decrease of the efficiency of fluorescence energy transfer between eosin-labeled F-actin and fluorescein-labeled S1, and (ii) slower reassociation between S1 and F-actin after ATP hydrolysis. The results are consistent with binding of V(10) to the Walker A motif of ABC ATPases, which in S1 corresponds to conserved regions of the P-loop which form part of the phosphate tube.

  10. Insecticidal 3-benzamido-N-phenylbenzamides specifically bind with high affinity to a novel allosteric site in housefly GABA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoe, Yoshihisa; Kita, Tomo; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Nakao, Toshifumi; Sato, Kazuyuki; Hirase, Kangetsu

    2013-11-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABARs) are an important target for existing insecticides such as fiproles. These insecticides act as noncompetitive antagonists (channel blockers) for insect GABARs by binding to a site within the intrinsic channel of the GABAR. Recently, a novel class of insecticides, 3-benzamido-N-phenylbenzamides (BPBs), was shown to inhibit GABARs by binding to a site distinct from the site for fiproles. We examined the binding site of BPBs in the adult housefly by means of radioligand-binding and electrophysiological experiments. 3-Benzamido-N-(2,6-dimethyl-4-perfluoroisopropylphenyl)-2-fluorobenzamide (BPB 1) (the N-demethyl BPB) was a partial, but potent, inhibitor of [(3)H]4'-ethynyl-4-n-propylbicycloorthobenzoate (GABA channel blocker) binding to housefly head membranes, whereas the 3-(N-methyl)benzamido congener (the N-methyl BPB) had low or little activity. A total of 15 BPB analogs were tested for their abilities to inhibit [(3)H]BPB 1 binding to the head membranes. The N-demethyl analogs, known to be highly effective insecticides, potently inhibited the [(3)H]BPB 1 binding, but the N-methyl analogs did not even though they, too, are considered highly effective. [(3)H]BPB 1 equally bound to the head membranes from wild-type and dieldrin-resistant (rdl mutant) houseflies. GABA allosterically inhibited [(3)H]BPB 1 binding. By contrast, channel blocker-type antagonists enhanced [(3)H]BPB 1 binding to housefly head membranes by increasing the affinity of BPB 1. Antiparasitic macrolides, such as ivermectin B1a, were potent inhibitors of [(3)H]BPB 1 binding. BPB 1 inhibited GABA-induced currents in housefly GABARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes, whereas it failed to inhibit l-glutamate-induced currents in inhibitory l-glutamate receptors. Overall, these findings indicate that BPBs act at a novel allosteric site that is different from the site for channel blocker-type antagonists and that is probably overlapped with the site for macrolides

  11. High affinity RGD-binding sites at the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana links the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut, H; Carrasco, A; Galaud, J P; Cassan, C; Bouyssou, H; Vita, N; Ferrara, P; Pont-Lezica, R

    1998-10-01

    The heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD--the essential structure recognised by animal cells in substrate adhesion molecules) was tested on epidermal cells of onion and cultured cells of Arabidopsis upon plasmolysis. Dramatic changes were observed on both types of cells following treatment: on onion cells, Hechtian strands linking the cell wall to the membrane were lost, while Arabidopsis cells changed from concave to convex plasmolysis. A control heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Asp-Gly-Arg-Ser-Pro had no effect on the shape of plasmolysed cells. Protoplasts isolated from Arabidopsis cells agglutinate in the presence of ProNectinF, a genetically engineered protein of 72 kDa containing 13 RGD sequences: several protoplasts may adhere to a single molecule of ProNectinF. The addition of the RGD-heptapeptide disrupted the adhesion between the protoplasts. Purified plasma membrane from Arabidopsis cells exhibits specific binding sites for the iodinated RGD-heptapeptide. The binding is saturable, reversible, and two types of high affinity sites (Kd1 approximately 1 nM, and Kd2 approximately 40 nM) can be discerned. Competitive inhibition by several structurally related peptides and proteins noted the specific requirement for the RGD sequence. Thus, the RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis fulfils the adhesion features of integrins, i.e. peptide specificity, subcellular location, and involvement in plasma membrane-cell wall attachments.

  12. High-affinity DNA binding sites for H-NS provide a molecular basis for selective silencing within proteobacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Benjamin; Blot, Nicolas; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Buckle, Malcolm; Geertz, Marcel; Gualerzi, Claudio O; Mavathur, Ramesh; Muskhelishvili, Georgi; Pon, Cynthia L; Rimsky, Sylvie; Stella, Stefano; Babu, M Madan; Travers, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The global transcriptional regulator H-NS selectively silences bacterial genes associated with pathogenicity and responses to environmental insults. Although there is ample evidence that H-NS binds preferentially to DNA containing curved regions, we show here that a major basis for this selectivity is the presence of a conserved sequence motif in H-NS target transcriptons. We further show that there is a strong tendency for the H-NS binding sites to be clustered, both within operons and in genes contained in the pathogenicity-associated islands. In accordance with previously published findings, we show that these motifs occur in AT-rich regions of DNA. On the basis of these observations, we propose that H-NS silences extensive regions of the bacterial chromosome by binding first to nucleating high-affinity sites and then spreading along AT-rich DNA. This spreading would be reinforced by the frequent occurrence of the motif in such regions. Our findings suggest that such an organization enables the silencing of extensive regions of the genetic material, thereby providing a coherent framework that unifies studies on the H-NS protein and a concrete molecular basis for the genetic control of H-NS transcriptional silencing.

  13. Mutational analysis of the high-affinity zinc binding site validates a refined human dopamine transporter homology model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stockner

    Full Text Available The high-resolution crystal structure of the leucine transporter (LeuT is frequently used as a template for homology models of the dopamine transporter (DAT. Although similar in structure, DAT differs considerably from LeuT in a number of ways: (i when compared to LeuT, DAT has very long intracellular amino and carboxyl termini; (ii LeuT and DAT share a rather low overall sequence identity (22% and (iii the extracellular loop 2 (EL2 of DAT is substantially longer than that of LeuT. Extracellular zinc binds to DAT and restricts the transporter's movement through the conformational cycle, thereby resulting in a decrease in substrate uptake. Residue H293 in EL2 praticipates in zinc binding and must be modelled correctly to allow for a full understanding of its effects. We exploited the high-affinity zinc binding site endogenously present in DAT to create a model of the complete transmemberane domain of DAT. The zinc binding site provided a DAT-specific molecular ruler for calibration of the model. Our DAT model places EL2 at the transporter lipid interface in the vicinity of the zinc binding site. Based on the model, D206 was predicted to represent a fourth co-ordinating residue, in addition to the three previously described zinc binding residues H193, H375 and E396. This prediction was confirmed by mutagenesis: substitution of D206 by lysine and cysteine affected the inhibitory potency of zinc and the maximum inhibition exerted by zinc, respectively. Conversely, the structural changes observed in the model allowed for rationalizing the zinc-dependent regulation of DAT: upon binding, zinc stabilizes the outward-facing state, because its first coordination shell can only be completed in this conformation. Thus, the model provides a validated solution to the long extracellular loop and may be useful to address other aspects of the transport cycle.

  14. Mutational analysis of the high-affinity zinc binding site validates a refined human dopamine transporter homology model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockner, Thomas; Montgomery, Therese R; Kudlacek, Oliver; Weissensteiner, Rene; Ecker, Gerhard F; Freissmuth, Michael; Sitte, Harald H

    2013-01-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of the leucine transporter (LeuT) is frequently used as a template for homology models of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Although similar in structure, DAT differs considerably from LeuT in a number of ways: (i) when compared to LeuT, DAT has very long intracellular amino and carboxyl termini; (ii) LeuT and DAT share a rather low overall sequence identity (22%) and (iii) the extracellular loop 2 (EL2) of DAT is substantially longer than that of LeuT. Extracellular zinc binds to DAT and restricts the transporter's movement through the conformational cycle, thereby resulting in a decrease in substrate uptake. Residue H293 in EL2 praticipates in zinc binding and must be modelled correctly to allow for a full understanding of its effects. We exploited the high-affinity zinc binding site endogenously present in DAT to create a model of the complete transmemberane domain of DAT. The zinc binding site provided a DAT-specific molecular ruler for calibration of the model. Our DAT model places EL2 at the transporter lipid interface in the vicinity of the zinc binding site. Based on the model, D206 was predicted to represent a fourth co-ordinating residue, in addition to the three previously described zinc binding residues H193, H375 and E396. This prediction was confirmed by mutagenesis: substitution of D206 by lysine and cysteine affected the inhibitory potency of zinc and the maximum inhibition exerted by zinc, respectively. Conversely, the structural changes observed in the model allowed for rationalizing the zinc-dependent regulation of DAT: upon binding, zinc stabilizes the outward-facing state, because its first coordination shell can only be completed in this conformation. Thus, the model provides a validated solution to the long extracellular loop and may be useful to address other aspects of the transport cycle.

  15. The location of the high- and low-affinity bilirubin-binding sites on serum albumin: ligand-competition analysis investigated by circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Iryna; Orlov, Sergey; Urbanová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The locations of three bilirubin (BR)-binding sites with different affinities were identified as subdomains IB, IIA and IIIA for five mammalian serum albumins (SAs): human (HSA), bovine (BSA), rat, (RSA), rabbit (RbSA) and sheep (SSA). The stereoselectivity of a high-affinity BR-binding site was identified in the BR/SA=1/1 system by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, the sites with low affinity to BR were analyzed using difference CD. Site-specific ligand-competition experiments with ibuprofen (marker for subdomain IIIA) and hemin (marker for subdomain IB) did not reveal any changes for the BR/SA=1/1 system and showed a decrease of the bound BR at BR/SA=3/1. Both sites were identified as sites with low affinity to BR. The correlation between stereoselectivity and the arrangement of Arg-Lys residues indicated similarity between the BR-binding sites in subdomain IIIA for all of the SAs studied. Subdomain IB in HSA, BSA, SSA and RbSA has P-stereoselectivity while in RSA it has M-selectivity toward BR. A ligand-competition experiment with gossypol shows a decrease of the CD signal of bound BR for the BR/SA=1/1 system as well as for BR/SA=3/1. Subdomain IIA was assigned as a high-affinity BR-binding site. The P-stereoselectivity of this site in HSA (and RSA, RbSA) was caused by the right-hand localization of charged residues R257/R218-R222, whereas the left-hand orientation of R257/R218-R199 led to the M-stereoselectivity of the primary binding site in BSA (and SSA). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High-Affinity Sites Form an Interaction Network to Facilitate Spreading of the MSL Complex across the X Chromosome in Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramírez, Fidel; Lingg, Thomas; Toscano, Sarah; Lam, Kin Chung; Georgiev, Plamen; Chung, Ho-Ryun; Lajoie, Bryan R; de Wit, Elzo; Zhan, Ye; de Laat, Wouter; Dekker, Job; Manke, Thomas; Akhtar, Asifa

    2015-01-01

    Dosage compensation mechanisms provide a paradigm to study the contribution of chromosomal conformation toward targeting and spreading of epigenetic regulators over a specific chromosome. By using Hi-C and 4C analyses, we show that high-affinity sites (HAS), landing platforms of the male-specific le

  17. The crustacean gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase: allosteric modulation of high- and low-affinity ATP-binding sites by sodium and potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, D C; Silva, E C C; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Barrabin, H; Scofano, H M; Fontes, C F L; Furriel, R P M; Leone, F A

    2008-11-15

    The blue crab, Callinectes danae, tolerates exposure to a wide salinity range employing mechanisms of compensatory ion uptake when in dilute media. Although the gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase is vital to hyperosmoregulatory ability, the interactions occurring at the sites of ATP binding on the molecule itself are unknown. Here, we investigate the modulation by Na+ and K+ of homotropic interactions between the ATP-binding sites, and of phosphoenzyme formation of the (Na+,K+)-ATPase from the posterior gills of this euryhaline crab. The contribution of the high- and low-affinity ATP-binding sites to maximum velocity was similar for both Na+ and K+. However, in contrast to Na+, a threshold K+ concentration triggers the appearance of the high-affinity binding sites, displacing the saturation curve to lower ATP concentrations.Further, a low-affinity site for phosphorylation is present on the enzyme. These findings reveal notable differences in the catalytic mechanism of the crustacean (Na+,K+)-ATPase compared to the vertebrate enzyme.

  18. The ryanodine receptor pore blocker neomycin also inhibits channel activity via a previously undescribed high-affinity Ca(2+) binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Derek R; Hamada, Tomoyo; Fessenden, James D; Ikemoto, Noriaki

    2007-12-01

    In this study, we present evidence for the mechanism of neomycin inhibition of skeletal ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In single-channel recordings, neomycin produced monophasic inhibition of RyR open probability and biphasic inhibition of [(3)H]ryanodine binding. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) for channel blockade by neomycin was dependent on membrane potential and cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)], suggesting that neomycin acts both as a pore plug and as a competitive antagonist at a cytoplasmic Ca(2+) binding site that causes allosteric inhibition. This novel Ca(2+)/neomycin binding site had a neomycin affinity of 100 nM: and a Ca(2+) affinity of 35 nM,: which is 30-fold higher than that of the well-described cytoplasmic Ca(2+) activation site. Therefore, a new high-affinity class of Ca(2+) binding site(s) on the RyR exists that mediates neomycin inhibition. Neomycin plugging of the channel pore induced brief (1-2 ms) conductance substates at 30% of the fully open conductance, whereas allosteric inhibition caused complete channel closure with durations that depended on the neomycin concentration. We quantitatively account for these results using a dual inhibition model for neomycin that incorporates voltage-dependent pore plugging and Ca(2+)-dependent allosteric inhibition.

  19. Novel radioiodinated {gamma}-hydroxybutyric acid analogues for radiolabeling and Photolinking of high-affinity {gamma}-hydroxybutyric acid binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe; Sabbatini, Paola;

    2010-01-01

    ¿-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a therapeutic drug, a drug of abuse, and an endogenous substance that binds to low- and high-affinity sites in the mammalian brain. To target the specific GHB binding sites, we have developed a (125)I-labeled GHB analog and characterized its binding in rat brain...... homogenate and slices. Our data show that [(125)I]4-hydroxy-4-[4-(2-iodobenzyloxy)phenyl]butanoate ([(125)I]BnOPh-GHB) binds to one site in rat brain cortical membranes with low nanomolar affinity (K(d), 7 nM; B(max), 61 pmol/mg protein). The binding is inhibited by GHB and selected analogs......, but not by ¿-aminobutyric acid. Autoradiography using horizontal slices from rat brain demonstrates the highest density of binding in hippocampus and cortical regions and the lowest density in the cerebellum. Altogether, the findings correlate with the labeling and brain regional distribution of high-affinity GHB sites...

  20. Novel Radioiodinated γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogues for Radiolabeling and Photolinking of High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe; Sabbatini, Paola;

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a therapeutic drug, a drug of abuse, and an endogenous substance that binds to low- and high-affinity sites in the mammalian brain. To target the specific GHB binding sites, we have developed a 125I-labeled GHB analog and characterized its binding in rat brain...... homogenate and slices. Our data show that [125I]4-hydroxy-4-[4-(2-iodobenzyloxy)phenyl]butanoate ([125I]BnOPh-GHB) binds to one site in rat brain cortical membranes with low nanomolar affinity (Kd, 7 nM; Bmax, 61 pmol/mg protein). The binding is inhibited by GHB and selected analogs, but not by γ......-aminobutyric acid. Autoradiography using horizontal slices from rat brain demonstrates the highest density of binding in hippocampus and cortical regions and the lowest density in the cerebellum. Altogether, the findings correlate with the labeling and brain regional distribution of high-affinity GHB sites or [3H...

  1. High Throughput Screening of High-Affinity Ligands for Proteins with Anion-Binding Sites using Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI) Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Ning, Baoming; He, Dacheng; Huang, Lingyun; Yue, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qiming; Huang, Haiwei; Liu, Yang; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2014-03-01

    A high throughput screening system involving a linear ion trap (LTQ) analyzer, a house-made platform and a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) source was established to screen ligands with a high affinity for proteins with anion-binding sites. The complexes were analyzed after incubation, ultrafiltration, washing, and displacement. A new anionic region inhibited dissociation (ARID) mechanism that was suitable for a protein with anion-binding site was proposed. We utilized the differences in detectable dissociation of protein-ligand complexes, combined with displacement experiments, to distinguish free ligands displaced from anion-binding sites from liberated ligands dissociated from nonspecific interactions. The method was validated by α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and (R), (S)-amlodipine. Site-specific enantioselectivity shown in our experiments was consistent with earlier studies. Obtaining all of the qualitative information of 15*3 samples in 2.3 min indicates that the analysis process is no longer the time-limiting step in the initial stage of drug discovery. Quantitative information verified that our method was at least a semiquantitative method.

  2. A binding-site barrier affects imaging efficiency of high affinity amyloid-reactive peptide radiotracers in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Wall

    Full Text Available Amyloid is a complex pathology associated with a growing number of diseases including Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and myeloma. The distribution and extent of amyloid deposition in body organs establishes the prognosis and can define treatment options; therefore, determining the amyloid load by using non-invasive molecular imaging is clinically important. We have identified a heparin-binding peptide designated p5 that, when radioiodinated, was capable of selectively imaging systemic visceral AA amyloidosis in a murine model of the disease. The p5 peptide was posited to bind effectively to amyloid deposits, relative to similarly charged polybasic heparin-reactive peptides, because it adopted a polar α helix secondary structure. We have now synthesized a variant, p5R, in which the 8 lysine amino acids of p5 have been replaced with arginine residues predisposing the peptide toward the α helical conformation in an effort to enhance the reactivity of the peptide with the amyloid substrate. The p5R peptide had higher affinity for amyloid and visualized AA amyloid in mice by using SPECT/CT imaging; however, the microdistribution, as evidenced in micro-autoradiographs, was dramatically altered relative to the p5 peptide due to its increased affinity and a resultant "binding site barrier" effect. These data suggest that radioiodinated peptide p5R may be optimal for the in vivo detection of discreet, perivascular amyloid, as found in the brain and pancreatic vasculature, by using molecular imaging techniques; however, peptide p5, due to its increased penetration, may yield more quantitative imaging of expansive tissue amyloid deposits.

  3. Allosteric effects of R- and S-citalopram on the human 5-HT transporter: evidence for distinct high- and low-affinity binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, Per; Gether, Ulrik; Rasmussen, Søren G

    2007-01-01

    SERT and the three mutants. Further, R-citalopram previously thought of as an inactive enantiomer strongly attenuated dissociation of the wild-type [(3)H]-imipramine:hSERT complex, whereas S-citalopram had almost no effect on this complex. These results suggest that 1: The allosteric site on hSERT is distinct from...... the site to which S-citalopram binds with high affinity. 2: The allosteric effects of R-citalopram on the dissociation of [(3)H]-imipramine from hSERT indicate that R-citalopram introduces a conformational change in hSERT....

  4. Reconstitution of high-affinity binding of a beta-scorpion toxin to neurotoxin receptor site 4 on purified sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, W; Martin-Eauclaire, M F; Rochat, H; Catterall, W A

    1995-09-01

    Reconstitution of purified sodium channels into phospholipid vesicles restores many aspects of sodium channel function including high-affinity neurotoxin binding and action at neurotoxin receptor sites 1-3 and 5, but neurotoxin binding and action at receptor site 4 has not previously been demonstrated in purified and reconstituted preparations. Toxin IV from the venom of the American scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css IV), a beta-scorpion toxin, shifts the voltage dependence of sodium channel activation by binding with high affinity to neurotoxin receptor site 4. Sodium channels were purified from rat brain and reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (65:35). 125I-Css IV, purified by reversed-phase HPLC, bound rapidly and specifically to reconstituted sodium channels. Dissociation of the bound toxin was biphasic with half-times of 0.22 min-1 and 0.015 min-1. At equilibrium, the toxin bound to two classes of specific high-affinity sites, a variable minor class with KD of approximately 0.1 nM and a major class with a KD of approximately 5 nM. Approximately 0.8 mol 125I-Css IV was bound per mole of reconstituted, right-side-out sodium channels, as assessed from comparison of binding of saxitoxin and Css IV. Binding of Css IV was unaffected by membrane potential or by neurotoxins that bind at sites 1-3 or 5, consistent with the characteristics of binding of beta-scorpion toxins to sodium channels in cells and membrane preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Design, Synthesis, and in Vitro Pharmacology of New Radiolabeled γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogues Including Photolabile Analogues with Irreversible Binding to the High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbatini, Paola; Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe;

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a psychotropic compound endogenous to the brain. Despite its potential physiological significance, the complete molecular mechanisms of action remain unexplained. To facilitate the isolation and identification of the high-affinity GHB binding site, we herein report...... the design and synthesis of the first 125I-labeled radioligands in the field, one of which contains a photoaffinity label which enables it to bind irreversibly to the high-affinity GHB binding sites....

  6. Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins is correlated with the presence of high-affinity binding sites in the brush border membrane of target insect midguts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, C.; Vanderbruggen, H.; Hoefte, H.; Van Rie, J.; Jansens, S.; Van Mellaert, H. (J. Plateaustraat, Gent (Belgium))

    1988-11-01

    Binding studies were performed with two {sup 125}I-labeled Bacillus thuringiensis {delta}-endotoxins on brush border membrane vesicles prepared from the larval midgut of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta or the cabbage butterfly Pieris brassicae. One {delta}-endotoxin, Bt2-protoxin, is a 130-kDa recombinant crystalline protein from B. thuringiensis subsp. berliner. It kills larvae of both insect species. The active Bt2-toxin is a 60-kDa proteolytic fragment of the Bt2-protoxin. It binds saturably and with high affinity to brush border membrane vesicles from the midgut of both species. The other {delta}-endotoxin, Bt4412-protoxin, is a 136-kDa crystalline protein from B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis, which is highly toxic for P. brassicae, but not for M. sexta larvae. Bt4412-toxin, obtained after proteolytic activation of Bt4412-protoxin, shows high-affinity saturable binding to P. brassicae vesicles but not to M. sexta vesicles. The correlation between toxicity and specific binding is further strengthened by competition studies. Other B. thuringiensis {delta}-endotoxins active against M. sexta compete for binding of {sup 125}I-labeled Bt2-toxin to M. sexta vesicles, whereas toxins active against dipteran or coleopteran larvae do not compete. Bt2-toxin and Bt4412-toxin bind to different sites on P. brassicae vesicles.

  7. Anti-human IgE monoclonal antibodies recognizing epitopes related to the binding sites of high and low affinity IgE receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, H; Nishimura, S; Kosada, Y; Hata, S; Takagi, S; Hosoi, S; Ezumi, K; Ide, M; Harada, S

    1994-01-01

    Anti-human IgE monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced and eight clones recognizing epitopes on native IgE were selected. Epitopes were mapped by a competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting and a multi-pin peptide technology. Four sites (one each in the C epsilon 1, C epsilon 2, C epsilon 2/C epsilon 3 junction and C epsilon 3) were recognized by the mAbs. The relationship between the four epitopes and the binding sites of high and low affinity IgE receptors (Fc epsilon RI and Fc epsilon RII, respectively) was studied using a monovalent Fab fragment of each mAb as a binding inhibitor. The IgE-Fc epsilon RII binding was clearly inhibited by the mAb recognizing the C epsilon 2/C epsilon 3 junction, suggesting that Fc epsilon RII binds to a rather limited area around the C epsilon 2/C epsilon 3 junction. The IgE-Fc epsilon RI binding, on the other hand, was scarcely inhibited by any single mAb. However, the binding was inhibited when the epitope in C epsilon 2 was blocked simultaneously with that at the C epsilon 2/C epsilon 3 junction or with that in C epsilon 3, indicating that these three distinct epitopes are related to the Fc epsilon RI binding sites. When these three epitopes were shown in the stereograph of human IgE, the Fc epsilon RI binding area was spread largely on the groove side between C epsilon 2 and C epsilon 3 domains. These results suggest that Fc epsilon RI acquires the high affinity through multiple bindings.

  8. Site-specific conjugation of an antibody-binding protein catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase creates a multivalent protein conjugate with high affinity to IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamihata, Kosuke; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linking proteins offers an approach to enhance the distinct function of proteins due to the multivalent effect. In this study, we demonstrated the preparation of a multivalent antibody-binding protein possessing high affinity to IgG by conjugating a number of antibody-binding proteins using the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated protein conjugation method. By introducing a peptide tag containing a tyrosine (Y-tag) to the C-terminus of the model protein, a chimera protein of protein G and protein A (pG2 pA), the Tyr residue in the Y-tag was efficiently recognized by HRP and cross-linked with each other to yield a pG2 pA conjugate, composed of mainly two to three units of pG2 pA. The cross-linking occurred site specifically at the Tyr residue in the Y-tag and introduction of the Y-tag showed no effect on the function of pG2 pA. The affinity of the Y-tagged pG2 pA conjugate against IgG clearly increased because of the multivalent effect, demonstrating the benefit of this protein cross-linking reaction, which yields functional protein oligomers. Such multivalent protein conjugates created by this reaction should have potential to be used in ELISA and Western blotting applications in which highly sensitive detection of target molecules is desired.

  9. Isolation of a high affinity neutralizing monoclonal antibody against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus that binds at the 'Sa' antigenic site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachiket Shembekar

    Full Text Available Influenza virus evades host immunity through antigenic drift and shift, and continues to circulate in the human population causing periodic outbreaks including the recent 2009 pandemic. A large segment of the population was potentially susceptible to this novel strain of virus. Historically, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs have been fundamental tools for diagnosis and epitope mapping of influenza viruses and their importance as an alternate treatment option is also being realized. The current study describes isolation of a high affinity (K(D = 2.1±0.4 pM murine MAb, MA2077 that binds specifically to the hemagglutinin (HA surface glycoprotein of the pandemic virus. The antibody neutralized the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in an in vitro microneutralization assay (IC(50 = 0.08 µg/ml. MA2077 also showed hemagglutination inhibition activity (HI titre of 0.50 µg/ml against the pandemic virus. In a competition ELISA, MA2077 competed with the binding site of the human MAb, 2D1 (isolated from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic on pandemic H1N1 HA. Epitope mapping studies using yeast cell-surface display of a stable HA1 fragment, wherein 'Sa' and 'Sb' sites were independently mutated, localized the binding site of MA2077 within the 'Sa' antigenic site. These studies will facilitate our understanding of antigen antibody interaction in the context of neutralization of the pandemic influenza virus.

  10. Construction of a high affinity zinc binding site in the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Sheppard, P O; Jensen, L B

    2001-01-01

    and the loops connecting these. The findings offer valuable insight into the mechanism of ATD closure and family C receptor activation. Furthermore, the findings demonstrate that ATD regions other than those participating in agonist binding could be potential targets for new generations of ligands......The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) belong to family C of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The receptors are characterized by having unusually long amino-terminal domains (ATDs), to which agonist binding has been shown to take place. Previously, we have constructed...... of a "closed" conformation, and thus stabilizing a more or less inactive "open" form of the ATD. This study presents the first metal ion site constructed in a family C GPCR. Furthermore, it is the first time a metal ion site has been created in a region outside of the seven transmembrane regions of a GPCR...

  11. High affinity retinoic acid receptor antagonists: analogs of AGN 193109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A T; Wang, L; Gillett, S J; Chandraratna, R A

    1999-02-22

    A series of high affinity retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonists were prepared based upon the known antagonist AGN 193109 (2). Introduction of various phenyl groups revealed a preference for substitution at the para-position relative to the meta-site. Antagonists with the highest affinities for the RARs possessed hydrophobic groups, however, the presence of polar functionality was also well tolerated.

  12. Crystal structure of the high-affinity Na+,K+-ATPase–ouabain complex with Mg2+ bound in the cation binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Mette; Yatime, Laure; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    we describe a crystal structure of the phosphorylated pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase in complex with the CTS representative ouabain, extending to 3.4 Å resolution. The structure provides key details on CTS binding, revealing an extensive hydrogen bonding network formed by the β-surface of the steroid core......The Na+,K+-ATPase maintains electrochemical gradients for Na+ and K+ that are critical for animal cells. Cardiotonic steroids (CTSs), widely used in the clinic and recently assigned a role as endogenous regulators of intracellular processes, are highly specific inhibitors of the Na+,K+-ATPase. Here...... of ouabain and the side chains of αM1, αM2, and αM6. Furthermore, the structure reveals that cation transport site II is occupied by Mg2+, and crystallographic studies indicate that Rb+ and Mn2+, but not Na+, bind to this site. Comparison with the low-affinity [K2]E2–MgFx–ouabain structure [Ogawa et al...

  13. Remote His50 Acts as a Coordination Switch in the High-Affinity N-Terminal Centered Copper(II) Site of α-Synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ricco, Riccardo; Valensin, Daniela; Dell'Acqua, Simone; Casella, Luigi; Dorlet, Pierre; Faller, Peter; Hureau, Christelle

    2015-05-18

    Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology is closely linked to the aggregation of α-synuclein (αS). Copper(II) ions can bind to αS and may impact its aggregation propensity. As a consequence, deciphering the exact mode of Cu(II) binding to αS is important in the PD context. Several previous reports have shown some discrepancies in the description of the main Cu(II) site in αS, which are resolved here by a new scenario. Three Cu(II) species can be encountered, depending on the pH and the Cu:αS ratio. At low pH, Cu(II) is bound to the N-terminal part of the protein by the N-terminal amine, the adjacent deprotonated amide group of the Asp2 residue, and the carboxylate group from the side chain of the same Asp2. At pH 7.4, the imidazole group of remote His50 occupies the fourth labile equatorial position of the previous site. At high Cu(II):αS ratio (>1), His50 leaves the coordination sphere of the first Cu site centered at the N-terminus, because a second weak affinity site centered on His50 is now filled with Cu(II). In this new scheme, the remote His plays the role of a molecular switch and it can be anticipated that the binding of the remote His to the Cu(II) ion can induce different folding of the αS protein, having various aggregation propensity.

  14. (/sup 3/H)dihydroergotamine as a high-affinity, slowly dissociating radioligand for 5-HT1B binding sites in rat brain membranes: evidence for guanine nucleotide regulation of agonist affinity states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamblin, M.W.; Ariani, K.; Adriaenssens, P.I.; Ciaranello, R.D.

    1987-12-01

    (/sup 3/H)Dihydroergotamine (DE) labels a population of binding sites in rat brain membranes with an affinity of approximately 70 pM in both hippocampus (maximal binding at saturation (Bmax) = 340 fmol/mg of protein) and cerebral cortex (Bmax = 250 fmol/mg of protein). Specific binding typically comprises about 97% of total binding at the Kd of the radioligand when nonspecific binding is determined in the presence of 100 nM unlabeled DE. Association kinetics at 37 degrees C are consistent with a uniform association rate constant for all sites labeled. Specific binding is completely reversible with addition of excess unlabeled DE, but dissociation does not proceed with simple first-order kinetics, suggesting the presence of more than one discrete binding site. Competition studies with selective drugs reveal alpha adrenergic, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B components of (/sup 3/H)DE specific binding. When phentolamine (500 nM) is included to block alpha receptors and DPAT (100 nM) or spiroxatrine (500 nM) is included to block 5-HT1A receptors, specific binding is exclusively to sites with drug affinities characteristic of 5-HT1B receptors. Under these 5-HT1B-selective conditions, (/sup 3/H)DE binding is about 90% specific, with a Kd of about 50 to 60 pM and a Bmax of 96 fmol/mg of protein in hippocampus and 77 fmol/mg of protein in cortex. (/sup 3/H)DE binding to 5-HT1B sites is very slowly dissociable, with a T1/2 of greater than 2 h at 37 degrees C. 5-HT1B antagonists and DE itself yield competition curves at (/sup 3/H)DE-labeled 5-HT1B sites that are adequately fit assuming a single site in nonlinear regression analysis. Addition of 100 microM guanylyl 5'-imidodiphosphate appears to convert nearly all 5-HT1B sites to those having low affinity for agonists while having a much smaller effect on the binding of (/sup 3/H)DE.

  15. Dyes with high affinity for polylactide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang He; Shu Fen Zhang; Bing Tao Tang; Li Li Wang; Jin Zong Yang

    2007-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop dyes with high affinity for polylactide as an alternative to the existent commercial disperse dyes.The dyes synthesized according to the affinity concept of dye to polylactide exhibited excellent dyeing properties on polylactide compared with the commercial disperse dyes.

  16. Proton Affinity Calculations with High Level Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolboe, Stein

    2014-08-12

    Proton affinities, stretching from small reference compounds, up to the methylbenzenes and naphthalene and anthracene, have been calculated with high accuracy computational methods, viz. W1BD, G4, G3B3, CBS-QB3, and M06-2X. Computed and the currently accepted reference proton affinities are generally in excellent accord, but there are deviations. The literature value for propene appears to be 6-7 kJ/mol too high. Reported proton affinities for the methylbenzenes seem 4-5 kJ/mol too high. G4 and G3 computations generally give results in good accord with the high level W1BD. Proton affinity values computed with the CBS-QB3 scheme are too low, and the error increases with increasing molecule size, reaching nearly 10 kJ/mol for the xylenes. The functional M06-2X fails markedly for some of the small reference compounds, in particular, for CO and ketene, but calculates methylbenzene proton affinities with high accuracy.

  17. High affinity ligands for 'diazepam-insensitive' benzodiazepine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G; Skolnick, P

    1992-01-14

    Structurally diverse compounds have been shown to possess high affinities for benzodiazepine receptors in their 'diazepam-sensitive' (DS) conformations. In contrast, only the imidazobenzodiazepinone Ro 15-4513 has been shown to exhibit a high affinity for the 'diazepam-insensitive' (DI) conformation of benzodiazepine receptors. We examined a series of 1,4-diazepines containing one or more annelated ring systems for their affinities at DI and DS benzodiazepine receptors, several 1,4-diazepinone carboxylates including Ro 19-4603, Ro 16-6028 and Ro 15-3505 were found to possess high affinities (Ki approximately 2.6-20 nM) for DI. Nonetheless, among the ligands examined, Ro 15-4513 was the only substance with a DI/DS potency ratio approximately 1; other substances had ratios ranging from 13 to greater than 1000. Ligands with high to moderate affinities at DI were previously classified as partial agonists, antagonists, or partial inverse agonists at DS benzodiazepine receptors, but behaved as 'GABA neutral' (antagonist) substances at DI. The identification of several additional high affinity ligands at DI benzodiazepine receptors may be helpful in elucidating the pharmacological and physiological importance of these sites.

  18. Receptor-associated protein (RAP) has two high-affinity binding sites for the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP): consequences for the chaperone functions of RAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jan K; Dolmer, Klavs; Schar, Christine; Gettins, Peter G W

    2009-06-26

    RAP (receptor-associated protein) is a three domain 38 kDa ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-resident protein that is a chaperone for the LRP (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein). Whereas RAP is known to compete for binding of all known LRP ligands, neither the location, the number of binding sites on LRP, nor the domains of RAP involved in binding is known with certainty. We have systematically examined the binding of each of the three RAP domains (D1, D2 and D3) to tandem and triple CRs (complement-like repeats) that span the principal ligand-binding region, cluster II, of LRP. We found that D3 binds with low nanomolar affinity to all (CR)2 species examined. Addition of a third CR domain increases the affinity for D3 slightly. A pH change from 7.4 to 5.5 gave only a 6-fold increase in Kd for D3 at 37 degrees C, whereas temperature change from 22 degrees C to 37 degrees C has a similar small effect on affinity, raising questions about the recently proposed D3-destabilization mechanism of RAP release from LRP. Surprisingly, and in contrast to literature suggestions, D1 and D2 also bind to most (CR)2 and (CR)3 constructs with nanomolar affinity. Although this suggested that there might be three high-affinity binding sites in RAP for LRP, studies with intact RAP showed that only two binding sites are available in the intact chaperone. These findings suggest a new model for RAP to function as a folding chaperone and also for the involvement of YWTD domains in RAP release from LRP in the Golgi.

  19. High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine to muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellar, K.J.; Martino, A.M.; Hall, D.P. Jr.; Schwartz, R.D.; Taylor, R.L.

    1985-06-01

    High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine to muscarinic cholinergic sites in rat CNS and peripheral tissues was measured in the presence of cytisin, which occupies nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The muscarinic sites were characterized with regard to binding kinetics, pharmacology, anatomical distribution, and regulation by guanyl nucleotides. These binding sites have characteristics of high-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors with a Kd of approximately 30 nM. Most of the muscarinic agonist and antagonist drugs tested have high affinity for the (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding site, but pirenzepine, an antagonist which is selective for M-1 receptors, has relatively low affinity. The ratio of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding sites to total muscarinic binding sites labeled by (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate varies from 9 to 90% in different tissues, with the highest ratios in the pons, medulla, and heart atrium. In the presence of guanyl nucleotides, (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine binding is decreased, but the extent of decrease varies from 40 to 90% in different tissues, with the largest decreases being found in the pons, medulla, cerebellum, and heart atrium. The results indicate that (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binds to high-affinity M-1 and M-2 muscarinic receptors, and they suggest that most M-2 sites have high affinity for acetylcholine but that only a small fraction of M-1 sites have such high affinity.

  20. Cystatin M/E is a high affinity inhibitor of cathepsin V and cathepsin L by a reactive site that is distinct from the legumain-binding site. A novel clue for the role of cystatin M/E in epidermal cornification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, T.; Hitomi, K.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Jongh, G.J. de; Yamamoto, K.; Nishi, K.; Watts, C.; Reinheckel, T.; Schalkwijk, J.; Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Cystatin M/E is a high affinity inhibitor of the asparaginyl endopeptidase legumain, and we have previously reported that both proteins are likely to be involved in the regulation of stratum corneum formation in skin. Although cystatin M/E contains a predicted binding site for papain-like cysteine p

  1. Domain interplay in the urokinase receptor. Requirement for the third domain in high affinity ligand binding and demonstration of ligand contact sites in distinct receptor domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ronne, E; Dano, K

    1996-01-01

    . The purified suPAR was cross-linked to the radiolabeled amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase, followed by cleavage with chymotrypsin. In accordance with the cleavage pattern found for the uncomplexed receptor, this treatment led to cleavage between D1 and D(2 + 3). Analysis of the radiolabeled fragments...... revealed the expected ligand labeling of D1 but a clear labeling of D(2 + 3) was also found, indicating that this part of the molecule is also situated in close contact with ATF in the receptor-ligand complex. The latter contact site may contribute to the role of molecular regions outside D1 in high...

  2. Affinity of 3-acyl substituted 4-quinolones at the benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lager, Erik; Nilsson, Jakob; Nielsen, Elsebet Østergaard

    2008-01-01

    The finding that alkyl 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate and N-alkyl-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives may be high-affinity ligands at the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABA(A) receptor, prompted a study of 3-acyl-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline (3-acyl-4-quinolones......). In general, the affinity of the 3-acyl derivatives was found to be comparable with the 3-carboxylate and the 3-carboxamide derivatives, and certain substituents (e.g., benzyl) in position 6 were again shown to be important. As it is believed that the benzodiazepine binding site is situated between an alpha...

  3. A High-Affinity Binding Site for the AVR9 Peptide Elicitor of Cladosporium fulvum Is Present on Plasma Membranes of Tomato and Other Solanaceous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooman-Gersmann, M.; Honee, G.; Bonnema, G.; De Wit, PJGM.

    1996-05-01

    The race-specific Cladosporium fulvum peptide elicitor AVR9, which specifically induces a hypersensitive response in tomato genotypes carrying the Cf-9 resistance gene, was labeled with iodine-125 at the N-terminal tyrosine residue and used in binding studies. 125I-AVR9 showed specific, saturable, and reversible binding to plasma membranes isolated from leaves of tomato cultivar Moneymaker without Cf resistance genes (MM-Cf0) or from a near-isogenic genotype with the Cf-9 resistance gene (MM-Cf9). The dissociation constant was found to be 0.07 nM, and the receptor concentration was 0.8 pmol/mg microsomal protein. Binding was highly influenced by pH and the ionic strength of the binding buffer and by temperature, indicating the involvement of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Binding kinetics and binding capacity were similar for membranes of the MM-Cf0 and MM-Cf9 genotypes. In all solanaceous plant species tested, an AVR9 binding site was present, whereas in the nonsolanaceous species that were analyzed, such a binding site could not be identified. The ability of membranes isolated from different solanaceous plant species to bind AVR9 seems to correlate with the presence of members of the Cf-9 gene family, but whether this correlation is functional remains to be determined.

  4. The extrinsic PsbO protein modulates the oxidation/reduction rate of the exogenous Mn cation at the high-affinity Mn-binding site of Mn-depleted PSII membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Boris K; Podkovirina, Tatiana E; Davletshina, Lira N; Timofeev, Kirill N; Ivanov, Il'ya I; Rubin, Andrei B

    2015-08-01

    The oxidation of exogenous Mn(II) cations at the high-affinity (HA) Mn-binding site in Mn-depleted photosystem II (PSII) membranes with or without the presence of the extrinsic PsbO polypeptide was studied by EPR. The six-lines EPR spectrum of Mn(II) cation disappears in the absence of the PsbO protein in membranes under illumination, but there was no effect when PSII preparations bound the PsbO protein. Our study demonstrates that such effect is determined by significant influence of the PsbO protein on the ratio between the rates of Mn oxidation and reduction at the HA site when the membranes are illuminated.

  5. Quantitative autoradiography of the binding sites for ( sup 125 I) iodoglyburide, a novel high-affinity ligand for ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehlert, D.R.; Gackenheimer, S.L.; Mais, D.E.; Robertson, D.W. (Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1991-05-01

    We have developed a high specific activity ligand for localization of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the brain. When brain sections were incubated with ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide (N-(2-((((cyclohexylamino)carbonyl)amino)sulfonyl)ethyl)-5-{sup 125}I-2- methoxybenzamide), the ligand bound to a single site with a KD of 495 pM and a maximum binding site density of 176 fmol/mg of tissue. Glyburide was the most potent inhibitor of specific ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide binding to rat forebrain sections whereas iodoglyburide and glipizide were slightly less potent. The binding was also sensitive to ATP which completely inhibited binding at concentrations of 10 mM. Autoradiographic localization of ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide binding indicated a broad distribution of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the brain. The highest levels of binding were seen in the globus pallidus and ventral pallidum followed by the septohippocampal nucleus, anterior pituitary, the CA2 and CA3 region of the hippocampus, ventral pallidum, the molecular layer of the cerebellum and substantia nigra zona reticulata. The hilus and dorsal subiculum of the hippocampus, molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, lateral olfactory tract nucleus, olfactory tubercle and the zona incerta contained relatively high levels of binding. A lower level of binding (approximately 3- to 4-fold) was found throughout the remainder of the brain. These results indicate that the ATP-sensitive potassium channel has a broad presence in the rat brain and that a few select brain regions are enriched in this subtype of neuronal potassium channels.

  6. The High Affinity Binding Site on Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) for the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein (LRP1) Is Composed of Four Basic Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettins, Peter G W; Dolmer, Klavs

    2016-01-08

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a serpin inhibitor of the plasminogen activators urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator, which binds tightly to the clearance and signaling receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in both proteinase-complexed and uncomplexed forms. Binding sites for PAI-1 within LRP1 have been localized to CR clusters II and IV. Within cluster II, there is a strong preference for the triple CR domain fragment CR456. Previous mutagenesis studies to identify the binding site on PAI-1 for LRP1 have given conflicting results or implied small binding contributions incompatible with the high affinity PAI-1/LRP1 interaction. Using a highly sensitive solution fluorescence assay, we have examined binding of CR456 to arginine and lysine variants of PAI-1 and definitively identified the binding site as composed of four basic residues, Lys-69, Arg-76, Lys-80, and Lys-88. These are highly conserved among mammalian PAI-1s. Individual mutations result in a 13-800-fold increase in Kd values. We present evidence that binding involves engagement of CR4 by Lys-88, CR5 by Arg-76 and Lys-80, and CR6 by Lys-69, with the strongest interactions to CR5 and CR6. Collectively, the individual binding contributions account quantitatively for the overall PAI-1/LRP1 affinity. We propose that the greater efficiency of PAI-1·uPA complex binding and clearance by LRP1, compared with PAI-1 alone, is due solely to simultaneous binding of the uPA moiety in the complex to its receptor, thereby making binding of the PAI-1 moiety to LRP1 a two-dimensional surface-localized association.

  7. Calcium binding to the low affinity sites in troponin C induces conformational changes in the high affinity domain. A possible route of information transfer in activation of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarek, Z; Leavis, P C; Gergely, J

    1986-01-15

    Residues 89-100 of troponin C (C89-100) and 96-116 of troponin I (I96-116) interact with each other in the troponin complex (Dalgarno, D.C., Grand, R.J.A., Levine, B.A. Moir, A., J.G., Scott, G.M.M., and Perry, S.V. (1982) FEBS Lett. 150, 54-58) and are necessary for the Ca2+ sensitivity of actomyosin ATPase (Syska, H., Wilkinson, J.M., Grand, R.J.A., and Perry, S.V. (1976) Biochem. J. 153, 375-387 and Grabarek, Z., Drabikowski, W., Leavis, P.C., Rosenfeld, S.S., and Gergely, J. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 13121-13127). We have studied Ca2+-induced changes in the region C89-100 by monitoring the fluorescence of troponin C (TnC) labeled at Cys-98 with 5-(iodoacetamidoethyl)aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid. Equilibrium titration of the labeled TnC with Ca2+ indicates that the probe is sensitive to binding to both classes of sites in free TnC as well as in its complex with TnI. When Mg2 X TnC is mixed with Ca2+ in a stopped flow apparatus, there is a rapid fluorescence increase related to Ca2+ binding to the unoccupied sites I and II followed by a slower increase (k = 9.9 s-1) that represents Mg2+-Ca2+ exchange at sites III and IV. In the TnC X TnI complex, the fast phase is much larger and the Mg2+-Ca2+ exchange at sites III and IV results in a small decrease rather than an increase in the fluorescence of the probe. The possibility is discussed that the fast change in the environment of Cys-98 upon Ca2+ binding to sites I and II may be instrumental in triggering activation of the thin filament by facilitating a contact between C89-100 and I96-116.

  8. Reactions of a fluorescent ATP analog, 2'-(5-dimethyl-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino-2'-deoxyATP, with E. coli F1-ATPase and its subunits: the roles of the high affinity binding site in the alpha subunit and the low affinity binding site in the beta subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, I; Takeda, K; Futai, M; Tonomura, Y

    1982-11-01

    . The kinetic properties of the fluorescence change of DNS-ATP in the reaction with the reconstituted EF1-ATPase were quite similar to those of native EF1. Most of our findings are consistent with a simple mechanism that the high affinity catalytic site and low affinity regulatory site exist in the alpha subunit and beta subunit, respectively. However, the findings mentioned in (4) suggest that the binding of the alpha and beta subunit, which is mediated by the gamma subunit, induces conformational change(s) in the ATP binding site located probably in the alpha subunit, and that the conformational change(s) is essential to exert the full hydrolyzing activity.

  9. SELMAP - SELEX affinity landscape MAPping of transcription factor binding sites using integrated microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dana; Orenstein, Yaron; Golodnitsky, Rada; Pellach, Michal; Avrahami, Dorit; Wachtel, Chaim; Ovadia-Shochat, Avital; Shir-Shapira, Hila; Kedmi, Adi; Juven-Gershon, Tamar; Shamir, Ron; Gerber, Doron

    2016-09-15

    Transcription factors (TFs) alter gene expression in response to changes in the environment through sequence-specific interactions with the DNA. These interactions are best portrayed as a landscape of TF binding affinities. Current methods to study sequence-specific binding preferences suffer from limited dynamic range, sequence bias, lack of specificity and limited throughput. We have developed a microfluidic-based device for SELEX Affinity Landscape MAPping (SELMAP) of TF binding, which allows high-throughput measurement of 16 proteins in parallel. We used it to measure the relative affinities of Pho4, AtERF2 and Btd full-length proteins to millions of different DNA binding sites, and detected both high and low-affinity interactions in equilibrium conditions, generating a comprehensive landscape of the relative TF affinities to all possible DNA 6-mers, and even DNA10-mers with increased sequencing depth. Low quantities of both the TFs and DNA oligomers were sufficient for obtaining high-quality results, significantly reducing experimental costs. SELMAP allows in-depth screening of hundreds of TFs, and provides a means for better understanding of the regulatory processes that govern gene expression.

  10. Regulation of streptokinase expression by CovR/S in Streptococcus pyogenes: CovR acts through a single high-affinity binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchward, Gordon; Bates, Christopher; Gusa, Asiya A; Stringer, Virginia; Scott, June R

    2009-02-01

    The important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus or GAS) produces many virulence factors that are regulated by the two-component signal transduction system CovRS (CsrRS). Dissemination of GAS infection originating at the skin has been shown to require production of streptokinase, whose transcription is repressed by CovR. In this work we have studied the interaction of CovR and phosphorylated CovR (CovR-P) with the promoter for streptokinase, Pska. We found that, in contrast to the other CovR-repressed promoters, Pska regulation by CovR occurs through binding at a single ATTARA consensus binding sequence (CB) that overlaps the -10 region of the promoter. Binding of CovR to other nearby consensus sequences occurs upon phosphorylation of the protein, but these other CBs do not contribute to the regulation of Pska by CovR. Thus, binding at a specific site does not necessarily indicate that the site is involved in regulation by CovR. In addition, at Pska, CovR binding to the different sites does not appear to involve cooperative interactions, which simplifies the analysis of CovR binding and gives us insight into the modes of interaction that occur between CovR and its specific DNA-binding sites. Finally, the observation that regulation of transcription from Pska occurs at a very low concentration of phosphorylated CovR may have important implications for the regulation of virulence gene expression during GAS infection.

  11. High-throughput fragment screening by affinity LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-Thi, Minh-Dao; Bergström, Maria; Fex, Tomas; Isaksson, Roland; Ohlson, Sten

    2013-02-01

    Fragment screening, an emerging approach for hit finding in drug discovery, has recently been proven effective by its first approved drug, vemurafenib, for cancer treatment. Techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, surface plasmon resonance, and isothemal titration calorimetry, with their own pros and cons, have been employed for screening fragment libraries. As an alternative approach, screening based on high-performance liquid chromatography separation has been developed. In this work, we present weak affinity LC/MS as a method to screen fragments under high-throughput conditions. Affinity-based capillary columns with immobilized thrombin were used to screen a collection of 590 compounds from a fragment library. The collection was divided into 11 mixtures (each containing 35 to 65 fragments) and screened by MS detection. The primary screening was performed in 3500 fragments per day). Thirty hits were defined, which subsequently entered a secondary screening using an active site-blocked thrombin column for confirmation of specificity. One hit showed selective binding to thrombin with an estimated dissociation constant (K (D)) in the 0.1 mM range. This study shows that affinity LC/MS is characterized by high throughput, ease of operation, and low consumption of target and fragments, and therefore it promises to be a valuable method for fragment screening.

  12. Role of the low-affinity binding site in electron transfer from cytochrome C to cytochrome C peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hongkang; Geren, Lois; Miller, Mark A; Durham, Bill; Millett, Francis

    2002-03-26

    The interaction of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (yCc) with the high- and low-affinity binding sites on cytochrome c peroxidase compound I (CMPI) was studied by stopped-flow spectroscopy. When 3 microM reduced yCc(II) was mixed with 0.5 microM CMPI at 10 mM ionic strength, the Trp-191 radical cation was reduced from the high-affinity site with an apparent rate constant >3000 s(-1), followed by slow reduction of the oxyferryl heme with a rate constant of only 10 s(-1). In contrast, mixing 3 microM reduced yCc(II) with 0.5 microM preformed CMPI *yCc(III) complex led to reduction of the radical cation with a rate constant of 10 s(-1), followed by reduction of the oxyferryl heme in compound II with the same rate constant. The rate constants for reduction of the radical cation and the oxyferryl heme both increased with increasing concentrations of yCc(II) and remained equal to each other. These results are consistent with a mechanism in which both the Trp-191 radical cation and the oxyferryl heme are reduced by yCc(II) in the high-affinity binding site, and the reaction is rate-limited by product dissociation of yCc(III) from the high-affinity site with apparent rate constant k(d). Binding yCc(II) to the low-affinity site is proposed to increase the rate constant for dissociation of yCc(III) from the high-affinity site in a substrate-assisted product dissociation mechanism. The value of k(d) is 2000 s(-1) for the 2:1 complex at 10 mM ionic strength. The reaction of horse Cc(II) with CMPI was greatly inhibited by binding 1 equiv of yCc(III) to the high-affinity site, providing evidence that reduction of the oxyferryl heme involves electron transfer from the high-affinity binding site rather than the low-affinity site. The effects of CcP surface mutations on the dissociation rate constant indicate that the high-affinity binding site used for the reaction in solution is the same as the one identified in the yCc*CcP crystal structure.

  13. Photo-Affinity Labeling of Specific Acetylcholine-Binding Sites on Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Hansruedi; Lindstrom, Jon; Lennox, Edwin S.; Singer, S. J.

    1970-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase of intact red blood cell membranes and the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of whole-frog sartorius muscle have been irreversibly inactivated by photo-affinity labeling with two quaternary ammonium aryl azides. The inactivation requires that the azides, at the time of their photolytic conversion to highly reactive nitrenes, are reversibly bound to the specific acetylcholine-binding sites. PMID:5275370

  14. Integrated microfluidic approach for quantitative high-throughput measurements of transcription factor binding affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Yair; Orenstein, Yaron; Chen, Dana; Avrahami, Dorit; Zor, Tsaffrir; Shamir, Ron; Gerber, Doron

    2016-04-07

    Protein binding to DNA is a fundamental process in gene regulation. Methodologies such as ChIP-Seq and mapping of DNase I hypersensitive sites provide global information on this regulation in vivo In vitro methodologies provide valuable complementary information on protein-DNA specificities. However, current methods still do not measure absolute binding affinities. There is a real need for large-scale quantitative protein-DNA affinity measurements. We developed QPID, a microfluidic application for measuring protein-DNA affinities. A single run is equivalent to 4096 gel-shift experiments. Using QPID, we characterized the different affinities of ATF1, c-Jun, c-Fos and AP-1 to the CRE consensus motif and CRE half-site in two different genomic sequences on a single device. We discovered that binding of ATF1, but not of AP-1, to the CRE half-site is highly affected by its genomic context. This effect was highly correlated with ATF1 ChIP-seq and PBM experiments. Next, we characterized the affinities of ATF1 and ATF3 to 128 genomic CRE and CRE half-site sequences. Our affinity measurements explained that in vivo binding differences between ATF1 and ATF3 to CRE and CRE half-sites are partially mediated by differences in the minor groove width. We believe that QPID would become a central tool for quantitative characterization of biophysical aspects affecting protein-DNA binding.

  15. Glycation of the high affinity NGF-receptor and RAGE leads to reduced ligand affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennmann, Dorit; Kannicht, Christoph; Fisseau, Claudine; Jacobs, Kathleen; Navarette-Santos, Alexander; Hofmann, Britt; Horstkorte, Rüdiger

    2015-09-01

    AGEs are posttranslational modifications generated by irreversible non-enzymatic crosslinking reactions between sugars and proteins - a reaction referred to as glycation. Glycation, a feature of ageing, can lead to non-degradable and less functional proteins and enzymes and can additionally induce inflammation and further pathophysiological processes such as neurodegeneration. In this study we investigated the influence of glycation on the high affinity NGF-receptor TrkA and the AGE-receptor RAGE. We quantified the binding affinity of the TrkA-receptor and RAGE to their ligands by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and compared these to the binding affinity after glycation. At the same time, we established a glycation procedure using SPR. We found that glycation of TrkA reduced the affinity to NGF by a factor of three, which could be shown to lead to a reduction of NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Glycation of RAGE reduced binding affinity of AGEs by 10-fold.

  16. Affinity Crystallography: A New Approach to Extracting High-Affinity Enzyme Inhibitors from Natural Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguda, Adeleke H; Lavallee, Vincent; Cheng, Ping; Bott, Tina M; Meimetis, Labros G; Law, Simon; Nguyen, Nham T; Williams, David E; Kaleta, Jadwiga; Villanueva, Ivan; Davies, Julian; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Brömme, Dieter

    2016-08-26

    Natural products are an important source of novel drug scaffolds. The highly variable and unpredictable timelines associated with isolating novel compounds and elucidating their structures have led to the demise of exploring natural product extract libraries in drug discovery programs. Here we introduce affinity crystallography as a new methodology that significantly shortens the time of the hit to active structure cycle in bioactive natural product discovery research. This affinity crystallography approach is illustrated by using semipure fractions of an actinomycetes culture extract to isolate and identify a cathepsin K inhibitor and to compare the outcome with the traditional assay-guided purification/structural analysis approach. The traditional approach resulted in the identification of the known inhibitor antipain (1) and its new but lower potency dehydration product 2, while the affinity crystallography approach led to the identification of a new high-affinity inhibitor named lichostatinal (3). The structure and potency of lichostatinal (3) was verified by total synthesis and kinetic characterization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of isolating and characterizing a potent enzyme inhibitor from a partially purified crude natural product extract using a protein crystallographic approach.

  17. HIGH AFFINITY ACYLATING ANTAGONISTS FOR MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgold, Jesse; Karton, Yishai; Malka, Naftali; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The muscarinic antagonists pirenzepine and telenzepine were derivitized as alkylamino derivatives at a site on the molecules corresponding to a region of bulk tolerance in receptor binding. The distal primary amino groups were coupled to the cross-linking reagent meta-phenylene diisothiocyanate, resulting in two isothiocyanate derivatives that were found to inhibit muscarinic receptors irreversibly and in a dose-dependent fashion. Preincubation of rat forebrain membranes with an isothiocyanate derivative followed by radioligand binding using [3H]N-methylscopolamine diminished the Bmax value, but did not affect the Kd value. The receptor binding site was not restored upon repeated washing, indicating that irreversible inhibition had occurred. IC50 values for the irreversible inhibition at rat forebrain muscarinic receptors were 0.15 nM and 0.19 nM, for derivatives of pirenzepine and telenzepine, respectively. The isothiocyanate derivative of pirenzepine was non-selective as an irreversible muscarinic inhibitor, and the corresponding derivative prepared from telenzepine was 5-fold selective for forebrain (mainly m1) vs. heart (m2) muscarinic receptors. PMID:1625525

  18. High Affinity Binding of Indium and Ruthenium Ions by Gastrins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham S Baldwin

    Full Text Available The peptide hormone gastrin binds two ferric ions with high affinity, and iron binding is essential for the biological activity of non-amidated forms of the hormone. Since gastrins act as growth factors in gastrointestinal cancers, and as peptides labelled with Ga and In isotopes are increasingly used for cancer diagnosis, the ability of gastrins to bind other metal ions was investigated systematically by absorption spectroscopy. The coordination structures of the complexes were characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectroscopy. Changes in the absorption of gastrin in the presence of increasing concentrations of Ga3+ were fitted by a 2 site model with dissociation constants (Kd of 3.3 x 10-7 and 1.1 x 10-6 M. Although the absorption of gastrin did not change upon the addition of In3+ ions, the changes in absorbance on Fe3+ ion binding in the presence of indium ions were fitted by a 2 site model with Kd values for In3+ of 6.5 x 10-15 and 1.7 x 10-7 M. Similar results were obtained with Ru3+ ions, although the Kd values for Ru3+ of 2.6 x 10-13 and 1.2 x 10-5 M were slightly larger than observed for In3+. The structures determined by EXAFS all had metal:gastrin stoichiometries of 2:1 but, while the metal ions in the Fe, Ga and In complexes were bridged by a carboxylate and an oxygen with a metal-metal separation of 3.0-3.3 Å, the Ru complex clearly demonstrated a short range Ru-Ru separation, which was significantly shorter, at 2.4 Å, indicative of a metal-metal bond. We conclude that gastrin selectively binds two In3+ or Ru3+ ions, and that the affinity of the first site for In3+ or Ru3+ ions is higher than for ferric ions. Some of the metal ion-gastrin complexes may be useful for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Preferential affinity of /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quazepam for type I benzodiazepine recognition sites in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corda, M.G.; Giorgi, O.; Longoni, B.; Ongini, E.; Montaldo, S.; Biggio, G.

    1988-01-01

    The hypnotic drug quazepam and its active metabolite 2-oxo-quazepam (2-oxo-quaz) are two benzodiazepines (BZ) containing a trifluoroethyl moiety on the ring nitrogen at position 1, characterized by their preferential affinity for Type I BZ recognition sites. In the present study we characterized the binding of /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quaz in discrete areas of the human brain. Saturation analysis demonstrated specific and saturable binding of /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quaz to membrane preparations from human cerebellum. Hill plot analysis of displacement curves of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding by 2-oxo-quaz yielded Hill coefficients of approximately 1 in the cerebellum and significantly less than 1 in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and pons. Self and cross displacement curves for /sup 3/H-FNT and /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quaz binding in these brain areas indicated that 2-oxo-quaz binds with different affinities to two populations of binding sites. High affinity binding sites were more abundant in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus, whereas low affinity sites were predominant in the caudate nucleus and pons. Competition studies of /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quaz and /sup 3/H-FNT using unlabelled ligands indicated that compounds which preferentially bind to Type I sites are more potent at displacing /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quaz than /sup 3/H-FNT from cerebral cortex membrane preparations. 26 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Base-sequence specificity of Hoechst 33258 and DAPI binding to five (A/T)4 DNA sites with kinetic evidence for more than one high-affinity Hoechst 33258-AATT complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breusegem, Sophia Y; Clegg, Robert M; Loontiens, Frank G

    2002-02-01

    The binding of Hoechst 33258 and DAPI to five different (A/T)4 sequences in a stable DNA hairpin was studied exploiting the substantial increase in dye fluorescence upon binding. The two dyes have comparable affinities for the AATT site (e.g. association constant K(a)=5.5 x 10(8) M(-1) for DAPI), and their affinities decrease in the series AATT > TAAT approximately equal to ATAT > TATA approximately equal to TTAA. The extreme values of K(a) differ by a factor of 200 for Hoechst 33258 but only 30 for DAPI. The binding kinetics of Hoechst 33258 were measured by stopped-flow under pseudo-first order conditions with an (A/T)4 site in excess. The lower-resolution experiments can be well represented by single exponential processes, corresponding to a single-step binding mechanism. The calculated association-rate parameters for the five (A/T)4 sites are similar (2.46 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) to 0.86 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1)) and nearly diffusion-controlled, while the dissociation-rate parameters vary from 0.42 s(-1) to 96 s(-1). Thus the association constants are kinetically controlled and are close to their equilibrium-determined values. However, when obtained with increased signal-to-noise ratio, the kinetic traces for Hoechst 33258 binding at the AATT site reveal two components. The concentration dependencies of the two time constants and amplitudes are consistent with two different kinetically equivalent two-step models. In the first model, fast bimolecular binding is followed by an isomerization of the initial complex. In the second model, two single-step associations form two complexes that mutually exclude each other. For both models the four reaction-rate parameters are calculated. Finally, specific dissociation kinetics, using poly[d(A-5BrU)], show that the kinetics are even more complex than either two-step model. We correlate our results with the different binding orientations and locations of Hoechst 33258 in the DNA minor groove found in several structural studies in

  1. Properties of the Affine Invariant Ensemble Sampler in high dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Huijser, David; Brewer, Brendon J

    2015-01-01

    We present theoretical and practical properties of the affine-invariant ensemble sampler Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In high dimensions the affine-invariant ensemble sampler shows unusual and undesirable properties. We demonstrate this with an $n$-dimensional correlated Gaussian toy problem with a known mean and covariance structure, and analyse the burn-in period. The burn-in period seems to be short, however upon closer inspection we discover the mean and the variance of the target distribution do not match the expected, known values. This problem becomes greater as $n$ increases. We therefore conclude that the affine-invariant ensemble sampler should be used with caution in high dimensional problems. We also present some theoretical results explaining this behaviour.

  2. A High-Affinity Metal-Binding Peptide From Escherichia Coli Hypb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, K.C.Chan; Cao, L.; Dias, A.V.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.; Zamble, D.B.

    2009-05-12

    The high-affinity nickel-binding site of the Escherichia coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase accessory protein HypB was localized to residues at the immediate N-terminus of the protein. Modification of a metal-binding fusion protein, site-directed mutagenesis experiments, and DFT calculations were used to identify the N-terminal amine as a ligand as well as the three cysteine residues in the CXXCGCXXX motif. This sequence can be removed from the protein and both a synthesized peptide and a protein fusion bind nickel with a similar affinity and the same structure as the parent metalloprotein, indicating the self-sufficiency of this high-affinity nickel-binding sequence.

