WorldWideScience

Sample records for high adventure outdoor

  1. Outdoor Adventure Programs Fulfilling Heroic Archetypal Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Johnny

    The experiences found in adventure programs often parallel the archetypes depicted in mythological quests. Drawing on the work of Joseph Campbell, the stages and trials of adventure participants are compared to similar rites of passage and epic adventures experienced by heroes and heroines in epic literature and mythology. The basic pattern of…

  2. Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kaye

    1999-01-01

    A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)

  3. Psychological implications of outdoor adventure model of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a synthetic analysis of the Outdoor Adventure Education model in the context of three elementary components: the environment – in relation to the theory of space from the perspective of sociological and pedagogical theory of space; personal perspective and growth as well as social development – in relation to psychological phenomena that accompany the individual and group involved in the process of Outdoor Adventure Education. The aim is to present how these processes determine the effects of education and what personalities’ elements are involved.

  4. Fostering Experiential Self-Regulation through Outdoor Adventure Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Collins, Rachel; Rathunde, Kevin; Paisley, Karen; Schumann, Scott; Pohja, Mandy; Gookin, John; Baynes, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Learners thrive when they have the capacity to regulate interest and goal direction. Through direct experiences that are interesting and goal-relevant, learners can internalize and better understand their own agency in the learning process. This article further examines this premise in an outdoor adventure education (OAE) context through two…

  5. A Socio-Environmental Case for Skill in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…

  6. Understanding Groups in Outdoor Adventure Education through Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…

  7. A Socio-Environmental Case for Skill in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…

  8. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  9. Fostering Experiential Self-Regulation through Outdoor Adventure Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Collins, Rachel; Rathunde, Kevin; Paisley, Karen; Schumann, Scott; Pohja, Mandy; Gookin, John; Baynes, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Learners thrive when they have the capacity to regulate interest and goal direction. Through direct experiences that are interesting and goal-relevant, learners can internalize and better understand their own agency in the learning process. This article further examines this premise in an outdoor adventure education (OAE) context through two…

  10. The Social System in Outdoor Adventure Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Jostad, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the social system interact with one another to produce group-level behavior that determines the functionality of the small group in outdoor adventure education (OAE). This article synthesizes the contemporary literature and theory regarding eight aspects of the OAE social system: (a) Macro Contextual Factors, (b) Student…

  11. Basic Therapeutic Communication: Theoretical and Practical Information for Outdoor Adventure Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Smith, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    Uses the scenario of a women's adventure therapy trip to illustrate theoretical and practical information about "basic" therapeutic communication skills with participants in outdoor adventure settings. Discusses gender-based language style (women's "tentative" language), issues of physical and emotional safety, a philosophical rationale for…

  12. Outdoor Adventure Risk Management: Curriculum Design Principles from Industry and Educational Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nevin; Robinson, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Leaders working in the outdoor adventure field are faced with making critical decisions that keep students, clients, or customers safe from the perils of risk-related activities while enabling them to benefit from these experiences. The knowledge and competency necessary to analyze and manage risk is integral to those providing outdoor adventure…

  13. Can Communitas Explain How Young People Achieve Identity Development in Outdoor Adventure in Light of Contemporary Individualised Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    In contemporary life, young people's identity development is a popular topic for investigation. This includes better understanding their development and their participation in outdoor adventure. From ancient times to modern days, literature conveys the benefits of outdoor adventure on their identity development and more recently there is a growing…

  14. Using Outdoor Adventure Education to Develop Students' Groupwork Skills: A Quantitative Exploration of Reaction and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sam J.; Burns, Victoria E.; Cumming, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the initial development of groupwork skills through outdoor adventure education (OAE) and the factors that predict the extent of this development, using the first two levels of Kirkpatrick's model of training evaluation. University students (N = 238) completed questionnaires measuring their initial reactions to OAE (Level 1…

  15. Reflections about Outdoor Adventure Sports and Professional Competencies of Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Alcyane; dos Santos, Priscila Mari; Manfroi, Miraíra Noal; de Paula Figueiredo, Juliana; Brasil, Vinicius Zeilmann

    2017-01-01

    Universities have been entrusted with the task of qualifying professionals for their future practice. In light of this, the present study analysed the competencies perceived by 80 physical education students of a public university in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, enrolled in the subject Outdoor Adventure Sports. An exploratory descriptive…

  16. New Perspectives for Teaching Physical Education: Preservice Teachers' Reflections on Outdoor and Adventure Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timken, Gay L.; McNamee, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gauge preservice physical education teachers' perspectives during one physical activity pedagogy course, teaching outdoor and adventure education. Teacher belief, occupational socialization and experiential learning theories overlaid this work. Over three years 57 students (37 males; 20 females) participated in the…

  17. Dangerous Liaisons: Exploring Employer Engagement Relationships in Vocational Undergraduate Adventure and Outdoor Management Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Lynsey

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the aspects of employer engagement in higher education (HE). The vocational field of the adventure and outdoor industry provides the context, with associated undergraduate degrees offering contemporary "real-world" provision, underpinned by values of inclusivity and widening participation--an approach that addresses…

  18. Adventure Therapy with Girls At-Risk: Responses to Outdoor Experiential Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autry, Cari E.

    2001-01-01

    Explored the feelings, attitudes, and perceptions of at- risk adolescent girls from a psychiatric rehabilitation facility following their participation in adventure therapy that involved outdoor experiential activities. Interview data indicated that participants found positive meaning within various activities. The resulting themes were…

  19. Gender Matters: Exploring the Process of Developing Resilience through Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Jillisa R.; Ewert, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This two-phase study investigates the process of developing resilience through participation in outdoor adventure programming. In this study, resilience is conceptualized as experiencing growth through a disruptive event. In the first phase, a pre-post survey measure was used to assess resilience in university students who were enrolled in a…

  20. Reflections about Outdoor Adventure Sports and Professional Competencies of Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Alcyane; dos Santos, Priscila Mari; Manfroi, Miraíra Noal; de Paula Figueiredo, Juliana; Brasil, Vinicius Zeilmann

    2017-01-01

    Universities have been entrusted with the task of qualifying professionals for their future practice. In light of this, the present study analysed the competencies perceived by 80 physical education students of a public university in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, enrolled in the subject Outdoor Adventure Sports. An exploratory descriptive…

  1. "The Mirror of the Sea": Narrative Identity, Sea Kayak Adventuring and Implications for Outdoor Adventure Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Beau; Wattchow, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the complex and changing nature of adventure as a form of cultural practice. Borrowing from Joseph Conrad's memoirs "The Mirror of The Sea" (1907), sea kayaking is contextualized here as a journey that takes place just as much between "landfall and departure" as it does between the paddler's ears (i.e., in…

  2. Locating opportunities for outdoor action and adventure recreation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research overviews spatial recreation and tourism development policy, marketing and express outdoor recreationist and tourist preferences that translate into spatial suitability indicators or attraction features captured in a spatial resource ...

  3. Turismo Activo y Outdoor Training: Metodología. (Adventure Sport Tourism and Outdoor Training: Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gómez Encinas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.

  4. Investigating the Experience of Outdoor and Adventurous Project Work in an Educational Setting Using a Self-Determination Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, John; Martindale, Russell; Wang, John; Allison, Peter; Nash, Christine; Gray, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out a preliminary investigation to explore the use of outdoor and adventurous project work (PW) within an educational setting. Specifically, differences between the PW and normal academic school experiences were examined using a self-determination theory framework integrated with a goal orientation and…

  5. Outdoor Adventure Education: Applying Transformative Learning Theory to Understanding Instrumental Learning and Personal Growth in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Laura Galen; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of the experiences of 23 Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) participants to determine what participants found significant about their course and to what course elements they attributed this significance. Participants experienced personal transformations, which they attributed to spending extended time in pristine…

  6. Responses to November's Conference on Risk and Adventure in Society: "A Question of Balance," Which Drew Over 350 Delegates from All Areas of Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manby, Dave; Egelstaff, Robert; Loynes, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Three British outdoor educators point out that the push to license the outdoor industry now means that paper qualifications are favored over experience, thus increasing risk; argue that riskless adventure is impossible and pointless; and suggest returning to the real outdoors, rather than attempting to develop watered-down, imitation adventure…

  7. Adventure tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løseth, Kristin

    In a rapidly changing tourism industry, the international competition is strong and the well-travelled tourists have high expectations. This has led to an increasing emphasis on the development of new services and experiences to attract tourists’ attention. Innovation has become a “buzz-word”, seen...... innovation, and draws on perspectives from economic geography and evolutionary theories of industry development. In addition sociological theories of leisure are included to explore how the close relations between adventure tourism and certain outdoor recreation milieus may benefit knowledge development...

  8. Introducing the Use of a Semi-Structured Video Diary Room to Investigate Students' Learning Experiences during an Outdoor Adventure Education Groupwork Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sam J.; Holland, Mark J.; Cumming, Jennifer; Novakovic, Emily G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education courses are used in higher education to develop transferable skills such as groupwork and problem-solving skills. There is a need for exploratory investigation into students' perceptions of this experience. This study aimed to develop an innovative qualitative data collection method, and to use it to explore…

  9. Adventures in Creating an Outdoor Leadership Challenge Course for an Emba Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, William

    2005-01-01

    This article documents the evolution of an outdoor-based experiential leadership training event within an Executive MBA (EMBA) program. The purpose of this article is to encourage other EMBA faculty and directors to consider adding a similar event to their leadership development initiatives and to learn from our experiences. After 3 years of…

  10. Integration of professional judgement and decision-making in high-level adventure sports coaching practice

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, L; Collins, D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the integration of professional judgement and decision-making processes in adventure sports coaching. The study utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of high-level adventure sports coaches over a series of sessions. Results revealed that, in order to make judgements and decisions in practice, expert coaches employ a range of practical and pedagogic management strategies to create and opportunistically use time for de...

  11. Professional judgement and decision-making in the planning process of high-level adventure sports coaching practice

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, L; Collins, D.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the planning and decision-making processes in adventure sports coaching. We utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the planning decision-making practices of a sample of high-level adventure sports coaches over a series of sessions. The investigation discovered that, in planning coaching activity, high-level adventure sports coaches draw on their epistemological values and domain-specific expertise, employ a synergy of classic and naturalistic decision...

  12. The foci of in-action professional judgement and decision-making in high-level adventure sports coaching practice

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, L; Collins, D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper continues a theme of previous investigations by the authors and examined the focus of in-action reflection as a component of professional judgement and decision making (PJDM) processes in high level adventure sports coaching. We utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of high level adventure sports coaches over a series of sessions. It was discovered that adventure sports coaches utilise a combination of questioning and observa...

  13. Conceptualizing the adventure-sports coach

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, L; Collins, D.

    2012-01-01

    As a comparatively recent development, the adventure-sports coach struggles for a clear and distinct identity. The generic term ‘instructor’ no longer characterizes the role and function of this subgroup of outdoor professionals. Indeed, although the fields of adventure/outdoor education and leadership are comparatively well researched, the arrival of this ‘new kid on the block’ appears to challenge both the adventure-sports old guard and traditional views of sports coaching. In an attempt to...

  14. Integration of professional judgement and decision-making in high-level adventure sports coaching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the integration of professional judgement and decision-making processes in adventure sports coaching. The study utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of high-level adventure sports coaches over a series of sessions. Results revealed that, in order to make judgements and decisions in practice, expert coaches employ a range of practical and pedagogic management strategies to create and opportunistically use time for decision-making. These approaches include span of control and time management strategies to facilitate the decision-making process regarding risk management, venue selection, aims, objectives, session content, and differentiation of the coaching process. The implication for coaches, coach education, and accreditation is the recognition and training of the approaches that "create time" for the judgements in practice, namely "creating space to think". The paper concludes by offering a template for a more expertise-focused progression in adventure sports coaching.

  15. Toward an Ecological Paradigm in Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2004-01-01

    Many forms of adventure therapy, in particular wilderness therapy, rely on challenges in the outdoors to achieve objectives of client change. While nature is drawn on as a medium for therapy and healing, some adventure therapists give nature little if any mention when it comes to explaining therapeutic success. The dominant paradigm in psychology…

  16. High-rise Buildings versus Outdoor Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-sha Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of the over quick urbanization sinceChongqing, one of the biggest cities in China, has been a municipality directly under theCentral Government in 1997, excessive development and exceeding increase of high-risebuildings because of its special geographical position which finally leads to the worseningof the urban outdoor thermal environment. Then, this paper makes a bright balance to thefield measurement and simulated results of the wind speed field, temperature field of onemultifunctional high-rise building in Chongqing university located in the city center, andthe contrasted results validate the correctness of CFD in the outdoor thermal environmentalsimulation, expose the disadvantages of high-rise buildings on the aspects of blocking thewind field, decreasing wind speed which results in accumulation of the air-conditioningheat revolving around and periscian region where sunshine can not rip into. Finally, inorder to improve the urban outdoor thermal environment near the high-rise buildingsespecially for the angle of natural ventilation, this paper simulates the wind environment indifferent architectural compositions and architectural layouts by CFD, and the simulatedresults show that freestyle and tower buildings which can guarantee the wind speed andtake the air-conditioning heat away are much suitable and reasonable for the specialChongqing geography. These conclusions can also be used as a reference in othermountain cities, especially for the one with a great number of populations.

  17. A Case Study Examining the Impact of Adventure Based Counseling on High School Adolescent Self-Esteem, Empathy, and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of Adventure Based Counseling upon high school adolescents. The goals of this study were to (a) explore the effectiveness of ABC Counseling in increasing levels of self-esteem and empathy among adolescents; (b) study the efficacy of ABC counseling in reducing perceived racial discrimination, racist…

  18. A Case Study Examining the Impact of Adventure Based Counseling on High School Adolescent Self-Esteem, Empathy, and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of Adventure Based Counseling upon high school adolescents. The goals of this study were to (a) explore the effectiveness of ABC Counseling in increasing levels of self-esteem and empathy among adolescents; (b) study the efficacy of ABC counseling in reducing perceived racial discrimination, racist…

  19. Inclusive adventure by design: The development of opportunities in outdoor sport for disabled people through co-ordinated people centred research and development in design and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Jeremy Suresh

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Structured to help readers from a range of disciplines, the thesis looks at the creation of opportunities for participation in adventure sport, specifically the development of a postural support for intermediate level performers with spinal cord injury in sea kayaking. The research has shown that it is possible to increase the performance level of disabled athletes in paddle sport throu...

  20. Brain Resilience: Shedding Light into the Black Box of Adventure Procesess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Hind, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the active beneficial processes of adventure learning remains elusive. Resilience may provide one foundation for understanding the positive adaptation derived from Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) and Adventure Therapy (AT) programming. From a neurological perspective, resilience may be explained by the brain's innate capability…

  1. Reviewing and Benchmarking Adventure Therapy Outcomes: Applications of Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, James T.

    2003-01-01

    Findings from meta-analyses of outdoor education, psychotherapy, and educational innovations are presented to help determine the relative efficacy of adventure therapy programs. While adventure therapy effects are stronger than those of outdoor education, they are not nearly as strong as those of individual psychotherapy. Benchmarks are derived…

  2. Effects of a Developmental Adventure on the Self-Esteem of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Linda; Brassard, Audrey; Guérin, Audrey; Fortin-Chevalier, Justine; Tanguay-Beaudoin, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of outdoor developmental adventure programming (ODA) on college students' self-esteem. Although some previous studies have shown that outdoor adventure programming has positive effects on self-esteem, others did not find any effect. A quasi-experimental study was conducted over 5 months, which included two pretests…

  3. Effects of a Developmental Adventure on the Self-Esteem of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Linda; Brassard, Audrey; Guérin, Audrey; Fortin-Chevalier, Justine; Tanguay-Beaudoin, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of outdoor developmental adventure programming (ODA) on college students' self-esteem. Although some previous studies have shown that outdoor adventure programming has positive effects on self-esteem, others did not find any effect. A quasi-experimental study was conducted over 5 months, which included two pretests…

  4. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure.

  5. Data Adventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A B Barros, Gabriella; Liapis, Antonios; Togelius, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a system for generating adventure games based on open data, and describes a sketch of the system im- plementation at its current state. The adventure game genre has been popular for a long time and diers signicantly in design priorities from game genres which are commonly ad......- dressed in PCG research. In order to create believable and engaging content, we use data from DBpedia to generate the game's non-playable characters locations and plot, and OpenStreetMaps to create the game's levels...

  6. Sensation seeking in outdoor pursuits: similarities and differences in discourses on radical sports and adventure tourism / Da exacerbação dos sentidos no encontro com a natureza: contrastando esportes radicais e turismo de aventura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane P. Spink

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a contribution to the understanding of risk-adventure as the set of practices that recuperate the positive dimension of risk. Based on a review of the literature and on the theoretical approach of Constructionist Discursive Psychology, it proposes a model for the analysis of the dimensions of risk adventure present in adventure tourism and radical sports: risk/danger, adrenaline, adventure, training, use of equipments and relationship to nature. The data, derived from the site of a tourism agency that specialized in adventure tourism and an interview with a paraglide practitioner, was analyzed using "trees of association of ideas" and "dialogical maps". All the elements of the model were present in both modalities of risk-adventure. However, adventure tourism was characterized by the delegation of responsibility to specialists, whilst the training/experience dimension made itself more present in radical sports, along with greater emphasis on individual responsibility in the control of risks.

  7. Communicating climate science to high school students in the Arctic: Adventure Learning @ Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougham, R. J.; Miller, B.; Cox, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Adventure Learning @ Greenland (AL@GL) engaged high school students in atmospheric research in the Arctic and in local environments to enhance climate literacy. The overarching objective for this project was to support climate literacy in high school students, specifically the concept of energy exchange between the Earth, atmosphere, and space. The goal then is to produce a model of education and outreach for remote STEM research that can be used to meaningfully engage K-12 and public communities. Over the course of the program experience, students conducted scientific inquiry associated with their place that supported a more focused science content at a field location. Approximately 45 students participated in the hybrid learning environments as part of this project at multiple locations in Idaho, USA, and Greenland. In Greenland, the Summit Camp research station located on the Greenland Ice Sheet was the primary location. The AL@GL project provided a compelling opportunity to engage students in an inquiry-based curriculum alongside a cutting-edge geophysical experiment at Summit: the Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) experiment. ICECAPS measures parameters that are closely tied to those identified in student misconceptions. Thus, ICECAPS science and the AL@ approach combined to create a learning environment that was practical, rich, and engaging. Students participating in this project were diverse, rural, and traditionally underrepresented. Groups included: students participating in a field school at Kangerlussuaq, Greenland and Summit Station as members of the JSEP; students at MOSS will were part of the Upward Bound Math Science (UBMS) and HOIST (Helping Orient Indian Students and Teachers) project. These project serve high school students who are first college generation and from low-income families. JSEP is an international group of students from the United States, Greenland, and Denmark

  8. Musings on Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Antonio G.; Stauffer, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques various definitions of adventure therapy, then suggests that adventure therapy is any intentional, facilitated use of adventure tools and techniques to guide personal change toward desired therapeutic goals. Reflects on the nature of adventure therapy through a discussion of the application of this definition and its implications for…

  9. Certification of Adventure Program Leaders--A Future Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakofs, Mitchell S.

    1979-01-01

    Defining "high risk" and "adventure" programs, this article discusses the more prominent issues of the controversy surrounding the growing demand for certification of adventure education program leaders. (Author/SB)

  10. Adventure Racing for the Rest of Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Marta K.; English, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Adventure racing got started in the 1990s. The Eco-Challenge and Primal Quest races were multi-day events that included challenging physical activities and extreme conditions. Today, highly publicized adventure races like the Eco-Challenge and Amazing Race usually feature elite athletes or celebrities completing exotic tasks or globe-hopping to…

  11. Adventure Racing for the Rest of Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Marta K.; English, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Adventure racing got started in the 1990s. The Eco-Challenge and Primal Quest races were multi-day events that included challenging physical activities and extreme conditions. Today, highly publicized adventure races like the Eco-Challenge and Amazing Race usually feature elite athletes or celebrities completing exotic tasks or globe-hopping to…

  12. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  13. Perception and Reception: The Introduction of Licensing of Adventure Activities in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollven, Rowland; Allison, Pete; Higgins, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Lyme Bay kayaking incident of 1993, in which four children died, led to an Act of Parliament and the introduction by the British Government of the Adventure Activities Licensing Authority (AALA), a body established to regulate adventurous recreational and educational outdoor activities. The perception at the time, a view to which some …

  14. Optimal Challenge: The Impact of Adventure Experiences on Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Leila I.

    2009-01-01

    Adventure therapy (AT) and the use of activities and outdoor experiences for educational and therapeutic purposes have a long and rich history. In recent years, the popularity and use of adventure programs in schools, clinical treatment facilities, and various other settings has increased. This increased use of AT in a therapeutic context has…

  15. Developing a Rationale for Adventure-Based Interventions with Young People at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Geoff

    1996-01-01

    Reviews research related to the impact of outdoor adventure programs designed to reduce the criminal behavior of young persons. Suggests that a lack of specific cognitive skills predispose individuals to engage in criminal behavior and that a rational for adventure-based interventions should address such deficits as lack of interpersonal…

  16. The Meaning Associated with the Experience of a Sea Kayaking Adventure among Adults with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Eagan

    2004-01-01

    What is the meaning associated with participation in an outdoor adventure for a person with a disability? A number of studies have investigated the topic of adventure program outcomes for people with and without disabilities. The author located two studies about kayaking with individuals with disabilities: 1) Siegel Taylor and Evans McGruder (1995) found “subjects...

  17. Adventure Therapy--Critical Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, Christian M.

    2001-01-01

    Defining adventure therapy involves considering the level of change attempted; the degree held by practitioners; the population served; and whether "adventure" refers to activities used, philosophy of adventure, or both. Deciding whether adventure therapy is a profession or a set of tools and techniques depends on the place of adventure therapy in…

  18. Da exacerbação dos sentidos no encontro com a natureza: contrastando esportes radicais e turismo de aventura Sensation seeking in outdoor pursuits: similarities and differences in discourses on radical sports and adventure tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane P. Spink

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa a contribuir para a compreensão do risco-aventura, entendido como o conjunto de práticas que recuperam a dimensão positiva dos riscos. Com base na revisão da literatura e apoiado na vertente construcionista da Psicologia Discursiva, propõe um modelo para análise das dimensões de risco-aventura presentes no turismo de aventura e nos esportes radicais: risco/perigo, adrenalina, aventura, treinamento, uso de equipamentos e relação com a natureza. Como fonte de dados, utilizamos o site de uma operadora especializada em turismo de aventura e uma entrevista com um praticante de parapente. Os dados coletados foram analisados utilizando árvores de associação de idéias e mapas dialógicos. Todos os elementos do modelo analítico se fizeram presentes nas duas modalidades de risco-aventura. Porém, o turismo de aventura caracterizou-se pela delegação do controle do risco a especialistas, enquanto que nos esportes radicais a dimensão treinamento/experiência foi priorizada, enfatizando-se a responsabilidade individual no controle dos riscos.This article is a contribution to the understanding of risk-adventure as the set of practices that recuperate the positive dimension of risk. Based on a review of the literature and on the theoretical approach of Constructionist Discursive Psychology, it proposes a model for the analysis of the dimensions of risk adventure present in adventure tourism and radical sports: risk/danger, adrenaline, adventure, training, use of equipments and relationship to nature. The data, derived from the site of a tourism agency that specialized in adventure tourism and an interview with a paraglide practitioner, was analyzed using "trees of association of ideas" and "dialogical maps". All the elements of the model were present in both modalities of risk-adventure. However, adventure tourism was characterized by the delegation of responsibility to specialists, whilst the training/experience dimension made

  19. Uptilted Macros as an Outdoor Solution for Indoor Users in High Rise Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Maria Laura Luque; Vejlgaard, Benny; Mogensen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    With an expected broadband traffic volume growth of 1000x in the coming years, the need to provide coverage and capacity to the high rise buildings scenarios becomes a challenge for operators. Due to the difficulties in deploying their networks inside buildings, an outdoor alternative is needed. ...

  20. More than Activities: Using a "Sense of Place" to Enrich Student Experience in Adventure Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leather, Mark; Nicholls, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in recent years in the significance of a sense of place in the literature of outdoor adventure education. In the UK relationships between outdoor education and the environment still appear largely focused on the science of the natural environment and the activity in question. In this paper, we present empirical…

  1. Methodology in Outdoor Research: Approaches from an Alternative Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Powerful, dominant discourses surrounding neo-Hahnian theory (as discussed by Brookes in 2003) and effectiveness (as discussed by Hargreaves and Fullan in 1998, for example) have influenced both practice and research in outdoor adventure education. This has led to a concentration of research that focuses on the impact of outdoor programmes. It has…

  2. Managing Fear in the Outdoor Experiential Education Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Outlines components of fear in outdoor adventure activities. Reports ratings by 311 Outward Bound students of 23 common fears in the outdoors. Discusses techniques of fear reduction therapy: systematic desensitization, flooding, modeling of coping methods by instructors, and rehearsal of adaptive behaviors. Contains 16 references. (SV)

  3. Outdoor Education Is More than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortill, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who…

  4. Appropriate Benefits for Outdoor Programs Targeting Juvenile Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyere, Brett L.