  3. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding sites differentiated by their affinity for pirenzepine do not interconvert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, D.W.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1986-05-01

    Although it has been suggested by many investigators that subtypes of muscarinic cholinergic receptors exist, physical studies of solubilized receptors have indicated that only a single molecular species may exist. To test the hypothesis that the putative muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat forebrain are interconvertible states of the same receptor, the selective antagonist pirenzepine (PZ) was used to protect muscarinic receptors from blockade by the irreversible muscarinic receptor antagonist propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PBCM). If interconversion of high (M1) and low (M2) affinity binding sites for PZ occurs, incubation of cerebral cortical membranes with PBCM in the presence of PZ should not alter the proportions of M1 and M2 binding sites that are unalkylated (i.e., protected). If, on the other hand, the binding sites are not interconvertible, PZ should be able to selectively protect M1 sites and alter the proportions of unalkylated M1 and M2 binding sites. In the absence of PZ, treatment of cerebral cortical membranes with 20 nM PBCM at 4 degrees C for 50 min resulted in a 69% reduction in the density of M1 binding sites and a 55% reduction in the density of M2 binding sites with no change in the equilibrium dissociation constants of the radioligands (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate or (/sup 3/H)PZ. The reasons for this somewhat selective effect of PBCM are not apparent. In radioligand binding experiments using cerebral cortical membranes, PZ inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in a biphasic manner.

  4. Tuning the affinity of anion binding sites in porin channels with negatively charged residues: molecular details for OprP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Niraj; Bárcena-Uribarri, Iván; Bains, Manjeet; Benz, Roland; Hancock, Robert E W; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2015-02-20

    The cell envelope of the Gram negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is poorly permeable to many classes of hydrophilic molecules including antibiotics due to the presence of the narrow and selective porins. Here we focused on one of the narrow-channel porins, that is, OprP, which is responsible for the high-affinity uptake of phosphate ions. Its two central binding sites for phosphate contain a number of positively charged amino acids together with a single negatively charged residue (D94). The presence of this negatively charged residue in a binding site for negatively charged phosphate ions is highly surprising due to the potentially reduced binding affinity. The goal of this study was to better understand the role of D94 in phosphate binding, selectivity, and transport using a combination of mutagenesis, electrophysiology, and free-energy calculations. The presence of a negatively charged residue in the binding site is critical for this specific porin OprP as emphasized by the evolutionary conservation of such negatively charged residue in the binding site of several anion-selective porins. Mutations of D94 in OprP to any positively charged or neutral residue increased the binding affinity of phosphate for OprP. Detailed analysis indicated that this anionic residue in the phosphate binding site of OprP, despite its negative charge, maintained energetically favorable phosphate binding sites in the central region of the channel and at the same time decreased residence time thus preventing excessively strong binding of phosphate that would oppose phosphate flux through the channel. Intriguingly mutations of D94 to positively charged residues, lysine and arginine, resulted in very different binding affinities and free energy profiles, indicating the importance of side chain conformations of these positively charged residues in phosphate binding to OprP.

  5. Soybean. beta. -glucan binding sites display maximal affinity for a heptaglucoside phytoalexin-elicitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosio, E.G.; Waldmueller, T.; Frey, T.; Ebel, J. (Biologisches Institut II der Universitat Freiburg (West Germany))

    1990-05-01

    The affinity of soybean {beta}-glucan-binding sites for a synthetic heptaglucan elicitor was tested in a ligand-competition assay against a {sup 125}I-labeled 1,3-1,6-{beta}-glucan preparation (avg. DP=20). Half-maximal displacement of label (IC{sub 50}) was obtained at 9nM heptaglucan, the highest affinity of all fractions tested to date. Displacement followed a uniform sigmoidal pattern and was complete at 1{mu}M indicating access of heptaglucan to all sites available to the labeled elicitor. A mathematical model was used to predict IC{sub 50} values according to the DP of glucan fragments obtained from fungal cell walls. The lowest IC{sub 50} predicted by this model is 3nM. Binding affinity of the glucans was compared with their elicitor activity in a bioassay.

  6. A high-affinity molybdate transporter in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Jiménez, Manuel; Llamas, Angel; Sanz-Luque, Emanuel; Galván, Aurora; Fernández, Emilio

    2007-12-11

    Molybdenum is an essential element for almost all living beings, which, in the form of a molybdopterin-cofactor, participates in the active site of enzymes involved in key reactions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism. This metal is taken up by cells in form of the oxyanion molybdate. Bacteria acquire molybdate by an ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transport system in a widely studied process, but how eukaryotic cells take up molybdenum is unknown because molybdate transporters have not been identified so far. Here, we report a eukaryotic high-affinity molybdate transporter, encoded by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gene MoT1. An antisense RNA strategy over the MoT1 gene showed that interference of the expression of this gene leads to the inhibition of molybdate transport activity and, in turn, of the Mo-containing enzyme nitrate reductase, indicating a function of MoT1 in molybdate transport. MOT1 functionality was also shown by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molybdate uptake mediated by MOT1 showed a K(m) of approximately 6 nM, which is the range of the lowest K(m) values reported and was activated in the presence of nitrate. Analysis of deduced sequence from the putative protein coded by MoT1 showed motifs specifically conserved in similar proteins present in the databases, and defines a family of membrane proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes probably involved in molybdate transport and distantly related to plant sulfate transporters SULTR. These findings represent an important step in the understanding of molybdate transport, a crucial process in eukaryotic cells.

  7. Single-experiment displacement assay for quantifying high-affinity binding by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainer, Georg; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the gold standard for dissecting the thermodynamics of a biomolecular binding process within a single experiment. However, reliable determination of the dissociation constant (KD) from a single titration is typically limited to the range 100 μM>KD>1 nM. Interactions characterized by a lower KD can be assessed indirectly by so-called competition or displacement assays, provided that a suitable competitive ligand is available whose KD falls within the directly accessible window. However, this protocol is limited by the fact that it necessitates at least two titrations to characterize one high-affinity inhibitor, resulting in considerable consumption of both sample material and time. Here, we introduce a fast and efficient ITC displacement assay that allows for the simultaneous characterization of both a high-affinity ligand and a moderate-affinity ligand competing for the same binding site on a receptor within a single experiment. The protocol is based on a titration of the high-affinity ligand into a solution containing the moderate-affinity ligand bound to the receptor present in excess. The resulting biphasic binding isotherm enables accurate and precise determination of KD values and binding enthalpies (ΔH) of both ligands. We discuss the theoretical background underlying the approach, demonstrate its practical application to metal ion chelation, explore its potential and limitations with the aid of simulations and statistical analyses, and elaborate on potential applications to protein-inhibitor interactions.

  8. Active site - a site of binding of affinity inhibitors in baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svyato, I.E.; Sklyankina, V.A.; Avaeva, S.M.

    1986-03-20

    The interaction of the enzyme-substrate complex with methyl phosphate, O-phosphoethanolamine, O-phosphopropanolamine, N-acetylphosphoserine, and phosphoglyolic acid, as well as pyrophosphatase, modified by monoesters of phosphoric acid, with pyrophosphate and tripolyphosphate, was investigated. It was shown that the enzyme containing the substrate in the active site does not react with monophosphates, but modified pyrophosphatase entirely retains the ability to bind polyanions to the regulatory site. It is concluded that the inactivation of baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase by monoesters of phosphoric acid, which are affinity inhibitors of it, is the result of modification of the active site of the enzyme.

  9. Relating the shape of protein binding sites to binding affinity profiles: is there an association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitter István

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various pattern-based methods exist that use in vitro or in silico affinity profiles for classification and functional examination of proteins. Nevertheless, the connection between the protein affinity profiles and the structural characteristics of the binding sites is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association between virtual drug screening results (calculated binding free energy values and the geometry of protein binding sites. Molecular Affinity Fingerprints (MAFs were determined for 154 proteins based on their molecular docking energy results for 1,255 FDA-approved drugs. Protein binding site geometries were characterized by 420 PocketPicker descriptors. The basic underlying component structure of MAFs and binding site geometries, respectively, were examined by principal component analysis; association between principal components extracted from these two sets of variables was then investigated by canonical correlation and redundancy analyses. Results PCA analysis of the MAF variables provided 30 factors which explained 71.4% of the total variance of the energy values while 13 factors were obtained from the PocketPicker descriptors which cumulatively explained 94.1% of the total variance. Canonical correlation analysis resulted in 3 statistically significant canonical factor pairs with correlation values of 0.87, 0.84 and 0.77, respectively. Redundancy analysis indicated that PocketPicker descriptor factors explain 6.9% of the variance of the MAF factor set while MAF factors explain 15.9% of the total variance of PocketPicker descriptor factors. Based on the salient structures of the factor pairs, we identified a clear-cut association between the shape and bulkiness of the drug molecules and the protein binding site descriptors. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate complex multivariate associations between affinity profiles and the geometric properties of protein binding sites. We found that

  10. Taking Advantage: High Affinity B cells in the Germinal Center Have Lower Death Rates, But Similar Rates of Division Compared to Low Affinity Cells1

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    B lymphocytes producing high affinity antibodies (Abs) are critical for protection from extracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and parasites. The process by which high affinity B cells are selected during the immune response has never been elucidated. Though it has been shown that high affinity cells directly outcompete low affinity cells in the germinal center (GC)2, whether there are also intrinsic differences between these cells has not been addressed. It could be that higher affinity c...

  11. Label-free microscale thermophoresis discriminates sites and affinity of protein-ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Susanne A I; Wienken, Christoph J; Geissler, Sandra; Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Duhr, Stefan; Reiter, Alwin; Trauner, Dirk; Braun, Dieter; Baaske, Philipp

    2012-10-15

    Look, no label! Microscale thermophoresis makes use of the intrinsic fluorescence of proteins to quantify the binding affinities of ligands and discriminate between binding sites. This method is suitable for studying binding interactions of very small amounts of protein in solution. The binding of ligands to iGluR membrane receptors, small-molecule inhibitorss to kinase p38, aptamers to thrombin, and Ca(2+) ions to synaptotagmin was quantified.

  12. A High-Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles Gambiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Cassera; M Ho; E Merino; E Burgos; A Rinaldo-Matthis; S Almo; V Schramm

    2011-12-31

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (K{sub m} = 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site, but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap{sub 4}A (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine and ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg{sup 2+} ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight binding for adenosine arise from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168, and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64, and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to that of human adenosine kinase (48% identical) than to that of AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identical). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role for this enzyme in the maintenance of the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects.

  13. 01-ERD-111 - The Development of Synthetic High Affinity Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J; Balhorn, R; Cosman, M; Lightstone, F; Zeller, L

    2004-02-05

    The aim of this project was to develop Synthetic High-Affinity Ligands (SHALs), which bind with high affinity and specificity to proteins of interest for national security and cancer therapy applications. The aim of producing synthetic ligands for sensory devices as an alternative to antibody-based detection assays and therapeutic agents is to overcome the drawbacks associated with antibody-based in next-generation sensors and systems. The focus area of the project was the chemical synthesis of the SHALs. The project concentrated on two different protein targets. (a) The C fragment of tetanus and botulinum toxin, potential biowarfare agents. A SHAL for tetanus or botulinum toxin would be incorporated into a sensory device for the toxins. (b) HLA-DR10, a protein found in high abundance on the surface of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma. A SHAL specific to a tumor marker, labeled with a radionuclide, would enable the targeted delivery of radiation therapy to metastatic disease. The technical approach used to develop a SHAL for each protein target will be described in more detail below. However, in general, the development of a SHAL requires a combination of computational modeling techniques, modern nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and synthetic chemistry.

  14. The Structure of a High-Affinity Kainate Receptor: GluK4 Ligand-Binding Domain Crystallized with Kainate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Ole; Kristensen, Lise Baadsgaard; Møllerud, Stine; Frydenvang, Karla; Pickering, Darryl S; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm

    2016-09-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors play a key role in fast neurotransmission in the CNS and have been linked to several neurological diseases and disorders. One subfamily is the kainate receptors, which are grouped into low-affinity (GluK1-3) and high-affinity (GluK4-5) receptors based on their affinity for kainate. Although structures of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of all low-affinity kainate receptors have been reported, no structures of the high-affinity receptor subunits are available. Here, we present the X-ray structure of GluK4-LBD with kainate at 2.05 Å resolution, together with thermofluor and radiolabel binding affinity data. Whereas binding-site residues in GluK4 are most similar to the AMPA receptor subfamily, the domain closure and D1-D2 interlobe contacts induced by kainate are similar to the low-affinity kainate receptor GluK1. These observations provide a likely explanation for the high binding affinity of kainate at GluK4-LBD.

  15. Detection of Waterborne Viruses Using High Affinity Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Zeynep; Gittens, Micah; Guerreiro, Antonio; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Walker, Jimmy; Piletsky, Sergey; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2015-07-07

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are artificial receptor ligands which can recognize and specifically bind to a target molecule. They are more resistant to chemical and biological damage and inactivation than antibodies. Therefore, target specific-MIP nanoparticles are aimed to develop and implemented to biosensors for the detection of biological toxic agents such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi toxins that cause many diseases and death due to the environmental contamination. For the first time, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) targeting the bacteriophage MS2 as the template was investigated using a novel solid-phase synthesis method to obtain the artificial affinity ligand for the detection and removal of waterborne viruses through optical-based sensors. A high affinity between the artificial ligand and the target was found, and a regenerative MIP-based virus detection assay was successfully developed using a new surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-biosensor which provides an alternative technology for the specific detection and removal of waterborne viruses that lead to high disease and death rates all over the world.

  16. Reconstitution of high-affinity opioid agonist binding in brain membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmers, A.E.; Medzihradsky, F. (Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1991-03-15

    In synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex, the {mu} selective agonist ({sup 3}H)dihydromorphine in the absence of sodium, and the nonselective antagonist ({sup 3}H)naltrexone in the presence of sodium, bound to two populations of opioid receptor sites with K{sub d} values of 0.69 and 8.7 nM for dihydromorphine, and 0.34 and 5.5 nM for naltrexone. The addition of 5 {mu}M guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}S)) strongly reduced high-affinity agonist but not antagonist binding. Exposure of the membranes to high pH reduced the number of GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding sites by 90% and low K{sub m}, opioid-sensitive GTPase activity by 95%. In these membranes, high-affinity agonist binding was abolished and modulation of residual binding by GTP({gamma}S) was diminished. Alkali treatment of the glioma cell membranes prior to fusion inhibited most of the low K{sub m} GTPase activity and prevented the reconstitution of agonist binding. The results show that high-affinity opioid agonist binding reflects the ligand-occupied receptor - guanine nucleotide binding protein complex.

  17. Global Geometric Affinity for Revealing High Fidelity Protein Interaction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Benjamin, William; Sun, Mengtian; Ramani, Karthik

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis presents an essential role in understanding the functional relationship among proteins in a living biological system. Despite the success of current approaches for understanding the PPI network, the large fraction of missing and spurious PPIs and a low coverage of complete PPI network are the sources of major concern. In this paper, based on the diffusion process, we propose a new concept of global geometric affinity and an accompanying computational scheme to filter the uncertain PPIs, namely, reduce the spurious PPIs and recover the missing PPIs in the network. The main concept defines a diffusion process in which all proteins simultaneously participate to define a similarity metric (global geometric affinity (GGA)) to robustly reflect the internal connectivity among proteins. The robustness of the GGA is attributed to propagating the local connectivity to a global representation of similarity among proteins in a diffusion process. The propagation process is extremely fast as only simple matrix products are required in this computation process and thus our method is geared toward applications in high-throughput PPI networks. Furthermore, we proposed two new approaches that determine the optimal geometric scale of the PPI network and the optimal threshold for assigning the PPI from the GGA matrix. Our approach is tested with three protein-protein interaction networks and performs well with significant random noises of deletions and insertions in true PPIs. Our approach has the potential to benefit biological experiments, to better characterize network data sets, and to drive new discoveries. PMID:21559288

  18. Generation of high-performance binding proteins for peptide motifs by affinity clamping

    OpenAIRE

    Koide, Shohei; Huang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    We describe concepts and methodologies for generating “Affinity Clamps”, a new class of recombinant binding proteins that achieve high affinity and high specificity toward short peptide motifs of biological importance, which is a major challenge in protein engineering. The Affinity Clamping concept exploits the potential of nonhomologous recombination of protein domains in generating large changes in protein function and the inherent binding affinity and specificity of the so-called modular i...

  19. The high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor as pharmacological target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Ulrich; Charles, Nicolas; Benhamou, Marc

    2016-05-05

    The high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E is expressed mainly on mast cells and basophils, but also on neutrophils, eosinophils, platelets, monocytes, Langerhans and dendritic cells, airway smooth muscle cells and some nerve cells. Its main function is, upon its engagement by IgE and specific antigen, to trigger a powerful defense against invading pathogens and a rapid neutralization of dangerous toxic substances introduced in the body. This powerful response could be wielded against tumors. But, when control over this receptor is lost, its unchecked activation can induce an array of diseases, some of which can lead to death. In this review we will summarize the pharmacological approaches and strategies that are currently used, or under study, to harness or wield activation of this receptor for therapeutic purposes.

  20. Taking advantage: high-affinity B cells in the germinal center have lower death rates, but similar rates of division, compared to low-affinity cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Shannon M; Khalil, Ashraf; Uduman, Mohamed; Hershberg, Uri; Louzoun, Yoram; Haberman, Ann M; Kleinstein, Steven H; Shlomchik, Mark J

    2009-12-01

    B lymphocytes producing high-affinity Abs are critical for protection from extracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and parasites. The process by which high-affinity B cells are selected during the immune response has never been elucidated. Although it has been shown that high-affinity cells directly outcompete low-affinity cells in the germinal center (GC), whether there are also intrinsic differences between these cells has not been addressed. It could be that higher affinity cells proliferate more rapidly or are more likely to enter cell cycle, thereby outgrowing lower affinity cells. Alternatively, higher affinity cells could be relatively more resistant to cell death in the GC. By comparing high- and low-affinity B cells for the same Ag, we show here that low-affinity cells have an intrinsically higher death rate than do cells of higher affinity, even in the absence of competition. This suggests that selection in the GC reaction is due at least in part to the control of survival of higher affinity B cells and not by a proliferative advantage conferred upon these cells compared with lower affinity B cells. Control over survival rather than proliferation of low- and high-affinity B cells in the GC allows greater diversity not only in the primary response but also in the memory response.

  1. High-affinity accumulation of a maytansinoid in cells via weak tubulin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmacher, Victor S; Audette, Charlene A; Guan, Yinghua; Sidhom, Eriene-Heidi; Shah, Jagesh V; Whiteman, Kathleen R; Kovtun, Yelena V

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule-targeting maytansinoids accumulate in cells and induce mitotic arrest at 250- to 1000-fold lower concentrations than those required for their association with tubulin or microtubules. To identify the mechanisms of this intracellular accumulation and exceptional cytotoxicity of maytansinoids we studied interaction of a highly cytotoxic maytansinoid, S-methyl DM1 and several other maytansinoids with cells. S-methyl DM1 accumulated inside the cells with a markedly higher apparent affinity than to tubulin or microtubules. The apparent affinities of maytansinoids correlated with their cytotoxicities. The number of intracellular binding sites for S-methyl DM1 in MCF7 cells was comparable to the number of tubulin molecules per cell (~ 4-6 × 10(7) copies). Efflux of 3[H]-S-methyl DM1 from cells was enhanced in the presence of an excess of non-labeled S-methyl DM1, indicating that re-binding of 3 [H]-S-methyl DM1 to intracellular binding sites contributed to its intracellular retention. Liposomes loaded with non-polymerized tubulin recapitulated the apparent high-affinity association of S-methyl DM1 to cells. We propose a model for the intracellular accumulation of maytansinoids in which molecules of the compounds diffuse into a cell and associate with tubulin. Affinities of maytansinoids for individual tubulin molecules are weak, but the high intracellular concentration of tubulin favors, after dissociation of a compound-tubulin complex, their re-binding to a tubulin molecule, or to a tip of a microtubule in the same cell, over their efflux. As a result, a significant fraction of microtubule tips is occupied with a maytansinoid when added to cells at sub-nanomolar concentrations, inducing mitotic arrest and cell death.

  2. Development and characterization of high affinity leptins and leptin antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilman, Michal; Niv-Spector, Leonora; Katz, Meirav; Varol, Chen; Solomon, Gili; Ayalon-Soffer, Michal; Boder, Eric; Halpern, Zamir; Elinav, Eran; Gertler, Arieh

    2011-02-11

    Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone acting both centrally and peripherally. It participates in a variety of biological processes, including energy metabolism, reproduction, and modulation of the immune response. So far, structural elements affecting leptin binding to its receptor remain unknown. We employed random mutagenesis of leptin, followed by selection of high affinity mutants by yeast surface display and discovered that replacing residue Asp-23 with a non-negatively charged amino acid leads to dramatically enhanced affinity of leptin for its soluble receptor. Rational mutagenesis of Asp-23 revealed the D23L substitution to be most effective. Coupling the Asp-23 mutation with alanine mutagenesis of three amino acids (L39A/D40A/F41A) previously reported to convert leptin into antagonist resulted in potent antagonistic activity. These novel superactive mouse and human leptin antagonists (D23L/L39A/D40A/F41A), termed SMLA and SHLA, respectively, exhibited over 60-fold increased binding to leptin receptor and 14-fold higher antagonistic activity in vitro relative to the L39A/D40A/F41A mutants. To prolong and enhance in vivo activity, SMLA and SHLA were monopegylated mainly at the N terminus. Administration of the pegylated SMLA to mice resulted in a remarkably rapid, significant, and reversible 27-fold more potent increase in body weight (as compared with pegylated mouse leptin antagonist), because of increased food consumption. Thus, recognition and mutagenesis of Asp-23 enabled construction of novel compounds that induce potent and reversible central and peripheral leptin deficiency. In addition to enhancing our understanding of leptin interactions with its receptor, these antagonists enable in vivo study of the role of leptin in metabolic and immune processes and hold potential for future therapeutic use in disease pathologies involving leptin.

  3. Development and Characterization of High Affinity Leptins and Leptin Antagonists*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilman, Michal; Niv-Spector, Leonora; Katz, Meirav; Varol, Chen; Solomon, Gili; Ayalon-Soffer, Michal; Boder, Eric; Halpern, Zamir; Elinav, Eran; Gertler, Arieh

    2011-01-01

    Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone acting both centrally and peripherally. It participates in a variety of biological processes, including energy metabolism, reproduction, and modulation of the immune response. So far, structural elements affecting leptin binding to its receptor remain unknown. We employed random mutagenesis of leptin, followed by selection of high affinity mutants by yeast surface display and discovered that replacing residue Asp-23 with a non-negatively charged amino acid leads to dramatically enhanced affinity of leptin for its soluble receptor. Rational mutagenesis of Asp-23 revealed the D23L substitution to be most effective. Coupling the Asp-23 mutation with alanine mutagenesis of three amino acids (L39A/D40A/F41A) previously reported to convert leptin into antagonist resulted in potent antagonistic activity. These novel superactive mouse and human leptin antagonists (D23L/L39A/D40A/F41A), termed SMLA and SHLA, respectively, exhibited over 60-fold increased binding to leptin receptor and 14-fold higher antagonistic activity in vitro relative to the L39A/D40A/F41A mutants. To prolong and enhance in vivo activity, SMLA and SHLA were monopegylated mainly at the N terminus. Administration of the pegylated SMLA to mice resulted in a remarkably rapid, significant, and reversible 27-fold more potent increase in body weight (as compared with pegylated mouse leptin antagonist), because of increased food consumption. Thus, recognition and mutagenesis of Asp-23 enabled construction of novel compounds that induce potent and reversible central and peripheral leptin deficiency. In addition to enhancing our understanding of leptin interactions with its receptor, these antagonists enable in vivo study of the role of leptin in metabolic and immune processes and hold potential for future therapeutic use in disease pathologies involving leptin. PMID:21119198

  4. Thermodynamics of Calcium binding to the Calmodulin N-terminal domain to evaluate site-specific affinity constants and cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccia, Maria Rosa; Sauge-Merle, Sandrine; Lemaire, David; Brémond, Nicolas; Pardoux, Romain; Blangy, Stéphanie; Guilbaud, Philippe; Berthomieu, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is an essential Ca(II)-dependent regulator of cell physiology. To understand its interaction with Ca(II) at a molecular level, it is essential to examine Ca(II) binding at each site of the protein, even if it is challenging to estimate the site-specific binding properties of the interdependent CaM-binding sites. In this study, we evaluated the site-specific Ca(II)-binding affinity of sites I and II of the N-terminal domain by combining site-directed mutagenesis and spectrofluorimetry. The mutations had very low impact on the protein structure and stability. We used these binding constants to evaluate the inter-site cooperativity energy and compared it with its lower limit value usually reported in the literature. We found that site I affinity for Ca(II) was 1.5 times that of site II and that cooperativity induced an approximately tenfold higher affinity for the second Ca(II)-binding event, as compared to the first one. We further showed that insertion of a tryptophan at position 7 of site II binding loop significantly increased site II affinity for Ca(II) and the intra-domain cooperativity. ΔH and ΔS parameters were studied by isothermal titration calorimetry for Ca(II) binding to site I, site II and to the entire N-terminal domain. They showed that calcium binding is mainly entropy driven for the first and second binding events. These findings provide molecular information on the structure-affinity relationship of the individual sites of the CaM N-terminal domain and new perspectives for the optimization of metal ion binding by mutating the EF-hand loops sequences.

  5. Occurrence of an Affinity Site apart from the Active Site on the Raw-Starch-Digesting but Non-Raw-Starch-Adsorbable Bacillus subtilis 65 α-Amylase

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashida, Shinsaku; Teramoto, Yuji; Inoue, Takehiro; MITSUIKI, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    α-Cyclodextrin specifically inhibited raw starch digestion by Bacillus subtilis 65 α-amylase. The raw starch digestibility and α-cyclodextrin-Sepharose 6B adsorbability of this α-amylase were simultaneously lost when the specific domain corresponding to the affinity site essential for raw starch digestion was deleted by proteolysis. Occurrence of the affinity site on raw-starch-digesting enzymes was proven also with bacterial amylase.

  6. Novel high-affinity and selective biaromatic 4-substituted ¿-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) analogues as GHB ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Signe; Wellendorph, Petrine; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a metabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and has been proposed to function as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. GHB is used in the treatment of narcolepsy and is a drug of abuse. GHB binds to both GABA(B) receptors and specific high-affinity GHB sites...

  7. Low affinity Ca2+-binding sites of calcineurin B mediate conformational changes in calcineurin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S A; Klee, C B

    2000-12-26

    Limited proteolysis of calcineurin in the presence of Ca(2+) suggested that its calmodulin-binding domain, readily degraded by proteases, was unfolded while calcineurin B was compactly folded [Hubbard, M. J., and Klee, C. B. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 1868-1874]. Moreover, in the crystal structure of calcineurin, with the four Ca(2+) sites of calcineurin B occupied, the calmodulin-binding domain is not visible in the electron density map [Kissinger, C. R., et al. (1995) Nature 378, 641-644]. Limited proteolysis of calcineurin in the presence of EGTA, shows that, when the low affinity sites of calcineurin B are not occupied, the calmodulin-binding domain is completely protected against proteolytic attack. Slow cleavages are, however, detected in the linker region between the calmodulin-binding and the autoinhibitory domains of calcineurin A. Upon prolonged exposure to the protease, selective cleavages in carboxyl-terminal end of the first helix and the central helix linker of calcineurin B and the calcineurin B-binding helix of calcineurin A are also detected. Thus, Ca(2+) binding to the low-affinity sites of calcineurin B affects the conformation of calcineurin B and induces a conformational change of the regulatory domain of calcineurin A, resulting in the exposure of the calmodulin-binding domain. This conformational change is needed for the partial activation of the enzyme in the absence of calmodulin and its full activation by calmodulin. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the calmodulin-binding domain is shown to interact with a peptide corresponding to the calcineurin B-binding domain, and this interaction is prevented by calcineurin B in the presence but not the absence of Ca(2+). These observations provide a mechanism to explain the dependence on Ca(2+) binding to calcineurin B for calmodulin activation and for the 10-20-fold increase in affinity of calcineurin for Ca(2+) upon removal of the regulatory domain by limited proteolysis [Stemmer, P. M., and Klee

  8. DNA condensation by high-affinity interaction with avidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morpurgo, Margherita; Radu, Aurelian; Bayer, Edward A; Wilchek, Meir

    2004-01-01

    Avidin, the basic biotin-binding glycoprotein from chicken egg white, is known to interact with DNA, whereas streptavidin, its neutral non-glycosylated bacterial analog, does not. In the present study we investigated the DNA-binding properties of avidin. Its affinity for DNA in the presence and absence of biotin was compared with that of other positively charged molecules, namely the protein lysozyme, the cationic polymers polylysine and polyarginine and an avidin derivative with higher isoelectric point (pI approximately 11) in which most of the lysine residues were converted to homoarginines. Gel-shift assays, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering experiments demonstrated an unexpectedly strong interaction between avidin and DNA. The most pronounced gel-shift retardation occurred with the avidin-biotin complex, followed by avidin alone and then guanidylated avidin. Furthermore, ultrastructural and light-scattering studies showed that avidin assembles on the DNA molecule in an organized manner. The assembly leads to the formation of nanoparticles that are about 50-100 nm in size (DNA approximately 5 kb) and have a rod-like or toroidal shape. In these particles the DNA is highly condensed and one avidin is bound to each 18 +/- 4 DNA base pairs. The complexes are very stable even at high dilution ([DNA] =10 pM) and are not disrupted in the presence of buffers or salt (up to 200 mM NaCl). The other positively charged molecules also condense DNA and form particles with a globular shape. However, in this case, these particles disassemble by dilution or in the presence of low salt concentration. The results indicate that the interaction of avidin with DNA may also occur under physiological conditions, further enhanced by the presence of biotin. This DNA-binding property of avidin may thus shed light on a potentially new physiological role for the protein in its natural environment.

  9. Purification of capping protein using the capping protein binding site of CARMIL as an affinity matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmert, Kirsten; Uruno, Takehito; Hammer, John A

    2009-10-01

    Capping protein (CP) is a ubiquitously expressed, heterodimeric actin binding protein that is essential for normal actin dynamics in cells. The existing methods for purifying native CP from tissues and recombinant CP from bacteria are time-consuming processes that involve numerous conventional chromatographic steps and functional assays to achieve a homogeneous preparation of the protein. Here, we report the rapid purification of Acanthamoeba CP from amoeba extracts and recombinant mouse CP from E. coli extracts using as an affinity matrix GST-fusion proteins containing the CP binding site from Acanthamoeba CARMIL and mouse CARMIL-1, respectively. This improved method for CP purification should facilitate the in vitro analysis of CP structure, function, and regulation.

  10. Peptide array-based characterization and design of ZnO-high affinity peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Mina; Sugita, Tomoya; Furusawa, Seiji; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Adschiri, Tadafumi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-15

    Peptides with both an affinity for ZnO and the ability to generate ZnO nanoparticles have attracted attention for the self-assembly and templating of nanoscale building blocks under ambient conditions with compositional uniformity. In this study, we have analyzed the specific binding sites of the ZnO-binding peptide, EAHVMHKVAPRP, which was identified using a phage display peptide library. The peptide binding assay against ZnO nanoparticles was performed using peptides synthesized on a cellulose membrane using the spot method. Using randomized rotation of amino acids in the ZnO-binding peptide, 125 spot-synthesized peptides were assayed. The peptide binding activity against ZnO nanoparticles varied greatly. This indicates that ZnO binding does not depend on total hydrophobicity or other physical parameters of these peptides, but rather that ZnO recognizes the specific amino acid alignment of these peptides. In addition, several peptides were found to show higher binding ability compared with that of the original peptides. Identification of important binding sites in the EAHVMHKVAPRP peptide was investigated by shortened, stepwise sequence from both termini. Interestingly, two ZnO-binding sites were found as 6-mer peptides: HVMHKV and HKVAPR. The peptides identified by amino acid substitution of HKVAPR were found to show high affinity and specificity for ZnO nanoparticles.

  11. Affinity polymers tailored for the protein A binding site of immunoglobulin G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latza, Patricia; Gilles, Patrick; Schaller, Torsten; Schrader, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Rational design in combination with a screening process was used to develop affinity polymers for a specific binding site on the surface of immunoglobulin G (IgG) proteins. The concept starts with the identification of critical amino acid residues on the protein interface and their topological arrangement. Appropriate binding monomers were subsequently synthesized. Together with a sugar monomer (2-5 equiv) for water solubility and a dansyl monomer (0.5 equiv) as a fluorescent label, they were subjected in aqueous solution to linear radical copolymerization in various compositions (e.g., azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), homogeneous water/DMF mixtures). After ultrafiltration and lyophilization, colorless dry water-soluble powders were obtained. NMR spectroscopic and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) characterization indicated molecular weights between 30 and 500 kD and confirmed retention of monomer composition as well as the absence of monomers. In a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screen of the polymer libraries (20-50 members), few copolymers qualified as strong and selective binders for the protein A binding site on the Fc fragment of the antibody. Their monomer composition precisely reflected the critical amino acids found at the interface. The simple combination of a charged and a nonpolar binding monomer sufficed for selective submicromolar IgG recognition by the synthetic polymer. Affinities were confirmed by fluorescence titrations; they increased with decreasing salt load but remained largely unaltered at lowered pH. Other proteins, including those of similar size and isoelectric point (pI), were bound 10-1000 times less tightly. This example indicates that interaction domains in other proteins may also be targeted by synthetic polymers if their comonomer composition reflects the nature and arrangement of amino acid residues on the protein surface.

  12. A Novel Recombinant DNA System for High Efficiency Affinity Purification of Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Carrick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of endogenous proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been facilitated by inserting encoding polypeptide affinity tags at the C-termini of chromosomal open reading frames (ORFs using homologous recombination of DNA fragments. Tagged protein isolation is limited by a number of factors, including high cost of affinity resins for bulk isolation and low concentration of ligands on the resin surface, leading to low isolation efficiencies and trapping of contaminants. To address this, we have created a recombinant “CelTag” DNA construct from which PCR fragments can be created to easily tag C-termini of S. cerevisiae ORFs using selection for a nat1 marker. The tag has a C-terminal cellulose binding module to be used in the first affinity step. Microgranular cellulose is very inexpensive and has an effectively continuous ligand on its surface, allowing rapid, highly efficient purification with minimal background. Cellulose-bound proteins are released by specific cleavage of an included site for TEV protease, giving nearly pure product. The tag can be lifted from the recombinant DNA construct either with or without a 13x myc epitope tag between the target ORF and the TEV protease site. Binding of CelTag protein fusions to cellulose is stable to high salt, nonionic detergents, and 1 M urea, allowing stringent washing conditions to remove loosely associated components, as needed, before specific elution. It is anticipated that this reagent could allow isolation of protein complexes from large quantities of yeast extract, including soluble, membrane-bound, or nucleic acid-associated assemblies.

  13. A Novel Recombinant DNA System for High Efficiency Affinity Purification of Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Brian H; Hao, Linxuan; Smaldino, Philip J; Engelke, David R

    2015-12-29

    Isolation of endogenous proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been facilitated by inserting encoding polypeptide affinity tags at the C-termini of chromosomal open reading frames (ORFs) using homologous recombination of DNA fragments. Tagged protein isolation is limited by a number of factors, including high cost of affinity resins for bulk isolation and low concentration of ligands on the resin surface, leading to low isolation efficiencies and trapping of contaminants. To address this, we have created a recombinant "CelTag" DNA construct from which PCR fragments can be created to easily tag C-termini of S. cerevisiae ORFs using selection for a nat1 marker. The tag has a C-terminal cellulose binding module to be used in the first affinity step. Microgranular cellulose is very inexpensive and has an effectively continuous ligand on its surface, allowing rapid, highly efficient purification with minimal background. Cellulose-bound proteins are released by specific cleavage of an included site for TEV protease, giving nearly pure product. The tag can be lifted from the recombinant DNA construct either with or without a 13x myc epitope tag between the target ORF and the TEV protease site. Binding of CelTag protein fusions to cellulose is stable to high salt, nonionic detergents, and 1 M urea, allowing stringent washing conditions to remove loosely associated components, as needed, before specific elution. It is anticipated that this reagent could allow isolation of protein complexes from large quantities of yeast extract, including soluble, membrane-bound, or nucleic acid-associated assemblies.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of high affinity Σ1 receptor selective compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Robert R; Perez, Evelyn; Yang, Shao-Hua; Liu, Ran; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Tu, Zhude; Mach, Robert H; Simpkins, James W

    2012-03-02

    We previously reported that the antipsychotic drug haloperidol, a multifunctional D2-like dopamine and sigma receptor subtype antagonist, has neuroprotective properties. In this study we further examined the association between neuroprotection and receptor antagonism by evaluating a panel of novel compounds with varying affinity at sigma and D2-like dopamine receptors. These compounds were evaluated using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay that utilizes a hippocampal-derived cell line, HT-22, in the presence or absence of varying concentrations (5 to 20 mM) of glutamate. While haloperidol was found to be a potent neuroprotective agent in this in vitro cell assay, the prototypic sigma 1 receptor agonist (+)-pentazocine was found not to be neuroprotective. Subsequently, the potency for the neuroprotection of HT-22 cells was evaluated for a) three SV series indoles which have nMolar affinity at D2-like receptors but varying affinity at sigma 1 receptor and b) two benzyl phenylacetamides sigma 1 receptor selective compounds which bind with low affinity at D2-like receptors but have nMolar affinity for the sigma 1 receptor. We observed that cytoprotection correlated with the affinity of the compounds for sigma 1 receptors. Based upon results from the HT-22 cell-based in vitro assay, two phenylacetamides, LS-127 and LS-137, were further evaluated in vivo using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (t-MCAO) model of stroke. At a dose of 100 μg/kg, both LS-127 and LS-137 attenuated infarct volume by approximately 50%. These studies provide further evidence that sigma 1 receptor selective compounds can provide neuroprotection in cytotoxic situations. These results also demonstrate that sigma 1 receptor selective benzyl phenylacetamides are candidate pharmacotherapeutic agents that could be used to minimize neuronal death after a stroke or head trauma.

  15. Shark Attack: high affinity binding proteins derived from shark vNAR domains by stepwise in vitro affinity maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Stefan; Weber, Niklas; Becker, Stefan; Doerner, Achim; Christmann, Andreas; Christmann, Christine; Uth, Christina; Fritz, Janine; Schäfer, Elena; Steinmann, Björn; Empting, Martin; Ockelmann, Pia; Lierz, Michael; Kolmar, Harald

    2014-12-10

    A novel method for stepwise in vitro affinity maturation of antigen-specific shark vNAR domains is described that exclusively relies on semi-synthetic repertoires derived from non-immunized sharks. Target-specific molecules were selected from a CDR3-randomized bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) vNAR library using yeast surface display as platform technology. Various antigen-binding vNAR domains were easily isolated by screening against several therapeutically relevant antigens, including the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), the Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2), and the human serine protease HTRA1. Affinity maturation was demonstrated for EpCAM and HTRA1 by diversifying CDR1 of target-enriched populations which allowed for the rapid selection of nanomolar binders. EpCAM-specific vNAR molecules were produced as soluble proteins and more extensively characterized via thermal shift assays and biolayer interferometry. Essentially, we demonstrate that high-affinity binders can be generated in vitro without largely compromising the desirable high thermostability of the vNAR scaffold.

  16. High- and low-affinity binding of S-citalopram to the human serotonin transporter mutated at 20 putatively important amino acid positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, Per; Wiborg, Ove

    2005-01-01

    of presumed importance. Binding of S-citalopram, both to the high-affinity-binding site and to the allosteric binding site, was measured in these mutants with the purpose of investigating the connection between the two binding sites. The amino acid substitutions did not introduce large changes in the two...

  17. SNP2TFBS – a database of regulatory SNPs affecting predicted transcription factor binding site affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Ambrosini, Giovanna; Bucher, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    SNP2TFBS is a computational resource intended to support researchers investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory variation in the human genome. The database essentially consists of a collection of text files providing specific annotations for human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely whether they are predicted to abolish, create or change the affinity of one or several transcription factor (TF) binding sites. A SNP's effect on TF binding is estimated based on a position weight matrix (PWM) model for the binding specificity of the corresponding factor. These data files are regenerated at regular intervals by an automatic procedure that takes as input a reference genome, a comprehensive SNP catalogue and a collection of PWMs. SNP2TFBS is also accessible over a web interface, enabling users to view the information provided for an individual SNP, to extract SNPs based on various search criteria, to annotate uploaded sets of SNPs or to display statistics about the frequencies of binding sites affected by selected SNPs. Homepage: http://ccg.vital-it.ch/snp2tfbs/. PMID:27899579

  18. Describing high-dimensional dynamics with low-dimensional piecewise affine models: applications to renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a low-dimensional description for a high-dimensional system, which is a piecewise affine model whose state space is divided by permutations. We show that the proposed model tends to predict wind speeds and photovoltaic outputs for the time scales from seconds to 100 s better than by global affine models. In addition, computations using the piecewise affine model are much faster than those of usual nonlinear models such as radial basis function models.

  19. Characterization of high affinity binding motifs for the discoidin domain receptor DDR2 in collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konitsiotis, Antonios D; Raynal, Nicolas; Bihan, Dominique; Hohenester, Erhard; Farndale, Richard W; Leitinger, Birgit

    2008-03-14

    The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, are receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by native triple-helical collagen. Here we have located three specific DDR2 binding sites by screening the entire triple-helical domain of collagen II, using the Collagen II Toolkit, a set of overlapping triple-helical peptides. The peptide sequence that bound DDR2 with highest affinity interestingly contained the sequence for the high affinity binding site for von Willebrand factor in collagen III. Focusing on this sequence, we used a set of truncated and alanine-substituted peptides to characterize the sequence GVMGFO (O is hydroxyproline) as the minimal collagen sequence required for DDR2 binding. Based on a recent NMR analysis of the DDR2 collagen binding domain, we generated a model of the DDR2-collagen interaction that explains why a triple-helical conformation is required for binding. Triple-helical peptides comprising the DDR2 binding motif not only inhibited DDR2 binding to collagen II but also activated DDR2 transmembrane signaling. Thus, DDR2 activation may be effected by single triple-helices rather than fibrillar collagen.

  20. α4βδ GABA receptors are high-affinity targets for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absalom, N.; Karim, N.; Eghorn, L.F.;

    2012-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) binding to brain-specific high-affinity sites is well-established and proposed to explain both physiological and pharmacological actions. However, the mechanistic links between these lines of data are unknown. To identify molecular targets for specific GHB high-affinit...... and physiology. This finding will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the proposed function of GHB as a neurotransmitter and its unique therapeutic effects in narcolepsy and alcoholism....

  1. A high-affinity, radioiodinatable neuropeptide FF analogue incorporating a photolabile p-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lauriane; Moulédous, Lionel; Tafani, Jean A M; Germanier, Maryse; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-15

    A new radioiodinated photoaffinity compound, [(125)I]YE(Bpa)WSLAAPQRFNH2, derived from a peptide present in the rat neuropeptide FF (NPFF) precursor was synthesized, and its binding characteristics were investigated on a neuroblastoma clone, SH-SY5Y, stably expressing rat NPFF2 receptors tagged with the T7 epitope. The binding of the probe was saturable and revealed a high-affinity interaction (KD=0.24nM) with a single class of binding sites. It was also able to affinity label NPFF2 receptor in a specific and efficient manner given that 38% of the bound radioligand at saturating concentration formed a wash-resistant binding after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Photoaffinity labeling with [(125)I]YE(Bpa)WSLAAPQRFamide showed two molecular forms of NPFF2 receptor with apparent molecular weights of 140 and 95kDa in a 2:1 ratio. The comparison of the results between photoaffinity labeling and Western blot analysis suggests that all receptor forms bind the probe irreversibly with the same efficiency. On membranes of mouse olfactory bulb, only the high molecular weight form of NPFF2 receptor is observed. [(125)I]YE(Bpa)WSLAAPQRFamide is an excellent radioiodinated peptidic ligand for direct and selective labeling of NPFF2 receptors in vitro.

  2. A High Affinity Red Fluorescence and Colorimetric Probe for Amyloid β Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar, K.; Narayanaswamy, Nagarjun; Murugan, N. Arul; Kuang, Guanglin; Ågren, Hans; Govindaraju, T.

    2016-04-01

    A major challenge in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is its timely diagnosis. Amyloid β (Aβ) aggregates have been proposed as the most viable biomarker for the diagnosis of AD. Here, we demonstrate hemicyanine-based benzothiazole-coumarin (TC) as a potential probe for the detection of highly toxic Aβ42 aggregates through switch-on, enhanced (~30 fold) red fluorescence (Emax = 654 nm) and characteristic colorimetric (light red to purple) optical outputs. Interestingly, TC exhibits selectivity towards Aβ42 fibrils compared to other abnormal protein aggregates. TC probe show nanomolar binding affinity (Ka = 1.72 × 107 M‑1) towards Aβ42 aggregates and also displace ThT bound to Aβ42 fibrils due to its high binding affinity. The Aβ42 fibril-specific red-shift in the absorption spectra of TC responsible for the observed colorimetric optical output has been attributed to micro-environment change around the probe from hydrophilic-like to hydrophobic-like nature. The binding site, binding energy and changes in optical properties observed for TC upon interaction with Aβ42 fibrils have been further validated by molecular docking and time dependent density functional theory studies.

  3. Crystallographic analysis reveals the structural basis of the high-affinity binding of iophenoxic acid to human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ali J; Chung, Chun-Wa; Curry, Stephen

    2011-04-18

    Iophenoxic acid is an iodinated radiocontrast agent that was withdrawn from clinical use because of its exceptionally long half-life in the body, which was due in part to its high-affinity binding to human serum albumin (HSA). It was replaced by Iopanoic acid, which has an amino rather than a hydroxyl group at position 3 on the iodinated benzyl ring and, as a result, binds to albumin with lower affinity and is excreted more rapidly from the body. To understand how iophenoxic acid binds so tightly to albumin, we wanted to examine the structural basis of its interaction with HSA. We have determined the co-crystal structure of HSA in complex with iophenoxic acid at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing a total of four binding sites, two of which--in drugs sites 1 and 2 on the protein--are likely to be occupied at clinical doses. High-affinity binding of iophenoxic acid occurs at drug site 1. The structure reveals that polar and apolar groups on the compound are involved in its interactions with drug site 1. In particular, the 3-hydroxyl group makes three hydrogen bonds with the side-chains of Tyr 150 and Arg 257. The mode of binding to drug site 2 is similar except for the absence of a binding partner for the hydroxyl group on the benzyl ring of the compound. The HSA-iophenoxic acid structure indicates that high-affinity binding to drug site 1 is likely to be due to extensive desolvation of the compound, coupled with the ability of the binding pocket to provide a full set of salt-bridging or hydrogen bonding partners for its polar groups. Consistent with this interpretation, the structure also suggests that the lower-affinity binding of iopanoic acid arises because replacement of the 3-hydroxyl by an amino group eliminates hydrogen bonding to Arg 257. This finding underscores the importance of polar interactions in high-affinity binding to albumin.

  4. Crystallographic analysis reveals the structural basis of the high-affinity binding of iophenoxic acid to human serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Chun-wa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iophenoxic acid is an iodinated radiocontrast agent that was withdrawn from clinical use because of its exceptionally long half-life in the body, which was due in part to its high-affinity binding to human serum albumin (HSA. It was replaced by Iopanoic acid, which has an amino rather than a hydroxyl group at position 3 on the iodinated benzyl ring and, as a result, binds to albumin with lower affinity and is excreted more rapidly from the body. To understand how iophenoxic acid binds so tightly to albumin, we wanted to examine the structural basis of its interaction with HSA. Results We have determined the co-crystal structure of HSA in complex with iophenoxic acid at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing a total of four binding sites, two of which - in drugs sites 1 and 2 on the protein - are likely to be occupied at clinical doses. High-affinity binding of iophenoxic acid occurs at drug site 1. The structure reveals that polar and apolar groups on the compound are involved in its interactions with drug site 1. In particular, the 3-hydroxyl group makes three hydrogen bonds with the side-chains of Tyr 150 and Arg 257. The mode of binding to drug site 2 is similar except for the absence of a binding partner for the hydroxyl group on the benzyl ring of the compound. Conclusions The HSA-iophenoxic acid structure indicates that high-affinity binding to drug site 1 is likely to be due to extensive desolvation of the compound, coupled with the ability of the binding pocket to provide a full set of salt-bridging or hydrogen bonding partners for its polar groups. Consistent with this interpretation, the structure also suggests that the lower-affinity binding of iopanoic acid arises because replacement of the 3-hydroxyl by an amino group eliminates hydrogen bonding to Arg 257. This finding underscores the importance of polar interactions in high-affinity binding to albumin.

  5. A linker peptide with high affinity towards silica-containing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunna, Anwar; Chi, Fei; Bergquist, Peter L

    2013-06-25

    A peptide sequence with affinity to silica-containing materials was fused to a truncated form of Streptococcus strain G148 Protein G. The resulting recombinant Linker-Protein G (LPG) was produced in Escherichia coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. It displayed high affinity towards two natural clinoptilolite zeolites. The LPG also displayed high binding affinity towards commercial-grade synthetic zeolite, silica and silica-containing materials. A commercial sample of the truncated Protein G and a basic protein, both without the linker, did not bind to natural or synthetic zeolites or silica. We conclude that the zeolite-binding affinity is mediated by the linker peptide sequence. As a consequence, these data may imply that the binding affinity is directed to the SiO2 component rather than to the atomic orientation on the zeolite crystal surface as previously assumed.

  6. Cadmium inhibits the induction of high-affinity nitrate uptake in maize (Zea mays L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardo, Cecilia; Tomasi, Nicola; Monte, Rossella; Varanini, Zeno; Nocito, Fabio F; Cesco, Stefano; Pinton, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) detoxification involves glutathione and phytochelatins biosynthesis: the higher need of nitrogen should require increased nitrate (NO(3)(-)) uptake and metabolism. We investigated inducible high-affinity NO(3)(-) uptake across the plasma membrane (PM) in maize seedlings roots upon short exposure (10 min to 24 h) to low Cd concentrations (0, 1 or 10 μM): the activity and gene transcript abundance of high-affinity NO(3)(-) transporters, NO(3)(-) reductases and PM H(+)-ATPases were analyzed. Exposure to 1 mM NO(3)(-) led to a peak in high-affinity (0.2 mM) NO(3)(-) uptake rate (induction), which was markedly lowered in Cd-treated roots. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity was also strongly limited, while internal NO(3)(-) accumulation and NO(3)(-) reductase activity in extracts of Cd treated roots were only slightly lowered. Kinetics of high- and low-affinity NO(3)(-) uptake showed that Cd rapidly (10 min) blocked the inducible high-affinity transport system; the constitutive high-affinity transport system appeared not vulnerable to Cd and the low-affinity transport system appeared to be less affected and only after a prolonged exposure (12 h). Cd-treatment also modified transcript levels of genes encoding high-affinity NO(3)(-) transporters (ZmNTR2.1, ZmNRT2.2), PM H(+)-ATPases (ZmMHA3, ZmMHA4) and NO(3)(-) reductases (ZmNR1, ZmNADH:NR). Despite an expectable increase in NO(3)(-) demand, a negative effect of Cd on NO(3)(-) nutrition is reported. Cd effect results in alterations at the physiological and transcriptional levels of NO(3)(-) uptake from the external solution and it is particularly severe on the inducible high-affinity anion transport system. Furthermore, Cd would limit the capacity of the plant to respond to changes in NO(3) (-) availability.

  7. High-affinity binding of fungal beta-glucan fragments to soybean (Glycine max L.) microsomal fractions and protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, E G; Pöpperl, H; Schmidt, W E; Ebel, J

    1988-08-01

    We have recently reported the existence of binding sites in soybean membranes for a beta-glucan fraction derived from the fungal pathogen Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea, which may play a role in the elicitor-mediated phytoalexin response of this plant [Schmidt, W. E. & Ebel, J. (1987) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 84, 4117-4121]. The specificity of beta-glucan binding to soybean membranes has now been investigated using a variety of competing polyglucans and oligoglucans of fungal origin. P. megasperma beta-glucan binding showed high apparent affinity for branched glucans with degrees of polymerization greater than 12. Binding affinity showed good correlation with elicitor activity as measured in a soybean cotyledon bioassay. Modification of the glucans at the reducing end with phenylalkylamine reagents had no effect on binding affinity. This characteristic was used to synthesize an oligoglucosyl tyramine derivative suitable for radioiodination. The 125I-glucan (15-30 Ci/mmol) provided higher sensitivity and lower detection limits for the binding assays while behaving in a manner identical to the [3H]glucan used previously. More accurate determinations of the Kd value for glucan binding indicated a higher affinity than previously shown (37 nM versus 200 nM). The 125I-glucan was used to provide the first reported evidence of specific binding of a fungal beta-glucan fraction in vivo to soybean protoplasts. The binding affinity to protoplasts proved identical to that found in microsomal fractions.

  8. Affinity enhancement of antibodies: how low-affinity antibodies produced early in immune responses are followed by high-affinity antibodies later and in memory B-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Herman N

    2014-05-01

    The antibodies produced initially in response to most antigens are high molecular weight (MW) immunoglobulins (IgM) with low affinity for the antigen, while the antibodies produced later are lower MW classes (e.g., IgG and IgA) with, on average, orders of magnitude higher affinity for that antigen. These changes, often termed affinity maturation, take place largely in small B-cell clusters (germinal center; GC) in lymphoid tissues in which proliferating antigen-stimulated B cells express the highly mutagenic cytidine deaminase that mediates immunoglobulin class-switching and sequence diversification of the immunoglobulin variable domains of antigen-binding receptors on B cells (BCR). Of the large library of BCR-mutated B cells thus rapidly generated, a small minority with affinity-enhancing mutations are selected to survive and differentiate into long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. BCRs are also endocytic receptors; they internalize and cleave BCR-bound antigen, yielding peptide-MHC complexes that are recognized by follicular helper T cells. Imperfect correlation between BCR affinity for antigen and cognate T-cell engagement may account for the increasing affinity heterogeneity that accompanies the increasing average affinity of antibodies. Conservation of mechanisms underlying mutation and selection of high-affinity antibodies over the ≈200 million years of evolution separating bird and mammal lineages points to the crucial role of antibody affinity enhancement in adaptive immunity.

  9. Biphasic regulation of development of the high-affinity saxitoxin receptor by innervation in rat skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.J.; Catterall, W.A.

    1982-11-01

    Specific binding of /sup 3/H-saxitoxin (STX) was used to quantitate the density of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in developing rat skeletal muscle. In adult triceps surae, a single class of sites with a KD . 2.9 nM and a density of 21 fmol/mg wet wt was detected. The density of these high-affinity sites increased from 2.0 fmol/mg wet wt to the adult value in linear fashion during days 2-25 after birth. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 11 or 17 reduced final saxitoxin receptor site density to 10.4 or 9.2 fmol/mg wet wt, respectively, without changing KD. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 5 did not alter the subsequent development of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 5-9 and accelerated the increase of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 9-13. After day 13, saxitoxin receptor development abruptly ceased and the density of saxitoxin receptor sites declined to 11 fmol/wg wet wt. These results show that the regulation of high-affinity saxitoxin receptor site density by innervation is biphasic. During the first phase, which is independent of continuing innervation, the saxitoxin receptor density increases to 47-57% of the adult level. After day 11, the second phase of development, which is dependent on continuing innervation, gives rise to the adult density of saxitoxin receptors.

  10. Substrate and Substrate-Mimetic Chaperone Binding Sites in Human α-Galactosidase A Revealed by Affinity-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Adrian; Maeser, Stefan; Rawer, Stephan; Eggers, Frederike; Murphy, Mary; Bornheim, Jeff; Przybylski, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare metabolic disorder of a group of lysosomal storage diseases, caused by deficiency or reduced activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase. Human α-galactosidase A (hαGAL) hydrolyses the terminal α-galactosyl moiety from glycosphingolipids, predominantly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Enzyme deficiency leads to incomplete or blocked breakdown and progressive accumulation of Gb3, with detrimental effects on normal organ functions. FD is successfully treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with purified recombinant hαGAL. An emerging treatment strategy, pharmacologic chaperone therapy (PCT), employs small molecules that can increase and/or reconstitute the activity of lysosomal enzyme trafficking by stabilizing misfolded isoforms. One such chaperone, 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ), is a structural galactose analogue currently validated in clinical trials. DGJ is an active-site-chaperone that binds at the same or similar location as galactose; however, the molecular determination of chaperone binding sites in lysosomal enzymes represents a considerable challenge. Here we report the identification of the galactose and DGJ binding sites in recombinant α-galactosidase through a new affinity-mass spectrometry-based approach that employs selective proteolytic digestion of the enzyme-galactose or -inhibitor complex. Binding site peptides identified by mass spectrometry, [39-49], [83-100], and [141-168], contain the essential ligand-contacting amino acids, in agreement with the known X-ray crystal structures. The inhibitory effect of DGJ on galactose recognition was directly characterized through competitive binding experiments and mass spectrometry. The methods successfully employed in this study should have high potential for the characterization of (mutated) enzyme-substrate and -chaperone interactions, and for identifying chaperones without inhibitory effects.

  11. Putative M2 muscarinic receptors of rat heart have high affinity for organophosphorus anticholinesterases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, C.L.; Eldefrawi, A.T.; Eldefrawi, M.E. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The M2 subtype of muscarinic receptor is predominant in heart, and such receptors were reported to be located in muscles as well as in presynaptic cholinergic and adrenergic nerve terminals. Muscarinic receptors of rat heart were identified by the high affinity binding of the agonist (+)-(3H)cis-methyldioxolane ((3H)CD), which has been used to label a high affinity population of M2 receptors. A single population of sites was detected and (3H)CD binding was sensitive to the M2 antagonist himbacine but much less so to pirenzepine, the M1 antagonist. These cardiac receptors had different sensitivities to NiCl2 and N-ethylmaleimide from brain muscarinic receptors, that were also labeled with (3H)CD and considered to be of the M2 subtype. Up to 70% of the (3H)CD-labeled cardiac receptors had high affinities for several organophosphate (OP) anticholinesterases. (3H)CD binding was inhibited by the nerve agents soman, VX, sarin, and tabun, with K0.5 values of 0.8, 2, 20, and 50 nM, respectively. It was also inhibited by echothiophate and paraoxon with K0.5 values of 100 and 300 nM, respectively. The apparent competitive nature of inhibition of (3H)CD binding by both sarin and paraoxon suggests that the OPs bind to the acetylcholine binding site of the muscarinic receptor. Other OP insecticides had lower potencies, inhibiting less than 50% of 5 nM (3H)CD binding by 1 microM of EPN, coumaphos, dioxathion, dichlorvos, or chlorpyriphos. There was poor correlation between the potencies of the OPs in reversibly inhibiting (3H)CD binding, and their anticholinesterase activities and toxicities. Acetylcholinesterases are the primary targets for these OP compounds because of the irreversible nature of their inhibition, which results in building of acetylcholine concentrations that activate muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and desensitize them, thereby inhibiting respiration.

  12. A novel gigaporous GSH affinity medium for high-speed affinity chromatography of GST-tagged proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongdong; Zhang, Rongyue; Li, Juan; Li, Qiang; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui

    2014-03-01

    Novel GSH-AP (phenoxyl agarose coated gigaporous polystyrene, Agap-co-PSt) microspheres were successfully prepared by introducing GSH ligand into hydrophilic AP microspheres pre-activated with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. The gigaporous structure and chromatographic properties of GSH-AP medium were evaluated and compared with commercial GSH Sepharose FF (GSH-FF) medium. The macropores (100-500nm) of gigaporous PSt microspheres were well maintained after coating with agarose and functionalized with GSH ligand. Hydrodynamic experiments showed that GSH-AP column had less backpressure and plate height than those of GSH-FF column at high flow velocity, which was beneficial for its use in high-speed chromatography. The presence of flow-through pores in GSH-AP microspheres also accelerated the mass transfer rate of biomolecules induced by convective flow, leading to high protein resolution and high dynamic binding capacity (DBC) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) at high flow velocity. High purity of GST and GST-tagged recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1RA) were obtained from crude extract with an acceptable recovery yield within 1.5min at a velocity up to 1400cm/h. GSH-AP medium is promising for high-speed affinity chromatography for the purification of GST and GST-tagged proteins.

  13. Mannosylerythritol lipid, a yeast extracellular glycolipid, shows high binding affinity towards human immunoglobulin G

    OpenAIRE

    Ikegami Toru; Yanagishita Hiroshi; Nakane Takashi; Im Jae Hong; Kitamoto Dai

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background There have been many attempts to develop new materials with stability and high affinity towards immunoglobulins. Some of glycolipids such as gangliosides exhibit a high affinity toward immunoglobulins. However, it is considerably difficult to develop these glycolipids into the practical separation ligand due to their limited amounts. We thus focused our attention on the feasible use of "mannosylerythritol lipid A", a yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, as an alternative ligand...

  14. Affinity and activity of non-native quinones at the QB site of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Gunner, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Purple, photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from Rb. sphaeroides bacteria use UQ10 as primary (QA) and secondary (QB) electron acceptors. Many quinones reconstitute QA function, while few will act as QB. Nine quinones were tested for their ability to bind and reconstitute QA and QB function. Only ubiquinone (UQ) reconstitutes both QA and QB function in the same protein. The affinities of the non-native quinones for the QB site were determined by a competitive inhibition assay. The affinities of benzoquinones (BQ), napthoquinone (NQ) and 2-methyl-NQ for the QB site are 7±3 times weaker than for the QA site. However, di-ortho substituted NQs and anthraquinone bind tightly to the QA site (Kd ≤200 nM) and ≥1000 times more weakly to the QB site, perhaps setting a limit on the size of the site. With a low potential electron donor (2-methyl, 3-dimethylamino-1,4-Napthoquinone (Me-diMeAm-NQ)) at QA, QB reduction is 260 meV more favorable than with UQ as QA. Electron transfer from Me-diMeAm-NQ at the QA site to NQ at the QB site can be detected. In the QB site the NQ semiquinone is estimated to be ≈ 60–100 meV higher in energy than the UQ semiquinone, while in the QA site the semiquinone energy level is similar or lower with NQ than with UQ. Thus, the NQ semiquinone is more stable in the QA than QB site. In contrast, the native UQ semiquinone is ≈ 60 meV lower in energy in the QB than the QA site, stabilizing forward electron transfer from QA to QB. PMID:23715773

  15. The high-affinity maltose switch MBP317-347 has low affinity for glucose: implications for targeting tumors with metabolically directed enzyme prodrug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Gilmer; Schulte, Reinhard W; Ostermeier, Marc; Iwamoto, Keisuke S

    2014-03-01

    Development of agents with high affinity and specificity for tumor-specific markers is an important goal of molecular-targeted therapy. Here, we propose a shift in paradigm using a strategy that relies on low affinity for fundamental metabolites found in different concentrations in cancerous and non-cancerous tissues: glucose and lactate. A molecular switch, MBP317-347, originally designed to be a high-affinity switch for maltose and maltose-like polysaccharides, was demonstrated to be a low-affinity switch for glucose, that is, able to be activated by high concentrations (tens of millimolar) of glucose. We propose that such a low-affinity glucose switch could be used as a proof of concept for a new prodrug therapy strategy denominated metabolically directed enzyme prodrug therapy (MDEPT) where glucose or, preferably, lactate serves as the activator. Accordingly, considering the typical differential concentrations of lactate found in tumors and in healthy tissues, a low-affinity lactate-binding switch analogous to the low-affinity glucose-binding switch MBP317-347 would be an order of magnitude more active in tumors than in normal tissues and therefore can work as a differential activator of anticancer drugs in tumors.

  16. The fourth dimension in immunological space: how the struggle for nutrients selects high-affinity lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensveen, Felix M; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Eldering, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Lymphocyte activation via the antigen receptor is associated with radical shifts in metabolism and changes in requirements for nutrients and cytokines. Concomitantly, drastic changes occur in the expression of pro-and anti-apoptotic proteins that alter the sensitivity of lymphocytes to limiting concentrations of key survival factors. Antigen affinity is a primary determinant for the capacity of activated lymphocytes to access these vital resources. The shift in metabolic needs and the variable access to key survival factors is used by the immune system to eliminate activated low-affinity cells and to generate an optimal high-affinity response. In this review, we focus on the control of apoptosis regulators in activated lymphocytes by nutrients, cytokines, and costimulation. We propose that the struggle among individual clones that leads to the formation of high-affinity effector cell populations is in effect an 'invisible' fourth signal required for effective immune responses.

  17. Neurotensin decreases high affinity [3H]-ouabain binding to cerebral cortex membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, Carina; Ordieres, María Graciela López; Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez de Lores

    2011-12-10

    Previous work from this laboratory showed the ability of neurotensin to inhibit synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, the effect being blocked by SR 48692, a non-peptidic antagonist for high affinity neurotensin receptor (NTS1) [López Ordieres and Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz 2000; 2001]. To further study neurotensin interaction with Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, peptide effect on high affinity [(3)H]-ouabain binding was studied in cerebral cortex membranes. It was observed that neurotensin modified binding in a dose-dependent manner, leading to 80% decrease with 1 × 10(-4)M concentration. On the other hand, the single addition of 1 × 10(-6)M, 1 × 10(-5)M and 1 × 10(-4)M SR 48692 (Sanofi-Aventis, U.S., Inc.) decreased [(3)H]-ouabain binding (in %) to 87 ± 16; 74 ± 16 and 34 ± 17, respectively. Simultaneous addition of neurotensin and SR 48692 led to additive or synergic effects. Partial NTS2 agonist levocabastine inhibited [(3)H]-ouabain binding likewise. Saturation assays followed by Scatchard analyses showed that neurotensin increased K(d) value whereas failed to modify B(max) value, indicating a competitive type interaction of the peptide at Na(+), K(+)-ATPase ouabain site. At variance, SR 48692 decreased B(max) value whereas it did not modify K(d) value. [(3)H]-ouabain binding was also studied in cerebral cortex membranes obtained from rats injected i. p. 30 min earlier with 100 μg and 250 μg/kg SR 48692. It was observed that the 250 μg/kg SR 48692 dose led to 19% decrease in basal [(3)H]-ouabain binding. After SR 48692 treatments, addition of 1 × 10(-6)M led to additive or synergic effect. Results suggested that [(3)H]-ouabain binding inhibition by neurotensin hardly involves NTS1 receptor.

  18. Quantifying domain-ligand affinities and specificities by high-throughput holdup assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincentelli, Renaud; Luck, Katja; Poirson, Juline; Polanowska, Jolanta; Abdat, Julie; Blémont, Marilyne; Turchetto, Jeremy; Iv, François; Ricquier, Kevin; Straub, Marie-Laure; Forster, Anne; Cassonnet, Patricia; Borg, Jean-Paul; Jacob, Yves; Masson, Murielle; Nominé, Yves; Reboul, Jérôme; Wolff, Nicolas; Charbonnier, Sebastian; Travé, Gilles

    2015-08-01

    Many protein interactions are mediated by small linear motifs interacting specifically with defined families of globular domains. Quantifying the specificity of a motif requires measuring and comparing its binding affinities to all its putative target domains. To this end, we developed the high-throughput holdup assay, a chromatographic approach that can measure up to 1,000 domain-motif equilibrium binding affinities per day. After benchmarking the approach on 210 PDZ-peptide pairs with known affinities, we determined the affinities of two viral PDZ-binding motifs derived from human papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins for 209 PDZ domains covering 79% of the human 'PDZome'. We obtained sharply sequence-dependent binding profiles that quantitatively describe the PDZome recognition specificity of each motif. This approach, applicable to many categories of domain-ligand interactions, has wide potential for quantifying the specificities of interactomes.

  19. Axonal transport of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat vagus nerve: high and low affinity agonist receptors move in opposite directions and differ in nucleotide sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarbin, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1982-07-01

    The presence and transport of muscarinic cholinergic binding sites have been detected in the rat vagus nerve. These binding sites accumulate both proximal and distal to ligatures in a time-dependent manner. The results of double ligature and colchicine experiments are compatible with the notion that the anterogradely transported binding sites move by fast transport. Most of the sites accumulating proximal to ligatures bind the agonist carbachol with high affinity, while most of the sites accumulating distally bind carbachol with a low affinity. Also, the receptors transported in the anterograde direction are affected by a guanine nucleotide analogue (GppNHp), while those transported in the retrograde direction are less, or not, affected. The bulk of the sites along the unligated nerve trunk bind carbachol with a low affinity and are less sensitive to GppNHp modulation than the anterogradely transported sites. These results suggest that some receptors in the vagus may undergo axonal transport in association with regulatory proteins and that receptor molecules undergo changes in their binding and regulatory properties during their life cycle. These data also support the notion that the high and low affinity agonist form of the muscarinic receptor represent different modulated forms of a single receptor molecule.

  20. Selection and design of high affinity DNA ligands for mutant single-chain derivatives of the bacteriophage 434 repressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Single-chain repressor RRTRES is a derivative of bacteriophage 434 repressor, which contains covalently dimerized DNA-binding domains (amino acids 1-69) of the phage 434 repressor. In this single-chain molecule, the wild type domain R is connected to the mutant domain RTRES by a recombinant linker in a head-to-tail arrangement. The DNA-contacting amino acids of RTRES at the -1, 1, 2, and 5 positions of the a3 helix are T, R, E, S respectively. By using a randomized DNA pool containing the central sequence -CATACAAGAAAGNNNNNNTTT-, a cyclic, in vitro DNA-binding site selection was performed. The selected population was cloned and the individual members were characterized by determining their binding affinities to RRTRES. The results showed that the optimal operators contained the TTAC or TTCC sequences in the underlined positions as above, and that the Kd values were in the 1×10-12 mol/L-1×10-11mol/L concentration range. Since the affinity of the natural 434 repressor to its natural operator sites is in the 1×10-9 mol/L range, the observed binding affinity increase is remarkable. It was also found that binding affinity was strongly affected by the flanking bases of the optimal tetramer binding sites, especially by the base at the 5′ position. We constructed a new homodimeric single-chain repressor RTRESRTRES and its DNA-binding specificity was tested by using a series of new operators designed according to the recog-nition properties previously determined for the RTRES domain. These operators containing the con-sensus sequence GTAAGAAARNTTACN or GGAAGAAARNTTCCN (R is A or G) were recognized by RTRESRTRES specifically, and with high binding affinity. Thus, by using a combination of random selection and rational design principles, we have discovered novel, high affinity protein-DNA inter-actions with new specificity. This method can potentially be used to obtain new binding specificity for other DNA-binding proteins.

  1. Control of high affinity interactions in the talin C terminus: how talin domains coordinate protein dynamics in cell adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, Mirko; Ritter, Anett; Rothemund, Sven; Pauling, Björg V; Rottner, Klemens; Gingras, Alexandre R; Ziegler, Wolfgang H

    2009-05-15

    In cell-extracellular matrix junctions (focal adhesions), the cytoskeletal protein talin is central to the connection of integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. Talin is thought to mediate this connection via its two integrin, (at least) three actin, and several vinculin binding sites. The binding sites are cryptic in the head-to-rod autoinhibited cytoplasmic form of the protein and require (stepwise) conformational activation. This activation process, however, remains poorly understood, and there are contradictory models with respect to the determinants of adhesion site localization. Here, we report turnover rates and protein-protein interactions in a range of talin rod domain constructs varying in helix bundle structure. We conclude that several bundles of the C terminus cooperate to regulate targeting and concomitantly tailor high affinity interactions of the talin rod in cell adhesions. Intrinsic control of ligand binding activities is essential for the coordination of adhesion site function of talin.

  2. Multiple allosteric effectors control the affinity of DasR for its target sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenconi, Elodie; Urem, Mia; Świątek-Połatyńska, Magdalena A; Titgemeyer, Fritz; Muller, Yves A; van Wezel, Gilles P; Rigali, Sébastien

    2015-08-14

    The global transcriptional regulator DasR connects N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) utilization to the onset of morphological and chemical differentiation in the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor. Previous work revealed that glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6P) acts as an allosteric effector which disables binding by DasR to its operator sites (called dre, for DasR responsive element) and allows derepression of DasR-controlled/GlcNAc-dependent genes. To unveil the mechanism by which DasR controls S. coelicolor development, we performed a series of electromobility shift assays with histidine-tagged DasR protein, which suggested that N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6P) could also inhibit the formation of DasR-dre complexes and perhaps even more efficiently than GlcN-6P. The possibility that GlcNAc-6P is indeed an efficient allosteric effector of DasR was further confirmed by the high and constitutive activity of the DasR-repressed nagKA promoter in the nagA mutant, which lacks GlcNAc-6P deaminase activity and therefore accumulates GlcNAc-6P. In addition, we also observed that high concentrations of organic or inorganic phosphate enhanced binding of DasR to its recognition site, suggesting that the metabolic status of the cell could determine the selectivity of DasR in vivo, and hence its effect on the expression of its regulon.

  3. α4βδ GABA(A) receptors are high-affinity targets for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalom, Nathan; Eghorn, Laura F; Villumsen, Inge S; Karim, Nasiara; Bay, Tina; Olsen, Jesper V; Knudsen, Gitte M; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Frølund, Bente; Clausen, Rasmus P; Chebib, Mary; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2012-08-14

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) binding to brain-specific high-affinity sites is well-established and proposed to explain both physiological and pharmacological actions. However, the mechanistic links between these lines of data are unknown. To identify molecular targets for specific GHB high-affinity binding, we undertook photolinking studies combined with proteomic analyses and identified several GABA(A) receptor subunits as possible candidates. A subsequent functional screening of various recombinant GABA(A) receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique showed GHB to be a partial agonist at αβδ- but not αβγ-receptors, proving that the δ-subunit is essential for potency and efficacy. GHB showed preference for α4 over α(1,2,6)-subunits and preferably activated α4β1δ (EC(50) = 140 nM) over α4β(2/3)δ (EC(50) = 8.41/1.03 mM). Introduction of a mutation, α4F71L, in α4β1(δ)-receptors completely abolished GHB but not GABA function, indicating nonidentical binding sites. Radioligand binding studies using the specific GHB radioligand [(3)H](E,RS)-(6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzocyclohept-6-ylidene)acetic acid showed a 39% reduction (P = 0.0056) in the number of binding sites in α4 KO brain tissue compared with WT controls, corroborating the direct involvement of the α4-subunit in high-affinity GHB binding. Our data link specific GHB forebrain binding sites with α4-containing GABA(A) receptors and postulate a role for extrasynaptic α4δ-containing GABA(A) receptors in GHB pharmacology and physiology. This finding will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the proposed function of GHB as a neurotransmitter and its unique therapeutic effects in narcolepsy and alcoholism.

  4. High affinity germinal center B cells are actively selected into the plasma cell compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tri Giang; Paus, Didrik; Chan, Tyani D; Turner, Marian L; Nutt, Stephen L; Basten, Antony; Brink, Robert

    2006-10-30

    A hallmark of T cell-dependent immune responses is the progressive increase in the ability of serum antibodies to bind antigen and provide immune protection. Affinity maturation of the antibody response is thought to be connected with the preferential survival of germinal centre (GC) B cells that have acquired increased affinity for antigen via somatic hypermutation of their immunoglobulin genes. However, the mechanisms that drive affinity maturation remain obscure because of the difficulty in tracking the affinity-based selection of GC B cells and their differentiation into plasma cells. We describe a powerful new model that allows these processes to be followed as they occur in vivo. In contrast to evidence from in vitro systems, responding GC B cells do not undergo plasma cell differentiation stochastically. Rather, only GC B cells that have acquired high affinity for the immunizing antigen form plasma cells. Affinity maturation is therefore driven by a tightly controlled mechanism that ensures only antibodies with the greatest possibility of neutralizing foreign antigen are produced. Because the body can sustain only limited numbers of plasma cells, this "quality control" over plasma cell differentiation is likely critical for establishing effective humoral immunity.

  5. Structural Basis for High-Affinity Peptide Inhibition of Human Pin1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Daum, Sebastian; Wildemann, Dirk; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Verdecia, Mark A.; Bowman, Marianne E.; Lücke, Christian; Hunter, Tony; Lu, Kun-Ping; Fischer, Gunter; Noel, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Human Pin1 is a key regulator of cell-cycle progression and plays growth-promoting roles in human cancers. High-affinity inhibitors of Pin1 may provide a unique opportunity for disrupting oncogenic pathways. Here we report two high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of human Pin1 bound to non-natural peptide inhibitors. The structures of the bound high-affinity peptides identify a type-I β-turn conformation for Pin1 prolyl peptide isomerase domain–peptide binding and an extensive molecular interface for high-affinity recognition. Moreover, these structures suggest chemical elements that may further improve the affinity and pharmacological properties of future peptide-based Pin inhibitors. Finally, an intramolecular hydrogen bond observed in both peptide complexes mimics the cyclic conformation of FK506 and rapamycin. Both FK506 and rapamycin are clinically important inhibitors of other peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases. This comparative discovery suggests that a cyclic peptide polyketide bridge, like that found in FK506 and rapamycin or a similar linkage, may significantly improve the binding affinity of structure-based Pin1 inhibitors. PMID:17518432

  6. Hemoglobin-oxygen affinity in high-altitude vertebrates: is there evidence for an adaptive trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Jay F

    2016-10-15

    In air-breathing vertebrates at high altitude, fine-tuned adjustments in hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity provide an energetically efficient means of mitigating the effects of arterial hypoxemia. However, it is not always clear whether an increased or decreased Hb-O2 affinity should be expected to improve tissue O2 delivery under different degrees of hypoxia, due to the inherent trade-off between arterial O2 loading and peripheral O2 unloading. Theoretical results indicate that the optimal Hb-O2 affinity varies as a non-linear function of environmental O2 availability, and the threshold elevation at which an increased Hb-O2 affinity becomes advantageous depends on the magnitude of diffusion limitation (the extent to which O2 equilibration at the blood-gas interface is limited by the kinetics of O2 exchange). This body of theory provides a framework for interpreting the possible adaptive significance of evolved changes in Hb-O2 affinity in vertebrates that have colonized high-altitude environments. To evaluate the evidence for an empirical generalization and to test theoretical predictions, I synthesized comparative data in a phylogenetic framework to assess the strength of the relationship between Hb-O2 affinity and native elevation in mammals and birds. Evidence for a general trend in mammals is equivocal, but there is a remarkably strong positive relationship between Hb-O2 affinity and native elevation in birds. Evolved changes in Hb function in high-altitude birds provide one of the most compelling examples of convergent biochemical adaptation in vertebrates. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. High affinity antigen recognition of the dual specific variants of herceptin is entropy-driven in spite of structural plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bostrom

    Full Text Available The antigen-binding site of Herceptin, an anti-human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2 antibody, was engineered to add a second specificity toward Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF to create a high affinity two-in-one antibody bH1. Crystal structures of bH1 in complex with either antigen showed that, in comparison to Herceptin, this antibody exhibited greater conformational variability, also called "structural plasticity". Here, we analyzed the biophysical and thermodynamic properties of the dual specific variants of Herceptin to understand how a single antibody binds two unrelated protein antigens. We showed that while bH1 and the affinity-improved bH1-44, in particular, maintained many properties of Herceptin including binding affinity, kinetics and the use of residues for antigen recognition, they differed in the binding thermodynamics. The interactions of bH1 and its variants with both antigens were characterized by large favorable entropy changes whereas the Herceptin/HER2 interaction involved a large favorable enthalpy change. By dissecting the total entropy change and the energy barrier for dual interaction, we determined that the significant structural plasticity of the bH1 antibodies demanded by the dual specificity did not translate into the expected increase of entropic penalty relative to Herceptin. Clearly, dual antigen recognition of the Herceptin variants involves divergent antibody conformations of nearly equivalent energetic states. Hence, increasing the structural plasticity of an antigen-binding site without increasing the entropic cost may play a role for antibodies to evolve multi-specificity. Our report represents the first comprehensive biophysical analysis of a high affinity dual specific antibody binding two unrelated protein antigens, furthering our understanding of the thermodynamics that drive the vast antigen recognition capacity of the antibody repertoire.

  8. Quantifying high-affinity binding of hydrophobic ligands by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainer, Georg; Broecker, Jana; Vargas, Carolyn; Fanghänel, Jörg; Keller, Sandro

    2012-12-18

    A fast and reliable quantification of the binding thermodynamics of hydrophobic high-affinity ligands employing a new calorimetric competition experiment is described. Although isothermal titration calorimetry is the method of choice for a quantitative characterization of intermolecular interactions in solution, a reliable determination of a dissociation constant (K(D)) is typically limited to the range 100 μM > K(D) > 1 nM. Interactions displaying higher or lower K(D) values can be assessed indirectly, provided that a suitable competing ligand is available whose K(D) falls within the directly accessible affinity window. This established displacement assay, however, requires the high-affinity ligand to be soluble at high concentrations in aqueous buffer and, consequently, poses serious problems in the study of protein binding involving small-molecule ligands dissolved in organic solvents--a familiar case in many drug-discovery projects relying on compound libraries. The calorimetric competition assay introduced here overcomes this limitation, thus allowing for a detailed thermodynamic description of high-affinity receptor-ligand interactions involving poorly water-soluble compounds. Based on a single titration of receptor into a dilute mixture of the two competing ligands, this competition assay provides accurate and precise values for the dissociation constants and binding enthalpies of both high- and moderate-affinity ligands. We discuss the theoretical background underlying the approach, demonstrate its practical application to metal ion chelation and high-affinity protein-inhibitor interactions, and explore its potential and limitations with the aid of simulations and statistical analyses.

  9. Further characterization of the low and high affinity binding components of the thyrotropin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, R; Thomas, C G; Nayfeh, S N

    1986-05-29

    Following cross-linking with disuccinimidyl suberate and analysis by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography, both the high- and low-affinity TSH binding components exhibited two similar 125I-TSH-labeled bands, with Mr values of 80,000 and 68,000. IgG fractions from patients with Graves' disease inhibited 125I-TSH binding to both components, while normal IgG had no effect. Although not entirely conclusive, these results suggest that the high- and low-affinity components share similar subunit composition and antigenic determinants.

  10. Further characterization of the low and high affinity binding components of the thyrotropin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuade, R.; Thomas, C.G. Jr.; Nayfeh, S.N.

    1986-05-29

    Following cross-linking with disuccinimdiyl suberate and analysis by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography, both the high- and low-affinity TSH binding components exhibited two similar /sup 125/I-TSH-labeled bands, with Mr values of 80,000 and 68,000. IgG fractions from patients with Graves' disease inhibited /sup 125/I-TSH binding to both components, while normal IgG had no effect. Although not entirely conclusive, these results suggest that the high- and low-affinity components share similar subunit composition and antigenic determinants.

  11. High-affinity benzodiazepine receptor ligands among benzodiazepines and betacarbolines with different intrinsic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yliniemelae, A.; Gynther, J. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland)); Konschin, H.; Tylli, H. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Rouvinen, J. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland))

    1989-01-01

    Structural and electrostatic features of diazepam, flumazenil, and methyl betacarboline-3-carboxylate (BCCM) have been investigated using the molecular superimposition method. These high-affinity benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor ligands are structurally unrelated and they have different intrinsic activity. These ligands are superimposed in such a way that common structural and electrostatic features essential for the high receptor binding affinity overlap. In addition to this binding pharmacophore, there are roughly three separate binding zones in the BZ receptor, one for each class of ligands. The intrinsic activity of BZ receptor ligands depends on the molecular structures and the way the ligand approaches the receptor.

  12. High affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)cocaine to rat liver microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Maghrabi, E.A.; Calligaro, D.O.; Eldefrawi, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    )/sup 3/H)cocaine bound reversible, with high affinity and stereospecificity to rat liver microsomes. Little binding was detected in the lysosomal, mitochondrial and nuclear fractions. The binding kinetics were slow and the kinetically calculated K/sub D/ was 2 nM. Induction of mixed function oxidases by phenobarbital did not produce significant change in (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding. On the other hand, chronic administration of cocaine reduced (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding drastically. Neither treatment affected the affinity of the liver binding protein for cocaine. Microsomes from mouse and human livers had less cocaine-binding protein and lower affinity for cocaine than those from rat liver. Binding of (/sup 3/H)cocaine to rat liver microsomes was insensitive to monovalent cations and > 10 fold less sensitive to biogenic amines than the cocaine receptor in rat striatum. However, the liver protein had higher affinity for cocaine and metabolites except for norcocaine. Amine uptake inhibitors displaced (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding to liver with a different rank order of potency than their displacement of (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding to striatum. This high affinity (/sup 3/H)cocaine binding protein in liver is not likely to be monooxygenase, but may have a role in cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity

  13. Nordimaprit, homodimaprit, clobenpropit and imetit: affinities for H3 binding sites and potencies in a functional H3 receptor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathmann, M; Schlicker, E; Detzner, M; Timmerman, H

    1993-11-01

    We determined the affinities of nordimaprit, homodimaprit, clobenpropit and imetit for H3 binding sites (labelled by 3H-N alpha-methylhistamine) in rat brain cortex homogenates and their potencies at presynaptic H3A receptors on noradrenergic nerve endings in mouse brain cortex slices. 3H-N alpha-Methylhistamine bound saturably to rat brain cortex homogenates with a Kd of 0.70 nmol/l and a Bmax of 98 fmol/mg protein. Binding of 3H-N alpha-methylhistamine was displaced monophasically by dimaprit (pKi 6.55), nordimaprit (5.94), homodimaprit (6.44), clobenpropit (9.16), imetit (9.83), R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine (8.87) and histamine (8.20), and biphasically by burimamide (pKi high 7.73, pKi low 5.97). In superfused mouse brain cortex slices preincubated with 3H-noradrenaline, the electrically (0.3 Hz) evoked tritium overflow was inhibited by imetit (pIC35 8.93), R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine (7.87) and histamine (7.03). The effect of histamine was attenuated by nordimaprit, homodimaprit, clobenpropit and N-ethoxycarbonyl-2- ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ); EEDQ (but not nordimaprit, homodimaprit and clobenpropit) attenuated the effect of histamine also in slices pre-exposed to the drug 60-30 min prior to superfusion. The concentration-response curve of histamine was shifted to the right by homodimaprit and clobenpropit; Schild plots yielded straight lines with a slope of unity for both drugs (pA2 5.94 and 9.55, respectively). Nordimaprit depressed the maximum effect of histamine (pD'2 5.55) and also slightly increased the concentration of histamine producing the half-maximum effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Lymphocyte crawling and transendothelial migration require chemokine triggering of high-affinity LFA-1 integrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Ziv; Shinder, Vera; Klein, Eugenia; Grabovsky, Valentin; Yeger, Orna; Geron, Erez; Montresor, Alessio; Bolomini-Vittori, Matteo; Feigelson, Sara W; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Laudanna, Carlo; Shakhar, Guy; Alon, Ronen

    2009-03-20

    Endothelial chemokines are instrumental for integrin-mediated lymphocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM). By dissecting how chemokines trigger lymphocyte integrins to support shear-resistant motility on and across cytokine-stimulated endothelial barriers, we found a critical role for high-affinity (HA) LFA-1 integrin in lymphocyte crawling on activated endothelium. Endothelial-presented chemokines triggered HA-LFA-1 and adhesive filopodia at numerous submicron dots scattered underneath crawling lymphocytes. Shear forces applied to endothelial-bound lymphocytes dramatically enhanced filopodia density underneath crawling lymphocytes. A fraction of the adhesive filopodia invaded the endothelial cells prior to and during TEM and extended large subluminal leading edge containing dots of HA-LFA-1 occupied by subluminal ICAM-1. Memory T cells generated more frequent invasive filopodia and transmigrated more rapidly than their naive counterparts. We propose that shear forces exerted on HA-LFA-1 trigger adhesive and invasive filopodia at apical endothelial surfaces and thereby promote lymphocyte crawling and probing for TEM sites.

  15. Specific high-affinity binding of fatty acids to epidermal cytosolic proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, H.; Chung, W.L.; Mukhtar, H. (Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, OH (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Cytosol from rat, mouse, and human skin or rat epidermis was incubated with (3H)arachidonic acid, (14C)retinoic acid, (14C)oleic acid, (3H)leukotriene A4, (3H)prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or (3H) 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), and protein-bound ligands were separated using Lipidex-1000 at 4C to assess the binding specificity. The binding of oleic acid and arachidonic acid with rat epidermal cytosol was rapid, saturable, and reversible. Binding of oleic acid was competed out with the simultaneous addition of other ligands and found to be in the following order: arachidonic acid greater than oleic acid greater than linoleic acid greater than lauric acid greater than leukotriene A4 greater than 15-HETE = PGE1 greater than PGE2 = PGF2. Scatchard analysis of the binding with arachidonic acid, oleic acid, and retinoic acid revealed high-affinity binding sites with the dissociation constant in the nM range. SDS-PAGE analysis of the oleic acid-bound epidermal cytosolic protein(s) revealed maximum binding at the 14.5 kDa region. The presence of the fatty acid-binding protein in epidermal cytosol and its binding to fatty acids and retinoic acid may be of significance both in the trafficking and the metabolism of fatty acids and retinoids across the skin.

  16. Fc-Binding Ligands of Immunoglobulin G: An Overview of High Affinity Proteins and Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weonu Choe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing application of antibodies has inspired the development of several novel methods to isolate and target antibodies using smart biomaterials that mimic the binding of Fc-receptors to antibodies. The Fc-binding domain of antibodies is the primary binding site for e.g., effector proteins and secondary antibodies, whereas antigens bind to the Fab region. Protein A, G, and L, surface proteins expressed by pathogenic bacteria, are well known to bind immunoglobulin and have been widely exploited in antibody purification strategies. Several difficulties are encountered when bacterial proteins are used in antibody research and application. One of the major obstacles hampering the use of bacterial proteins is sample contamination with trace amounts of these proteins, which can invoke an immune response in the host. Many research groups actively develop synthetic ligands that are able to selectively and strongly bind to antibodies. Among the reported ligands, peptides that bind to the Fc-domain of antibodies are attractive tools in antibody research. Besides their use as high affinity ligands in antibody purification chromatography, Fc-binding peptides are applied e.g., to localize antibodies on nanomaterials and to increase the half-life of proteins in serum. In this review, recent developments of Fc-binding peptides are presented and their binding characteristics and diverse applications are discussed.

  17. (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine selectively identifies a high affinity population of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the rat cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, M.; Roeske, W.R.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1982-11-01

    The specific binding of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine was investigated in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, and heart. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine in the cerebral cortex as defined by displacement with atropine sulfate (1..mu..M) was of high affinity (K/sub d/ = 4-10 nM, receptor density = 1.06 pmoles/mg protein), stereoselective, and competitive with drugs specific for the muscarinic receptor. In contrast, few (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine binding sites were demonstrated in cerebellar and heart homogenates.

  18. ZK91587: a novel synthetic antimineralocorticoid displays high affinity for corticosterone (type I) receptors in the rat hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutanto, W.; de Kloet, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro cytosol binding assays have shown the properties of binding of a novel steroid, ZK91587 (15..beta.., 16..beta..b-methylene-mexrenone) in the brain of rats. Scatchard and Woolf analyses of the binding data reveal the binding of (/sup 3/H) ZK91587 to the total hippocampal coritcosteroid receptor sites with high affinity, and low capacity. When 100-fold excess RU28362 was included simultaneously with (/sup 3/H) ZK91587, the labelled steroid binds with the same affinity and capacity. Relative binding affinities (RBA) of various steroids for the Type I or Type II corticosteroid receptor in these animals are: Type I: ZK91587 = corticosterone (B) > cortisol (F); Type II: B > F >>> ZK91587. In the binding kinetic study, ZK91587 has a high association rate of binding in the rat. The steroid dissociates following a one slope pattern, indicating, the present data demonstrate that in the rat hippocampus, ZK91587 binds specifically to the Type I (corticosterone-preferring/mineralocorticoid-like receptor.

  19. Identification of 9-fluoro substituted (-)-cytisine derivatives as ligands with high affinity for nicotinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houllier, Nicolas; Gopisetti, JaganMohan; Lestage, Pierre; Lasne, Marie-Claire; Rouden, Jacques

    2010-11-15

    (-)-9-Fluorocytisine, (-)-9-methylcytisine and (-)-9-trifluoromethylcytisine were synthesized from the natural product (-)-cytisine. 9-Methyl and 9-trifluoromethyl cytisines display a remarkable affinity at the α(4)β(2) nicotinic receptor subtype (0.2 nM) with a high selectivity versus the α(7) nAChR subtype. Comparison of the affinity values suggests that the size of the substituent at the 9 position of (-)-cytisine seems more important than electronic factors for efficient binding and selectivity at α(4)β(2) nAChRs.

  20. High-affinity olfactory receptor for the death-associated odor cadaverine

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cadaverine and putrescine, two diamines emanating from decaying flesh, are strongly repulsive odors to humans but serve as innate attractive or social cues in other species. Here we show that zebrafish, a vertebrate model system, exhibit powerful and innate avoidance behavior to both diamines, and identify a high-affinity olfactory receptor for cadaverine.

  1. Isolation and cloning of the gene encoding high affinity phosphate transporter in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    High affinity phosphate transporter plays an important role in plant adapting to low phosphorus. Isolation of genes coding this kind of protein has attracted worldwide scholars to accomplish. We aimed to isolate the gene and transfer it to target plants for breeding.

  2. Influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient of rubber at high sliding velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2004-01-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient of a rubber body onto a solid surface at high speeds. The roughness is characterized by the rms amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent H. It is shown that the friction

  3. Supramolecular surface immobilization of knottin derivatives for dynamic display of high affinity binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankaran, S.; Ruiter, de M.V.; Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Jonkheijm, P.

    2015-01-01

    Knottins are known as a robust and versatile class of miniprotein scaffolds for the presentation of high-affinity binding peptides; however, to date their application in biomaterials, biological coatings, and surface applications have not been explored. We have developed a strategy to recombinantly

  4. N-Oxide analogs of WAY-100635 : new high affinity 5-HT (1A) receptor antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler - Marchais, Sandrine; Nowicki, B; Pike, VW; Halldin, C; Sandell, J; Chou, YH; Gulyas, B; Brennum, LT; Farde, L; Wikstrom, H V

    2005-01-01

    WAY-100635 [N-(2-(1-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazinyl)ethyl))-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide] 1 and its O-des-methyl derivative DWAY 2 are well-known high affinity 5-HT1A receptor antagonists. which when labeled with carbon-II (beta(+): t(1/2) 20.4min) in the carbonyl group are effective radiol

  5. N-Oxide analogs of WAY-100635 : new high affinity 5-HT1A receptor antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchais-Oberwinkler, S; Nowicki, B; Pike, VW; Halldin, C; Sandell, J; Chou, YH; Gulyas, B; Brennum, LT; Farde, L; Wikstrom, HV

    2005-01-01

    WAY-100635 [N-(2-(1-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazinyl)ethyl))-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide] 1 and its O-des-methyl derivative DWAY 2 are well-known high affinity 5-HT1A receptor antagonists. which when labeled with carbon-II (beta(+): t(1/2) 20.4min) in the carbonyl group are effective radiol

  6. Supramolecular surface immobilization of knottin derivatives for dynamic display of high affinity binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankaran, S.; de Ruiter, Mark Vincent; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Knottins are known as a robust and versatile class of miniprotein scaffolds for the presentation of high-affinity binding peptides; however, to date their application in biomaterials, biological coatings, and surface applications have not been explored. We have developed a strategy to recombinantly

  7. High affinity, bioavailable 3-amino-1,4-benzodiazepine-based gamma-secretase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Andrew P; Nadin, Alan; Talbot, Adam C; Clarke, Earl E; Harrison, Timothy; Lewis, Huw D; Reilly, Michael; Wrigley, Jonathan D J; Castro, José L

    2003-11-17

    In this paper, we describe the development of a novel series of high affinity, orally bioavailable 3-amino-1,4 benzodiazepine-based gamma-secretase inhibitors for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We disclose structure-activity relationships based around the 1, 3 and 5 positions of the benzodiazepine core structure.

  8. High Affinity Iron Permease is Required for Virulence of Rhizopus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus oryzae is the most common cause of mucormycosis. Clinical and animal model data clearly demonstrate that the presence of elevated available serum iron predisposes the host to develop mucormycosis. The high affinity iron permease gene (rFTR1) is required for R. oryzae iron transport in iro...

  9. The dual aptamer approach: rational design of a high-affinity FAD aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, T; Holder, I T; Hartig, J S

    2016-01-14

    A design strategy for high-affinity aptamers of complex biomolecules is presented. We developed an RNA with FAD-binding properties by combining known ATP- and FMN-aptamers. Cooperative binding of FAD was shown by SPR spectroscopy and fluorescence assays. The strategy should be transferable to several other biomolecules.

  10. Selective affinity of the benzodiazepines quazepam and 2-oxo-quazepam for BZ1 binding site and demonstration of H-2-oxo-quazepam as a BZ1 selective radioligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billard, W.; Crosby, G.; Iorio, L.; Chipkin, R.; Barnett, A.

    1988-01-01

    Quazepam and 2-oxo-quazepam are novel benzodiazepines containing a trifluoroethyl substituent on the ring nitrogen at position number1. Detailed competition binding experiments (25 to 30 concs.) at 4/sup 0/C were undertaken with these compounds versus /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam using synaptic membranes from rat cortex or cerebellum. Unlike other benzodiazepines, both quazepam and 2-oxo-quazepam distinguished two populations of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam binding sites in rat cortex which were present in roughly equal proportions and for which the compounds displayed a greater than 20-fold difference in affinity. In cerebellum, no such discrimination of sites was noted for 2-oxo-quazepam, but quazepam did distinguish a small, low affinity population of sites. /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quazepam was prepared and used in competition studies to substantiate the conclusion that these compounds discriminate two populations of benzodiazepine sites in rat cortex. This new radioligand was shown to specifically label BZ binding sites with high affinity in a saturable manner. The competition experiments were then conducted using /sup 3/H-2-oxo-quazepam at a radioligand concentration sufficiently low to ensure that only the higher affinity binding sites which 2-oxo-quazepam discriminates would be occupied. 15 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Involvement of nitrogen functional groups in high-affinity copper binding in tomato and wheat root apoplasts: spectroscopic and thermodynamic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigues, Stéphanie; Bravin, Matthieu N; Garnier, Cédric; Masion, Armand; Chevassus-Rosset, Claire; Cazevieille, Patrick; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic groups located in plant cell walls (CW) are generally considered to be the main copper binding sites in plant roots, despite the presence of other functional groups. The aim of this study was to investigate sites responsible for copper binding in root apoplasts, i.e. CW and outer surface of the plasma membrane (PM) continuum. Binding sites in root apoplasts were investigated by comparing isolated CW of a monocotyledon (Triticum aestivum L.) and dicotyledon (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crop with their respective whole roots. Copper speciation was examined by X-ray absorption (XAS) and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies while the affinity of ligands involved in copper binding was investigated by modeling copper sorption isotherms. Homogeneous speciation and binding of copper was found in wheat and tomato root apoplasts. Only Cu-N and Cu-O bonds were detected in wheat and tomato root apoplasts. Nitrogen/oxygen ligands were identified in slightly higher proportions (40-70%) than single oxygen ligands. Furthermore, low- and high-affinity binding sites contributed in an almost equivalent proportion to copper binding in root apoplasts. The high-affinity N functional groups embedded in root apoplasts participated in copper binding in the same magnitude than the low-affinity carboxylic groups.

  12. A high affinity monoclonal antibody recognizing the light chain of human coagulating factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarial, Sheila; Asadi, Farzad; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Hadavi, Reza; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudian, Jafar; Taghizadeh-Jahed, Masoud; Shokri, Fazel; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

    2012-12-01

    Factor VII (FVII) is a serine protease-coagulating element responsible for the initiation of an extrinsic pathway of clot formation. Here we generated and characterized a high affinity monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes human FVII. Recombinant human FVII (rh-FVII) was used for the production of a monoclonal antibody using BALB/c mice. The specificity of the antibody was determined by Western blot using plasma samples from human, mouse, sheep, goat, bovine, rabbit, and rat. Furthermore, the antibody was used to detect transiently expressed rh-FVII in BHK21 cell line using Western blot and sandwich ELISA. A mouse IgG1 (kappa chain) monoclonal antibody clone 1F1-B11 was produced against rh-FVII. The affinity constant (K(aff)) of the antibody was calculated to be 6.4×10(10) M(-1). The antibody could specifically recognize an epitope on the light chain of hFVII, with no reactivity with factor VII from several other animals. In addition, transiently expressed rh-FVII in BHK21 cells was recognized by 1F1-B11. The high affinity as well as the specificity of 1F1-B11 for hFVII will facilitate the affinity purification of hFVII and also production of FVII deficient plasma and minimizes the risk of bovine FVII contamination when fetal bovine serum-supplemented media are used for production and subsequent purification of rh-FVII.

  13. Molecular basis for the high-affinity binding and stabilization of firefly luciferase by PTC124

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auld, Douglas S.; Lovell, Scott; Thorne, Natasha; Lea, Wendy A.; Maloney, David J.; Shen, Min; Rai, Ganesha; Battaile, Kevin P.; Thomas, Craig J.; Simeonov, Anton; Hanzlik, Robert P.; Inglese, James (NIH); (Kansas); (HWMRI)

    2010-04-07

    Firefly luciferase (FLuc), an ATP-dependent bioluminescent reporter enzyme, is broadly used in chemical biology and drug discovery assays. PTC124 Ataluren; (3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid) discovered in an FLuc-based assay targeting nonsense codon suppression, is an unusually potent FLuc-inhibitor. Paradoxically, PTC124 and related analogs increase cellular FLuc activity levels by posttranslational stabilization. In this study, we show that FLuc inhibition and stabilization is the result of an inhibitory product formed during the FLuc-catalyzed reaction between its natural substrate, ATP, and PTC124. A 2.0 {angstrom} cocrystal structure revealed the inhibitor to be the acyl-AMP mixed-anhydride adduct PTC124-AMP, which was subsequently synthesized and shown to be a high-affinity multisubstrate adduct inhibitor (MAI; KD = 120 pM) of FLuc. Biochemical assays, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and near-attack conformer modeling demonstrate that formation of this novel MAI is absolutely dependent upon the precise positioning and reactivity of a key meta-carboxylate of PTC124 within the FLuc active site. We also demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of PTC124-AMP is relieved by free coenzyme A, a component present at high concentrations in luciferase detection reagents used for cell-based assays. This explains why PTC124 can appear to increase, instead of inhibit, FLuc activity in cell-based reporter gene assays. To our knowledge, this is an unusual example in which the 'off-target' effect of a small molecule is mediated by an MAI mechanism.

  14. Molecular basis for the high-affinity binding and stabilization of firefly luciferase by PTC124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Douglas S.; Lovell, Scott; Thorne, Natasha; Lea, Wendy A.; Maloney, David J.; Shen, Min; Rai, Ganesha; Battaile, Kevin P.; Thomas, Craig J.; Simeonov, Anton; Hanzlik, Robert P.; Inglese, James

    2010-01-01

    Firefly luciferase (FLuc), an ATP-dependent bioluminescent reporter enzyme, is broadly used in chemical biology and drug discovery assays. PTC124 (Ataluren; (3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid) discovered in an FLuc-based assay targeting nonsense codon suppression, is an unusually potent FLuc-inhibitor. Paradoxically, PTC124 and related analogs increase cellular FLuc activity levels by posttranslational stabilization. In this study, we show that FLuc inhibition and stabilization is the result of an inhibitory product formed during the FLuc-catalyzed reaction between its natural substrate, ATP, and PTC124. A 2.0 Å cocrystal structure revealed the inhibitor to be the acyl-AMP mixed-anhydride adduct PTC124-AMP, which was subsequently synthesized and shown to be a high-affinity multisubstrate adduct inhibitor (MAI; KD = 120 pM) of FLuc. Biochemical assays, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and near-attack conformer modeling demonstrate that formation of this novel MAI is absolutely dependent upon the precise positioning and reactivity of a key meta-carboxylate of PTC124 within the FLuc active site. We also demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of PTC124-AMP is relieved by free coenzyme A, a component present at high concentrations in luciferase detection reagents used for cell-based assays. This explains why PTC124 can appear to increase, instead of inhibit, FLuc activity in cell-based reporter gene assays. To our knowledge, this is an unusual example in which the “off-target” effect of a small molecule is mediated by an MAI mechanism. PMID:20194791

  15. Practical strategies for the evaluation of high-affinity protein/nucleic acid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Sarah E; Lewis, Karen A; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of binding interactions between proteins and nucleic acids is highly sensitive to a variety of experimental conditions. Optimization of these conditions is critical for obtaining high quality, reproducible data, particularly in the context of very high affinity interactions. Here, we discuss the practical considerations involved in optimizing the apparent binding constant of an interaction as measured by two common quantitative assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and double-filter binding when measuring extremely tight protein/nucleic acid interactions with sub-nanomolar binding affinities. We include specific examples from two telomere end-binding protein systems, Schizo -saccharomyces pombe Pot1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc13, to demonstrate potential experimental pitfalls and some useful strategies for optimization.

  16. Practical strategies for the evaluation of high-affinity protein/nucleic acid interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Altschuler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative evaluation of binding interactions between proteins and nucleic acids is highly sensitive to a variety of experimental conditions. Optimization of these conditions is critical for obtaining high quality, reproducible data, particularly in the context of very high affinity interactions. Here, we discuss the practical considerations involved in optimizing the apparent binding constant of an interaction as measured by two common quantitative assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and double-filter binding when measuring extremely tight protein/nucleic acid interactions with sub-nanomolar binding affinities. We include specific examples from two telomere end-binding protein systems, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Pot1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc13, to demonstrate potential experimental pitfalls and some useful strategies for optimization.

  17. High-throughput and multiplexed regeneration buffer scouting for affinity-based interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuijen, Karin P M; Schasfoort, Richard B; Wijffels, Rene H; Eppink, Michel H M

    2014-06-01

    Affinity-based analyses on biosensors depend partly on regeneration between measurements. Regeneration is performed with a buffer that efficiently breaks all interactions between ligand and analyte while maintaining the active binding site of the ligand. We demonstrated a regeneration buffer scouting using the combination of a continuous flow microspotter with a surface plasmon resonance imaging platform to simultaneously test 48 different regeneration buffers on a single biosensor. Optimal regeneration conditions are found within hours and consume little amounts of buffers, analyte, and ligand. This workflow can be applied to any ligand that is coupled through amine, thiol, or streptavidin immobilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng-Liang [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yao, Pei-Sen [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Pan, Ru-Jun [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yang, Chaoyong James, E-mail: cyyang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Kang, De-Zhi, E-mail: kdzy99988@163.com [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  19. Agonist high- and low-affinity states of dopamine D-2 receptors : methods of detection and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, Jan-Peter; Booij, Jan; Shalgunov, Vladimir; Elsinga, Philip; Michel, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine D-2 receptors, similar to other G-protein-coupled receptors, exist in a high- and low-affinity state for agonists. Based upon a review of the methods for detecting D-2 receptor agonist high-affinity states, we discuss alterations of such states in animal models of disease and the implicatio

  20. High-affinity binding of Chp1 chromodomain to K9 methylated histone H3 is required to establish centromeric heterochromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalch, Thomas; Job, Godwin; Noffsinger, Victoria J; Shanker, Sreenath; Kuscu, Canan; Joshua-Tor, Leemor; Partridge, Janet F

    2009-04-10

    In fission yeast, assembly of centromeric heterochromatin requires the RITS complex, which consists of Ago1, Tas3, Chp1, and siRNAs derived from centromeric repeats. Recruitment of RITS to centromeres has been proposed to depend on siRNA-dependent targeting of Ago1 to centromeric sequences. Previously, we demonstrated that methylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me) acts upstream of siRNAs during heterochromatin establishment. Our crystal structure of Chp1's chromodomain in complex with a trimethylated lysine 9 H3 peptide reveals extensive sites of contact that contribute to Chp1's high-affinity binding. We found that this high-affinity binding is critical for the efficient establishment of centromeric heterochromatin, but preassembled heterochromatin can be maintained when Chp1's affinity for H3K9me is greatly reduced.

  1. A pharmacological profile of the high-affinity GluK5 kainate receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møllerud, Stine; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm; Pickering, Darryl S

    2016-10-05

    Mouse GluK5 was expressed in Sf9 insect cells and radiolabelled with [(3)H]-kainate in receptor binding assays (Kd=6.9nM). Western immunoblotting indicated an Sf9 GluK5 band doublet corresponding to the glycosylated (128kDa) and deglycosylated (111kDa) protein, which was identical to the band pattern of native rat brain GluK5. A pharmacological profile of the high-affinity kainate receptor GluK5 is described which is distinct from the profiles of other kainate receptors (GluK1-3). The 27 tested ligands generally show a preferential affinity to GluK1 over GluK5, the exceptions being: dihydrokainate, (S)-5-fluorowillardiine, (S)-glutamate and quisqualate, where the affinity is similar at GluK1 and GluK5. In contrast, quisqualate shows 40-fold higher affinity at GluK5 over GluK3 whereas (S)-1-(2'-amino-2'-caboxyethyl)thienol[3,4-d]pyrimidin-2,4-dione (NF1231), (RS)-2-amino-3-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)propionate (ATPA), dihydrokainate and (2S,4R)-4-methyl-glutamate (SYM2081) have higher affinity at GluK3 compared to GluK5. Since some studies have indicated that GluK5 is associated with various diseases in the central nervous system (e.g. schizophrenia, temporal lobe epilepsy, bipolar disorder), selective GluK5 ligands could have therapeutic potential. The distinct pharmacological profile of GluK5 suggests that it would be possible to design ligands with selectivity towards GluK5.

  2. The C2 domains of granuphilin are high-affinity sensors for plasma membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhova, Tatyana A; Knight, Jefferson D

    2014-09-01

    Membrane-targeting proteins are crucial components of many cell signaling pathways, including the secretion of insulin. Granuphilin, also known as synaptotagmin-like protein 4, functions in tethering secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane prior to exocytosis. Granuphilin docks to insulin secretory vesicles through interaction of its N-terminal domain with vesicular Rab proteins; however, the mechanisms of granuphilin plasma membrane targeting and release are less clear. Granuphilin contains two C2 domains, C2A and C2B, that interact with the plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. The goal of this study was to determine membrane-binding mechanisms, affinities, and kinetics of both granuphilin C2 domains using fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Results indicate that both C2A and C2B bind anionic lipids in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. The C2A domain binds liposomes containing a physiological mixture of lipids including 2% PI(4,5)P2 or PI(3,4,5)P3 with high affinity (apparent K(d, PIPx) of 2-5 nM), and binds nonspecifically with moderate affinity to anionic liposomes lacking phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIPx) lipids. The C2B domain binds with sub-micromolar affinity to liposomes containing PI(4,5)P2 but does not have a measurable affinity for background anionic lipids. Both domains can be competed away from their target lipids by the soluble PIPx analog inositol-(1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate (IP6), which is a positive regulator of insulin secretion. Potential roles of these interactions in the docking and release of granuphilin from the plasma membrane are discussed.

  3. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Noy-Porat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, against which there is no available antidote. To date, the use of neutralizing antibodies is the most promising post-exposure treatment for ricin intoxication. The aim of this study was to isolate high affinity anti-ricin antibodies that possess potent toxin-neutralization capabilities. Two non-human primates were immunized with either a ricin-holotoxin- or subunit-based vaccine, to ensure the elicitation of diverse high affinity antibodies. By using a comprehensive set of primers, immune scFv phage-displayed libraries were constructed and panned. A panel of 10 antibodies (five directed against the A subunit of ricin and five against the B subunit was isolated and reformatted into a full-length chimeric IgG. All of these antibodies were found to neutralize ricin in vitro, and several conferred full protection to ricin-intoxicated mice when given six hours after exposure. Six antibodies were found to possess exceptionally high affinity toward the toxin, with KD values below pM (koff < 1 × 10−7 s−1 that were well correlated with their ability to neutralize ricin. These antibodies, alone or in combination, could be used for the development of a highly-effective therapeutic preparation for post-exposure treatment of ricin intoxication.

  4. Novel cyclen-based linear polymer as a high-affinity binding material for DNA condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG YongZhe; WANG Na; ZHANG Ji; LI Kun; ZHANG ZhongWei; LIN HongHui; YU XiaoQi

    2009-01-01

    A novel cyclen-based linear polyamine (POGEC) was designed and synthesized from the reaction be-tween 1,3-propanediol diglycidyl ether and 1,7-bis(diethoxyphosphory)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclod- odecane.High-affinity binding between POGEC and DNA was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the formed POGEC/DNA complex (termed polyplex) could be disassociated to release the free DNA through addition of the physiological concentration of NaCl solution. Fluorescence spectrum was used to measure the high-affinity binding and DNA con-densation capability of POGEC. Circular dichroism (CD) spectrum indicates that the DNA conformation did not change after binding to POEGC.

  5. Novel cyclen-based linear polymer as a high-affinity binding material for DNA condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A novel cyclen-based linear polyamine (POGEC) was designed and synthesized from the reaction between 1,3-propanediol diglycidyl ether and 1,7-bis(diethoxyphosphory)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclod-odecane. High-affinity binding between POGEC and DNA was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover,the formed POGEC/DNA complex (termed polyplex) could be disassociated to release the free DNA through addition of the physiological concentration of NaCl solution. Fluorescence spectrum was used to measure the high-affinity binding and DNA condensation capability of POGEC. Circular dichroism (CD) spectrum indicates that the DNA conformation did not change after binding to POEGC.

  6. Engineering high-affinity PD-1 variants for optimized immunotherapy and immuno-PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maute, Roy L; Gordon, Sydney R; Mayer, Aaron T; McCracken, Melissa N; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Ring, Nan Guo; Kimura, Richard; Tsai, Jonathan M; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Weissman, Irving L; Ring, Aaron M

    2015-11-24

    Signaling through the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) enables tumor progression by dampening antitumor immune responses. Therapeutic blockade of the signaling axis between PD-1 and its ligand programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) with monoclonal antibodies has shown remarkable clinical success in the treatment of cancer. However, antibodies have inherent limitations that can curtail their efficacy in this setting, including poor tissue/tumor penetrance and detrimental Fc-effector functions that deplete immune cells. To determine if PD-1:PD-L1-directed immunotherapy could be improved with smaller, nonantibody therapeutics, we used directed evolution by yeast-surface display to engineer the PD-1 ectodomain as a high-affinity (110 pM) competitive antagonist of PD-L1. In contrast to anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies, high-affinity PD-1 demonstrated superior tumor penetration without inducing depletion of peripheral effector T cells. Consistent with these advantages, in syngeneic CT26 tumor models, high-affinity PD-1 was effective in treating both small (50 mm(3)) and large tumors (150 mm(3)), whereas the activity of anti-PD-L1 antibodies was completely abrogated against large tumors. Furthermore, we found that high-affinity PD-1 could be radiolabeled and applied as a PET imaging tracer to efficiently distinguish between PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative tumors in living mice, providing an alternative to invasive biopsy and histological analysis. These results thus highlight the favorable pharmacology of small, nonantibody therapeutics for enhanced cancer immunotherapy and immune diagnostics.

  7. Nuclear Choline Acetyltransferase Activates Transcription of a High-affinity Choline Transporter*

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Akinori; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Nishimura, Masaki; YASUHARA, Osamu; Saito, Naoaki; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) synthesizes the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, at cholinergic nerve terminals. ChAT contains nuclear localization signals and is also localized in the nuclei of neural and non-neuronal cells. Nuclear ChAT might have an as yet unidentified function, such as transcriptional regulation. In this study, we investigated the alteration of candidate gene transcription by ChAT. We chose high affinity choline transporter (CHT1) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter ...

  8. Enhanced selection of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells following cyclophosphamide treatment in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kawabata

    Full Text Available A major goal for the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with cytotoxic therapies is the induction of long-term remission. There is, however, a paucity of information concerning the effects of these therapies on the reconstituting B cell repertoire. Since there is recent evidence suggesting that B cell lymphopenia might attenuate negative selection of autoreactive B cells, we elected to investigate the effects of cyclophosphamide on the selection of the re-emerging B cell repertoire in wild type mice and transgenic mice that express the H chain of an anti-DNA antibody. The reconstituting B cell repertoire in wild type mice contained an increased frequency of DNA-reactive B cells; in heavy chain transgenic mice, the reconstituting repertoire was characterized by an increased frequency of mature, high affinity DNA-reactive B cells and the mice expressed increased levels of serum anti-DNA antibodies. This coincided with a significant increase in serum levels of BAFF. Treatment of transgene-expressing mice with a BAFF blocking agent or with DNase to reduce exposure to autoantigen limited the expansion of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells during B cell reconstitution. These studies suggest that during B cell reconstitution, not only is negative selection of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells impaired by increased BAFF, but also that B cells escaping negative selection are positively selected by autoantigen. There are significant implications for therapy.

  9. [3H]ATPA: a high affinity ligand for GluR5 kainate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, K; Legutko, B; Rizkalla, G; Deverill, M; Hawes, C R; Ellis, G J; Stensbol, T B; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P; Skolnick, P; Bleakman, D

    1999-12-01

    The pharmacological properties of [3H]ATPA ((RS)-2-amino-3(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid) are described. ATPA is a tert-butyl analogue of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid) that has been shown to possess high affinity for the GluR5 subunit of kainate receptors. [3H]ATPA exhibits saturable, high affinity binding to membranes expressing human GluR5 (GluR5) kainate receptors (Kd approximately 13 nM). No specific binding was observed in membranes expressing GluR2 and GluR6 receptors. Several compounds known to interact with the GluR5 kainate receptor inhibited [3H]ATPA binding with potencies similar to those obtained for competition of [3H]kainate binding to GluR5. Saturable, high affinity [3H]ATPA binding (Kd approximately 4 nM) was also observed in DRG neuron (DRG) membranes isolated from neonatal rats. The rank order potency of compounds to inhibit [3H]ATPA binding in rat DRG and GluR5 membranes were in agreement. These finding demonstrate that [3H]ATPA can be used as a radioligand to examine the pharmacological properties of GluR5 containing kainate receptors.

  10. Humanization of high-affinity antibodies targeting glypican-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Fan; Ho, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have generated a group of high-affinity mouse monoclonal antibodies targeting GPC3. Here, we report the humanization and testing of these antibodies for clinical development. We compared the affinity and cytotoxicity of recombinant immunotoxins containing mouse single-chain variable regions fused with a Pseudomonas toxin. To humanize the mouse Fvs, we grafted the combined KABAT/IMGT complementarity determining regions (CDR) into a human IgG germline framework. Interestingly, we found that the proline at position 41, a non-CDR residue in heavy chain variable regions (VH), is important for humanization of mouse antibodies. We also showed that two humanized anti-GPC3 antibodies (hYP7 and hYP9.1b) in the IgG format induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent-cytotoxicity in GPC3-positive cancer cells. The hYP7 antibody was tested and showed inhibition of HCC xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. This study successfully humanizes and validates high affinity anti-GPC3 antibodies and sets a foundation for future development of these antibodies in various clinical formats in the treatment of liver cancer. PMID:27667400

  11. Characterization of a genetically reconstituted high-affinity system for serotonin transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A.S.S.; Lam, D.M.K. (Baylor College of Medicine, Woodlands, TX (USA) Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Frnka, J.V.; Chen, D. (Baylor College of Medicine, Woodlands, TX (USA))

    1989-12-01

    By transfecting mouse fibroblast L-M cells with human genomic DNA, the authors have established and identified several clonal cell lines that stably express a high-affinity serotonin (5-HT)-uptake mechanism absent in untransfected host cells. One such cell line, L-S1, possesses features of 5-({sup 3}H)HT uptake similar to those previously characterized in the central nervous system and blood platelets: (i) specificity for 5-HT; (ii) antagonism by imipramine, a known inhibitor of high-affinity 5-HT uptake; (iii) both Na{sup +} and temperature dependence; (iv) kinetic saturability; and (v) high affinity for 5-HT. This cell line can be used to compare the relative efficacies of known blockers of 5-HT uptake and thereby offers a rapid and reliable assay system for testing novel inhibitors of this system. Since L-S1 contains stably integrated human DNA in its genome, they postulate that the observed 5-HT-uptake system resulted from the expression of human gene(s) coding for the 5-HT transporter. Thus, cell lines such as L-S1 may represent novel means for screening and developing therapeutic agents specific for neutrotransmitter-uptake systems as well as substrate for the cloning and elucidation of the genes encoding the various neurotransmitter transporters.

  12. Mannosylerythritol lipid, a yeast extracellular glycolipid, shows high binding affinity towards human immunoglobulin G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikegami Toru

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many attempts to develop new materials with stability and high affinity towards immunoglobulins. Some of glycolipids such as gangliosides exhibit a high affinity toward immunoglobulins. However, it is considerably difficult to develop these glycolipids into the practical separation ligand due to their limited amounts. We thus focused our attention on the feasible use of "mannosylerythritol lipid A", a yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, as an alternative ligand for immunoglobulins, and undertook the investigation on the binding between mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A and human immunoglobulin G (HIgG. Results In ELISA assay, MEL-A showed nearly the same binding affinity towards HIgG as that of bovine ganglioside GM1. Fab of human IgG was considered to play a more important role than Fc in the binding of HIgG by MEL-A. The bound amount of HIgG increased depending on the attached amount of MEL-A onto poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (polyHEMA beads, whereas the amount of human serum albumin slightly decreased. Binding-amount and -selectivity of HIgG towards MEL-A were influenced by salt species, salt concentration and pH in the buffer solution. The composite of MEL-A and polyHEMA, exhibited a significant binding constant of 1.43 × 106 (M-1 for HIgG, which is approximately 4-fold greater than that of protein A reported. Conclusions MEL-A shows high binding-affinity towards HIgG, and this is considered to be due to "multivalent effect" based on the binding molar ratio. This is the first report on the binding of a natural human antibody towards a yeast glycolipid.

  13. Femtomolar Zn(II) affinity in a peptide-based ligand designed to model thiolate-rich metalloprotein active sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petros, Amy K; Reddi, Amit R; Kennedy, Michelle L; Hyslop, Alison G; Gibney, Brian R

    2006-12-11

    data demonstrate that FeII-IGA and CoII-IGA have formation constant values of 5.0 x 10(8) and 4.2 x 10(11) M-1, which are highly attenuated at physiological pH values. The data also evince that the formation constant for ZnII-IGA is 8.0 x 10(15) M-1, a value that exceeds the tightest natural protein Zn(II)-binding affinities. The formation constant demonstrates that the metal-ligand binding energy of a ZnII(S-Cys)4 site can stabilize a metalloprotein by -21.6 kcal/mol. Rigorous thermodynamic analyses such as those demonstrated here are critical to current research efforts in metalloprotein design, metal-induced protein folding, and metal-ion trafficking.

  14. High affinity melatonin receptors in the vertebrate brain: implications for the control of the endogenous oscillatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschini, F; Stankov, B

    1994-01-01

    Currently, the melatonin receptor is depicted as a membrane-associated protein, linked to a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein), and thus the melatonin receptor represents a member of a receptor superfamily, acting through G-proteins in the first step of their signal-transduction pathways. Although on a number of occasions specific binding of radioactive melatonin has been demonstrated in a wide variety of tissues and organs, to date, high affinity G-protein-regulated melatonin binding sites, suggestive for a functional melatonin receptor, have been convincingly confirmed in the brain only. There is a significant species variation in the distribution of the melatonin receptor in the vertebrate brain. The limited number of studies prevents any definitive conclusion in terms of phylogeny, though generally speaking, the lower vertebrates' brains tend to express melatonin receptors with wider distribution. Two sites have been consistently found to express high density of melatonin receptors: the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis and the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). It must be pointed out, however, that there are some exceptions. Binding in the human pars tuberalis has not been reported, and apparently, the sheep and the mustelids' suprachiasmatic nuclei do not express detectable binding. The function of melatonin in pars tuberalis is unclear, and the control of the synthesis (and release) of paracrine factors that act at site(s) distant from the melatonin target cells, have been suggested.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Robotic high-throughput purification of affinity-tagged recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesler, Simone C; Weinzierl, Robert O J

    2015-01-01

    Affinity purification of recombinant proteins has become the method of choice to obtain good quantities and qualities of proteins for a variety of downstream biochemical applications. While manual or FPLC-assisted purification techniques are generally time-consuming and labor-intensive, the advent of high-throughput technologies and liquid handling robotics has simplified and accelerated this process significantly. Additionally, without the human factor as a potential source of error, automated purification protocols allow for the generation of large numbers of proteins simultaneously and under directly comparable conditions. The delivered material is ideal for activity comparisons of different variants of the same protein. Here, we present our strategy for the simultaneous purification of up to 24 affinity-tagged proteins for activity measurements in biochemical assays. The protocol described is suitable for the scale typically required in individual research laboratories.

  16. Bodilisant-a novel fluorescent, highly affine histamine h3 receptor ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasch, Miriam; Schwed, J Stephan; Paulke, Alexander; Stark, Holger

    2013-02-14

    A piperidine-based lead structure for the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R) was coupled with the BODIPY fluorophore and resulted in a strong green fluorescent (quantum yield, 0.92) hH3R ligand with affinity in the nanomolar concentration range (K i hH3R = 6.51 ± 3.31 nM), named Bodilisant. Screening for affinities at histamine and dopamine receptor subtypes showed high hH3R preference. Bodilisant was used for visualization of hH3R in hH3R overexpressing HEK-293 cells with fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, in native human brain tissues, Bodilisant showed clear and displaceable images of labeled hH3R.

  17. Cytisine derivatives as high affinity nAChR ligands: synthesis and comparative molecular field analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolotti, O; Canu Boido, C; Sparatore, F; Carotti, A

    2002-06-01

    A number of new N-substituted cytisine derivatives were prepared and tested, along with similar compounds already described by us and others, as high affinity neuronal acetylcholine receptor ligands. Structure-affinity relationships were discussed in the light of our recently proposed pharmacophore model for nicotinic receptor agonists. The most significant physicochemical interactions modulating the receptor-ligand binding were detected at the three dimensional (3D) level by means of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA). The best predictive PLS model was a single-field steric model showing good statistical figures: n = 17, Q2 = 0.717, s(ev) = 0.566, r2 = 0.942, s = 0.275.

  18. Expression of a Hybrid Human Superoxide Dismutase with a High Affinity for Heparin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A designed heparin-affinity of human Cu, Zn-SOD is described. The natural leader peptide of P.leiognathi Cu, Zn-SOD and a heparin-binding peptide containing a stretch of 7 Arg were fused to the N-terminal and the C-terminal of human Cu, Zn-SOD respectively. The resulted hybrid enzyme had not only a normal SOD activity but also a high affinity for heparin eluted on the heparin-Sepharose column at 0.4 mol/L NaCl. Some properties, such as the optimum pH, the thermostability and the half-life in the circulation of rats, were also analyzed.

  19. The integration of genomic and structural information in the development of high affinity plasmepsin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezami, Azin; Freire, Ernesto

    2002-12-04

    The plasmepsins are key enzymes in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasites responsible for malaria. Since plasmepsin inhibition leads to parasite death, these enzymes have been acknowledged to be important targets for the development of new antimalarial drugs. The development of effective plasmepsin inhibitors, however, is compounded by their genomic diversity which gives rise not to a unique target for drug development but to a family of closely related targets. Successful drugs will have to inhibit not one but several related enzymes with high affinity. Structure-based drug design against heterogeneous targets requires a departure from the classic 'lock-and-key' paradigm that leads to the development of conformationally constrained molecules aimed at a single target. Drug molecules designed along those principles are usually rigid and unable to adapt to target variations arising from naturally occurring genetic polymorphisms or drug-induced resistant mutations. Heterogeneous targets need adaptive drug molecules, characterised by the presence of flexible elements at specific locations that sustain a viable binding affinity against existing or expected polymorphisms. Adaptive ligands have characteristic thermodynamic signatures that distinguish them from their rigid counterparts. This realisation has led to the development of rigorous thermodynamic design guidelines that take advantage of correlations between the structure of lead compounds and the enthalpic and entropic components of the binding affinity. In this paper, we discuss the application of the thermodynamic approach to the development of high affinity (K(i) - pM) plasmepsin inhibitors. In particular, a family of allophenylnorstatine-based compounds is evaluated for their potential to inhibit a wide spectrum of plasmepsins.

  20. Production and Identification of High Affinity Monoclonal Antibodies Against Pesticide Carbofuran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To produce high-affinity monoclonal antibodies against pesticide carbofuran, and the develop immunochemical assays for people's health and environmental protection, the hapten 4-[[(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyloxy) carbonyl]-amino]-butanoic acid (BFNB) of carbofuran was synthesized and Balb/c mice were immunized by the hapten-carrier (BFNB-bovine serum albumin, BFNB-BSA) conjugates. The splenocytes of immunized mice were fused with Sp2/0 cells and the cultural supernatants of hybridoma cells were screened by the indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), based on BFNB-ovoalbumin conjugates (BFNB-OVA). Purified monoclonal antibody (McAb) was obtained from fluids of ascites, deposited by octanoic acid and ammonium sulfate. The affinity and the specificity of McAb were characterized by ELISA or indirect competitive ELISA. A hybridoma cell line (5D3) secreting anti-carbofuran McAb had been established. The titer of culture medium and ascites was up to 1:2.048 × 103 and 1:1.024 × 106, respectively, and the subtype of the McAb was IgG1. The affinity constant of the McAb was about 2.54 × 109 L mol-1, with an IC50 value of 1.18 ng mL-1 and a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL-1. Cross-reactivity studies showed that the McAb was quiet specific for carbofuran, as among the four analogous compounds, they were all hardly recognized (4.59 × 10-4% for 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranol and less than 3.0 × 10-4% for others). The prepared McAb had a very high affinity and specificity,and it could be used to develop ELISA for rapid determination of carbofuran.