    2002-01-01

    A benefits-based management approach will enable outdoor adventure therapy programs for male adolescent offenders to be built around desired outcomes such as building connections to community, enhancing self-esteem, and establishing intergenerational relationships. Outdoor programs must maintain informal environments, involve participants in…

  5. Injuries to New Zealanders participating in adventure tourism and adventure sports: an analysis of Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Macky, Keith; Edwards, Jo

    2006-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of adventure tourism and adventure sports activity in injury claims made to the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). Epidemiological analysis of ACC claims for the period, July 2004 to June 2005, where adventure activities were involved in the injury. 18,697 adventure tourism and adventure sports injury claims were identified from the data, representing 28 activity sectors. Injuries were most common during the summer months, and were most frequently located in the major population centres. The majority of injuries were incurred by claimants in the 20-50 years age groups, although claimants over 50 years of age had highest claims costs. Males incurred 60% of all claims. Four activities (horse riding, mountain biking, tramping/hiking, and surfing) were responsible for approximately 60% of all adventure tourism and adventure sports-related injuries. Slips, trips, and falls were the most common injury initiating events, and injuries were most often to the back/spine, shoulder, and knee. These findings suggest the need to investigate whether regulatory intervention in the form of codes of practice for high injury count activities such as horse riding and mountain biking may be necessary. Health promotion messages and education programs should focus on these and other high-injury risk areas. Improved risk management practices are required for commercial adventure tourism and adventure sports operators in New Zealand if safety is to be improved across this sector.

  6. Long-range high-speed visible light communication system over 100-m outdoor transmission utilizing receiver diversity technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuan-quan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) has no doubt become a promising candidate for future wireless communications due to the increasing trends in the usage of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In addition to indoor high-speed wireless access and positioning applications, VLC usage in outdoor scenarios, such as vehicle networks and intelligent transportation systems, are also attracting significant interest. However, the complex outdoor environment and ambient noise are the key challenges for long-range high-speed VLC outdoor applications. To improve system performance and transmission distance, we propose to use receiver diversity technology in an outdoor VLC system. Maximal ratio combining-based receiver diversity technology is utilized in two receivers to achieve the maximal signal-to-noise ratio. A 400-Mb/s VLC transmission using a phosphor-based white LED and a 1-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing VLC transmission using a red-green-blue LED are both successfully achieved over a 100-m outdoor distance with the bit error rate below the 7% forward error correction limit of 3.8×10-3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate at 100-m outdoor VLC transmission ever achieved. The experimental results clearly prove the benefit and feasibility of receiver diversity technology for long-range high-speed outdoor VLC systems.

  7. Adventures in Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bonniejean

    1971-01-01

    Objects to an alleged misrepresentation and inaccurate presentation of a J. R. R. Tolkien quotation in "Adventures in Reading" (Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969), a ninth grade literature anthology. (RD)

  8. Outdoor Activity and High Altitude Exposure During Pregnancy: A Survey of 459 Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Linda E; Hackett, Peter H; Luks, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate whether women engage in outdoor activities and high altitude travel during pregnancy; the health care advice received regarding high altitude during pregnancy; and the association between high altitude exposure and self-reported pregnancy complications. An online survey of women with at least 1 pregnancy distributed on websites and e-mail lists targeting mothers and/or mountain activities. Outcome measures were outdoor activities during pregnancy, high altitude (>2440 m) exposure during pregnancy, and pregnancy and perinatal complications. Hiking, running, and swimming were the most common activities performed during pregnancy. Women traveled to high altitude in over half of the pregnancies (244/459), and most did not receive counseling regarding altitude (355, 77%), although a small proportion (14, 3%) were told not to go above 2440 m. Rates of miscarriage and most other complications were similar between pregnancies with and without travel above 2440 m. Pregnancies with high altitude exposure were more likely to have preterm labor (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% CI 0.97-5.4; P = .05). Babies born to women who went to high altitude during pregnancy were more likely to need oxygen at birth (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.04-5.26; P < .05) but had similar rates of neonatal intensive care unit admission (P = not significant). Our results suggest pregnant women who are active in outdoor sports and travel to high altitude have a low rate of complications. Given the limitations of our data, further research is necessary on the risks associated with high altitude travel and physical activity and how these apply to the general population. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing Science Process Skills and Problem Solving Abilities Based on Outdoor Learning in Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wahyuni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop science process skills and problem-solving abilities based on outdoor learning in junior high school. This study uses a mixed method design embedded experimental models. Data was performed in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative data analysis is used to determine the science process skills while quantitative data analysis is used to determine the increasing problem-solving ability by using normalized gain (N gain formula. The results show that the science process skills developed at every phase comprise of making observations, formulating hypotheses, experiment, create data, classify and analyze the data, formulating its conclusions, communicate, and apply the concepts and make predictions obtained by the average value of 75.33 in the good category. While the problem-solving ability of students based on outdoor learning also increased by 0.58 in the medium category. The conclusions of this research show that the application of outdoor learning can be teacher use as an alternative to learning, so it is quite effective in developing science process skills and problem-solving abilities.

  10. ADVENTURE TOURISM FEATURES IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ROXANA DOROBANTU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the forms of use of the time available for leisure and recreation.Appears as a phenomenon of the period we live and work together in social and economic environment, with various forms of manifestation and development.Adventure travel is associated with the fact that tourist can discover new things.Therefore, they travel the world to be so large that it knows the existence of other people, to discover continents, people customs. Adventure tourism has grown rapidly in recent years as outdoor recreation has become increasingly commercialized. The actual commercial products offered by adventure tourism operators do not seem to have been subject to any coherent and comprehensive review. This paper aims to explore this form of tourism as a vector in tourismdevelopment, especially in natural areas and not only.

  11. The adventure of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n

  12. Study of highly precise outdoor characterization technique for photovoltaic modules in terms of reproducibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukabori, Akihiro; Takenouchi, Takakazu; Matsuda, Youji; Tsuno, Yuki; Hishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    In this study, novel outdoor measurements were conducted for highly precise characterization of photovoltaic (PV) modules by measuring current-voltage (I-V) curves with fast sweep speeds and module’s temperature, and with a PV sensor for reference. Fast sweep speeds suppressed the irradiance variation. As a result, smooth I-V curves were obtained and the PV parameter deviation was suppressed. The module’s temperature was measured by attaching resistive temperature detector sensors on the module’s backsheet. The PV sensor was measured synchronously with the PV module. The PV parameters including Isc, Pmax, Voc, and FF were estimated after correcting the I-V curves using the IEC standards. The reproducibility of Isc, Pmax, Voc, and FF relative to the outdoor fits was evaluated as 0.43, 0.58, 0.24, and 0.23%, respectively. The results demonstrate that highly precise measurements are possible using a PV measurement system with the three above-mentioned features.

  13. Adventure Therapy with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Christine Lynn; Tucker, Anita; Russell, Keith C.; Bettmann, Joanna E.; Gass, Michael A.; Gillis, H. L.; Behrens, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This state of knowledge article provides an overview of Adventure Therapy (AT) as it is practiced with adolescents in North America, presenting (a) current findings in AT research with adolescents, (b) critical issues in AT, (c) the need for training and professional development in AT, and (d) professionalization in AT. Implications of current…

  14. Migration as Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2017-01-01

    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  15. Migration as Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2017-01-01

    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  16. Adventure Learning @ Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B. G.; Cox, C. J.; Hougham, J.; Walden, V. P.; Eitel, K.; Albano, A.

    2013-12-01

    Teaching the general public and K-12 communities about scientific research has taken on greater importance as climate change increasingly impacts the world we live in. Science researchers and the educational community have a widening responsibility to produce and deliver curriculum and content that is timely, scientifically sound and engaging. To address this challenge, in the summer of 2012 the Adventure Learning @ Greenland (AL@GL) project, a United States' National Science Foundation (NSF) funded initiative, used hands-on and web-based climate science experiences for high school students to promote climate and science literacy. This presentation will report on an innovative approach to education and outreach for environmental science research known as Adventure Learning (AL). The purpose of AL@GL was to engage high school students in the US, and in Greenland, in atmospheric research that is being conducted in the Arctic to enhance climate and science literacy. Climate and science literacy was explored via three fundamental concepts: radiation, the greenhouse effect, and climate vs. weather. Over the course of the project, students in each location engaged in activities and conducted experiments through the use of scientific instrumentation. Students were taught science research principles associated with an atmospheric observatory at Summit Station, Greenland with the objective of connecting climate science in the Arctic to student's local environments. Summit Station is located on the Greenland Ice Sheet [72°N, 38°W, 3200 m] and was the primary location of interest. Approximately 35 students at multiple locations in Idaho, USA, and Greenland participated in the hybrid learning environments as part of this project. The AL@GL project engaged students in an inquiry-based curriculum with content that highlighted a cutting-edge geophysical research initiative at Summit: the Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at

  17. The ABC's of Adventure-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, Paul T.; Sutherland, Sue; Ressler, Jim; Ortiz-Stuhr, Esther M.

    2016-01-01

    Adventure-based learning (ABL) consists of highly structured physical activity with periods of reflection (i.e., debrief) that help promote personal and social development. It can be used as a valid curriculum in physical education to promote intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships. This type of curriculum can also help physical educators…

  18. Adventure tourism and adventure sports injury: the New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen J; Macky, Keith A

    2007-11-01

    The primary aims of this study were to establish a client injury baseline for the New Zealand adventure tourism and adventure sport sector, and to examine patterns and trends in claims for injury during participation in adventure activities. Content analysis of narrative text data for compensated injuries occurring in a place for recreation and sport over a 12-month period produced over 15,000 cases involving adventure tourism and adventure sport. As found in previous studies in New Zealand, highest claim counts were observed for activities that are often undertaken independently, rather than commercially. Horse riding, tramping, surfing and mountain biking were found to have highest claim counts, while hang gliding/paragliding/parasailing and jet boating injuries had highest claim costs, suggesting greatest injury severity. Highest claim incidence was observed for horse riding, with female claimants over-represented for this activity. Younger male claimants comprised the largest proportion of adventure injuries, and falls were the most common injury mechanism.

  19. Biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Highlights of my biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology is presented. Early adventures involved developing state-vector models'' for specific harmful effects (cell killing, life shortening) of exposure to radiation. More recent adventures led to developing hazard-function models'' for predicting biological effects (e.g., cell killing, mutations, tumor induction) of combined exposure to different toxicants. Hazard-function models were also developed for predicting harm to man from exposure to large radiation doses. Major conclusions derived from the modeling adventures are as follows: (1) synergistic effects of different genotoxic agents should not occur at low doses; (2) for exposure of the lung or bone marrow to large doses of photon radiation, low rates of exposure should be better tolerated than high rates; and (3) for some types of radiation (e.g., alpha particles and fission neutrons), moderate doses delivered at a low rate may be more harmful than the same dose given at a high rate. 53 refs., 7 figs.

  20. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among elite Spanish athletes: the importance of outdoor training adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara Valtueña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The discovery of vitamin D muscle receptors in the last few years suggested a significant role in muscle tissue, pointing out athletes as a special group. Specific data are scarce. Aim: The main aim of the current paper was to provide, for the first time, comparable data about vitamin D status in elite Spanish athletes by sport, age, season and training environment. Methods: Four hundred and eight elite athletes with a mean age of 22.8 ± 8.4 years were recruited from the High-performance sport centre in Barcelona for this cross-sectional study. Athletes from 34 different sports modalities were analysed. Data were available for vitamin D status, training environment, seasonality and number of medical visits. All data were analysed using SPSS version 18.0. Results: Mean 25(OHD of all athletes was 56.7 ± 23.4 nmol/L. Approximately 82% of the athletes were below the optimal levels, (< 75nmol/l, 45% had moderate deficient levels (< 50 nmol/L and 6% had severe deficiency (< 27.5 nmol/L. We have observed a steady increase in 25(OHD concentrations with increasing age (p < 0.01 Highest levels were observed in those subjects training outdoors compared with those training indoor (p<0.01. Differences between sport modalities were observed. Even during summer, 87% of the athletes had insufficient 25(OHD concentrations. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among elite Spanish athletes. Outdoor training could ensure vitamin D sufficiency and differences between sports modalities should be taken into account for future research. The results contribute to identify the need of optimizing vitamin D status across athletes.

  1. The Great Outdoors: Comparing Leader Development Programs at the U.S. Naval Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Wesley S.; Smith, David G.; Thomas, Joseph J.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares outdoor adventure-based leader development programs with a traditional non-outdoor program to test predictions about differential effects on leader development outcomes. Participants were drawn from the population of U.S. Naval Academy midshipmen involved in experiential leader development programs as a component of their…

  2. Orienteering with Adventure Education: New Games for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Orienteering is an outdoor pursuit in which participants try to locate a series of different control points, using only a map and compass (Laubach, 1998). It is a life-long skill that can be taught to all ages in both a natural and urban setting. Adventure education is an approach to teaching where an individual is placed in an unfamiliar…

  3. Breaking Down the Stigma of Mental Illness through an Adventure Camp: A Collaborative Education Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an outdoor adventure camp to help mental health consumers and nursing students explore the issues of mental health and illness through experiential and perceived risk challenges. Evaluation data reveals a breakdown in the stigma of mental illness as consumers and students came to know, trust, and count on each other in order to succeed…

  4. Using Systematic Feedback and Reflection to Improve Adventure Education Teaching Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rick; Kalvaitis, Darius; Delparte, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how adventure educators could use systematic feedback to improve their teaching skills. Evaluative instruments demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in teaching skills when applied at an outdoor education center in Western Canada. Concurrent focus group interviews enabled instructors to reflect on student…

  5. Next Evolution of the Seneca College Outdoor Recreation Program: One Year of High Level Professional Outdoor Training and Development for Post-Diploma/Post-Degree Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    1998-01-01

    Describes the steps in utilizing fast-tracking to phase out the overloaded two-year Outdoor Recreation Technician Co-op program at Seneca College (Ontario) and phase in a one-year graduate Outdoor Recreation Certificate program with a lower teacher-student ratio. A concept model relates generalist core skills to specializations and outdoor…

  6. Nutrition for adventure racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2012-11-01

    Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance.

  7. Adventure Spaces: How We View Our Adventure Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    This short discussion explores the relevance and importance of place in adventure recreation and has evolved in part from an effort to understand the overwhelming influence of places on his own adventure experiences. While there is a depth of research and writing on both place and sense of place, this article highlights some practical notions that…

  8. Leadership Status Congruency and Cohesion in Outdoor Expedition Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eys, Mark A.; Ritchie, Stephen; Little, Jim; Slade, Heather; Oddson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between status congruency and group cohesion in outdoor expedition groups in an educational setting. Specifically, three aspects of status congruency were assessed in relation to group cohesion in four adventure canoe groups. The groups participated in 2-week expeditions in the…

  9. Play--The Making of Deep Outdoor Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Leif Inge

    2012-01-01

    To be outdoors and involved in adventures concerns the movement between safety and risk, the familiar and the unfamiliar. Deep involvement in activities and the seriousness found in play are essential in "Bildung." Findings in this paper stem from ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a kayak community, between late autumn 2006 until the fall of…

  10. Decision making and risk management in adventure sports coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, L; Collins, D.

    2013-01-01

    Adventure sport coaches practice in environments that are dynamic and high in risk, both perceived and actual. The inherent risks associated with these activities, individuals’ responses and the optimal exploitation of both combine to make the processes of risk management more complex and hazardous than the traditional sports where risk management is focused almost exclusively on minimization. Pivotal to this process is the adventure sports coaches’ ability to make effective judgments regardi...

  11. Adventure Leadership and Experiential Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Elizabeth A; Wagstaff, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides background in adventure education and its connection to student leadership pedagogy. An adventure program is the ideal experiential learning setting promoting students' leadership development through direct experience, reflection, and application. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  12. Building Collections. Mystery and Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    Mystery and Adventure travel the same path. Within every mystery is an adventure, be it a struggle for survival, network of suspense, or matching of wits. A mystery is a secret jigsaw puzzle. Its popularity lies in the author's skillful engagement of the reader in putting together the pieces by using such elements as clues, foreshadowing, and…

  13. Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  14. Simultaneous biogas upgrading and centrate treatment in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas, Esther; Marín, David; Blanco, Saúl; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2017-05-01

    The bioconversion of biogas to biomethane coupled to centrate treatment was evaluated in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond interconnected to an external CO2-H2S absorption column (AC) via settled broth recirculation. CO2-removal efficiencies ranged from 50 to 95% depending on the alkalinity of the cultivation broth and environmental conditions, while a complete H2S removal was achieved regardless of the operational conditions. A maximum CH4 concentration of 94% with a limited O2 and N2 stripping was recorded in the upgraded biogas at recycling liquid/biogas ratios in the AC of 1 and 2. Process operation at a constant biomass productivity of 15gm(-2)d(-1) and the minimization of effluent generation supported high carbon and nutrient recoveries in the harvested biomass (C=66±8%, N=54±18%, P≈100% and S=16±3%). Finally, a low diversity in the structure of the microalgae population was promoted by the environmental and operational conditions imposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Degradation Physics of High Power LEDs in Outdoor Environment and the Role of Phosphor in the degradation process

    OpenAIRE

    Preetpal Singh; Cher Ming Tan

    2016-01-01

    A moisture- electrical ? temperature (MET) test is proposed to evaluate the outdoor reliability of high power blue LEDs, with and without phosphor, and to understand the degradation physics of LEDs under the environment of combined humidity, temperature and electrical stresses. The blue LEDs with phosphor will be the high power white LEDs. Scanning acoustic microscopy is used to examine the resulted delamination during this test for the LEDs. The degradation mechanisms of blue LEDs (LEDs with...

  16. Take an Adventure Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Brandt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Adventure Bites - Cooking with Kids program enhanced nutrition curriculum by including a Life Skill development focus and a family night - to improve youth nutrition behaviors. The data was collected using the WSU 4-H Life Skills pre-post youth evaluations, staff surveys, a parent retrospective pre-post survey, and comparison data from non-program sites. The results support adding Life Skills and family night events into youth nutrition curricula. There are opportunities to improve evaluation and do further testing, to determine what the individual impact of Life Skill development and/or individual impact of having family nights had on changes in youth behaviors regarding nutrition.

  17. Adventures in Celestial Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Szebehely, Victor G

    1998-01-01

    A fascinating introduction to the basic principles of orbital mechanics. It has been three hundred years since Isaac Newton first formulated laws to explain the orbits of the Moon and the planets of our solar system. In so doing he laid the groundwork for modern science's understanding of the workings of the cosmos and helped pave the way to the age of space exploration. Adventures in Celestial Mechanics offers students an enjoyable way to become acquainted with the basic principles involved in the motions of natural and human-made bodies in space. Packed with examples in which these principle

  18. Adventures in Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, Carrie Anne

    2015-01-01

    Start programming quickly with this super-fun guide to Raspberry Pi Adventures in Raspberry Pi, 2nd Edition includes 9 cool projects that show you how to set up and start developing on your Raspberry Pi. Updated for the release of the Rev 3 board, this second edition covers all the latest features and tells you everything you need to know. Written specifically for 11-15 year-olds, this book uses the wildly successful, Raspberry Pi to explain the fundamentals of computing. You'll have a blast learning basic programming and system administration skills, beginning with the very basics of how to p

  19. Adventures in Python

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The complete beginner's guide to Python, for young people whowant to start today Adventures in Python is designed for 11-to 15-year oldswho want to teach themselves Python programming, but don't knowwhere to start. Even if you have no programming experience at all,this easy to follow format and clear, simple instruction will getyou up and running quickly. The book walks you through nineprojects that teach you the fundamentals of programming in general,and Python in particular, gradually building your skills until youhave the confidence and ability to tackle your own projects. Videoclips accom

  20. Adventure sports and tourism at the beginning of the construction of Europe in the Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    André Suchet

    2012-01-01

    Organised in the spring of 1993 on the border between France and Spain, the Pyrenees Adventure Games (les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure or los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura), brought together more than 1,000 athletes from 26 countries and were attended by 21,000 visitors. An alternative Olympics of adventure and outdoor sports patronised by the IOC, the events took place in the Aure Valley in France (Hautes-Pyrénées) and in the Sobrarbe in Spain (Huesca province). This article analyses the ...

  1. Adventures in Supercomputing: An innovative program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, B.G.; Hicks, H.R.; Oliver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    Within the realm of education, seldom does an innovative program become available with the potential to change an educator`s teaching methodology and serve as a spur to systemic reform. The Adventures in Supercomputing (AiS) program, sponsored by the Department of Energy, is such a program. Adventures in Supercomputing is a program for high school and middle school teachers. It has helped to change the teaching paradigm of many of the teachers involved in the program from a teacher-centered classroom to a student-centered classroom. ``A student-centered classroom offers better opportunities for development of internal motivation, planning skills, goal setting and perseverance than does the traditional teacher-directed mode``. Not only is the process of teaching changed, but evidences of systemic reform are beginning to surface. After describing the program, the authors discuss the teaching strategies being used and the evidences of systemic change in many of the AiS schools in Tennessee.

  2. Outdoor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarchuk, Shawna; Eick, Charles

    2011-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is an exciting way to connect the learning of science to nature and the environment. Many school grounds include gardens, grassy areas, courtyards, and wooded areas. Some even have nearby streams or creeks. These are built-in laboratories for inquiry! In the authors' third-grade classroom, they align and integrate…

  3. Outdoor Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  4. Documenting Clinical Events in Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sky; Yerkes, Rita

    1995-01-01

    Stresses the need for documenting the application and outcomes of specific adventure activities with specific client groups and documenting critical therapeutic/clinical incidents in adventure therapy programs. Overviews current trends in documentation of therapeutic adventure programs and provides recommendations from the medical and mental…

  5. Degradation Physics of High Power LEDs in Outdoor Environment and the Role of Phosphor in the degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preetpal; Tan, Cher Ming

    2016-04-07

    A moisture- electrical - temperature (MET) test is proposed to evaluate the outdoor reliability of high power blue LEDs, with and without phosphor, and to understand the degradation physics of LEDs under the environment of combined humidity, temperature and electrical stresses. The blue LEDs with phosphor will be the high power white LEDs. Scanning acoustic microscopy is used to examine the resulted delamination during this test for the LEDs. The degradation mechanisms of blue LEDs (LEDs without phosphor) and white LEDs (LEDs with phosphor) are found to be different, under both the power on (i.e. with 350 mA through each LED) and power off (i.e. without current supply) conditions. Difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the molding part and the lens material as well as the heat generated by the phosphor layer are found to account for the major differences in the degradation mechanisms observed. The findings indicate that the proposed MET test is necessary for the LED industry in evaluating the reliability of LEDs under practical outdoor usage environment.

  6. Outdoor schools: Limits and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Smetáčková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor school is a stable element of Czech educational system. However,many changes have occurred during the last twenty years in the purposes of outdoorschools and in their organization. The article presents various school statistics andresults of research which included questionnaire survey in elementary schools in Pragueand a case study of two classes. The study found that the outdoor school programmesare getting shorter, budgets for outdoor schools are reduced, and prices of outdoorschool programmes for parents are increasing. Because of high prices, almost 20 % ofpupils cannot attend outdoor schools. Nevertheless, according to teachers, pupils andparents, the main purpose of outdoor school programmes is to create a better socialclimate in peer groups. Because of high rates of absence, this goal is partly invalid.Another purpose should be that teachers and children get to know each other better.This goal is invalid as well because many schools hire commercial agencies which limitsthe time that pupils and teachers spend together.

  7. Enhancing Fidelity in Adventure Education and Adventure Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Anita R.; Rheingold, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of addressing and evaluating treatment and program fidelity is clearly emphasized in the literature on psychology, education, and health, little attention has been given to fidelity in adventure literature or research. Program fidelity refers to whether or not, and how well, a specific intervention or program was…

  8. Dehydration, Heat Stroke, or Hyponatremia? The Recognition, Treatment, and Prevention of Hyponatremia Caused by High Exercise Outdoor Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Brent

    Hyponatremia (severe sodium depletion) has symptoms similar to heat exhaustion and heat stroke and can easily be misdiagnosed. The number of wilderness users and extreme adventure activities has increased in recent years, and more cases are being diagnosed. Given that a 1993 study found that 1 in 10 cases of heat-related illnesses were…

  9. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  10. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  11. Decision Making and Risk Management in Adventure Sports Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Adventure sport coaches practice in environments that are dynamic and high in risk, both perceived and actual. The inherent risks associated with these activities, individuals' responses and the optimal exploitation of both combine to make the processes of risk management more complex and hazardous than the traditional sports where risk management…

  12. Decision Making and Risk Management in Adventure Sports Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Adventure sport coaches practice in environments that are dynamic and high in risk, both perceived and actual. The inherent risks associated with these activities, individuals' responses and the optimal exploitation of both combine to make the processes of risk management more complex and hazardous than the traditional sports where risk management…

  13. Adventures in public data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharevitz Dan W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article contains the slides and transcript of a talk given by Dan Zaharevitz at the "Visions of a Semantic Molecular Future" symposium held at the University of Cambridge Department of Chemistry on 2011-01-19. A recording of the talk is available on the University Computing Service's Streaming Media Service archive at http://sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1095515 (unfortunately the first part of the recording was corrupted, so the talk appears to begin at slide 6, 'At a critical time'. We believe that Dan's message comes over extremely well in the textual transcript and that it would be poorer for serious editing. In addition we have added some explanations and references of some of the concepts in the slides and text. (Charlotte Bolton; Peter Murray-Rust, University of Cambridge Editorial preface The following paper is part of a series of publications which arose from a Symposium held at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge to celebrate the lifetime achievements of Peter Murray-Rust. One of the motives of Peter's work was and is a better transport and preservation of data and information in scientific publications. In both respects the following publication is relevant: it is about public data and their representation, and the publication represents a non-standard experiment of transporting the content of the scientific presentation. As you will see, it consists of the original slides used by Dan Zaharevitz in his talk "Adventures in Public Data" at the Unilever Centre together with a diligent transcript of his speech. The transcribers have gone through great effort to preserve the original spirit of the talk by preserving colloquial language as it is used at such occasions. For reasons known to us, the original speaker was unable to submit the manuscript in a more conventional form. We, the Editors, have discussed in depth whether such a format is suitable for a scientific journal. We have eventually

  14. Adventures in public data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Dan W

    2011-10-14

    This article contains the slides and transcript of a talk given by Dan Zaharevitz at the "Visions of a Semantic Molecular Future" symposium held at the University of Cambridge Department of Chemistry on 2011-01-19. A recording of the talk is available on the University Computing Service's Streaming Media Service archive at http://sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1095515 (unfortunately the first part of the recording was corrupted, so the talk appears to begin at slide 6, 'At a critical time'). We believe that Dan's message comes over extremely well in the textual transcript and that it would be poorer for serious editing. In addition we have added some explanations and references of some of the concepts in the slides and text. (Charlotte Bolton; Peter Murray-Rust, University of Cambridge) EDITORIAL PREFACE: The following paper is part of a series of publications which arose from a Symposium held at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge to celebrate the lifetime achievements of Peter Murray-Rust. One of the motives of Peter's work was and is a better transport and preservation of data and information in scientific publications. In both respects the following publication is relevant: it is about public data and their representation, and the publication represents a non-standard experiment of transporting the content of the scientific presentation. As you will see, it consists of the original slides used by Dan Zaharevitz in his talk "Adventures in Public Data" at the Unilever Centre together with a diligent transcript of his speech. The transcribers have gone through great effort to preserve the original spirit of the talk by preserving colloquial language as it is used at such occasions. For reasons known to us, the original speaker was unable to submit the manuscript in a more conventional form. We, the Editors, have discussed in depth whether such a format is suitable for a scientific journal. We have eventually decided to publish this

  15. The epidemiology of injury in adventure and extreme sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge related to the epidemiology of injury in selected adventure and extreme sports. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms 'epidemiology', 'injury,' 'adventure sports' and 'extreme sports'. Publications from the past 10 years were largely selected, but commonly referenced or highly regarded older publications were also included. References lists of articles identified in the search strategy were also searched and articles selected that were judged to be relevant. Important aspects of the epidemiology of injury related to adventure and extreme sports are discussed including occurrence of injury, who is affected by injury, where and when injury occurs, injury outcome, risk factors, inciting events, prevention and further research. Given the life-changing impact injury can have in sports (personal, social, financial, psychological, political, and medical), the current paucity of well-designed descriptive and particularly analytical epidemiological studies in some adventure and extreme sports is disturbing. The importance of denominator-based and longitudinal data collection in obtaining an accurate picture of injury risk and severity and as a basis for testing risk factors and evaluating preventive measures is emphasized.

  16. Treks'n Rapids: Identifying Motivational Factors for Adventure Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Saxena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Treks’n Rapids, a leading adventure sports and human resource enrichment company in India, wanted to identify main motivational factors of attraction towards adventure sports among youths of National Capital Region. Objective was to improve the effectiveness of integrated marketing communications strategy. Adventure sports are categorized into four classes: (1 mountain sports; (2 extreme sports like bungee jumping and free fall; (3 rafting and kayaking; (4 paragliding, sky diving and skiing. A total of fifteen motivational factors have been identified with the help of literature review and an exploratory study. These are: Thrill, Requires zeal/energy, Spells status, Builds confidence, Helps in personality development, Instills self-belief, Creates unique identity, Is a stress buster, Helps in goal-setting, Is challenging, Requires toughness, Builds sense of achievement, Is a unique experience, It is fun/adventure and Improved technology has reduced risk. Approach: A questionnaire was created and sent to over 500 people online. Through word of mouth people were encouraged to visit the website and respond to the questionnaire. Fifty-seven responses were obtained. These were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Only two factors were extracted. First all the 57 responses were analyzed as a whole to find out the main motivational factors. Next each of the four individual categories of adventure sports was separately analyzed and results were found to be highly consistent. Two composite variables that emerged are labeled as: (1 characteristics of the adventure sports encompassing: thrill, challenge, fun, toughness and zeal required; (2 characteristics of the self like: building confidence, personality development, sense of achievement, status, self-belief and help in goal setting. Resultant factors were used to discriminate respondents based on gender and spend. In both the cases more than 73% of original grouped cases were found to be

  17. Outdoor Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Teachers' Federation, Toronto.

    A guide and introduction to outdoor education for the classroom teacher, the manual lists 5 aims and objectives of outdoor education and discusses the means for reaching these objectives through field trips, camping, outdoor learning centers, and outdoor teaching in school environs. Selected activities are described by subject area: arts and…

  18. A New Approach of Studying Correlation between Outdoor Exposure and Indoor Accelerated Corrosion Test for High Polymer Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lixia; LI Xiaogang; ZHANG Sanping

    2006-01-01

    The correlation between outdoor exposure and indoor accelerated corrosion test for high polymer materials was investigated according to the variation of the functional group of exposure models aged. Environment aging intensities at different zones ( Wuhan and Lasa with the same latitude ) and the influences of indoor accelerating factors including water and ultraviolet on weathering performance of high polymer materials were also studied by comparing different indoor accelerated corrosion testing results. The experimental results show that: by testing variations of carbonyl exponent of polythene ( which represented the degradation behavior of highpolymer materials due to ultraviolet oxidation of double bond) and ultraviolet absorbance of polycarbonate ( which represented the degradation behavior of high polymer materials due to abevacuation of branched chain), the degradation behavior of high polymer materials could be studied. Carbonyl exponent of polythene exposed in Wuhan and Lasa for 1 year was equal to that exposed in indoor cycle ultraviolet for 128 h and 170 h, respectively, the ultraviolet absorbance of polycarbonate exposed in Wuhan for 1 year was equal to that exposed in indoor cycle ultraviolet for 240 h. The ratio of environment aging intensity of Lasa to Wuhan was around 1.2. With the prolongation of cycle accelerated ultraviolet exposure time, the variations of carbonyl exponent of polythene and the ultraviolet absorbance of polycarbonate were in the same shape of first order exponential decay curve. Accompanied with ultraviolet, the effect of water condensated on the sample on weathering performance of polythene was more significant than that of polycarbonate.

  19. Breaking Barriers through Adventure Based Citizen Diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Ted

    1991-01-01

    Traces the development of peace-oriented experiential philosophy in both its Western and Soviet contexts, suggesting that adventure-based citizen diplomacy is a valuable means to build bridges between them. Adventure Based Citizen Diplomacy projects are working to decrease the cultural, sociopolitical, and psychological barriers that remain in the…

  20. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Literature Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛

    2008-01-01

    Mark Twain is one of the greatest writers of American in 19 century.The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is his best work.It show us a lot social problem through Jim Huck'adventure in Mississippi river.Mark Twain applies humor in the various episodes throughout the book,his literature explored questions of freedom,independence,and identity.

  1. Emerging Issues in Therapeutic Adventure with Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic adventure with families is a promising integration of adventure therapy and family therapy. Issues that must be addressed to legitimize the field include licensure and legal scope of practice, developing minimum standards for practitioners, incorporating family development and family therapy theories into practice, and conducting more…

  2. Utilizing Hypnotic Language in Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, Christian

    1995-01-01

    Hypnotic language can increase the transference of learning from an adventure activity to a therapeutic goal by absorbing the client in the experience, ratifying that absorption, and eliciting the client's resources to address problematic situations. Provides examples of using this approach in adventure therapy to enhance a client's experience and…

  3. Adventure Therapy: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene

    1995-01-01

    Overviews articles in this issue that focus on the current status of adventure therapy and describe efforts aimed at defining a framework for conceptualizing adventure therapy. Notes changes in the field, including introduction of state laws requiring licensure of programs, the drive for program accreditation, and growing training opportunities in…

  4. Gestalt and Adventure Therapy: Parallels and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsdorf, Rudiger

    This paper calls attention to parallels in the literature of adventure education and that of Gestalt therapy, demonstrating that both are rooted in an experiential tradition. The philosophies of adventure or experiential education and Gestalt therapy have the following areas in common: (1) emphasis on personal growth and the development of present…

  5. Learning in Action and Adventure Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmer, Eva; Rynne, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth in action and adventure sport (e.g. snowboarding, bicycle motorcross (BMX), surfing, parkour) participation over the past two decades has been showcased in world championship events and the inclusion in Olympic programs. Yet, by virtue of their alternative, escapist and/or adventure-based origins, these sports do not fully…

  6. Changes in tobacco industry advertising around high schools in Greece following an outdoor advertising ban: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Girvalaki, Charis; Lazuras, Lambros; Triantafylli, Danai; Lionis, Christos; Connolly, Gregory N; Behrakis, Panagiotis

    2013-09-01

    As tobacco advertising bans are enacted in accordance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, it is essential to assess enforcement and how the industry may circumvent such measures. During this longitudinal study, we compared the characteristics of points-of-sale (POS) advertising within 300 m of all high schools in Heraklion, Greece before (n=101 POS and 44 billboards in 2007) and after (n=106 POS in 2011) an outdoor advertising ban was implemented in 2009. Cigarette advertisements in all retailers near all high schools were assessed. Following the ban, tobacco industry billboards around schools were eradicated (from 44 to 0). The proportion of POS that had external advertisements dropped from 98% to 66% (padvertisements on the door (79.5% to 20.4%, padvertisements per POS fell from 7.4 to 3.9 (padvertising restriction in Greece has led to a reduced number of tobacco advertisements per POS, and the eradication of billboard advertising. Nevertheless, there is a need to regulate kiosks, which were identified as a key vector for tobacco advertising, and to increase compliance among regulated convenience stores.

  7. Adventurous activities, embodiment and nature: spiritual, sensual and sustainable? Embodying environmental justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Humberstone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines research on adventurous physical activities in nature from the perspective of the sentient body. Drawing upon ethnographic and autoethnographic research, I examine what has been termed 'peak' happenings or 'flow' which many who practise adventurous activities claim to experience through their whole body when in the 'zone'. I consider the concept of 'edgework', voluntary risk-taking, and insightful mobile and social understanding of the relationships between body, emotions and the elements, where the adventurous activity is experienced and interpreted as oneness with nature or expressed as 'spiritual' not only in high but also low risk nature-based sport. I then consider if and in what ways these knowledges may bring about greater understanding and action in relation to social and environmental justice. I argue that adventurous activities/nature-based sport may provide processes and practices that are alternative or complementary to traditional sporting 'body techniques' or 'body pedagogics'. I suggest that modern embodied adventurous practices in nature challenge dominant narratives of body/mind separation and potentially provide a pedagogic process fostering kinetic empathy. Finally I draw attention to the paradox of (re-presenting sensorial experiences of sport in nature and ask for consideration on how we interconnect with the environment when we participate in adventureous nature-based sports.

  8. Outdoors classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  9. High-efficiency voltage regulator and stabilizer for outdoor lighting installations

    OpenAIRE

    Blánquez, F.R.; Rebollo López, Emilio; Blázquez García, Francisco; Platero Gaona, Carlos Antonio; Frías Marín, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a high performance system of regulation and stabilization of luminous flux for public street lighting installations. Its purpose is to reduce the luminous flux of the luminaries efficiently by reducing their voltage supply, resulting in the improvement of energy efficiency in the installation. The system is basically composed of electromagnetic components which provide robustness and high-performance to the device, as well as minimum maintenance requirements. However, the ...

  10. Cyber Adventurers, A Pipeline from Middle School to College

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    At the Naval Postgraduate School's Cebrowski Institute, we have designed a new program called Cyber Adventurers to support an ongoing learning community to excite students with the magic and beauty of computing, and to support more general efforts to interest students in STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) majors. We are currently working with local teachers and community leaders in Salinas and Monterey, CA, to create a student pipeline from middle school, through high school, t...

  11. Can adventurous training have a role in improving clinical outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, A; Jackson, S; Hardern, R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of military adventurous training (AT) is "to develop, through authorised challenging pursuits and within an outdoor environment, leadership and the qualities necessary to enhance the performance of military personnel during peace and war". An increasing amount of effort is being applied by all three services to increase participation in AT to achieve these, largely immeasurable, aims. Existing guidance to Commanding Officers dictates that, where possible, 20% of a unit strength should undertake some form of AT annually with 5% taking part in an overseas expedition. In a speech in 2008 Alan Johnson, the then Secretary of State for Health, acknowledged that for Armed Forces medical personnel 'just as important as clinical skills are issues such as leadership, communication, adaptability and teamwork." Controlled exposure to risk, discomfort and personal hardship is a common theme for both AT activities and military deployments. Both General Medical Council competencies for all doctors and the Royal College of Anaesthetists military module include elements which can effectively be taught and developed through training in an outdoors environment. These skills include communication skills, leadership, risk assessment and interdisciplinary working. In this review the value of AT in training doctors to develop those attributes is examined.

  12. Romanticism in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2013-01-01

    The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been studied as a realistic work widely. Although The Adventures of Huckle⁃berry Finn mainly work for the realism, there are also spark notes of romanticism in the book. So this essay discusses the romanticism from its source and its conception, and the third part of this essay analyzes which parts and which points in the book show the romanticism, and analyzes the romanticism in the book from the general following as⁃pects:description of the environment, the friendship between the main characters, the plots, and themes. At last, the author con⁃cludes the indelible artistic value in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

  13. Computer Vision Approach for Low Cost, High Precision Measurement of Grapevine Trunk Diameter in Outdoor Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Diego Sebastián; Bromberg, Facundo; Antivilo, Francisco Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Trunk diameter is a variable of agricultural interest, used mainly in the prediction of fruit trees production. It is correlated with leaf area and biomass of trees, and consequently gives a good estimate of the potential production of the plants. This work presents a low cost, high precision method for the measurement of trunk diameter of grapevines based on Computer Vision techniques. Several methods based on Computer Vision and other techniques are introduced in the literature. These metho...

  14. Mr. Bigler's Big Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David

    1998-01-01

    Presents the story of high school teacher Philip Bigler, the 1998 National Teacher of the Year. He was interviewed by many national and local television and radio shows and is spending his year of release time traveling nationally and internationally to talk about education. He has yet to decide whether or not he will return to teaching. (SM)

  15. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    The thesis has three aims: The first aim is to review the existing knowledge about ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation in Europe. The second aim is to investigate similarities and differences in outdoor recreation patterns between adolescents with ethnic Danish and ethnic minority background....... An emerging field of research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation was identified, compared to the research in North America. However, the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation is growing. The European research has shown differences in outdoor recreation pattern (e.g. the motives for outdoor...... for visiting natural areas were most often social, such as being with family and friends, and health and well-being reasons (exercise and relaxing from stress). However, the ethnic minority adolescents more often stated “to be with family” as an important reason for visiting green spaces compared...

  16. Here Be Dragons: voorgeschiedenis en ontstaan van Adventure Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, Connie

    2004-01-01

    The article traces the history of adventure games from the birth of the fantasy genre in William Morris' work and the origins of the Kriegspiel, through Tolkien's fantasy world and Dungeons and Dragons to the early text adventures and the first graphical adventures.

  17. Orinoco Outdoor Wireless LAN

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Wireless communication allows mobile communications to be located at various places within a construction site and communicate with each other as well as with a central, fixed location such as the jobsite trailer. Wireless LAN is one of the wireless data communication technologies that can be used in a jobsite. The Orinoco Outdoor system consists of Central Outdoor Router(COR), Remote Outdoor Router(ROR) and Internet Client Software.

  18. Safety in New Zealand's adventure tourism industry: the client accident experience of adventure tourism operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, T A; Page, S J; Laird, I S

    2000-01-01

    Injuries and fatalities among participants of adventure tourism activities have the potential to seriously impact on New Zealand's tourism industry. However, the absence of statistics for tourist accidents in New Zealand, and the lack of detailed academic research into adventure tourism safety, means the extent of the problem is unknown. The aims of the present study were to determine the incidence of client injuries across a range of adventure tourism activity sectors, and to identify common accident events and contributory risk factors. A postal questionnaire survey of New Zealand adventure tourism operators was used. Operators were asked to provide information related to their business; the number of recorded client injuries during the preceding 12 month period, January to December 1998; common accident and injury events associated with their activity; and perceived risk factors for accidents in their sector of the adventure tourism industry. The survey was responded to by 142 New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The operators' reported client injury experience suggests the incidence of serious client injuries is very low. Highest client injury incidence rates were found for activities that involved the risk of falling from a moving vehicle or animal (e.g., cycle tours, quad biking, horse riding, and white-water rafting). Slips, trips, and falls on the level were common accident events across most sectors of the industry. Perceived accident/incident causes were most commonly related to the client, and in particular, failure to attend to and follow instructions. The prevalence of client injuries in activity sectors not presently covered by government regulation, suggests policy makers should look again at extending codes of practice to a wider range of adventure tourism activities. Further research considering adventure tourism involvement in overseas visitor hospitalized injuries in New Zealand, is currently in progress. This will provide supporting evidence

  19. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    for visiting natural areas were most often social, such as being with family and friends, and health and well-being reasons (exercise and relaxing from stress). However, the ethnic minority adolescents more often stated “to be with family” as an important reason for visiting green spaces compared...... recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... to their ethnic Danish counterparts. The adolescents use different areas for outdoor recreation: the adolescents with ethnic Danish background use sports grounds for outdoor recreation, while adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds use urban green spaces for outdoor recreation. For activities reported...

  20. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  1. Newton's laws through a science adventure

    OpenAIRE

    Šuštar, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of my diploma thesis is to create a scientific adventure based on the Newton's laws. My aim has been to introduce this topic to the kids in elementary school as well as the general public. That is why the adventure will take place in the House of Experiments. The first part is dedicated to theory and various experiments, which lead to deeper understanding of the laws. I implemented experiments on rollerblades, such as free movement, movement with the help of springs which wer...

  2. Outdoor Air Pollution, Heart Attack and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated outdoor ambient air particle pollution triggers heart attacks, strokes, and abnormal heart rhythms and worsens heart failure in individuals at high risk due to underlying medical conditions. Emergency Medical Services in communities are the first responders to these eme...

  3. Dynamic Music and Immersion in the Action-Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnaires each time after playing a 3rd-person action-adventure in one of three conditions accounting for (1) dynamic music, (2) non-dynamic music/low arousal potential and (3) non-dynamic music/high arousal potential......, in this way aiming to manipulate structural-temporal alignment, emotional arousal and resulting congruency of nondiegetic music. Shedding light on the implications of music dramaturgy within a semantic ecology, different layers of mind sets between the player, avatar, and game environment are assumed...

  4. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Nancy R.

    Based on Mark Twain's novel "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that identifying and thinking about a key quotation or symbol in a novel can help a reader extract greater meaning from the work; and that a paper analyzing literature should follow a logical organization. The…

  5. Enhancing Metaphor Development in Adventure Therapy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    In effective therapeutic adventure experiences that incorporate metaphoric transfer, the metaphor contains isomorphs that link the experience to client needs and therapeutic issues. Use of metaphoric transfer in a therapeutic experience for substance abusers is described. Seven steps for creating appropriate metaphoric experiences are outlined.…

  6. On the Adventure of Huckleberry Finn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蒙蒙

    2014-01-01

    The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn, one of Mark Twain’s masterpieces, is a story about a little child who pursues free-dom together with his friend;however, if readers take it as easy as a fairy tale they will not really understand it. When exploring it deeply it is noticed that the book reveals profound social problems and interpersonal relationships.

  7. My Lessons for Living from Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Gayleen M.

    1997-01-01

    A woman treated for eating disorders, long-term depression, and attempted suicide describes how adventure therapy helped her to confront her personal issues, deal with feelings of inadequacy, take risks, trust other people, and enjoy the beauty of nature. Discusses the role of the facilitator in ensuring a safe environment and leading reflective…

  8. Learning Academic Content the Adventure Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Hector

    1997-01-01

    Describes and gives examples of integrating adventure activities into existing classroom curricula at three levels: review or metaphors, interwoven activities for content delivery, and total integration into classroom design. Example activities include "Speed Rabbit,""Have You Ever,""Stepping Stones,""Whale Watch," and "Mine Field." (SAS)

  9. Why Randomized Trials Are Challenging within Adventure Therapy Research: Lessons Learned in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Leiv Einar; Fernee, Carina Ribe; Aasen, Gunnar Oland; Eskedal, Leif Torvald

    2016-01-01

    There are few high-quality studies using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the adventure and wilderness therapy literature. Thus, a unison call is heard for more such studies to be carried out. This article presents a Norwegian wilderness therapy research project that planned to incorporate this "gold standard" that is regarded as…

  10. Mapping Out the Territory: Beyond Isomorphs and Metaphors in Adventure Based Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkard, John

    1996-01-01

    Custom mapping, an experiential learning strategy used in adventure education, provides a general metaphoric activity and then requires the group to customize it into their own "meta-map." This approach encourages collaboration, gives the group a high degree of autonomy in developing creative solutions, and has the potential to generate…

  11. The adventure course – education, challenge, fun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Nagel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor education has been defined in a variety of ways throughout its history. Those who influenced the field early on defined outdoor education with the needs of camping education in mind. For example, L. B. Sharp (1943 [1], one of the earliest advocates of camping education, offered the following rationale for outdoor education: “That which can best be taught inside the schoolrooms should there be taught, and that which can best be learned through experience dealing directly with native materials and life situations outside the school should there be learned”. As the field of outdoor education matured, organizations emerged that worked to gain support from school personnel. For example, Julian W. Smith began the National Outdoor Education Project in 1955. Smith elucidated the connection between outdoor education and the school curriculum in his definition: “Outdoor education means learning “in” and “for” the outdoors. It is a means of curriculum extension and enrichment through outdoor experiences” [2].

  12. Robust CCD photoelectric autocollimator for outdoor use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Gao; Zuoren Dong; Zhenglan Bian; Qing Ye; Zujie Fang; Ronghui Qu

    2011-01-01

    A robust charge-coupled device (CCD) photoelectric autocollimator for outdoor use is designed and demonstrated. The influence of outdoor conditions on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and imaging quality of the measuring system is experimentally analyzed. The pulse width modulation technology is applied to the automatic feedback control of the actively regulated illuminating light source of the measuring system to maximize SNR while avoiding image saturation. A Fourier phase shift method for subpixel estimation is adopted to achieve high-accuracy measurement in the presence of noises. Experimental results indicate that the technologies proposed here largely improve the measuring stability, dynamic range, and accuracy of the CCD photoelectric autocollimator used outdoors.%@@ A robust charge-coupled device(CCD)photoelectric autocollimator for outdoor use is designed and demonstrated.The influence of outdoor conditions on the signal-to-noise ratio(SNR)and imaging quality of the measuring system is experimentally analyzed.The pulse width modulation technology is applied to the automatic feedback control of the actively regulated illuminating light source of the measuring system to maximize SNR while avoiding image saturation.A Fourier phase shift method for subpixel estimation is adopted to achieve high-accuracy measurement in the presence of noises.Experimental results indicate that the technologies proposed here largely improve the measuring stability,dynamic range,and accuracy of the CCD photoelectric autocollimator used outdoors.

  13. Outdoor sports and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.

  14. ADVENTURE TOURISM IN THE SURVEYED POLISH ADVENTURE TOURISTS’ OPINION – OUTLINE OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cieślik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a kind of human activity, which has the ability to simultaneously satisfy a wide human needs’ range and develop people’s personality. Adventure tourism term is a type of tourism able to fulfill these types of human needs. The aim of the study was to know the Polish tourists opinion about the adventure tourism in Poland. The study involved 50 people, taking into account their gender, age, education and occupational status. The research tool was a survey questionnaire. The study indicated that it is not a popular form of tourism in Poland. Its proponents, the information about places and facilities derive mainly from the Internet. The most popular forms are trekking, tramping, caves exploration, paintball, windsurfing, bungejumping and rafting. Rather average possibility of practicing the adventure tourism in Poland is associated with multitude barriers, mainly financial investments, lack of free time, as well as fear and general fear of some of its forms.

  15. Biochemistry in Endeavor Adventure Racers Study (BEARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radler, David; Christensen, Mark; Lipman, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adventure sports events consist of a combination of two or more endurance disciplines, such as orienteering, running, and rock climbing, that range from a day’s to a week’s duration. No studies have examined acute kidney injury (AKI) in adventure sports athletes. Objectives: To describe the prevalence of AKI in participants in the Endeavor Team Challenge, a 30-hour, 40-mile adventure race. Methods: In this prospective observational study, body weights were recorded at race registration. At the finish line, blood sample results by point-of-care testing and weights were recorded. Changes in serum creatinine (Cr) from an estimated baseline value and severity of AKI were calculated, with “risk of injury” defined as 1.5 x baseline Cr, and “injury” defined as 2 x baseline Cr. These two categories of AKI were combined to calculate the total prevalence.  Results: There were 88 enrolled study participants with complete data available on 46 (52%). The mean age of those enrolled in the study was 36.8 years (+/- 7.7), 90% were males, and body mass index (BMI) was 25.7 kg/m2 (+/- 2.4). Of the competitors who completed the study, 34 (73%) had some degree of AKI, with 27 (58%) found to be at "risk" and seven (15%) with "injury". There was a significant correlation between weight loss and elevated Cr (r = -0.29, p = 0.047), with a trend towards nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use being correlated with AKI (p = 0.058). Conclusion: Acute kidney injury was observed in the majority of the Endeavor Team Challenge adventure racers, similar to what has been observed in multistage ultramarathons, and greater than after standard marathons and single-stage ultramarathons.

  16. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    for visiting natural areas were most often social, such as being with family and friends, and health and well-being reasons (exercise and relaxing from stress). However, the ethnic minority adolescents more often stated “to be with family” as an important reason for visiting green spaces compared...... to their ethnic Danish counterparts. The adolescents use different areas for outdoor recreation: the adolescents with ethnic Danish background use sports grounds for outdoor recreation, while adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds use urban green spaces for outdoor recreation. For activities reported...... comparison of to what extend and in what way policy documents and research approaches take into account ethnic minority groups. The findings indicate that there is a correlation in the current national research approaches of the four countries and the societal and political context of the four countries...