  1. The intervening domain from MeCP2 enhances the DNA affinity of the methyl binding domain and provides an independent DNA interaction site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Lanuza, Pilar M.; Morales-Chueca, Ignacio; Jorge-Torres, Olga C.; Vega, Sonia; Abian, Olga; Esteller, Manel; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) preferentially interacts with methylated DNA and it is involved in epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodelling. Mutations in MeCP2 are linked to Rett syndrome, the leading cause of intellectual retardation in girls and causing mental, motor and growth impairment. Unstructured regions in MeCP2 provide the plasticity for establishing interactions with multiple binding partners. We present a biophysical characterization of the methyl binding domain (MBD) from MeCP2 reporting the contribution of flanking domains to its structural stability and dsDNA interaction. The flanking disordered intervening domain (ID) increased the structural stability of MBD, modified its dsDNA binding profile from an entropically-driven moderate-affinity binding to an overwhelmingly enthalpically-driven high-affinity binding. Additionally, ID provided an additional site for simultaneously and autonomously binding an independent dsDNA molecule, which is a key feature linked to the chromatin remodelling and looping activity of MeCP2, as well as its ability to interact with nucleosomes replacing histone H1. The dsDNA interaction is characterized by an unusually large heat capacity linked to a cluster of water molecules trapped within the binding interface. The dynamics of disordered regions together with extrinsic factors are key determinants of MeCP2 global structural properties and functional capabilities. PMID:28139759

  2. The high-affinity peptidoglycan binding domain of Pseudomonas phage endolysin KZ144

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briers, Yves [Division of Gene Technology, Department of Biosystems, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 21, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schmelcher, Mathias; Loessner, Martin J. [Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, ETH Zuerich, Schmelzbergstrasse 7, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Hendrix, Jelle; Engelborghs, Yves [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Volckaert, Guido [Division of Gene Technology, Department of Biosystems, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 21, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lavigne, Rob, E-mail: rob.lavigne@biw.kuleuven.be [Division of Gene Technology, Department of Biosystems, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 21, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-05-29

    The binding affinity of the N-terminal peptidoglycan binding domain of endolysin KZ144 (PBD{sub KZ}), originating from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage {phi}KZ, has been examined using a fusion protein of PBD{sub KZ} and green fluorescent protein (PBD{sub KZ}-GFP). A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis of bound PBD{sub KZ}-GFP molecules showed less than 10% fluorescence recovery in the bleached area within 15 min. Surface plasmon resonance analysis confirmed this apparent high binding affinity revealing an equilibrium affinity constant of 2.95 x 10{sup 7} M{sup -1} for the PBD{sub KZ}-peptidoglycan interaction. This unique domain, which binds to the peptidoglycan of all tested Gram-negative species, was harnessed to improve the specific activity of the peptidoglycan hydrolase domain KMV36C. The chimeric peptidoglycan hydrolase (PBD{sub KZ}-KMV36C) exhibits a threefold higher specific activity than the native catalytic domain (KMV36C). These results demonstrate that the modular assembly of functional domains is a rational approach to improve the specific activity of endolysins from phages infecting Gram-negatives.

  3. Coordination features and affinity of the Cu²+ site in the α-synuclein protein of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, Christopher G; Walter, Eric D; Millhauser, Glenn L

    2011-03-22

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent age-related, neurodegenerative disorder, affecting >1% of the population over the age of 60. PD pathology is marked by intracellular inclusions composed primarily of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn). These inclusions also contain copper, and the interaction of Cu(2+) with α-syn may play an important role in PD fibrillogenesis. Here we report the stoichiometry, affinity, and coordination structure of the Cu(2+)-α-syn complex. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) titrations show that monomeric α-syn binds 1.0 equiv of Cu(2+) at the protein N-terminus. Next, an EPR competition technique demonstrates that α-syn binds Cu(2+) with a K(d) of ≈0.10 nM. Finally, EPR and electron spin echo modulation (ESEEM) applied to a suite of mutant and truncated α-syn constructs reveal a coordination sphere arising from the N-terminal amine, the Asp2 amide backbone and side chain carboxyl group, and the His50 imidazole. The high binding affinity identified here, in accord with previous measurements, suggests that copper uptake and sequestration may be a part of α-syn's natural function, perhaps modulating copper's redox properties. The findings further suggest that the long-range interaction between the N-terminus and His50 may have a weakening effect on the interaction of α-syn with lipid membranes, thereby mobilizing monomeric α-syn and hastening fibrillogenesis.

  4. CaRuby-Nano: a novel high affinity calcium probe for dual color imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, Mayeul; Wilms, Christian D; Bentkhayet, Asma; Marcaggi, Païkan; Couchman, Kiri; Charpak, Serge; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Häusser, Michael; Feltz, Anne; Mallet, Jean-Maurice

    2015-03-31

    The great demand for long-wavelength and high signal-to-noise Ca(2+) indicators has led us to develop CaRuby-Nano, a new functionalizable red calcium indicator with nanomolar affinity for use in cell biology and neuroscience research. In addition, we generated CaRuby-Nano dextran conjugates and an AM-ester variant for bulk loading of tissue. We tested the new indicator using in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrating the high sensitivity of CaRuby-Nano as well as its power in dual color imaging experiments.

  5. NK1 receptor fused to beta-arrestin displays a single-component, high-affinity molecular phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martini, Lene; Hastrup, Hanne; Holst, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    with low affinity against antagonists. In contrast, in the NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion protein, all ligands bound with similar affinity independent of the choice of radioligand and with Hill coefficients near unity. We conclude that the NK1 receptor in complex with arrestin is in a high-affinity, stable......Arrestins are cytosolic proteins that, upon stimulation of seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors, terminate signaling by binding to the receptor, displacing the G protein and targeting the receptor to clathrin-coated pits. Fusion of beta-arrestin1 to the C-terminal end of the neurokinin NK1 receptor...... Gq/G11 and Gs pathways. The NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion construct bound nonpeptide antagonists with increased affinity but surprisingly also bound two types of agonists, substance P and neurokinin A, with high, normal affinity. In the wild-type NK1 receptor, neurokinin A (NKA) competes for binding...

  6. Site-dependent atomic and molecular affinities of hydrocarbons, amines and thiols on diamond nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lin; Barnard, Amanda S.

    2016-04-01

    Like many of the useful nanomaterials being produced on the industrial scale, the surface of diamond nanoparticles includes a complicated mixture of various atomic and molecular adsorbates, attaching to the facets following synthesis. Some of these adsorbates may be functional, and adsorption is encouraged to promote applications in biotechnology and nanomedicine, but others are purely adventurous and must be removed prior to use. In order to devise more effective treatments it is advantageous to know the relative strength of the interactions of the adsorbates with the surface, and ideally how abundant they are likely to be under different conditions. In this paper we use a series of explicit electronic structure simulations to map the distribution of small hydrocarbons, amines and thiols on a 2.9 nm diamond nanoparticle, with atomic level resolution, in 3-D. We find a clear relationship between surface reconstructions, facet orientation, and the distribution of the different adsorbates; with a greater concentration expected on the (100) and (110) facets, particularly when the supersaturation in the reservoir is high. Adsorption on the (111) facets is highly unlikely, suggesting that controlled graphitization may be a useful stage in the cleaning and treatment of nanodiamonds, prior to the deliberate coating with functional adsorbates needed for drug delivery applications.

  7. High-aluminum-affinity silica is a nanoparticle that seeds secondary aluminosilicate formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravin Jugdaohsingh

    Full Text Available Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7 we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP. Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m(2 g(-1 and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates.

  8. Novel high-affinity and selective biaromatic 4-substituted gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) analogues as GHB ligands: design, synthesis, and binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høg, Signe; Wellendorph, Petrine; Nielsen, Birgitte; Frydenvang, Karla; Dahl, Ivar F; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Brehm, Lotte; Frølund, Bente; Clausen, Rasmus P

    2008-12-25

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a metabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and has been proposed to function as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. GHB is used in the treatment of narcolepsy and is a drug of abuse. GHB binds to both GABA(B) receptors and specific high-affinity GHB sites in brain, of which the latter have not been linked unequivocally to function, but are speculated to be GHB receptors. In this study, a series of biaromatic 4-substituted GHB analogues, including 4'-phenethylphenyl, 4'-styrylphenyl, and 4'-benzyloxyphenyl GHB analogues, were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically in a [3H](E,RS)-(6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzocyclohept-6-ylidene)acetic acid ([3H]NCS-382) binding assay and in GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor binding assays. The compounds were selective for the high-affinity GHB binding sites and several displayed Ki values below 100 nM. The affinity of the 4-[4'-(2-iodobenzyloxy)phenyl] GHB analogue 17b was shown to reside predominantly with the R-enantiomer (Ki = 22 nM), which has higher affinity than previously reported GHB ligands.

  9. Structure-affinity properties of a high-affinity ligand of FKBP12 studied by molecular simulations of a binding intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Olivieri

    Full Text Available With a view to explaining the structure-affinity properties of the ligands of the protein FKBP12, we characterized a binding intermediate state between this protein and a high-affinity ligand. Indeed, the nature and extent of the intermolecular contacts developed in such a species may play a role on its stability and, hence, on the overall association rate. To find the binding intermediate, a molecular simulation protocol was used to unbind the ligand by gradually decreasing the biasing forces introduced. The intermediate was subsequently refined with 17 independent stochastic boundary molecular dynamics simulations that provide a consistent picture of the intermediate state. In this state, the core region of the ligand remains stable, notably because of the two anchoring oxygen atoms that correspond to recurrent motifs found in all FKBP12 ligand core structures. Besides, the non-core regions participate in numerous transient intermolecular and intramolecular contacts. The dynamic aspect of most of the contacts seems important both for the ligand to retain at least a part of its configurational entropy and for avoiding a trapped state along the binding pathway. Since the transient and anchoring contacts contribute to increasing the stability of the intermediate, as a corollary, the dissociation rate constant [Formula: see text] of this intermediate should be decreased, resulting in an increase of the affinity constant [Formula: see text]. The present results support our previous conclusions and provide a coherent rationale for explaining the prevalence in high-affinity ligands of (i the two oxygen atoms found in carbonyl or sulfonyl groups of dissimilar core structures and of (ii symmetric or pseudo-symmetric mobile groups of atoms found as non-core moieties. Another interesting aspect of the intermediate is the distortion of the flexible 80 s loop of the protein, mainly in its tip region, that promotes the accessibility to the bound state.

  10. Contributions of the S100A9 C-terminal tail to high-affinity Mn(II) chelation by the host-defense protein human calprotectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Nakashige, Toshiki G; Gaillard, Aleth; Nolan, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-27

    Human calprotectin (CP) is an antimicrobial protein that coordinates Mn(II) with high affinity in a Ca(II)-dependent manner at an unusual histidine-rich site (site 2) formed at the S100A8/S100A9 dimer interface. We present a 16-member CP mutant family where mutations in the S100A9 C-terminal tail (residues 96-114) are employed to evaluate the contributions of this region, which houses three histidines and four acidic residues, to Mn(II) coordination at site 2. The results from analytical size-exclusion chromatography, Mn(II) competition titrations, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy establish that the C-terminal tail is essential for high-affinity Mn(II) coordination by CP in solution. The studies indicate that His103 and His105 (HXH motif) of the tail complete the Mn(II) coordination sphere in solution, affording an unprecedented biological His6 site. These solution studies are in agreement with a Mn(II)-CP crystal structure reported recently (Damo, S. M.; et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013, 110, 3841). Remarkably high-affinity Mn(II) binding is retained when either H103 or H105 are mutated to Ala, when the HXH motif is shifted from positions 103-105 to 104-106, and when the human tail is substituted by the C-terminal tail of murine S100A9. Nevertheless, antibacterial activity assays employing human CP mutants reveal that the native disposition of His residues is important for conferring growth inhibition against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Within the S100 family, the S100A8/S100A9 heterooligomer is essential for providing high-affinity Mn(II) binding; the S100A7, S100A9(C3S), S100A12, and S100B homodimers do not exhibit such Mn(II)-binding capacity.

  11. Strategy for affinity maturation of an antibody with high evolvability to (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl hapten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Koji; Shimizu, Takeyuki; Murakami, Akikazu; Kono, Ryo; Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Sagawa, Takuma; Yamato, Ichiro; Azuma, Takachika

    2007-03-01

    In order to quantitate the contribution of amino acid replacements to an increase in affinity during affinity maturation, we measured thermodynamic parameters of the antigen-antibody interaction for a group of anti-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl monoclonal antibodies whose differences in amino acid sequences had arisen only from somatic hypermutation. We prepared a common ancestor and hypothetical intermediate clones that might occur on the affinity maturation pathway, by employing site-directed mutagenesis. Isothermal calorimetric titration of the antigen-antibody reaction revealed that antibody evolution proceeds in two steps. The first step is driven by a decrease in enthalpy, in which two amino acid replacements in the VL region play an essential role. Further accumulation of amino acid replacements in VH and VL regions during the second step induce a progressive increase in affinity, which is driven by an increase in entropy, which has a cooperative mutational effect.

  12. Devices and approaches for generating specific high-affinity nucleic acid aptamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Kylan; Craighead, Harold G.

    2014-09-01

    High-affinity and highly specific antibody proteins have played a critical role in biological imaging, medical diagnostics, and therapeutics. Recently, a new class of molecules called aptamers has emerged as an alternative to antibodies. Aptamers are short nucleic acid molecules that can be generated and synthesized in vitro to bind to virtually any target in a wide range of environments. They are, in principal, less expensive and more reproducible than antibodies, and their versatility creates possibilities for new technologies. Aptamers are generated using libraries of nucleic acid molecules with random sequences that are subjected to affinity selections for binding to specific target molecules. This is commonly done through a process called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment, in which target-bound nucleic acids are isolated from the pool, amplified to high copy numbers, and then reselected against the desired target. This iterative process is continued until the highest affinity nucleic acid sequences dominate the enriched pool. Traditional selections require a dozen or more laborious cycles to isolate strongly binding aptamers, which can take months to complete and consume large quantities of reagents. However, new devices and insights from engineering and the physical sciences have contributed to a reduction in the time and effort needed to generate aptamers. As the demand for these new molecules increases, more efficient and sensitive selection technologies will be needed. These new technologies will need to use smaller samples, exploit a wider range of chemistries and techniques for manipulating binding, and integrate and automate the selection steps. Here, we review new methods and technologies that are being developed towards this goal, and we discuss their roles in accelerating the availability of novel aptamers.

  13. Combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and time-resolved luminescence for high affinity antibody-ligand interaction thermodynamics and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aweda, Tolulope A.; Meares, Claude F.

    2011-01-01

    For experiments using synthetic ligands as probes for biological experiments, it is useful to determine the specificity and affinity of the ligands for their receptors. As ligands with higher affinities are developed (KA >108 M−1; KD calorimetry measures heat produced or consumed during ligand binding, and also provides the equilibrium binding constant. However, as normally practiced, its range is limited. Displacement titration, where a competing weaker ligand is used to lower the apparent affinity of the stronger ligand, can be used to determine the binding affinity as well as the complete thermodynamic data for ligand-antibody complexes with very high affinity. These equilibrium data have been combined with kinetic measurements to yield the rate constants as well. We describe this methodology, using as an example antibody 2D12.5, which captures yttrium S-2-(4-aminobenzyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetate. PMID:21964396

  14. Human epidermal Langerhans cells express the high affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (Fc epsilon RI)

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) bearing immunoglobulin E (IgE) may be involved in the genesis of atopic disease. The identity of the IgE receptor(s) on LC remained unclear, although it represents a crucial point in understanding cellular events linked to the binding of allergens to LC via IgE. In this report, we demonstrate that epidermal LC express the high affinity receptor for the Fc fragment of IgE (Fc epsilon RI) which has, so far, only been described on mast c...

  15. A saxitoxin-binding aptamer with higher affinity and inhibitory activity optimized by rational site-directed mutagenesis and truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Hu, B; Gao, S X; Liu, D J; Sun, M J; Jiao, B H; Wang, L H

    2015-07-01

    Saxitoxin (STX), a member of the family of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, poses toxicological and ecotoxicological risks. To develop an analytical recognition element for STX, a DNA aptamer (APT(STX1)) was previously discovered via an iterative process known as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) by Handy et al. Our study focused on generating an improved aptamer based on APT(STX1) through rational site-directed mutation and truncation. In this study, we generated the aptamer, M-30f, with a 30-fold higher affinity for STX compared with APT(STX1). The Kd value for M-30f was 133 nM, which was calculated by Bio-Layer Interferometry. After optimization, we detected and compared the interaction of STX with aptamers (APT(STX1) or M-30f) through several techniques (ELISA, cell bioassay, and mouse bioassay). Both aptamers' STX-binding ability was demonstrated in all three methods. Moreover, M-30f performs better than its parent sequence with higher suppressive activity against STX. As a molecular recognition element, M-30f has good prospects for practical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Targeting protein-protein interactions with trimeric ligands: high affinity inhibitors of the MAGUK protein family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus B Nissen

    Full Text Available PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins contain three consecutive PDZ domains, hence we envisioned that targeting all three PDZ domains simultaneously would lead to more potent and potentially more specific interactions with the MAGUK proteins. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of trimeric ligands targeting all three PDZ domains of PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins, PSD-93, SAP-97 and SAP-102. Using our dimeric ligands targeting the PDZ1-2 tandem as starting point, we designed novel trimeric ligands by introducing a PDZ3-binding peptide moiety via a cysteine-derivatized NPEG linker. The trimeric ligands generally displayed increased affinities compared to the dimeric ligands in fluorescence polarization binding experiments and optimized trimeric ligands showed low nanomolar inhibition towards the four MAGUK proteins, thus being the most potent inhibitors described. Kinetic experiments using stopped-flow spectrometry showed that the increase in affinity is caused by a decrease in the dissociation rate of the trimeric ligand as compared to the dimeric ligands, likely reflecting the lower probability of simultaneous dissociation of all three PDZ ligands. Thus, we have provided novel inhibitors of the MAGUK proteins with exceptionally high affinity, which can be used to further elucidate the therapeutic potential of these proteins.

  17. A nitrogen-dependent switch in the high affinity ammonium transport in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Daniel; Ludewig, Uwe; Neuhäuser, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    Ammonium transporters (AMTs) are crucial for the high affinity primary uptake and translocation of ammonium in plants. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, the genomic set of AMT-type ammonium transporters comprises eight members. Only four genes were abundantly expressed in young seedlings, both in roots and shoots. While the expression of all AMTs in the shoot was not affected by the nitrogen availability, the dominating MtAMT1;1 gene was repressed by nitrogen in roots, despite that cellular nitrogen concentrations were far above deficiency levels. A contrasting de-repression by nitrogen was observed for MtAMT1;4 and MtAMT2;1, which were both expressed at intermediate level. Weak expression was found for MtAMT1;2 and MtAMT2;3, while the other AMTs were not detected in young seedlings. When expressed from their endogenous promoters, translational fusion proteins of MtAMT1;1 and MtAMT2;1 with green fluorescent protein were co-localized in the plasma membrane of rhizodermal cells, but also detected in cortical root layers. Both transporter proteins similarly functionally complemented a yeast strain that is deficient in high affinity ammonium transport, both at acidic and neutral pH. The uptake into yeast mediated by these transporters saturated with Km AMT1;1 = 89 µM and Km AMT2;1 = 123 µM, respectively. When expressed in oocytes, MtAMT1;1 mediated much larger (15)N-ammonium uptake than MtAMT2;1, but NH4 (+) currents were only recorded for MtAMT1;1. These currents saturated with a voltage-dependent Km = 90 µM at -80 mV. The cellular localization and regulation of the AMTs suggests that MtAMT1;1 encodes the major high affinity ammonium transporter gene in low nitrogen grown young M. truncatula roots and despite the similar localization and substrate affinity, MtAMT2;1 appears functionally distinct and more important at higher nitrogen supply.

  18. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan; Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Sen; Pan, Ru-Jun; Yang, Chaoyong James; Kang, De-Zhi

    2014-10-31

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher's attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with Kd 56±7.3nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  19. Dimerization mediates thermo-adaptation, substrate affinity and transglycosylation in a highly thermostable maltogenic amylase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Mehta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maltogenic amylases belong to a subclass of cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing enzymes and hydrolyze cyclodextrins more efficiently than starch unlike typical α-amylases. Several bacterial malto-genic amylases with temperature optima of 40-60°C have been previously characterized. The thermo-adaption, substrate preferences and transglycosylation aspects of extremely thermostable bacterial maltogenic amylases have not yet been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The recombinant monomeric and dimeric forms of maltogenic α-amylase (Gt-Mamy of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans are of 72.5 and 145 kDa, which are active optimally at 80°C. Extreme thermostability of this enzyme has been explained by analyzing far-UV CD spectra. Dimerization increases T1/2 of Gt-Mamy from 8.2 h to 12.63 h at 90°C and mediates its enthalpy-driven conformational thermostabilization. Furthermore, dime-rization regulates preferential substrate binding of the enzyme. The substrate preference switching of Gt-Mamy upon dimerization has been confirmed from the substrate-binding affinities of the enzyme for various high and low molecular weight substrates. There is an alteration in Km and substrate hydrolysis efficiency (Vmax/Km of the enzyme (for cyclodex-trins/starch upon dimerization. N-terminal truncation indicated the role of N-terminal 128 amino acids in the thermostabilization and modulation of substrate-binding affinity. This has been confirmed by molecular docking of β-cyclodextrin to Gt-Mamy that indicated the requirement of homodimer formation by the interaction of a few N-terminal residues of chain A with the catalytic residues of (α/β8 barrel of chain B and vice-versa for stable cyclodextrin binding. Site directed mutagenesis provided evidence for the role of N-terminal D109 at the dimeric interface in substrate affinity modulation and thermostabilization. The dimeric Gt-Mamy transglycosylates hydrolytic products of G4/G

  20. Effects of heterocyclic aromatic substituents on binding affinities at two distinct sites of somatostatin receptors. Correlation with the electrostatic potential of the substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vidya; Birzin, Elizabeth T; McVaugh, Cheryl T; Van Rijn, Rachel D; Rohrer, Susan P; Chicchi, Gary; Underwood, Dennis J; Thornton, Edward R; Smith, Amos B; Hirschmann, Ralph

    2003-05-08

    In our continuing program exploring glucose-based peptidomimetics of somatostatin (SRIF-14), we sought to improve the water solubility of our glycosides. This led to insights into the nature of the ligand binding sites at the SRIF receptor. Replacement of the C4 benzyl substituent in glucoside (+)-2 with pyridinylmethyl or pyrazin-2-ylmethyl congeners increased water solubility and enhanced affinity for the human SRIF subtype receptor 4 (sst4). We attribute this effect to hydrogen bond formation. The pyridin-3-ylmethyl substituent at C4, when combined with the imidazol-4-ylmethyl group at C2, generated (-)-19, which has the highest affinity of a glucose-based peptidomimetic at a human SRIF receptor to date (K(i) 53 +/- 23 nM, n = 6 at sst4). The C4 heterocyclic congeners of glucosides bearing a 1-methoxy substituent rather than an indole side chain at the anomeric carbon, such as (+)-16, also provided information about the Trp(8) binding pocket. We correlated the SARs at both the C4 and the Trp(8) binding pockets with calculations of the electrostatic potentials of the diverse C4 aromatic substituents using Spartan 3-21G(*) MO analysis. These calculations provide an approximate analysis of a molecule's ability to interact within a receptor binding site. Our binding studies show that benzene and indole rings, but not pyridinylmethyl nor pyrazin-2-ylmethyl rings, can bind the hydrophobic Trp(8) binding pocket of sst4. The Spartan 3-21G(*) MO analysis reveals significant negative electrostatic potential in the region of the pi-clouds for the benzene and indole rings but not for the pyridinylmethyl or pyrazin-2-ylmethyl congeners. Our data further demonstrate that the replacement of benzene or indole side chains by heterocyclic aromatic rings typified by pyridine and pyrazine not only enhances water solubility and hydrogen bonding capacity as expected, but can also profoundly diminish the ability of the pi-cloud of the aromatic substituent to interact with side chains

  1. SKF 525-A and cytochrome P-450 ligands inhibit with high affinity the binding of ( sup 3 H)dextromethorphan and. sigma. ligands to guinea pig brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.; Canoll, P.D.; Musacchio, J.M. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The DM{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub 1} site binds dextromethorphan (DM) and {sigma} receptor ligands. The broad binding specificity of this site and its peculiar subcellular distribution prompted us to explore the possibility that this site is a member of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily of enzymes. We tested the effects of the liver microsomal monooxygenase inhibitor SKF 525-A (Proadifen), and other P-450 substrates on the binding of ({sup 3}H)dextromethorphan, ({sup 3}H)3- (3-Hydroxyphenyl) -N- (1-propyl) piperidine and (+)-({sup 3}H)1,3-Di-o-tolyl-guanidine (({sup 3}H)DTG) to the guinea pig brain. SKF 525-A, l-lobeline and GBR-12909 inhibited the binding of the three labeled ligands with nM affinity. Each drug has identical nM K{sub i} values for the high-affinity site labeled by the three ligands. This indicated that they displaced the labeled ligands from the common DM{sub 1}{sigma}{sub 1} site. Debrisoquine and sparteine, prototypical substrates for liver debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase, displayed K{sub i} values of 9-13 and 3-4 {mu}M respectively against the three labeled ligands. These results, the broad specificity of the DM{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub 1} binding site, and its peculiar subcellular distribution, raises the possibility that this binding site is a member of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily of isozymes, rather than a neurotransmitter receptor.

  2. Rapid and efficient cancer cell killing mediated by high-affinity death receptor homotrimerizing TRAIL variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, C R; van der Sloot, A M; Natoni, A; Szegezdi, E; Setroikromo, R; Meijer, M; Sjollema, K; Stricher, F; Cool, R H; Samali, A; Serrano, L; Quax, W J

    2010-10-21

    The tumour necrosis factor family member TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells through the activation of death receptors 4 (DR4) and 5 (DR5) and is considered a promising anticancer therapeutic agent. As apoptosis seems to occur primarily via only one of the two death receptors in many cancer cells, the introduction of DR selectivity is thought to create more potent TRAIL agonists with superior therapeutic properties. By use of a computer-aided structure-based design followed by rational combination of mutations, we obtained variants that signal exclusively via DR4. Besides an enhanced selectivity, these TRAIL-DR4 agonists show superior affinity to DR4, and a high apoptosis-inducing activity against several TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant cancer cell lines in vitro. Intriguingly, combined treatment of the DR4-selective variant and a DR5-selective TRAIL variant in cancer cell lines signalling by both death receptors leads to a significant increase in activity when compared with wild-type rhTRAIL or each single rhTRAIL variant. Our results suggest that TRAIL induced apoptosis via high-affinity and rapid-selective homotrimerization of each DR represent an important step towards an efficient cancer treatment.

  3. Acylated heptapeptide binds albumin with high affinity and application as tag furnishes long-acting peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Middendorp, Simon J.; Wilbs, Jonas; Deyle, Kaycie; Heinis, Christian

    2017-07-01

    The rapid renal clearance of peptides in vivo limits this attractive platform for the treatment of a broad range of diseases that require prolonged drug half-lives. An intriguing approach for extending peptide circulation times works through a `piggy-back' strategy in which peptides bind via a ligand to the long-lived serum protein albumin. In accordance with this strategy, we developed an easily synthesized albumin-binding ligand based on a peptide-fatty acid chimera that has a high affinity for human albumin (Kd=39 nM). This ligand prolongs the elimination half-life of cyclic peptides in rats 25-fold to over seven hours. Conjugation to a peptide factor XII inhibitor developed for anti-thrombotic therapy extends the half-life from 13 minutes to over five hours, inhibiting coagulation for eight hours in rabbits. This high-affinity albumin ligand could potentially extend the half-life of peptides in human to several days, substantially broadening the application range of peptides as therapeutics.

  4. Discovery of Compounds that Positively Modulate the High Affinity Choline Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Parul; Armstrong, Emma J.; Jorgensen, Csilla C.; Piotrowski, Mary; Barthmes, Maria; Torella, Rubben; Johnston, Sarah E.; Maruyama, Yuya; Janiszewski, John S.; Storer, R. Ian; Skerratt, Sarah E.; Benn, Caroline L.

    2017-01-01

    Cholinergic hypofunction is associated with decreased attention and cognitive deficits in the central nervous system in addition to compromised motor function. Consequently, stimulation of cholinergic neurotransmission is a rational therapeutic approach for the potential treatment of a variety of neurological conditions. High affinity choline uptake (HACU) into acetylcholine (ACh)-synthesizing neurons is critically mediated by the sodium- and pH-dependent high-affinity choline transporter (CHT, encoded by the SLC5A7 gene). This transporter is comparatively well-characterized but otherwise unexplored as a potential drug target. We therefore sought to identify small molecules that would enable testing of the hypothesis that positive modulation of CHT mediated transport would enhance activity-dependent cholinergic signaling. We utilized existing and novel screening techniques for their ability to reveal both positive and negative modulation of CHT using literature tools. A screening campaign was initiated with a bespoke compound library comprising both the Pfizer Chemogenomic Library (CGL) of 2,753 molecules designed specifically to help enable the elucidation of new mechanisms in phenotypic screens and 887 compounds from a virtual screening campaign to select molecules with field-based similarities to reported negative and positive allosteric modulators. We identified a number of previously unknown active and structurally distinct molecules that could be used as tools to further explore CHT biology or as a starting point for further medicinal chemistry. PMID:28289374

  5. Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Alan; Foord, Steven M; Fraser, Neil J; Barnes, Ashley A; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Eilert, Michelle; Ignar, Diane M; Murdock, Paul R; Steplewski, Klaudia; Green, Andrew; Brown, Andrew J; Dowell, Simon J; Szekeres, Philip G; Hassall, David G; Marshall, Fiona H; Wilson, Shelagh; Pike, Nicholas B

    2003-03-14

    Nicotinic acid has been used clinically for over 40 years in the treatment of dyslipidemia producing a desirable normalization of a range of cardiovascular risk factors, including a marked elevation of high density lipoprotein and a reduction in mortality. The precise mechanism of action of nicotinic acid is unknown, although it is believed that activation of a G(i)-G protein-coupled receptor may contribute. Utilizing available information on the tissue distribution of nicotinic acid receptors, we identified candidate orphan receptors. The selected orphan receptors were screened for responses to nicotinic acid, in an assay for activation of G(i)-G proteins. Here we describe the identification of the G protein-coupled receptor HM74 as a low affinity receptor for nicotinic acid. We then describe the subsequent identification of HM74A in follow-up bioinformatics searches and demonstrate that it acts as a high affinity receptor for nicotinic acid and other compounds with related pharmacology. The discovery of HM74A as a molecular target for nicotinic acid may facilitate the discovery of superior drug molecules to treat dyslipidemia.

  6. High Affinity Antibodies against Influenza Characterize the Plasmablast Response in SLE Patients After Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaval Kaur

    Full Text Available Breakdown of B cell tolerance is a cardinal feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Increased numbers of autoreactive mature naïve B cells have been described in SLE patients and autoantibodies have been shown to arise from autoreactive and non-autoreactive precursors. How these defects, in the regulation of B cell tolerance and selection, influence germinal center (GC reactions that are directed towards foreign antigens has yet to be investigated. Here, we examined the characteristics of post-GC foreign antigen-specific B cells from SLE patients and healthy controls by analyzing monoclonal antibodies generated from plasmablasts induced specifically by influenza vaccination. We report that many of the SLE patients had anti-influenza antibodies with higher binding affinity and neutralization capacity than those from controls. Although overall frequencies of autoreactivity in the influenza-specific plasmablasts were similar for SLE patients and controls, the variable gene repertoire of influenza-specific plasmablasts from SLE patients was altered, with increased usage of JH6 and long heavy chain CDR3 segments. We found that high affinity anti-influenza antibodies generally characterize the plasmablast responses of SLE patients with low levels of autoreactivity; however, certain exceptions were noted. The high-avidity antibody responses in SLE patients may also be correlated with cytokines that are abnormally expressed in lupus. These findings provide insights into the effects of dysregulated immunity on the quality of antibody responses following influenza vaccination and further our understanding of the underlying abnormalities of lupus.

  7. High Affinity Antibodies against Influenza Characterize the Plasmablast Response in SLE Patients After Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kaval; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Smith, Kenneth; Huang, Min; Li, Lie; Pauli, Noel T.; Henry Dunand, Carole J.; Lee, Jane-Hwei; Morrissey, Michael; Wu, Yixuan; Joachims, Michelle L.; Munroe, Melissa E.; Lau, Denise; Qu, Xinyan; Krammer, Florian; Wrammert, Jens; Palese, Peter; Ahmed, Rafi; James, Judith A.; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Breakdown of B cell tolerance is a cardinal feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Increased numbers of autoreactive mature naïve B cells have been described in SLE patients and autoantibodies have been shown to arise from autoreactive and non-autoreactive precursors. How these defects, in the regulation of B cell tolerance and selection, influence germinal center (GC) reactions that are directed towards foreign antigens has yet to be investigated. Here, we examined the characteristics of post-GC foreign antigen-specific B cells from SLE patients and healthy controls by analyzing monoclonal antibodies generated from plasmablasts induced specifically by influenza vaccination. We report that many of the SLE patients had anti-influenza antibodies with higher binding affinity and neutralization capacity than those from controls. Although overall frequencies of autoreactivity in the influenza-specific plasmablasts were similar for SLE patients and controls, the variable gene repertoire of influenza-specific plasmablasts from SLE patients was altered, with increased usage of JH6 and long heavy chain CDR3 segments. We found that high affinity anti-influenza antibodies generally characterize the plasmablast responses of SLE patients with low levels of autoreactivity; however, certain exceptions were noted. The high-avidity antibody responses in SLE patients may also be correlated with cytokines that are abnormally expressed in lupus. These findings provide insights into the effects of dysregulated immunity on the quality of antibody responses following influenza vaccination and further our understanding of the underlying abnormalities of lupus. PMID:25951191

  8. High affinity mouse-human chimeric Fab against Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biplab Bose; Navin Khanna; Subrat K Acharya; Subrata Sinha

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Passive immunotherapy using antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been advocated in certain cases of Hepatitis B infection. We had earlier reported on the cloning and expression of a high affinity scFv derived from a mouse monoclonal (5S) against HBsAg. However this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes as it may elicit anti-mouse immune responses. Chimerization by replacing mouse constant domains with human ones can reduce the immunogenicity of this antibody.METHODS: We cloned the VH and VL genes of this mouse antibody; and fused them with CH1 domain of human IgG1 and CL domain of human kappa chain respectively. These chimeric genes were cloned into a phagemid vector. After initial screening using the phage display system, the chimeric Fab was expressed in soluble form in E. Coli.RESULTS: The chimeric Fab was purified from the bacterial periplasmic extract. We characterized the chimeric Fab using several in vitro techniques and it was observed that the chimeric molecule retained the high affinity and specificity of the original mouse monoclonal.This chimeric antibody fragment was further expressed in different strains of E> coli to increase the yield.CONCLUSION: We have generated a mouse-human chimeric Fab against HBsAg without any significant loss in binding and epitope specificity. This chimeric Fab fragment can be further modified to generate a fulllength chimeric antibody for therapeutic uses.

  9. AGP2 encodes the major permease for high affinity polyamine import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouida, Mustapha; Leduc, Anick; Poulin, Richard; Ramotar, Dindial

    2005-06-24

    Polyamines play essential functions in many aspects of cell biology. Plasma membrane transport systems for the specific uptake of polyamines exist in most eukaryotic cells but have been very recently identified at the molecular level only in the parasite Leishmania. We now report that the high affinity polyamine permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is identical to Agp2p, a member of the yeast amino acid transporter family that was previously identified as a carnitine transporter. Deletion of AGP2 dramatically reduces the initial velocity of spermidine and putrescine uptake and confers strong resistance to the toxicity of exogenous polyamines, and transformation with an AGP2 expression vector restored polyamine transport in agp2delta mutants. Yeast mutants deficient in polyamine biosynthesis required >10-fold higher concentrations of exogenous putrescine to restore cell proliferation upon deletion of the AGP2 gene. Disruption of END3, a gene required for an early step of endocytosis, increased the abundance of Agp2p, an effect that was paralleled by a marked up-regulation of spermidine transport velocity. Thus, AGP2 encodes the first eukaryotic permease that preferentially uses spermidine over putrescine as a high affinity substrate and plays a central role in the uptake of polyamines in yeast.

  10. Genetic evidence of a high-affinity cyanuric acid transport system in Pseudomonas sp. ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platero, Ana I; Santero, Eduardo; Govantes, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. ADP plasmid pADP-1 encodes the activities involved in the hydrolytic degradation of the s-triazine herbicide atrazine. Here, we explore the presence of a specific transport system for the central intermediate of the atrazine utilization pathway, cyanuric acid, in Pseudomonas sp. ADP. Growth in fed-batch cultures containing limiting cyanuric acid concentrations is consistent with high-affinity transport of this substrate. Acquisition of the ability to grow at low cyanuric acid concentrations upon conjugal transfer of pADP1 to the nondegrading host Pseudomonas putida KT2442 suggests that all activities required for this phenotype are encoded in this plasmid. Co-expression of the pADP1-borne atzDEF and atzTUVW genes, encoding the cyanuric acid utilization pathway and the subunits of an ABC-type solute transport system, in P. putida KT2442 was sufficient to promote growth at cyanuric acid concentrations as low as 50 μM in batch culture. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the atzTUVW gene products are involved in high-affinity transport of cyanuric acid.

  11. Integrin alphaVbeta6 is a high-affinity receptor for coxsackievirus A9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Outi; Susi, Petri; Stanway, Glyn; Hyypiä, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9), a member of the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae, possesses an integrin-binding arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif in the C terminus of VP1 capsid protein. CAV9 has been shown to utilize integrins alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 as primary receptors for cell attachment. While CAV9 RGD-mutants (RGE and RGDdel) are capable of infecting rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line, they grow very poorly in an epithelial lung carcinoma cell line (A549). In this study, the relationships between CAV9 infectivity in A549 and RD cells, receptor expression and integrin binding were analysed. A549 cells were shown to express both integrins alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6, whereas alphaVbeta6 expression was not detected on the RD cells. Native CAV9 but not RGE and RGDdel mutants bound efficiently to immobilized alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6. Adhesion of CAV9 but not RGE/RGDdel to A549 cells was also significantly higher than to RD cells. In contrast, no affinity or adhesion of bacterially produced VP1 proteins to the integrins or to the cells was detected. Function-blocking antibodies against alphaV-integrins blocked CAV9 but not CAV9-RGDdel infectivity, indicating that the viruses use different internalization routes; this may explain the differential infection kinetics of CAV9 and RGDdel. In an affinity assay, soluble alphaVbeta6, but not alphaVbeta3, bound to immobilized CAV9. Similarly, only soluble alphaVbeta6 blocked virus infectivity. These data suggest that CAV9 binding to alphaVbeta6 is a high-affinity interaction, which may indicate its importance in clinical infections; this remains to be determined.

  12. Cyr61/CCN1 displays high-affinity binding to the somatomedin B(1-44 domain of vitronectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo M B Francischetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyr61 is a member of the CCN (Cyr61, connective tissue growth, NOV family of extracellular-associated (matricellular proteins that present four distinct functional modules, namely insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP, von Willebrand factor type C (vWF, thrombospondin type 1 (TSP, and C-terminal growth factor cysteine knot (CT domain. While heparin sulphate proteoglycans reportedly mediate the interaction of Cyr61 with the matrix and cell surface, the role of other extracellular associated proteins has not been revealed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this report, surface plasmon resonance (SPR experiments and solid-phase binding assays demonstrate that recombinant Cyr61 interacts with immobilized monomeric or multimeric vitronectin (VTNC with K(D in the nanomolar range. Notably, the binding site for Cyr61 was identified as the somatomedin B domain (SMTB(1-44 of VTNC, which mediates its interaction with PAI-1, uPAR, and integrin alphav beta3. Accordingly, PAI-1 outcompetes Cyr61 for binding to immobilized SMTB(1-44, and Cyr61 attenuates uPAR-mediated U937 adhesion to VTNC. In contrast, isothermal titration calorimetry shows that Cyr61 does not display high-affinity binding for SMTB(1-44 in solution. Nevertheless, competitive ELISA revealed that multimeric VTNC, heat-modified monomeric VTNC, or SMTB(1-44 at high concentrations attenuate Cyr61 binding to immobilized VTNC, while monomeric VTNC was ineffective. Therefore, immobilization of VTNC exposes cryptic epitopes that recognize Cyr61 with high affinity, as reported for a number of antibodies, beta-endorphin, and other molecules. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that Cyr61 interacts with the SMTB(1-44 domain suggests that VTNC represent a point of anchorage for CCN family members to the matrix. Results are discussed in the context of the role of CCN and VTNC in matrix biology and angiogenesis.

  13. The ketamine analogue methoxetamine and 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine are high affinity and selective ligands for the glutamate NMDA receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L Roth

    Full Text Available In this paper we determined the pharmacological profiles of novel ketamine and phencyclidine analogues currently used as 'designer drugs' and compared them to the parent substances via the resources of the National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program. The ketamine analogues methoxetamine ((RS-2-(ethylamino-2-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexanone and 3-MeO-PCE (N-ethyl-1-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexanamine and the 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine, (1-[1-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexyl]piperidine and 1-[1-(4-methoxyphenylcyclohexyl]piperidine, were all high affinity ligands for the PCP-site on the glutamate NMDA receptor. In addition methoxetamine and PCP and its analogues displayed appreciable affinities for the serotonin transporter, whilst the PCP analogues exhibited high affinities for sigma receptors. Antagonism of the NMDA receptor is thought to be the key pharmacological feature underlying the actions of dissociative anaesthetics. The novel ketamine and PCP analogues had significant affinities for the NMDA receptor in radioligand binding assays, which may explain their psychotomimetic effects in human users. Additional actions on other targets could be important for delineating side-effects.

  14. Michael Acceptor Approach to the Design of New Salvinorin A-based High Affinity Ligands for the Kappa-Opioid Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polepally, Prabhakar R.; Huben, Krzysztof; Vardy, Eyal; Setola, Vincent; Mosier, Philip D.; Roth, Bryan L.; Zjawiony, Jordan K.

    2014-01-01

    The neoclerodane diterpenoid salvinorin A is a major secondary metabolite isolated from the psychoactive plant Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A has been shown to have high affinity and selectivity for the κ-opioid receptor (KOR). To study the ligand–receptor interactions that occur between salvinorin A and the KOR, a new series of salvinorin A derivatives bearing potentially reactive Michael acceptor functional groups at C-2 was synthesized and used to probe the salvinorin A binding site. The κ-, δ-, and μ-opioid receptor (KOR, DOR and MOR, respectively) binding affinities and KOR efficacies were measured for the new compounds. Although none showed wash-resistant irreversible binding, most of them showed high affinity for the KOR, and some exhibited dual affinity to KOR and MOR. Molecular modeling techniques based on the recently-determined crystal structure of the KOR combined with results from mutagenesis studies, competitive binding, functional assays and structure–activity relationships, and previous salvinorin A–KOR interaction models were used to identify putative interaction modes of the new compounds with the KOR and MOR. PMID:25193297

  15. Michael acceptor approach to the design of new salvinorin A-based high affinity ligands for the kappa-opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polepally, Prabhakar R; Huben, Krzysztof; Vardy, Eyal; Setola, Vincent; Mosier, Philip D; Roth, Bryan L; Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2014-10-06

    The neoclerodane diterpenoid salvinorin A is a major secondary metabolite isolated from the psychoactive plant Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A has been shown to have high affinity and selectivity for the κ-opioid receptor (KOR). To study the ligand-receptor interactions that occur between salvinorin A and the KOR, a new series of salvinorin A derivatives bearing potentially reactive Michael acceptor functional groups at C-2 was synthesized and used to probe the salvinorin A binding site. The κ-, δ-, and μ-opioid receptor (KOR, DOR and MOR, respectively) binding affinities and KOR efficacies were measured for the new compounds. Although none showed wash-resistant irreversible binding, most of them showed high affinity for the KOR, and some exhibited dual affinity to KOR and MOR. Molecular modeling techniques based on the recently-determined crystal structure of the KOR combined with results from mutagenesis studies, competitive binding, functional assays and structure-activity relationships, and previous salvinorin A-KOR interaction models were used to identify putative interaction modes of the new compounds with the KOR and MOR.

  16. Cyclic GMP-AMP Containing Mixed Phosphodiester Linkages Is An Endogenous High Affinity Ligand for STING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Xuewu; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Chuo; Chen, Zhijian J.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of microbial or self DNA in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a danger signal detected by the DNA sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), which catalyzes the production of cGAMP that in turn serves as a second messenger to activate innate immune responses. Here we show that endogenous cGAMP in mammalian cells contains two distinct phosphodiester linkages, one between 2′-OH of GMP and 5′-phosphate of AMP, and the other between 3′-OH of AMP and 5′-phosphate of GMP. This molecule, termed 2′3′-cGAMP, is unique in that it binds to the adaptor protein STING with a much greater affinity than cGAMP molecules containing other combinations of phosphodiester linkages. The crystal structure of STING bound to 2′3′-cGAMP revealed the structural basis of this high-affinity binding and a ligand-induced conformational change in STING that may underlie its activation. PMID:23747010

  17. Ga(+) Basicity and Affinity Scales Based on High-Level Ab Initio Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Oriana; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

    2015-10-26

    The structure, relative stability and bonding of complexes formed by the interaction between Ga(+) and a large set of compounds, including hydrocarbons, aromatic systems, and oxygen-, nitrogen-, fluorine and sulfur-containing Lewis bases have been investigated through the use of the high-level composite ab initio Gaussian-4 theory. This allowed us to establish rather accurate Ga(+) cation affinity (GaCA) and Ga(+) cation basicity (GaCB) scales. The bonding analysis of the complexes under scrutiny shows that, even though one of the main ingredients of the Ga(+) -base interaction is electrostatic, it exhibits a non-negligible covalent character triggered by the presence of the low-lying empty 4p orbital of Ga(+) , which favors a charge donation from occupied orbitals of the base to the metal ion. This partial covalent character, also observed in AlCA scales, is behind the dissimilarities observed when GaCA are compared with Li(+) cation affinities, where these covalent contributions are practically nonexistent. Quite unexpectedly, there are some dissimilarities between several Ga(+) -complexes and the corresponding Al(+) -analogues, mainly affecting the relative stability of π-complexes involving aromatic compounds.

  18. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDES CONTAINING DIRECT DYE WITH A HIGH AFFINITY FOR CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Yokota

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct dye with a high affinity for cellulose substrate was utilized as a cellulose anchor to promote retention of paper strengthening additives under various conditions associated with the wet end of a paper machine. Direct Red 28 (DR was covalently linked to anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM via a condensation reaction using water-soluble carbodiimide. The DR-conjugated A-PAM (DR-A-PAM demonstrated good retention efficiency, resulting in strength enhancement of handsheets. Anionic trash showed no interference with the performance of DR-A-PAM in the wet end, while the additive performance was sensitive to calcium ions. Surface plasmon resonance analysis gave useful information on the cellulose-anchoring ability of DR-A-PAM. Dye molecules were irreversibly adsorbed onto the cellulose substrate under aqueous conditions, while A-PAM possessed no significant affinity for cellulose. These results suggest that anionic DR moieties in DR-A-PAM molecules served as a cellulose-anchor, possibly due to multiple CH-π interaction between hydrophobic face of cellulose substrate and π-conjugated system of dye molecules. Such a unique interaction of direct dye and cellulose provides a new insight into the wet end system, and does not depend on conventional electrostatic attraction.

  19. Neutrophil recruitment limited by high-affinity bent β2 integrin binding ligand in cis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhichao; McArdle, Sara; Marki, Alex; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Gutierrez, Edgar; Engelhardt, Britta; Deutsch, Urban; Ginsberg, Mark; Groisman, Alex; Ley, Klaus

    2016-08-31

    Neutrophils are essential for innate immunity and inflammation and many neutrophil functions are β2 integrin-dependent. Integrins can extend (E(+)) and acquire a high-affinity conformation with an 'open' headpiece (H(+)). The canonical switchblade model of integrin activation proposes that the E(+) conformation precedes H(+), and the two are believed to be structurally linked. Here we show, using high-resolution quantitative dynamic footprinting (qDF) microscopy combined with a homogenous conformation-reporter binding assay in a microfluidic device, that a substantial fraction of β2 integrins on human neutrophils acquire an unexpected E(-)H(+) conformation. E(-)H(+) β2 integrins bind intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) in cis, which inhibits leukocyte adhesion in vitro and in vivo. This endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanism inhibits neutrophil aggregation, accumulation and inflammation.

  20. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Halawa, Mohamed Ibrahim; Xu, Guobao

    2016-10-12

    Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (-PO₃(2-)-Zr(4+)-) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRA)sensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IV)with ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV). After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV) and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV), ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A520nm/A650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945) with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP.

  1. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Halawa, Mohamed Ibrahim; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-01

    Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (–PO32−–Zr4+–) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRA)sensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IV)with ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV). After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV) and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV), ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A520nm/A650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945) with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP. PMID:27754349

  2. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Qi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zr(IV can form phosphate and Zr(IV (–PO32−–Zr4+– complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV with phosphate. Zr(IV can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, while adenosine triphosphate(ATP can prevent Zr(IV-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRAsensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IVwith ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV. After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV, ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A520nm/A650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945 with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP.

  3. Generation of high-affinity fully human anti-interleukin-8 antibodies from its cDNA by two-hybrid screening and affinity maturation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Azam, Mark; Lin, Yu-Huei; Sheridan, James; Wei, Shuanghong; Gupta, Gigi; Singh, Rakesh K; Pauling, Michelle H; Chu, Waihei; Tran, Antares; Yu, Nai-Xuan; Hu, Jiefeng; Wang, Wei; Long, Hao; Xiang, Dong; Zhu, Li; Hua, Shao-Bing

    2010-10-01

    We have developed a technology for rapidly generating novel and fully human antibodies by simply using the antigen DNA. A human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library was constructed in a yeast two-hybrid vector with high complexity. After cloning cDNA encoding the mature sequence of human interleukin-8 (hIL8) into the yeast two-hybrid system vector, we have screened the human scFv antibody library and obtained three distinct scFv clones that could specifically bind to hIL8. One clone was chosen for further improvement by a novel affinity maturation process using the error-prone PCR of the scFv sequence followed by additional rounds of yeast two-hybrid screening. The scFv antibodies of both primary and affinity-matured scFv clones were expressed in E. coli. All purified scFvs showed specific binding to hIL8 in reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation and ELISA assays. All scFvs, as well as a fully human IgG antibody converted from one of the scFv clones and expressed in the mammalian cells, were able to effectively inhibit hIL8 in neutrophil chemotaxis assays. The technology described can generate fully human antibodies with high efficiency and low cost.

  4. In vitro selection, characterization, and biosensing application of high-affinity cylindrospermopsin-targeting aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafey, Reda; Siaj, Mohamed; Zourob, Mohammed

    2014-09-16

    Contamination of freshwater with cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) represents a significant global concern for public health. The sensitive detection of CYN is necessary to effectively manage and control the treatment of water resources. Here we report a novel, highly sensitive label-free aptasensor for CYN analysis, using aptamers as specific receptors. We have selected the DNA aptamers from a diverse random library using the in vitro screening SELEX approach. The aptamers exhibited high affinity for CYN with Kd of nanomolar range. One aptamer exhibited conformational change upon CYN recognition (CD analysis) and was used to fabricate the label-free impedimetric aptasensor for CYN. A self-assembled monolayer from a disulfide-derivatized aptamer was formed on a gold electrode to fabricate the aptasensor. Upon CYN capturing to the aptasensor surface, a marked drop in the electron transfer resistance was obtained, which was used as the principle of detection of CYN. This resulted from the aptamer's conformational change induced by CYN recognition. The present aptasensor could detect CYN with the limit of detection as low as 100 pM and a wide linear range of 0.1 to 80 nM. When mounted on the gold surface, the aptamer exhibited a lower dissociation constant for CYN than that observed in the fluorescence assay, implying that the anchoring of the aptamer on the Au surface improved its affinity to CYN. Moreover, the aptasensor showed high specificity toward other coexistent cyanobacterial toxins of microcystin-LR and Anatoxin-a. Further biosensor designs will be generated using those aptamers for simple and sensitive CYN monitoring.

  5. High affinity germinal center B cells are actively selected into the plasma cell compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Tri Giang; Paus, Didrik; Chan, Tyani D.; Turner, Marian L.; Nutt, Stephen L.; Basten, Antony; Brink, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A hallmark of T cell–dependent immune responses is the progressive increase in the ability of serum antibodies to bind antigen and provide immune protection. Affinity maturation of the antibody response is thought to be connected with the preferential survival of germinal centre (GC) B cells that have acquired increased affinity for antigen via somatic hypermutation of their immunoglobulin genes. However, the mechanisms that drive affinity maturation remain obscure because of the difficulty i...

  6. Human single chain antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor:gene cloning, high-level expression, affinity maturation and bioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using antibody phage display technique,a human single chain antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been cloned.The antibody expression reached 45% of the total bacterial proteins.The purification and refolding of the antibody were completed in one step by using gel filtration chromatograph.ELISA analysis showed that the antibody not only specifically bound to human VEGF,but also competitively inhibited VEGF reacting with its receptors.In order to raise the affinity of the single chain antibody,its heavy chain variable region was randomly mutated using error-prone PCR and an antibody mutant library was constructed,from which a mutant with higher affinity was screened out.The three-dimensional structure and binding affinity of wild type and mutant antibody were compared.Our study provided a potential reagent for tumor angiogenic therapy and a significant model for antibody high-level expression and affinity maturation.

  7. Human single chain antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor: gene cloning, high-level expression, affinity maturation and bioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎锡蕴[1; 汤健[2; 吴小平[3; 王凤采[4; 李建生[5; 杨东玲[6

    2000-01-01

    Using antibody phage display technique, a human single chain antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been cloned. The antibody expression reached 45% of the total bacterial proteins. The purification and refolding of the antibody were completed in one step by using gel filtration chromatograph. ELISA analysis showed that the antibody not only specifically bound to human VEGF, but also competitively inhibited VEGF reacting with its receptors. In order to raise the affinity of the single chain antibody, its heavy chain variable region was randomly mutated using error-prone PCR and an antibody mutant library was constructed, from which a mutant with higher affinity was screened out. The three-dimensional structure and binding affinity of wild type and mutant antibody were compared. Our study provided a potential reagent for tumor angiogenic therapy and a significant model for antibody high-level expression and affinity maturation.

  8. High-affinity binding of southern African HIV type 1 subtype C envelope protein, gp120, to the CCR5 coreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Bernhard J; Coetsee, Marla; Van Der Watt, Pauline; Chan, Mei-Chi; Sperling, Karin M; Katz, Arieh A; Flanagan, Colleen A

    2008-12-01

    HIV-1 subtype C is the fastest spreading subtype worldwide and predominantly uses the CCR5 coreceptor, showing minimal transition to the X4 phenotype. This raises the possibility that envelope proteins of HIV-1 subtype C have structural features that favor interaction with CCR5. Preference for CCR5 could arise from enhanced affinity of HIV-1 subtype C for CCR5. To test this, we have characterized the interaction of gp120 envelope proteins from HIV-1 subtype C clones with CD4 and CCR5. Recombinant gp120 proteins from isolates of HIV-1 subtypes B and C were expressed, purified, and assessed in a CD4 binding assay and a CCR5 chemokine competition binding assay. All gp120 proteins bound to CD4-expressing cells, except one, 97ZA347ts, which had Arg substituted for the Cys239 in the conserved C2 loop. Reconstitution of Cys239, using site-directed mutagenesis, restored CD4 binding, while introducing Arg or Ser into position 239 of the functional Du151 gp120 protein abrogated CD4 binding. This shows that the Cys228-Cys239 disulfide bond of gp120 is required for high-affinity binding to CD4. Recombinant gp120 proteins from two HIV-1 subtype B clones bound CCR5 in the presence of CD4, while gp120 from the X4-tropic, HxB2, clone did not bind CCR5. gp120 from two functional HIV-1 subtype C clones, Du151 and MOLE1, bound CCR5 with high affinity in the presence of CD4 and Du151 showed significant CCR5 binding in the absence of CD4. A gp120 from a nonfunctional subtype C clone had lower affinity for CCR5. These results indicate that HIV-1 subtype C proteins have high affinity for CCR5 with variable dependence on CD4.

  9. Expression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity hexose transporter STP13 correlates with programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norholm, Morten H H; Nour-Eldin, Hussam H; Brodersen, Peter; Mundy, John; Halkier, Barbara A

    2006-04-17

    We report the biochemical characterization in Xenopus oocytes of the Arabidopsis thaliana membrane protein, STP13, as a high affinity, hexose-specific H(+)-symporter. Studies with kinase activators suggest that it is negatively regulated by phosphorylation. STP13 promoter GFP reporter lines show GFP expression only in the vascular tissue in emerging petals under non-stressed conditions. Quantitative PCR and the pSTP13-GFP plants show induction of STP13 in programmed cell death (PCD) obtained by treatments with the fungal toxin fumonisin B1 and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. A role for STP13 in PCD is supported by microarray data from e.g. plants undergoing senescence and a strong correlation between STP13 transcripts and the PCD phenotype in different accelerated cell death (acd11) mutants.

  10. Selection of high affine peptide ligands for detection of Clostridium Tyrobutyricum spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla, María; De Luis, Ruth; Pérez, María Dolores; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2009-11-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is the main agent responsible for "late blowing" in cheese, which causes severe economic losses. Nowadays, the reference method for its detection is the Most-Probable-Number (MPN); however, it is time consuming and non-specific. Thus, in order to check milk contamination with spores of C. tyrobutyricum, a more specific and rapid method would be required. The objective of this work was to obtain a ligand to establish the basis to develop a biomagnetic separation method for detection of C. tyrobutyricum spores. This study describes the selection of thirteen highly affine peptides to C. tyrobutyricum spores from a phage-display peptide library. In order to test the ability of the peptides attached to a solid support to bind the spores, the most frequent peptide was synthesised and used to coat paramagnetic beads.

  11. An Arabidopsis thaliana high-affinity molybdate transporter required for efficient uptake of molybdate from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatsu, Hajime; Takano, Junpei; Takahashi, Hideki; Watanabe-Takahashi, Akiko; Shibagaki, Nakako; Fujiwara, Toru

    2007-11-20

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a trace element essential for living organisms, however no molybdate transporter has been identified in eukaryotes. Here, we report the identification of a molybdate transporter, MOT1, from Arabidopsis thaliana. MOT1 is expressed in both roots and shoots, and the MOT1 protein is localized, in part, to plasma membranes and to vesicles. MOT1 is required for efficient uptake and translocation of molybdate and for normal growth under conditions of limited molybdate supply. Kinetics studies in yeast revealed that the K(m) value of MOT1 for molybdate is approximately 20 nM. Furthermore, Mo uptake by MOT1 in yeast was not affected by coexistent sulfate, and MOT1 did not complement a sulfate transporter-deficient yeast mutant strain. These data confirmed that MOT1 is specific for molybdate and that the high affinity of MOT1 allows plants to obtain scarce Mo from soil.

  12. Structural insights into a high affinity nanobody:antigen complex by homology modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2017-01-01

    B binding were identified and used as input to the docking. Furthermore, residues likely involved in the RgpB epitope was identified based upon RgpB:RgpA alignment and analysis of residue surface accessibility. CDR residues and putitative RgpB epitope residues were used as input to an information-driven...... flexible docking approach using the HADDOCK server. Analysis of the VHH7:RgpB model demonstrated that the epitope was found in the immunoglobulin-like domain and residue pairs located at the molecular paratope:epitope interface important for complex stability was identified. Collectively, the VHH7 homology...... model and VHH7:RgpB docking supplies knowledge of the residues involved in the high affinity interaction. This information could prove valuable in the design of an antibody-drug conjugate for specific RgpB targeting....

  13. A complex water network contributes to high-affinity binding in an antibody–antigen interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Marino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents an analysis of structural water molecules in the high affinity interaction between a potent tumor growth inhibiting antibody (fragment, J22.9-xi, and the tumor marker antigen CD269 (B cell maturation antigen, BCMA. The 1.89 Å X-ray crystal structure shows exquisite details of the binding interface between the two molecules, which comprises relatively few, mostly hydrophobic, direct contacts but many indirect interactions over solvent waters. These are partly or wholly buried in, and therefore part of, the interface. A partial description of the structure is included in an article on the tumor inhibiting effects of the antibody: “Potent anti-tumor response by targeting B cell maturation antigen (BCMA in a mouse model of multiple myeloma”, Mol. Oncol. 9 (7 (2015 pp. 1348–58.

  14. Evidence for a precursor of the high-affinity metastasis-associated murine laminin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, C N; Castronovo, V; Schmitt, M C;

    1989-01-01

    The high-affinity cellular receptor for the basement membrane component laminin is differentially expressed during tumor invasion and metastasis. A cDNA clone encoding the murine laminin receptor was isolated and identified on the basis of sequence homology to the human laminin receptor [Wewer et...... al. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 7137-7141]. Primer extension experiments demonstrated that the clone contained the complete 5' sequence of the murine laminin receptor mRNA. RNA blot data demonstrated a single-sized laminin receptor mRNA, approximately 1400 bases long, in human, mouse......, and rat. The nascent laminin receptor predicted from the cDNA sequence is 295 amino acids long, with a molecular weight of 33,000, and contains one intradisulfide bridge, a short putative transmembrane domain, and an extracellular carboxy-terminal region which has abundant glutamic acid residues...

  15. Effects of anticonvulsants in vivo on high affinity choline uptake in vitro in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Richter, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of several anticonvulsant drugs on sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake (HACU) in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes was investigated. HACU was measured in vitro after in vivo administration of the drug to mice. HACU was inhibited by drugs which have in common the ability to facilitate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission, pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone, barbitone, diazepam, chloridiazepoxide, and valproic acid. Dose-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the drugs' potencies at inhibiting HACU correlated well with their anticonvulsant potencies. Clonazepam, ethosuximide, carbamazepine, and barbituric acid had no effect on HACU in the doses used while phenytoin and trimethadione stimulated HACU. These results suggest that certain anticonvulsants may elicit a part of their anticonvulsant activity by modulating cholinergic neurones. This effect may be mediated through a GABA mechanism. PMID:3978310

  16. High and Low Affinity Urea Root Uptake: Involvement of NIP5;1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huayiu; Menz, Jochen; Häussermann, Iris; Benz, Martin; Fujiwara, Toru; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-08-01

    Urea is the most widespread nitrogen (N) fertilizer worldwide and is rapidly degraded in soil to ammonium by urease. Ammonium is either taken up by plant roots or is further processed to nitrate by soil microorganisms. However, urea can be taken up by roots and is further degraded to ammonium by plant urease for assimilation. When urea is supplied under sterile conditions, it acts as a poor N source for seedlings or adult Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Here, the gene expression of young seedlings exposed to urea and ammonium nitrate nutrition was compared. Several primary metabolism and transport genes, including those for nitrate and urea, were differentially expressed in seedlings. However, urease and most major intrinsic proteins were not differentially expressed, with the exception of NIP6;1, a urea-permeable channel, which was repressed. Furthermore, little overlap with the gene expression with ammonium as the sole N source was observed, confirming that pure urea nutrition is not associated with the ammonium toxicity syndrome in seedlings. The direct root uptake of urea was increased under boron deficiency, in both the high and low affinity range. This activity was entirely mediated by the NIP5;1 channel, which was confirmed to transport urea when expressed in oocytes. The uptake of urea in the high and low affinity range was also determined for maize and wheat roots. The urea uptake by maize roots was only about half that of wheat, but was not stimulated by boron deficiency or N deficiency in either species. This analysis identifies novel components of the urea uptake systems in plants, which may become agronomically relevant to urea uptake and utilization, as stabilized urea fertilizers become increasingly popular. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Kinetics and autoradiography of high affinity uptake of serotonin by primary astrocyte cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, D.M.; Kimelberg, H.K.