  17. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  18. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  19. Emotional Safety in Adventure Therapy Programs: Can It Be Defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    Ninety-eight adventure therapy professionals analyzed a proposed definition of emotional safety and rated 26 factors hypothesized to affect an individual's level of emotional safety during adventure activities. Factors were related to specific techniques used by instructors, instructor skills and abilities, the physical environment, and group…

  20. Coming of Age: The Evolving Field of Adventure Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoroff, Scott, Ed.; Newes, Sandra, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Coming of Age" brings together a group of articles arising from the third International Adventure Therapy Conference held in Victoria, British Columbia, in April 2003. Together, they offer an overview of the field of Adventure Therapy in the new millennium, boasting a strong collection from the field's leading international figures: Martin…

  1. On Adventure Therapy and the Natural Worlds: Respecting Nature's Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut; Martin, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The anthropomorphic paradigm in psychology and psychotherapy has prevented nature from being considered a factor in the curative relationship in adventure therapy. The effectiveness of therapeutic interventions are credited instead to human factors such as program design and facilitation. A paradigm shift is needed in adventure therapy to accept…

  2. On Adventure Therapy and the Natural Worlds: Respecting Nature's Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut; Martin, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The anthropomorphic paradigm in psychology and psychotherapy has prevented nature from being considered a factor in the curative relationship in adventure therapy. The effectiveness of therapeutic interventions are credited instead to human factors such as program design and facilitation. A paradigm shift is needed in adventure therapy to accept…

  3. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  4. Advancing Adventure Education Using Digital Motion-Sensing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ju-Ling; Hsu, Yu-Jen

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Xbox Kinect and Unity 3D game engine to develop two motion-sensing games in which the participants, in simulated scenarios, could experience activities that are unattainable in real life, become immersed in collaborative activities, and explore the value of adventure education. Adventure Education involves courses that…

  5. My First Adventure%冒险初体验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟径舟

    2007-01-01

    @@ All the books about the twelve signs of the zodiac say that Leo is the most adventurous one. It is indeed true, because it is typically embodied in my character. In my memory, I began my first adventure at the age of six.

  6. Going Pro: Point of View Cameras in Adventure Sports Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The role of the adventure sports coach was first identified by Collins and Collins (2012) who suggested that the sports coaching process is significantly different in an adventurous context. Whilst there is a growing body of literature surrounding coaching pedagogy (Hay, Dickens, Crudginton, & Engstrom, 2012), investigation of coaching…

  7. Vision + Community = Outdoor Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Charles; Tatarchuk, Shawna; Anderson, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor learning areas are becoming more popular as a means for community-based, cross-curricular learning where children study issues of local relevance (Sobel 2004). Outdoor learning areas, any place outside of the school building where children can observe and interact with the natural world around them, include outdoor structures for seating…

  8. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  9. Outdoor Experiences and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Heather E.

    2017-01-01

    Positive outdoor teaching and learning experiences and sound pedagogical approaches undoubtedly have contributed towards an understanding of environmental sustainability but it is not always clear how, and to what extent, education can translate into action. This article argues, with reference to social learning theory, that role modelling,…

  10. Outdoor recreation participation trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Barbara L. McDonald; R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; Jack Martin; Jim Bason; Vernon R. Leeworthy

    1999-01-01

    As part of the national assessment of outdoor recreation trends, the authors have taken a look at participation patterns and levels of participation across activities and across segments of our society. The primary source of data is the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). The NSRE is the latest in the continuing series of National Recreation...

  11. Outdoor production of microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vree, de Jeroen H.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the production of microalgae under outdoor conditions, for this research was done at pilot scale. Microalgae are an interesting alternative to currently used sources for bulk commodities as food, feed and chemicals. Research activities within the field are shattered; different

  12. Therapy within Adventure: Proceedings of the International Adventure Therapy Conference (2nd, Augsburg, Germany, March 20-24, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kaye, Ed.; Smith, Barbara, Ed.

    This proceedings presents a variety of international perspectives on the nature of adventure therapy and charts new insights into its historical, philosophical, theoretical, and practical realms. Following an editorial "Adventure and Therapy: 'Dancing in the Moonlight'" (Kaye Richards, Barbara Smith), the 21 papers are: (1)…

  13. DNA analysis of outdoor air reveals a high degree of fungal diversity, temporal variability, and genera not seen by spore morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, Catherine H; Fairs, Abbie; Free, Robert C; Wardlaw, Andrew J

    2012-02-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous with many capable of causing disease by direct infection, toxicoses, or allergy. Fungal spores are present in outdoor air throughout the year, yet airborne diversity is poorly characterised. Airborne fungal spores are routinely counted by microscopy, enabling identification to genera at best. We generated traditional microscopic counts over a year, then used environmental sequencing techniques to assess and compare 3 d selected from the main fungal spore season. The days selected corresponded to one with a high quantity of spores unidentifiable by microscopy, and two representing dry and wet summer periods. Over 86 % of genera detected by sequencing were not routinely identifiable by microscopy. A high degree of temporal variability was detected, with the percentage of clones attributed to Basidiomycota or Ascomycota, and composition of genera within each phylum varying greatly between days. Throughout the year Basidiomycota spores were found at higher levels than Ascomycota, but levels fluctuated daily with Ascomycota comprising 11-84 % of total spores and Basidiomycota 7-81 %. No significant difference was found between the proportion of clones attributed to each morphological group detected by sequencing to that counted by microscopy (P = 0.477, 0.985, and 0.561). The majority of abundant genera detected by DNA analysis are not routinely identified by microscopy (>75 %). Of those, several are known human and plant pathogens, and may represent unrecognised aeroallergens.

  14. Autistic phenomena in The Adventures of Pinocchio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate that the protagonist of Carlo Collodi's The Adventures of Pinocchio illustrates numerous autistic phenomena such as communication difficulties, sensory and perceptual distortions and mindblindness. While Pinocchio is viewed as a literary construct with contraindications of autism, it will be argued that his autistic traits are sufficient to suggest the possibility that Collodi had a partial intuition of the syndrome 60 years before it was identified by Leo Kanner. Approaching Collodi's text in this manner is taken as an opportunity to survey and reflect upon the psychoanalytic literature on autism and to position it in relation to contemporary theories from cognitive neuroscience.

  15. Further adventures of Penrose the mathematical cat

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    2004-01-01

    Penrose is back, and ready to usher young readers along as he encounters more amazing mathematical ideas in a sequence of adventure tales. At once demystifying and challenging, the book gives readers visuals to consider and things to do as they ? along with Penrose ? discover mathematical ""rep-tiles""; meet x, the mathematical actor; find out when one and one do not equal two; help Sorry Snowflake find its symmetry; cross pi's path; learn that mathematical donuts are not for dunking; and more. Plus, Penrose tantalizes, teases, and perplexes with his puzzles and games around every corner.

  16. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... pattern. The survey was conducted in two school districts: in North West Copenhagen and the municipality of Ringkøbing-Skjern (n=449, aged 14-16 years, 365 adolescents with ethnic Danish background, and 84 adolescents with ethnic minority background). The results of the questionnaire have shown both...... carried out during some part of the year, “going for a walk”, “barbequing”, “taking a trip with family” were frequently cited by both groups, but more common among adolescents with ethnic minority background. “Walking the dog” was much more common among adolescents with Danish background, who also more...

  17. The safety experience of New Zealand adventure tourism operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Walker, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.

  18. Morality in Mark Twain’ s The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the issue of morality will be discussed from three characters in The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn: Huckleberry Finn, Jim, and Tom Sawyer.Their moral values are related to the three themes of this book:ra-cial discrimination, freedom and constraint, adventure and trick.In Huckleber-ry Finn, moral value of freedom and constraint come from the community, and his own experiences; in Jim, the moral value of racial discrimination is influ-enced by the community and his own experiences;and Tom Sawyer’ s moral val-ue of adventure and trick is influenced by his own experiences.

  19. Immunochemical estimations of allergenic activities from outdoor aero-allergens, collected by a high-volume air sampler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J; Poulsen, L K; Mygind, K;

    1989-01-01

    To quantify airborne allergens in amorphus and morphological particles, a survey with collection of aero-allergens on glass fibre filters by means of a high-volume air-sampler (HIVOL) was conducted. In preliminary laboratory experiments we compared various filter elution techniques......, and the pulverizing elution technique was found to be optimal with regard to yield and convenience. When a surfactant, Tween 20 (0.5% v/v), was added to the elution buffer, a recovery of 80% could be obtained. Allergens in eluates were analysed by means of an IgG-subclass RAST inhibition assay. This immunochemical...... method for quantification of airborne allergens was validated, as a high recovery of timothy grass pollen allergens was eluted from air filters, and eluates were shown specific by RAST inhibition. The amount of immunochemically measured airborne timothy and birch allergens collected by means of the HIVOL...

  20. Social inequalities in young children's sports participation and outdoor play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Pot, Niek; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein

    2014-12-16

    Research on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play. We analyzed data from 4726 ethnically diverse 6-year-old children participating in the Generation R Study. Variables were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires when the child was 6 years old. Low level of outdoor play was defined as outdoor play sports participation and outdoor play. Socioeconomic inequalities in children's sports participation were found when using maternal educational level (p sports participation among low SEP children). Socioeconomic inequalities in children's outdoor play were found when using household income only (p sports and play outdoor sports participation. Low SEP children and ethnic minority children are more likely not to participate in sports and more likely to display low levels of outdoor play compared with high SEP children and native Dutch children, respectively. In order to design effective interventions, further research, including qualitative studies, is needed to explore more in detail the pathways relating family SEP and ethnic background to children's sports participation and outdoor play.

  1. USC Undergraduate Team Research, Geological Field Experience and Outdoor Education in the Tuolumne Batholith and Kings Canyon, High Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, K. N.; Anderson, J. L.; Cao, W.; Chang, J.; Ehret, P.; Enriquez, M.; Gross, M. B.; Gelbach, L. B.; Hardy, J.; Paterson, S. R.; Ianno, A.; Iannone, M.; Memeti, V.; Morris, M.; Lodewyk, J.; Davis, J.; Stanley, R.; van Guilder, E.; Whitesides, A. S.; Zhang, T.

    2009-12-01

    Within four years, USC’s College of Letters, Arts and Sciences and Earth Science department have successfully launched the revolutionary undergraduate team research (UTR) program “Geologic Wonders of Yosemite at Two Miles High”. A diverse group of professors, graduate students and undergraduates spent two weeks mapping the Boyden Cave in Kings Canyon National Park, the Iron Mountain pendants south of Yosemite, the Western Metamorphic belt along the Merced River, and the Tuolumne Batholith (TB) in June and August 2009. During their experience in the field, the undergraduates learned geologic field techniques from their peers, professors, and experienced graduate students and developed ideas that will form the basis of the independent and group research projects. Apart from teaching undergraduates about the geology of the TB and Kings Canyon, the two weeks in the field were also rigorous exercise in critical thinking and communication. Every day spent in the field required complete cooperation between mentors and undergraduates in order to successfully gather and interpret the day’s data. Undergraduates were to execute the next day’s schedule and divide mapping duties among themselves. The two-week field experience was also the ideal setting in which to learn about the environmental impacts of their work and the actions of others. The UTR groups quickly adapted to the demanding conditions of the High Sierra—snow, grizzly bears, tourists, and all. For many of the undergraduates, the two weeks spent in the field was their first experience with field geology. The vast differences in geological experience among the undergraduates proved to be advantageous to the ‘team-teaching’ focus of the program: more experienced undergraduates were able to assist less experienced undergraduates while cementing their own previously gained knowledge about geology. Over the rest of the academic year, undergraduates will learn about the research process and scientific

  2. The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the ninth story in a series of chemical mysteries with emphasis on forensic chemistry, physical properties, and qualitative organic analysis. The mystery centers around the adventures of Sherlock Holmes. (DDR)

  3. The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the ninth story in a series of chemical mysteries with emphasis on forensic chemistry, physical properties, and qualitative organic analysis. The mystery centers around the adventures of Sherlock Holmes. (DDR)

  4. Adventures of a Pen Pal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myrtle"Cookie"Potter; 谢琼

    2000-01-01

    By the time I was in junior high schoolI had 15 pen pals with whom I correspond-ed faithfully. I found that being a pen palwas a nonthreatening way of makingfriends. All my correspondents lived in SanFrancisco, while I was about 15 miles south inBurlingame. They were all too young to drive,so the chances we d meet were slim. Since Iwas extremely bashful, this suited me fine. I found my correspondents in the 1928 San

  5. Outdoor lighting guide

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As concern grows over environmental issues and light pollution, this book satisfies a need for a straightforward and accessible guide to the use, design and installation of outdoor lighting.This all-inclusive guide to exterior lighting from the Institution of Lighting Engineers, recognized as the pre-eminent professional source in the UK for authoritative guidance on exterior lighting, provides a comprehensive source of information and advice on all forms of exterior lighting, from floodlighting, buildings and road lighting to elaborate Christmas decorations. Useful to practitioners

  6. The Adventure and the Prize

    CERN Document Server

    Sivers, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This article presnts a condensed summary of separate, overlapping, presentations to the Workshop on Polarized Drell-Yan Physics (Santa Fe, NM, Oct. 31-Nov.1, 2010),the GHP 2011 Worshop (Anaheim, CA, Apr.21-27, 2011) and the Transversity 2011 Workshop (Veli-Lozinj, Croatia, Aug. 29-Sep. 2, 2011) during which the author advocated for a potential experimental program based at Fermilab utilizing high-intensity polarized proton beams of 120 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c. Some possible experiments in this program are introduced briefly. Interpretations for these potential experiments are presented in terms of a hypothetical solution to the "Quantum Yang Mills Theory" problem posed by Arthur Jaffe and Edward Witten as one of the seven Millenium Prize Problems in Mathematics issued by the Clay Mathematics Institute. These comparisons illustrate the close connection between transverse spin observables and the complex dynamics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking found in quantum chormodynamics.

  7. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  8. A Wonderful Adventure to a Rainforest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼雯雯

    2005-01-01

    I’d like to go to a rainforest—the place I’ve alw ays dream t of going to. D uring m y long holiday in M ay, it m ay take a w eek to be on m y adventure. A nd I think it’ll be a really fantastic journey as there m ust be a va- riety of creatures along m y w ay. W henever I get tired and bored,they’ll cheer m e up.D if- ferent creatures m ake m e excited. A nd the m ore dangerous m y journey is, the m ore curi- ous I w ill be. I m ay get to m y destination by air, but in order to enjoy m y journey to the ful...

  9. Synthesis of MnO2 nanoparticles and their effective utilization as UV protectors for outdoor high voltage polymeric insulators used in power transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipankar; Bhandari, Subhendu; Khastgir, Dipak

    2016-12-07

    Polymeric outdoor insulators derived from polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) are replacing conventional ceramic insulators in high voltage power transmission lines because of their improved electrical, mechanical and hydrophobic performance. Major impediments like failure of polymeric insulators due to natural aging by UV radiation from sunlight and electrical tracking have limited their usage. Herein, it is demonstrated about the usage of manganese dioxide based nanoparticles as an effective agent to prevent the UV accelerated aging of polymeric insulators. MnO2 nanoparticles of different shapes and dimension were synthesized using a single step wet chemical reaction between KMnO4 and methyl acetate. Namely, 2D δ-MnO2 nanosheets, 1D α-MnO2 nanowires and 3D α-MnO2 nanorods were formed. These nanoparticles were extensively characterized by various techniques. In the scope of the study, the δ-MnO2 (10(-5) S cm(-1); 1 MHz) nanosheet demonstrated the lowest electrical AC conductivity and a higher band gap compared to the 1D (10(-4) S cm(-1); 1 MHz) and 3D variety (10(-4) S cm(-1); 1 MHz). Owing to the lower electrical conductivity of the δ-MnO2 nanosheet, it was further incorporated at different filler volumes in the polymeric matrix (blend of polydimethyl siloxane/ethylene vinyl acetate) as a UV protector material for the polymer based high voltage composite polymeric insulator. The UV protection ability, induced by the δ-MnO2 nanosheet, was achieved without adversely affecting other properties of the formulated insulator compound material. The optimum properties of the composite were found to be obtained at 3 phr (three parts of δ-MnO2 nanosheet per hundred parts of polymer) loading of the nanosheet. The current work will promise to pave a new pathway for the generation of UV resistant high voltage power transmission line insulator materials. It would be interesting in the future to study the effect of incorporation of manganese dioxide based nanosheets on the UV

  10. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  11. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  12. Performance test procedures for thermal collectors - Outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, W. B.

    A review of outdoor solar collector test methods is presented, based largely on the CEC Recommendations for European Solar Collector Test Methods. Test facility design and instrumentation are discussed, with reference to their influence on measured collector efficiencies. Steady state outdoor testing, mixed indoor/outdoor testing and transient testing are reviewed, and it is concluded that although the testing of simple flat plate water heaters is fairly well understood, more work is now required to develop test methods for the new high performance collectors which are coming onto the market.

  13. The Impact of Adventure Video Games on Foreign Language Learning and the Perceptions of Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Jan Howard; Yang, Ting-Yu Christine

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have highlighted the potential of applying adventure video games in second language acquisition; however, few studies have investigated the impact of adventure games on foreign language learning. This study aimed to examine the effects of a commercial adventure video game on foreign language learning and learners'…

  14. The Impact of Adventure Video Games on Foreign Language Learning and the Perceptions of Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Jan Howard; Yang, Ting-Yu Christine

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have highlighted the potential of applying adventure video games in second language acquisition; however, few studies have investigated the impact of adventure games on foreign language learning. This study aimed to examine the effects of a commercial adventure video game on foreign language learning and learners' perceptions…

  15. The Eustress Paradigm: A Strategy for Decreasing Stress in Wilderness Adventure Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrellas, Anjanette

    This essay proposes that stress has been misused in traditional adventure education and presents a new model of risk taking based on the literature on stress and feminist perspectives in adventure education. Proponents of the traditional adventure perspective state that the intentional use of stress is central to the change process in wilderness…

  16. Integrating Alpine Adventure and Citizen Science in the Greater Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, H.

    2014-12-01

    As earth scientists, we are drawn together by our fascination with the natural world. On alpine climbing expeditions in the Greater Ranges of Asia during 2012-14, I had the opportunity to contribute to the scientific understanding and stewardship of the places I visit for personal fulfillment. Using the "matchmaking" services of Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation, I was connected with researchers to conduct field studies in some of the world's highest and most remote mountains. Here, I present work from two projects: 1) Assessing the role of biological weathering in shaping high altitude landscapes in the Pamir Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and 2) Understanding the effects of anthropogenic biomass burning on glacial thinning in the Everest Region, Nepal. Both collaborative efforts succeeded in collecting valuable data from challenging environments using a small research budget. As a scientist with expertise in terrestrial paleoclimate and stable isotope geochemistry, these projects served to expand my research horizons and areas of professional interest. Citizen science can not only add a sense of value to otherwise selfish endeavors such as high altitude climbing, but also serve to connect scientists with the communities who appreciate their efforts most.

  17. Energy efficient outdoor lighting: an implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Farahat, Ahmed; Florea, Anna; Martínez Lastra, José Luis; Brañas Reyes, Christian; Azcondo Sánchez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Lighting strongly influences human daily activities. Smart lighting emerged as new generation of lighting system, able to precisely address the specific needs. Under conditions of shortage in fossil fuels and high prices for energy, smart lighting enables design of lighting systems, which can efficiently use power resources without compromising the user experience. The paper describes implementation of outdoor lighting solution targeting energy efficiency. The proposed approach takes holistic...

  18. SOTUNKI: An Island Of Education and Adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi HEIKKILÄ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Last year some of the teachers of Sotunki Distance Learning Centre set out to find a new approach to teaching different subjects in Upper Secondary School. We wanted to do this by using social media and finally decided on using Second Life. I think social media like Second Life can offer a lot to our students who study via internet and rarely meet each other or their teachers. In Second Life students can meet their teachers, guidance counselors and fellow students face to face and in real time. This brings more interaction to the learning process and gives the students a chance to get to know each other. Also the interaction in Second Life is slightly different – it gives us teachers a different kind of chance to get to know our students better in a more informal way. There were many decisions to make when we first started building our school. We started by deciding on whether we wanted to have a traditional school building with traditional classrooms in it – and decided against it. Why repeat the real world in Second Life? What is the point of using a virtual world if not to benefit from the possibilities that the real world does not have? So we set out to do something new and extraordinary: instead of a school house we have a mountainous jungle waiting for explorers, and instead of classrooms we have lots of different innovations customized to fit the virtual world. It is important to us that students want to explore our island and learn while exploring it: learning can be a real adventure.I chose the course of history of literature as my project because Second Life has wonderful tools for creating historical settings. Building a pathway came naturally too: the history of literature is linear by nature; a pathway is its natural form. There are plenty of time periods in literature that have distinctive styles but I could not include them all. Finally I decided to build information points for eight different stylistic periods

  19. Adventures with cyanobacteria: a personal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindjee e

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, or the blue-green algae as they used to be called until 1974, are the oldest oxygenic photosynthesizers. We summarize here adventures with them since the early 1960s. This includes studies on light absorption by cyanobacteria, excitation energy transfer at room temperature down to liquid helium temperature, fluorescence (kinetics as well as spectra and its relationship to photosynthesis, and afterglow (or thermoluminescence from them. Further, we summarize experiments on their two-light reaction - two-pigment system, as well as the unique role of bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate on the electron acceptor side of their photosystem II, PSII. This review, in addition, includes a discussion on the regulation of changes in phycobilins (mostly in PSII and chlorophyll a (Chl a; mostly in photosystem I, PSI under oscillating light, on the relationship of the slow fluorescence increase (the so-called S to M rise, especially in the presence of diuron in minute time scale with the so-called state-changes, and on the possibility of limited oxygen evolution in mixotrophic PSI (minus mutants, up to 30 minutes, in the presence of glucose. We end this review with a brief discussion on the position of cyanobacteria in the evolution of photosynthetic systems.

  20. Visual Rhetoric in Outdoor Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Seliger, Marja

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a research, the aim of which is to find out how graphic expressions and visual language can be used for persuasion. The research material consists of outdoor advertisements photographed in their actual exhibition places in a city environment. Outdoor advertising media, which are used to communicate visual messages from a sender to several addressees, participate in building the visual city culture and open manifold solutions in design. The visual language used in the resear...

  1. Outdoor ground impedance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    2011-05-01

    Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.

  2. CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of whether you’re a fan of the "beautiful game", you’ve probably heard that the CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011 is the sporting event of the year for the CERN Football Club. This unmissable social, cultural and sporting event will be a chance for CERNois to mingle with external visitors. In the 2011 edition of this legendary tournament, which is over 45 years old, the principle of “fair play” is once again on display. Ten teams – 8 from CERN – are competing for the CFC title. The tournament concludes with a final on 7 July final. Along with a thrilling match, there will also be a host of festivities for the final, including an exhibition game, the final awards ceremony, surprise gifts, a barbeque, musical performances, and more! Make sure to highlight 7 July (after 18.00) on your agenda, and take advantage of what will surely be an unforgettable day! The final tournament matches have been in progress since April and are ...

  3. The Mississippi River in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳

    2014-01-01

    In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The Mississippi River is not just to provide a general background, but to consti-tute the center image of the novel. It gives“form”to the whole novel, all the adventures in the book begins with the river and ends with the river. This paper talks about the important river. It is a symbol of freedom and maternity, and it has deep meaning of life and regeneration, purification and sublimation. The symbols and senses of this river deepen the theme of the novel, and prop up its broad and profound metaphorical world.

  4. Adventure sports and tourism at the beginning of the construction of Europe in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Suchet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organised in the spring of 1993 on the border between France and Spain, the Pyrenees Adventure Games (les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure or los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, brought together more than 1,000 athletes from 26 countries and were attended by 21,000 visitors. An alternative Olympics of adventure and outdoor sports patronised by the IOC, the events took place in the Aure Valley in France (Hautes-Pyrénées and in the Sobrarbe in Spain (Huesca province. This article analyses the governance of this international sports competition. More specifically, this case study will enable us to find out more about the conditions of organisation of a cross-border project in the early 1990s. What were the various political, social and cultural exchanges between the valleys in terms of sports and tourism in the Pyrenees? The results show that the French organisation and the Spanish organisation functioned side by side instead of working together on the field. This division in working enabled them to bypass the language problem. The cross-border dimension of these adventure Olympics in 1993 stemmed from pressure from the French regional planning agency, DATAR right from the beginning of the project, i.e. in October 1989, to be exact. This dimension made the 1993 Pyrenees Adventure Games a testimony to the new political Europe that was being built after 1989. This period was marked by the proactiveness of institutions, which far exceeded the motivations of the populations of the Union.Organisés au printemps 1993 sur la frontière entre la France et l’Espagne, les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure, ou los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, réunirent plus de 1 000 athlètes venus de 26 pays du monde sous les yeux de 21 000 visiteurs. Olympiade des sports d’aventure et de nature patronnée par le CIO, les épreuves se déroulèrent dans la vallée d’Aure en France (département des Hautes-Pyrénées et le Sobrarbe en Espagne (province de

  5. 高速无线局域网室外信号抗干扰探讨%Exploring on Anti-jamming of Outdoor Signals in High-Speed Wireless Local Area Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国先

    2011-01-01

    为了使高速无线局域网(IEEE.11n技术)室外部分发射天线和接收天线之间的信号损耗和干扰最小,对信号传播反射损耗、绕射损耗、多径信道衰落、自然环境损耗等干扰进行了定量定性分析,提出了正确进行覆盖设计、频率规划、容量规划等措施,使高速无线局域网室外的干扰最小化。%In order to minimize the signal loss and disturbance of the transmitting and receiving antenna in high-speed wireless local area network (IEEE. lln technology) in the outdoor, this article analyzes the quota qualitative problems of the reflection loss for the ground dissemination, diffraction loss, the multi-diameter channel declination, natural environment loss and so on. And at the same time it proposes the relative measures, such as the cover design frequency plan, and the capacity planning to deal with them. In this way, we can minimize the disturbance to high speed wireless local area network in the outdoor

  6. Environmental equipment for usages of FEM software. ADVENTURE system user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Ichirou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Center for Promotion of Computional Science and Engineering, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshimura, Shinobu [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    The community softwares, databases, and other various tools have been installed in the ITBL environment by the Office of ITBL Promotion as a common utility property for each research field. Among those softwares, Finite Element Method (FEM) code, Adventure (which was originally developed by Prof. Yoshimura, the University of Tokyo), is provided as one of structure analysis programs for ITBL users. The code is well known to possess a high performance ability for parallel processing, especially for massively parallel environments. In this report, a chain of processes for usages of the system as well as the installation method to PC cluster are described. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Cooling Solutions for Outdoor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wankhede, Mahendra; Goswami, A; Mahajan, S D

    2008-01-01

    The thermal management of an outdoor electronic enclosure can be quite challenging due to the additional thermal load from the sun and the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure. It is essential to consider the effect of solar heating loads in the design process; otherwise, it can shorten the life expectancy of the electronic product or lead to catastrophic failure. In this paper we analyze and compare the effectiveness of different cooling techniques used for outdoor electronics. Various cooling techniques were compared like special coatings and paints on the outer surface, radiation shields, double-walled vented enclosures, fans for internal air circulation and air-to-air heat exchangers. A highly simplified, typical outdoor system was selected for this study measuring approximately 300x300x400 mm (WxLxH). Solar radiation was incident on 3 sides of the enclosure. There were 8 equally spaced PCBs inside the enclosure dissipating 12.5W each uniformly (100 watts total). A computational fluid dynamics (C...