    1985-07-01

    Primary astrocyte cultures prepared from the cerebral cortices of neonatal rats showed significant accumulation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; (/sup 3/H)-5-HT). At concentrations in the range of 0.01 to 0.7 microM (/sup 3/H)-5-HT, this uptake was 50 to 85% Na+ dependent and gave a Km of 0.40 +/- 0.11 microM (/sup 3/H)-5-HT and a Vmax of 6.42 +/- 0.85 (+/- SEM) pmol of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT/mg of protein/4 min for the Na+-dependent component. In the absence of Na+ the uptake was nonsaturable. Omission of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline markedly reduced the Na+-dependent component of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT uptake but had a negligible effect on the Na+-independent component. This suggest significant oxidative deamination of serotonin after it has been taken up by the high affinity system, followed by release of its metabolite. The authors estimated that this system enabled the cells to concentrate (/sup 3/H)-5-HT up to 44-fold at an external (/sup 3/H)-5-HT concentration of 10(-7) M. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT uptake by a number of clinically effective antidepressants was also consistent with a specific high affinity uptake mechanism for 5-HT, the order of effectiveness of inhibition being chlorimipramine greater than fluoxetine greater than imipramine = amitriptyline greater than desmethylimipramine greater than iprindole greater than mianserin. Uptake of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT was dependent on the presence of Cl- as well as Na+ in the medium, and the effect of omission of both ions was nonadditive. Varying the concentration of K+ in the media from 1 to 50 mM had a limited effect on (/sup 3/H)-5-HT uptake.

  18. Bacteriophage lambda terminase: alterations of the high-affinity ATPase affect viral DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Alok; Feiss, Michael

    2005-03-18

    DNA packaging by large DNA viruses such as the tailed bacteriophages and the herpesviruses involves DNA translocation into a preformed protein shell, called the prohead. Translocation is driven by an ATP hydrolysis-powered DNA packaging motor. The bacteriophages encode a heterodimeric viral DNA packaging protein, called terminase. The terminases have an ATPase center located in the N terminus of the large subunit implicated in DNA translocation. In previous work with phage lambda, lethal mutations that changed ATP-reactive residues 46 and 84 of gpA, the large terminase subunit, were studied. These mutant enzymes retained the terminase endonuclease and helicase activities, but had severe defects in virion assembly, and lacked the terminase high-affinity ATPase activity. Surprisingly, in the work described here, we found that enzymes with the conservative gpA changes Y46F and Y46A had only mild packaging defects. These mild defects contrast with their profound virion assembly defects. Thus, these mutant enzymes have, in addition to the mild DNA packaging defects, a severe post-DNA packaging defect. In contrast, the gpA K84A enzyme had similar virion assembly and DNA packaging defects. The DNA packaging energy budget, i.e. DNA packaged/ATP hydrolyzed, was unchanged for the mutant enzymes, indicating that DNA translocation is tightly coupled to ATP hydrolysis. A model is proposed in which gpA residues 46 and 84 are important for terminase's high-affinity ATPase activity. Assembly of the translocation complex remodels this ATPase so that residues 46 and 84 are not crucial for the activated translocation ATPase. Changing gpA residues 46 and 84 primarily affects assembly, rather than the activity, of the translocation complex.

  19. Regulation of the high-affinity choline transporter activity and trafficking by its association with cholesterol-rich lipid rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Leah K; Winick-Ng, Warren; Rylett, Rebecca Jane

    2014-03-01

    The sodium-coupled, hemicholinium-3-sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is responsible for transport of choline into cholinergic nerve terminals from the synaptic cleft following acetylcholine release and hydrolysis. In this study, we address regulation of CHT function by plasma membrane cholesterol. We show for the first time that CHT is concentrated in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in both SH-SY5Y cells and nerve terminals from mouse forebrain. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells expressing rat CHT with filipin, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβC) or cholesterol oxidase significantly decreased choline uptake. In contrast, CHT activity was increased by addition of cholesterol to membranes using cholesterol-saturated MβC. Kinetic analysis of binding of [(3)H]hemicholinium-3 to CHT revealed that reducing membrane cholesterol with MβC decreased both the apparent binding affinity (KD) and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax ); this was confirmed by decreased plasma membrane CHT protein in lipid rafts in cell surface protein biotinylation assays. Finally, the loss of cell surface CHT associated with lipid raft disruption was not because of changes in CHT internalization. In summary, we provide evidence that CHT association with cholesterol-rich rafts is critical for transporter function and localization. Alterations in plasma membrane cholesterol cholinergic nerve terminals could diminish cholinergic transmission by reducing choline availability for acetylcholine synthesis. The sodium-coupled choline transporter CHT moves choline into cholinergic nerve terminals to serve as substrate for acetylcholine synthesis. We show for the first time that CHT is concentrated in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, and decreasing membrane cholesterol significantly reduces both choline uptake activity and cell surface CHT protein levels. CHT association with cholesterol-rich rafts is critical for its function, and alterations in plasma membrane cholesterol could diminish cholinergic

  20. Structural basis for the high Ca2+ affinity of the ubiquitous SERCA2b Ca2+ pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecaetsbeek, Ilse; Trekels, Mieke; De Maeyer, Marc; Ceulemans, Hugo; Lescrinier, Eveline; Raeymaekers, Luc; Wuytack, Frank; Vangheluwe, Peter

    2009-11-03

    Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) Ca(2+) transporters pump cytosolic Ca(2+) into the endoplasmic reticulum, maintaining a Ca(2+) gradient that controls vital cell functions ranging from proliferation to death. To meet the physiological demand of the cell, SERCA activity is regulated by adjusting the affinity for Ca(2+) ions. Of all SERCA isoforms, the housekeeping SERCA2b isoform displays the highest Ca(2+) affinity because of a unique C-terminal extension (2b-tail). Here, an extensive structure-function analysis of SERCA2b mutants and SERCA1a2b chimera revealed how the 2b-tail controls Ca(2+) affinity. Its transmembrane (TM) segment (TM11) and luminal extension functionally cooperate and interact with TM7/TM10 and luminal loops of SERCA2b, respectively. This stabilizes the Ca(2+)-bound E1 conformation and alters Ca(2+)-transport kinetics, which provides the rationale for the higher apparent Ca(2+) affinity. Based on our NMR structure of TM11 and guided by mutagenesis results, a structural model was developed for SERCA2b that supports the proposed 2b-tail mechanism and is reminiscent of the interaction between the alpha- and beta-subunits of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. The 2b-tail interaction site may represent a novel target to increase the Ca(2+) affinity of malfunctioning SERCA2a in the failing heart to improve contractility.

  1. Characterization of high affinity (/sup 3/H)triazolam binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, M.; Concas, A.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-03-01

    The hypnotic Triazolam (TZ), a triazolo (1,4)-benzodiazepine, displays a short physiological half life and has been used for the treatment of insomnia related to anxiety states. Specific binding properties of this recently tritiated TZ were characterized. The authors major objectives were the direct measurement of the temperature dependence and the GABA effect on (/sup 3/H)TZ binding. Saturation studies showed a shift to lower affinity at 37/sup 0/C (K/sub d/ = 0.25 +/- 0.01 nM at O/sup 0/C; K/sub d/ = 1.46 +/- 0.03 nM at 37/sup 0/C) while the B/sub max/ values remained unchanged (1003 +/- 37 fmoles/mg prot. at 0/sup 0/C and 1001 +/- 43 fmoles/mg prot. at 37/sup 0/C). Inhibition studies showed that (/sup 3/H)TZ binding displayed no GABA shift at 0/sup 0/C(K/sub i/ 0.37 +/- 0.03 nM/- GABA and K/sub i/ = 0.55 +/- 0.13 nM/+GABA) but a nearly two-fold shift was apparent at 37/sup 0/C (K/sub i/ = 2.92 +/- 0.2 nM/-GABA; K/sub i/ = 1.37 +/- 0.11 mM/+GABA). These results were also confirmed by saturation studies in the presence or absence of GABA showing a shift to higher affinity in the presence of GABA only at 37/sup 0/C. In Ro 15-1788/(/sup 3/H)TZ competition experiments the presence of GABA did not affect the inhibitory potency of Ro 15-1788 on (/sup 3/H)TZ binding at both temperatures. In conclusion (/sup 3/H)TZ binding showed an extremely high affinity for benzodiazepine receptors. In contrast to reported literature, the findings suggest that TZ interacts with benzodiazepine receptors similar to other benzodiazepine agonists.

  2. High Affinity Immobilization of Proteins Using the CrAsH/TC Tag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Schulte-Zweckel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarrays represent important tools for biomedical analysis. We have recently described the use of the biarsenical-tetracysteine (TC tag for the preparation of protein microarrays. The unique feature of this tag enables the site-specific immobilization of TC-containing proteins on biarsenical-modified surfaces, resulting in a fluorescence enhancement that allows the direct quantification of the immobilized proteins. Moreover, the reversibility of the binding upon incubation with large quantities of thiols permits the detachment of the proteins from the surface, thereby enabling recovery of the substrate to extend the life time of the slide. Herein, we describe our recent results that further extend the applicability of the CrAsH/TC tag to the fabrication of biochips. With this aim, the immobilization of proteins on surfaces has been investigated using two different spacers and two TC tags, the minimal TC sequence (CCPGCC and an optimized motif (FLNCCPGCCMEP. While the minimal peptide motif enables a rapid recycling of the slide, the optimized TC sequence reveals an increased affinity due to its greater resistance to displacement by thiols. Moreover, the developed methodology was applied to the immobilization of proteins via on-chip ligation of recombinant protein thioesters.

  3. Tityus gamma toxin, a high affinity effector of the Na+ channel in muscle, with a selectivity for channels in the surface membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhanin, J; Ildefonse, M; Rougier, O; Sampaio, S V; Giglio, J R; Lazdunski, M

    1984-01-01

    Toxin gamma from the venom of Tityus serrulatus scorpion produces a partial block of the surface Na+ channel in frog muscle. This block occurs with no change in the voltage-dependence or in the kinetics of the remaining surface Na+ current. The partial blockade of Na+ channel activity occurs with no change in tubular Na+ currents nor in twitch tension. The maximum effect of the toxin is attained at concentrations as low as 3 X 10(-10) M. Hyperpolarization to potentials more negative than the resting potential (E = -90 mV) reduces or abolishes the effect of the toxin. Radioiodinated toxin gamma binds to frog muscle membranes with a very high affinity corresponding to a dissociation constant of about 1 X 10(-11) M. Data obtained with both rabbit and frog muscle indicate that toxin gamma is specific for Na+ channels in surface membranes. Toxin gamma does not seem to bind to Na+ channels in T-tubule membranes. The biochemical data are in good agreement with electrophysiological studies and data on contraction. There is one Tityus gamma toxin binding site per tetrodotoxin binding site in surface membranes. Competition experiments have confirmed that Tityus gamma toxin binds to a new toxin receptor site on the Na+ channel structure. This site is the same that the toxin II from Centruroides suffusus binding site, but this toxin has 100 times less affinity for the Na+ channel than Tityus gamma toxin.

  4. Elongated fibrillar structure of a streptococcal adhesin assembled by the high-affinity association of [alpha]- and PPII-helices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Matthew R.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Patel, Manisha H.; Robinette, Rebekah A.; Crowley, Paula J.; Michalek, Suzanne; Brady, L. Jeannine; Deivanayagam, Champion (Cornell); (UAB); (Florida)

    2010-08-18

    Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) is a cell surface-localized protein adhesin that interacts with salivary components within the salivary pellicle. AgI/II contributes to virulence and has been studied as an immunological and structural target, but a fundamental understanding of its underlying architecture has been lacking. Here we report a high-resolution (1.8 {angstrom}) crystal structure of the A{sub 3}VP{sub 1} fragment of S. mutans AgI/II that demonstrates a unique fibrillar form (155 {angstrom}) through the interaction of two noncontiguous regions in the primary sequence. The A{sub 3} repeat of the alanine-rich domain adopts an extended {alpha}-helix that intertwines with the P{sub 1} repeat polyproline type II (PPII) helix to form a highly extended stalk-like structure heretofore unseen in prokaryotic or eukaryotic protein structures. Velocity sedimentation studies indicate that full-length AgI/II that contains three A/P repeats extends over 50 nanometers in length. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the high-affinity association between the A{sub 3} and P{sub 1} helices is enthalpically driven. Two distinct binding sites on AgI/II to the host receptor salivary agglutinin (SAG) were identified by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The current crystal structure reveals that AgI/II family proteins are extended fibrillar structures with the number of alanine- and proline-rich repeats determining their length.

  5. Soluble T cell receptor Vβ domains engineered for high-affinity binding to staphylococcal or streptococcal superantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Wang, Ningyan; Kranz, David M

    2014-01-28

    Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus secrete a collection of toxins called superantigens (SAgs), so-called because they stimulate a large fraction of an individual's T cells. One consequence of this hyperactivity is massive cytokine release leading to severe tissue inflammation and, in some cases, systemic organ failure and death. The molecular basis of action involves the binding of the SAg to both a T cell receptor (TCR) on a T cell and a class II product of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on an antigen presenting cell. This cross-linking leads to aggregation of the TCR complex and signaling. A common feature of SAgs is that they bind with relatively low affinity to the variable region (V) of the beta chain of the TCR. Despite this low affinity binding, SAgs are very potent, as each T cell requires only a small fraction of their receptors to be bound in order to trigger cytokine release. To develop high-affinity agents that could neutralize the activity of SAgs, and facilitate the development of detection assays, soluble forms of the Vβ regions have been engineered to affinities that are up to 3 million-fold higher for the SAg. Over the past decade, six different Vβ regions against SAgs from S. aureus (SEA, SEB, SEC3, TSST-1) or S. pyogenes (SpeA and SpeC) have been engineered for high-affinity using yeast display and directed evolution. Here we review the engineering of these high-affinity Vβ proteins, structural features of the six different SAgs and the Vβ proteins, and the specific properties of the engineered Vβ regions that confer high-affinity and specificity for their SAg ligands.

  6. Soluble T Cell Receptor Vβ Domains Engineered for High-Affinity Binding to Staphylococcal or Streptococcal Superantigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus secrete a collection of toxins called superantigens (SAgs, so-called because they stimulate a large fraction of an individual’s T cells. One consequence of this hyperactivity is massive cytokine release leading to severe tissue inflammation and, in some cases, systemic organ failure and death. The molecular basis of action involves the binding of the SAg to both a T cell receptor (TCR on a T cell and a class II product of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC on an antigen presenting cell. This cross-linking leads to aggregation of the TCR complex and signaling. A common feature of SAgs is that they bind with relatively low affinity to the variable region (V of the beta chain of the TCR. Despite this low affinity binding, SAgs are very potent, as each T cell requires only a small fraction of their receptors to be bound in order to trigger cytokine release. To develop high-affinity agents that could neutralize the activity of SAgs, and facilitate the development of detection assays, soluble forms of the Vβ regions have been engineered to affinities that are up to 3 million-fold higher for the SAg. Over the past decade, six different Vβ regions against SAgs from S. aureus (SEA, SEB, SEC3, TSST-1 or S. pyogenes (SpeA and SpeC have been engineered for high-affinity using yeast display and directed evolution. Here we review the engineering of these high-affinity Vβ proteins, structural features of the six different SAgs and the Vβ proteins, and the specific properties of the engineered Vβ regions that confer high-affinity and specificity for their SAg ligands.

  7. Neomycin-neomycin dimer: an all-carbohydrate scaffold with high affinity for AT-rich DNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Xue, Liang; Arya, Dev P

    2011-05-18

    A dimeric neomycin-neomycin conjugate 3 with a flexible linker, 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine), has been synthesized and characterized. Dimer 3 can selectively bind to AT-rich DNA duplexes with high affinity. Biophysical studies have been performed between 3 and different nucleic acids with varying base composition and conformation by using ITC (isothermal calorimetry), CD (circular dichroism), FID (fluorescent intercalator displacement), and UV (ultraviolet) thermal denaturation experiments. A few conclusions can be drawn from this study: (1) FID assay with 3 and polynucleotides demonstrates the preference of 3 toward AT-rich sequences over GC-rich sequences. (2) FID assay and UV thermal denaturation experiments show that 3 has a higher affinity for the poly(dA)·poly(dT) DNA duplex than for the poly(dA)·2poly(dT) DNA triplex. Contrary to neomycin, 3 destabilizes poly(dA)·2poly(dT) triplex but stabilizes poly(dA)·poly(dT) duplex, suggesting the major groove as the binding site. (3) UV thermal denaturation studies and ITC experiments show that 3 stabilizes continuous AT-tract DNA better than DNA duplexes with alternating AT bases. (4) CD and FID titration studies show a DNA binding site size of 10-12 base pairs/drug, depending upon the structure/sequence of the duplex for AT-rich DNA duplexes. (5) FID and ITC titration between 3 and an intramolecular DNA duplex [d(5'-A(12)-x-T(12)-3'), x = hexaethylene glycol linker] results in a binding stoichiometry of 1:1 with a binding constant ∼10(8) M(-1) at 100 mM KCl. (6) FID assay using 3 and 512 hairpin DNA sequences that vary in their AT base content and placement also show a higher binding selectivity of 3 toward continuous AT-rich than toward DNA duplexes with alternate AT base pairs. (7) Salt-dependent studies indicate the formation of three ion pairs during binding of the DNA duplex d[5'-A(12)-x-T(12)-3'] and 3. (8) ITC-derived binding constants between 3 and DNA duplexes have the following order: AT

  8. Enhanced binding affinity, remarkable selectivity, and high capacity of CO 2 by dual functionalization of a rht-type metal-organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan

    2011-12-23

    Open and friendly: The smallest member of the rht-type metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, see picture) constructed by a hexacarboxylate ligand with a nitrogen-rich imino triazine backbone shows a significantly enhanced gas binding affinity relative to all other isoreticular rht-type MOFs. The high adsorption capacity and remarkable selectivity of CO 2 are attributed to the high density of open metal and Lewis basic sites in the framework. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. High-Affinity Glucose Transport in Aspergillus nidulans Is Mediated by the Products of Two Related but Differentially Expressed Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Luisa; González, Ramón; Ramón, Daniel; MacCabe, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Independent systems of high and low affinity effect glucose uptake in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Low-affinity uptake is known to be mediated by the product of the mstE gene. In the current work two genes, mstA and mstC, have been identified that encode high-affinity glucose transporter proteins. These proteins' primary structures share over 90% similarity, indicating that the corresponding genes share a common origin. Whilst the function of the paralogous proteins is little changed, they differ notably in their patterns of expression. The mstC gene is expressed during the early phases of germination and is subject to CreA-mediated carbon catabolite repression whereas mstA is expressed as a culture tends toward carbon starvation. In addition, various pieces of genetic evidence strongly support allelism of mstC and the previously described locus sorA. Overall, our data define MstC/SorA as a high-affinity glucose transporter expressed in germinating conidia, and MstA as a high-affinity glucose transporter that operates in vegetative hyphae under conditions of carbon limitation. PMID:24751997

  10. High-affinity glucose transport in Aspergillus nidulans is mediated by the products of two related but differentially expressed genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep V Forment

    Full Text Available Independent systems of high and low affinity effect glucose uptake in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Low-affinity uptake is known to be mediated by the product of the mstE gene. In the current work two genes, mstA and mstC, have been identified that encode high-affinity glucose transporter proteins. These proteins' primary structures share over 90% similarity, indicating that the corresponding genes share a common origin. Whilst the function of the paralogous proteins is little changed, they differ notably in their patterns of expression. The mstC gene is expressed during the early phases of germination and is subject to CreA-mediated carbon catabolite repression whereas mstA is expressed as a culture tends toward carbon starvation. In addition, various pieces of genetic evidence strongly support allelism of mstC and the previously described locus sorA. Overall, our data define MstC/SorA as a high-affinity glucose transporter expressed in germinating conidia, and MstA as a high-affinity glucose transporter that operates in vegetative hyphae under conditions of carbon limitation.

  11. Mapping of barley alpha-amylases and outer subsite mutants reveals dynamic high-affinity subsites and barriers in the long substrate binding cleft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandra, L.; Abou Hachem, Maher; Gyemant, G.;

    2006-01-01

    as binding barriers. Barley a-amylase I mutants Y105A and T212Y at subsite -6 and +4 resulted in release or anchoring of bound substrate, thus modifying the affinities of other high-affinity subsites (-2 and +2) and barriers. The double mutant Y105A-T212Y displayed a hybrid subsite affinity profile...

  12. A soluble form of the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc-epsilon-RI, circulates in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Dehlink

    Full Text Available Soluble IgE receptors are potential in vivo modulators of IgE-mediated immune responses and are thus important for our basic understanding of allergic responses. We here characterize a novel soluble version of the IgE-binding alpha-chain of Fc-epsilon-RI (sFcεRI, the high affinity receptor for IgE. sFcεRI immunoprecipitates as a protein of ∼40 kDa and contains an intact IgE-binding site. In human serum, sFcεRI is found as a soluble free IgE receptor as well as a complex with IgE. Using a newly established ELISA, we show that serum sFcεRI levels correlate with serum IgE in patients with elevated IgE. We also show that serum of individuals with normal IgE levels can be found to contain high levels of sFcεRI. After IgE-antigen-mediated crosslinking of surface FcεRI, we detect sFcεRI in the exosome-depleted, soluble fraction of cell culture supernatants. We further show that sFcεRI can block binding of IgE to FcεRI expressed at the cell surface. In summary, we here describe the alpha-chain of FcεRI as a circulating soluble IgE receptor isoform in human serum.

  13. Analysis of high affinity self-association by fluorescence optical sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation of labeled proteins: opportunities and limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaying Zhao

    Full Text Available Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV is a powerful first-principle technique for the study of protein interactions, and allows a rigorous characterization of binding stoichiometry and affinities. A recently introduced commercial fluorescence optical detection system (FDS permits analysis of high-affinity interactions by SV. However, for most proteins the attachment of an extrinsic fluorophore is an essential prerequisite for analysis by FDS-SV. Using the glutamate receptor GluA2 amino terminal domain as a model system for high-affinity homo-dimerization, we demonstrate how the experimental design and choice of fluorescent label can impact both the observed binding constants as well as the derived hydrodynamic parameter estimates for the monomer and dimer species. Specifically, FAM (5,6-carboxyfluorescein was found to create different populations of artificially high-affinity and low-affinity dimers, as indicated by both FDS-SV and the kinetics of dimer dissociation studied using a bench-top fluorescence spectrometer and Förster Resonance Energy Transfer. By contrast, Dylight488 labeled GluA2, as well as GluA2 expressed as an EGFP fusion protein, yielded results consistent with estimates for unlabeled GluA2. Our study suggests considerations for the choice of labeling strategies, and highlights experimental designs that exploit specific opportunities of FDS-SV for improving the reliability of the binding isotherm analysis of interacting systems.

  14. Comparison of high affinity binding of {sup 3}H-proadifen and {sup 3}H-(-)-cocaine t rat liver membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, S.B. [Astra Arcus AB, Dept. of Neuropharmacology, Soedertaelje (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    The characteristics of the binding of {sup 3}H-proadifen to rat liver membranes were studied and compared to those of {sup 3}H-cocaine. It was found that {sup 3}H-proadifen was bound reversibly with high affinity (K{sub D}=1.8{+-}0.5 nM) and large capacity (B{sub max}=2010{+-}340 pmol/g wet tissue) to liver membranes. The corresponding values for the {sup 3}H-cocaine binding were 3.5 nM and 1000 pmol/g wet tissue. The binding of {sup 3}H-proadifen was mainly localised to the microsomal fraction. The number of binding sites was not increased by treatment of rats with phenobarbitone. With 1 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} in the incubation buffer it was possible to differentiate between two {sup 3}H-cocaine binding sites with K{sub d} values of 1.6 and 7.7 nM and B{sub max} values of 280 and 940 pmol/g wet liver tissue. S-(-)-Alaproclate inhibited the binding of {sup 3}H-proadifen and {sup 3}H-cocaine inhibited the binding of {sup 3}H-proadifen (IC{sub 50}=10 nM) and proadifen that of {sup 3}H-cocaine (IC{sub 50}=1 nM). There was a high correlation coefficient (r{sub r}=0.972; P<0.01; n=12) in the Spearman rank test between the inhibitory potencies of compounds examined in both systems. Beside some potent alaproclate analogues a couple of compounds had moderately high affinity (IC{sub 50}=100-500 nM): chloroquine, phenoxybenzamine, amitriptyline, ajmaline, remoxipride, imipramine and (-)-alaprenolol. CdCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2} and CuCl{sub 2} inhibited the binding of both ligands with low Hill coefficients, indicating heterogeneous binding sites. The inhibition curve of Cd{sup 2+} on the cocaine binding was biphasic with a high affinity part around 50 nM and a low affinity part at 15{mu}M. The similarity of the characteristics of the binding of these ligands with that of {sup 3}H-alaproclate is discussed. It is suggested that all three compounds bind to the same sites, although additional binding sites seem to exist for proadifen. (au) (9 refs.).

  15. Ethanol-Induced ADH Activity in Zebrafish: Differential Concentration-Dependent Effects on High- Versus Low-Affinity ADH Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Facciol, Amanda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish express enzymes that metabolize ethanol in a manner comparable to that of mammals, including humans. We previously demonstrated that acute ethanol exposure increases alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in an inverted U-shaped dose-dependent manner. It was hypothesized that the biphasic dose-response was due to the increased activity of a high-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to low concentrations of ethanol and increased activity of a low-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol. To test this hypothesis, we exposed zebrafish to different concentrations of ethanol (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0% v/v) for 30 min and measured the total ADH activity in the zebrafish liver. However, we also repeated this enzyme activity assay using a low concentration of the substrate (ethanol) to determine the activity of high-affinity ADH isoforms. We found that total ADH activity in response to ethanol induces an inverted U-shaped dose-response similar to our previous study. Using a lower substrate level in our enzyme assay targeting high-affinity isozymes, we found a similar dose-response. However, the difference in activity between the high and low substrate assays (high substrate activity - low substrate activity), which provide an index of activity for low-affinity ADH isoforms, revealed no significant effect of ethanol exposure. Our results suggest that the inverted U-shaped dose-response for total ADH activity in response to ethanol is driven primarily by high-affinity isoforms of ADH.

  16. A rhodamine-labeled citalopram analogue as a high-affinity fluorescent probe for the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Peng; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Løland, Claus Juul

    2013-01-01

    A novel fluorescent ligand was synthesized as a high-affinity, high specificity probe for visualizing the serotonin transporter (SERT). The rhodamine fluorophore was extended from an aniline substitution on the 5-position of the dihydroisobenzofuran ring of citalopram (2, 1-(3-(dimethylamino)prop...

  17. Gene Structure and Expression of the High-affinity Nitrate Transport System in Rice Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Cai; Jun-Yi Wang; Yong-Guan Zhu; Qi-Rong Shen; Bin Li; Yi-Ping Tong; Zhen-Sheng Li

    2008-01-01

    Rice has a preference for uptake of ammonium over nitrate and can use ammonium-N efficiently. Consequently, transporters mediating ammonium uptake have been extensively studied, but nitrate transporters have been largely ignored. Recently,some reports have shown that rice also has high capacity to acquire nitrate from growth medium, so understanding the nitrate transport system in rice roots is very important for improving N use efficiency in rice. The present study identified four putative NRT2 and two putative NAR2 genes that encode components of the high-affinity nitrate transport system (HATS) in the rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp, japonica cv. Nipponbare) genome. OsNRT2.1 and OsNRT2.2 share an identical coding region sequence, and their deduced proteins are closely related to those from monocotyledonous plants. The two NAR2 proteins are closely related to those from mono-cotyledonous plants as well. However, OsNRT2.3 and OsNRT2.4 are more closely related to Arabidopsis NRT2 proteins. Relative quantitative reverse tranecdption-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that all of the six genes were rapidly upregulated and then downregulated in the roots of N-starved rice plants after they were re-supplied with 0.2 mM nitrate, but the response to nitrate differed among gene members.The results from phylogenetic tree, gene structure and expression analysis implied the divergent roles for the individual members of the rice NRT2 and NAR2 families. High-affinity nitrate influx rates associated with nitrate induction in rice roots were investigated and were found to be regulated by external pH. Compared with the nitrate influx rates at pH 6.5, alkaline pH (pH 8.0) inhibited nitrate Influx, and acidic pH (pH 5.0) enhanced the nitrate influx In I h nitrate induced roots, but did not significantly affect that in 4 to 8 h nitrate induced roots.

  18. Complementary DNA display selection of high-affinity peptides binding the vacuolating toxin (VacA) of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yumiko; Matsuno, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Makoto; Wada, Akihiro; Kitamura, Koichiro; Takei, Osamu; Sasaki, Ryuzo; Mizukami, Tamio; Hasegawa, Makoto

    2015-09-01

    Artificial peptides designed for molecular recognition of a bacterial toxin have been developed. Vacuolating cytotoxin A protein (VacA) is a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium inhabiting the upper gastrointestinal tract, particularly the stomach. This study attempted to identify specific peptide sequences with high affinity for VacA using systematic directed evolution in vitro, a cDNA display method. A surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to examine binding of peptides with VacA identified a peptide (GRVNQRL) with high affinity. Cyclization of the peptide by attaching cysteine residues to both termini improved its binding affinity to VacA, with a dissociation constant (Kd ) of 58 nm. This study describes a new strategy for the development of artificial functional peptides, which are promising materials in biochemical analyses and medical applications.

  19. Quantitative assessment of RNA-protein interactions with high-throughput sequencing-RNA affinity profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Abdullah; Tome, Jacob M; Friedman, Robin C; Gheba, Dan; Schroth, Gary P; Lis, John T

    2015-08-01

    Because RNA-protein interactions have a central role in a wide array of biological processes, methods that enable a quantitative assessment of these interactions in a high-throughput manner are in great demand. Recently, we developed the high-throughput sequencing-RNA affinity profiling (HiTS-RAP) assay that couples sequencing on an Illumina GAIIx genome analyzer with the quantitative assessment of protein-RNA interactions. This assay is able to analyze interactions between one or possibly several proteins with millions of different RNAs in a single experiment. We have successfully used HiTS-RAP to analyze interactions of the EGFP and negative elongation factor subunit E (NELF-E) proteins with their corresponding canonical and mutant RNA aptamers. Here we provide a detailed protocol for HiTS-RAP that can be completed in about a month (8 d hands-on time). This includes the preparation and testing of recombinant proteins and DNA templates, clustering DNA templates on a flowcell, HiTS and protein binding with a GAIIx instrument, and finally data analysis. We also highlight aspects of HiTS-RAP that can be further improved and points of comparison between HiTS-RAP and two other recently developed methods, quantitative analysis of RNA on a massively parallel array (RNA-MaP) and RNA Bind-n-Seq (RBNS), for quantitative analysis of RNA-protein interactions.

  20. High-affinity DNA base analogs as supramolecular, nanoscale promoters of macroscopic adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cyrus A; Jones, Amanda R; Briggs, Ellen M; Novitsky, Eric J; Kuykendall, Darrell W; Sottos, Nancy R; Zimmerman, Steven C

    2013-05-15

    Adhesion phenomena are essential to many biological processes and to synthetic adhesives and manufactured coatings and composites. Supramolecular interactions are often implicated in various adhesion mechanisms. Recently, supramolecular building blocks, such as synthetic DNA base-pair mimics, have drawn attention in the context of molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular polymers. These reversible, hydrogen-bonding interactions have been studied extensively for their adhesive capabilities at the nano- and microscale, however, much less is known about their utility for practical adhesion in macroscopic systems. Herein, we report the preparation and evaluation of supramolecular coupling agents based on high-affinity, high-fidelity quadruple hydrogen-bonding units (e.g., DAN·DeUG, Kassoc = 10(8) M(-1) in chloroform). Macroscopic adhesion between polystyrene films and glass surfaces modified with 2,7-diamidonaphthyridine (DAN) and ureido-7-deazaguanine (DeUG) units was evaluated by mechanical testing. Structure-property relationships indicate that the designed supramolecular interaction at the nanoscale plays a key role in the observed macroscopic adhesive response. Experiments probing reversible adhesion or self-healing properties of bulk samples indicate that significant recovery of initial strength can be realized after failure but that the designed noncovalent interaction does not lead to healing during the process of adhesion loss.

  1. High affinity anchoring of the decoration protein pb10 onto the bacteriophage T5 capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernhes, Emeline; Renouard, Madalena; Gilquin, Bernard; Cuniasse, Philippe; Durand, Dominique; England, Patrick; Hoos, Sylviane; Huet, Alexis; Conway, James F.; Glukhov, Anatoly; Ksenzenko, Vladimir; Jacquet, Eric; Nhiri, Naïma; Zinn-Justin, Sophie; Boulanger, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophage capsids constitute icosahedral shells of exceptional stability that protect the viral genome. Many capsids display on their surface decoration proteins whose structure and function remain largely unknown. The decoration protein pb10 of phage T5 binds at the centre of the 120 hexamers formed by the major capsid protein. Here we determined the 3D structure of pb10 and investigated its capsid-binding properties using NMR, SAXS, cryoEM and SPR. Pb10 consists of an α-helical capsid-binding domain and an Ig-like domain exposed to the solvent. It binds to the T5 capsid with a remarkably high affinity and its binding kinetics is characterized by a very slow dissociation rate. We propose that the conformational exchange events observed in the capsid-binding domain enable rearrangements upon binding that contribute to the quasi-irreversibility of the pb10-capsid interaction. Moreover we show that pb10 binding is a highly cooperative process, which favours immediate rebinding of newly dissociated pb10 to the 120 hexamers of the capsid protein. In extreme conditions, pb10 protects the phage from releasing its genome. We conclude that pb10 may function to reinforce the capsid thus favouring phage survival in harsh environments. PMID:28165000

  2. Adaptive Firefly Optimization on Reducing High Dimensional Weighted Word Affinity Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Poonam Yadhav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Document analysis and retrieval system can best define an efficient information retrieval system. Among various processing stages in a document analysis and retrieval system, feature descriptors at processing volume limit require more importance while developing the system. This is mainly because of the increase in probability of getting high dimensional semantic description. This increases the vitality of opting a robust dimensionality reduction method for our retrieval system. Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Independent Component Analysis (ICA, etc are the most popular dimensionality reduction methods. However, they are highly complex while handling nonlinear data with multiple characteristics. Optimization algorithms can be a good alternative for the traditional methods. In fact, classical optimization algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, etc have been widely applied. However, the data handling remains inefficient under current data exploding scenario. In our previous work, we have exploited Firefly Algorithm (FA to solve the optimization problem. Due to parameter selection dilemma in traditional FA, this paper concentrates on using Adaptive Firefly Algorithm (AFA. AFA adaptively varies step search of solutions and hence improves the convergence rate of the algorithm. As a result, near – optimal solution can be obtained qualitatively. We further recommend the dimensionality reduction method to handle weighted word affinity graph to improve the retrieval efficiency.

  3. The predicted 3D structure of the human D2 dopamine receptor and the binding site and binding affinities for agonists and antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, M. Yashar S.; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E.; Trabanino, Rene J.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Kalani, Maziyar A.; Floriano, Wely B.; Tak Kam, Victor Wai; Goddard, William A., III

    2004-03-01

    Dopamine neurotransmitter and its receptors play a critical role in the cell signaling process responsible for information transfer in neurons functioning in the nervous system. Development of improved therapeutics for such disorders as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia would be significantly enhanced with the availability of the 3D structure for the dopamine receptors and of the binding site for dopamine and other agonists and antagonists. We report here the 3D structure of the long isoform of the human D2 dopamine receptor, predicted from primary sequence using first-principles theoretical and computational techniques (i.e., we did not use bioinformatic or experimental 3D structural information in predicting structures). The predicted 3D structure is validated by comparison of the predicted binding site and the relative binding affinities of dopamine, three known dopamine agonists (antiparkinsonian), and seven known antagonists (antipsychotic) in the D2 receptor to experimentally determined values. These structures correctly predict the critical residues for binding dopamine and several antagonists, identified by mutation studies, and give relative binding affinities that correlate well with experiments. The predicted binding site for dopamine and agonists is located between transmembrane (TM) helices 3, 4, 5, and 6, whereas the best antagonists bind to a site involving TM helices 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 with minimal contacts to TM helix 5. We identify characteristic differences between the binding sites of agonists and antagonists.

  4. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X......-ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation...

  5. Structures of the ultra-high-affinity protein–protein complexes of pyocins S2 and AP41 and their cognate immunity proteins from pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Amar; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Chen, Sabrina; Wojdyla, Justyna; Lowe, Edward; Kaminska, Renata; Sharp, Connor; McCaughey, Laura; Roszak, Aleksander; Cogdell, Richard; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel; Kleanthous, Colin

    2015-01-01

    How ultra-high-affinity protein–protein interactions retain high specificity is still poorly understood. The interaction between colicin DNase domains and their inhibitory immunity (Im) proteins is an ultra-high-affinity interaction that is essential for the neutralisation of endogenous DNase catalytic activity and for protection against exogenous DNase bacteriocins. The colicin DNase–Im interaction is a model system for the study of high-affinity protein–protein interactions. However, despit...

  6. Identification and characterization of high and low affinity transport systems for reduced glutathione in liver cell canalicular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballatori, N; Dutczak, W J

    1994-08-05

    Driving forces and substrate specificity for transport of reduced glutathione (GSH) across rat liver cell canalicular membrane were examined in vesicles isolated from this plasma membrane domain. In contrast to previous studies indicating a single saturable component of canalicular GSH transport, the present results demonstrate the presence of both high and low affinity components with apparent Km values of 0.24 +/- 0.04 and 17.4 +/- 2.1 mM and Vmax values of 0.09 +/- 0.01 and 2.3 +/- 0.3 nmol.mg-1.20 s-1, respectively. The Km values in two previously published reports are discordant, 0.33 versus 16 mM, but are comparable with the two transport components identified in the present study. To further characterize these GSH transport mechanisms, [3H]GSH uptake by canalicular vesicles was measured at concentrations of 50 microM, where transport is expected to occur largely on the high affinity component, and at 5 mM, where the low affinity system should predominate. Neither component of GSH transport was affected by ATP or a Na+ gradient, but both were stimulated by a valinomycin-induced membrane potential, indicating electrogenic transport pathways. The high affinity component was cis-inhibited by glutathione S-conjugates (1 mM), other gamma-glutamyl compounds (5 mM), and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (0.1 mM), whereas these agents had no effect on the low affinity component at similar inhibitor concentrations. Sulfobromophthalein (BSP, 0.1 mM) inhibited both GSH transport components. However, neither component was affected by taurocholate (0.5 mM) or L-glutamate (10 mM). The inhibition by S-butylglutathione, the GSH analogue ophthalmic acid, and by BSP was competitive in nature, although BSP also produced a slight decrease in Vmax, suggesting a mixed type of inhibition. Ophthalmic acid and some glutathione S-conjugates were also able to trans-stimulate high affinity GSH uptake. These results indicate the presence of at least two ATP

  7. A High-affinity Activator of G551D-CFTR Chloride Channel Identified By High Throughput Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lu; HE Cheng-yan; LIU Yan-li; ZHOU Hong-lan; ZHOU Jin-song; SHANG De-jing; YANG Hong

    2004-01-01

    A stably transfected CHO cell line coexpressing G551D-CFTR and iodide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein mutant EYFP-H148Q-I152L was successfully established and used as assay model to identify small-molecule activators of G551D-CFTR chloride channel from 100000 diverse combinatorial compounds by high throughput screening on a customized Beckman robotic system. A bicyclooctane compound was identified to activate G551D-CFTR chloride channel with high-affinity(Kd=1.8 μmol/L). The activity of the bicyclooctane compound is G551D-CFTR-specific, reversible and non-toxic. The G551D-CFTR activator may be useful as a tool to study the mutant G551D-CFTR chloride channel structure and transport properties and as a candidate drug to cure cystic fibrosis caused by G551D-CFTR mutation.

  8. On-column entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein for studies of drug-protein binding by high-performance affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguizola, Jeanethe; Bi, Cong; Koke, Michelle; Jackson, Abby; Hage, David S

    2016-08-01

    An on-column approach for protein entrapment was developed to immobilize alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) for drug-protein binding studies based on high-performance affinity chromatography. Soluble AGP was physically entrapped by using microcolumns that contained hydrazide-activated porous silica and by employing mildly oxidized glycogen as a capping agent. Three on-column entrapment methods were evaluated and compared to a previous slurry-based entrapment method. The final selected method was used to prepare 1.0 cm × 2.1 mm I.D. affinity microcolumns that contained up to 21 (±4) μg AGP and that could be used over the course of more than 150 sample applications. Frontal analysis and zonal elution studies were performed on these affinity microcolumns to examine the binding of various drugs with the entrapped AGP. Site-selective competition studies were also conducted for these drugs. The results showed good agreement with previous observations for these drug-protein systems and with binding constants that have been reported in the literature. The entrapment method developed in this study should be useful for future work in the area of personalized medicine and in the high-throughput screening of drug interactions with AGP or other proteins. Graphical abstract On-column protein entrapment using a hydrazide-activated support and oxidized glycogen as a capping agent.

  9. Early signs of pathological cognitive aging in mice lacking high-affinity nicotinic receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eKonsolaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. Α deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-, which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioural signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviours, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm and extend the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments, manifested in both spatial learning and recognition memory tasks. In addition, we reveal deficits in spontaneous behaviour and habituation processes earlier in life. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioural examination of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioural changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging.

  10. Dynein and dynactin leverage their bivalent character to form a high-affinity interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Siglin

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin participate in retrograde transport of organelles, checkpoint signaling and cell division. The principal subunits that mediate this interaction are the dynein intermediate chain (IC and the dynactin p150(Glued; however, the interface and mechanism that regulates this interaction remains poorly defined. Herein, we use multiple methods to show the N-terminus of mammalian dynein IC, residues 10-44, is sufficient for binding p150(Glued. Consistent with this mapping, monoclonal antibodies that antagonize the dynein-dynactin interaction also bind to this region of the IC. Furthermore, double and triple alanine point mutations spanning residues 6 to 19 in the yeast IC homolog, Pac11, produce significant defects in spindle positioning. Using the same methods we show residues 381 to 530 of p150(Glued form a minimal fragment that binds to the dynein IC. Sedimentation equilibrium experiments indicate that these individual fragments are predominantly monomeric, but admixtures of the IC and p150(Glued fragments produce a 2:2 complex. This tetrameric complex is sensitive to salt, temperature and pH, suggesting that the binding is dominated by electrostatic interactions. Finally, circular dichroism (CD experiments indicate that the N-terminus of the IC is disordered and becomes ordered upon binding p150(Glued. Taken together, the data indicate that the dynein-dynactin interaction proceeds through a disorder-to-order transition, leveraging its bivalent-bivalent character to form a high affinity, but readily reversible interaction.

  11. [The high-affinity IgE receptor: lessons from structural analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Ulrich; Jouvin, Marie-Hélène; Guérin-Marchand, Claudine; Kinet, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The high affinity receptor for IgE, FcERI, is at the core of the allergic reaction. This receptor is expressed mainly on mast cells and basophils. Interaction of an allergen with its specific IgE bound to FcERI triggers cell activation, which induces the release of numerous mediators that are responsible for allergic manifestations. The recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases in developed countries has resulted in renewed efforts towards the development of new drugs. One of these is a humanised antibody directed against the IgE ligand. This antibody recognises specifically free but not FcERI-bound IgE thus preventing ligand binding and subsequent cell activation. This antibody has shown some efficacy in clinical trials involving patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. The recent elucidation of the tridimensional structure of the complex between IgE and FcERI provides unexpected information regarding the mechanism of assembly of the complex, which now can be used to design small chemical compounds capable of specifically inhibiting this interaction.

  12. Conformation-Dependent High-Affinity Potent Ricin-Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Gang Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a potential biothreat agent with no approved antidote available for ricin poisoning. The aim of this study was to develop potent antibody-based antiricin antidotes. Four strong ricin resistant hybridoma clones secreting antiricin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were developed. All four mAbs are bound to conformational epitopes of ricin toxin B (RTB with high affinity (KD values from 2.55 to 36.27 nM. RTB not only triggers cellular uptake of ricin, but also facilitates transport of the ricin toxin A (RTA from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, where RTA exerts its toxic activity. The four mAbs were found to have potent ricin-neutralizing capacities and synergistic effects among them as determined by an in vitro neutralization assay. In vivo protection assay demonstrated that all four mAbs had strong efficacy against ricin challenges. D9 was found to be exceptionally effective. Intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of D9, at a dose of 5 μg, 6 weeks before or 6 hours after an i.p. challenge with 5 × LD50 of ricin was able to protect or rescue 100% of the mice, indicating that mAb D9 is an excellent candidate to be developed as a potent antidote against ricin poisoning for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes.

  13. Molecular evolutionary analysis of the high-affinity K+ transporter gene family in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P; Hua, C; Zhou, F; Zhang, B-J; Cai, X-N; Chen, Q-Z; Wang, R-L

    2016-07-15

    The high-affinity K(+) transporter (HKT) family comprises a group of multifunctional cation transporters widely distributed in organisms ranging from Bacteria to Eukarya. In angiosperms, the HKT family consists primarily of nine types, whose evolutionary relationships are not fully understood. The available sequences from 31 plant species were used to perform a comprehensive evolutionary analysis, including an examination of selection pressure and estimating phylogenetic tree and gene duplication events. Our results show that a gene duplication in the HKT1;5/HKT1;4 cluster might have led to the divergence of the HKT1;5 and HKT1;4 subfamilies. Additionally, maximum likelihood analysis revealed that the HKT family has undergone a strong purifying selection. An analysis of the amino acids provided strong statistical evidence for a functional divergence between subfamilies 1 and 2. Our study was the first to provide evidence of this functional divergence between these two subfamilies. Analysis of co-evolution in HKT identified 25 co-evolved groups. These findings expanded our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms driving functional diversification of HKT proteins.

  14. Sequential administration of the high affinity CXCR4 antagonist BKT140 promotes megakaryopoiesis and platelet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michal; Weiss, Ido D; Wald, Hanna; Wald, Ori; Nagler, Arnon; Beider, Katia; Eizenberg, Orly; Peled, Amnon

    2013-10-01

    Platelets are the terminal differentiation product of megakaryocytes (MKs). Cytokines, such as thrombopoietin (TPO), are known to influence different steps in MK development; however, the complex differentiation and platelet localization processes are not fully understood. MKs express the receptor CXCR4 and have been shown to migrate in response to CXCL12 and to increase their platelet production. In this study, we studied the role of CXCR4 in platelet production with the high affinity CXCR4 antagonist, BKT140. Single and sequential administration of BKT140 significantly increased the number of MKs and haematopoietic progenitors (HPCs) within the bone marrow (BM). Increased megakaryopoiesis was associated with increased platelet production. Single and sequential administration of BKT140 also increased the number of HPCs in the blood. In a model of 5-fluorouracil-induced thrombocytopenia, BKT140 significantly reduced the severity and duration of thrombocytopenia and cytopenia when administered before and after chemotherapy. Our results demonstrated that the CXCR4 antagonist, BKT140, mediated unique beneficial effects by stimulating megakaryopoiesis and platelet production. These results provide evidence for the possible therapeutic use of BKT140 for modulating platelet numbers in thrombocytopenic conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. HIGHLY SECURE KEY PREDISTRIBUTION USING AFFINE PLANES AND REED MULLER CODES IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Sarkar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN consist of low powered and resource constrained sensor nodes which are left unattended for long duration of time. Hence it is very challenging to design and implement cost effective security protocols for such networks. Thus symmetric key cryptographic techniques are preferred over public key techniques for communication in such scenarios. Prior to deployment, keys are usually predistributed into the nodes and this problem has been well studied. Highlighting that connectivity and communication are two separate aspects of a WSN, we propose a secure connectivity model using Reed Muller codes. The model is then utilized to securely establish communication keys and exchange messages in a WSN designed on the basis of a scheme that uses affine planes for key predistribution. By the introduction of connectivity model, the node identifiers (ids are converted from public to private information to each node. These private node ids can be used to generate new communication keys from old ones by applying cryptographic hash functions. Novel combination of these ideas yields highly resilient communication model with full connectivity between nodes.

  16. Enhanced membrane pore formation through high-affinity targeted antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Arnusch

    Full Text Available Many cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs target the unique lipid composition of the prokaryotic cell membrane. However, the micromolar activities common for these peptides are considered weak in comparison to nisin, which follows a targeted, pore-forming mode of action. Here we show that AMPs can be modified with a high-affinity targeting module, which enables membrane permeabilization at low concentration. Magainin 2 and a truncated peptide analog were conjugated to vancomycin using click chemistry, and could be directed towards specific membrane embedded receptors both in model membrane systems and whole cells. Compared with untargeted vesicles, a gain in permeabilization efficacy of two orders of magnitude was reached with large unilamellar vesicles that included lipid II, the target of vancomycin. The truncated vancomycin-peptide conjugate showed an increased activity against vancomycin resistant Enterococci, whereas the full-length conjugate was more active against a targeted eukaryotic cell model: lipid II containing erythrocytes. This study highlights that AMPs can be made more selective and more potent against biological membranes that contain structures that can be targeted.

  17. Function and Regulation of the Plant COPT Family of High-Affinity Copper Transport Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Puig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an essential micronutrient for all eukaryotes because it participates as a redox active cofactor in multiple biological processes, including mitochondrial respiration, photosynthesis, oxidative stress protection, and iron (Fe transport. In eukaryotic cells, Cu transport toward the cytoplasm is mediated by the conserved CTR/COPT family of high-affinity Cu transport proteins. This outlook paper reviews the contribution of our research group to the characterization of the function played by the Arabidopsis thaliana COPT1–6 family of proteins in plant Cu homeostasis. Our studies indicate that the different tissue specificity, Cu-regulated expression, and subcellular localization dictate COPT-specialized contribution to plant Cu transport and distribution. By characterizing lack-of-function Arabidopsis mutant lines, we conclude that COPT1 mediates root Cu acquisition, COPT6 facilitates shoot Cu distribution, and COPT5 mobilizes Cu from storage organelles. Furthermore, our work with copt2 mutant and COPT-overexpressing plants has also uncovered Cu connections with Fe homeostasis and the circadian clock, respectively. Future studies on the interaction between COPT transporters and other components of the Cu homeostasis network will improve our knowledge of plant Cu acquisition, distribution, regulation, and utilization by Cu-proteins.

  18. The physiological significance of HKT1, a Na{sup +} - coupled high affinity K{sup +} transporter in `Triticum aestivum`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Box, S.; Schachtman, D.P. [University of Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Botany

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Several mechanisms for high affinity K{sup +} uptake by higher plants have been proposed:-an ATP-energised K:+ pump, a K{sup +}/H{sup +} antiport and a H{sup +}coupled carrier. Recently, a Na{sup +}--coupled high affinity K{sup +} transporter, HKT1, was isolated from wheat roots. Whilst Na{sup +}K{sup +} symports have been described in charophyte algae, the cloning of HKT1 from wheat is the first, evidence that this type d transport mechanism may function in higher plants. Is the activity of HKT1 an important mechanism involved in K{sup +} acquisition by wheat? The aim of this study was to assess the physiological significance of Na{sup +}- coupled high affinity K{sup +} uptake in T. aestivum. To determine whether HKT1 plays a significant role in wheat growth, we measured the dry weights and ion content of plants grown in a range of [K{sup +}], with and without Na{sup +}. To directly assess the activity of Na{sup +}- coupled K{sup +} transport, {sup 86}Rb{sup +} and {sup 22}Na{sup +} flux analyses were performed on the elongation zones and whole roots of intact seedlings, expressing a high affinity K{sup +} uptake system. The results of these growth and tracer flux studies will be discussed in relation to the expression of the gene encoding HKT1 in T. aestivum

  19. Are basophil histamine release and high affinity IgE receptor expression involved in asymptomatic skin sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Assing, K; Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj;

    2006-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-sensitized persons with positive skin prick test, but no allergy symptoms, are classified as being asymptomatic skin sensitized (AS). The allergic type 1 disease is dependant on IgE binding to the high affinity IgE-receptor (FcepsilonRI) expressed on basophils and mast cells...

  20. The AFT1 transcriptional factor is differentially required for expression of high-affinity iron uptake genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, C; Aldea, M; Espinet, C; Gallego, C; Gil, R; Herrero, E

    1997-06-15

    High-affinity iron uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves the extracytoplasmic reduction of ferric ions by FRE1 and FRE2 reductases. Ferrous ions are then transported across the plasma membrane through the FET3 oxidase-FTR1 permease complex. Expression of the high-affinity iron uptake genes is induced upon iron deprivation. We demonstrate that AFT1 is differentially involved in such regulation. Aft1 protein is required for maintaining detectable non-induced level of FET3 expression and for induction of FRE2 in iron starvation conditions. On the contrary, FRE1 mRNA induction is normal in the absence of Aft1, although the existence of AFT1 point mutations causing constitutive expression of FRE1 (Yamaguchi-Iwai et al., EMBO J. 14: 1231-1239, 1995) indicates that Aft1 may also participate in FRE1 expression in a dispensable way. The alterations in the basal levels of expression of the high-affinity iron uptake genes may explain why the AFT1 mutant is unable to grow on respirable carbon sources. Overexpression of AFT1 leads to growth arrest of the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Aft1 is a transcriptional activator that would be part of the different transcriptional complexes interacting with the promoter of the high-affinity iron uptake genes. Aft1 displays phosphorylation modifications depending on the growth stage of the cells, and it might link induction of genes for iron uptake to other metabolically dominant requirement for cell growth.

  1. Characterization of the Staphylococcal enterotoxin A: Vβ receptor interaction using human receptor fragments engineered for high affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Postel, S; Sundberg, E J; Kranz, D M

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of food containing Staphylococcal enterotoxins. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is the most common enterotoxin recovered from food poisoning outbreaks in the USA. In addition to its enteric activity, SEA also acts as a potent superantigen through stimulation of T cells, although less is known about its interactions than the superantigens SEB, SEC and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. To understand more about SEA:receptor interactions, and to develop toxin-detection systems for use in food testing, we engineered various SEA-binding receptor mutants. The extracellular domain of the receptor, a variable region of the beta chain (Vβ22) of the T-cell receptor, was engineered for stability as a soluble protein and for high affinity, using yeast-display technology. The highest affinity mutant was shown to bind SEA with a Kd value of 4 nM. This was a 25 000-fold improvement in affinity compared with the wild-type receptor, which bound to SEA with low affinity (Kd value of 100 µM), similar to other superantigen:Vβ interactions. The SEA:Vβ interface was centered around residues within the complementarity determining region 2 loop. The engineered receptor was specific for SEA, in that it did not bind to two other closely related enterotoxins SEE or SED, providing information on the SEA residues possibly involved in the interaction. The specificity and affinity of these high-affinity Vβ proteins also provide useful agents for the design of more sensitive and specific systems for SEA detection.

  2. High-affinity hemoglobin and blood oxygen saturation in diving emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Jessica U; Ponganis, Paul J

    2009-10-01

    The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) thrives in the Antarctic underwater environment, diving to depths greater than 500 m and for durations longer than 23 min. To examine mechanisms underlying the exceptional diving ability of this species and further describe blood oxygen (O2) transport and depletion while diving, we characterized the O2-hemoglobin (Hb) dissociation curve of the emperor penguin in whole blood. This allowed us to (1) investigate the biochemical adaptation of Hb in this species, and (2) address blood O2 depletion during diving, by applying the dissociation curve to previously collected partial pressure of O2 (PO2) profiles to estimate in vivo Hb saturation (SO2) changes during dives. This investigation revealed enhanced Hb-O2 affinity (P50=28 mmHg, pH 7.5) in the emperor penguin, similar to high-altitude birds and other penguin species. This allows for increased O2 at low blood PO2 levels during diving and more complete depletion of the respiratory O2 store. SO2 profiles during diving demonstrated that arterial SO2 levels are maintained near 100% throughout much of the dive, not decreasing significantly until the final ascent phase. End-of-dive venous SO2 values were widely distributed and optimization of the venous blood O2 store resulted from arterialization and near complete depletion of venous blood O2 during longer dives. The estimated contribution of the blood O2 store to diving metabolic rate was low and highly variable. This pattern is due, in part, to the influx of O2 from the lungs into the blood during diving, and variable rates of tissue O2 uptake.

  3. High affinity IgM(+) memory B cells are generated through a germinal center-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yasushi; Tashiro, Yasuyuki; Murakami, Akikazu; Nishimura, Miyuki; Shimizu, Takeyuki; Kubo, Masato; Burrows, Peter D; Azuma, Takachika

    2015-12-01

    During a T cell-dependent immune response, B cells undergo clonal expansion and selection and the induction of isotype switching and somatic hypermutation (SHM). Although somatically mutated IgM(+) memory B cells have been reported, it has not been established whether they are really high affinity B cells. We tracked (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl hapten-specific GC B cells from normal immunized mice based on affinity of their B cell receptor (BCR) and performed BCR sequence analysis. SHM was evident by day 7 postimmunization and increased with time, such that high affinity IgM(+) as well as IgG(+) memory B cells continued to be generated up to day 42. In contrast, class-switch recombination (CSR) was almost completed by day 7 and then the ratio of IgG1(+)/IgM(+) GC B cells remained unchanged. Together these findings suggest that IgM(+) B cells undergo SHM in the GC to generate high affinity IgM(+) memory cells and that this process continues even after CSR is accomplished.

  4. Diagnostic approach to hemoglobins with high oxygen affinity: experience from France and Belgium and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvain, Corentin; Joly, Philippe; Pissard, Serge; Badiou, Stéphanie; Badens, Catherine; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Couque, Nathalie; Gulbis, Béatrice; Aguilar-Martinez, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    Congenital causes of erythrocytosis are now more easily identified due to the improvement of the molecular characterization of many of them. Among these causes, hemoglobins with high oxygen affinity take a large place. The aim of this work was to reevaluate the diagnostic approach of these disorders. To assess the current practices, we sent a questionnaire to the expert laboratories in the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies in France and Belgium. In parallel, we gathered the methods used for the diagnosis of the hemoglobins with high oxygen affinity indexed in the international database HbVar. Even though they remain a rare cause of erythrocytosis (1 to 5 positive diagnosis every year in each of the questioned specialized laboratories), hemoglobins with high oxygen affinity are increasingly suspected by clinicians. Phenotypic assessment by laboratory techniques remains a main step in their diagnosis as it enables the finding of 93% of them in the questioned laboratories (28 of the 30 variants diagnosed during the last 5 years). Among the 96 hemoglobin variants with high oxygen affinity indexed in the international database, 87% could be diagnosed with phenotypic techniques. A direct measure of the p50 with the Hemox-Analyzer is included in the diagnostic approach of half of the laboratories only, because of the poor availability of this apparatus. Comparatively, the estimation of p50 by blood gas analyzers on venous blood is a much more convenient and attractive method but due to the lack of proof as to its effectiveness in the diagnosis of hemoglobins with high oxygen affinity, it requires further investigations. Beta- and alphaglobin genes analysis by molecular biology techniques is essential as it either allows a quick and definite identification of the variant or definitely excludes the diagnosis. It is thus systematically performed as a first or second step method, according to the laboratory practice.

  5. Alteration of the α1β2/α2β1 subunit interface contributes to the increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity of high-altitude deer mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoguchi, Noriko; Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Baba, Seiki; Kumasaka, Takashi; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Storz, Jay F.; Moriyama, Hideaki; Permyakov, Eugene A.

    2017-03-31

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) that are native to high altitudes in the Rocky Mountains have evolved hemoglobins with an increased oxygen-binding affinity relative to those of lowland conspecifics. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the evolved increase in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity, the crystal structure of the highland hemoglobin variant was solved and compared with the previously reported structure for the lowland variant. Highland hemoglobin yielded at least two crystal types, in which the longest axes were 507 and 230 Å. Using the smaller unit cell crystal, the structure was solved at 2.2 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained two tetrameric hemoglobin molecules. The analyses revealed that αPro50 in the highland hemoglobin variant promoted a stable interaction between αHis45 and heme that was not seen in the αHis50 lowland variant. The αPro50 mutation also altered the nature of atomic contacts at the α1β2/α2β1 intersubunit interfaces. These results demonstrate how affinity-altering changes in intersubunit interactions can be produced by mutations at structurally remote sites.

  6. PREPARATION OF IMMUNOGEN AND PURIFICA¬TION OF HIGH AFFINITY AND SPECIFICITY FAB FRAGMENT OF ANTI-DIGOXIN POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pour-Amir

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we produced and purified a high titer of specific and high affin¬ity Fab fragments of anti-digoxin antibody. Immunization of rabbits with a conju¬gate of the cardiac glycoside digoxin, coupled by a periodate oxidation method to the amino group of lysine in bovine serum albumin resulted in the production of this type of high titer digoxin-specific antibodies with exceptionally high affinity (109 L/mol and specificity in immune response. Increase in titer was found in steps of purification ending up with the highest titer for Fab fragment to be at 1.75 ug of purified Fab (for 50% binding of I25I-digoxin. High specificity for antigenic determinants of the steroid nucleus of digoxin was observed such that much less cross-reaction with digoxin (2.3% and no cross-reaction with ouabaine, estradiol, Cortisol, progesterone and testosterone were detected.

  7. Immunotherapy Expands and Maintains the Function of High-Affinity Tumor-Infiltrating CD8 T Cells In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Amy E; Polesso, Fanny; Weinberg, Andrew D

    2016-09-15

    Cancer cells harbor high-affinity tumor-associated Ags capable of eliciting potent antitumor T cell responses, yet detecting these polyclonal T cells is challenging. Therefore, surrogate markers of T cell activation such as CD69, CD44, and programmed death-1 (PD-1) have been used. We report in this study that in mice, expression of activation markers including PD-1 is insufficient in the tumor microenvironment to identify tumor Ag-specific T cells. Using the Nur77GFP T cell affinity reporter mouse, we highlight that PD-1 expression can be induced independent of TCR ligation within the tumor. Given this, we characterized the utility of the Nur77GFP model system in elucidating mechanisms of action of immunotherapies independent of PD-1 expression. Coexpression of Nur77GFP and OX40 identifies a polyclonal population of high-affinity tumor-associated Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells, which produce more IFN-γ in situ than OX40 negative and doubles in quantity with anti-OX40 and anti-CTLA4 mAb therapy but not with anti-PD-1 or programmed death ligand-1. Moreover, expansion of these high-affinity CD8 T cells prolongs survival of tumor-bearing animals. Upon chronic stimulation in tumors and after adoptive cell therapy, CD8 TCR signaling and Nur77GFP induction is impaired, and tumors progress. However, this can be reversed and overall survival significantly enhanced after adoptive cell therapy with agonist OX40 immunotherapy. Therefore, we propose that OX40 agonist immunotherapy can maintain functional TCR signaling of chronically stimulated tumor-resident CD8 T cells, thereby increasing the frequency of cytotoxic, high-affinity, tumor-associated Ag-specific cells.

  8. Sourcing the affinity of flavonoids for the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor site via crystallography, kinetics and QM/MM-PBSA binding studies: comparison of chrysin and flavopiridol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsanou, Katerina E; Hayes, Joseph M; Keramioti, Maria; Mamais, Michalis; Oikonomakos, Nikos G; Kato, Atsushi; Leonidas, Demetres D; Zographos, Spyros E

    2013-11-01

    Flavonoids have been discovered as novel inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase (GP), a target to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the mechanism of inhibition, we have determined the crystal structure of the GPb-chrysin complex at 1.9 Å resolution. Chrysin is accommodated at the inhibitor site intercalating between the aromatic side chains of Phe285 and Tyr613 through π-stacking interactions. Chrysin binds to GPb approximately 15 times weaker (Ki=19.01 μM) than flavopiridol (Ki=1.24 μM), exclusively at the inhibitor site, and both inhibitors display similar behavior with respect to AMP. To identify the source of flavopiridols' stronger affinity, molecular docking with Glide and postdocking binding free energy calculations using QM/MM-PBSA have been performed and compared. Whereas docking failed to correctly rank inhibitor binding conformations, the QM/MM-PBSA method employing M06-2X/6-31+G to model the π-stacking interactions correctly reproduced the experimental results. Flavopiridols' greater binding affinity is sourced to favorable interactions of the cationic 4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl substituent with GPb, with desolvation effects limited by the substituent conformation adopted in the crystallographic complex. Further successful predictions using QM/MM-PBSA for the flavonoid quercetagetin (which binds at the allosteric site) leads us to propose the methodology as a useful and inexpensive tool to predict flavonoid binding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Signs of Pathological Cognitive Aging in Mice Lacking High-Affinity Nicotinic Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Polissidis, Alexia V; Stamatakis, Antonios; Skaliora, Irini

    2016-01-01

    In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. A deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-), which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioral signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviors, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments in spatial learning. In addition, they document age-related deficits in other areas, such as recognition memory, burrowing and nesting building, thereby extending the validity of this animal model for the study of pathological aging. Finally, our data reveal deficits in spontaneous behavior and habituation processes that precede the onset of cognitive decline and could therefore be useful as a non-invasive behavioral screen for identifying animals at risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioral assessment of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioral changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging.