  8. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  9. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  10. Behavioral and Emotional Crisis Management in Adventure Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer; Gillen, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Defines emotional crises in an adventure education context. Discusses crisis intervention from a mental-health perspective and presents nonviolent intervention techniques for anxiety, disruptive behavior, and harmful behavior. Describes two techniques--critical incident stress debriefing and traumatic stress defusing--aimed at managing traumatic…

  11. Mood, illness and injury responses and recovery with adventure racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglem, Nat; Lucas, Samuel J E; Rose, Elaine A; Cotter, James D

    2008-01-01

    Exercise stress, immune status, and mood are interrelated. The stress of adventure racing is unique; exercise is very prolonged and competitive, with severe sleep deprivation and sustained cognitive demands, usually in arduous terrain and environmental conditions. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive study was to identify mood changes along with symptoms of illness and injury during and in the weeks following an international-level adventure race. Mood, sleep, injury, and illness data were collected using questionnaires before, during, and for 2 weeks following New Zealand's Southern Traverse Adventure Race in November 2003. Mood was variable between athletes, but peaks of altered mood subscores were evident (P injury was common (38/48, 79%). Gastrointestinal complaints were common at the finish (8/49, 16%) and during the next 5 days but settled more quickly than upper respiratory symptoms. Adventure racing of approximately 100 hours causes significant symptomatic injury and illness and mood state disruption, which generally resolve within a fortnight following racing. Disrupted mood and symptoms of illness and injury indicate athlete susceptibility to overreaching or overtraining without sufficient recovery.

  12. Directory of Experiential Therapy and Adventure-Based Counseling Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Jackie, Ed.

    This directory lists 257 organizations with therapeutic adventure and experiential programs for special needs populations. The information was generated from a survey of members of the Association for Experiential Education. Special needs populations include youth-at-risk, persons with addictions, juvenile and adult offenders, inpatient and…

  13. The Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa through Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Rebecca; Priest, Simon

    1994-01-01

    Describes how adventure therapy can be adapted to help individuals suffering from bulimia develop effective coping mechanisms, increase self-esteem, and gain appreciation for their bodies. Goal is for participants to recognize compulsive behavior in relation to their attitudes and to understand underlying processes that lead to those behaviors and…

  14. Re-Examining Group Development in Adventure Therapy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraaf, Don; Ashby, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Small-group development is an important aspect of adventure therapy. Supplementing knowledge of sequential stages of group development with knowledge concerning within-stage nonsequential development yields a richer understanding of groups. Integrating elements of the individual counseling relationship (working alliance, transference, and real…

  15. The Practical Enactment of Adventure Learning: Where Will You AL@?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brant G.; Hougham, R. Justin; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The Adventure Learning (AL) approach to designing and implementing learning experiences has great potential for practitioners. This manuscript delineates the practical enactment of AL to support the K-12 community, teacher educators, and residential environmental science program providers in the conceptualization and delivery of their own AL…

  16. Parent Training: Implementation Strategies for "Adventures in Parenting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Shannon Carothers; Farris, Jaelyn R.; Borkowski, John G.

    2008-01-01

    "Adventures in Parenting", an informational booklet published by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, offers five principles that parents can use to develop a mental model of parenting: Responding, Preventing, Monitoring, Mentoring, and Modeling (RPM3). The current study was designed to assess the differential impact of…

  17. Education as Adventure: Lessons from the Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John G.; Hazzard, Susan P.

    Acknowledged or not, students are curriculum theorists and critics of schooling. Useful lessons can be learned by drawing them into the dialogue about the purposes and practices of education. The addition of children's perspectives can help education become an adventure in which teachers, researchers, and children together learn new questions as…

  18. Using the Adventure Model to Teach about Diversity and Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latess, Dennis R.; Walker, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    There are a variety of curricular approaches in physical education, any one of which can provide a framework and scheme that is the foundation of a physical education unit of study. This article will discuss the use of an adventure model to teach about diversity, multi-cultural understanding and tolerance. Teaching children diversity and tolerance…

  19. 巴黎历险记%Adventure in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    良晨

    2003-01-01

    @@ Part Nine: Chinese "Merchandise" and Animosity It is certainly worthwhile writing down this unusual story fifteen years later, but the adventure itself was more frightening than exciting; the experience with the police and the court was more humiliating (屈辱性的) than interesting.

  20. Cardiovascular disease in the Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, S V

    2001-03-12

    The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle contains many incidents of medical interest. While disorders of the cardiovascular system do not play an important role in these tales, there are, nevertheless, some illnesses that invite speculation. Eleven such incidents are reviewed and discussed in light of the times in which they occurred and in light of current medical knowledge.

  1. Characterization of Holmes in The Adventure of Speckled Band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-ling

    2015-01-01

    Sherlock Holmes is the fictional creation of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. In The Adventure of the Speckled Band, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle has succeeded in creating the image of Sherlock Holmes. He is not only an excellent detective who is skillful in as⁃tute observation and deductive reasoning, but also the symbol of justice and wisdom.

  2. Adventures in Evaluation: Reviewing a CD-ROM Based Adventure Game Designed for Young People Recovering from Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimpton, Bradley; Hurworth, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    Recently the Centre for Program Evaluation (CPE) at the University of Melbourne was approached by a mental health agency to undertake the unique and challenging task of evaluating a prototype CD-ROM based adventure game designed for young people recovering from psychosis. This unusual and inventive game, titled Pogo's Pledge, used…

  3. The Andean Geotrail (1): A scientific adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Galland, O.; Raufaste, C.; Mair, K.

    2009-12-01

    The role of Geosciences in our society is of primary importance. Its implications for humanity relate to major challenges such as climate change, managing energy resources, natural hazard mitigation, and water scarcity. Despite these issues being familiar to specialists, this is in general not the case for the public. In a world, where the impact of human activity is beginning to be seen on the environment, knowledge of the Earth and its history is paramount to make informed decisions that will influence our future. The necessity to educate the global population and raise awareness of Geosciences has led UNESCO to designate 2009 the International Year of the Planet Earth. In this context and with the label of the UNESCO, we organized and performed a popular science adventure that was followed in real time by both school children and many adults around the world. The Andean Geotrail consisted of a cycling expedition through a spectacular geological environment, the Andean Cordillera. During the nine month expedition, we cycled 8000 km and walked 400 km from Ushuaia in the Southern tip of Argentina to Nazca in Peru to encounter a rich variety of geological environments: active volcanoes, earthquakes, mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and fantastic geological scenery. All this makes the Andes a great pedagogical natural laboratory. During the expedition, we visited spectacular geological localities that illustrate key Earth Science phenomena (such as mines and hydrocarbon deposits, erupting volcanoes and seismogenically active areas, and national parks) and discovered their implications for the local people. Along the way, we interviewed local geologists and scientists who helped us understand the geology of their areas. We gathered our own observations with those of the local specialists and published essays, articles and photographs on our website and blog (www.georouteandine.fr/English, http://georouteandine.blogspot.com). Seventeen schools in France and Norway

  4. Outdoor Education and Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alistair

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the importance of increasing effective communication in outdoor education programs. Examines sensory preferences and how they affect vocabulary, voice tone, and body language. Describes ways that outdoor educators can use this information to improve their communication skills. (LP)

  5. Time Outdoors May Deliver Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163389.html Time Outdoors May Deliver Better Sleep Camping and exposure to natural light helps prime ... Spending time in the outdoors may improve your sleep, a small study suggests. Researchers found that a ...

  6. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.......To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation....

  7. How safe is adventure tourism in New Zealand? An exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, T; Page, S; Meyer, D; Chalmers, D; Laird, I

    2001-08-01

    The paper reports findings from a multidisciplinary programme of research, the major aims of which were to determine the nature and extent of the New Zealand adventure tourism injury problem. Analysis of hospital discharge and mortality data for a 15-year period identified adventure tourism-related activities as contributing to approximately 20% of overseas visitor injuries, and 22% of fatalities. Activities that commonly involve independent-unguided adventure tourism, notably mountaineering, skiing and tramping, contributed most to injury and fatality incidence. Horse riding and cycling activities were identified from hospital discharge data and adventure tourism operators' reported client injury-incidence, as the commercial adventure tourism activities most frequently involved in client injuries. Falls were the most common injury events, and a range of client, equipment, environmental and organisational risk factors were identified. Possible interventions to reduce injury risk among overseas and domestic adventure tourists are discussed.

  8. Outdoor Acoustics as a General Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    A tutorial paper exploring the characteristics of sound outdoors. Outdoor acoustics is contrasted to room acoustics. A number of important aspects of outdoor acoustics are exemplified and theoretical approaches are outlined. These are influence of ground impedance, influence of weather, screening...

  9. Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

  10. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  11. Universal Design and Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in the natural environment provides authentic and concrete opportunities for children to enhance development in all domains (Bailie, 2010). As children play and explore in nature they build gross motor development moving through the outdoors. Learning outside and in nature not only allows for learning across subject areas and…

  12. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  13. Counselling Techniques for Outdoor Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Michelle; Chase, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Outdoor leaders need counseling skills to deal with interpersonal conflicts that arise within a group and to facilitate participant growth and change. Person-centered counseling, reality therapy counseling, and behavioral counseling are discussed, as well as how various techniques from each can be used to the benefit of the leader and the group.…

  14. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part...

  15. Signature Pedagogies in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…

  16. Universal Design and Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in the natural environment provides authentic and concrete opportunities for children to enhance development in all domains (Bailie, 2010). As children play and explore in nature they build gross motor development moving through the outdoors. Learning outside and in nature not only allows for learning across subject areas and…

  17. PENGARUH CITRA MEREK (BRAND IMAGE DAN KEPUASAN WISATAWAN TERHADAP LOYALITAS WISATAWAN PADA BALI ADVENTURE RAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardilla Nathaurisia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ith loyalty and high power of buying. Research impact of brand image and guest satisfaction on customer loyalty is important to do in order to obtain an explanation of the relationship between brand image and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. The purpose of this study is 1 to identify the circumstance brand image on customer loyalty. 2 to identify the circumstance customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. 3 to determine the circumstance brand image and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. This research was conducted at Bali Adventure Rafting. Result shows that branding and customer satisfaction has a significant effect on customer loyalty in Bali Adventure Rafting with result 41,7%. This result is obtained from the value of determination D x 100% = 0,417 x 100% = 41,7%. This means that the brand image and customer satisfaction contributing positively to customer loyalty of rating of 41,7% and the remaining 58,3% is influenced by others factors such as costumers satisfaction, marketing strategy.

  18. Outdoor Acoustics as a General Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    A tutorial paper exploring the characteristics of sound outdoors. Outdoor acoustics is contrasted to room acoustics. A number of important aspects of outdoor acoustics are exemplified and theoretical approaches are outlined. These are influence of ground impedance, influence of weather, screening...... due to natural and man-made obstacles. Various areas of application of outdoor sound are described, such as aircraft noise, road traffic noise and industrial noise. More unconventional applications such as outdoor sound reinforcement are also described. The choice of theoretical model must be adapted...

  19. 巴黎历险记%Adventure in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    良晨

    2003-01-01

    @@ Part oneCatacombs, Pistols andCarbines I.坟墓,手枪,卡宾枪 Lonely and homesick, I was staring at the Eiffel Tour from the single window of my attic. Suddenly" Ring, ring, ring,the phone rang. I cheerfully rushed on my phone. It was my partner for table tennis,a student in Paris. "Do you like adventures? Yes, of course! How about an adventure in the sewer system1 tomorrow night?""In the sewers! ! Why the sewers?""To find the Catacombs2!" As a foreign student in Paris, I felt so alone that I accepted his invitation in excitement. It was 15 years ago.

  20. Mythic Frodo and his Predestinate Call to Adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting aspects of J.R.R. Tolkien’s stories, especially The Lord of the Rings is the presentation of the multidimensional characters; therefore, the complexity of interpretations concerning their actions, motives, and aims will be manifested from the beginning of the story, until the end. Following the study of a mythic hero’s adventure, initiation, and psychological aspects, the present paper focuses on the investigation of Predestinate Call to Adventure. The researcher has benefited the theories of Joseph Campbell, presented in his renowned book The Hero with a Thousand Faces and the supplementary comments of Christopher Vogler. In fact, the researcher’s motivation for the work initiated in this regard is to improve the very few previous attempts studied by others, concerning Frodo Baggins’ role as the main and the most tragic hero of The Lord of the Rings. Keywords: Mythology, Tragic hero, Mythic hero, Tolkien’s legendarium, Monomyth, Initiation

  1. Adventure/qualified tourism in the rehabilitation of juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Paczyńska-Jędrycka, Małgorzata; Łubkowska, Wioletta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article was to show the educational values of adventure tourism in the process of rehabilitation of juveniles. Theoretical considerations concerning this topic give rise to the following conclusions: 1. Thanks to qualified tourism, young people shape their character and face weaknesses. It helps to change the behavior and create pro-social attitudes. 2. Qualified tourism teaches basic life skills. All of the above-mentioned points prove that part of correc...

  2. The Great Adventure of an American Human Geneticist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Arno G; King, Mary-Claire

    2016-08-31

    It is my great pleasure to have been asked by the Editorial Committee of the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics to write a short autobiography of my life in genetics over the past 70 years. It has been a great adventure. I came both to America and to human genetics by a circuitous and ultimately very fortunate route. I hope the next generation of geneticists will enjoy reading about it.

  3. RPP Game Edukasi Pathfinding Adventures - Materi Sistem Koordinat - Kelas 8

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayatullah, Aulia Muslim

    2016-01-01

    Pathfinding Adventures bertujuan untuk membantu pemain dalam memahami konsep matematika kelas 8 mengenai sistem koordinat. Pada game ini pemain dapat berpetualang di area khusus untuk mencari dan menggambar peta dari hasil perjalanan dalam melaksanakan misi di setiap tingkatan permainan. Pemain diberikan akses kontrol pada game dalam format “Third Person” atau dari sudut pandang luar karakter pada permainan. Menyelesaikan tantangan-tantangan yang diberikan di setiap tingkatan ...

  4. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ..., bolstered our economy, and fueled our national spirit of adventure and independence. The United States holds... life and our health, rejuvenate local and regional economies, spur job creation, protect wildlife and... healthy, active, and energized, while reconnecting with their natural heritage. This month, let each of us...

  5. Adventure Learning: Theory and Implementation of Hybrid Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, A.

    2008-12-01

    Adventure Learning (AL), a hybrid distance education approach, provides students and teachers with the opportunity to learn about authentic curricular content areas while interacting with adventurers, students, and content experts at various locations throughout the world within an online learning environment (Doering, 2006). An AL curriculum and online environment provides collaborative community spaces where traditional hierarchical classroom roles are blurred and learning is transformed. AL has most recently become popular in K-12 classrooms nationally and internationally with millions of students participating online. However, in the literature, the term "adventure learning" many times gets confused with phrases such as "virtual fieldtrip" and activities where someone "exploring" is posting photos and text. This type of "adventure learning" is not "Adventure Learning" (AL), but merely a slideshow of their activities. The learning environment may not have any curricular and/or social goals, and if it does, the environment design many times does not support these objectives. AL, on the other hand, is designed so that both teachers and students understand that their online and curriculum activities are in synch and supportive of the curricular goals. In AL environments, there are no disparate activities as the design considers the educational, social, and technological affordances (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004); in other words, the artifacts of the learning environment encourage and support the instructional goals, social interactions, collaborative efforts, and ultimately learning. AL is grounded in two major theoretical approaches to learning - experiential and inquiry-based learning. As Kolb (1984) noted, in experiential learning, a learner creates meaning from direct experiences and reflections. Such is the goal of AL within the classroom. Additionally, AL affords learners a real-time authentic online learning experience concurrently as they

  6. Children's Charm in Mark Twain's Two Adventures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪奕娜

    2011-01-01

    The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn gave their merits by the children protagonists. In Encyclopedia America, it says that Mark Twain is best known for these two novels of boyhood life on the Mississippi River in the mid-19th century. Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer are the clue to know the American growth well.

  7. Personal Insight: Reframing the Unconscious through Metaphor-Based Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffer, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Integrates several techniques of psychodynamic therapy with the conceptual and metaphorical world of adventure therapy. Discusses a model of the metaphorical connection between self and experience, in which the client creates a self-metaphor to illuminate his or her experience during an adventure activity and thereby unlocks the unconscious and…

  8. Future Directions in Adventure-based Therapy Research: Methodological Considerations and Design Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newes, Sandra L.

    2001-01-01

    More methodologically sound research in adventure therapy is needed if the field is to claim empirically-based efficacy as a treatment modality. Some considerations for conducting outcome studies in adventure therapy relate to standardization, multiple domain assessment, regression techniques, objective assessment of participant change, client and…

  9. An Exploratory Study of a Wilderness Adventure Program for Young Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith C.; Walsh, Michael Allen

    2011-01-01

    During the past 50 years, wilderness and adventure programs have been utilized as a therapeutic intervention for adolescents involved in America's juvenile justice systems. The program that is the focus of this research project is the Wilderness Endeavors Program, a correctional wilderness and adventure program for youthful offenders in the state…

  10. Mechanisms of Learning Transfer in Adventure Education: Qualitative Results from the NOLS Transfer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Furman, Nate; Paisley, Karen; Gookin, John; Schumann, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Transfer of learning from adventure programs remains of critical interest to adventure education professionals. Although some research has investigated what transfers, notably less has focused on mechanisms that might influence transfer. This paper explores the mechanisms of transfer reported by a stratified random sample of National Outdoor…

  11. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" in Arabic Translations: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" in Arabic Translations, and how translators transformed this masterpiece into Arabic. By examining "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," I adopt the "Translation as Problem and Solution Approach" to investigate translation issues at three levels of…

  12. Practical Implications for the Development of Applied Metaphor in Adventure Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartford, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the definitions, role, and use of metaphor in adventure therapy. It provides an overview of theoretical perspectives on metaphor and the related ways in which metaphor is used in adventure therapy. Research on the use of metaphor in counselling and from neuropsychology and linguistics is applied to a model of metaphor use in…

  13. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  14. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  15. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger

    2006-05-01

    for this breach of contract. But the price paid by the new contracting party is expected to be over ten times what Decaux is presently paying… So Bertrand de la Noe, the Lord Mayor, decided to reduce by three or four the surface. The Paris citizen will earn 2.5 to 3 times more money getting also a cleaner public space. Yes… as public space, public money belongs to the community of the citizen…The other fundamental laws are commercial: on one hand «low offers make high prices» and on the other hand «too many signs are insignificant».Reducing the number of signs makes the remaining signs more readable, which is the first quality of advertising. That is why every one seems to be satisfied with few publicity. The town gets more money out of it and offers a nice townscape. The publishers are sure to be alone on the market as long as they keep the contract. The publishers are sure to be alone on the market as long as they keep the contract. The firms are guaranteed to be well seen.

  16. The lost Adventure Archipelago (Sicilian Channel, Mediterranean Sea): Morpho-bathymetry and Late Quaternary palaeogeographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civile, Dario; Lodolo, Emanuele; Zecchin, Massimo; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Baradello, Luca; Accettella, Daniela; Cova, Andrea; Caffau, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    The rise in sea level following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) radically altered pre-existing geography, pushing back the former shorelines. The effect of this eustatic change was particularly intense and dramatic in flat lands and shelves, such as the Sicilian Channel. High-resolution bathymetric maps and Chirp seismic profiles analyzed in this study show that the Sicilian Channel, now lying at depths rarely exceeding 150 m, has emerged several times during its geological history. The last emergence was during the Early Holocene, when kilometre-sized islands punctuated the north-western sector of the Sicilian Channel, the Adventure Plateau, forming a broad archipelago. Many of these islands, now located in water ranging in depth from - 10 to - 40 m, are composed of highly deformed Neogene sedimentary rocks (Talbot, Ante-Talbot, Nereo, and Pantelleria Vecchia banks), while others represent submarine Pleistocene volcanic edifices (Galatea, Anfitrite and Tetide banks). Sedimentary cover in all of these banks is virtually absent. High-resolution seismic profiles allowed the identification of post-LGM morphological markers associated with the marine transgression, some of which are characterized by melt water-pulses, as demonstrated by the presence of specific and distinct erosional features. Combining swath bathymetric data with the seismic profiles, we have generated two palaeogeographic maps of the former Adventure Archipelago at two specific time frames: (1) at the end of the Younger Dryas stadial (11,500 yr B.P., corresponding to a former sea level of - 60 m), and (2) at the end of the melt-water pulse 1B (11,200 yr B.P., corresponding to a former sea level of - 42 m). Maps clearly show that in just 300 years the geography of the archipelago has changed dramatically, so much so that some islands have disappeared and some have decreased by more than 80% of their pre-Younger Dryas size.

  17. Active Families in the Great Outdoors: A Program to Promote Family Outdoor Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jennifer I.; Bassett, David R.; Fouts, Hillary N.; Thompson, Dixie L.; Coe, Dawn P.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated a 4-week program to increase the time families spent engaging in outdoor activity. Parents were provided strategies to increase family outdoor activity and locations to be active. Sixteen families completed the program. Duration and number of family outdoor activity bouts per week, type of activities, locations, and family…

  18. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Chang, Qiang; Li, Qun; Shi, Zesen; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-22

    In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS) have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL) has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users' current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication cellular base station's signal strength in different environments, and identified the users' current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  19. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users’ current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM communication cellular base station’s signal strength in different environments, and identified the users’ current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  20. A medical perspective on the adventures of Sherlock Holmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J

    2001-12-01

    The adventures of Sherlock Holmes, although primarily famous as stories of detection of crime, offer a considerable amount to interest the medical reader. There are many medical references in the stories, and the influence of Conan Doyle's medical background is clearly seen in the main characters. Aspects of the stories also reflect Conan Doyle's medical career, and also something of his attitude towards the profession. From Holmes's sayings and accounts of his methods, parallels can be drawn between Holmesian deduction and the diagnostic process. It is concluded, however, that deduction cannot be used as a direct paradigm since medical problems are rarely soluble through a process of logic alone.

  1. Particle Swarm Optimization for Outdoor Lighting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor lighting is an essential service for modern life. However, the high influence of this type of facility on energy consumption makes it necessary to take extra care in the design phase. Therefore, this manuscript describes an algorithm to help light designers to get, in an easy way, the best configuration parameters and to improve energy efficiency, while ensuring a minimum level of overall uniformity. To make this possible, we used a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. These algorithms are well established, and are simple and effective to solve optimization problems. To take into account the most influential parameters on lighting and energy efficiency, 500 simulations were performed using DIALux software (4.10.0.2, DIAL, Ludenscheid, Germany. Next, the relation between these parameters was studied using to data mining software. Subsequently, we conducted two experiments for setting parameters that enabled the best configuration algorithm in order to improve efficiency in the proposed process optimization.

  2. Suggested Bibliography for Outdoor Education and Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State School of Conservation, Branchville.

    Seventy-seven books and articles published between 1939 and 1964 are listed in this bibliography for students and teachers of outdoor education. The entries are listed alphabetically under the following subject headings: outdoor education, conservation, administration, aquatics, archery, arts and crafts, Indian lore, nature study, riding, rifle,…

  3. Basic illustrated knots for the outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Cliff Jacobson is one of North America's most respected outdoors writers and wilderness canoe guides. His experiences as a professional outfitter and canoeing consultant have resulted in more than a dozen top-selling books on camping, canoeing, navigation, and outdoor skills.

  4. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  5. Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

  6. Using the Outdoors To Teach Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Rebecca R.; Staley, Frederick A.

    A framework for using the outdoors as a vehicle for providing meaningful language arts experiences is presented in this guide geared toward intermediate students but adaptable for other ages. The introduction outlines goals of language arts instruction and notes that activities conducted outdoors contribute to these goals because they are…

  7. Teaching STEM Outdoors: Activities for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selly, Patty Born

    2017-01-01

    Nurture young children's innate tendencies toward exploration, sensory stimulation, and STEM learning when you connect outdoor learning with STEM curriculum. Discover the developmental benefits of outdoor learning and how the rich diversity of settings and materials in nature gives rise to questions and inquiry for deeper learning. Full of…

  8. Does Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Really Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith C.

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH), using wilderness therapy and related outdoor programming, is an emerging treatment for adolescents with behavioral, psychological, and substance abuse disorders. A literature review examining OBH outcomes related to self-concept, interpersonal skills, substance abuse, criminal recidivism, and behavioral and…

  9. Indoor and Outdoor Play in Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain children's indoor and outdoor play in preschool programs in terms of teacher interaction, peer interaction and task orientation. Children's indoor and outdoor play behaviors were compared using the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS). Findings included significant differences on…

  10. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  11. Teaching Science in an Outdoor Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Phyllis; Railton, Esther P.

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide suggestions for teaching science outdoors through the use of the California Natural History Guides. Specific references to the Guides are made throughout the handbook. Learning activities related to outdoor science education are grouped under the following topics: objectives, suggested activities,…

  12. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  13. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  14. Dissemination of go sun smart in outdoor recreation: effect of program exposure on sun protection of guests at high-altitude ski areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, Michael D; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R; Liu, Xia; Maloy, Julie A

    2014-09-01

    Go Sun Smart is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun-protection behaviors of employees and guests at high-altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of Go Sun Smart, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, on sun-protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure, and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy-enhanced versus basic-was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relation between message exposure and guests' sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 Go Sun Smart materials in guest-only areas and 9 Go Sun Smart materials throughout the area increased guests' message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not within the low-use ski areas. The authors underscore the importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industrywide.

  15. An International Polar Year Adventure in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, D.

    2008-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks began in 1983 after a series of meetings between the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska, to discuss the retention rates of Alaska Native and rural students. RAHI is a six-week college-preparatory summer bridge program on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. The program's student body is approximately 94 percent Alaska Native. RAHI students take classes that earn them seven to ten college credits, thus giving them a head start on college. Courses include: writing, study skills, desk top publishing, Alaska Native dance or swimming, and a choice of biochemistry, math, business, or engineering. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities to make up the RAHI program of early preparation for college. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. They are treated as honors students and are expected to meet all rigorous academic and social standards set by the program. All of this effort and activity support the principal goal of RAHI: promoting academic success for rural students in college. Over 26 years, 1,200 students have attended the program. Sixty percent of RAHI's alumni have entered four-year academic programs. Over 245 have earned a bachelor's degree, thirty-one have earned master's degrees, and seven have graduated with professional degrees (J.D., Pharm., or M.D.), along with 156 associate degrees and certificates. In looking at the RAHI cohort, removing those students who have not been in college long enough to obtain a degree, 27.3 percent of RAHI alums have received a bachelor's degree. An April 2006 report by the American Institutes for Research through the National Science Foundation found that: Rural

  16. Culture and the Arts: An Adventure Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Tim

    1994-01-01

    The Young Scholars Program, a four-week intensive summer program of theater and dance that integrates deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing high school students, is described. The program emphasizes cultural diversity and experiential learning through field trips and student performances. (DB)

  17. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  18. Use of high-volume outdoor smog chamber photo-reactors for studying physical and chemical atmospheric aerosol formation and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric particulate matter has a large impact on climate, biosphere behaviour and human health. Its study is complex because of large number of species are present at low concentrations and the continuous time evolution, being not easily separable from meteorology, and transport processes. Closed systems have been proposed by isolating specific reactions, pollutants or products and controlling the oxidizing environment. High volume simulation chambers, such as EUropean PHOtoREactor (EUPHORE), are an essential tool used to simulate atmospheric photochemical reactions. This communication describes the last results about the reactivity of prominent atmospheric pollutants and the subsequent particulate matter formation. Specific experiments focused on organic aerosols have been developed at the EUPHORE photo-reactor. The use of on-line instrumentation, supported by off-line techniques, has provided well-defined reaction profiles, physical properties, and up to 300 different species are determined in particulate matter. The application fields include the degradation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollutants, and pesticides under several atmospheric conditions, studying their contribution on the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The studies performed at the EUPHORE have improved the mechanistic studies of atmospheric degradation processes and the knowledge about the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric particulate matter formed during these processes.

  19. Study on Outdoor College English Teaching Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling-po

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor college English teaching penetrates in each teaching procedure so that student could experience and partici-pate in the whole teaching process. Through the practice and observation of the outdoor classroom, students could give full play to their subjective initiative and really become the master of the class. Meanwhile outdoor experiential English teaching can maximize the initiative of students’learning, improve teams’vitality and creativity. Moreover this paper could also offer some suggestions on the teaching reform of colleges in our country.

  20. Emerging for Recovery: A Descriptive Analysis of Adventure Therapy for Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Michael A.; McPhee, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines client characteristics, referral and screening procedures, program characteristics, treatment goals, financial arrangements, and staff characteristics in 50 programs using adventure experiences with substance abuse populations. Notes needs for specific program evaluation research and for the development of prescriptive treatment…

  1. Wild life recreation: Utilizing wilderness adventure therapy to prevent delinquency in minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tekin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the functionality of wilderness adventure therapy on eliminating and preventing delinquency in minors was investigated based on available literature. The first issue handled in the paper is defining wilderness adventure therapy. Second is the mechanism between juvenile delinquency and wilderness adventure therapy. As the results of this study, the people who participate in wilderness adventure therapy commit lower offence when compared with non-participants. The positive effect of recreation on decreasing and preventing delinquency is still not certain and clear considering the earlier researches. Although it is possible to reach many studies which result in positive outcomes there is a need for further researches to understand whether wild life recreation can be used as a therapy to decrease or prevent delinquency in a therapeutic way.

  2. Wild life recreation: Utilizing wilderness adventure therapy to prevent delinquency in minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tekin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the functionality of wilderness adventure therapy on eliminating and preventing delinquency in minors was investigated based on available literature. The first issue handled in the paper is defining wilderness adventure therapy. Second is the mechanism between juvenile delinquency and wilderness adventure therapy. As the results of this study, the people who participate in wilderness adventure therapy commit lower offence when compared with non-participants. The positive effect of recreation on decreasing and preventing delinquency is still not certain and clear considering the earlier researches. Although it is possible to reach many studies which result in positive outcomes there is a need for further researches to understand whether wild life recreation can be used as a therapy to decrease or prevent delinquency in a therapeutic way. 

  3. Adventure Stories for Reading, Learning and Literacy Cross-curricular resources for the primary school

    CERN Document Server

    Leicester, Mal

    2010-01-01

    Takes a unique approach to cross-curricular teaching in the primary classroom. Providing eight original adventure stories, this title builds up a suite of resources and activities for teachers to use in the classroom

  4. Cosmological adventures in the Lyman forest

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, S

    1995-01-01

    The properties of the Lyman-\\alpha absorptions observed in the spectra of QSOs are reviewed: the distribution of column densities and Doppler widths, the redshift evolution, the ``inverse effect'', the clustering. By interpreting the statistics of the line parameters insight is gained about the nature of the absorbers, their sizes, temperatures, confining agents. On the basis of the ``inverse effect'' it is possible to estimate the ultraviolet background radiation at high redshift and, linking this information with the limits on the Gunn-Peterson optical depth, the density of the diffuse part of the intergalactic medium is derived. Future prospects are briefly discussed.

  5. GoNorth! - An Adventure Learning Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsild, M.; Doering, A.; Pregont, P.

    2008-12-01

    GoNorth! is an adventure learning series developed at the University of Minnesota in collaboration with NOMADS Online Expeditions. GoNorth! uses real-time experiences of dogsled expeditions on a multimedia saturated website at http://www.PolarHusky.com to motivate and engage millions of K-12 students and teachers. The program is free and research (Doering & Veletsianos, 2007) shows that it can be adopted by any teacher who signs up to use the program. It is currently utilized in 3400+ classrooms across the 50 US States and in 29 countries worldwide. Research (Doering & Veletsianos, 2007; 2008) notes that students working with GoNorth! are excited, motivated, and eager to engage with authentic tasks, solve real-world problems, collaborate with colleagues and experts, and initiate actions in their own community. Our team of educators, scientists and explorers circumnavigate the Arctic traveling by dog team to a new Arctic locale every year. Driven by an environmental question of particular relevance to the given Arctic region, each year a comprehensive natural and social science GoNorth! Curriculum & Activity Guide (450+ pages) is developed reflecting the expedition's current Arctic locale and its indigenous culture. The associated online learning environment delivers comprehensive resources about the region of travel, collaborative opportunities, live field updates and field research findings synched real-time to the curriculum. Field research relevant to understanding patterns of climate change and polar science is conducted with independent researchers featured as "Cool GoNorth! Scientists." Collaborations span from scientists at NASA and the United States Department of Agriculture to student observers in pan-Arctic communities as part of the NSF-supported initiative "What Is Climate Change to You?." This scientific research and fieldwork in turn coincides with the curriculum. The result is a community of learners on the Internet gaining knowledge from Arctic

  6. Professional judgement and decision making in adventure sports coaching: The role of interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, L; Collins, D.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study presents the view that coaching practice places demands on the coach’s adaptability and flexibility. These requirements for being adaptive and flexible are met through a careful process of professional judgement and decision making based on context-appropriate bodies of knowledge. Adventure sports coaches were selected for study on the basis that adventure sports create a hyper-dynamic environment in which these features can be examined. Thematic analysis revealed that ...

  7. Comparison of survey methods to profile participants in emerging adventure recreation activities undertaken in wilderness

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Growth in ‘adventure recreation’, typically practised in protected areas, is occurring. Canyoning (cf. canyoneering), is one such activity. In the Greater Blue Mountain World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), Australia, management was concerned that canyoning was causing environmental damage. However, there is a dearth of data, even on participation, because of the ‘composite’ nature of the activity, its recent emergence, and because adventure recreation is typically restricted to wilderness areas whic...

  8. CometQuest: A Rosetta Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Nancy J.; Fisher, Diane K.; Novati, Alexander; Chmielewski, Artur B.; Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Angrum, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This software is a higher-performance implementation of tiled WMS, with integral support for KML and time-varying data. This software is compliant with the Open Geospatial WMS standard, and supports KML natively as a WMS return type, including support for the time attribute. Regionated KML wrappers are generated that match the existing tiled WMS dataset. Ping and JPG formats are supported, and the software is implemented as an Apache 2.0 module that supports a threading execution model that is capable of supporting very high request rates. The module intercepts and responds to WMS requests that match certain patterns and returns the existing tiles. If a KML format that matches an existing pyramid and tile dataset is requested, regionated KML is generated and returned to the requesting application. In addition, KML requests that do not match the existing tile datasets generate a KML response that includes the corresponding JPG WMS request, effectively adding KML support to a backing WMS server.

  9. Position fusion for an outdoor mobile robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning Systems (GPS) provide an effective means of outdoor localisation. Unfortunately they are subject to a variety of errors, particularly in cluttered environments where GPS signal is not always available. Whilst GPS positional...

  10. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra;

    2010-01-01

    The benefists of outdoor recreation and the need for recreation inventories and monitoring are described in various policy and legislation documents at the European level. The objective of this paper is to analyse how these recreational aspects are reflected at the national level in core forest...... in the field of outdoor recreation, and reveal similarities, differences, gaps and future needs. Among the main findings is a contradiction between the expressed political importance of outdoor recreation at the national level, and the absence of binding commitments for action. The majority of the countries...... surveyed recognise and express outdoor recreation in some form of political and/or legislative way. However, recreation monitoring or measurements are rarely mentioned in relevant policies or acts at the national, regional or local level, perhaps due to a l ack of political will or resources. The analysis...

  11. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    .... The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play...

  12. Initiation of the adventure of X-rays in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustun, Cagatay, E-mail: cagatay.ustun@ege.edu.t [Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of History of Medicine and Medical Ethics, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    Following the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad ROENTGEN in 1895, the interest in these rays increased in many countries, and studies were initiated for the use of this discovery in the field of medicine. The contributions of Dr. Esad Feyzi, and Dr. Rifat Osman who later joined him, are significant with respect to introducing the knowledge about ROENTGEN rays to Turkey in a very short time span. In this article, we will briefly mention the initiation period of the adventure of X-rays in Turkey. All medical fields should be aware of their own histories. Only in this way the future of sciences may be shaped through a healthier progress.

  13. A grande aventura urbana The great urban adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Freire Prysthon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Caiafa, Janice (2007. Aventura das cidades. ensaios e etnografias. Rio de Janeiro: Editora FGV. Em Aventura das cidades, Janice Caiafa reúne oito ensaios apresentados e publicados nos últimos anos. O tema central de sete deles é justamente a experiência urbana e a errância pelas metrópoles contemporâneas, o último traz à tona as questões metodológicas que permeiam as etnografias das cidades feitas pela autora. In Adventure of the Cities, Janice Caiafa compiles eight essays presented and published in recent years. The central theme of seven of these essays is, as indicated by the title, the urban experience and wandering through contemporary metropolises. The eighth essay broaches methodological issues that permeate the author's ethnographies of the city.

  14. Mobile Robots for Outdoor Security Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    1 everett-2 MOBILE ROBOTS FOR OUTDOOR SECURITY APPLICATIONS Tracy Heath Pastore (SSC-SD), H. R. Everett (SSC-SD), Kevin Bonner (RST) Space and...APR 1999 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mobile Robots for Outdoor Security Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Based Intruder Detection for a Robotic Security System," SPIE Mobile Robots XIII, Boston, MA, 1-6 November, 1998. Everett, H.R., Gilbreath, G.A

  15. The little book of maths outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This is a unique book that supports the current thinking behind outdoor learning. It features over 40 ideas for outdoor activities that support mathematics in the early years and the specific areas of learning in the revised EYFS. All the ideas are tried and tested by Terry and this book will prove to be popular in the early years and well into Key stage 1.

  16. Target product profiles for protecting against outdoor malaria transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killeen Gerry F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual sprays (IRS have decimated malaria transmission by killing indoor-feeding mosquitoes. However, complete elimination of malaria transmission with these proven methods is confounded by vectors that evade pesticide contact by feeding outdoors. Methods For any assumed level of indoor coverage and personal protective efficacy with insecticidal products, process-explicit malaria transmission models suggest that insecticides that repel mosquitoes will achieve less impact upon transmission than those that kill them outright. Here such models are extended to explore how outdoor use of products containing either contact toxins or spatial repellents might augment or attenuate impact of high indoor coverage of LLINs relying primarily upon contact toxicity. Results LLIN impact could be dramatically enhanced by high coverage with spatial repellents conferring near-complete personal protection, but only if combined indoor use of both measures can be avoided where vectors persist that prefer feeding indoors upon humans. While very high levels of coverage and efficacy will be required for spatial repellents to substantially augment the impact of LLINs or IRS, these ambitious targets may well be at least as practically achievable as the lower requirements for equivalent impact using contact insecticides. Conclusions Vapour-phase repellents may be more acceptable, practical and effective than contact insecticides for preventing outdoor malaria transmission because they need not be applied to skin or clothing and may protect multiple occupants of spaces outside of treatable structures such as nets or houses.

  17. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  18. SMART-1 - the lunar adventure begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    instruments to see it. New technologies to prepare for future interplanetary missions Future scientific missions will greatly profit from the technologies being tested on SMART-1. Solar-electric primary propulsion is a new propulsion technique based on so-called 'ion engines' that feed on electricity derived from solar panels. It is a technique that has only ever been used once before. These engines provide a very gentle thrust, but they work for years while conventional, more powerful chemical rockets burn for only a few minutes. Ion engines offer key advantages. They need considerably less propellant than chemical propulsion, which means less weight at launch and more mass available for scientific instruments and payload. Ion engines open the door to truly deep space exploration. They slash the time for interplanetary flight: although they provide less thrust they can last for years. The ion tortoise will therefore eventually overtake the chemical hare. Moreover, another application of the gentle thrust provided by electric propulsion allows very accurate spacecraft attitude control, a skill that will be useful for scientific missions that require highly precise and undisturbed pointing. Future ESA science missions will rely on ion engines. SMART-1 will also test new miniaturisation techniques that save space and economise on mass: in space, less mass per instrument enables scientists to have more instruments on board, so more science. The SMART-1 payload consists of a dozen technological and scientific investigations performed by seven instruments weighing only 19 kilograms in total. For example, the X-ray telescope D-CIXS, consists of a cube just 15 centimetres wide and weighing less than 5 kilograms. The ultra-compact electronic camera, AMIE, weighs no more than an amateur’s camera. New navigation and space-communication techniques will also be tested. An experiment called OBAN, based on images from the miniature camera AMIE and the star trackers, is the first step

  19. Reflective Practice as a Means for Preparing to Teach Outdoors in an Ecological Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2009-06-01

    Although teachers are engaged in many field-trips, they seldom have the pedagogical knowledge and experience to enact them. This article presents an effort to support reflective practice of teachers in the outdoors. The teaching experience of five pre- and in-service teachers included preparation for teaching in the outdoors, designing learning materials, teaching elementary and junior-high school students in an ecogarden, and reflecting upon these teaching experiences. The data collected by teachers and researchers highlighted challenges such as lack of confidence, class management and inadequate student motivation. The group and the instructors’ support and collaboration and careful preparation yielded a positive outdoor teaching experience. We suggest that supported field experience followed by individual and group reflection are promising in encouraging teachers to carry out outdoor learning activities.

  20. Correlation between mechanical and chemical degradation after outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging for multilayer photovoltaic backsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Lyu, Yadong; Yu, Li-Chieh; Gu, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Channel cracking fragmentation testing and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were utilized to study mechanical and chemical degradation of a multilayered backsheet after outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging. A model sample of commercial PPE backsheet, namely polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/ethylene vinyl acetate (PET/PET/EVA) was investigated. Outdoor aging was performed in Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA for up to 510 days, and complementary accelerated laboratory aging was conducted on the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure). Fracture energy, mode I stress intensity factor and film strength were analyzed using an analytical model based on channel cracking fragmentation testing results. The correlation between mechanical and chemical degradation was discussed for both outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging. The results of this work provide preliminary understanding on failure mechanism of backsheets after weathering, laying the groundwork for linking outdoor and indoor accelerated laboratory testing for multilayer photovoltaic backsheets.

  1. Medical training as adventure-wonder and adventure-ordeal: a dialogical analysis of affect-laden pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Anne; Sullivan, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Our purpose is to examine the possibilities of Bakhtinian dialogical analysis for understanding students' experiences of medical training. Twenty-three interviews were conducted with eleven British medical students intercalating in psychology. Forty emotionally resonant key moments were identified for analysis. Our analysis illustrates students' use of the professional genre to present their training as emotionally neutral. However, we show how medical training can be framed in more unofficial and affective-laden ways in which threshold moments of crisis are presented as space-time breaches characteristic of the genres of adventure-wonder and adventure-ordeal. This affect was often depotentiated in the narratives through brief allusion to the professional genre. This cycling between genres suggests that the students were searching for an appropriate way in which to frame their experiences, a central dilemma being the extent to which medical training makes sense within an immediate and affect-laden, or future-orientated and affect-neutral, pedagogy. Finally, we identify how consultants are an important aspect of the affective experience of medical training who, at their best, offer inspiring exemplars of flexible movement between official and unofficial ways of being a doctor. In conclusion, we demonstrate the potential of genres to make sense, and to organize the experience, of medical training spatially in terms of moving between personal and impersonal contact, temporally in terms of moving between the extraordinary and routine, and affectively in terms of moving between potent and neutral affect. Learning to use the professional genre is part of enculturation as a doctor and can be helpful in providing a framework restoring coherence and composure through engaging with, and reformulating, difficult experiences. However, it is important to take seriously the resistance many of the students demonstrated to the professional genre as a possible barometer of its

  2. The Outdoor World: An Outdoor Science and Culture Program for Seneca Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobey, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an outdoor summer science program for Seneca Indian children in grades 5-7 that featured weekly outdoor topics integrating science, traditional Native American/Seneca culture, and skills in reading and language arts. Daily activities included field trips, community guests, storytelling, and individual and group projects. (LP)

  3. Diversity in the Outdoors: National Outdoor Leadership School Students' Attitudes about Wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, Sara; Hall, Troy

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor experiential education (OEE) programs often cater to white, upper-class individuals. With major demographic shifts occurring in the United States, OEE organizations are confronting this imbalance. The National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) is addressing this issue with its Gateway Scholarship Program. The purpose of this mixed-methods…

  4. Emergence and Development of Outdoor Sculpture in Southwestern Nigerian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. AKINTONDE R. O. ROM KALILU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Public outdoor sculpture in Southwest of Nigeria is prodigious. From its emergence as an art practice in 1934, its practice has passed through six phases of great importance. Yet the practice has not been studied in appreciable scholarly depth despite constant changes in taste necessitated by religious, socio-cultural, and political complexities of the Southwest. The study traces the emergence and the development of public outdoor sculpture in the zone. It examines the development of its forms, styles, themes, materials and techniques. It also investigates various attitudes associated with the productions, uses and maintenance of the sculptures among the various stake-holders at different levels. The study covers a period of one hundred and five years between 1900 and 2005; the period marked the beginning, high development level, proliferation and decline of outdoor sculpture practice in South-west of Nigeria. Data for study were derived from oral and bibliographical records and observation of the sculptures. In all, one hundred and sixty six sculptural works were identified, with larger concentrations of the works in Lagos and Osun States. The paper observes that sculptures were mainly expressed in realism. The medium mostly used is cement and is invariably rendered in additive techniques. Themes generally expressed centres on Yoruba heroes and heroines, socio-political and economic matters. The various attitudes of all the stakeholders concerning these sculptures indicate that there is the problem of poor control of standard, abuse and lack of maintenance. Significantly, the study resolved the chronological problem associated with the emergence of public outdoor sculpture in the Southwest zone of Nigeria.  

  5. Adaptive information design for outdoor augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhöfer, Jan A; Govaers, Felix; El Mokni, Hichem; Alexander, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Augmented Reality focuses on the enrichment of the user's natural field of view by consistent integration of text, symbols and interactive three-dimensional objects in real time. Placing virtual objects directly into the user's view in a natural context empowers highly dynamic applications. On the other hand, this necessitates deliberate choice of information design and density, in particular for deployment in hazardous environments like military combat scenarios. As the amount of information needed is not foreseeable and strongly depends on the individual mission, an appropriate system must offer adequate adaptation capabilities. The paper presents a prototypical, vehicle-mountable Augmented Reality vision system, designed for enhancing situation awareness in stressful urban warfare scenarios. Tracking, as one of the most crucial challenges for outdoor Augmented Reality, is accomplished by means of a Differential-GPS approach while the type of display to attach can be modified, ranging from ocular displays to standard LCD mini-screens. The overall concept also includes envisioning of own troops (blue forces), for which a multi-sensor tracking approach has been chosen. As a main feature, the system allows switching between different information categories, focusing on friendly, hostile, unidentified or neutral data. Results of an empirical study on the superiority of an in-view navigation cue approach conclude the paper.

  6. Association between Outdoor Fungal Concentrations during Winter and Pulmonary Function in Children with and without Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Hantan, Degejirihu; Burioka, Naoto; Nakamoto, Sachiko; Sano, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Jumpei; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor fungi are important components of airborne particulate matter (PM). However, the associations between pulmonary function and outdoor fungi are less well known compared to other airborne PM constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between outdoor fungi and pulmonary function in children. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates were measured daily in 339 schoolchildren (including 36 with asthma), aged 10 to 12, 2 to 27 February 2015. Airborne PM was collected on filters, using a high volume air sampler, each day during the study period. The daily concentration of outdoor fungi-associated PM was calculated using a culture-based method. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and daily concentrations of outdoor fungi, and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM) and PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). An increase in the interquartile range (46.2 CFU/m3) for outdoor fungal concentration led to PEF changes of −1.18 L/min (95% confidence interval, −2.27 to −0.08) in all children, 1.22 L/min (−2.96 to 5.41) in children without asthma, and −1.44 L/min (−2.57 to −0.32) in children with asthma. Outdoor fungi showed a significant negative correlation with PM2.5 levels (r = −0.4, p = 0.04), but not with SPM (r = ‒0.3, p = 0.10) levels. Outdoor fungi may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction in children. Furthermore, children with asthma may show greater pulmonary dysfunction than those without asthma. PMID:27136569

  7. Association between Outdoor Fungal Concentrations during Winter and Pulmonary Function in Children with and without Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor fungi are important components of airborne particulate matter (PM. However, the associations between pulmonary function and outdoor fungi are less well known compared to other airborne PM constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between outdoor fungi and pulmonary function in children. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF rates were measured daily in 339 schoolchildren (including 36 with asthma, aged 10 to 12, 2 to 27 February 2015. Airborne PM was collected on filters, using a high volume air sampler, each day during the study period. The daily concentration of outdoor fungi-associated PM was calculated using a culture-based method. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and daily concentrations of outdoor fungi, and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM and PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5. An increase in the interquartile range (46.2 CFU/m3 for outdoor fungal concentration led to PEF changes of −1.18 L/min (95% confidence interval, −2.27 to −0.08 in all children, 1.22 L/min (−2.96 to 5.41 in children without asthma, and −1.44 L/min (−2.57 to −0.32 in children with asthma. Outdoor fungi showed a significant negative correlation with PM2.5 levels (r = −0.4, p = 0.04, but not with SPM (r = ‒0.3, p = 0.10 levels. Outdoor fungi may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction in children. Furthermore, children with asthma may show greater pulmonary dysfunction than those without asthma.

  8. Comparison of Degradation on Aluminum Reflectors for Solar Collectors due to Outdoor Exposure and Accelerated Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Wette

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reflectors for concentrated solar thermal technologies need to withstand 20 or even 30 years of outdoor exposure without significant loss of solar specular reflectance. In order to test the durability of innovative reflectors within a shorter period of time, an accelerated aging methodology is required. The problem with accelerated testing is that poor correlation between laboratory and field test results has been achieved in the past. This is mainly because unrealistic degradation mechanisms are accelerated in the weathering chambers. In order to define a realistic testing procedure, a high number of accelerated aging tests have been performed on differently coated aluminum reflectors. The degradation mechanisms of the accelerated tests have been classified and systematically compared to samples that have been exposed at nine different exposure sites outdoors. Besides the standardized aging tests, innovative aging procedures have been developed in such way that the agreement to the degradation pattern observed outdoors is increased. Although degradation depends on materials and location, five generic degradation mechanisms were detected. Standardized tests only reproduced one or two of the five mechanisms detected outdoors. Additionally, several degradation effects that were not observed outdoors appeared. The innovative accelerated aging tests of artificially soiled samples were able to reproduce three of the five mechanisms observed outdoors, presenting a much more realistic overall degradation pattern.