  10. High affinity group III mGluRs regulate mossy fiber input to CA3 interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kathleen E; Meriney, Stephen D; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2011-12-01

    Stratum lacunosum-moleculare interneurons (L-Mi) in hippocampal area CA3 target the apical dendrite of pyramidal cells providing feedforward inhibition. Here we report that selective activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) 4/8 with L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphnobytyric acid (L-AP4; 10 μM) decreased the probability of glutamate release from the mossy fiber (MF) terminals synapsing onto L-Mi. Consistent with this interpretation, application of L-AP4 in the presence of 3 mM strontium decreased the frequency of asynchronous MF EPSCs in L-Mi. Furthermore, the dose response curve showed that L-AP4 at 400 μM produced no further decrease in MF EPSC amplitude compared with 20 μM L-AP4, indicating the lack of mGluRs 7 at these MF terminals. We also found that one mechanism of mGluRs 4/8-mediated inhibition of release is linked to N-type voltage gated calcium channels at MF terminals. Application of the group III mGluR antagonist MSOP (100 μM) demonstrated that mGluRs 4/8 are neither tonically active nor activated by low and moderate frequencies of activity. However, trains of stimuli to the MF at 20 and 40 Hz delivered during the application of MSOP revealed a relief of inhibition of transmitter release and an increase in the overall probability of action potential firing in the postsynaptic L-Mi. Interestingly, the time to first action potential was significantly shorter in the presence of MSOP, indicating that mGluR 4/8 activation delays L-Mi firing in response to MF activity. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the timing and probability of action potentials in L-Mi evoked by MF synaptic input is regulated by the activation of presynaptic high affinity group III mGluRs.

  11. In silico analysis of high affinity potassium transporter (HKT) isoforms in different plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani Babgohari, Mahbobeh; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Niazi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    High affinity potassium transporters (HKTs) are located in the plasma membrane of the vessels and have significant influence on salt tolerance in some plants. They exclude Na(+) from the parenchyma cells to reduce Na(+) concentration. Despite many studies, the underlying regulatory mechanisms and the exact functions of HKTs within different genomic backgrounds are relatively unknown. In this study, various bioinformatics techniques, including promoter analysis, identification of HKT-surrounding genes, and construction of gene networks, were applied to investigate the HKT regulatory mechanism. Promoter analysis showed that rice HKTs carry ABA response elements. Additionally, jasmonic acid response elements were detected on promoter region of TmHKT1;5. In silico synteny highlighted several unknown and new loci near rice, Arabidopsis thaliana and Physcomitrella patent HKTs, which may play a significant role in salt stress tolerance in concert with HKTs. Gene network prediction unravelled that crosstalk between jasmonate and ethylene reduces AtHKT1;1 expression. Furthermore, antiporter and transferase proteins were found in AtHKT1;1 gene network. Interestingly, regulatory elements on the promoter region of HKT in wild genotype (TmHKT1;5) were more frequent and variable than the ones in cultivated wheat (TaHKT1;5) which provides the possibility of rapid response and better understanding of environmental conditions for wild genotype. Detecting ABA and jasmonic acid response elements on promoter regions of HKTs provide valuable clues on underlying regulatory mechanisms of HKTs. In silico synteny and pathway discovery indicated several candidates which act in concert with HKTs in stress condition. We highlighted different arrangement of regulatory elements on promoter region of wild wheat (TmHKT1;5) compared to bread wheat (TaHKT1;5) in this study.

  12. Slow Growth and High Substrate Affinity of Anammox Bacteria in an Oxygen Minimum Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, L. A.; Padilla, C. C.; Sarode, N. D.; Stewart, F. J.; Thamdrup, B.

    2016-02-01

    A major percentage of total fixed nitrogen (N) loss in the oceans occurs within oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) via denitrification or anammox. Anammox has been suggested as the dominant N loss pathway in these regions, but the regulation of this process remains understudied in aquatic systems, with work to date mainly coming from laboratory-scale bioreactors. Sampling was undertaken in the anoxic, coastal basin of the Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica to assess the growth and substrate kinetics of anammox bacteria in a marine OMZ. Anammox rates showed a strong dependence on nanomolar concentrations of both NH4+ and NO2-. A single Michaelis-Menten curve fitted for each substrate produced apparent half saturation constants (Km) of 335 ± 292 nM NH4+ and 167 ± 192 nM NO2- respectively. NO2- has a dual role to play in anammox metabolism, as an electron acceptor in the energy generating reaction and as an electron donor in the carbon fixation step; hence growth is associated with NO3- production. Using acetylene as an inhibitor for anammox, we were able to assess NO2- oxidation by anammox bacteria, producing a mean ratio of N2 to NO3- production of 0.26 ± 0.04, which is in direct agreement with that observed in bioreactors. This allowed calculation of a carbon fixation rate, which when combined with enumeration of anammox bacteria through qPCR allowed us to determine the first doubling time for anammox bacteria (predominately Ca. Scalindua) in the marine environment. Doubling times at the peak of anammox activity fell in the range 65 to 123 days, which is at the high end of those seen in laboratory setups. Anammox bacteria have a high affinity for both NH4+ and NO2- and are thus able to compete for these highly sought after substrates in OMZs. However, the slow growth of these bacteria will delay their response to injections of substrate, for example from inputs of fresh organic matter, and it will therefore ultimately influence their contribution to fixed N loss in the oceans.

  13. High-affinity small molecule-phospholipid complex formation: binding of siramesine to phosphatidicacid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu

    2008-01-01

    , comparable to the affinities for the binding of small molecule ligands to proteins, was measured for phosphatidic acid (PA, mole fraction of XPA ) 0.2 in phosphatidylcholine vesicles), yielding a molecular partition coefficient of 240 ( 80 × 106. An MD simulation on the siramesine:PA interaction...

  14. Viral reverse transcriptases show selective high affinity binding to DNA-DNA primer-templates that resemble the polypurine tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri R Nair

    Full Text Available Previous results using a SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment-based approach that selected DNA primer-template duplexes binding with high affinity to HIV reverse transcriptase (RT showed that primers mimicking the 3' end, and in particular the six nt terminal G tract, of the RNA polypurine tract (PPT; HIV PPT: 5'-AAAAGAAAAGGGGGG-3' were preferentially selected. In this report, two viral (Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV and avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV and one retrotransposon (Ty3 RTs were used for selection. Like HIV RT, both viral RTs selected duplexes with primer strands mimicking the G tract at the PPT 3' end (AMV PPT: 5'-AGGGAGGGGGA-3'; MuLV PPT: 5'-AGAAAAAGGGGGG-3'. In contrast, Ty3, whose PPT lacks a G tract (5'-GAGAGAGAGGAA-3' showed no selective binding to any duplex sequences. Experiments were also conducted with DNA duplexes (termed DNA PPTs mimicking the RNA PPT-DNA duplex of each virus and a control duplex with a random DNA sequence. Retroviral RTs bound with high affinity to all viral DNA PPT constructs, with HIV and MuLV RTs showing comparable binding to the counterpart DNA PPT duplexes and reduced affinity to the AMV DNA PPT. AMV RT showed similar behavior with a modest preference for its own DNA PPT. Ty3 RT showed no preferential binding for its own or any other DNA PPT and viral RTs bound the Ty3 DNA PPT with relatively low affinity. In contrast, binding affinity of HIV RT to duplexes containing the HIV RNA PPT was less dependent on the G tract, which is known to be pivotal for efficient extension. We hypothesize that the G tract on the RNA PPT helps shift the binding orientation of RT to the 3' end of the PPT where extension can occur.

  15. A tRNA body with high affinity for EF-Tu hastens ribosomal incorporation of unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieong, Ka-Weng; Pavlov, Michael Y; Kwiatkowski, Marek; Ehrenberg, Måns; Forster, Anthony C

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence that tRNA bodies have evolved to reduce differences between aminoacyl-tRNAs in their affinity to EF-Tu. Here, we study the kinetics of incorporation of L-amino acids (AAs) Phe, Ala allyl-glycine (aG), methyl-serine (mS), and biotinyl-lysine (bK) using a tRNA(Ala)-based body (tRNA(AlaB)) with a high affinity for EF-Tu. Results are compared with previous data on the kinetics of incorporation of the same AAs using a tRNA(PheB) body with a comparatively low affinity for EF-Tu. All incorporations exhibited fast and slow phases, reflecting the equilibrium fraction of AA-tRNA in active ternary complex with EF-Tu:GTP before the incorporation reaction. Increasing the concentration of EF-Tu increased the amplitude of the fast phase and left its rate unaltered. This allowed estimation of the affinity of each AA-tRNA to EF-Tu:GTP during translation, showing about a 10-fold higher EF-Tu affinity for AA-tRNAs formed from the tRNA(AlaB) body than from the tRNA(PheB) body. At ∼1 µM EF-Tu, tRNA(AlaB) conferred considerably faster incorporation kinetics than tRNA(PheB), especially in the case of the bulky bK. In contrast, the swap to the tRNA(AlaB) body did not increase the fast phase fraction of N-methyl-Phe incorporation, suggesting that the slow incorporation of N-methyl-Phe had a different cause than low EF-Tu:GTP affinity. The total time for AA-tRNA release from EF-Tu:GDP, accommodation, and peptidyl transfer on the ribosome was similar for the tRNA(AlaB) and tRNA(PheB) bodies. We conclude that a tRNA body with high EF-Tu affinity can greatly improve incorporation of unnatural AAs in a potentially generalizable manner.

  16. Application of high-throughput affinity-selection mass spectrometry for screening of chemical compound libraries in lead discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehender, Hartmut; Mayr, Lorenz M

    2007-02-01

    High-throughput screening of chemical libraries for compounds that interfere with a particular molecular target is among the most powerful methodologies applied in lead discovery at present. In this review, the authors describe a label-free, homogeneous, affinity-selection-based technology developed at Novartis, termed SpeedScreen, which is compared with similar technologies used for high-throughput screening in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. The focus at present of SpeedScreen is twofold: first, this technology is applied to orphan genomic targets and to those targets that are non-tractable by a functional assay; second, this technology is applied complementary to the well-established traditional methodologies for the screening of molecular targets. In summary, the authors discuss the value of affinity-selection-based high-throughput screening as a complementary technology to the common functional screening platforms and the benefits as well as the limitations of this new technology are outlined.

  17. Negative Cooperativity and High Affinity in Chitooligosaccharide Binding by a Mycobacterium smegmatis Protein Containing LysM and Lectin Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Dhabaleswar; Mishra, Padmanabh; Vijayan, Mamannamana; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2016-01-12

    LysM domains have been recognized in bacteria and eukaryotes as carbohydrate-binding protein modules, but the mechanism of their binding to chitooligosaccharides has been underexplored. Binding of a Mycobacterium smegmatis protein containing a lectin (MSL) and one LysM domain to chitooligosaccharides has been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence titration that demonstrate the presence of two binding sites of nonidentical affinities per dimeric MSL-LysM molecule. The affinity of the molecule for chitooligosaccharides correlates with the length of the carbohydrate chain. Its binding to chitooligosaccharides is characterized by negative cooperativity in the interactions of the two domains. Apparently, the flexibility of the long linker that connects the LysM and MSL domains plays a facilitating role in this recognition. The LysM domain in the MSL-LysM molecule, like other bacterial domains but unlike plant LysM domains, recognizes equally well peptidoglycan fragments as well as chitin polymers. Interestingly, in the case presented here, two LysM domains are enough for binding to peptidoglycan in contrast to the three reportedly required by the LysM domains of Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis. Also, the affinity of the MSL-LysM molecule for chitooligosaccharides is higher than that of LysM-chitooligosaccharide interactions reported so far.

  18. Low density and high affinity of platelet [3H]paroxetine binding in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Agneta; Sundblad-Elverfors, Charlotta; Landén, Mikael; Eriksson, Tomas; Eriksson, Elias

    2006-06-15

    Impaired serotonin transmission has been suggested to be implicated in the pathophysiology of bulimia nervosa. As an indirect measure of brain serotonergic activity, the binding of tritiated ligands to platelet serotonin transporters has been studied in bulimia nervosa as well as in other putatively serotonin-related psychiatric disorders. In this study, the density and affinity of platelet serotonin transporters were assessed in 20 women meeting the DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa and in 14 controls without previous or ongoing eating disorder using [(3)H]paroxetine as a ligand. In comparison to controls, women with bulimia nervosa had a significantly reduced number of platelet binding sites (B(max) = 721 +/- 313 vs. 1145 +/- 293 fmol/mg protein) and an increase in the affinity for the ligand demonstrated by a lower dissociaton constant (K(d) = 33 +/- 10 vs. 44 +/- 10 pM). A significant correlation between B(max) and K(d) values was found in patients but not in controls. Our results support the notion that bulimia nervosa is associated with a reduction in platelet serotonin transporter density. In addition, our study is the first to report that this reduced transporter density in women with bulimia nervosa is accompanied by an increase in the affinity of the transporter for the ligand.

  19. Identifying high-affinity aptamer ligands with defined cross-reactivity using high-throughput guided systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Agata; Brenneman, Randall; Hoinka, Jan; Sant, David; Cardone, Marco; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Przytycka, Teresa M; Berezhnoy, Alexey

    2015-07-13

    Oligonucleotide aptamers represent a novel platform for creating ligands with desired specificity, and they offer many potentially significant advantages over monoclonal antibodies in terms of feasibility, cost, and clinical applicability. However, the isolation of high-affinity aptamer ligands from random oligonucleotide pools has been challenging. Although high-throughput sequencing (HTS) promises to significantly facilitate systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) analysis, the enormous datasets generated in the process pose new challenges for identifying those rare, high-affinity aptamers present in a given pool. We show that emulsion PCR preserves library diversity, preventing the loss of rare high-affinity aptamers that are difficult to amplify. We also demonstrate the importance of using reference targets to eliminate binding candidates with reduced specificity. Using a combination of bioinformatics and functional analyses, we show that the rate of amplification is more predictive than prevalence with respect to binding affinity and that the mutational landscape within a cluster of related aptamers can guide the identification of high-affinity aptamer ligands. Finally, we demonstrate the power of this selection process for identifying cross-species aptamers that can bind human receptors and cross-react with their murine orthologs.

  20. A Class of High-affinity Bicyclooctane G551D-CFTR Activators Identified by High Throughput Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cheng-yan; ZHAO Lu; LIU Yan-li; XU Li-na; SHANG De-jing; YANG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The glycine-to-aspartic acid missense mutation at the codon 551(G551D) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR) is one of the five most frequent cystic fibrosis(CF) mutations associated with a severe CF phenotype. To explore the feasibility of pharmacological correction of disrupted activation of CFTR chloride channel caused by G551D mutation, we developed a halide-sensitive fluorescence miniassay for G551D-CFTR in Fisher rat thyroid(FRT) epithelial cells for the discovery of novel activators of G551D-CFTR. A class of bicyclooctane small molecule compounds that efficiently stimulate G551D-CFTR chloride channel activity was identified by high throughput screening via the FRT cell-based assay. This class of compounds selectively activates G551D-CFTR with a high affinity, whereas little effect of the compounds on wildtype CFTR can be seen. The discovery of a class of bicyclooctane G551D-CFTR activators will permit the analysis of structure-activity relationship of the compounds to identify ideal leads for in vivo therapeutic studies.

  1. Hexa-arginine enhanced uptake and residualization of selective high affinity ligands by Raji lymphoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirick Gary

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of arginine-rich peptide sequences similar to those found in viral proteins have been conjugated to other molecules to facilitate their transport into the cytoplasm and nucleus of targeted cells. The selective high affinity ligand (SHAL (DvLPBaPPP2LLDo, which was developed to bind only to cells expressing HLA-DR10, has been conjugated to one of these peptide transduction domains, hexa-arginine, to assess the impact of the peptide on SHAL uptake and internalization by Raji cells, a B-cell lymphoma. Results An analog of the SHAL (DvLPBaPPP2LLDo containing a hexa-arginine peptide was created by adding six D-arginine residues sequentially to a lysine inserted in the SHAL's linker. SHAL binding, internalization and residualization by Raji cells expressing HLA-DR10 were examined using whole cell binding assays and confocal microscopy. Raji cells were observed to bind two fold more 111In-labeled hexa-arginine SHAL analog than Raji cells treated with the parent SHAL. Three fold more hexa-arginine SHAL remained associated with the Raji cells after washing, suggesting that the peptide also enhanced residualization of the 111In transported into cells. Confocal microscopy showed both SHALs localized in the cytoplasm of Raji cells, whereas a fraction of the hexa-arginine SHAL localized in the nucleus. Conclusion The incorporation of a hexa-D-arginine peptide into the linker of the SHAL (DvLPBaPPP2LLDo enhanced both the uptake and residualization of the SHAL analog by Raji cells. In contrast to the abundant cell surface binding observed with Lym-1 antibody, the majority of (DvLPBaPPP2LArg6AcLLDo and the parent SHAL were internalized. Some of the internalized hexa-arginine SHAL analog was also associated with the nucleus. These results demonstrate that several important SHAL properties, including uptake, internalization, retention and possibly intracellular distribution, can be enhanced or modified by conjugating the SHALs to a

  2. Identification of a high-affinity ligand that exhibits complete aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kayla J; Murray, Iain A; Tanos, Rachel; Tellew, John; Boitano, Anthony E; Bisson, William H; Kolluri, Siva K; Cooke, Michael P; Perdew, Gary H

    2011-07-01

    The biological functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) can be delineated into dioxin response element (DRE)-dependent or -independent activities. Ligands exhibiting either full or partial agonist activity, e.g., 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and α-naphthoflavone, have been demonstrated to potentiate both DRE-dependent and -independent AHR function. In contrast, the recently identified selective AHR modulators (SAhRMs), e.g., 1-allyl-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-indazole (SGA360), bias AHR toward DRE-independent functionality while displaying antagonism with regard to ligand-induced DRE-dependent transcription. Recent studies have expanded the physiological role of AHR to include modulation of hematopoietic progenitor expansion and immunoregulation. It remains to be established whether such physiological roles are mediated through DRE-dependent or -independent pathways. Here, we present evidence for a third class of AHR ligand, "pure" or complete antagonists with the capacity to suppress both DRE-dependent and -independent AHR functions, which may facilitate dissection of physiological AHR function with regard to DRE or non-DRE-mediated signaling. Competitive ligand binding assays together with in silico modeling identify N-(2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-9-isopropyl-2-(5-methylpyridin-3-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine (GNF351) as a high-affinity AHR ligand. DRE-dependent reporter assays, in conjunction with quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of AHR targets, reveal GNF351 as a potent AHR antagonist that demonstrates efficacy in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, unlike many currently used AHR antagonists, e.g., α-naphthoflavone, GNF351 is devoid of partial agonist potential. It is noteworthy that in a model of AHR-mediated DRE-independent function, i.e., suppression of cytokine-induced acute-phase gene expression, GNF351 has the capacity to antagonize agonist and SAhRM-mediated suppression of SAA1. Such data indicate that GNF351 is a

  3. Twins in spirit part II: DOTATATE and high-affinity DOTATATE - the clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogsitter, Claudia; Zoephel, Klaus; Hartmann, Holger; Kotzerke, Joerg [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Schottelius, Margret; Wester, Hans-Juergen [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Pharmaceutical Radiochemistry and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Over recent decades interest in diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours (NET) has steadily grown. The basis for diagnosis and therapy of NET with radiolabelled somatostatin (hsst) analogues is the variable overexpression of hsst receptors (hsst1-5 receptors). We hypothesized that radiometal derivatives of DOTA-iodo-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide analogues might be excellent candidates for somatostatin receptor imaging. We therefore explored the diagnostic potential of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-iodo-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate [{sup 68}Ga-DOTA,3-iodo-Tyr{sup 3},Thr{sup 8}]octreotide ({sup 68}Ga-HA-DOTATATE; HA, high-affinity) compared to the established {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate ({sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE) in vivo. The study included 23 patients with known somatostatin receptor-positive metastases from NETs, thyroid cancer or glomus tumours who were investigated with both {sup 68}Ga-HA-DOTATATE and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE. A patient-based and a lesion-based comparative analysis was carried out of normal tissue distribution and lesion detectability in a qualitative and a semiquantitative manner. {sup 68}Ga-HA-DOTATATE and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE showed comparable uptake in the liver (SUV{sub mean} 8.9 ± 2.2 vs. 9.3 ± 2.5, n.s.), renal cortex (SUV{sub mean} 13.3 ± 3.9 vs. 14.5 ± 3.7, n.s.) and spleen (SUV{sub mean} 24.0 ± 6.7 vs. 22.9 ± 7.3, n.s.). A somewhat higher pituitary uptake was found with {sup 68}Ga-HA-DOTATATE (SUV{sub mean} 6.3 ± 1.8 vs. 5.4 ± 2.1, p < 0.05). On a lesion-by-lesion basis a total of 344 lesions were detected. {sup 68}Ga-HA-DOTATATE demonstrated 328 lesions (95.3 % of total lesions seen), and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE demonstrated 332 lesions (96.4 %). The mean SUV{sub max} of all lesions was not significantly different between {sup 68}Ga-HA-DOTATATE and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE (17.8 ± 11.4 vs. 16.7 ± 10.7, n.s.). Our analysis demonstrated very good concordance between {sup 68}Ga-HA-DOTATATE and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE PET data. As the availability and use of {sup

  4. Inhibition of the high affinity choline transporter enhances hyperalgesia in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Chen, Lei; Yu, Baoping

    2017-06-17

    The mechanisms underlying chronic and persistent pain associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) are not completely understood. The cholinergic system is one of the major neural pathways of the pancreas. Meanwhile, this system plays an important role in chronic pain. We hypothesized that the high affinity choline transporter CHT1, which is a main determinant of cholinergic signaling capacity, is involved in regulating pain associated with CP. CP was induced by intraductal injection of 2% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pathological examination was used to evaluate the inflammation of pancreas and hyperalgesia was assessed by measuring the number of withdrawal events evoked by application of the von Frey filaments. CHT1 expression in pancreas-specific dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) was assessed through immunohistochemistry and western blotting. We also intraperitoneally injected the rats with hemicholinium-3 (HC-3, a specific inhibitor of CHT1). Then we observed its effects on the visceral hyperalgesia induced by CP, and on the acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the DRGs through using an acetylcholine/acetylcholinesterase assay kit. Signs of CP were observed 21 days after TNBS injection. Rats subjected to TNBS infusions had increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the abdomen. CHT1-immunoreactive cells were increased in the DRGs from rats with CP compared to naive or sham rats. Western blots indicated that CHT1 expression was significantly up-regulated in TNBS-treated rats when compared to naive or sham-operated rats at all time points following surgery. In the TNBS group, CHT1 expression was higher on day 28 than on day 7 or day 14, but there was no statistical difference in CHT1 expression on day 28 vs. day 21. Treatment with HC-3 (60 μg/kg, 80 μg/kg, or 100 μg/kg) markedly enhanced the mechanical hyperalgesia and reduced ACh levels in a dose-dependent manner in rats with CP. We report for the first time that CHT1 may be involved

  5. A bambusuril macrocycle that binds anions in water with high affinity and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawer, Mirza Arfan; Havel, Vaclav; Sindelar, Vladimir

    2015-01-02

    Synthetic receptors that function in water are important for the qualitative and quantitative detection of anions, which may act as pollutants in the environment or play important roles in biological processes. Neutral receptors are particularly appealing because they are often more selective than positively charged receptors; however, their affinity towards anions in pure water is only in range of 1-10(3)  L mol(-1) . The anion-templated synthesis of a water-soluble bambusuril derivative is shown to be an outstanding receptor for various inorganic anions in pure water, with association constants of up to 10(7)  L mol(-1) . Furthermore, the macrocycle discriminates between anions with unprecedented selectivity (up to 500 000-fold). We anticipate that the combination of remarkable affinity and selectivity of this macrocycle will enable the efficient detection and isolation of diverse anions in aqueous solutions, which is not possible with current supramolecular systems.

  6. Structure-based identification of new high-affinity nucleosome binding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistini, Federica; Hunter, Christopher A; Moore, Irene K; Widom, Jonathan

    2012-06-29

    The substrate for the proteins that express genetic information in the cell is not naked DNA but an assembly of nucleosomes, where the DNA is wrapped around histone proteins. The organization of these nucleosomes on genomic DNA is influenced by the DNA sequence. Here, we present a structure-based computational approach that translates sequence information into the energy required to bend DNA into a nucleosome-bound conformation. The calculations establish the relationship between DNA sequence and histone octamer binding affinity. In silico selection using this model identified several new DNA sequences, which were experimentally found to have histone octamer affinities comparable to the highest-affinity sequences known. The results provide insights into the molecular mechanism through which DNA sequence information encodes its organization. A quantitative appreciation of the thermodynamics of nucleosome positioning and rearrangement will be one of the key factors in understanding the regulation of transcription and in the design of new promoter architectures for the purposes of tuning gene expression dynamics.

  7. Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances the affinity for PDZ-RhoGEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Heath G; Gutowski, Stephen; Chen, Hua; Brautigam, Chad A; Chen, Zhe; Sternweis, Paul C; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-12-01

    PDZ domains are abundant protein interaction modules and typically recognize a short motif at the C terminus of their ligands, with a few residues in the motif endowing the binding specificity. The sequence-based rules, however, cannot fully account for the specificity between the vast number of PDZ domains and ligands in the cell. Plexins are transmembrane receptors that regulate processes such as axon guidance and angiogenesis. Two related guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), PDZ-RhoGEF and leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG), use their PDZ domains to bind class B plexins and play critical roles in signaling. Here, we present the crystal structure of the full-length cytoplasmic region of PlexinB2 in complex with the PDZ domain of PDZ-RhoGEF. The structure reveals that, in addition to the canonical C-terminal motif/PDZ interaction, the 3D domain of PlexinB2 forms a secondary interface with the PDZ domain. Our biophysical and cell-based assays show that the secondary interface contributes to the specific interaction between plexin and PDZ-RhoGEF and to signaling by plexin in the cell. Formation of secondary interfaces may be a general mechanism for increasing affinity and specificity of modular domain-mediated interactions.

  8. Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances the affinity for PDZ–RhoGEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Heath G.; Gutowski, Stephen; Chen, Hua; Brautigam, Chad A.; Chen, Zhe; Sternweis, Paul C.; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains are abundant protein interaction modules and typically recognize a short motif at the C terminus of their ligands, with a few residues in the motif endowing the binding specificity. The sequence-based rules, however, cannot fully account for the specificity between the vast number of PDZ domains and ligands in the cell. Plexins are transmembrane receptors that regulate processes such as axon guidance and angiogenesis. Two related guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), PDZ–RhoGEF and leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG), use their PDZ domains to bind class B plexins and play critical roles in signaling. Here, we present the crystal structure of the full-length cytoplasmic region of PlexinB2 in complex with the PDZ domain of PDZ–RhoGEF. The structure reveals that, in addition to the canonical C-terminal motif/PDZ interaction, the 3D domain of PlexinB2 forms a secondary interface with the PDZ domain. Our biophysical and cell-based assays show that the secondary interface contributes to the specific interaction between plexin and PDZ–RhoGEF and to signaling by plexin in the cell. Formation of secondary interfaces may be a general mechanism for increasing affinity and specificity of modular domain-mediated interactions. PMID:26627240

  9. A human β-III-spectrin spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 mutation causes high-affinity F-actin binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Adam W.; Crain, Jonathan; Thomas, David D.; Hays, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) is a human neurodegenerative disease that stems from mutations in the SPTBN2 gene encoding the protein β-III-spectrin. Here we investigated the molecular consequence of a SCA5 missense mutation that results in a L253P substitution in the actin-binding domain (ABD) of β-III-spectrin. We report that the L253P substitution in the isolated β-III-spectrin ABD causes strikingly high F-actin binding affinity (Kd = 75.5 nM) compared to the weak F-actin binding affinity of the wild-type ABD (Kd = 75.8 μM). The mutation also causes decreased thermal stability (Tm = 44.6 °C vs 59.5 °C). Structural analyses indicate that leucine 253 is in a loop at the interface of the tandem calponin homology (CH) domains comprising the ABD. Leucine 253 is predicted to form hydrophobic contacts that bridge the CH domains. The decreased stability of the mutant indicates that these bridging interactions are probably disrupted, suggesting that the high F-actin binding affinity of the mutant is due to opening of the CH domain interface. These results support a fundamental role for leucine 253 in regulating opening of the CH domain interface and binding of the ABD to F-actin. This study indicates that high-affinity actin binding of L253P β-III-spectrin is a likely driver of neurodegeneration. PMID:26883385

  10. Defective high-affinity thiamine transporter leads to cell death in thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Amy R.; Fleming, Judith C.; Baker, Meghan A.; Sakamoto, Massayuki; Cohen, Nadine; Neufeld, Ellis J.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the cellular pathology of the syndrome called thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) with diabetes and deafness. Cultured diploid fibroblasts were grown in thiamine-free medium and dialyzed serum. Normal fibroblasts survived indefinitely without supplemental thiamine, whereas patient cells died in 5–14 days (mean 9.5 days), and heterozygous cells survived for more than 30 days. TRMA fibroblasts were rescued from death with 10–30 nM thiamine (in the range of normal plasma thiamine concentrations). Positive terminal deoxynucleotide transferase–mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining suggested that cell death was due to apoptosis. We assessed cellular uptake of [3H]thiamine at submicromolar concentrations. Normal fibroblasts exhibited saturable, high-affinity thiamine uptake (Km 400–550 nM; Vmax 11 pmol/min/106 cells) in addition to a low-affinity unsaturable component. Mutant cells lacked detectable high-affinity uptake. At 30 nM thiamine, the rate of uptake of thiamine by TRMA fibroblasts was 10-fold less than that of wild-type, and cells from obligate heterozygotes had an intermediate phenotype. Transfection of TRMA fibroblasts with the yeast thiamine transporter gene THI10 prevented cell death when cells were grown in the absence of supplemental thiamine. We therefore propose that the primary abnormality in TRMA is absence of a high-affinity thiamine transporter and that low intracellular thiamine concentrations in the mutant cells cause biochemical abnormalities that lead to apoptotic cell death. J. Clin. Invest. 103:723–729 (1999). PMID:10074490

  11. Synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals with a high affinity for amine organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ricardo H; Schreiner, Wido Herwig; Leite, Edson R

    2010-07-20

    This article describes a different approach to the colloidal synthesis of TiO(2) nanocrystals using a polymer melt as a solvent. This approach allowed us to obtain a colloidal dispersion with a high degree of stability in a polymeric solvent, resulting in a transparent colloid. Using this method, it was possible to obtain the TiO(2) nanocrystal with Brønsted acid sites and polymer chains chemically anchored on the nanocrystal surface. The acid surface of those nanocrystals has the chemical property to react in the presence of amine organic compounds and to maintain the colloidal stability. In this way, TiO(2) nanocrystals were combined with a molecular probe containing amine functional groups such as polyaniline. Through the combination of the molecular probe and inorganic nanocrystals, we obtained a hybrid material with interesting chemical, optical, and electronic behavior, making it a promising material for photovoltaic, photochromic, and sensor devices.

  12. Affinity chromatography with pseudobiospecific ligands on high-performance supports for purification of proteins of biotechnological interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Iannucci

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available High-performance affinity matrices were obtained by attaching pseudobiospecific ligands to hollow-fibre membranes. The neutral protease contained in FlavourzymeTM was purified to homogeneity with Yellow 4R-HE affinity hollow-fibre membranes. Immobilisation of Red HE-3B allowed purification of a milk-clotting enzyme obtained by solid-state culture of Mucor bacilliformis. Copper immobilisation through iminodiacetic acid allowed fractionation of Biocon Bioconcentrated PlusTM to separate the pectinesterase-containing fraction. The productivity of the developed processes - 1900, 94 and 750 U/ml.min, respectively - was 10- to 15-fold higher than that achieved with the same ligands immobilised on agarose-based soft gels, mainly due to the shortening of the purification processes.

  13. Peptide-based protein capture agents with high affinity, selectivity, and stability as antibody replacements in biodetection assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Matthew B.; Farrow, Blake; Warner, Candice; Finch, Amethist S.; Lai, Bert; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Heath, James R.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra

    2014-05-01

    Current biodetection assays that employ monoclonal antibodies as primary capture agents exhibit limited fieldability, shelf life, and performance due to batch-to-batch production variability and restricted thermal stability. In order to improve upon the detection of biological threats in fieldable assays and systems for the Army, we are investigating protein catalyzed capture (PCC) agents as drop-in replacements for the existing antibody technology through iterative in situ click chemistry. The PCC agent oligopeptides are developed against known protein epitopes and can be mass produced using robotic methods. In this work, a PCC agent under development will be discussed. The performance, including affinity, selectivity, and stability of the capture agent technology, is analyzed by immunoprecipitation, western blotting, and ELISA experiments. The oligopeptide demonstrates superb selectivity coupled with high affinity through multi-ligand design, and improved thermal, chemical, and biochemical stability due to non-natural amino acid PCC agent design.

  14. The role of antibody affinity and titre in immunity to Schistosoma mansoni following vaccination with highly irradiated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Devey, M.E.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK))

    1990-02-01

    Sera from rabbits and rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (VRabS, VRatS) were found to be of substantially higher affinity than sera from CBA mice vaccinated four times (4 x CVMS), single sex sera (SSS) or chronic infection sera (CIS). In contrast, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that sera from vaccinated LA mice (LVMS) recognized {sup 125}I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens more intensely than sera from vaccinated HA mice (HVMS). However, peritoneal macrophages from HA and LA mice in the presence of HVMS, LVMS or 4 x CVMS, and naive macrophages activated in vitro with interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma})/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated comparable levels of schistosomula killing in vitro. The experiments described here provide evidence that the titre of antibody rather than its affinity may be a more critical factor in the development of optimal immunity to S. mansoni. (author).

  15. High-affinity FRβ-specific CAR T cells eradicate AML and normal myeloid lineage without HSC toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, R C; Feng, Y; Schutsky, K; Poussin, M; Kalota, A; Dimitrov, D S; Powell, D J

    2016-06-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy, and development of new treatments to prolong remissions is warranted. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies appear promising but on-target, off-tumor recognition of antigen in healthy tissues remains a concern. Here we isolated a high-affinity (HA) folate receptor beta (FRβ)-specific single-chain variable fragment (2.48 nm KD) for optimization of FRβ-redirected CAR T-cell therapy for AML. T cells stably expressing the HA-FRβ CAR exhibited greatly enhanced antitumor activity against FRβ(+) AML in vitro and in vivo compared with a low-affinity FRβ CAR (54.3 nm KD). Using the HA-FRβ immunoglobulin G, FRβ expression was detectable in myeloid-lineage hematopoietic cells; however, expression in CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) was nearly undetectable. Accordingly, HA-FRβ CAR T cells lysed mature CD14(+) monocytes, while HSC colony formation was unaffected. Because of the potential for elimination of mature myeloid lineage, mRNA CAR electroporation for transient CAR expression was evaluated. mRNA-electroporated HA-FRβ CAR T cells retained effective antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, our results highlight the importance of antibody affinity in target protein detection and CAR development and suggest that transient delivery of potent HA-FRβ CAR T cells is highly effective against AML and reduces the risk for long-term myeloid toxicity.

  16. A novel high throughput screening assay for binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl iodide for estrogen receptor alpha and beta isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenting; Zhao, Lixia; Sun, Zhendong; Yang, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-12-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern are continuously increasing, which makes it important to develop high throughput screening techniques for the evaluation of their potential biological effects, especially endocrine disrupting effects, which would directly influence the population dynamics in environment. A novel competitive binding assay based on enzyme fragmentation complementation technology was established to screen the binding affinities of emerging chemicals for estrogen receptor (ER) α or β isoforms. Exogenous compounds could compete with the fragment (ED-ES) of genetically engineered β-galactosidase enzyme (β-gal) for the binding to ERα or β, thus quantitatively altering the formation of enzymatically active β-gal and the hydrolysis of luminescent substrate. According to the monitoring of luminescence curves and the optimization of ERα or β concentrations, it was found that luminescent signals were sustainably emitted for 9h, and 40nM ERα or β in the system would lead to the most sensitive luminescence response. Using 17β-estrodiol (E2) and genistein as the representative estrogenic hormones, their binding affinities for ERα and β were evaluated. The results were consistent with those determined by traditional methods, which confirmed the reliability of this competitive binding assay based on β-gal. Four polyfluorinated iodine alkanes (PFIs) with specific structural characteristics in iodine substitution and carbon chain length were screened, and the results showed diverse binding affinities and different preferences of these chemicals to ERα or β isoforms. The binding affinities of PFIs for ERα were consistent with the result from MVLN transcriptional reporter assay. Overall, the competitive binding assay presented in this study provided a promising alternative to high throughput screening of emerging chemicals with estrogenic effects, which would be important in explanation of their potential toxicological effects and human exposure risks

  17. Sertraline and its metabolite desmethylsertraline, but not bupropion or its three major metabolites, have high affinity for P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Sheng; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Gibson, Bryan Bradford; Markowitz, John Seth; Donovan, Jennifer Lyn; DeVane, Carl Lindsay

    2008-02-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein subfamily B1 line (ABCB1) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays an important role in the blood-brain barrier limiting a broad spectrum of substrates from entering the central nervous system. In the present study, the transport activity of P-gp for sertraline, desmethylsertraline, bupropion, and the major metabolites of bupropion, threo-amino alcohol (TB), erythro-amino alcohol (EB), and hydroxy metabolite (HB) was studied using an ATPase assay in expressed human P-gp membranes by measuring concentrations of inorganic P(i) in expressed human P-gp membranes. Verapamil was included as a positive control. The Michaelis-Menten equation was used for characterizing the kinetic data. Sertraline and desmethylsertraline showed high affinity for P-gp. The V(max)/K(m) values of sertraline (1.6 min(-1) x 10(-3)) and desmethylsertraline (1.4 min(-1) x 10(-3)) were comparable with that of verapamil (1.7 min(-1) x 10(-3)). Bupropion and its three metabolites showed very weak affinity for P-gp, with V(max)/K(m) values lower than 0.01 min(-1) x 10(-3). The results of the present study indicate that sertraline and desmethylsertraline have high affinity for P-gp, whereas bupropion and its three major metabolites TB, EB, and HB have very weak affinity for P-gp. These findings may help to explain observed drug-drug interactions among antidepressants.

  18. High affinity binding of proteins HMG1 and HMG2 to semicatenated DNA loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauss François

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins HMG1 and HMG2 are two of the most abundant non histone proteins in the nucleus of mammalian cells, and contain a domain of homology with many proteins implicated in the control of development, such as the sex-determination factor Sry and the Sox family of proteins. In vitro studies of interactions of HMG1/2 with DNA have shown that these proteins can bind to many unusual DNA structures, in particular to four-way junctions, with binding affinities of 107 to 109 M-1. Results Here we show that HMG1 and HMG2 bind with a much higher affinity, at least 4 orders of magnitude higher, to a new structure, Form X, which consists of a DNA loop closed at its base by a semicatenated DNA junction, forming a DNA hemicatenane. The binding constant of HMG1 to Form X is higher than 5 × 1012 M-1, and the half-life of the complex is longer than one hour in vitro. Conclusions Of all DNA structures described so far with which HMG1 and HMG2 interact, we have found that Form X, a DNA loop with a semicatenated DNA junction at its base, is the structure with the highest affinity by more than 4 orders of magnitude. This suggests that, if similar structures exist in the cell nucleus, one of the functions of these proteins might be linked to the remarkable property of DNA hemicatenanes to associate two distant regions of the genome in a stable but reversible manner.

  19. erbB-2 autophosphorylation is required for mitogenic action and high-affinity substrate coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segatto, O; Lonardo, F; Helin, K;

    1992-01-01

    -mutated chimera. When expressed in NR6 cells, the EGFR/erbB-2 5P mutant was unable to deliver a sizeable mitogenic signal when activated by EGF at physiological levels. In intact cells, the 5P mutant was still able to stimulate phosphorylation of the gamma isozyme of phospholipase C (PLC-gamma), a prototype erb......B-2 substrate, although with a delayed time course, indicating that the 5P mutation decreased the affinity of the erbB-2 kinase for this substrate. This conclusion was further supported by the inability of the 5P mutant to associate with PLC-gamma in co-immunoprecipitation experiments. We infer...

  20. Gonyautoxin 1/4 aptamers with high-affinity and high-specificity: From efficient selection to aptasensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shunxiang; Hu, Bo; Zheng, Xin; Cao, Ying; Liu, Dejing; Sun, Mingjuan; Jiao, Binghua; Wang, Lianghua

    2016-05-15

    Gonyautoxin 1/4 (GTX1/4) are potent marine neurotoxins with significant public health impact. However, the ethical issues and technical defects associated with the currently applied detection methods for paralytic shellfish toxin GTX1/4 are pressing further studies to develop suitable alternatives in a regulatory monitoring system. This work describes the first successful selection, optimization, and characterization of an aptamer that bind with high affinity and specificity to GTX1/4. Compared to the typical MB-SELEX, GO-SELEX, an advanced screening technology, has significant advantages for small molecular aptamer development. Furthermore, we truncated GTX1/4 aptamer and obtained the aptamer core sequence with a higher Kd of 17.7 nM. The aptamer GO18-T-d was then used to construct a label-free and real-time optical BLI aptasensor for the detection of GTX1/4. The aptasensor showed a broad detection range from 0.2 to 200 ng/mL GTX1/4 (linear range from 0.2 to 90 ng/mL), with a low detection limit of 50 pg/mL. Moreover, the aptasensor exhibited a high degree of specificity for GTX1/4 and no cross reactivity to other marine toxins. The aptasensor was then applied to the detection of GTX1/4 in spiked shellfish samples and showed a good reproducibility and stability. We believe that this novel aptasensor offers a promising alternative to traditional analytical methods for the rapid detection of the marine biotoxin GTX1/4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. PHOENIX: a scoring function for affinity prediction derived using high-resolution crystal structures and calorimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yat T; Marshall, Garland R

    2011-02-28

    Binding affinity prediction is one of the most critical components to computer-aided structure-based drug design. Despite advances in first-principle methods for predicting binding affinity, empirical scoring functions that are fast and only relatively accurate are still widely used in structure-based drug design. With the increasing availability of X-ray crystallographic structures in the Protein Data Bank and continuing application of biophysical methods such as isothermal titration calorimetry to measure thermodynamic parameters contributing to binding free energy, sufficient experimental data exists that scoring functions can now be derived by separating enthalpic (ΔH) and entropic (TΔS) contributions to binding free energy (ΔG). PHOENIX, a scoring function to predict binding affinities of protein-ligand complexes, utilizes the increasing availability of experimental data to improve binding affinity predictions by the following: model training and testing using high-resolution crystallographic data to minimize structural noise, independent models of enthalpic and entropic contributions fitted to thermodynamic parameters assumed to be thermodynamically biased to calculate binding free energy, use of shape and volume descriptors to better capture entropic contributions. A set of 42 descriptors and 112 protein-ligand complexes were used to derive functions using partial least-squares for change of enthalpy (ΔH) and change of entropy (TΔS) to calculate change of binding free energy (ΔG), resulting in a predictive r2 (r(pred)2) of 0.55 and a standard error (SE) of 1.34 kcal/mol. External validation using the 2009 version of the PDBbind "refined set" (n = 1612) resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.575 and a mean error (ME) of 1.41 pK(d). Enthalpy and entropy predictions were of limited accuracy individually. However, their difference resulted in a relatively accurate binding free energy. While the development of an accurate and applicable

  2. High-affinity Near-infrared Fluorescent Small-molecule Contrast Agents for In Vivo Imaging of Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Humblet

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection remains a definitive treatment for prostate cancer. Yet, prostate cancer surgery is performed without image guidance for tumor margin, extension beyond the capsule and lymph node positivity, and without verification of other occult metastases in the surgical field. Recently, several imaging systems have been described that exploit near-infrared (NIR fluorescent light for sensitive, real-time detection of disease pathology intraoperatively. In this study, we describe a high-affinity (9 nM, single nucleophile-containing, small molecule specific for the active site of the enzyme PSMA. We demonstrate production of a tetra-sulfonated heptamethine indocyanine NIR fluorescent derivative of this molecule using a high-yield LC/MS purification strategy. Interestingly, NIR fluorophore conjugation improves affinity over 20-fold, and we provide mechanistic insight into this observation. We describe the preparative production of enzymatically active PSMA using a baculovirus expression system and an adenovirus that co-expresses PSMA and GFP. We demonstrate sensitive and specific in vitro imaging of endogenous and ectopically expressed PSMA in human cells and in vivo imaging of xenograft tumors. We also discuss chemical strategies for improving performance even further. Taken together, this study describes nearly complete preclinical development of an optically based small-molecule contrast agent for image-guided surgery.

  3. High affinity binding of /sup 125/I-labeled mouse interferon to a specific cell surface receptor. II. Analysis of binding properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguet, M.; Blanchard, B.

    1981-12-01

    Direct ligand-binding studies with highly purified /sup 125/I-labeled virus-induced mouse interferon on mouse lymphoma L 1210 cells revealed a direct correlation of specific high-affinity binding with the biologic response to interferon. Neutralization of the antiviral effect by anti-interferon gamma globulin occurred at the same antibody concentration as the inhibition of specific binding. These results suggest that specific high-affinity binding of /sup 125/I-interferon occurred at a biologically functional interferon receptor. Competitive inhibition experiments using /sup 125/I- and /sup 127/I-labeled interferon provided strong evidence that the fraction of /sup 125/I-interferon inactivated upon labeling did not bind specifically. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yielded linear plots and thus suggested that interferon binds to homogeneous noncooperative receptor sites. In contrast to a characteristic property of several peptide hormone systems, binding of /sup 125/I-interferon to its specific receptor did not induce subsequent ligand degradation. At 37/sup o/ bound interferon was rapidly released in a biologically active form without evidence for molecular degradation. The expression of interferon receptors was not modified by treatment with interferon. Trypsin treatment of target cells and inhibition of protein synthesis abolished the specific binding of /sup 125/I-interferon. Three major molecular weight species of Newcastle disease virus-induced mouse C 243 cell interferon were isolated, separated, and identified as mouse ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. interferons. These interferons were shown to inhibit competitively the specific binding of the highly purified labeled starting material thus providing evidence for a common receptor site for mouse interferon.

  4. Protein–Protein interaction site prediction in Homo sapiens and E. coli using an interaction-affinity based membership function in fuzzy SVM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brijesh Kumar Sriwastava; Subhadip Basu; Ujjwal Maulik

    2015-10-01

    Protein–protein interaction (PPI) site prediction aids to ascertain the interface residues that participate in interaction processes. Fuzzy support vector machine (F-SVM) is proposed as an effective method to solve this problem, and we have shown that the performance of the classical SVM can be enhanced with the help of an interaction-affinity based fuzzy membership function. The performances of both SVM and F-SVM on the PPI databases of the Homo sapiens and E. coli organisms are evaluated and estimated the statistical significance of the developed method over classical SVM and other fuzzy membership-based SVM methods available in the literature. Our membership function uses the residue-level interaction affinity scores for each pair of positive and negative sequence fragments. The average AUC scores in the 10-fold cross-validation experiments are measured as 79.94% and 80.48% for the Homo sapiens and E. coli organisms respectively. On the independent test datasets, AUC scores are obtained as 76.59% and 80.17% respectively for the two organisms. In almost all cases, the developed F-SVM method improves the performances obtained by the corresponding classical SVM and the other classifiers, available in the literature.

  5. Tandem affinity purification of histones, coupled to mass spectrometry, identifies associated proteins and new sites of post-translational modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M Luz; Sendra, Ramon; Pamblanco, Mercè

    2016-03-16

    Histones and their post-translational modifications contribute to regulating fundamental biological processes in all eukaryotic cells. We have applied a conventional tandem affinity purification strategy to histones H3 and H4 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mass spectrometry analysis of the co-purified proteins revealed multiple associated proteins, including core histones, which indicates that tagged histones may be incorporated to the nucleosome particle. Among the many other co-isolated proteins there are histone chaperones, elements of chromatin remodeling, of nucleosome assembly/disassembly, and of histone modification complexes. The histone chaperone Rtt106p, two members of chromatin assembly FACT complex and Psh1p, an ubiquitin ligase, were the most abundant proteins obtained with both H3-TAP and H4-TAP, regardless of the cell extraction medium stringency. Our mass spectrometry analyses have also revealed numerous novel post-translational modifications, including 30 new chemical modifications in histones, mainly by ubiquitination. We have discovered not only new sites of ubiquitination but that, besides lysine, also serine and threonine residues are targets of ubiquitination on yeast histones. Our results show the standard tandem affinity purification procedure is suitable for application to yeast histones, in order to isolate and characterize histone-binding proteins and post-translational modifications, avoiding the bias caused by histone purification from a chromatin-enriched fraction.

  6. Protein-protein interaction site prediction in Homo sapiens and E. coli using an interaction-affinity based membership function in fuzzy SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwastava, Brijesh Kumar; Basu, Subhadip; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2015-10-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) site prediction aids to ascertain the interface residues that participate in interaction processes. Fuzzy support vector machine (F-SVM) is proposed as an effective method to solve this problem, and we have shown that the performance of the classical SVM can be enhanced with the help of an interaction-affinity based fuzzy membership function. The performances of both SVM and F-SVM on the PPI databases of the Homo sapiens and E. coli organisms are evaluated and estimated the statistical significance of the developed method over classical SVM and other fuzzy membership-based SVM methods available in the literature. Our membership function uses the residue-level interaction affinity scores for each pair of positive and negative sequence fragments. The average AUC scores in the 10-fold cross-validation experiments are measured as 79.94% and 80.48% for the Homo sapiens and E. coli organisms respectively. On the independent test datasets, AUC scores are obtained as 76.59% and 80.17% respectively for the two organisms. In almost all cases, the developed F-SVM method improves the performances obtained by the corresponding classical SVM and the other classifiers, available in the literature.

  7. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, L. Sangeetha; Brannigan, Grace; Economou, Nicoleta J.; Xi, Jin; Hall, Michael A.; Liu, Renyu; Rossi, Matthew J.; Dailey, William P.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Klein, Michael L.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Loll, Patrick J.; (Drexel-MED); (UPENN)

    2009-10-21

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  8. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Vedula; G Brannigan; N Economou; J Xi; M Hall; R Liu; M Rossi; W Dailey; K Grasty; et. al.

    2011-12-31

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  9. A Unitary Anesthetic-Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, L.; Brannigan, G; Economou, N; Xi, J; Hall, M; Liu, R; Rossi, M; Dailey, W; Grasty, K; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABAA receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  10. High affinity antibodies against Lex and sialyl Lex from a phage display library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Q; Weng, N P; Kiso, M; Ishida, H; Hasegawa, A; Marcus, D M

    1996-07-15

    Our previous studies of seven murine mAbs against the carbohydrate Lex Ag demonstrated that they were all encoded by VH441 and V kappa 24B. To obtain higher affinity Abs, and to ascertain whether their L chains could be encoded by other genes, we constructed a phage display library in a modified pComb 8 vector. The library contained random L chains, and Fd segments enriched in VH domains encoded by the VHX24 gene family. We selected phage with an Lex-BSA Ag, and obtained two Fab mAbs, clones 23 and 24, whose affinities were more than 100-fold higher than hybridoma mAb PM81. Both new mAbs were encoded by VH441, and their L chains were encoded by genes of the V kappa Ox1 and V kappa 9 families. In contrast to hybridoma mAb PM81, which binds only Lex, clones 23 and 24 bound sialyl Lex (SLex) as well as Lex, and clone 23 also binds the backbone carbohydrate structure nLacCer. Analysis of the binding of these three mAbs to synthetic glycolipids that contained structural modifications indicated that they recognize different aspects of the Lex structure, and suggested that they bind to limited regions of the oligosaccharide.

  11. Affine-Invariant Geometric Constraints-Based High Accuracy Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangchen Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe a new appearance-based loop-closure detection method for online incremental simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM using affine-invariant-based geometric constraints. Unlike other pure bag-of-words-based approaches, our proposed method uses geometric constraints as a supplement to improve accuracy. By establishing an affine-invariant hypothesis, the proposed method excludes incorrect visual words and calculates the dispersion of correctly matched visual words to improve the accuracy of the likelihood calculation. In addition, camera’s intrinsic parameters and distortion coefficients are adequate for this method. 3D measuring is not necessary. We use the mechanism of Long-Term Memory and Working Memory (WM to manage the memory. Only a limited size of the WM is used for loop-closure detection; therefore the proposed method is suitable for large-scale real-time SLAM. We tested our method using the CityCenter and Lip6Indoor datasets. Our proposed method results can effectively correct the typical false-positive localization of previous methods, thus gaining better recall ratios and better precision.

  12. High-productivity membrane adsorbers: Polymer surface-modification studies for ion-exchange and affinity bioseparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenette, Heather C. S.

    membrane adsorbers were found to have a static binding capacity for con A (6.0 mg/mL) that is nearly the same as the typical dextran-based separation media used in practice. Binding under dynamic conditions was tested using flow rates of 0.1-1.0 mL/min. No bound lectin was observed for the higher flow rate. The first Damkohler number was used to assess whether adsorption kinetics or mass transport contributed the limitation to conA binding. Analyses indicate that this system is not limited by the accessibility of the binding sites, but by the inherently low rate of adsorption of conA onto the glycopolymer. The research described in Chapter 4 focuses on reaction chemistry experiments to incorporate a phosphonate-based polymer in the membrane platform to develop a new class of affinity adsorbers that function based on their affinity for Arginine (Arg) amino acid residues. The hypothesis was that benzyl phosphonate-containing functional polymers would form strong complexes with Arg-rich proteins as a result of multivalent binding. Introducing a new class of affinity membranes for purification of Arg-rich and Arg-tagged proteins may have an impact similar to the introduction of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), which would be a significant achievement. Using Arg-tags would overcome some of the associated drawbacks of using metal ions in IMAC. Additionally, some cell penetrating peptides are said to be Arg-rich, and this would be a convenient feature to exploit for their isolation and purification. Lysozyme was used as a model Arg-rich protein. The affinity membranes show a static binding capacity of 3 mg/mL. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Structure-function studies of DNA binding domain of response regulator KdpE reveals equal affinity interactions at DNA half-sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Narayanan

    Full Text Available Expression of KdpFABC, a K(+ pump that restores osmotic balance, is controlled by binding of the response regulator KdpE to a specific DNA sequence (kdpFABC(BS via the winged helix-turn-helix type DNA binding domain (KdpE(DBD. Exploration of E. coli KdpE(DBD and kdpFABC(BS interaction resulted in the identification of two conserved, AT-rich 6 bp direct repeats that form half-sites. Despite binding to these half-sites, KdpE(DBD was incapable of promoting gene expression in vivo. Structure-function studies guided by our 2.5 Å X-ray structure of KdpE(DBD revealed the importance of residues R193 and R200 in the α-8 DNA recognition helix and T215 in the wing region for DNA binding. Mutation of these residues renders KdpE incapable of inducing expression of the kdpFABC operon. Detailed biophysical analysis of interactions using analytical ultracentrifugation revealed a 2∶1 stoichiometry of protein to DNA with dissociation constants of 200±100 and 350±100 nM at half-sites. Inactivation of one half-site does not influence binding at the other, indicating that KdpE(DBD binds independently to the half-sites with approximately equal affinity and no discernable cooperativity. To our knowledge, these data are the first to describe in quantitative terms the binding at half-sites under equilibrium conditions for a member of the ubiquitous OmpR/PhoB family of proteins.

  14. (TH)205-501, a non-catechol dopaminergic agonist, labels selectively and with high affinity dopamine D2 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Closse, A.; Frick, W.; Markstein, R.; Maurer, R.; Nordmann, R.

    1985-01-01

    (TH)205-501, a non dopaminergic agonist, is presented as a ligand with high affinity (Ksub(D) approx= 1 nM) and high selectivity for dopamine receptors. pKsubi values of dopaminergic agonists derived from competition isotherms in the (TH)205-501 binding assay correlate very well with their potency in the acetylcholine release assay, which is controlled by dopamine D2 receptors. There is however no correlation with their potency stimulating aldenylate cyclase, a process controlled by dopamine D1 receptors. Thus (TH)205-501 is the first agonist ligand selective for dopamine D2 receptors. (Author).

  15. Synthesis of hapten and preparation of specific polyclonal antibody with high affinity for lenalidomide, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwish Ibrahim A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of lenalidomide (LND, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM, a specific antibody was required for the development of a sensitive immunoassay system for the accurate determination of LND in plasma. Results In this study, a hapten of LND (N-glutaryl-LND was synthesized by introducing the glutaryl moiety, as a spacer, into the primary aromatic amine site of the LND molecular structure. The structure of the hapten (G-LND was confirmed by mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C spectrometric techniques. G-LND was coupled to each of bovine serum albumin (BSA and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH proteins by ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide as a coupling reagent. LND-KLH conjugate was used as an immunogen. Four female 2-3 months old New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with an emulsion of LND-KLH with Freund`s adjuvant. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using LND-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and affinity to LND was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography on protein A column. The specificity of the purified antibody for LND was evaluated by indirect competitive ELISA using dexamethasone as a competitor as it is used with LND in a combination therapy. Conclusions The high affinity of the antibody (IC50 = 10 ng/mL will be useful in the development of an immunoassay system for the determination of plasma LND concentrations. Current research is going to optimize the assay conditions and validate the procedures for the routine application in clinical laboratories.

  16. High-affinity multivalent wheat germ agglutinin ligands by one-pot click reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning S. G. Beckmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of six mono-, di-, and trivalent N,N’-diacetylchitobiose derivatives was conveniently prepared by employing a one-pot procedure for Cu(II-catalyzed diazo transfer and Cu(I-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC starting from commercially available amines. These glycoclusters were probed for their binding potencies to the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA from Triticum vulgaris by an enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA employing covalently immobilized N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc as a reference ligand. IC50 values were in the low micromolar/high nanomolar range, depending on the linker between the two disaccharides. Binding enhancements β up to 1000 for the divalent ligands and 2800 for a trivalent WGA ligand, compared to N,N’-diacetylchitobiose as the corresponding monovalent ligand, were observed. Molecular modeling studies, in which the chitobiose moieties were fitted into crystallographically determined binding sites of WGA, correlate the binding enhancements of the multivalent ligands with their ability to bind to the protein in a chelating mode. The best WGA ligand is a trivalent cluster with an IC50 value of 220 nM. Calculated per mol of contained chitobiose, this is the best WGA ligand known so far.

  17. Enzymic synthesis of steroid sulphates. XI. Study of the oestrogen binding site of oestrogen sulphotransferase by affinity labelling with 4-mercuri-17beta-oestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, A I; Jackson, D E

    1975-04-19

    Oistrogen sulphotransferase (3"-phosphoadenylylsulphate: oestrone sulphotransferase, EC 2.8.2.4) contains asingle sulphydryl group thought to be at, or near, the oestrogen-binding site. 4-mercuri-17beta-oestradiol, the activity of the enzyme decreased with increasing concentration of the oestrogen derivative. However, some 40% of the activity remained when all the sulphydryl had reacted to form mercaptide. Formation of mercaptide was only marginally decreased in the presence of the substrate 17beta-oestradiol. Other steroids, such as 11-deoxycorticosterone and testosterone, which are non-substrates for the enzyme, were more effective than 17beta-oestradiol in inhibiting mercaptide formation. Bovine serum albumin also reacted with 4-mercure-17beta-oestradiol and the effects of various steroids on mercaptide formation by the affinity label closely paralleled those found for the enzyme. 2t is concluded that the single sulphydryl group in the enzyme is not directly involved in the binding of oestrogen at the active site but is perhaps in closer proximity to a second site capable of binding certain non-substrate steroids.

  18. Specific high-affinity binding sites for a synthetic gliadin heptapeptide of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payan, D.G.; Horvath, K.; Graf, L.

    1987-03-23

    The synthetic peptide containing residues 43-49 of ..cap alpha..-gliadin, the major protein component of gluten, has previously been shown to inhibit the production of lymphokine activities by mononuclear leukocytes. The authors demonstrate using radiolabeled ..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) that human peripheral blood lymphocytes express approximately 20,000-25,000 surface receptors for this peptide, with a dissociation constant (K/sub D/) of 20 nM. In addition, binding is inhibited by naloxone and an enkephalin analog, thus confirming the functional correlate which demonstrates inhibition by these agents of ..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) functional effects. Furthermore, B-lymphocytes bind specifically a greater amount of (/sup 125/I)..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) than T-lymphocytes. The lymphocyte ..cap alpha..-gliadin(43-49) receptor may play an important role in mediating the immunological response to ..cap alpha..-gliadin. 16 references, 4 figures.

  19. Affinity labeling of the active site and the reactive sulfhydryl associated with activation of rat liver phenylalanine hydroxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, B.S.; Benkovic, S.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1991-07-09

    A pterin analogue, 5-((3-azido-6-nitrobenzylidene)amino)-2,6-diamino-4-pyrimidinone (AN-BADP), was synthesized as a probe of the pterin binding site of phenylalanine hydroxylase. The photoaffinity label has been found to be a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to 6,7-dimethyltetrahydropterin, having a K{sub i} of 8.8{plus minus}1.1 {mu}M. The irreversible labeling of phenylalanine hydroxylase by the photoaffinity label upon irradiation is both concentration and time dependent. phenylalanine hydroxylase is covalently labeled with a stoichiometry of 0.87{plus minus}0.08 mol of label/enzyme subunit. 5-Deaza-6-methyltetrahydropterin protects against inactivation and both 5-deaza-6-methyltetrahydropterin and 6-methyltetrahydropterin protect against covalent labeling, indicating that labeling occurs at the pterin binding site. Three tryptic peptides were isolated from ({sup 3}H)ANBADP-photolabeled enzyme and sequenced. All peptides indicated the sequence Thr-Leu-Lys-Ala-Leu-Tyr-Lys (residues 192-198). The residues labeled with ({sup 3}H)ANBADP were Lys198 and Lys194, with the majority of the radioactivity being associated with Lys198. Tryptic and chymotryptic peptides were isolated from fluorescein-labeled enzyme and sequenced. The modified residue was identified as Cys236.

  20. Discovery of a cobalt complex with high MEK1 binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyue; Zhou, Tongliang; Liu, Hui; Xu, Fengrong; Niu, Yan; Wang, Chao; Liang, Lei; Xu, Ping

    2017-05-15

    A series of Schiff base ligands (L(1)-L(5)) and their cobalt(II) complexes (1-5) were designed and synthesized for MEK1 binding experiment. The biological evaluation results showed that Bis(N,N'-disalicylidene)-3,4-phenylenediamine-cobalt(II) 1 and Bis(N,N'-disalicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediamine-cobalt(II) 2 are much more effective than the parent Schiff bases (L(1) and L(2)). Importantly, 2 exhibited MEK1 binding affinity with IC5071nM, which is so far the best result for metal complexes and more potent than U0126 (7.02μM) and AZD6244 (2.20μM). Docking study was used to elucidate the binding modes of complex 2 with MEK1. Thus cobalt(II) complex 2 may be further developed as a novel MEK1 inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing. PMID:23382943

  2. Insights from the fungus Fusarium oxysporum point to high affinity glucose transporters as targets for enhancing ethanol production from lignocellulose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin S Ali

    Full Text Available Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km((glucose was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing.

  3. Structural arrangement of tRNA binding sites on Escherichia coli ribosomes, as revealed from data on affinity labelling with photoactivatable tRNA derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graifer, D M; Babkina, G T; Matasova, N B; Vladimirov, S N; Karpova, G G; Vlassov, V V

    1989-07-01

    A systematic study of protein environment of tRNA in ribosomes in model complexes representing different translation steps was carried out using the affinity labelling of the ribosomes with tRNA derivatives bearing aryl azide groups scattered statistically over tRNA guanine residues. Analysis of the proteins crosslinked to tRNA derivatives showed that the location of the derivatives in the aminoacyl (A) site led to the labelling of the proteins S5 and S7 in all complexes studied, whereas the labelling of the proteins S2, S8, S9, S11, S14, S16, S17, S18, S19, S21 as well as L9, L11, L14, L15, L21, L23, L24, L29 depended on the state of tRNA in A site. Similarly, the location of tRNA derivatives in the peptidyl (P) site resulted in the labelling of the proteins L27, S11, S13 and S19 in all states, whereas the labelling of the proteins S5, S7, S9, S12, S14, S20, S21 as well as L2, L13, L14, L17, L24, L27, L31, L32, L33 depended on the type of complex. The derivatives of tRNA(fMet) were found to crosslink to S1, S3, S5, S7, S9, S14 and L1, L2, L7/L12, L27. Based on the data obtained, a general principle of the dynamic functioning of ribosomes has been proposed: (i) the formation of each type of ribosomal complex is accompanied by changes in mutual arrangement of proteins - 'conformational adjustment' of the ribosome - and (ii) a ribosome can dynamically change its internal structure at each step of initiation and elongation; on the 70 S ribosome there are no rigidly fixed structures forming tRNA-binding sites (primarily A and P sites).

  4. Affinity labeling of the carbohydrate binding site of the lectin discoidin I using a photoactivatable radioiodinated monosaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohnken, R.E.; Berger, E.A.

    1987-12-29

    N-(4-Azidosalicyl) galactosamine (GalNASA), a photoactivatable, radioiodinatable analog of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), has been prepared and characterized. The authors have used this reagent for labeling of the carbohydrate binding site of discoidin I, an endogenous lectin produced by Dictyostelium discoideum. GalNASA behaved as a ligand for discoidin I, as judged by its ability to compete in an assay measuring the carbohydrate binding activity of discoidin I. In this assay, it exhibited a K/sub i,app/ of 800 ..mu..M, comparable to that of GalNAc. The K/sub i,app/ of GalNASA decreased to 40 ..mu..m upon prior photolysis with ultraviolet light. In contrast, N-(4-azidosalicyl) ethanolamine produced no inhibition of carbohydrate binding regardless of photolysis. Covalent labeling of discoidin I with /sup 125/I-GalNASA was entirely dependent upon ultraviolet light. A portion of labeling, representing 40-60% of the total, was sensitive to reagents which were known to inhibit carbohydrate binding by discoidin I, including GalNAc, asialofetuin, and ethyl-enediaminetetraacetic acid. The carbohydrate-sensitive fraction of discoidin I photolabeling with /sup 125/I-GalNASA exhibited a K/sub d/ of 15-40 ..mu..M, in agreement with the K/sub i,app/ of prephotolyzed GalNASA observed in the carbohydrate binding assay. Partial proteolytic digestion of photolabeled discoidin I revealed specific fragments whose labeling was completely blocked by GalNAc. This indicated that the location of carbohydrate-sensitive labeling within the structure of discoidin I was restricted. One particular tryptic fragment, Tr1, was examined in detail. These data suggest that Tr1 is derived from the carbohydrate binding site of discoidin I.

  5. Content-Based High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Retrieval via Unsupervised Feature Learning and Collaborative Affinity Metric Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the urgent demand for automatic management of large numbers of high-resolution remote sensing images, content-based high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval (CB-HRRS-IR has attracted much research interest. Accordingly, this paper proposes a novel high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval approach via multiple feature representation and collaborative affinity metric fusion (IRMFRCAMF. In IRMFRCAMF, we design four unsupervised convolutional neural networks with different layers to generate four types of unsupervised features from the fine level to the coarse level. In addition to these four types of unsupervised features, we also implement four traditional feature descriptors, including local binary pattern (LBP, gray level co-occurrence (GLCM, maximal response 8 (MR8, and scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT. In order to fully incorporate the complementary information among multiple features of one image and the mutual information across auxiliary images in the image dataset, this paper advocates collaborative affinity metric fusion to measure the similarity between images. The performance evaluation of high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval is implemented on two public datasets, the UC Merced (UCM dataset and the Wuhan University (WH dataset. Large numbers of experiments show that our proposed IRMFRCAMF can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art approaches.

  6. Inhibition of Enterococcus faecium adherence to collagen by antibodies against high-affinity binding subdomains of Acm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Sillanpää, Jouko; Ganesh, Vannakambadi K; Höök, Magnus; Murray, Barbara E

    2007-06-01

    Strains of Enterococcus faecium express a cell wall-anchored protein, Acm, which mediates adherence to collagen. Here, we (i) identify the minimal and high-affinity binding subsegments of Acm and (ii) show that anti-Acm immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) purified against these subsegments reduced E. faecium TX2535 strain collagen adherence up to 73 and 50%, respectively, significantly more than the total IgGs against the full-length Acm A domain (28%) (P Acm adherence with functional subsegment-specific antibodies raises the possibility of their use as therapeutic or prophylactic agents.

  7. cDNA heterogeneity suggests structural variants related to the high-affinity IgE receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F T; Albrandt, K; Robertson, M W

    1988-01-01

    The high-affinity IgE receptor present on mast cells and basophils is responsible for the IgE-mediated activation of these cells. The current model for this receptor depicts a four-subunit structure, alpha beta gamma 2. A cDNA for the alpha subunit was recently cloned and predicts a structure consisting of two homologous extracellular domains, a transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail. Using a synthetic oligonucleotide corresponding to the amino-terminal sequence of the alpha subunit, w...

  8. Biomagnetic separation of Salmonella Typhimurium with high affine and specific ligand peptides isolated by phage display technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steingroewer, Juliane [Institute of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: juliane.steingroewer@tu-dresden.de; Bley, Thomas [Institute of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Bergemann, Christian [Chemicell GmbH, D-10823, Berlin (Germany); Boschke, Elke [Institute of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Analyses of food-borne pathogens are of great importance in order to minimize the health risk for customers. Thus, very sensitive and rapid detection methods are required. Current conventional culture techniques are very time consuming. Modern immunoassays and biochemical analysis also require pre-enrichment steps resulting in a turnaround time of at least 24 h. Biomagnetic separation (BMS) is a promising more rapid method. In this study we describe the isolation of high affine and specific peptides from a phage-peptide library, which combined with BMS allows the detection of Salmonella spp. with a similar sensitivity as that of immunomagnetic separation using antibodies.

  9. A dualistic conformational response to substrate binding in the human serotonin transporter reveals a high affinity state for serotonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across...... that were sensitized to detect a more outward-facing conformation of SERT. We found a novel high affinity outward-facing conformational state of the human SERT induced by serotonin. The ionic requirements for this new conformational response to serotonin mirror the ionic requirements for translocation...

  10. Functional assessment of the Medicago truncatula NIP/LATD protein demonstrates that it is a high-affinity nitrate transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Rammyani; Salehin, Mohammad; Adeyemo, O Sarah; Salazar, Carolina; Shulaev, Vladimir; Sherrier, D Janine; Dickstein, Rebecca

    2012-10-01

    The Medicago truncatula NIP/LATD (for Numerous Infections and Polyphenolics/Lateral root-organ Defective) gene encodes a protein found in a clade of nitrate transporters within the large NRT1(PTR) family that also encodes transporters of dipeptides and tripeptides, dicarboxylates, auxin, and abscisic acid. Of the NRT1(PTR) members known to transport nitrate, most are low-affinity transporters. Here, we show that M. truncatula nip/latd mutants are more defective in their lateral root responses to nitrate provided at low (250 μm) concentrations than at higher (5 mm) concentrations; however, nitrate uptake experiments showed no discernible differences in uptake in the mutants. Heterologous expression experiments showed that MtNIP/LATD encodes a nitrate transporter: expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes conferred upon the oocytes the ability to take up nitrate from the medium with high affinity, and expression of MtNIP/LATD in an Arabidopsis chl1(nrt1.1) mutant rescued the chlorate susceptibility phenotype. X. laevis oocytes expressing mutant Mtnip-1 and Mtlatd were unable to take up nitrate from the medium, but oocytes expressing the less severe Mtnip-3 allele were proficient in nitrate transport. M. truncatula nip/latd mutants have pleiotropic defects in nodulation and root architecture. Expression of the Arabidopsis NRT1.1 gene in mutant Mtnip-1 roots partially rescued Mtnip-1 for root architecture defects but not for nodulation defects. This suggests that the spectrum of activities inherent in AtNRT1.1 is different from that possessed by MtNIP/LATD, but it could also reflect stability differences of each protein in M. truncatula. Collectively, the data show that MtNIP/LATD is a high-affinity nitrate transporter and suggest that it could have another function.

  11. High sensitive and selective electrochemical biosensor: Label-free detection of human norovirus using affinity peptide as molecular binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Jin; Ryu, Myung Yi; Park, Chan Young; Ahn, Junki; Park, Hyun Gyu; Choi, Changsun; Ha, Sang-Do; Park, Tae Jung; Park, Jong Pil

    2017-01-15

    Norovirus is known as the major cause of highly infection for gastrointestinal tracts. In this study, robust and highly sensitive biosensors for detecting human norovirus by employing a recognition affinity peptide-based electrochemical platform were described. A series of amino acid-substituted and cysteine-incorporated recognition peptides isolated from evolutionary phage display technique was chemically synthesized and immobilized to a gold sensor layer, the detection performance of the gold-immobilized synthetic peptide-based sensor system was assessed using QCM, CV and EIS. Using EIS, the limit of detection with Noro-1 as a molecular binder was found to be 99.8nM for recombinant noroviral capsid proteins (rP2) and 7.8copies/mL for human norovirus, thereby demonstrating a high degree of sensitivity for their corresponding targets. These results suggest that a biosensor which consists of affinity peptides as a molecular binder and miniaturized microdevices as diagnostic tool could be served as a new type of biosensing platform for point-of-care testing.

  12. Identification of a high-affinity Ca sup 2+ pump associated with endocytotic vesicles in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, J.L.; Coukell, M.B. (York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-11-01

    In the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, changes in free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} are thought to regulate certain processes during cell aggregation and differentiation. To understand the mechanisms controlling free Ca{sup 2+} levels in this organism, the authors previously isolated and characterized an ATP/Mg{sup 2+}-dependent, high-affinity Ca{sup 2+} pump which appeared to be a component of inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. In this report, they demonstrate that a high-affinity Ca{sup 2+} pump, with properties virtually identical to the isolated pump, can be detected in filipin- or digitonin-permeabilized cells of Dictyostelium. Moreover, Ca{sup 2+}-pumping vesicles, which migrate on Percoll/KCl gradients like the vesicles identified earlier, can be isolated from the permeabilized cells. Results of additional experiments suggest that this intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transporter is associated with a high-capacity non-IP{sub 3}-releasable Ca{sup 2+} store which is generated by endocytosis. A possible role for this store in maintaining Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis in Dictyostelium is discussed.

  13. Highly selective screening of the bioactive compounds in Huoxue capsule using immobilized β(2)-adrenoceptor affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixiang; Zhao, Kun; Zang, Weijin; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zhao, Ming; He, Xi; Liu, Qinshe; Feng, Weiyi; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2014-07-15

    A highly selective assay was developed for screening compounds that bind to the porcine recombinant β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) with affinity chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS). The methodology involved selective screening with immobilized β2-AR, a highly accurate identification via Q-TOF-MS, and a functional evaluation of the screened compounds with a sensitive myograph system. Ferulic acid, hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), and naringin were confirmed to be the bioactive compounds in Huoxue capsule that specifically bound to the β2-AR. These compounds produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of arteries that were contracted by treatment with phenylephrine, and the relaxation caused by these compounds was attenuated in the presence of ICI 118551, a type of β2-AR antagonist. Our data indicate that the use of an immobilized receptor is potentially an alternative method for the rapid screening of bioactive compounds in a complex matrix because of its high specificity. β2-AR affinity chromatography was valuable in focusing attention on the further investigation of ferulic acid, HSYA, and naringin as β2-AR agonists.

  14. Three homologous subunits form a high affinity peptide-gated ion channel in Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dürrnagel, Stefan; Kuhn, Anne; Tsiairis, Charisios D

    2010-01-01

    properties, like a low Na(+) selectivity and a low amiloride affinity, that are different from other channels of the DEG/ENaC gene family, suggesting that a component of the native Hydra channel might still be lacking. Here, we report the cloning of a new ion channel subunit from Hydra, HyNaC5. The new......Recently, three ion channel subunits of the degenerin (DEG)/epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) gene family have been cloned from the freshwater polyp Hydra magnipapillata, the Hydra Na(+) channels (HyNaCs) 2-4. Two of them, HyNaC2 and HyNaC3, co-assemble to form an ion channel that is gated...... by the neuropeptides Hydra-RFamides I and II. The HyNaC2/3 channel is so far the only cloned ionotropic receptor from cnidarians and, together with the related ionotropic receptor FMRFamide-activated Na(+) channel (FaNaC) from snails, the only known peptide-gated ionotropic receptor. The HyNaC2/3 channel has pore...

  15. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R. (UAB)

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  16. The intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin, is a high-affinity apolipoprotein A-I receptor facilitating endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyraki, R; Fyfe, J; Kristiansen, M; Gerdes, C; Jacobsen, C; Cui, S; Christensen, E I; Aminoff, M; de la Chapelle, A; Krahe, R; Verroust, P J; Moestrup, S K

    1999-06-01

    Cubilin is the intestinal receptor for the endocytosis of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12. However, several lines of evidence, including a high expression in kidney and yolk sac, indicate it may have additional functions. We isolated apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), using cubilin affinity chromatography. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated a high-affinity binding of apoA-I and HDL to cubilin, and cubilin-expressing yolk sac cells showed efficient 125I-HDL endocytosis that could be inhibited by IgG antibodies against apoA-I and cubilin. The physiological relevance of the cubilin-apoA-I interaction was further emphasized by urinary apoA-I loss in some known cases of functional cubilin deficiency. Therefore, cubilin is a receptor in epithelial apoA-I/HDL metabolism.

  17. cDNA heterogeneity suggests structural variants related to the high-affinity IgE receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F T; Albrandt, K; Robertson, M W

    1988-08-01

    The high-affinity IgE receptor present on mast cells and basophils is responsible for the IgE-mediated activation of these cells. The current model for this receptor depicts a four-subunit structure, alpha beta gamma 2. A cDNA for the alpha subunit was recently cloned and predicts a structure consisting of two homologous extracellular domains, a transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail. Using a synthetic oligonucleotide corresponding to the amino-terminal sequence of the alpha subunit, we identified a number of cDNA clones from a rat basophilic leukemia cell cDNA library. Nucleotide sequencing established four different forms of cDNA: one is nearly identical to the published cDNA; the second differs from the first in the 5' untranslated sequence; the other two forms use either one or the other of the 5'-end sequences as above and lack 163 base pairs in the region coding for the second extracellular domain. RNase protection analysis with radioactive RNA probes established the heterogeneity of rat basophilic leukemia cell mRNA with regard to both the 5' and the internal sequences. Our results suggest the existence of at least four different protein forms related to the alpha subunit of the high-affinity IgE receptor.

  18. Identification of a high-affinity monoclonal antibody against ochratoxin A and its application in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Sun, Mengjiao; Kang, Yue; Xie, Hui; Wang, Xin; Song, Houhui; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2015-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most commonly occurring mycotoxins produced by some species of Aspergillus and can contaminate cereal and cereal products. A high-affinity anti-OTA monoclonal antibody (mAb) was generated from a hybridoma cell line 2D8 using splenocytes from a BALB/c mouse immunized with synthesized OTA-bovine serum albumin conjugate. The mAb 2D8 is specific with high affinity (3.75 × 10(9) L/M). An indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA) was then developed using this mAb for quantitative determination of OTA in corn and feed samples. Using the optimized conditions, there was good linearity between OTA concentration and competitive inhibition (y = -0.6076x + 0.2441, R(2) = 0.9923) with the working range from 2.4 to 23.6 μg/kg, IC50 at 7.6 μg/kg and lower limit of detection at 1.4 μg/kg. The recovery rates in spiked samples were 91.2-110.3%. Of the 56 corn and feed samples, this ic-ELISA and a commercial kit both found the same 13 samples positive for OTA with good linear correlation between the two methods in OTA quantification (R(2) = 0.9706). We conclude that this ic-ELISA can be used for rapid and quantitative screening of corn and feed samples for the presence of OTA.

  19. High performance aptamer affinity chromatography for single-step selective extraction and screening of basic protein lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Zhao, Chao; Yin, Junfa; Wang, Hailin

    2012-08-15

    A DNA aptamer based high-performance affinity chromatography is developed for selective extraction and screening of a basic protein lysozyme. First, a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was synthesized in situ by thermally initiated radical polymerization, and then an anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer was covalently immobilized on the surface of the monolith through a 16-atom spacer arm. The target protein lysozyme but non-target proteins can be trapped by the immobilized anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer. In contrast, lysozyme cannot be trapped by the immobilized oligodeoxynucleotide that does not contain the sequence of the anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer. The study clearly demonstrates the trapping of lysozyme by the immobilized anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer is mainly due to specific recognition rather than simple electrostatic interaction of positively charged protein and the negatively charged DNA. The inter-day precision was determined as 0.8% for migration time and 4.2% for peak area, respectively. By the use of aptamer affinity monolith, a screening strategy is developed to selectively extract lysozyme from chicken egg white, showing the advantages of high efficiency, low cost and ease-of-operation.

  20. Tsetse salivary gland proteins 1 and 2 are high affinity nucleic acid binding proteins with residual nuclease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    Full Text Available Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2 display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with K(D values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents.

  1. Determination of the kinetic rate constant of cyclodextrin supramolecular systems by high performance affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Ge, Jingwen; Guo, Tao; Yang, Shuo; He, Zhonggui; York, Peter; Sun, Lixin; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Jiwen

    2013-08-30

    It is challenging and extremely difficult to measure the kinetics of supramolecular systems with extensive, weak binding (Kahigh performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) was established to determine the dissociation rate constant of cyclodextrin supramolecular systems. The interactions of β-cyclodextrin with acetaminophen and sertraline were used to exemplify the method. The retention times, variances and the plate heights of the peaks for acetaminophen or sertraline, conventional non-retained substance (H2O) on the β-cyclodextrin bonded column and a control column were determined at four flow rates under linear elution conditions. Then, plate heights for the theoretical non-retained substance were estimated by the modified HPAC method, in consideration of the diffusion and stagnant mobile phase mass transfer. As a result, apparent dissociation rate constants of 1.82 (±0.01)s(-1) and 3.55 (±0.37)s(-1) were estimated for acetaminophen and sertraline respectively at pH 6.8 and 25°C with multiple flow rates. Following subtraction of the non-specific binding with the support, dissociation rate constants were estimated as 1.78 (±0.00) and 1.91 (±0.02)s(-1) for acetaminophen and sertraline, respectively. These results for acetaminophen and sertraline were in good agreement with the magnitude of the rate constants for other drugs determined by capillary electrophoresis reported in the literature and the peak fitting method we performed. The method described in this work is thought to be suitable for other supramolecules, with relatively weak, fast and extensive interactions.

  2. Distribution and ultrastructure of neurons in opossum piriform cortex displaying immunoreactivity to GABA and GAD and high-affinity tritiated GABA uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberly, L.B.; Hansen, D.J.; Feig, S.L.; Presto, S.

    1987-12-08

    GABAergic neurons have been identified in the piriform cortex of the opossum at light and electron microscopic levels by immunocytochemical localization of GABA and the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and by autoradiographic visualization of high-affinity /sup 3/H-GABA uptake. Four major neuron populations have been distinguished on the basis of soma size, shape, and segregation at specific depths and locations: large horizontal cells in layer Ia of the anterior piriform cortex, small globular cells with thin dendrites concentrated in layers Ib and II of the posterior piriform cortex, and multipolar and fusiform cells concentrated in the deep part of layer III in anterior and posterior parts of the piriform cortex and the subjacent endopiriform nucleus. All four populations were well visualized with both antisera, but the large layer Ia horizontal cells displayed only very light /sup 3/H-GABA uptake, thus suggesting a lack of local axon collaterals or lack of high-affinity GABA uptake sites. The large, ultrastructurally distinctive somata of layer Ia horizontal cells receive a very small number of symmetrical synapses; the thin, axonlike dendrites of small globular cells are exclusively postsynaptic and receive large numbers of both symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses, in contrast to somata which receive a small number of both types; and the deep multipolar and fusiform cells receive a highly variable number of symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses on somata and proximal dendrites. Labeled puncta of axon terminal dimensions were found in large numbers in the neuropil surrounding pyramidal cell somata in layer II and in the endopiriform nucleus. Moderately large numbers of labeled puncta were found in layer I at the depth of pyramidal cell apical dendrites with greater numbers in layer Ia at the depth of distal apical segments than in layer Ib.

  3. Providing affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guglielmi, Michel; Johannesen, Hl

    2004-01-01

    This paper will introduce a project sourced by an ideas competition called Landmark East England. It was open to anyone with the ability to develop and deliver a visionary idea for a landmark. A sustainable icon representing a new region in England, which comprises Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire......, Essex, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Suffolk. Research found that there was a lack of identity or sense of belonging and nothing anchoring people to the region as a whole. Common affinity is somehow forced to the people of East England and thereby we came to the conclusion that a single landmark...... or a series of landmarks would do little to achieve true affinity. Therefore, we based our design strategy in trying to elaborate an alternatereality based on fabulation, virtualization and narratives that we subtly interweaved into architectonic structures (fabric) of the real. We have created plots...

  4. Affinity filtration coupled with capillary-based affinity purification for the isolation of protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, M S; Sheikh, Q I; Hill, R; Brown, P E; Dickman, M J; Tzokov, S B; Rice, D W; Gjerde, D T; Hornby, D P

    2013-08-01

    The isolation of complex macromolecular assemblies at the concentrations required for structural analysis represents a major experimental challenge. Here we present a method that combines the genetic power of site-specific recombination in order to selectively "tag" one or more components of a protein complex with affinity-based rapid filtration and a final step of capillary-based enrichment. This modified form of tandem affinity purification produces highly purified protein complexes at high concentrations in a highly efficient manner. The application of the method is demonstrated for the yeast Arp2/3 heptameric protein complex involved in mediating reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  5. Structure-based rational design of a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 decoy receptor with high binding affinity for a target protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Han

    Full Text Available Repeat proteins are increasingly attracting much attention as alternative scaffolds to immunoglobulin antibodies due to their unique structural features. Nonetheless, engineering interaction interface and understanding molecular basis for affinity maturation of repeat proteins still remain a challenge. Here, we present a structure-based rational design of a repeat protein with high binding affinity for a target protein. As a model repeat protein, a Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4 decoy receptor composed of leucine-rich repeat (LRR modules was used, and its interaction interface was rationally engineered to increase the binding affinity for myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2. Based on the complex crystal structure of the decoy receptor with MD2, we first designed single amino acid substitutions in the decoy receptor, and obtained three variants showing a binding affinity (K(D one-order of magnitude higher than the wild-type decoy receptor. The interacting modes and contributions of individual residues were elucidated by analyzing the crystal structures of the single variants. To further increase the binding affinity, single positive mutations were combined, and two double mutants were shown to have about 3000- and 565-fold higher binding affinities than the wild-type decoy receptor. Molecular dynamics simulations and energetic analysis indicate that an additive effect by two mutations occurring at nearby modules was the major contributor to the remarkable increase in the binding affinities.

  6. Amine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane as affinity membrane with high adsorption capacity for bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Luo, Mengying; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membrane was activated by sodium hydroxide and cyanuric chloride, and then the activated membranes were functionalized by 1,3-propanediamine, hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine to be affinity membranes for bilirubin removal, respectively. The chemical structures and morphologies of membranes were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XPS. And the adsorption ability of different amine-functionalized nanofibrous membranes for bilirubin was characterized. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, NaCl concentration and BSA concentration on the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane were studied. Results indicated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane could reach 85mg/g membrane when the initial bilirubin concentration was 200mg/L while the adsorption capacity could be increased to 110mg/g membrane if the initial bilirubin concentration was more than 400mg/L. The dynamic adsorption of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane showed that the ligands of amine groups on the membrane surface could be used as far as possible by recirculating the plasma with certain flow rates. Therefore, the diethylenetriamine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane possessed high adsorption capacity for bilirubin and it can be candidate as affinity membrane for bilirubin removal.

  7. Synthesis of tetravalent LacNAc-glycoclusters as high-affinity cross-linker against Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Makoto; Chuma, Yasushi; Yasumoto, Yoshinori; Onoda, Takashi; Umemura, Myco; Usui, Taichi; Park, Enoch Y

    2016-01-01

    Four kinds of tetravalent double-headed glycoclusters [(LacNAc)4-DHGs] were designed with linkers of varying lengths consisting of alkanedioic carboxyamido groups (C6, C12, C18 and C24) between two bi-antennary LacNAc-glycosides. These glycoclusters served as high-affinity cross-linking ligands for the LacNAc-binding lectin Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin (ECA). The binding activity and cross-linking between each ligand and ECA were characterized by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), a quantitative precipitation assay and dynamic light scattering (DLS). For the precipitation assay and DLS measurement, the synthesized (LacNAc)4-DHGs were found to be capable of binding and precipitating the ECA as multivalent ligands. ITC analysis indicated the binding of (LacNAc)4-DHGs was driven by a favorable enthalpy change. Furthermore, the entropy penalty from binding (LacNAc)4-DHGs clearly decreased in a spacer length-dependent manner. The binding affinities of flexible (LacNAc)4-DHGs (C18 and C24) with long spacers were found to be more favorable than those of the clusters having short spacers (C6 and C12). These results were supported by molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water molecules for the tetravalent glycoclusters with ECA. We concluded that the subtle modification in the epitope-presenting scaffolds exerts the significant effect in the recognition efficiency involved in the LacNAc moieties by ECA.

  8. ZipA binds to FtsZ with high affinity and enhances the stability of FtsZ protofilaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Kuchibhatla

    Full Text Available A bacterial membrane protein ZipA that tethers FtsZ to the membrane is known to promote FtsZ assembly. In this study, the binding of ZipA to FtsZ was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy. ZipA was found to bind to FtsZ with high affinities at three different (6.0, 6.8 and 8.0 pHs, albeit the binding affinity decreased with increasing pH. Further, thick bundles of FtsZ protofilaments were observed in the presence of ZipA under the pH conditions used in this study indicating that ZipA can promote FtsZ assembly and stabilize FtsZ polymers under unfavorable conditions. Bis-ANS, a hydrophobic probe, decreased the interaction of FtsZ and ZipA indicating that the interaction between FtsZ and ZipA is hydrophobic in nature. ZipA prevented the dilution induced disassembly of FtsZ polymers suggesting that it stabilizes FtsZ protofilaments. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled ZipA was found to be uniformly distributed along the length of the FtsZ protofilaments indicating that ZipA stabilizes FtsZ protofilaments by cross-linking them.

  9. High-Throughput Melanin-Binding Affinity and In Silico Methods to Aid in the Prediction of Drug Exposure in Ocular Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John; Williams, Sarah L; Forster, Cornelia J; Kansara, Viral; End, Peter; Serrano-Wu, Michael H

    2015-12-01

    Drugs possessing the ability to bind to melanin-rich tissue, such as the eye, are linked with higher ocular exposure, and therefore have the potential to affect the efficacy and safety profiles of therapeutics. A high-throughput melanin chromatographic affinity assay has been developed and validated, which has allowed the rapid melanin affinity assessment for a large number of compounds. Melanin affinity of compounds can be quickly assigned as low, medium, or high melanin binders. A high-throughput chromatographic method has been developed and fully validated to assess melanin affinity of pharmaceuticals and has been useful in predicting ocular tissue distribution in vivo studies. The high-throughput experimental approach has also allowed for a specific training set of 263 molecules for a quantitative structure-affinity relationships (QSAR) method to be developed, which has also been shown to be a predictor of ocular tissue exposure. Previous studies have reported the development of in silico QSAR models based on training sets of relatively small and mostly similar compounds; this model covers a broader range of melanin-binding affinities than what has been previously published and identified several physiochemical descriptors to be considered in the design of compounds where melanin-binding modulation is desired.

  10. Selection and design of high affinity DNA ligands for mutant single-chain derivatives of the bacteriophage 434 repressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Tiebing

    2001-01-01

    ., 1996, 255: 373-386.[13]Kim, J. -S., Pabo, C. O., Getting a handhold on DNA: design of poly-zinc finger proteins with femtomolar dissociation constants, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1998, 95: 2812-2817.[14]Wu, H., Yang, W. -P., BarbasIII, C. F., Building zinc fingers by selection: toward a therapeutic application, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1995, 92: 344-348.[15]Wang, B. S., Pabo, C. O., Dimerization of zinc fingers mediated by peptides evolved in vitro from random sequences, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1999, 96: 9568-9573.[16]Choo, Y., Sánchez-García, I., Klug, A., In vivo repression by a site-specific DNA-binding protein designed against an on-cogenic sequence, Nature, 1994, 372: 642-645.[17]Wolfe, S. A., Greisman, H. A., Ramm, E. I. et al., Analysis of zinc fingers optimized via phage display: evaluating the utility of a recognition code, J. Mol. Biol., 1999, 285: 1917-1934.[18]Chen, J. -Q., Pongor, S., Simoncsits, A., Recognition of DNA by single-chain derivatives of the phage 434 repressor: high affinity binding depends on both the contacted and non-contacted base pairs, Nucleic Acids Research, 1997, 25: 2047-2054.[19]Simoncsits, A., Tj?rnhammar, M. -L., Wang, S. -L. et al., Isolation of altered specificity mutants of the single-chain 434 repressor that recognize asymmetric DNA sequences containing the TTAA and TTAC subsites, Nucleic Acids Research, 1999, 27: 3474-3480.[20]Zhou, Y. -H., Busby, S., Ebright, R. H., Identification of the functional subunit of a dimeric transcription activator protein by use of oriented heterodimers, Cell, 1993, 73: 375-379.[21]Studier, F. W., Rosenberg, A. H., Dunn, J. J. et al., Use of T7 RNA polymerase to direct expression of cloned genes, Methods Enzymol., 1990, 185: 60-89.[22]Simoncsits, A., Bristulf, J., Tj?rnhammar, M. -L. et al., Deletion mutants of human interleukin 1? with significantly re-duced agonist properties: search for agonist/ antagonist switch in ligands to the interleukin 1

  11. Identification of high-affinity P2Y₁₂ antagonists based on a phenylpyrazole glutamic acid piperazine backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Gernot; Hessler, Gerhard; Evers, Andreas; Weiss, Tilo; Florian, Peter; Just, Melitta; Czech, Jörg; Czechtizky, Werngard; Görlitzer, Jochen; Ruf, Sven; Kohlmann, Markus; Nazaré, Marc

    2012-10-25

    A series of novel, highly potent P2Y₁₂ antagonists as inhibitors of platelet aggregation based on a phenylpyrazole glutamic acid piperazine backbone is described. Exploration of the structural requirements of the substituents by probing the structure-activity relationship along this backbone led to the discovery of the N-acetyl-(S)-proline cyclobutyl amide moiety as a highly privileged motif. Combining the most favorable substituents led to remarkably potent P2Y₁₂ antagonists displaying not only low nanomolar binding affinity to the P2Y₁₂ receptor but also a low nanomolar inhibition of platelet aggregation in the human platelet rich plasma assay with IC₅₀ values below 50 nM. Using a homology and a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model, a binding hypothesis elucidating the impact of several structural features was developed.

  12. High ozone at rural sites in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, D.; Lal, S.

    2004-06-01

    Past observations of O3 at urban, rural and lower free tropospheric sites in India have shown generally low values rarely exceeding 60 ppbv. We show that this can not be generated to all over India. Surface ozone (O3) concentrations are obtained from measurements in rural, urban and free tropospheric environments in January 2001 and 2002 as a part of Mobile Lab Experiments (MOLEX) conducted in western India. Elevated O3 from 70 to 110 ppbv (nmole/mole) are recorded during afternoon hours at rural sites in downwind of major industrial region of Gujarat adjoining the Arabian Sea. Repeated observations during both the years indicate that this is a regular process in this region. The average background ozone is found to be 42±6 ppbv. The elevated ozone in the downwind site is about 60% higher than that in the major urban center and its surroundings and by a factor of 2 higher than the background levels of O3 in this region. In comparison to the downwind observations; the ozone observed at the continental stations in rural (Gadanki), urban (Ahmedabad) and free tropospheric (Mt. Abu) sites in India are low and rarely exceeded 60 ppbv during the month of January. Forward trajectory analysis shows that the polluted plumes from this urban area can get transported more than 3000 km to the marine boundary layer over the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean within a week. Similar transport of pollutants from major urban sites like Delhi and other cities can enhance O3 in their downwind rural sites and can affect the human health as well as vegetation significantly.

  13. Histidine-rich glycoprotein binds fibrin(ogen) with high affinity and competes with thrombin for binding to the gamma'-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Trang T; Stafford, Alan R; Leslie, Beverly A; Kim, Paul Y; Fredenburgh, James C; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2011-09-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an abundant protein that binds fibrinogen and other plasma proteins in a Zn(2+)-dependent fashion but whose function is unclear. HRG has antimicrobial activity, and its incorporation into fibrin clots facilitates bacterial entrapment and killing and promotes inflammation. Although these findings suggest that HRG contributes to innate immunity and inflammation, little is known about the HRG-fibrin(ogen) interaction. By immunoassay, HRG-fibrinogen complexes were detected in Zn(2+)-supplemented human plasma, a finding consistent with a high affinity interaction. Surface plasmon resonance determinations support this concept and show that in the presence of Zn(2+), HRG binds the predominant γ(A)/γ(A)-fibrinogen and the γ-chain elongated isoform, γ(A)/γ'-fibrinogen, with K(d) values of 9 nm. Likewise, (125)I-labeled HRG binds γ(A)/γ(A)- or γ(A)/γ'-fibrin clots with similar K(d) values when Zn(2+) is present. There are multiple HRG binding sites on fibrin(ogen) because HRG binds immobilized fibrinogen fragment D or E and γ'-peptide, an analog of the COOH terminus of the γ'-chain that mediates the high affinity interaction of thrombin with γ(A)/γ'-fibrin. Thrombin competes with HRG for γ'-peptide binding and displaces (125)I-HRG from γ(A)/γ'-fibrin clots and vice versa. Taken together, these data suggest that (a) HRG circulates in complex with fibrinogen and that the complex persists upon fibrin formation, and (b) by competing with thrombin for γ(A)/γ'-fibrin binding, HRG may modulate coagulation. Therefore, the HRG-fibrin interaction may provide a novel link between coagulation, innate immunity, and inflammation.

  14. Analysis of drug-protein binding using on-line immunoextraction and high-performance affinity microcolumns: Studies with normal and glycated human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ryan; Jobe, Donald; Beyersdorf, Jared; Hage, David S

    2015-10-16

    A method combining on-line immunoextraction microcolumns with high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) was developed and tested for use in examining drug-protein interactions with normal or modified proteins. Normal human serum albumin (HSA) and glycated HSA were used as model proteins for this work. High-performance immunoextraction microcolumns with sizes of 1.0-2.0 cm × 2.1mm i.d. and containing anti-HSA polyclonal antibodies were developed and tested for their ability to bind normal HSA or glycated HSA. These microcolumns were able to extract up to 82-93% for either type of protein at 0.05-0.10 mL/min and had a binding capacity of 0.34-0.42 nmol HSA for a 1.0 cm × 2.1mm i.d. microcolumn. The immunoextraction microcolumns and their adsorbed proteins were tested for use in various approaches for drug binding studies. Frontal analysis was used with the adsorbed HSA/glycated HSA to measure the overall affinities of these proteins for the drugs warfarin and gliclazide, giving comparable values to those obtained previously using similar protein preparations that had been covalently immobilized within HPAC columns. Zonal elution competition studies with gliclazide were next performed to examine the specific interactions of this drug at Sudlow sites I and II of the adsorbed proteins. These results were also comparable to those noted in prior work with covalently immobilized samples of normal HSA or glycated HSA. These experiments indicated that drug-protein binding studies can be carried out by using on-line immunoextraction microcolumns with HPAC. The same method could be used in the future with clinical samples and other drugs or proteins of interest in pharmaceutical studies or biomedical research.

  15. Fundamental and practical studies on high-performance liquid affinity chromatography of biopolymers with novel stationary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacolod, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Rigid microparticulate stationary phases having surface-bound metal chelating functions were developed and evaluated in high performance metal chelate affinity chromatography of proteins. Silica- and polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based metal chelate sorbents were produced in wide pore and in non-porous type of column packings. A major effort has been placed on development of non-porous highly crosslinked polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PSDVB). These PSDVB microparticles were produced by a two-step swelling polymerization, and exhibited excellent mechanical strength over a wide range of flow-rates and composition used in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Simple and reproducible hydrophilic coatings were developed for the surface modification of hydrophobic PSDVB supports. A tetradentate metal chelating ligand, ethylenediamine-N, N[prime]-diacetic acid (EDDA), was covalently bound to the surface of the various supports. Sorbents having iminodiacetic acid (IDA) metal chelating functions were also evaluated. The hydrophilic character and surface coverage of various stationary phases were assessed chromatographically. Studies concerning the effects of eluent pH as well as the nature and concentration of salts on retention and selectivity with different metal chelate stationary phases having various immobilized metal ions were carried out. Elution schemes were developed for rapid separation of proteins in metal chelate affinity chromatography. EDDA stationary phases in metal forms can be viewed as complementary to IDA stationary phases since they afforded different selectivity and retentivity toward proteins. Hydrophilic PSDVB could be functionalized with IDA or EDDA metal chelating ligands or lectins. The non-porous metal chelate stationary phases afforded rapid separation of proteins by the development of multiple gradient systems, which permitted higher column peak capacity, enabling the separation of a greater number of proteins in a single chromatographic run.

  16. Variation in one residue associated with the metal ion-dependent adhesion site regulates αIIbβ3 integrin ligand binding affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Raborn

    Full Text Available The Asp of the RGD motif of the ligand coordinates with the β I domain metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS divalent cation, emphasizing the importance of the MIDAS in ligand binding. There appears to be two distinct groups of integrins that differ in their ligand binding affinity and adhesion ability. These differences may be due to a specific residue associated with the MIDAS, particularly the β3 residue Ala(252 and corresponding Ala in the β1 integrin compared to the analogous Asp residue in the β2 and β7 integrins. Interestingly, mutations in the adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS of integrins α4β7 and αLβ2 increased the binding and adhesion abilities compared to the wild-type, while the same mutations in the α2β1, α5β1, αVβ3, and αIIbβ3 integrins demonstrated decreased ligand binding and adhesion. We introduced a mutation in the αIIbβ3 to convert this MIDAS associated Ala(252 to Asp. By combination of this mutant with mutations of one or two ADMIDAS residues, we studied the effects of this residue on ligand binding and adhesion. Then, we performed molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type and mutant αIIbβ3 integrin β I domains, and investigated the dynamics of metal ion binding sites in different integrin-RGD complexes. We found that the tendency of calculated binding free energies was in excellent agreement with the experimental results, suggesting that the variation in this MIDAS associated residue accounts for the differences in ligand binding and adhesion among different integrins, and it accounts for the conflicting results of ADMIDAS mutations within different integrins. This study sheds more light on the role of the MIDAS associated residue pertaining to ligand binding and adhesion and suggests that this residue may play a pivotal role in integrin-mediated cell rolling and firm adhesion.

  17. Functional identification of activity-regulated, high-affinity glutamine transport in hippocampal neurons inhibited by riluzole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jeffrey D

    2017-07-01

    Glutamine (Gln) is considered the preferred precursor for the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate (Glu), the major excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS. Here, an activity-regulated, high-affinity Gln transport system is described in developing and mature neuron-enriched hippocampal cultures that is potently inhibited by riluzole (IC50 1.3 ± 0.5 μM), an anti-glutamatergic drug, and is blocked by low concentrations of 2-(methylamino)isobutyrate (MeAIB), a system A transport inhibitor. K(+) -stimulated MeAIB transport displays an affinity (Km ) for MeAIB of 37 ± 1.2 μM, saturates at ~ 200 μM, is dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) , and is blocked by inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Spontaneous MeAIB transport is also dependent on extracellullar Ca(2+) and voltage-gated calcium channels, but is also blocked by the Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin, by Glu receptor antagonists, and by GABA indicating its dependence on intact neural circuits driven by endogenous glutamatergic activity. The transport of MeAIB itself does not rely on Ca(2+) , but on Na(+) ions, and is pH sensitive. Activity-regulated, riluzole-sensitive spontaneous and K(+) -stimulated transport is minimal at 7-8 days in vitro, coordinately induced during the next 2 weeks and is maximally expressed by days in vitro > 20; the known period for maturation of the Glu/Gln cycle and regulated pre-synaptic Glu release. Competition analyses with various amino acids indicate that Gln is the most likely physiological substrate. Activity-regulated Gln/MeAIB transport is not observed in astrocytes. The functional identification of activity-regulated, high-affinity, riluzole-sensitive Gln/MeAIB transport in hippocampal neurons may have important ramifications in the neurobiology of activity-stimulated pre-synaptic Glu release, the Glu/Gln cycle between astrocytes and neurons, and neuronal Glu-induced excitotoxicity. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13805. © 2017

  18. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis high-affinity iron importer, IrtA, contains an FAD-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryndak, Michelle B; Wang, Shuishu; Smith, Issar; Rodriguez, G Marcela

    2010-02-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient not freely available to microorganisms infecting mammals. To overcome iron deficiency, bacteria have evolved various strategies including the synthesis and secretion of high-affinity iron chelators known as siderophores. The siderophores produced and secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, exomycobactins, compete for iron with host iron-binding proteins and, together with the iron-regulated ABC transporter IrtAB, are required for the survival of M. tuberculosis in iron deficient conditions and for normal replication in macrophages and in mice. This study further characterizes the role of IrtAB in M. tuberculosis iron acquisition. Our results demonstrate a role for IrtAB in iron import and show that the amino terminus domain of IrtA is a flavin-adenine dinucleotide-binding domain essential for iron acquisition. These results suggest a model in which the amino terminus of IrtA functions to couple iron transport and assimilation.

  19. The occurrence and production of avidin: a new conception of the high-affinity biotin-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, H A; Korpela, J

    1984-01-01

    The production of avidin, a high-affinity biotin-binding egg-white protein, is not restricted to the avian, amphibian and reptilian oviducts. In the acute phase of inflammation, avidin is synthesized and secreted by various injured tissues in the domestic fowl, both male and female. Also in other avian species and a lizard, injured tissues produce an avidin-like biotin-binding factor. The non-oviductal production of avidin in domestic fowl has a great variety of inducers, for example acute inflammation caused by mechanical or thermal tissue injury, septic bacterial infection and (toxic) drugs, and even retrovirus-induced cell transformation. In culture, chicken embryo fibroblasts and yolk sac macrophages synthesize and secrete avidin. Besides the albumen, avidin may act as an antibacterial protein also in the tissues.

  20. Developing conjugated polymers with high electron affinity by replacing a C-C unit with a B←N unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chuandong; Ding, Zicheng; Zhang, Zijian; Xie, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lixiang

    2015-03-16

    The key parameters of conjugated polymers are lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels. Few approaches can simultaneously lower LUMO and HOMO energy levels of conjugated polymers to a large extent (>0.5 eV). Disclosed herein is a novel strategy to decrease both LUMO and HOMO energy levels of conjugated polymers by about 0.6 eV through replacement of a C-C unit by a B←N unit. The replacement makes the resulting polymer transform from an electron donor into an electron acceptor, and is proven by fluorescence quenching experiments and the photovoltaic response. This work not only provides an effective approach to tune the LUMO/HOMO energy levels of conjugated polymers, but also uses organic boron chemistry as a new toolbox to develop conjugated polymers with high electron affinity for polymer optoelectronic devices.

  1. The ecology and biological affinity of Arctic dinoflagellates and their paleoceanographical significance in the Canadian High Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochon, A [ISMER-UQAR, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski QC, G5L 3A1 (Canada)], E-mail: Andre_rochon@uqar.qc.ca

    2009-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are eukaryotic organisms and constitute an important group of marine primary producers. Approximately 10-15% of living dinoflagellates produce a highly resistant dormant cyst that is fossilisable, and which constitute an excellent proxy indicator of the upper water column conditions and productivity. Relatively little is known on the distribution in time and space of the dinoflagellate life cycle (i.e., vegetative and cyst stages) in the Canadian Arctic; most studies usually focusing on other groups of organisms (e.g., diatoms). Here, we present information on the ecology of dinoflagellate cysts and how they relate to their counterpart plankton stages. We discuss the importance of considering the biological affinities of dinoflagellates cysts and their relevance for paleoceanographical interpretations. We also provide insight on the actual lack of such knowledge for the Canadian Arctic cyst and plankton assemblages.

  2. Assessing high affinity binding to HLA-DQ2.5 by a novel peptide library based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jüse, Ulrike; Arntzen, Magnus; Højrup, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Here we report on a novel peptide library based method for HLA class II binding motif identification. The approach is based on water soluble HLA class II molecules and soluble dedicated peptide libraries. A high number of different synthetic peptides are competing to interact with a limited amount...... to HLA are then isolated by size exclusion chromatography and sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry online coupled to liquid chromatography. The MS/MS data are subsequently searched against a library defined database using a search engine such as Mascot, followed by manual inspection of the results. We...... used two dodecamer and two decamer peptide libraries and HLA-DQ2.5 to test possibilities and limits of this method. The selected sequences which we identified in the fraction eluted from HLA-DQ2.5 showed a higher average of their predicted binding affinity values compared to the original peptide...

  3. Drug binding to the inactivated state is necessary but not sufficient for high-affinity binding to human ether-à-go-go-related gene channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Mark J; Kuchel, Philip W; Campbell, Terence J; Vandenberg, Jamie I

    2008-11-01

    Drug block of the human ether-à-go-go-related gene K(+) channel (hERG) is the most common cause of acquired long QT syndrome, a disorder of cardiac repolarization that may result in ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. We investigated the open versus inactivated state dependence of drug block by using hERG mutants N588K and N588E, which shift the voltage dependence of inactivation compared with wild-type but in which the mutated residue is remote from the drug-binding pocket in the channel pore. Four high-affinity drugs (cisapride, dofetilide, terfenadine, and astemizole) demonstrated lower affinity for the inactivation-deficient N588K mutant hERG channel compared with N588E and wild-type hERG. Three of four low-affinity drugs (erythromycin, perhexiline, and quinidine) demonstrated no preference for N588E over N588K channels, whereas dl-sotalol was an example of a low-affinity state-dependent blocker. All five state-dependent blockers showed an even lower affinity for S620T mutant hERG (no inactivation) compared with N588K mutant hERG (greatly reduced inactivation). Computer modeling indicates that the reduced affinity for S620T compared with N588K and wild-type channels can be explained by the relative kinetics of drug block and unblock compared with the kinetics of inactivation and recovery from inactivation. We were also able to calculate, for the first time, the relative affinities for the inactivated versus the open state, which for the drugs tested here ranged from 4- to 70-fold. Our results show that preferential binding to the inactivated state is necessary but not sufficient for high-affinity binding to hERG channels.

  4. High-Affinity, Small-Molecule Peptidomimetic Inhibitors of MLL1/WDR5 Protein-Protein Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatas, Hacer; Townsend, Elizabeth C; Cao, Fang; Chen, Yong; Bernard, Denzil; Liu, Liu; Lei, Ming; Dou, Yali; Wang, Shaomeng [Michigan; (HHMI)

    2013-02-12

    Mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) is a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase, and targeting the MLL1 enzymatic activity has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of acute leukemia harboring MLL1 fusion proteins. The MLL1/WDR5 protein–protein interaction is essential for MLL1 enzymatic activity. In the present study, we designed a large number of peptidomimetics to target the MLL1/WDR5 interaction based upon -CO-ARA-NH–, the minimum binding motif derived from MLL1. Our study led to the design of high-affinity peptidomimetics, which bind to WDR5 with Ki < 1 nM and function as potent antagonists of MLL1 activity in a fully reconstituted in vitro H3K4 methyltransferase assay. Determination of co-crystal structures of two potent peptidomimetics in complex with WDR5 establishes their structural basis for high-affinity binding to WDR5. Evaluation of one such peptidomimetic, MM-102, in bone marrow cells transduced with MLL1-AF9 fusion construct shows that the compound effectively decreases the expression of HoxA9 and Meis-1, two critical MLL1 target genes in MLL1 fusion protein mediated leukemogenesis. MM-102 also specifically inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in leukemia cells harboring MLL1 fusion proteins. Our study provides the first proof-of-concept for the design of small-molecule inhibitors of the WDR5/MLL1 protein–protein interaction as a novel therapeutic approach for acute leukemia harboring MLL1 fusion proteins.

  5. Generation of a novel high-affinity monoclonal antibody with conformational recognition epitope on human IgM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikhani, Sina; Mirshahi, Manouchehr; Gharaati, Mohammad Reza; Mirshahi, Tooran

    2010-11-01

    As IgM is the first isotype of antibody which appears in blood after initial exposure to a foreign antigen in the pattern of primary response, detection, and quantification of this molecule in blood seems invaluable. To approach these goals, generation, and characterization of a highly specific mAb (monoclonal antibody) against human IgM were investigated. Human IgM immunoglobulins were used to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells using PEG (polyethylene glycol, MW 1450) as fusogen. The hybridomas were cultured in HAT containing medium and supernatants from the growing hybrids were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using plates coated with pure human IgM and the positive wells were then cloned at limiting dilutions. The best clone designated as MAN-1, was injected intraperitoneally to some Pristane-injected mice. Anti-IgM mAb was purified from the animals' ascitic fluid by protein-G sepharose followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. MAN-1 interacted with human IgM with a very high specificity and affinity. The purity of the sample was tested by SDS-PAGE and the affinity constant was measured (K(a) = 3.5 x 10(9)M(-1). Immunoblotting and competitive ELISA were done and the results showed that the harvested antibody recognizes a conformational epitope on the mu chain of human IgM and there was no cross-reactivity with other subclasses of immunoglobulins. Furthermore, isotyping test was done and the results showed the subclass of the obtained mAb which was IgG(1)kappa.

  6. Haptoglobin-related protein is a high-affinity hemoglobin-binding plasma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Petersen, Steen Vang; Jacobsen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr) is a primate-specific plasma protein associated with apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I)-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles shown to be a part of the innate immune defense. Despite the assumption hitherto that Hpr does not bind to hemoglobin, the present...

  7. Effective Optimization of Antibody Affinity by Phage Display Integrated with High-Throughput DNA Synthesis and Sequencing Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Hu

    Full Text Available Phage display technology has been widely used for antibody affinity maturation for decades. The limited library sequence diversity together with excessive redundancy and labour-consuming procedure for candidate identification are two major obstacles to widespread adoption of this technology. We hereby describe a novel library generation and screening approach to address the problems. The approach started with the targeted diversification of multiple complementarity determining regions (CDRs of a humanized anti-ErbB2 antibody, HuA21, with a small perturbation mutagenesis strategy. A combination of three degenerate codons, NWG, NWC, and NSG, were chosen for amino acid saturation mutagenesis without introducing cysteine and stop residues. In total, 7,749 degenerate oligonucleotides were synthesized on two microchips and released to construct five single-chain antibody fragment (scFv gene libraries with 4 x 10(6 DNA sequences. Deep sequencing of the unselected and selected phage libraries using the Illumina platform allowed for an in-depth evaluation of the enrichment landscapes in CDR sequences and amino acid substitutions. Potent candidates were identified according to their high frequencies using NGS analysis, by-passing the need for the primary screening of target-binding clones. Furthermore, a subsequent library by recombination of the 10 most abundant variants from four CDRs was constructed and screened, and a mutant with 158-fold increased affinity (Kd = 25.5 pM was obtained. These results suggest the potential application of the developed methodology for optimizing the binding properties of other antibodies and biomolecules.

  8. Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions with Trimeric Ligands: High Affinity Inhibitors of the MAGUK Protein Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Klaus B; Kedström, Linda Maria Haugaard; Wilbek, Theis S

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95...... of trimeric ligands targeting all three PDZ domains of PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins, PSD-93, SAP-97 and SAP-102. Using our dimeric ligands targeting the PDZ1-2 tandem as starting point, we designed novel trimeric ligands by introducing a PDZ3-binding peptide moiety via a cysteine-derivatized NPEG...

  9. An HIV-1 encoded peptide mimics the DNA binding loop of NF-{kappa}B and binds thioredoxin with high affinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Guoping [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2352 (United States)]. E-mail: gsu@u.washington.edu; Wang Min [Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8023 (United States)]. E-mail: wang.min@yale.edu; Taylor, Ethan Will [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2352 (United States)]. E-mail: wtaylor@rx.uga.edu

    2005-11-11

    Pro-fs is a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-l)-encoded putative selenoprotein, predicted by a theoretical analysis of the viral genome; it is potentially expressed by a -1 frameshift from the protease coding region. Pro-fs has significant sequence similarity to the DNA binding loop of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), which is known to bind thioredoxin (Trx). We hypothesize that the putative HIV-1 pro-fs gene product functions by mimicry of NF-{kappa}B via binding to Trx. The hypothesis was tested in vitro by co-immunoprecipitation and GST-pull down assays, using a purified mutant pro-fs protein, in which the two potential selenocysteine residues were mutated to cysteines, in order to permit expression in bacteria. Both experiments showed that pro-fs binds to human wild type Trx (Trx-wt) with high affinity. Mutation of the two conserved cysteine residues in the Trx active site redox center to serine (Ser) (Trx-CS) weakened but failed to abolish the interaction. In pro-fs-transfected 293T cells, using confocal microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we have observed that pro-fs localizes in cell nuclei and forms oligomers. Upon stimulation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), Trx translocates into cell nuclei. Significant FRET efficiency was detected in the nuclei of PMA-stimulated 293T cells co-expressing fluorescence-tagged pro-fs and Trx-wt or Trx-CS. These results indicate that in living cells the double cysteine mutant of pro-fs binds to both Trx and Trx-CS with high affinity, suggesting that Trx-pro-fs binding is a structurally-specific interaction, involving more of the Trx molecule than just its active site cysteine residues. These results establish the capacity for functional mimicry of the Trx binding ability of the NF-{kappa}B/Rel family of transcription factors by the putative HIV-1 pro-fs protein.

  10. Development of immobilized Sn(4+) affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we first immobilized tin(IV) ion on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (magG@PDA) to synthesize Sn(4+) -immobilized magG@PDA (magG@PDA-Sn(4+) ) and successfully applied the material to highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The material gathered the advantages of large surface area of graphene, superparamagnetism of Fe3 O4 , good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine, and strong interaction between Sn(4+) and phosphopeptides. The enrichment performance of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) toward phosphopeptides from digested β-casein at different concentrations, with and without added digested BSA was investigated and compared with magG@PDA-Ti(4+) . The results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the Sn(4+) -IMAC material toward phosphopeptides, as good as the Ti(4+) -IMAC material. Finally, magG@PDA-Sn(4+) was applied to the analysis of endogenous phosphopeptides from a real sample, human saliva, with both MALDI-TOF MS and nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. The results indicated that the as-synthesized Sn(4+) -IMAC material not only has good enrichment performance, but also could serve as a supplement to the Ti(4+) -IMAC material and expand the phosphopeptide coverage enriched by the single Ti(4+) -IMAC material, demonstrating the broad application prospects of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) in phosphoproteome research. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cross-linked multilayer-dye films deposited onto silica surfaces with high affinity for pepsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucatariu, Florin; Ghiorghita, Claudiu-Augustin; Cocarta, Ana-Irina; Dragan, Ecaterina Stela

    2016-12-01

    Cross-linked thin films based on pH-responsive polymers with a specific ligand inside the organic layer are useful materials in separation processes or in fabrication of controlled delivery systems. Herein, we report the step-by-step deposition of polymer multilayers based on poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(sodium methacrylate) (PMAA) followed by the Congo red (CR) immobilization onto composite Daisogel silica microparticles and silicon wafers. The non-crosslinked composites were not stable in extreme basic medium (pH = 13), while thermal and chemical cross-linked samples with CR inside were stable over a wide range of pH. The interaction properties of different proteins [pepsin (PEP), lysozyme, trypsin, bovine serum albumin] with modified solid surfaces were followed by potentiometric titrations, UV and AFM measurements. Only the PEP macromolecules were sorbed onto the Daisogel composite microparticles with CR inside the cross-linked multilayer. The maximum sorbed amount was nearly 200 mg PEP/g Daisogel//(PEI/PAA)4.5 + CR. This high sorbed amount was in accordance with the AFM images, the average high and roughness increased drastically after the sorption of PEP.

  12. Glucose uptake and growth of glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Aspergillus niger and a disruptant lacking MstA, a high-affinity glucose transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Poulsen, Bjarne R

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of high-affinity glucose uptake in Aspergillus niger and the effect of disruption of a high-affinity monosaccharide-transporter gene, mstA. The substrate saturation constant (K(s)) of a reference strain was about 15 microM in glucose-limited chemostat culture. Disruption of mst......-affinity uptake system of A. niger. The mstA disruptant and a reference strain were cultivated in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at low, intermediate and high dilution rate (D=0.07 h(-1), 0.14 h(-1) and 0.20 h(-1)). Mycelium harvested from steady-state cultures was subjected to glucose uptake assays...

  13. High-affinity integration of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with chemically modified silk fibroin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Li; Li Chunzhong [East China University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)], E-mail: czli@ecust.edu.cn; Senna, Mamoru [Keio University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-based nanocomposites were prepared by a co-precipitation method with silk fibroin (SF) serving as organic matrix. Silk fibroin was chemically modified with an alkali solution or an enzyme attempting to improve the interface between the mineral and the organic matrix. The influences of the alkali and enzyme pretreatments on microstructure and physicochemical properties of HA-SF composite were examined and compared. The results reveal that both the two kinds of pretreatments facilitate the formation of highly ordered three-dimensional porous network throughout the composites, increase the microhardness of the composite, and promote the preferential growth of HA crystallites along c-axis. Among all the as-prepared samples, the composite containing the enzyme pretreated SF shows desirable hierarchical microstructure with higher degree of organization and more uniform pore size distribution. Due to the enzyme pretreatment, HA crystallites undergo obvious changes in morphology from rod-like to whisker-like and in crystal growth towards more apparent epitaxy along c-axis. The alkali pretreatment induces the stronger chemical interactions between HA and SF and thus to strengthen the inorganic-organic interfacial adhesion. The newly developed HA-SF composites are expected to be attractive biomedical materials for bone repair and remodeling.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae YOR071C encodes the high affinity nicotinamide riboside transporter Nrt1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Peter A; Moga, Tiberiu G; Brenner, Charles

    2008-03-28

    NAD(+) is an essential coenzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and a substrate of sirtuins and other NAD(+)-consuming enzymes. Nicotinamide riboside is a recently discovered eukaryotic NAD(+) precursor converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway and by nucleosidase activity and nicotinamide salvage. Nicotinamide riboside supplementation of yeast extends replicative life span on high glucose medium. The molecular basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake was unknown in any eukaryote. Here, we show that deletion of a single gene, YOR071C, abrogates nicotinamide riboside uptake without altering nicotinic acid or nicotinamide import. The gene, which is negatively regulated by Sum1, Hst1, and Rfm1, fully restores nicotinamide riboside import and utilization when resupplied to mutant yeast cells. The encoded polypeptide, Nrt1, is a predicted deca-spanning membrane protein related to the thiamine transporter, which functions as a pH-dependent facilitator with a K(m) for nicotinamide riboside of 22 microm. Nrt1-related molecules are conserved in particular fungi, suggesting a similar basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake.

  15. CRETACEOUS AMPHIBOLE-RICH INTRUSIVES WITH HIGH-MG ANDESITE AFFINITY FROM JAPAN: A PETROLOGICAL AND GEOCHRONOLOGICAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, A.; Tiepolo, M.; Morishita, T.; Tribuzio, R.

    2009-12-01

    High-Mg andesites (HMA) are a group of arc products, usually rich in amphibole, whose origin is still debated. High-Mg diorites (HMD) are intrusive counterparts of HMA and are locally found in exhumed arc sections. In places, HMD are closely associated with ultramafic amphibole-rich rocks and may provide further constrains on the role of amphibole in the origin of HMA and in the petrogenesis of arc related-magmas. Small bodies of Cretaceous amph-rich mafic and ultramafic intrusives with similar petrographic features and HMA affinity (e.g. Kamei et al., 2004) are exhumed together with granitoid rocks along the Japan arc. These rocks, originated during the Cretaceous subduction of the Pacific plate under Asia, give the opportunity to investigate modifications in the composition of melts with HMA affinity as a function of the along-margin position and time. Mafic and ultramafic intrusives were sampled in different localities of the Honshu (NE Japan arc) and Kyushu Island (SW Japan arc). In situ U-Pb zircon geochronology by laser ablation ICPMS was carried out to constrain the time relationships among the different intrusive bodies. U-Pb concordia ages show that the HMD were mostly emplaced from ca. 100 Ma up to 118 Ma. In only one case (Honshu Island) U-Pb concordia ages as young as 70 Ma were obtained. High modal proportions of amphibole (40-60 vol%) with pargasite cores (mg# = 0.66-0.77) characterize all studied samples. In ultramafic rocks (Ol-hornblendites and Cpx-hornblendites), pargasitic amphibole is poikilitic on sub-rounded clinopyroxene (mg# up to 88) and olivine (Fo61-78). In mafic rocks (amph-gabbros and amph-diorites), large amphibole grains are dispersed in a fine-grained matrix defining a porphyritic texture. The matrix consists mainly of Mg-hornblende, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. The cores of pargasitic amphibole from mafic rocks have clinopyroxene inclusions with mg# up to 88, similar to what found in ultramafic rocks. Independently from the age

  16. A Method to Site-Specifically Identify and Quantitate Carbonyl End Products of Protein Oxidation Using Oxidation-Dependent Element Coded Affinity Tags (O-ECAT) and NanoLiquid Chromatography Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Young, N L; Whetstone, P A; Cheal, S M; Benner, W H; Lebrilla, C B; Meares, C F

    2005-08-25

    Protein oxidation is linked to cellular stress, aging, and disease. Protein oxidations that result in reactive species are of particular interest, since these reactive oxidation products may react with other proteins or biomolecules in an unmediated and irreversible fashion, providing a potential marker for a variety of disease mechanisms. We have developed a novel system to identify and quantitate, relative to other states, the sites of oxidation on a given protein. A specially designed Oxidation-dependent carbonyl-specific Element-Coded Affinity Mass Tag (O-ECAT), AOD, ((S)-2-(4-(2-aminooxy)-acetamido)-benzyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N', N'', N'''-tetraacetic acid, is used to covalently tag the residues of a protein oxidized to aldehyde or keto end products. After proteolysis, the resulting AOD-tagged peptides are affinity purified, and analyzed by nanoLC-FTICR-MS, which provides high specificity in extracting co-eluting AOD mass pairs with a unique mass difference and affords relative quantitation based on isotopic ratios. Using this methodology, we have mapped the surface oxidation sites on a model protein, recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) in its native form (as purchased) and after FeEDTA oxidation. A variety of modified amino acid residues including lysine, arginine, proline, histidine, threonine, aspartic and glutamic acids, were found to be oxidized to aldehyde and keto end products. The sensitivity of this methodology is shown by the number of peptides identified, twenty peptides on the native protein and twenty-nine after surface oxidation using FeEDTA and ascorbate. All identified peptides map to the surface of the HSA crystal structure validating this method for identifying oxidized amino acids on protein surfaces. In relative quantitation experiments between FeEDTA oxidation and native protein oxidation, identified sites showed different relative propensities towards oxidation independent of amino acid

  17. Surface plasmon resonance detection of biological warfare agent Staphylococcal enterotoxin B using high affinity monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Garima; Singh, Pawan K.; Boopathi, M., E-mail: mannanboopathi@yahoo.com; Kamboj, D.V.; Singh, Beer; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-11-30

    A novel sensitive method was developed for the detection as well as quantification of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). It is well known that the amount of SEB needed to cause the intoxication to human beings is very less and this concentration (0.02 {mu}g/kg) is highly dangerous, hence, it is used as biological warfare agent. Thus, the need to develop a reliable and potential detection system against SEB is warranted. In the present work, SEB antibody was immobilized on carboxymethyldextran modified gold chip. The immobilization of SEB antibody and interaction of antigen with immobilized antibody were in-situ characterized by SPR and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A sample solution containing SEB antigen was injected in a working channel and the results revealed linearity in the concentration from 2.0 to 32.0 pM with a detection limit of 1.0 pM. By using kinetic evaluation software, K{sub D} (equilibrium constant) and Bmax (maximum binding capacity of analyte) values were calculated and found to be 13 pM and 424.23, respectively. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameter, change in Gibb's free energy was deduced and found to be -62.08 kJ/mol and this value shows the spontaneous interaction between SEB antigen and SEB antibody. In order to optimize the detection method, temperature and pH variation studies were also performed. Interference study was conducted to know the selectivity for the antigen-antibody interaction of SEB. The selectivity efficiency of SEB, SEC, SEA and SED were 100, 27.15, 20.01 and 12.05%, respectively towards SEB antibody.