  9. CHARACTERIZATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OUTDOOR AND INDOOR BIOAEROSOLS IN AN OFFICE BUILDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhu; Patrick Phelan; Tianhua Duan; Gregory Raupp; H. J. S. Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Characterizations and relationships between indoor and outdoor bioaerosols were examined in an occupied office building, equipped with an air conditioning (HVAC) system, in Tempe, Arizona, USA. A two-stage microbial air sampler was used to collect bioaerosols both inside and outside the office at fixed locations in space and at regular time intervals from August to December, 2000. Simultaneous measurements of bioaerosol, temperature, relative humidity,light intensity and wind speed were performed to explore the effects of environmental factors on bioaerosol levels.Twenty species of airborne bacteria and four genera of airborne fungi were found in our samples. The particle sizes of most outdoor and indoor bioaerosols were larger than 8.0 μm. According to the measurements of sampling days, the concentrations of outdoor bioaerosols were highest in the morning, but declined in the afternoon and reached the lowest point in the evening. The concentration peak of indoor bioaerosol (especially at the lower level) occurred in the evening,suggesting that the concentration of indoor bioaerosols follows that of outdoors, but with a time delay due to the lag associated with indoor-outdoor air exchange. With regard to the effects of four environmental factors - temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, and wind speed, the relative humidity had the most pronounced influence on the outdoor bioaerosol concentrations with the number of bacteria and fungi increasing sharply on a day of high relative humidity in the desert area.

  10. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  11. Predation by Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes at an Outdoor Piggery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Fleming

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor pig operations are an alternative to intensive systems of raising pigs; however for the majority of outdoor pork producers, issues of biosecurity and predation control require significant management and (or capital investment. Identifying and quantifying predation risk in outdoor pork operations has rarely been done, but such data would be informative for these producers as part of their financial and logistical planning. We quantified potential impact of fox predation on piglets bred on an outdoor pork operation in south-western Australia. We used remote sensor cameras at select sites across the farm as well as above farrowing huts to record interactions between predators and pigs (sows and piglets. We also identified animal losses from breeding records, calculating weaning rate as a proportion of piglets born. Although only few piglets were recorded lost to fox predation (recorded by piggery staff as carcasses that are “chewed”, it is likely that foxes were contributing substantially to the 20% of piglets that were reported “missing”. Both sets of cameras recorded a high incidence of fox activity; foxes appeared on camera soon after staff left for the day, were observed tracking and taking live piglets (despite the presence of sows, and removed dead carcasses from in front of the cameras. Newly born and younger piglets appeared to be the most vulnerable, especially when they are born out in the paddock, but older piglets were also lost. A significant ( p = 0.001 effect of individual sow identification on the weaning rate, but no effect of sow age (parity, suggests that individual sow behavior towards predators influences predation risk for litters. We tracked the movement of piglet carcasses by foxes, and confirmed that foxes make use of patches of native vegetation for cover, although there was no effect of paddock, distance to vegetation, or position on the farm on weaning rate. Trials with non-toxic baits reveal high levels

  12. Re-Storying Wilderness and Adventure Therapies: Healing Places and Selves in an Era of Environmental Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Alette

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by examining the therapeutic work of wilderness and adventure therapy through the lens of narrative counselling and the concept of the narrative-self. The terms "wilderness" and "adventure" are unpacked and attention is drawn to the risks of working uncritically with these concepts. Illustrations of alternative understandings of…

  13. Never-neverland revisited : Malay adventure stories : with an annotated edition and translation of the Malay story of Bahram Syah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, Marije

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a re-evaluation of Malay adventure stories. These narratives were found in a large part of Southeast Asia for at least three centuries until the beginning of the twentieth century. By adopting a cross-disciplinary approach, it aims to show that Malay adventure stories were not

  14. Adventures of Geo: Using comics as a learning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. K. M.; Wallenta, A.

    2015-12-01

    Illustrations are a good way to visualize what is not readily seen. To take this medium a step further, we use illustrations in the form of comics as a way to teach Earth science concepts. The comic book format lends itself to engaging reading for young and old alike and has been used recently by the American Physical Society (APS) and by NASA as an outreach teaching tool. Due to their sequential nature, comic books make it easy for readers to follow a story and grasp concepts that are covered. The limited text in each panel can also help those where reading is a challenge or for those who become nervous and/or discouraged with long text passages. The illustrations also add visual clues that can aid in understanding the concepts being laid out. In the second installment of "Adventures of Geo," we use the comic book format to introduce the Moon, its formation, evolution, orbit and its interplay with Earth. The exploration of such faraway places is readily disseminated to the public through such a graphical approach. The comic books are aimed at middle school students in the New Haven Public Schools (NHPS) where Earth Science topics are covered in the curriculum.

  15. Extreme Sport/Adventure Activity Correlates in Gynecologic Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer J; Vallance, Jeff K; Holt, Nicholas L; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-03-01

    We examined the demographic, medical and behavioral correlates of participation and interest in extreme sport/adventure activities (ESAA) in gynecologic cancer survivors. A random sample of 621 gynecologic cancer survivors in Alberta, Canada, completed a mailed self-report questionnaire assessing medical, demographic, and behavioral variables and participation and interest in ESAA. Multivariate analyses revealed that gynecologic cancer survivors were more likely to participate in ESAA if they met aerobic exercise guidelines (OR=1.75 [95%CI:1.02-2.99]), had better general health (OR=1.71 [95%CI: 1.01-2.90]), had cervical or ovarian cancer (OR=1.95 [95%CI:0.97-3.93]), were employed (OR=1.71 [95%CI:0.95-3.08]), and were of healthy weight (OR=1.58 [95%CI:0.93-2.68]). Moreover, gynecologic cancer survivors were more likely to be interested in trying an ESAA if they had cervical or ovarian cancer (OR=1.76 [95%CI:0.94-3.27]) and were meeting the strength exercise guidelines (OR=1.68 [95%CI:0.95-2.98]). Medical, demographic, and behavioral variables correlate with participation and interest in ESAA in gynecologic cancer survivors. The pattern of correlates suggests that gynecologic cancer survivors are more likely to participate in ESSA if they have the physical capability and financial resources. Interventions to promote ESAA in gynecologic cancer survivors need to address these 2 key barriers.

  16. Do Inequalities in Neighborhood Walkability Drive Disparities in Older Adults’ Outdoor Walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Zandieh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Older residents of high-deprivation areas walk less than those of low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that neighborhood built environment may support and encourage outdoor walking. The extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking is called “walkability”. This study examines inequalities in neighborhood walkability in high- versus low-deprivation areas and their possible influences on disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels. For this purpose, it focuses on specific neighborhood built environment attributes (residential density, land-use mix and intensity, street connectivity, and retail density relevant to neighborhood walkability. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (≥65 years, and used a Geographic Information System (GIS and walking interviews (with a sub-sample to objectively and subjectively measure neighborhood built environment attributes. Outdoor walking levels were measured by using the Geographic Positioning System (GPS technology. Data on personal characteristics was collected by completing a questionnaire. The results show that inequalities in certain land-use intensity (i.e., green spaces, recreation centers, schools and industries in high- versus low-deprivation areas may influence disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels. Modifying neighborhood land use intensity may help to encourage outdoor walking in high-deprivation areas.

  17. Predation by Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) at an Outdoor Piggery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Patricia A.; Dundas, Shannon J.; Lau, Yvonne Y. W.; Pluske, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Predation of piglets by red foxes is a significant risk for outdoor/free-range pork producers, but is often difficult to quantify. Using remote sensing cameras, we recorded substantial evidence of red foxes taking piglets from around farrowing huts, and found that piglets were most likely to be recorded as “missing” over their first week. These data suggest that fox predation contributed to the marked production differences between this outdoor farm and a similar-sized intensive farm under the same management, and warrant greater control of this introduced, invasive predator. Abstract Outdoor pig operations are an alternative to intensive systems of raising pigs; however for the majority of outdoor pork producers, issues of biosecurity and predation control require significant management and (or) capital investment. Identifying and quantifying predation risk in outdoor pork operations has rarely been done, but such data would be informative for these producers as part of their financial and logistical planning. We quantified potential impact of fox predation on piglets bred on an outdoor pork operation in south-western Australia. We used remote sensor cameras at select sites across the farm as well as above farrowing huts to record interactions between predators and pigs (sows and piglets). We also identified animal losses from breeding records, calculating weaning rate as a proportion of piglets born. Although only few piglets were recorded lost to fox predation (recorded by piggery staff as carcasses that are “chewed”), it is likely that foxes were contributing substantially to the 20% of piglets that were reported “missing”. Both sets of cameras recorded a high incidence of fox activity; foxes appeared on camera soon after staff left for the day, were observed tracking and taking live piglets (despite the presence of sows), and removed dead carcasses from in front of the cameras. Newly born and younger piglets appeared to be the most

  18. Designing and Building of 3D Adventure Game “Tetuko: Childhood of Ghatotkacha” Using Kinect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Basuki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the young people are not interested in the local culture as a “wayang” puppet. This condition threatens the extinction of some of the local culture that should be a mainstay of the industry entering an era of creative industries. On the other hand, theyare more interested in playing computer games as changing of people's lifestyles. It becomes our basic idea to produce a game as a creative product. The genre of this game is fighting-adventure. This game depictures a story of fighting between the baby Tetuko and giant Kala Pracona. The game uses Kinect and 3D platform technology to attract more players to feel their adventures. With Kinect technology, the player can control the character with his gesture. Thus, this game will increase the awareness of young people about the culture of Wayang. Keywords : 3D game, kinect,adventure, local culture, creative industry.

  19. Host outdoor exposure variability affects the transmission and spread of Zika virus: Insights for epidemic control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ajelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus transmission dynamics in urban environments follow a complex spatiotemporal pattern that appears unpredictable and barely related to high mosquito density areas. In this context, human activity patterns likely have a major role in Zika transmission dynamics. This paper examines the effect of host variability in the amount of time spent outdoors on Zika epidemiology in an urban environment.First, we performed a survey on time spent outdoors by residents of Miami-Dade County, Florida. Second, we analyzed both the survey and previously published national data on outdoors time in the U.S. to provide estimates of the distribution of the time spent outdoors. Third, we performed a computational modeling evaluation of Zika transmission dynamics, based on the time spent outdoors by each person. Our analysis reveals a strong heterogeneity of the host population in terms of time spent outdoors-data are well captured by skewed gamma distributions. Our model-based evaluation shows that in a heterogeneous population, Zika would cause a lower number of infections than in a more homogenous host population (up to 4-fold differences, but, at the same time, the epidemic would spread much faster. We estimated that in highly heterogeneous host populations the timing of the implementation of vector control measures is the major factor for limiting the number of Zika infections.Our findings highlight the need of considering host variability in exposure time for managing mosquito-borne infections and call for the revision of the triggers for vector control strategies, which should integrate mosquito density data and human outdoor activity patterns in specific areas.

  20. Outdoor air dominates burden of disease from indoor exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, O.; Asikainen, A.; Carrer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin.......Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin....

  1. Evaluation of Experiential Outdoor Research Locations in Asia for a K-12 school in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, D. L.; Joyce, S.

    2016-12-01

    A team of faculty and administrators from The Independent Schools Foundation Academy spend the 2015 - 2016 academic year identifying possible locations in Asia for a year-round outdoor education center. ISF Academy currently has over 1500 students its K-12 bilingual school in Hong Kong, China. The outdoor education center is an extension of the built campus in Pokfulam and will provide students opportunities to live in a natural setting, participate in outdoor educational activities and study in an environment significantly different than a classroom. Currently ISF Academy students in grades 4 - 12 are off campus twice during the academic year in an experiential learning environment. These current programs include camping, hiking, kayaking, other adventurous activities and service learning opportunities. The purpose of the dedicated site is to have a "home base" for ISF Academy and the experiential learning programs. This past year we looked specifically at programs and locations that could also be used by students for ecology and earth systems based research in the senior school (grades 9 - 12). We have looked at sites in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan. The ideal site will have marine, terrestrial and mangrove ecosystems and allow students to set up long-term research sites in any of these ecosystems. Creating opportunities for authentic research that allows students spend an extended time in a research setting will help them to gain both skills and independence needed in the future at the tertiary level. The evaluation of these sites included identifying potential research partners, site preparation, logistics in and out of the locations, and the heath/safety management of students living and working in a remote location. In parallel to the site evaluations, the curriculum is being developed for the students that is age and skill appropriate using the frame work of the existing guided discovery curriculum in the primary school, and the MYP and DP

  2. Urban outdoor water use and response to drought assessed through mobile energy balance and vegetation greenness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban vegetation provides many highly valued ecosystem services but also requires extensive urban water resources. Increasingly, cities are experiencing water limitations and managing outdoor urban water use is an important concern. Quantifying the water lost via evapotranspiration (ET) is critical ...

  3. Split-second recognition: what makes outdoor advertising work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meurs, A.; Aristoff, M.

    2009-01-01

    CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was develop

  4. Creating and Enriching Quality and Safe Outdoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Can teachers of young children create stimulating and enriching outdoor environments that are also safe? This article highlights early childhood outdoor safety standards and presents a framework for creating quality and SAFE™ outdoor environments in early childhood programs that support children's interest and best practice. The outdoor…

  5. Outdoor Play and Learning for Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Suzanne M.

    Infants and toddlers like to crawl, climb, run, and explore in wide open, outdoor spaces. This publication provides ideas for day care providers on using outdoor play to facilitate learning in infants and toddlers. Section 1 discusses the benefits of daily outdoor play, including learning to interact with others, practicing language skills,…

  6. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  7. Split-second recognition: what makes outdoor advertising work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meurs, A.; Aristoff, M.

    2009-01-01

    CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was

  8. Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

  9. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  10. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.103 Section 3.103 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation...

  11. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.52 Section 3.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  12. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  13. Sustainability in outdoor recreation and tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Kelly Bricker; Jeremy. Schultz

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and tourism represents a major service by which the public identifies with and better understands natural resources, even to the extent that it can foster environmental stewardship (for example, see Winter and Chavez 2008). Yet, myriad threats to recreation and tourism exist which need to be addressed. Addressing these threats can be...

  14. Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad a

  15. Confirmation of the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…

  16. Paddle Making: A Craft for Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Allison

    2001-01-01

    Crafting experiences, such as paddle making, fit in with the ideals and goals of outdoor and experiential education and can be linked to environmental education by creating environmental consciousness. Crafting a canoe paddle from harvested materials directly engages students with the land and can lead to reflection on material objects, patterns…

  17. Response of Migrant Children to Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, Thomas L.

    An outdoor education program for migrant children was compared with a typical school program during the summer of 1969. The Wide Range Achievement Test was administered to both groups to obtain a pretest and posttest measure of reading and arithmetic. Visual-motor development was measured by the Bender-Gestalt scored by the Koppitz Developmental…

  18. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  19. Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad

  20. Building Social Capital through Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon; Atencio, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the body of literature surrounding the subject of social capital has witnessed steady growth. While sociologists have extensively discussed how social capital can be created and sustained within local communities and national contexts, there is little evidence of the social capital discourse within the outdoor education…

  1. THE CHILD IN THE OUTDOOR CLASSROOM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jseums are joining the field in using the outdoors as a class- room and the experience of the ... teachers are clarified. A museum is perhaps one of the best places to teach .... (This request was based on a number of recommendations that ...

  2. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ve Got Skin in the Game Anti-Aging Vitamin D Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | True Stories | Ask the Experts Blog Events ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Golf: You've Got Skin in the Game expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter ...

  3. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  4. Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Shayne

    2005-01-01

    Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…

  5. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  6. Outdoor Lighting Networks: Market, Technologies and Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Wang, J.; Chen, R.; Jiang , D.; Yang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Providing the right amount of light where and when it is needed is an opportunity to transform today’s cities into smart and livable urban spaces. New technologies are being introduced, such are adaptivecontrols and outdoor lighting networks, which can deliver energy andcost savings through adaptive

  7. THE“New Adam”in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Ying

    2014-01-01

    There were many new images with some special social meanings in the 19th American literary works, among which“New Adam”was a typical one. This paper extracts a“New Adam”from the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Through analyzing the protagonist Huckleberry Finn’s different characteristics, we can find that Mark Twain’s“New Adam”enjoys adventures, yearns for freedom and equality. It is these outstanding features that enhance the paper to probe into the social reality of that time and the characters of new Americans.

  8. A Critical Realistic Masterpiece of Mark Twain——The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红石

    2009-01-01

    In mid and late 19th century,appeared a new literary trend-critical realism.The critical realists described with much vividness and artistic skill the chief traits(characteristics) of the society and criticized the capitalist system from a democratic viewpoint.Mark Twain is one of the greatest representatives of critical realists.All the critical realistic features can be found in his novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. This essay is devoted to analyze the critical realistic elements of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

  9. Space use selectivity by chimpanzees and gorillas in an indoor-outdoor enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S R; Calcutt, S; Schapiro, S J; Hau, J

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the relationship between physical environments and nonhuman primate behavior is a key element for effective care and management in a range of settings. The physical features of the captive environment, including not only gross useable space but also environmental complexity, can have a significant influence on primate behavior and ultimately, animal welfare. But despite this connection, there remains relatively little conclusive data on how captive primates, especially great apes, use the spaces provided to them, especially in modern, indoor-outdoor enclosures that have become more prevalent in recent years. In this study, we used four years of detailed data on where 23 great apes (chimpanzees and gorillas) positioned themselves within a modern, indoor-outdoor zoo enclosure to determine not only how the apes utilized their space but also how access to outdoor areas affected their spatial selectivity. We found that both species used relatively little of their available space: chimpanzees and gorillas spent half their time in only 3.2 and 1.5% of their useable three-dimensional space, respectively. Chimpanzees utilized the outdoor space more than gorillas, but access to the outdoors did not affect space selectivity in the indoor area for either species. Although both species of ape were highly selective in their space use, consideration should be given to the importance of providing the choice to locate in a variety of spaces, including outdoor areas. These data represent an extremely detailed account of space selectivity by great apes in an indoor-outdoor environment and have substantial implications for future facility design and captive primate management.

  10. Dispersal in microbes: fungi in indoor air are dominated by outdoor air and show dispersal limitation at short distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachel I; Miletto, Marzia; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Thomas D

    2013-07-01

    The indoor microbiome is a complex system that is thought to depend on dispersal from the outdoor biome and the occupants' microbiome combined with selective pressures imposed by the occupants' behaviors and the building itself. We set out to determine the pattern of fungal diversity and composition in indoor air on a local scale and to identify processes behind that pattern. We surveyed airborne fungal assemblages within 1-month time periods at two seasons, with high replication, indoors and outdoors, within and across standardized residences at a university housing facility. Fungal assemblages indoors were diverse and strongly determined by dispersal from outdoors, and no fungal taxa were found as indicators of indoor air. There was a seasonal effect on the fungi found in both indoor and outdoor air, and quantitatively more fungal biomass was detected outdoors than indoors. A strong signal of isolation by distance existed in both outdoor and indoor airborne fungal assemblages, despite the small geographic scale in which this study was undertaken (effect on the fungi found in indoor air. These results show that at the local level, outdoor air fungi dominate the patterning of indoor air. More broadly, they provide additional support for the growing evidence that dispersal limitation, even on small geographic scales, is a key process in structuring the often-observed distance-decay biogeographic pattern in microbial communities.

  11. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Sakoi, Tomonori; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2014-07-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature, humidity, air velocity, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation, ground surface temperature, sky factor, and the green solid angle were measured. The temperatures of skin exposed to the atmosphere and in contact with the ground were measured. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured by means of rating the whole-body thermal sensation (cold-hot) and the whole body thermal comfort (comfortable-uncomfortable) on a linear scale. Linear rating scales are given for the hot (100) and cold (0), and comfortable (100) and uncomfortable (0) directions only. Arbitrary values of 0 and 100 were assigned to each endpoint, the reported values read in, and the entire length converted into a numerical value with an arbitrary scale of 100 to give a linear rating scale. The ETFe considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 35.9 °C, with 32.3 °C and 42.9 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the ETFe considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The mean skin temperature considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 33.3 °C, with 31.0 °C and 34.3 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the mean skin temperature considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The

  12. The relationship of student achievement to learning elementary science outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Steve Anthony

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teaching elementary science outdoors and student achievement on science standards. The study also considered student attitudes toward learning outdoors in the schoolyard and their achievement on a science standard appropriate for teaching outdoors. The seminal work in the field (Louv, 2005) created the phrase "nature deficit disorder" to describe the condition of children that spend little time outdoors learning from and playing in nature. Five fourth grade classes took part in outdoor instruction on particular standards after taking an attitudinal survey on learning outdoors and a pretest on the science content. Both measures were repeated after outdoor instruction. The hypotheses of the study were that students receiving outdoor instruction demonstrate improved science achievement and that student attitudes towards learning science outdoors has a significant impact on student achievement related to a science standard. The results of the study indicate a gain in student achievement followed the outdoor science lessons, allowing the research to accept the hypothesis as valid. However, the study found that student attitude toward learning science outdoors was not a significant factor in predicting gains in student achievement.

  13. Outdoor-indoor air quality in Riyadh: SO2, NH3, and HCHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rehaili, A M

    2002-11-01

    A funded research project was conducted during the period July 1992 through November 1994. The project was designed to evaluate indoor and ambient air quality in and around buildings of different types and uses in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Thirty intercity buildings and two outercity (background) sites were carefully selected and monitored for air quality. Ten air pollutants, together with relevant meteorological parameters, were monitored indoor and outdoor at each site continuously and simultaneously for a period of two weeks covering summer and winter seasons. This article discusses the results obtained for sulfur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (HCHO). Results of this investigation revealed that most sites had on the average exceeded the recommended standards for SO2 and NH3 both indoor and outdoor, with indoor levels being worse than outdoor during winter time. Several sites also showed high levels of HCHO, with outdoor levels being consistently higher than indoor. Statistical and frequency analyses were performed on the collected data, showing seasonal and sector by sector variability, and outdoor-indoor correlations.

  14. Utilizing Adventure Activities with Intact Groups: A Sociodramatic Systems Approach to Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, H. Lee; Bonney, Warren C.

    1989-01-01

    Describes team-building activities for mental health counselors who function as consultants to staffs, groups, or other intact work systems. Provides rationale for application of strategic systems and sociodrama techniques to an adventure activity that allows a group to metaphorically enact its common issue. Provides example of a consultation…

  15. Co-creating Emotionally Safe Environments at Camp: Training Staff To Facilitate Adventure Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Matt; Yerkes, Rita

    2003-01-01

    An emotionally safe environment helps campers participate in adventure activities. Staff development tips for creating a safe environment include using cooperative goal setting; using parallel training processes; developing working lesson plans that outline facilitation techniques for creating emotionally safe environments; and using co-created…

  16. Pathway to Efficacy: Recognizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Underlying Theory for Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…

  17. Adventure Camp Programs, Self-Concept, and Their Effects on Behavioral Problem Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an adventure camp program on the self-concept of adolescents with behavioral problems. Subjects in the study included 61 randomly selected male and female adolescents ranging in age from 9 to 17 years with behavioral problems. The treatment group of 31 adolescents was randomly selected from a…

  18. Rethinking the Adventure Education Experience: An Inquiry of Meanings, Culture and Educational Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Benjamin Charles

    2013-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the adventure education (AE) experience with particular attention to what happens during the AE experience, the meanings participants ascribe to the experience, how personal backgrounds and institutional cultures coalesce in AE, and the significance of the AE experience for schooling. These topics are explored…

  19. Adventure, Wilderness, Outward Bound, Therapeutic Camping, Experiental Learning, Ropes Courses & Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, H. Lee

    Focusing on the therapeutic aspects of camping experiences for delinquent and psychologically disturbed youth, this 382-item bibliography lists books, journal articles, theses, dissertations, and unpublished reports written from 1928 to 1983 on adventure education, wilderness experience, Outward Bound, therapeutic camping, experiential learning,…

  20. Severe sepsis due to Chryseobacterium indologenes in an immunocompetent adventure traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKew, Genevieve

    2014-11-01

    Chryseobacterium indologenes is an environmental organism which is usually an opportunistic pathogen, most usually associated with nosocomial or device-related infections. This case, affecting a fit and well adventure traveler, demonstrates that it may be an agent of severe sepsis in otherwise healthy humans. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Constructing the Runaway Youth Problem: Boy Adventurers to Girl Prostitutes, 1960-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Karen M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines, using a qualitative case study of stories printed in "The New York Times," the social construction of "runaway youth" in print media during 1960-1978. Finds that running away was an unconstructed problem (or simmering social condition) in the early 1960s and featured harmless adventures. Contributes to the…

  2. Teaching and Writing Popular Fiction: Horror, Adventure, Mystery and Romance in the American Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Karen M.

    This book, intended for teachers who want to expand their secondary-level writing curricula, examines the possibilities for using popular fiction in the classroom to encourage reading and to teach writing skills. Chapters include discussions of the genre approach, the horror story, the adventure story, the mystery story, the popular love story,…

  3. Using text adventure games to entice learners to practice arithmetic skills over Mxit

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available examines a project where text adventure games with a mathematical twist are deployed over Mxit which participants can play on their cell phones. In order to complete the puzzles laid out in the game, participants must do various arithmetic calculations....