  18. Affinity Purification of Insulin by Peptide-Ligand Affinity Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The affinity heptapeptide (HWWWPAS) for insulin, selected from phage display library,was coupled to EAH Sepharose 4B gel and packed to a 1-mL column. The column was used for the affinity purification of insulin from protein mixture and commercial insulin preparation. It was observed that the minor impurity in the commercial insulin was removed by the affinity chromatography. Nearly 40 mg of insulin could be purified with the 1-mL affinity column. The results revealed the high specificity and capacity of the affinity column for insulin purification. Moreover, based on the analysis of the amino acids in the peptide sequence, shorter peptides were designed and synthesized for insulin chromatography. As a result, HWWPS was found to be a good alternative to HWWWPAS, while the other two peptides with three or four amino acids showed weak affinity for insulin. The results indicated that the peptide sequence of HWWWPAS was quite conservative for specific binding of insulin.

  19. Discovery of high affinity anti-ricin antibodies by B cell receptor sequencing and by yeast display of combinatorial VH:VL libraries from immunized animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Lee, Chang-Han; Johnson, Erik L; Kluwe, Christien A; Cunningham, Josephine C; Tanno, Hidetaka; Crooks, Richard M; Georgiou, George; Ellington, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is a toxin that could potentially be used as a bioweapon. We identified anti-ricin A chain antibodies by sequencing the antibody repertoire from immunized mice and by selecting high affinity antibodies using yeast surface display. These methods led to the isolation of multiple antibodies with high (sub-nanomolar) affinity. Interestingly, the antibodies identified by the 2 independent approaches are from the same clonal lineages, indicating for the first time that yeast surface display can identify native antibodies. The new antibodies represent well-characterized reagents for biodefense diagnostics and therapeutics development.

  20. A new class of fluorescent boronic acids that have extraordinarily high affinities for diols in aqueous solution at physiological pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunfeng; Ni, Nanting; Yang, Wenqian; Wang, Binghe

    2010-12-03

    The boronic acid group is an important recognition moiety for sensor design. Herein, we report a series of isoquinolinylboronic acids that have extraordinarily high affinities for diol-containing compounds at physiological pH. In addition, 5- and 8-isoquinolinylboronic acids also showed fairly high binding affinities towards D-glucose (K(a)=42 and 46 M(-1), respectively). For the first time, weak but encouraging binding of cis-cyclohexanediol was found for these boronic acids. Such binding was coupled with significant fluorescence changes. Furthermore, 4- and 6-isoquinolinylboronic acids also showed the ability to complex methyl α-D-glucopyranose (K(a)=3 and 2 M(-1), respectively).

  1. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  2. Fast-onset lidocaine block of rat NaV1.4 channels suggests involvement of a second high-affinity open state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Kevin J; Wagner, Larry E

    2016-06-01

    Local anesthetics (LAs) block resting, open, and inactivated states of voltage-gated Na(+) channels where inactivated states are thought to bind with highest affinity. However, reports of fast-onset block occurring over milliseconds hint at high-affinity block of open channels. Movement of voltage-sensor domain IV-segment 4 (DIVS4) has been associated with high affinity LA block termed voltage-sensor block (VSB) that also leads to a second open state. These observations point to a second high-affinity open state that may underlie fast-onset block. To test for this state, we analyzed the modulation of Na(+) currents by lidocaine and its quaternary derivative (QX222) from heterologously expressed (Xenopus laevis oocytes) rat skeletal muscle μ1 NaV1.4 (rSkM1) with β1 (WT-β1), and a mutant form (IFM-QQQ mutation in the III-IV interdomain, QQQ) lacking fast inactivation, in combination with Markov kinetic gating models. 100 μM lidocaine induced fast-onset (τonset≈2 ms), long-lived (τrecovery≈120 ms) block of WT-β1 macroscopic currents. Lidocaine blocked single-channel and macroscopic QQQ currents in agreement with our previously described mechanism of dual, open-channel block (DOB mechanism). A DOB kinetic model reproduced lidocaine effects on QQQ currents. The DOB model was extended to include trapping fast-inactivation and activation gates, and a second open state (OS2); the latter arising from DIVS4 translocation that precedes inactivation and exhibits high-affinity, lidocaine binding (apparent Kd=25 μM) that accords with VSB (DOB-S2VSB mechanism). The DOB-S2VSB kinetic model predicted fast-onset block of WT-β1. The findings support the involvement of a second, high-affinity, open state in lidocaine modulation of Na(+) channels.

  3. Relative binding affinity of steroids for the corticosterone receptor system in rat hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kloet, E R; Veldhuis, H D; Wagenaars, J L; Bergink, E W

    1984-01-01

    In cytosol of the hippocampus corticosterone displays highest affinity for the sites that remain available for binding in the presence of excess RU 26988, which is shown to be a "pure" glucocorticoid. A rather high affinity (greater than or equal to 25%) was found for 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone, 21

  4. G196 epitope tag system: a novel monoclonal antibody, G196, recognizes the small, soluble peptide DLVPR with high affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kasumi; Sakashita, Gyosuke; Nariai, Yuko; Okazaki, Kosuke; Kato, Hiroaki; Obayashi, Eiji; Yoshida, Hisashi; Sugiyama, Kanako; Park, Sam-Yong; Sekine, Joji; Urano, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    The recognition specificity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has made mAbs among the most frequently used tools in both basic science research and in clinical diagnosis and therapies. Precise determination of the epitope allows the development of epitope tag systems to be used with recombinant proteins for various purposes. Here we describe a new family of tag derived from the epitope recognized by a highly specific mAb G196. The minimal epitope was identified as the five amino acid sequence Asp-Leu-Val-Pro-Arg. Permutation analysis was used to characterize the binding requirements of mAb G196, and the variable regions of the mAb G196 were identified and structurally analyzed by X-ray crystallography. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed the high affinity (Kd = 1.25 nM) of the mAb G196/G196-epitope peptide interaction, and G196-tag was used to detect several recombinant cytosolic and nuclear proteins in human and yeast cells. mAb G196 is valuable for developing a new peptide tagging system for cell biology and biochemistry research. PMID:28266535

  5. Nucleotide binding by the widespread high-affinity cyclic di-GMP receptor MshEN domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chuan; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Tu, Zhi-Le; He, Jin; Jones, Christopher J; Sanchez, David Zamorano; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Galperin, Michael Y; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP is a bacterial second messenger regulating various cellular functions. Many bacteria contain c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes but lack known c-di-GMP receptors. Recently, two MshE-type ATPases associated with bacterial type II secretion system and type IV pilus formation were shown to specifically bind c-di-GMP. Here we report crystal structure of the MshE N-terminal domain (MshEN1-145) from Vibrio cholerae in complex with c-di-GMP at a 1.37 Å resolution. This structure reveals a unique c-di-GMP-binding mode, featuring a tandem array of two highly conserved binding motifs, each comprising a 24-residue sequence RLGxx(L/V/I)(L/V/I)xxG(L/V/I)(L/V/I)xxxxLxxxLxxQ that binds half of the c-di-GMP molecule, primarily through hydrophobic interactions. Mutating these highly conserved residues markedly reduces c-di-GMP binding and biofilm formation by V. cholerae. This c-di-GMP-binding motif is present in diverse bacterial proteins exhibiting binding affinities ranging from 0.5 μM to as low as 14 nM. The MshEN domain contains the longest nucleotide-binding motif reported to date.

  6. Structural and Dynamic Basis for Low-Affinity, High-Selectivity Binding of L-Glutamine by the Glutamine Riboswitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring L-glutamine riboswitches occur in cyanobacteria and marine metagenomes, where they reside upstream of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. By combining X-ray, NMR, and MD, we characterized an L-glutamine-dependent conformational transition in the Synechococcus elongatus glutamine riboswitch from tuning fork to L-shaped alignment of stem segments. This transition generates an open ligand-binding pocket with L-glutamine selectivity enforced by Mg2+-mediated intermolecular interactions. The transition also stabilizes the P1 helix through a long-range “linchpin” Watson-Crick G-C pair-capping interaction, while melting a short helix below P1 potentially capable of modulating downstream readout. NMR data establish that the ligand-free glutamine riboswitch in Mg2+ solution exists in a slow equilibrium between flexible tuning fork and a minor conformation, similar, but not identical, to the L-shaped bound conformation. We propose that an open ligand-binding pocket combined with a high conformational penalty for forming the ligand-bound state provide mechanisms for reducing binding affinity while retaining high selectivity.

  7. ZrFsy1, a high-affinity fructose/H+ symporter from fructophilic yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Leandro

    Full Text Available Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a fructophilic yeast than can grow at very high sugar concentrations. We have identified an ORF encoding a putative fructose/H(+ symporter in the Z. rouxii CBS 732 genome database. Heterologous expression of this ORF in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking its own hexose transporters (hxt-null and subsequent kinetic characterization of its sugar transport activity showed it is a high-affinity low-capacity fructose/H(+ symporter, with Km 0.45 ± 0.07 mM and Vmax 0.57 ± 0.02 mmol h(-1 (gdw(-1. We named it ZrFsy1. This protein also weakly transports xylitol and sorbose, but not glucose or other hexoses. The expression of ZrFSY1 in Z. rouxii is higher when the cells are cultivated at extremely low fructose concentrations (<0.2% and on non-fermentable carbon sources such as mannitol and xylitol, where the cells have a prolonged lag phase, longer duplication times and change their microscopic morphology. A clear phenotype was determined for the first time for the deletion of a fructose/H(+ symporter in the genome where it occurs naturally. The effect of the deletion of ZrFSY1 in Z. rouxii cells is only evident when the cells are cultivated at very low fructose concentrations, when the ZrFsy1 fructose symporter is the main active fructose transporter system.

  8. Structural and Dynamic Basis for Low-Affinity, High-Selectivity Binding of L-Glutamine by the Glutamine Riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Aiming; Xue, Yi; Peselis, Alla; Serganov, Alexander; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring L-glutamine riboswitches occur in cyanobacteria and marine metagenomes, where they reside upstream of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. By combining X-ray, NMR, and MD, we characterized an L-glutamine-dependent conformational transition in the Synechococcus elongatus glutamine riboswitch from tuning fork to L-shaped alignment of stem segments. This transition generates an open ligand-binding pocket with L-glutamine selectivity enforced by Mg(2+)-mediated intermolecular interactions. The transition also stabilizes the P1 helix through a long-range "linchpin" Watson-Crick G-C pair-capping interaction, while melting a short helix below P1 potentially capable of modulating downstream readout. NMR data establish that the ligand-free glutamine riboswitch in Mg(2+) solution exists in a slow equilibrium between flexible tuning fork and a minor conformation, similar, but not identical, to the L-shaped bound conformation. We propose that an open ligand-binding pocket combined with a high conformational penalty for forming the ligand-bound state provide mechanisms for reducing binding affinity while retaining high selectivity.

  9. An engineered high affinity Fbs1 carbohydrate binding protein for selective capture of N-glycans and N-glycopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minyong; Shi, Xiaofeng; Duke, Rebecca M.; Ruse, Cristian I.; Dai, Nan; Taron, Christopher H.; Samuelson, James C.

    2017-01-01

    A method for selective and comprehensive enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides was developed to facilitate detection of micro-heterogeneity of N-glycosylation. The method takes advantage of the inherent properties of Fbs1, which functions within the ubiquitin-mediated degradation system to recognize the common core pentasaccharide motif (Man3GlcNAc2) of N-linked glycoproteins. We show that Fbs1 is able to bind diverse types of N-linked glycomolecules; however, wild-type Fbs1 preferentially binds high-mannose-containing glycans. We identified Fbs1 variants through mutagenesis and plasmid display selection, which possess higher affinity and improved recovery of complex N-glycomolecules. In particular, we demonstrate that the Fbs1 GYR variant may be employed for substantially unbiased enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides from human serum. Most importantly, this highly efficient N-glycopeptide enrichment method enables the simultaneous determination of N-glycan composition and N-glycosites with a deeper coverage (compared to lectin enrichment) and improves large-scale N-glycoproteomics studies due to greatly reduced sample complexity. PMID:28534482

  10. An engineered high affinity Fbs1 carbohydrate binding protein for selective capture of N-glycans and N-glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minyong; Shi, Xiaofeng; Duke, Rebecca M; Ruse, Cristian I; Dai, Nan; Taron, Christopher H; Samuelson, James C

    2017-05-23

    A method for selective and comprehensive enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides was developed to facilitate detection of micro-heterogeneity of N-glycosylation. The method takes advantage of the inherent properties of Fbs1, which functions within the ubiquitin-mediated degradation system to recognize the common core pentasaccharide motif (Man3GlcNAc2) of N-linked glycoproteins. We show that Fbs1 is able to bind diverse types of N-linked glycomolecules; however, wild-type Fbs1 preferentially binds high-mannose-containing glycans. We identified Fbs1 variants through mutagenesis and plasmid display selection, which possess higher affinity and improved recovery of complex N-glycomolecules. In particular, we demonstrate that the Fbs1 GYR variant may be employed for substantially unbiased enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides from human serum. Most importantly, this highly efficient N-glycopeptide enrichment method enables the simultaneous determination of N-glycan composition and N-glycosites with a deeper coverage (compared to lectin enrichment) and improves large-scale N-glycoproteomics studies due to greatly reduced sample complexity.

  11. Regulation of the High-Affinity Nitrate Transport System in Wheat Roots by Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Glutamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Cai; Xue-Qiang Zhao; Yong-Guan Zhu; Bin Li; Yi-Ping Tong; Zhen-Sheng Li

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate is a major nitrogen (N) source for most crops.Nitrate uptake by root cells is a key step of nitrogen metabolism and has been widely studied at the physiological and molecular levels.Understanding how nitrate uptake is regulated will help us engineer crops with improved nitrate uptake efficiency.The present study investigated the regulation of the high-affinity nitrate transport system (HATS) by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and glutamine (Gin) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots.Wheat seedlings grown in nutrient solution containing 2 mmollL nitrate as the only nitrogen source for 2 weeks were deprived of N for 4d and were then transferred to nutrient solution containing 50 μmol/L ABA, and 1 mmol/L Gin in the presence or absence of 2 mmol/L nitrate for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h.Treated wheat plants were then divided into two groups.One group of plants was used to investigate the mRNA levels of the HATS components NRT2 and NAR2 genes in roots through semi-quantitative RT-PCR approach, and the other set of plants were used to measure high-affinity nitrate influx rates in a nutrient solution containing 0.2 mmol/L 15 N-labeled nitrate.The results showed that exogenous ABA induced the expression of the TaNRT2.1, TaNRT2.2, TaNRT2.3, TaNAR2.1, and TaNAR2.2 genes in roots when nitrate was not present in the nutrient solution, but did not further enhance the induction of these genes by nitrate.Glutamine, which has been shown to inhibit the expression of NRT2 genes when nitrate is present in the growth media, did not inhibit this induction.When Gin was supplied to a nitrate-free nutrient solution, the expression of these five genes in roots was induced.These results imply that the inhibition by Gin of NRT2 expression occurs only when nitrate is present in the growth media.Although exogenous ABA and Gin induced HATS genes in the roots of wheat, they did not induce nitrate influx.

  12. Preparation of a novel antiserum to aromatase with high affinity and specificity: Its clinicopathological significance on breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanomata, Naoki; Matsuura, Shiro; Nomura, Tsunehisa; Kurebayashi, Junichi; Mori, Taisuke; Kitawaki, Jo; Moriya, Takuya

    2017-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have been widely used for the endocrine treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. However, clinicopathological studies of aromatase have been limited due to unsatisfactory specificity and/or restricted availability of anti-aromatase antibodies. Here, we have generated a polyclonal antiserum with high affinity and specificity for human aromatase using a monoclonal antibody tagged immunoaffinity chromatography on an industrial production scale. Our preliminary immunohistochemical analysis of 221 invasive breast cancer cases indicated that 87.3% (193/221) had at least 5% aromatase positive cells. The histoscore for aromatase was inversely correlated with pT (p = 0.019), pN (p = 0.001), stage (p cancer aromatase expression was independent of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 statuses. This antiserum will be applicable to clinicopathological examination of aromatase in addition to ER and PgR for an appropriate use of aromatase inhibitor on the treatment of breast cancer. Further studies on the relationship between Aromatase inhibitors have been widely used for the endocrine treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. However, clinicopathological studies of aromatase have been limited due to unsatisfactory specificity and/or restricted availability of anti-aromatase antibodies. Here, we have generated a polyclonal antiserum with high affinity and specificity for human aromatase using a monoclonal antibody tagged immunoaffinity chromatography on an industrial production scale. Our preliminary immunohistochemical analysis of 221 invasive breast cancer cases indicated that 87.3% (193/221) had at least 5% aromatase positive cells. The histoscore for aromatase was inversely correlated with pT (p = 0.019), pN (p = 0.001), stage (p cancer aromatase expression was independent of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and

  13. High performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) as a high-throughput screening tool in drug discovery to study drug-plasma protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuignier, Karine; Guillarme, Davy; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Schappler, Julie

    2013-02-23

    Drug-plasma protein binding is an important parameter that, together with other physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity and pK(a), greatly influences drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Therefore, it is important for pharmaceutical companies to develop a rapid screening assay to examine plasma protein binding during the early stages of the drug discovery process. Human serum albumin (HSA) and α(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) are the most important plasma proteins that are capable of binding drugs. In this work, an automated and high-throughput (high performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) with commercial HSA and AGP columns to evaluate drug-plasma protein interactions for drug screening. A generic gradient was used throughout the study to separate drugs that were weakly and tightly bound to HSA and AGP. To accelerate the analysis time, the system was calibrated in a single run by pooling reference compounds without overloading the column. For both HSA and AGP studies, the developed methods were successfully transferred from HPAC-UV to HPAC-MS with single quadrupole MS detection and ammonium acetate, pH 7.0 as a volatile mobile phase. The MS detection enhanced the sensitivity, selectivity, and throughput of the method by pooling unknown compounds. For HSA analyses, the binding percentages obtained using HPAC were well correlated with the binding percentages from the literature. This method was also able to rank compounds based on their affinity for HSA. Concerning the AGP analyses, the quality of the correlation between the binding percentages obtained in HPAC and those from the literature was weaker. However, the method was able to classify compounds into weak, medium, and strong binders and rank compounds based on their affinity for AGP.

  14. High binding affinity of repressor IolR avoids costs of untimely induction of myo-inositol utilization by Salmonella Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinckx, Jessica; Heermann, Ralf; Felsl, Angela; Fuchs, Thilo M.

    2017-01-01

    Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 with myo-inositol (MI) is characterized by a bistable phenotype that manifests with an extraordinarily long (34 h) and variable lag phase. When cells were pre-grown in minimal medium with MI, however, the lag phase shortened drastically to eight hours, and to six hours in the absence of the regulator IolR. To unravel the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon, we investigated this repressor in more detail. Flow cytometry analysis of the iolR promoter at a single cell level demonstrated bistability of its transcriptional activation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to narrow the potential binding region of IolR and identified at least two binding sites in most iol gene promoters. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy quantified IolR binding and indicated its putative oligomerization and high binding affinity towards specific iol gene promoters. In competitive assays, the iolR deletion mutant, in which iol gene repression is abolished, showed a severe growth disadvantage of ~15% relative to the parental strain in rich medium. We hypothesize that the strong repression of iol gene transcription is required to maintain a balance between metabolic flexibility and fitness costs, which follow the inopportune induction of an unusual metabolic pathway. PMID:28290506

  15. Redefining the structure-activity relationships of 2,6-methano-3-benzazocines. Part 9: Synthesis, characterization and molecular modeling of pyridinyl isosteres of N-BPE-8-CAC (1), a high affinity ligand for opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanAlstine, Melissa A; Wentland, Mark P; Alvarez, Juan; Cao, Qing; Cohen, Dana J; Knapp, Brian I; Bidlack, Jean M

    2013-04-01

    Derivatives of the lead compound N-BPE-8-CAC (1) where each CH of the biphenyl group was individually replaced by N were prepared in hopes of identifying high affinity ligands with improved aqueous solubility. Compared to 1, binding affinities of the five possible pyridinyl derivatives for the μ opioid receptor were between threefold lower to fivefold higher with the Ki of the most potent compound being 0.064 nM. Docking of 8-CAC (2) into the unliganded binding site of the mouse μ opioid receptor (pdb: 4DKL) revealed that 8-CAC and β-FNA (from 4DKL) make nearly identical interactions with the receptor. However, for 1 and the new pyridinyl derivatives 4-8, binding is not tolerated in the 8-CAC binding mode due to the steric constraints of the large N-substituents. Either an alternative binding mode or rearrangement of the protein to accommodate these modifications may account for their high binding affinity.

  16. Fragile X mental retardation protein recognition of G quadruplex structure per se is sufficient for high affinity binding to RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, Medhavi; Menon, Lakshmi; Mihailescu, Mihaela-Rita

    2008-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation is caused by the expansion of a CGG trinucleotide repeat in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene. The abnormal expansion of the CGG repeat causes hypermethylation and subsequent silencing of the fmr1 gene, resulting in the loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP has been shown to use its arginine-glycine-glycine rich region (RGG box) to bind to messenger RNAs that form G quadruplex structures. Several studies reported that the G quadruplex RNA recognition alone is not sufficient for FMRP RGG box binding and that an additional stem and/or a G quadruplex-stem junction region may also be important in recognition. In this study we have used biophysical methods such as fluorescence, UV, CD and NMR spectroscopy to demonstrate that the recognition of the RNA G quadruplex structure per se, in the absence of a stem region, is sufficient for the FMRP high affinity and specific binding. These findings indicate that the presence of a stem structure in some of the FMRP G quadruplex forming mRNAs is not a requirement for protein recognition as previously believed, but rather for the proper formation of the correct RNA G quadruplex structure recognized by FMRP.

  17. A novel high-affinity sucrose transporter is required for virulence of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Wahl

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi cause massive yield losses and affect both quality and safety of food and feed produced from infected plants. The main objective of plant pathogenic fungi is to get access to the organic carbon sources of their carbon-autotrophic hosts. However, the chemical nature of the carbon source(s and the mode of uptake are largely unknown. Here, we present a novel, plasma membrane-localized sucrose transporter (Srt1 from the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis and its characterization as a fungal virulence factor. Srt1 has an unusually high substrate affinity, is absolutely sucrose specific, and allows the direct utilization of sucrose at the plant/fungal interface without extracellular hydrolysis and, thus, without the production of extracellular monosaccharides known to elicit plant immune responses. srt1 is expressed exclusively during infection, and its deletion strongly reduces fungal virulence. This emphasizes the central role of this protein both for efficient carbon supply and for avoidance of apoplastic signals potentially recognized by the host.

  18. Ectomycorrhiza-mediated repression of the high-affinity ammonium importer gene AmAMT2 in Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Anita; Weiss, Michael; Nehls, Uwe

    2007-02-01

    A main function of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between certain soil fungi and fine roots of woody plants, is the exchange of plant-derived carbohydrates for fungus-derived nutrients. As it is required in large amounts, nitrogen is of special interest. A gene (AmAMT2) coding for a putative fungal ammonium importer was identified in an EST project of functional Amanita muscaria/poplar ectomycorrhizas. Heterologous expression of the entire AmAMT2 coding region in yeast revealed the corresponding protein to be a high-affinity ammonium importer. In axenically grown Amanita hyphae AmAMT2 expression was strongly repressed by nitrogen, independent of whether the offered nitrogen source was transported by AmAMT2 or not. In functional ectomycorrhizas the AmAMT2 transcript level was further decreased in both hyphal networks (sheath and Hartig net), while extraradical hyphae revealed strong gene expression. Together our data suggest that (1) AmAMT2 expression is regulated by the endogenous nitrogen content of hyphae and (2) fungal hyphae in ectomycorrhizas are well supported with nitrogen even when the extraradical mycelium is nitrogen limited. As a consequence of AmAMT2 repression in mycorrhizas, ammonium can be suggested as a potential nitrogen source delivered by fungal hyphae in symbiosis.

  19. The high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) expression and function in airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhu, Naresh Singh; Gounni, Abdelilah S

    2013-02-01

    The airway smooth muscle (ASM) is no longer considered as merely a contractile apparatus and passive recipient of growth factors, neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators signal but a critical player in the perpetuation and modulation of airway inflammation and remodeling. In recent years, a molecular link between ASM and IgE has been established through Fc epsilon receptors (FcεRs) in modulating the phenotype and function of these cells. Particularly, the expression of high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) has been noted in primary human ASM cells in vitro and in vivo within bronchial biopsies of allergic asthmatic subjects. The activation of FcεRI on ASM cells suggests a critical yet almost completely ignored network which may modulate ASM cell function in allergic asthma. This review is intended to provide a historical perspective of IgE effects on ASM and highlights the recent updates in the expression and function of FcεRI, and to present future perspectives of activation of this pathway in ASM cells.

  20. Cubilin, a High Affinity Receptor for Fibroblast Growth Factor 8, Is Required for Cell Survival in the Developing Vertebrate Head*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases, Olivier; Perea-Gomez, Aitana; Aguiar, Diego P.; Nykjaer, Anders; Amsellem, Sabine; Chandellier, Jacqueline; Umbhauer, Muriel; Cereghini, Silvia; Madsen, Mette; Collignon, Jérôme; Verroust, Pierre; Riou, Jean-François; Creuzet, Sophie E.; Kozyraki, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Cubilin (Cubn) is a multiligand endocytic receptor critical for the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 and renal protein reabsorption. During mouse development, Cubn is expressed in both embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues, and Cubn gene inactivation results in early embryo lethality most likely due to the impairment of the function of extra-embryonic Cubn. Here, we focus on the developmental role of Cubn expressed in the embryonic head. We report that Cubn is a novel, interspecies-conserved Fgf receptor. Epiblast-specific inactivation of Cubn in the mouse embryo as well as Cubn silencing in the anterior head of frog or the cephalic neural crest of chick embryos show that Cubn is required during early somite stages to convey survival signals in the developing vertebrate head. Surface plasmon resonance analysis reveals that fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8), a key mediator of cell survival, migration, proliferation, and patterning in the developing head, is a high affinity ligand for Cubn. Cell uptake studies show that binding to Cubn is necessary for the phosphorylation of the Fgf signaling mediators MAPK and Smad1. Although Cubn may not form stable ternary complexes with Fgf receptors (FgfRs), it acts together with and/or is necessary for optimal FgfR activity. We propose that plasma membrane binding of Fgf8, and most likely of the Fgf8 family members Fgf17 and Fgf18, to Cubn improves Fgf ligand endocytosis and availability to FgfRs, thus modulating Fgf signaling activity. PMID:23592779

  1. Cubilin, a high affinity receptor for fibroblast growth factor 8, is required for cell survival in the developing vertebrate head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases, Olivier; Perea-Gomez, Aitana; Aguiar, Diego P; Nykjaer, Anders; Amsellem, Sabine; Chandellier, Jacqueline; Umbhauer, Muriel; Cereghini, Silvia; Madsen, Mette; Collignon, Jérôme; Verroust, Pierre; Riou, Jean-François; Creuzet, Sophie E; Kozyraki, Renata

    2013-06-07

    Cubilin (Cubn) is a multiligand endocytic receptor critical for the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 and renal protein reabsorption. During mouse development, Cubn is expressed in both embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues, and Cubn gene inactivation results in early embryo lethality most likely due to the impairment of the function of extra-embryonic Cubn. Here, we focus on the developmental role of Cubn expressed in the embryonic head. We report that Cubn is a novel, interspecies-conserved Fgf receptor. Epiblast-specific inactivation of Cubn in the mouse embryo as well as Cubn silencing in the anterior head of frog or the cephalic neural crest of chick embryos show that Cubn is required during early somite stages to convey survival signals in the developing vertebrate head. Surface plasmon resonance analysis reveals that fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8), a key mediator of cell survival, migration, proliferation, and patterning in the developing head, is a high affinity ligand for Cubn. Cell uptake studies show that binding to Cubn is necessary for the phosphorylation of the Fgf signaling mediators MAPK and Smad1. Although Cubn may not form stable ternary complexes with Fgf receptors (FgfRs), it acts together with and/or is necessary for optimal FgfR activity. We propose that plasma membrane binding of Fgf8, and most likely of the Fgf8 family members Fgf17 and Fgf18, to Cubn improves Fgf ligand endocytosis and availability to FgfRs, thus modulating Fgf signaling activity.

  2. The High Affinity IgE Receptor (FcεRI as a Target for Anti-allergic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of the effector cell activation via high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI is thought to be a straightforward strategy for suppressing the allergic reaction. Among the numerous methods to prevent the activation through FcεRI, three versions are described in this article. The first and second ideas involve inhibition of binding between FcεRI and IgE with a soluble form of the FceRI α chain and a humanized antibody directed against the a chain, respectively. Both of these paths involve suppression the histamine release from human peripheral blood basophils in vitro. They also inhibited the allergic reaction in vivo. The soluble α inhibited the anaphylactic reaction in rodents and the Fab fragments of the humanized anti-FcεRI α chain antibody suppressed the dermal response in rhesus monkeys. The third idea involves repression of FcεRI expression by suppressing the transcription of the genes encoding the subunits of FceRI. Although no plausible candidate molecule for actualizing this idea can be identified at present, further analyses of the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in the human FcεRI α and β chain genes will lead to the discovery of novel targets for developing anti-allergic agents.

  3. Regulation of the high-affinity copper transporter (hCtr1) expression by cisplatin and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zheng Dong; Long, Yan; Chen, Helen H W; Savaraj, Niramol; Kuo, Macus Tien

    2014-01-01

    Platinum-based antitumor agents have been the mainstay in cancer chemotherapy for many human malignancies. Drug resistance is an important obstacle to achieving the maximal therapeutic efficacy of these drugs. Understanding how platinum drugs enter cells is of great importance in improving therapeutic efficacy. It has been demonstrated that human high-affinity copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) is involved in transporting cisplatin into cells to elicit cytotoxic effects, although other mechanisms may exist. In this communication, we demonstrate that cisplatin transcriptionally induces the expression of hCtr1 in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Cisplatin functions as a competitor for hCtr1-mediated copper transport, resulting in reduced cellular copper levels and leading to upregulated expression of Sp1, which is a positive regulator for hCtr1 expression. Thus, regulation of hCtr1 expression by cisplatin is an integral part of the copper homeostasis regulation system. We also demonstrate that Ag(I) and Zn(II), which are known to suppress hCtr1-mediated copper transport, can also induce hCtr1/Sp1 expression. In contrast, Cd(II), another inhibitor of copper transport, downregulates hCtr1 expression by suppressing Sp1 expression. Collectively, our results demonstrate diverse mechanisms of regulating copper metabolism by these heavy metals.

  4. VNARs: An Ancient and Unique Repertoire of Molecules That Deliver Small, Soluble, Stable and High Affinity Binders of Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Barelle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available At 420 million years, the variable domain of New Antigen Receptors or VNARs are undoubtedly the oldest (and smallest antigen binding single domains identified in the vertebrate kingdom. Their role as an integral part of the adaptive immune system of sharks has been well established and has served to provide a greater understanding of the evolution of humoral immunity; their cellular components and processes as well as the underlying genetic organization and molecular control mechanisms. Intriguingly, unlike the variable domain of the camelid heavy chain antibodies or VHH, VNARs do not conform to all of the characteristic properties of classical antibodies with an ancestral origin that clearly distinguishes them from true immunoglobulin antibodies. However, this uniqueness of their origin only adds to their potential as next generation therapeutic biologics with their structural and functional attributes and commercial freedom all enhancing their profile and current success. In fact their small size, remarkable stability, molecular flexibility and solubility, together with their high affinity and selectivity for target, all reinforce the potential of these domains as drug candidates. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the existing basic biology of these unique domains, to highlight the drug-like properties of VNARs and describe current progress in their journey towards the clinic.

  5. The Bacillus subtilis EfeUOB transporter is essential for high-affinity acquisition of ferrous and ferric iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miethke, Marcus; Monteferrante, Carmine G; Marahiel, Mohamed A; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2013-10-01

    Efficient uptake of iron is of critical importance for growth and viability of microbial cells. Nevertheless, several mechanisms for iron uptake are not yet clearly defined. Here we report that the widely conserved transporter EfeUOB employs an unprecedented dual-mode mechanism for acquisition of ferrous (Fe[II]) and ferric (Fe[III]) iron in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We show that the binding protein EfeO and the permease EfeU form a minimal complex for ferric iron uptake. The third component EfeB is a hemoprotein that oxidizes ferrous iron to ferric iron for uptake by EfeUO. Accordingly, EfeB promotes growth under microaerobic conditions where ferrous iron is more abundant. Notably, EfeB also fulfills a vital role in cell envelope stress protection by eliminating reactive oxygen species that accumulate in the presence of ferrous iron. In conclusion, the EfeUOB system contributes to the high-affinity uptake of iron that is available in two different oxidation states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The endocytic receptor megalin binds the iron transporting neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin with high affinity and mediates its cellular uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Vibeke; Jacobsen, Christian; Strong, Roland K

    2005-01-01

    in delivering iron to cells during formation of the tubular epithelial cells of the primordial kidney. No cellular receptor for NGAL has been described. We show here that megalin, a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family expressed in polarized epithelia, binds NGAL with high affinity, as shown...

  7. Replacement of the Bryostatin A- and B-Pyran Rings With Phenyl Rings Leads to Loss of High Affinity Binding With PKC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark E; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E; Blumberg, Peter M; Keck, Gary E

    2016-10-19

    We describe a convergent synthesis of a bryostatin analogue in which the natural A- and B-ring pyrans have been replaced by phenyl rings. The new analogue exhibited PMA like behavior in cell assays, but failed to maintain high affinity binding for PKC, despite retaining an unaltered C-ring 'binding domain'.

  8. Soil carbon content and relative abundance of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria predict atmospheric H2 soil uptake activity better than soil microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khdhiri, Mondher; Hesse, Laura; Popa, Maria Elena; Quiza, Liliana; Lalonde, Isabelle; Meredith, Laura K.; Röckmann, Thomas; Constant, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Soil-atmosphere exchange of H2 is controlled by gas diffusion and the microbial production and oxidation activities in soil. Among these parameters, the H2 oxidation activity catalyzed by soil microorganisms harboring high affinity hydrogenase is the most difficult variable to parameterize because i

  9. High-affinity human leucocyte antigen class I binding variola-derived peptides induce CD4(+) T cell responses more than 30 years post-vaccinia virus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M.; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Lund, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    Interferon-gamma secreting T lymphocytes against pox virus-derived synthetic 9-mer peptides were tested by enzyme-linked immunospot in peripheral blood of individuals vaccinated with vaccinia virus more than 30 years ago. The peptides were characterized biochemically as high-affinity human...

  10. Isolation and partial characterization of gypsy moth BTR-270, an anionic brush border membrane glycoconjugate that binds Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with high affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; Jeremy L. Jenkins; Mi Kyong Lee; Donald H. Dean; Karen J. Garner

    2001-01-01

    BTR-270, a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) brush border membrane molecule that binds Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins with high affinity, was purified by preparative gel electrophoresis. Rabbit antibodies specific for the Bt toxin-binding molecule were raised. Attempts to label BTR-270 by protein-directed techniques were...

  11. A high-affinity, dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95 bivalently interacts with PDZ1-2 and protects against ischemic brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders*; Clausen, Bettina H; Møller, Magda;

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of the ternary protein complex of the synaptic scaffolding protein postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a potential strategy for treating ischemic brain damage, but high-affinity inhibitors...

  12. Rhodamine-labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)tropane analogues as high-affinity fluorescent probes for the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Joo Hwan; Zou, Mu-Fa; Adkins, Erika M

    2005-01-01

    Novel fluorescent ligands were synthesized to identify a high-affinity probe that would enable visualization of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in living cells. Fluorescent tags were extended from the N- or 2-position of 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)tropane, using an ethylamino lin...

  13. Entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein in high-performance affinity columns for drug-protein binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Cong; Jackson, Abby; Vargas-Badilla, John; Li, Rong; Rada, Giana; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Pfaunmiller, Erika; Hage, David S

    2016-05-15

    A slurry-based method was developed for the entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) for use in high-performance affinity chromatography to study drug interactions with this serum protein. Entrapment was achieved based on the physical containment of AGP in hydrazide-activated porous silica supports and by using mildly oxidized glycogen as a capping agent. The conditions needed for this process were examined and optimized. When this type of AGP column was used in binding studies, the association equilibrium constant (Ka) measured by frontal analysis at pH 7.4 and 37°C for carbamazepine with AGP was found to be 1.0 (±0.5)×10(5)M(-1), which agreed with a previously reported value of 1.0 (±0.1)×10(5)M(-1). Binding studies based on zonal elution were conducted for several other drugs with such columns, giving equilibrium constants that were consistent with literature values. An entrapped AGP column was also used in combination with a column containing entrapped HSA in a screening assay format to compare the binding of various drugs to AGP and HSA. These results also agreed with previous data that have been reported in literature for both of these proteins. The same entrapment method could be extended to other proteins and to the investigation of additional types of drug-protein interactions. Potential applications include the rapid quantitative analysis of biological interactions and the high-throughput screening of drug candidates for their binding to a given protein.

  14. Synthesis, Modelling, and Anticonvulsant Studies of New Quinazolines Showing Three Highly Active Compounds with Low Toxicity and High Affinity to the GABA-A Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mohamed F; Ihmaid, Saleh K; Ahmed, Hany E A; El-Adl, Khaled; Asiri, Ahmed M; Omar, Abdelsattar M

    2017-01-24

    Some novel fluorinated quinazolines (5a-j) were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity and their neurotoxicity. Structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their infrared (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) spectra, ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and elemental analysis (CHN). The anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by a subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure test, while neurotoxicity was evaluated by a rotorod test. The molecular docking was performed for all newly-synthesized compounds to assess their binding affinities to the GABA-A receptor in order to rationalize their anticonvulsant activities in a qualitative way. The data obtained from the molecular modeling was correlated with that obtained from the biological screening. These data showed considerable anticonvulsant activity for all newly-synthesized compounds. Compounds 5b, 5c, and 5d showed the highest binding affinities toward the GABA-A receptor, along with the highest anticonvulsant activities in experimental mice. These compounds also showed low neurotoxicity and low toxicity in the median lethal dose test compared to the reference drugs. A GABA enzymatic assay was performed for these highly active compounds to confirm the obtained results and explain the possible mechanism for anticonvulsant action. The most active compounds might be used as leads for future modification and optimization.

  15. Crystal structure of an affinity-matured prolactin complexed to its dimerized receptor reveals the topology of hormone binding site 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broutin, Isabelle; Jomain, Jean-Baptiste; Tallet, Estelle;

    2010-01-01

    We report the first crystal structure of a 1:2 hormone.receptor complex that involves prolactin (PRL) as the ligand, at 3.8-A resolution. Stable ternary complexes were obtained by generating affinity-matured PRL variants harboring an N-terminal tail from ovine placental lactogen, a closely relate...

  16. Anion-induced increases in the affinity of colcemid binding to tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, K; Bhattacharyya, B; Biswas, B B

    1984-08-01

    Colcemid binds tubulin rapidly and reversibly in contrast to colchicine which binds tubulin relatively slowly and essentially irreversibly. At 37 degrees C the association rate constant for colcemid binding is 1.88 X 10(6) M-1 h-1, about 10 times higher than that for colchicine; this is reflected in the activation energies for binding which are 51.4 kJ/mol for colcemid and 84.8 kJ/mol for colchicine. Scatchard analysis indicates two binding sites on tubulin having different affinities for colcemid. The high-affinity site (Ka = 0.7 X 10(5) M-1 at 37 degrees C) is sensitive to temperature and binds both colchicine and colcemid and hence they are mutually competitive inhibitors. The low-affinity site (Kb = 1.2 X 10(4) M-1) is rather insensitive to temperature and binds only colcemid. Like colchicine, 0.6 mol of colcemid are bound/mol of tubulin dimer (at the high-affinity site) and the reaction is entropy driven (163 J K-1 mol-1). Similar to colchicine, colcemid binding to tubulin is stimulated by certain anions (viz. sulfate and tartrate) but by a different mechanism. Colcemid binding affinity at the lower-affinity site of tubulin is increased in the presence of ammonium sulfate. Interestingly, the lower-affinity site on tubulin for colcemid, even when converted to higher affinity in presence of ammonium sulfate, is not recognized by colchicine. We conclude that tubulin possesses two binding sites, one of which specifically recognized the groups present on the B-ring of colchicine molecule and is effected by the ammonium sulfate, whereas the higher-affinity site, which could accommodate both colchicine and colcemid, possibly recognized the A and C ring of colchicine.

  17. Collagen-bound von Willebrand factor has reduced affinity for factor VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendetowicz, A V; Wise, R J; Gilbert, G E

    1999-04-30

    von Willebrand factor (vWf) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein that serves as a carrier for factor VIII in plasma. Although each vWf subunit displays a high affinity binding site for factor VIII in vitro, in plasma, only 2% of the vWf sites for factor VIII are occupied. We investigated whether interaction of plasma proteins with vWf or adhesion of vWf to collagen may alter the affinity or availability of factor VIII-binding sites on vWf. When vWf was immobilized on agarose-linked monoclonal antibody, factor VIII bound to vWf with high affinity, and neither the affinity nor binding site availability was influenced by the presence of 50% plasma. Therefore, plasma proteins do not alter the affinity or availability of factor VIII-binding sites. In contrast, when vWf was immobilized on agarose-linked collagen, its affinity for factor VIII was reduced 4-fold, with KD increasing from 0.9 to 3.8 nM. However, one factor VIII-binding site remained available on each vWf subunit. A comparable reduction in affinity for factor VIII was observed when vWf was a constituent of the subendothelial cell matrix and when it was bound to purified type VI collagen. In parallel with the decreased affinity for factor VIII, collagen-bound vWf displayed a 6-fold lower affinity for monoclonal antibody W5-6A, with an epitope composed of residues 78-96 within the factor VIII-binding motif of vWf. We conclude that collagen induces a conformational change within the factor VIII-binding motif of vWf that lowers the affinity for factor VIII.

  18. Monomeric TonB and the Ton box are required for the Formation of a High-Affinity Transporter-TonB Complex†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Daniel M.; Lukasik, Stephen M.; Sikora, Arthur; Mokdad, Audrey; Cafiso, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The energy-dependent uptake of trace nutrients by Gram-negative bacteria involves the coupling of an outer membrane transport protein to the transperiplasmic protein TonB. In the present study, a soluble construct of Escherichia coli TonB (residues 33–239) was used to determine the affinity of TonB to the outer membrane transporters BtuB, FecA and FhuA. Using fluorescence anisotropy, TonB(33–239) was found to bind with high-affinity (tens of nM) to both BtuB and FhuA; however, no high-affinity binding was observed to FecA. In BtuB, the high affinity binding of TonB(33–239) was eliminated by mutations in the Ton box, which yield transport-defective protein, or by the addition of a Colicin E3 fragment, which stabilizes the Ton box in a folded state. These results indicate that transport requires a high-affinity transporter-TonB interaction that is mediated by the Ton box. Characterization of TonB(33–239) using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) demonstrates that a significant population of TonB(33–239) exists as a dimer; moreover, interspin distances are in approximate agreement with interlocked dimers observed previously by crystallography for shorter TonB fragments. When bound to the outer membrane transporter, DEER shows that the TonB(33–239) dimer is converted to a monomeric form, suggesting that a dimer-monomer conversion takes place at the outer membrane during the TonB-dependent transport cycle. PMID:23517233

  19. Monomeric TonB and the Ton box are required for the formation of a high-affinity transporter-TonB complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Daniel M; Lukasik, Stephen M; Sikora, Arthur; Mokdad, Audrey; Cafiso, David S

    2013-04-16

    The energy-dependent uptake of trace nutrients by Gram-negative bacteria involves the coupling of an outer membrane transport protein to the transperiplasmic protein TonB. In this study, a soluble construct of Escherichia coli TonB (residues 33-239) was used to determine the affinity of TonB for outer membrane transporters BtuB, FecA, and FhuA. Using fluorescence anisotropy, TonB(33-239) was found to bind with high affinity (tens of nanomolar) to both BtuB and FhuA; however, no high-affinity binding to FecA was observed. In BtuB, the high-affinity binding of TonB(33-239) was eliminated by mutations in the Ton box, which yield transport-defective protein, or by the addition of a Colicin E3 fragment, which stabilizes the Ton box in a folded state. These results indicate that transport requires a high-affinity transporter-TonB interaction that is mediated by the Ton box. Characterization of TonB(33-239) using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) demonstrates that a significant population of TonB(33-239) exists as a dimer; moreover, interspin distances are in approximate agreement with interlocked dimers observed previously by crystallography for shorter TonB fragments. When the TonB(33-239) dimer is bound to the outer membrane transporter, DEER shows that the TonB(33-239) dimer is converted to a monomeric form, suggesting that a dimer-monomer conversion takes place at the outer membrane during the TonB-dependent transport cycle.

  20. Role of the human high-affinity copper transporter in copper homeostasis regulation and cisplatin sensitivity in cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Macus Tien; Fu, Siqing; Savaraj, Niramol; Chen, Helen H W

    2012-09-15

    The high-affinity copper transporter (Ctr1; SCLC31A1) plays an important role in regulating copper homeostasis because copper is an essential micronutrient and copper deficiency is detrimental to many important cellular functions, but excess copper is toxic. Recent research has revealed that human copper homeostasis is tightly controlled by interregulatory circuitry involving copper, Sp1, and human (hCtr1). This circuitry uses Sp1 transcription factor as a copper sensor in modulating hCtr1 expression, which in turn controls cellular copper and Sp1 levels in a 3-way mutual regulatory loop. Posttranslational regulation of hCtr1 expression by copper stresses has also been described in the literature. Because hCtr1 can also transport platinum drugs, this finding underscores the important role of hCtr1 in platinum-drug sensitivity in cancer chemotherapy. Consistent with this notion is the finding that elevated hCtr1 expression was associated with favorable treatment outcomes in cisplatin-based cancer chemotherapy. Moreover, cultured cell studies showed that elevated hCtr1 expression can be induced by depleting cellular copper levels, resulting in enhanced cisplatin uptake and its cell-killing activity. A phase I clinical trial using a combination of trientine (a copper chelator) and carboplatin has been carried out with encouraging results. This review discusses new insights into the role of hCtr1 in regulating copper homeostasis and explains how modulating cellular copper availability could influence treatment efficacy in platinum-based cancer chemotherapy through hCtr1 regulation.

  1. Plant High-Affinity Potassium (HKT Transporters Involved in Salinity Tolerance: Structural Insights to Probe Differences in Ion Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hrmova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available High-affinity Potassium Transporters (HKTs belong to an important class of integral membrane proteins (IMPs that facilitate cation transport across the plasma membranes of plant cells. Some members of the HKT protein family have been shown to be critical for salinity tolerance in commercially important crop species, particularly in grains, through exclusion of Na+ ions from sensitive shoot tissues in plants. However, given the number of different HKT proteins expressed in plants, it is likely that different members of this protein family perform in a range of functions. Plant breeders and biotechnologists have attempted to manipulate HKT gene expression through genetic engineering and more conventional plant breeding methods to improve the salinity tolerance of commercially important crop plants. Successful manipulation of a biological trait is more likely to be effective after a thorough understanding of how the trait, genes and proteins are interconnected at the whole plant level. This article examines the current structural and functional knowledge relating to plant HKTs and how their structural features may explain their transport selectivity. We also highlight specific areas where new knowledge of plant HKT transporters is needed. Our goal is to present how knowledge of the structure of HKT proteins is helpful in understanding their function and how this understanding can be an invaluable experimental tool. As such, we assert that accurate structural information of plant IMPs will greatly inform functional studies and will lead to a deeper understanding of plant nutrition, signalling and stress tolerance, all of which represent factors that can be manipulated to improve agricultural productivity.

  2. Plant High-Affinity Potassium (HKT) Transporters involved in salinity tolerance: structural insights to probe differences in ion selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Shane; Gilliham, Matthew; Hrmova, Maria

    2013-04-09

    High-affinity Potassium Transporters (HKTs) belong to an important class of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) that facilitate cation transport across the plasma membranes of plant cells. Some members of the HKT protein family have been shown to be critical for salinity tolerance in commercially important crop species, particularly in grains, through exclusion of Na+ ions from sensitive shoot tissues in plants. However, given the number of different HKT proteins expressed in plants, it is likely that different members of this protein family perform in a range of functions. Plant breeders and biotechnologists have attempted to manipulate HKT gene expression through genetic engineering and more conventional plant breeding methods to improve the salinity tolerance of commercially important crop plants. Successful manipulation of a biological trait is more likely to be effective after a thorough understanding of how the trait, genes and proteins are interconnected at the whole plant level. This article examines the current structural and functional knowledge relating to plant HKTs and how their structural features may explain their transport selectivity. We also highlight specific areas where new knowledge of plant HKT transporters is needed. Our goal is to present how knowledge of the structure of HKT proteins is helpful in understanding their function and how this understanding can be an invaluable experimental tool. As such, we assert that accurate structural information of plant IMPs will greatly inform functional studies and will lead to a deeper understanding of plant nutrition, signalling and stress tolerance, all of which represent factors that can be manipulated to improve agricultural productivity.

  3. Effect of repeated nicotine exposure on high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnadel, Elizabeth J; Hernandez, Caterina M; Gearhart, Debra A; Terry, Alvin V

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are often used as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to investigate the effects of hypertension on cognitive function. Further, they appear to have reduced numbers of central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and, therefore, may be useful to model certain aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia given that a decrease in nAChRs is thought to contribute to cognitive decline in these disorders. In the present study, based on reports that chronic nicotine exposure increases nAChRs in several mammalian models, we tested the hypothesis that repeated exposures to a relatively low dose of the alkaloid would ameliorate the receptor deficits in SHR. Thus, young-adult SHRs and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats were treated with either saline or nicotine twice a day for 14 days (total daily dose = 0.7 mg/kg nicotine base) and then sacrificed. Quantitative receptor autoradiography with [125I]-IPH, an epibatidine analog, revealed: (1) that high-affinity nAChRs were higher in saline-treated WKY (control) rats compared to saline-treated SHRs in 18 of the 19 brain region measured, although statistically different only in the mediodorsal thalamic nuclei, (2) that nicotine significantly increased nAChR binding in WKY rats in six brain areas including cortical regions and the anterior thalamic nucleus, (3) that there were no cases where nicotine significantly increased nAChR binding in SHRs. These results indicate that subjects deficient in nAChRs may be less sensitive to nAChR upregulation with nicotine than normal subjects and require higher doses or longer periods of exposure.

  4. Fatty acid and drug binding to a low-affinity component of human serum albumin, purified by affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Pedersen, A O; Honoré, B

    1992-01-01

    of two albumin components about 40% of the albumin having high affinity and about 60% having low affinity. By affinity chromatography we succeeded in purifying the low-affinity component from the mixture. The high-affinity component, however, could not be isolated. We further analyzed the fatty acid...

  5. Discovery of high affinity ligands for β2-adrenergic receptor through pharmacophore-based high-throughput virtual screening and docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakar, Ruya; Akten, Ebru Demet

    2014-09-01

    Novel high affinity compounds for human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) were searched among the clean drug-like subset of ZINC database consisting of 9,928,465 molecules that satisfy the Lipinski's rule of five. The screening protocol consisted of a high-throughput pharmacophore screening followed by an extensive amount of docking and rescoring. The pharmacophore model was composed of key features shared by all five inactive states of β2-AR in complex with inverse agonists and antagonists. To test the discriminatory power of the pharmacophore model, a small-scale screening was initially performed on a database consisting of 117 compounds of which 53 antagonists were taken as active inhibitors and 64 agonists as inactive inhibitors. Accordingly, 7.3% of the ZINC database subset (729,413 compounds) satisfied the pharmacophore requirements, along with 44 antagonists and 17 agonists. Afterwards, all these hit compounds were docked to the inactive apo form of the receptor using various docking and scoring protocols. Following each docking experiment, the best pose was further evaluated based on the existence of key residues for antagonist binding in its vicinity. After final evaluations based on the human intestinal absorption (HIA) and the blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration properties, 62 hit compounds have been clustered based on their structural similarity and as a result four scaffolds were revealed. Two of these scaffolds were also observed in three high affinity compounds with experimentally known Ki values. Moreover, novel chemical compounds with distinct structures have been determined as potential β2-AR drug candidates.

  6. Human metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 bind with high affinity and act as potent agonists at cannabinoid type-2 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekaran, Maheswari; Brents, Lisa K.; Franks, Lirit N. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Moran, Jeffery H. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Arkansas Department of Public Health, Public Health Laboratory, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Prather, Paul L., E-mail: pratherpaull@uams.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    K2 or Spice is an emerging drug of abuse that contains synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-018 and JWH-073. Recent reports indicate that monohydroxylated metabolites of JWH-018 and JWH-073 retain high affinity and activity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB{sub 1}Rs), potentially contributing to the enhanced toxicity of K2 compared to marijuana. Since the parent compounds also bind to cannabinoid type-2 receptors (CB{sub 2}Rs), this study investigated the affinity and intrinsic activity of JWH-018, JWH-073 and several monohydroxylated metabolites at human CB{sub 2}Rs (hCB{sub 2}Rs). The affinity of cannabinoids for hCB{sub 2}Rs was determined by competition binding studies employing CHO-hCB{sub 2} membranes. Intrinsic activity of compounds was assessed by G-protein activation and adenylyl cyclase (AC)-inhibition in CHO-hCB{sub 2} cells. JWH-073, JWH-018 and several of their human metabolites exhibit nanomolar affinity and act as potent agonists at hCB{sub 2}Rs. Furthermore, a major omega hydroxyl metabolite of JWH-073 (JWH-073-M5) binds to CB{sub 2}Rs with 10-fold less affinity than the parent molecule, but unexpectedly, is equipotent in regulating AC-activity when compared to the parent molecule. Finally, when compared to CP-55,940 and Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ{sup 9}-THC), JWH-018, JWH-018-M5 and JWH-073-M5 require significantly less CB{sub 2}R occupancy to produce similar levels of AC-inhibition, indicating that these compounds may more efficiently couple CB{sub 2}Rs to AC than the well characterized cannabinoid agonists examined. These results indicate that JWH-018, JWH-073 and several major human metabolites of these compounds exhibit high affinity and demonstrate distinctive signaling properties at CB{sub 2}Rs. Therefore, future studies examining pharmacological and toxicological properties of synthetic cannabinoids present in K2 products should consider potential actions of these drugs at both CB{sub 1} and CB{sub 2}Rs. - Highlights: • JWH-018

  7. Kinetic Characterization of a Panel of High-Affinity Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Ricin and Recombinant Re-Formatting for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cummins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a potent glycoprotein toxin that is structurally composed of two subunits joined via a disulfide bond: a ~30 kDa subunit A (RTA and a ~32 kDa subunit B (RTB. There are fears of ricin being used as a weapon for warfare and terrorism and, as such, there is an increasing need for the development of immunodiagnostic reagents targeted towards this toxin. This article describes the production and characterization of a panel of six ricin-specific monoclonal IgG antibodies (mAbs, previously selected based upon their ability to inhibit ricin-mediated killing of cultured cells. Subsequent epitope binding analysis using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR array biosensor (ProteOn XPR36 indicated three distinct, non-competitive binding epitopes (“bins”. The association (ka and dissociation (kd rate constants and binding affinities (KD of each of the mAbs to ricin were also determined by SPR using Biacore T100 instrument. Affinities (KD ranged from 0.1 nM to 9 nM. We present the coding sequences of the variable domains of the six mAbs, the expression, kinetic and cytotoxicity assays for two recombinant Fab (rFab fragments and demonstrate a rFab affinity improvement by chain-shuffling. Together, these antibodies and constituent rFabs represent a panel of reagents for high-affinity recognition of ricin with potential national security biosensor applications.

  8. A novel rabbit immunospot array assay on a chip allows for the rapid generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies with high affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Ozawa

    Full Text Available Antigen-specific rabbit monoclonal antibodies (RaMoAbs are useful due to their high specificity and high affinity, and the establishment of a comprehensive and rapid RaMoAb generation system has been highly anticipated. Here, we present a novel system using immunospot array assay on a chip (ISAAC technology in which we detect and retrieve antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of antigen-immunized rabbits and produce antigen-specific RaMoAbs with 10(-12 M affinity within a time period of only 7 days. We have used this system to efficiently generate RaMoAbs that are specific to a phosphorylated signal-transducing molecule. Our system provides a new method for the comprehensive and rapid production of RaMoAbs, which may contribute to laboratory research and clinical applications.

  9. Hepatotoxicity of high affinity gapmer antisense oligonucleotides is mediated by RNase H1 dependent promiscuous reduction of very long pre-mRNA transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burel, Sebastien A; Hart, Christopher E; Cauntay, Patrick; Hsiao, Jill; Machemer, Todd; Katz, Melanie; Watt, Andy; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Younis, Husam; Sabripour, Mahyar; Freier, Susan M; Hung, Gene; Dan, Amy; Prakash, T P; Seth, Punit P; Swayze, Eric E; Bennett, C Frank; Crooke, Stanley T; Henry, Scott P

    2016-03-18

    High affinity antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) containing bicylic modifications (BNA) such as locked nucleic acid (LNA) designed to induce target RNA cleavage have been shown to have enhanced potency along with a higher propensity to cause hepatotoxicity. In order to understand the mechanism of this hepatotoxicity, transcriptional profiles were collected from the livers of mice treated with a panel of highly efficacious hepatotoxic or non-hepatotoxic LNA ASOs. We observed highly selective transcript knockdown in mice treated with non-hepatotoxic LNA ASOs, while the levels of many unintended transcripts were reduced in mice treated with hepatotoxic LNA ASOs. This transcriptional signature was concurrent with on-target RNA reduction and preceded transaminitis. Remarkably, the mRNA transcripts commonly reduced by toxic LNA ASOs were generally not strongly associated with any particular biological process, cellular component or functional group. However, they tended to have much longer pre-mRNA transcripts. We also demonstrate that the off-target RNA knockdown and hepatotoxicity is attenuated by RNase H1 knockdown, and that this effect can be generalized to high affinity modifications beyond LNA. This suggests that for a certain set of ASOs containing high affinity modifications such as LNA, hepatotoxicity can occur as a result of unintended off-target RNase H1 dependent RNA degradation. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Comparison of MAPK specificity across the ETS transcription factor family identifies a high-affinity ERK interaction required for ERG function in prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Nagarathinam; Kedage, Vivekananda; Hollenhorst, Peter C

    2015-02-19

    The RAS/MAPK signaling pathway can regulate gene expression by phosphorylating and altering the function of some, but not all, ETS transcription factors. ETS family transcription factors bind similar DNA sequences and can compete for genomic binding sites. However, MAPK regulation varies across the ETS family. Therefore, changing the ETS factor bound to a cis-regulatory element can alter MAPK regulation of gene expression. To understand RAS/MAPK regulated gene expression programs, comprehensive knowledge of the ETS family members that are MAPK targets and relative MAPK targeting efficiency across the family is needed. An in vitro kinase assay was used to rank-order 27 human ETS family transcription factors based on phosphorylation by ERK2, JNK1, and p38α. Many novel MAPK targets and specificities were identified within the ETS family, including the identification of the prostate cancer oncoprotein ERG as a specific target of ERK2. ERK2 phosphorylation of ERG S215 required a DEF docking domain and was necessary for ERG to activate transcription of cell migration genes and promote prostate cell migration. The ability of ERK2 to bind ERG with higher affinity than ETS1 provided a potential molecular explanation for why ERG overexpression drives migration of prostate cells with low levels of RAS/ERK signaling, while ETS1 has a similar function only when RAS/ERK signaling is high. The rank ordering of ETS transcription factors as MAPK targets provides an important resource for understanding ETS proteins as mediators of MAPK signaling. This is emphasized by the difference in rank order of ERG and ETS1, which allows these factors to have distinct roles based on the level of RAS/ERK signaling present in the cell.

  11. Development of a high-affinity peptide that prevents phospholemman (PLM) inhibition of the sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Hodne, Kjetil; Hafver, Tandekile Lubelwana; Lunde, Marianne; Martinsen, Marita; Louch, William Edward; Sejersted, Ole Mathias; Carlson, Cathrine Rein

    2016-08-01

    NCX1 (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) and a potential therapeutic target for brain ischaemia and for diastolic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. PLM (phospholemman), a substrate for protein kinases A and C, has been suggested to regulate NCX1 activity. However, although several studies have demonstrated that binding of phosphorylated PLM (pSer(68)-PLM) leads to NCX1 inhibition, other studies have failed to demonstrate a functional interaction of these proteins. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the biological function of the pSer(68)-PLM-NCX1 interaction by developing high-affinity blocking peptides. PLM was observed to co-fractionate and co-immunoprecipitate with NCX1 in rat left ventricle, and in co-transfected HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. For the first time, the NCX1-PLM interaction was also demonstrated in the brain. PLM binding sites on NCX1 were mapped to two regions by peptide array assays, containing the previously reported PASKT and QKHPD motifs. Conversely, the two NCX1 regions bound identical sequences in the cytoplasmic domain of PLM, suggesting that NCX1-PASKT and NCX1-QKHPD might bind to each PLM monomer. Using two-dimensional peptide arrays of the native NCX1 sequence KHPDKEIEQLIELANYQVLS revealed that double substitution of tyrosine for positions 1 and 4 (K1Y and D4Y) enhanced pSer(68)-PLM binding 8-fold. The optimized peptide blocked binding of NCX1-PASKT and NCX1-QKHPD to PLM and reversed PLM(S68D) inhibition of NCX1 activity (both forward and reverse mode) in HEK-293 cells. Altogether our data indicate that PLM interacts directly with NCX1 and inhibits NCX1 activity when phosphorylated at Ser(68).

  12. Fc-epsilon-RI, the high affinity IgE-receptor, is robustly expressed in the upper gastrointestinal tract and modulated by mucosal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bannert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in IgE-mediated immune responses of the gastrointestinal (GI mucosa is poorly understood. Currently, a detailed characterization of FcεRI expression throughout the human gut is lacking. The aim of this study was to define the expression pattern of FcεRI in the GI tract. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared FcεRI expression in children with gastritis/esophagitis (n = 10, celiac disease (n = 10, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (n = 9, and normal mucosa (n = 5. The α-subunit of FcεRI (FcεRIα, detected by immunohistochemistry, was found on cells infiltrating the mucosa of the esophagus, the stomach, and the duodenum, but was rarely detected in more distal sections of the GI tract. Accordingly, quantitative RT-PCR analysis on esophagus, stomach, duodenum, colon, and rectum biopsies revealed that FcεRIα and -β expression levels decreased towards the distal intestine. mRNA transcripts of the common Fc-receptor-γ chain were present in the entire GI mucosa. Double-immunofluorescence staining of esophageal specimens confirmed that FcεRIα was expressed on intraepithelial mast cells and Langerhans cells. The mRNA expression levels of the α, β, and γ subunits of FcεRI did not correlate with total serum IgE but were associated with mucosal inflammation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data define the upper GI tract as the main site for IgE-mediated immune activation via FcεRI. Tissue mRNA levels of FcεRIα are regulated by inflammatory conditions rather than serum IgE, indicating that FcεRI might also play a role in pathologies other than allergy.

  13. Distance and affinity dependence of triplex-induced recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauert, Melissa P; Lloyd, Janice A; Rogers, Faye A; Datta, Hirock J; Bennett, Michael L; Weeks, Daniel L; Glazer, Peter M

    2005-03-15

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) have the potential to serve as gene therapeutic agents on the basis of their ability to mediate site-specific genome modification via induced recombination. However, high-affinity triplex formation is limited to polypurine/polypyrimidine sites in duplex DNA. Because of this sequence restriction, careful analysis is needed to identify suitable TFO target sites within or near genes of interest. We report here an examination of two key parameters which influence the efficiency of TFO-induced recombination: (1) binding affinity of the TFO for the target site and (2) the distance between the target site and the mutation to be corrected. To test the influence of binding affinity, we compared induced recombination in human cell-free extracts by a series of G-rich oligonucleotides with an identical base composition and an increasing number of mismatches in the third strand binding code. As the number of mismatches increased and, therefore, binding affinity decreased, induced recombination frequency also dropped. There was an apparent threshold at an equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) of 1 x 10(-)(7) M. In addition, TFO chemical modification with N,N-diethylethylenediamine (DEED) internucleoside linkages to confer improved binding was found to yield increased levels of induced recombination. To test the ability of triplex formation to induce recombination at a distance, episomal targets with informative reporter genes were constructed to contain polypurine TFO target sites at varying distances from the mutations to be corrected. TFO-induced recombination in mammalian cells between a plasmid vector and a donor oligonucleotide was detected at distances ranging from 24 to 750 bp. Together, these results indicate that TFO-induced recombination requires high-affinity binding but can affect sites hundreds of base pairs away from the position of triplex formation.

  14. Structures of the Ultra-High-Affinity Protein-Protein Complexes of Pyocins S2 and AP41 and Their Cognate Immunity Proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amar; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Chen, Sabrina; Wojdyla, Justyna A; Lowe, Edward D; Kaminska, Renata; Sharp, Connor; McCa