  4. CSI Web Adventures: A Forensics Virtual Apprenticeship for Teaching Science and Inspiring STEM Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leslie; Chang, Ching-I; Hoyt, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    CSI: The Experience, a traveling museum exhibit and a companion web adventure, was created through a grant from the National Science Foundation as a potential model for informal learning. The website was designed to enrich and complement the exhibit by modeling the forensic process. Substantive science, real-world lab techniques, and higher-level…

  5. An Authoring Tool for Educational Adventure Games: Concept, Game Models and Authoring Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehm, Florian; Göbel, Stefan; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The genre of educational adventure games is a common and successful choice in game-based learning. The games combine captivating narratives that motivate players to continue playing with game mechanics that are conductive to learning: the gameplay is slow-paced, allowing players to learn at their own pace, and focused on puzzles that can be…

  6. Teaching and Writing Popular Fiction: Horror, Adventure, Mystery and Romance in the American Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Karen M.

    This book, intended for teachers who want to expand their secondary-level writing curricula, examines the possibilities for using popular fiction in the classroom to encourage reading and to teach writing skills. Chapters include discussions of the genre approach, the horror story, the adventure story, the mystery story, the popular love story,…

  7. What Would Happen if...? About the Elective Affinity between Adventure and the "Coniunctivus Potentialis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Adventure is a playful pacemaker for real border crossings from reality to possibility; it can, from a benevolent point of view, be the trigger for individual changes of reality, a provider of impulses for the development of self. Confronted with the unpredictability of the wilderness, the turbulences of torrents, the chaotic state of the oceans,…

  8. [Dust particles and metals in outdoor and indoor air of Upper Silesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górny, R L; Jedrzejczak, A; Pastuszka, J S

    1995-01-01

    This work contains the results of the aerosol mass size distribution and preliminary studies on concentrations and size distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe and Cd) in indoor and outdoor environment in Upper Silesia (the highly industrialized region in the southern part of Poland). In studies, the measurements of aerosol concentration, mass size distribution, and evaluation of heavy metals concentration were made from December 1992 to April 1994 in some apartments in five towns in Upper Silesia and in one village in the Beskidy Mountains in both indoor and outdoor environments. The particles were fractionated in Andersen cascade impactor. The sampling time was 6-7 days and 4-5 days for indoor and outdoor respectively. Aerosol particulates were collected on A-type glass fiber collection substrate used later for determination of heavy concentrations by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS 3, Carl Zeiss Jena). The dust was mineralized by the means of the mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids. The results of mass size distribution as well as the measurements of TSP for indoor and outdoor aerosol show that the main source of particulate matter indoors, in this region, are heavy polluted outdoor air and cigarette smoking. It can be said that, except homes in Knurów and Sosnowiec with hard smokers, the indoor levels of particulate pollution were significant lower than the outdoors levels. Whenever in the indoor environment appear additional source of particulate emission situation can changed. When we compare mass size distribution for outdoor aerosol and indoor aerosol contaminated by tobacco smoke, we can observed considerable increase of indoor aerosol level in the 0.33-0.54 microns size range. Besides, indoor aerosol status may be changed by coal stove emission (displacement of maximum peak to direction of coarse particles). The observed differences in concentration of particulate matter may also indicate the important differences in chemical and

  9. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  10. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  11. Facilitator Training and Course Designing in the Perspective of Adventure Education%历奇教育视角下的师资培养及课程设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗仲贤

    2015-01-01

    历奇教育是通过经历体验而进行学习的教育模式,师资在学习过程发挥关键作用,培养高素质的师资极为重要和迫切,应该根据历奇教育的特点及师资的角色定位等要素,建立科学的师资人才培养课程体系。%Adventure education is an educational model which emphasizes learning through experience. Facilitators play a key role in this learning process. Therefore, it is extremely and urgently important to train high-quality facilitators. This paper suggests that a scientific system of facilitator training and courses designing should be established on the basis of the characteristics of adventure education and the role positioning of facilitators.

  12. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, M.

    2011-04-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This presentation documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  13. MAKING PUBLIC OUTDOOR SPACE IN TRANSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Maspoli, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    In urban public outdoor space, the possibility to define multi-functional islands, to create "fusion" of socialization, leisure and work spaces ‒ for example lounges with wireless connectivity, quiet corners to work as well as areas for socializing and relax … ‒ reduces isolation and increases innovation opportunities. The development of electronic live/work areas and villages is becoming an attractive option for the rehabilitation of open space in historic and postindustrial cities. There ar...

  14. Outdoor autonomous navigation using monocular vision

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, Eric; Bom, Jonathan; Dhome, Michel; Thuilot, Benoît; Lhuillier, Maxime; Marmoiton, Francois

    2005-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a complete system for outdoor robot navigation is presented. It uses only monocular vision. The robot is first guided on a path by a human. During this learning step, the robot records a video sequence. From this sequence, a three dimensional map of the trajectory and the environment is built. When this map has been computed, the robot is able to follow the same trajectory by itself. Experimental results carried out with an urban electric vehicle are sho...

  15. Autonomous Navigation of a Surveillance Robot in Harsh Outdoor Road Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjin Shin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the autonomous navigation problem of a mobile robot in outdoor road environments. The target application is surveillance in petroleum storage bases. Although there have been remarkable technological achievements recently in the area of outdoor navigation, robotic systems are still expensive due to a large number of high cost sensors. This paper proposes the reliable extraction algorithm of traversable regions using a single onboard Laser Range Finder (LRF in outdoor road environments. The traversable regions are derived from the classifications of the road surfaces, curbs, and obstacles. The proposed scheme was experimentally tested in success. Since there are many potential applications that require autonomous service robots to move in semistructured road environments, the proposed scheme can be widely used as a low-cost practical solution.

  16. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  17. Classification of Scenes into Indoor/Outdoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective model for scene classification is essential, to access the desired images from large scale databases. This study presents an efficient scene classification approach by integrating low level features, to reduce the semantic gap between the visual features and richness of human perception. The objective of the study is to categorize an image into indoor or outdoor scene using relevant low level features such as color and texture. The color feature from HSV color model, texture feature through GLCM and entropy computed from UV color space forms the feature vector. To support automatic scene classification, Support Vector Machine (SVM is implemented on low level features for categorizing a scene into indoor/outdoor. Since the combination of these image features exhibit a distinctive disparity between images containing indoor or outdoor scenes, the proposed method achieves better performance in terms of classification accuracy of about 92.44%. The proposed method has been evaluated on IITM- SCID2 (Scene Classification Image Database and dataset of 3442 images collected from the web.

  18. Impact of Middle Eastern dust storms on indoor and outdoor composition of bioaerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Zahra; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Sorooshian, Armin; Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Maleki, Heidar

    2016-08-01

    The presence of microbes in airborne aerosol particles, especially dust, is a major public health concern in desert regions. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effect of dust storms on indoor and outdoor microbial air quality at a hospital on the western side of Iran (city of Ahvaz), which is notorious for being highly vulnerable to dust emissions. Air samples were collected inside and outside of the hospital environment for six months, with the unique advantage of this study being that the region and duration of measurements allow for a clear comparison between dusty and normal days. On normal days, the average concentrations (outdoor/indoor) of bacteria and fungi were 423/329 cfu m-3 and 596/386 cfu m-3, respectively, which increased to 1257/406 cfu m-3 and 1116/550 cfu m-3 on dust event days. Indoor/Outdoor ratios for bacteria and fungi are lower on dust event days (0.26-0.60) versus normal days (0.44-0.95). Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., Streptomyces spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were the dominant bacteria both indoors and outdoors on normal and dust event days. Gram positive bacteria exhibited higher concentrations than Gram negative bacteria in both outdoor and indoor air samples as well as during both normal and dust event days. The data suggest that Gram positive bacteria are more resistant to undesirable outdoor conditions (e.g., high incident solar radiation) as compared to Gram negative ones. These results have implications for other populated arid regions where more stringent control of indoor air quality can greatly benefit public health.

  19. Pathways to designing and running an operational flood forecasting system: an adventure game!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Louise; Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Cloke, Hannah; Crochemore, Louise; Giuliani, Matteo; Aalbers, Emma

    2017-04-01

    In the design and building of an operational flood forecasting system, a large number of decisions have to be taken. These include technical decisions related to the choice of the meteorological forecasts to be used as input to the hydrological model, the choice of the hydrological model itself (its structure and parameters), the selection of a data assimilation procedure to run in real-time, the use (or not) of a post-processor, and the computing environment to run the models and display the outputs. Additionally, a number of trans-disciplinary decisions are also involved in the process, such as the way the needs of the users will be considered in the modelling setup and how the forecasts (and their quality) will be efficiently communicated to ensure usefulness and build confidence in the forecasting system. We propose to reflect on the numerous, alternative pathways to designing and running an operational flood forecasting system through an adventure game. In this game, the player is the protagonist of an interactive story driven by challenges, exploration and problem-solving. For this presentation, you will have a chance to play this game, acting as the leader of a forecasting team at an operational centre. Your role is to manage the actions of your team and make sequential decisions that impact the design and running of the system in preparation to and during a flood event, and that deal with the consequences of the forecasts issued. Your actions are evaluated by how much they cost you in time, money and credibility. Your aim is to take decisions that will ultimately lead to a good balance between time and money spent, while keeping your credibility high over the whole process. This game was designed to highlight the complexities behind decision-making in an operational forecasting and emergency response context, in terms of the variety of pathways that can be selected as well as the timescale, cost and timing of effective actions.

  20. Outdoor air pollution and respiratory health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhong, Nanshan

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid economic development occurring in the last decade in many countries of Asia, the level of air pollution has increased from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Compared with Europe and North America, the potential health effects of this increasing air pollution in Asia remain largely unmeasured. Recent data published by the Health Effects Institute from some major cities in India and China reveal that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with an increase in mortality of 0.6% in daily all-natural cause mortality, with higher risks being found at extremes of high temperatures and in the lowest economically advantaged population. Other Asian studies have confirmed the link between hospital admissions for the worsening of COPD and the increase in asthma prevalence to levels of outdoor air pollutants. Although potential health effects appear to be similar to already-published Western data, it is important that further studies be carried out in Asia that will inform the public and the authorities of the necessity to curb levels of outdoor air pollutants to acceptable levels.

  1. Information and communication technology solutions for outdoor navigation in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan; Babiloni, Claudio; Hoey, Jesse; Kaye, Jeffrey; Kirste, Thomas; Burmeister, Oliver K

    2016-06-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is potentially mature enough to empower outdoor and social activities in dementia. However, actual ICT-based devices have limited functionality and impact, mainly limited to safety. What is an ideal operational framework to enhance this field to support outdoor and social activities? Review of literature and cross-disciplinary expert discussion. A situation-aware ICT requires a flexible fine-tuning by stakeholders of system usability and complexity of function, and of user safety and autonomy. It should operate by artificial intelligence/machine learning and should reflect harmonized stakeholder values, social context, and user residual cognitive functions. ICT services should be proposed at the prodromal stage of dementia and should be carefully validated within the life space of users in terms of quality of life, social activities, and costs. The operational framework has the potential to produce ICT and services with high clinical impact but requires substantial investment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. The LED outdoor lighting revolution : Opportunities, threats and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aube, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The presence of artificial light at night (ALAN) in environment is now known to have non negligible consequences on the night sky, the fauna, the flora and the human health. A real revolution is undergoing in the outdoor lighting industry threatens the night integrity. This revolution is driven by the advent of the cost-effective Light-Emitting Diode (LED) technology into the outdoor lighting industry. The LEDs provides many opportunities: they are long lasting, easily controlled, and generally allow a more efficient photometric design which, in term, may result in energy savings.After explaining the complex and non-linear behaviour of the propagation of the ALAN into the nocturnal environment, we will outline the potential impact of the ALAN on the human health and on the night sky, and we will introduce some dedicated indicators for its evaluation. We will focus on the role of the blue content of the ALAN in the evaluation of its impact. More specifically we will show how white LED technology, that often shows increased blue light content, compares to the traditional High Pressure Sodium technology. Finally, we will identify the possible mitigations to restrict the adverse impacts of the white LEDs in the urban and rural environment.

  4. Secondhand smoke exposure levels in outdoor hospitality venues: a qualitative and quantitative review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J; Chapman, Simon

    2013-05-01

    This paper considers the evidence on whether outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) is present in hospitality venues at high levels enough to potentially pose health risks, particularly among employees. Searches in PubMed and Web of Science included combinations of environmental tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, or passive smoke AND outdoor, yielding 217 and 5,199 results, respectively through June, 2012. Sixteen studies were selected that reported measuring any outdoor SHS exposures (particulate matter (PM) or other SHS indicators). The SHS measurement methods were assessed for inclusion of extraneous variables that may affect levels or the corroboration of measurements with known standards. The magnitude of SHS exposure (PM2.5) depends on the number of smokers present, measurement proximity, outdoor enclosures, and wind. Annual excess PM2.5 exposure of full-time waitstaff at outdoor smoking environments could average 4.0 to 12.2 μg/m3 under variable smoking conditions. Although highly transitory, outdoor SHS exposures could occasionally exceed annual ambient air quality exposure guidelines. Personal monitoring studies of waitstaff are warranted to corroborate these modeled estimates.

  5. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M.; Kundi, M.; Wiesenberger, W. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  6. Older Adults’ Outdoor Walking: Inequalities in Neighbourhood Safety, Pedestrian Infrastructure and Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Zandieh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Older adults living in high-deprivation areas walk less than those living in low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that older adults’ outdoor walking levels are related to the neighbourhood built environment. This study examines inequalities in perceived built environment attributes (i.e., safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics and their possible influences on disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels in low- and high-deprivation areas of Birmingham, United Kingdom. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (65 years and over, used GPS technology to measure outdoor walking levels, used questionnaires (for all participants and conducted walking interviews (with a sub-sample to collect data on perceived neighbourhood built environment attributes. The results show inequalities in perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics in high- versus low-deprivation areas and demonstrate that they may influence disparities in participants’ outdoor walking levels. Improvements of perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetic in high-deprivation areas are encouraged.

  7. Nature and the Outdoor Learning Environment: The Forgotten Resource in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…

  8. The Application of Recognition-Primed Decision Theory to Decisions Made in an Outdoor Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mike; Potter, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the decisions that highly experienced outdoor leaders made on backpacking expeditions conducted by a tertiary institution in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The purpose of the research was to document decision problems and explore them as Recognition-Primed Decisions (RPD) within naturalistic decision making (NDM)…

  9. Older Adults' Outdoor Walking: Inequalities in Neighbourhood Safety, Pedestrian Infrastructure and Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Razieh; Martinez, Javier; Flacke, Johannes; Jones, Phil; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2016-11-25

    Older adults living in high-deprivation areas walk less than those living in low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that older adults' outdoor walking levels are related to the neighbourhood built environment. This study examines inequalities in perceived built environment attributes (i.e., safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics) and their possible influences on disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels in low- and high-deprivation areas of Birmingham, United Kingdom. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (65 years and over), used GPS technology to measure outdoor walking levels, used questionnaires (for all participants) and conducted walking interviews (with a sub-sample) to collect data on perceived neighbourhood built environment attributes. The results show inequalities in perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics in high- versus low-deprivation areas and demonstrate that they may influence disparities in participants' outdoor walking levels. Improvements of perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetic in high-deprivation areas are encouraged.

  10. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-01-01

    We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, penvironmental health implications of that concentration disparity are compelling. For example, we estimate that reducing nonwhites' NO2 concentrations to levels experienced by whites would reduce Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) mortality by ∼7,000 deaths per year, which is equivalent to 16 million people increasing their physical activity level from inactive (0 hours/week of physical activity) to sufficiently active (>2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  11. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara P Clark

    Full Text Available We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p2.5 hours/week of physical activity. Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08. Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  12. National Patterns in Environmental Injustice and Inequality: Outdoor NO2 Air Pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P.; Millet, Dylan B.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-01-01

    We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin. PMID:24736569

  13. Indoor airborne particle sources and outdoor haze days effect in urban office areas in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Manwen; Zhang, Sukun; Feng, Guixian; Su, Hui; Zhu, Fengzhi; Ren, Mingzhong; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-04-01

    To identify the sources of PM2.5 pollutants in work environments and determine whether the air quality inside an office was affected by a change in outdoor pollution status, concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements of PM2.5 were conducted at five different office spaces in the urban center of Guangzhou on low pollution days (non-episode days, NEDs), and high pollution days (haze episode days, EDs). Indoor-outdoor relationships between the PM2.5 mass and its chemical constituents, which included water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species, and metal elements, were investigated. A principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to further confirm the relationship between the indoor and outdoor PM2.5 pollution. The results reveal that (1) Printing and ETS (Environmental tobacco smoking) were found to be important office PM2.5 sources and associated with the enrichment of SO4(2-), OC, EC and some toxic metals indoors; (2) On EDs, serious outdoor pollution and higher air exchange rate greatly affected all studied office environments, masking the original differences of the indoor characteristics (3) Fresh air system could efficiently filter out most of the outside pollutants on both NEDs and EDs. Overall, the results of our study suggest that improper human behavior is associated with the day-to-day generation of indoor PM2.5 levels and sporadic outdoor pollution events can lead to poor indoor air quality in urban office environments. Moreover, fresh air system has been experimentally proved with data as an effective way to improve the air quality in office.

  14. Outdoor Augmented Reality: State of the Art and Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Zendjebil, Imane; Ababsa, Fakhr-Eddine; Didier, Jean-Yves; Vairon, Jacques; Frauciel, Luc; Hachet, Martin; Guitton, Pascal; Delmont, Romuald

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The goal of an outdoor augmented reality system is to allow the human operator to move freely without restraint in its environment, to view and interact in real time with geo-referenced data via mobile wireless devices. This requires proposing new techniques for 3D localization, visualization and 3D interaction, adapted to working conditions in outdoor environment (brightness variation, features of displays used, etc.). This paper surveys recent advances in outdoor aug...

  15. Performance correlations of five solar collectors tested simultaneously outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Collector thermal efficiency, and efficiency degradation with time were measured for 5 flat-plate solar collectors tested simultaneously in an outdoor solar collector test facility. Results indicate that by using collector performance parameters which account for diffuse insolation, outdoor data recorded on 'cloudy' days can be used as a measure of performance, as long as the ratio of direct to total insolation exceeds approximately 0.6. These outdoor results also show good agreement with thermal efficiency data obtained indoors in a solar simulator. Significant efficiency degradation occurred on only one of the five collectors exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of one to two years.

  16. Space and place in Outdoor Education in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The article draws on a doctoral study of young peoples’ participation in organised friluftsliv and outdoor education in Denmark and New Zealand. The research questions concentrate on views of nature, values and general characteristics in friluftsliv and outdoor education. The results are based...... on a qualitative approach using case study design with interviews and observations. For the analysis, ethnological cultural analysis was employed combined with configuration analysis to conceptualise the data. Theories and concepts of space and place in outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed. Results from...... the empirical studies on outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed and compared to the cultural perspective of friluftsliv in Denmark....

  17. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. METHODS: Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. CONCLUSION: The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research. PMID:25961280

  18. Physical activity in light of affordances in outdoor environments: qualitative observation studies of 3-5 years olds in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørgen, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the characteristic of affordances of different outdoor environments, related to the influences of children's physical activity levels. Qualitative observation studies in a Norwegian kindergarten were conducted of 3- to 5-year-olds into the natural environment and in the kindergarten's outdoor area. An ecological approach was important from both an analytical and theoretical point of view, using concepts from Gibson's (The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bosten, 1979) theory of affordances. The concepts of affordances in an environment can explain children's movement behaviour. The findings reveal that situations with high physical activity levels among the children are more often created in natural environments than in the kindergarten's outdoor environment. Natural environments offer potential qualities that are a catalyst for physical activity. The study shows that certain characteristic of the physical outdoor environment are important for children's opportunities and inspiration for physical active play. The findings also show that social possibilities and opportunities, human interactions, in the environment have the greatest influence on the duration and intensity of physically active play. The need for knowledge on physical and social opportunities in outdoor environments, educational practice and the content of outdoor time in kindergartens should be given greater attention.

  19. Renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to the renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting, traffic will be limited to one way along “Route Gregory” from the E entrance (France) up to “Route Fermi” just before the water tower between 12th and 23rd July 2010. Disruption can also be expected in the car parks “Les Erables” and “Les Tilleuls” close to building 30 and also the car park in front of building 377, between 19th and 30th July 2010. Thanks for your understanding. SEM Group

  20. O outdoor personalizado na cidade do Porto

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Fernanda Isabel de Jesus Viana do Carmo

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências da Comunicação, com especialização Marketing e Publicidade. Como é que o outdoor personalizado, enquanto potenciador da mensagem publicitária, de elevado grau de mutabilidade, de interacção com o meio envolvente, se relaciona com o espaço urbano? Defendemos o seguinte: o espaço urbano, oferecendo uma configuração singular, proporcionada pel...

  1. Indoor/Outdoor Air Quality Assessment at School near the Steel Plant in Taranto (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Gilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the air quality in primary school placed in district of Taranto (south of Italy, an area of high environmental risk because of closeness between large industrial complex and urban settlement. The chemical characterization of PM2.5 was performed to identify origin of pollutants detected inside school and the comparison between indoor and outdoor levels of PAHs and metals allowed evaluating intrusion of outdoor pollutants or the existence of specific indoor sources. The results showed that the indoor and outdoor levels of PM2.5, BaP, Cd, Ni, As, and Pb never exceeded the target values issued by World Health Organization (WHO. Nevertheless, high metals and PAHs concentrations were detected especially when school were downwind to the steel plant. The I/O ratio showed the impact of outdoor pollutants, especially of industrial markers as Fe, Mn, Zn, and Pb, on indoor air quality. This result was confirmed by values of diagnostic ratio as B(aP/B(gP, IP/(IP + BgP, BaP/Chry, and BaP/(BaP + Chry, which showed range characteristics of coke and coal combustion. However, Ni and As showed I/O ratio of 2.5 and 1.4, respectively, suggesting the presence of indoor sources.

  2. Imagining adventure in Middlebrow fiction: Cosmopolitan Novels by Maurice Dekobra and Johan Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Verstraeten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first half of the twentieth century saw the rise of a new type of novel that straddled the divide between popular entertainment and legitimate culture by combining ‘high’ and ‘low’ literary forms and catering en masse for the tastes of an expanding middleclass reading public. In this article we want to explore the ways in which the novels La Madone des sleepings (1925 by the bestselling French novelist Maurice Dekobra and Venetiaansch avontuur [Venetian adventure] (1931 by the Dutch author Johan Fabricius fit into this broad category of the middlebrow novel and how their use of adventure as a structural devise might complicate the common view of the middlebrow novel as a form of domestic realism.

  3. A Journey of Freedom-seeking-A Character Analysis of The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭险峰

    2013-01-01

    The thesis analyzes and comments on the two main characters in The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn so as to reveal the truth that to win both physical and psychological freedom in the society, we must learn to stand on ourselves. It begins with a brief introduction to the author, the novel and the paper thesis. Then, the author discloses the freedom-fighting process of the two main characters and the functions of Mississippi River and the raft in The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn: On the hegira, Huck realizes the cruelty, greed, murder, trickery, hypocrisy, racism, and a general lack of morality of the society;Jim, with his in-telligence and compassion, wins his freedom;the Mississippi River and the raft are symbols of freedom. Finally, the author reveals that to win both physical and psychological freedom, one must rely on his or her own efforts.

  4. Ethical, Legal, and Administrative Considerations for Preparticipation Evaluation for Wilderness Sports and Adventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Craig C; Campbell, Aaron D; Lemery, Jay; Young, David S

    2015-12-01

    Preparticipation evaluations (PPEs) are common in team, organized, or traditional sports but not common in wilderness sports or adventures. Regarding ethical, legal, and administrative considerations, the same principles can be used as in traditional sports. Clinicians should be trained to perform such a PPE to avoid missing essential components and to maximize the quality of the PPE. In general, participants' privacy should be observed; office-based settings may be best for professional and billing purposes, and adequate documentation of a complete evaluation, including clearance issues, should be essential components. Additional environmental and personal health issues relative to the wilderness activity should be documented, and referral for further screening should be made as deemed necessary, if unable to be performed by the primary clinician. Travel medicine principles should be incorporated, and recommendations for travel or adventure insurance should be made.

  5. Pembuatan Aplikasi Permainan Pengenalan Provinsi di Indonesia Melalui Game “Adventure Indonesia” Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ashari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia adalah Negara yang luas dan kaya akan keanekaragaman aspek keruangan. Secara administratif menurut UU RI Nomor 20 Tahun 2012 Indonesia tentang pembentukan provinsi Kalimantan Utara yang menjadikan Indonesia terdiri dari 34 Provinsi. Hal ini berdampak terhadap aspek kehidupan terutama pada aspek pendidikan. Pada tingkat sekolah dasar siswa telah diajarkan untuk mengenal wilayah Indonesia. untuk mempermudah siswa sekolah dasar dalam memahami dan mengenal provinsi dibutuhkan suatu aplikasi edukasi yang dapat mengenalkan karakteristik dan nama ibukota dari provinsi di Indonesia oleh karena itu muncul sebuah ide untuk merancang dan membangun aplikasi permainan “Adventure Indonesia” ini diharapkan menjadi sarana permainan tentang pengenalan provinsi di Indonesia. Aplikasi permainan 'Adventure Indonesia' dibuat menggunakan perangkat lunak Unity versi 5. Pengembangan multimedia yang digunakan adalah Multimedia Development Life Cycle (MDLC yang memiliki enam tahap, yaitu tahap konsep (Concept, tahap perancangan (Design, tahap pengumpulan materi (Material Collecting, tahap pembuatan (Assembly, tahap pengujian (testing, dan tahap distribusi (Distribution. Pengujian black-box juga digunakan pada aplikasi ini. Hasil dari penelitian adalah berupa aplikasi permainan “Adventure Indonesia” yang dapat berjalan pada perangkat berbasis android. Aplikasi ini berisi pengenalan karakteristik dan ibukota dari provinsi di Indonesia. Berdasarkan pengujian dengan menggunakan metode black-box, seluruh fungsi yang ada dalam aplikasi permainan telah berhasil dan berjalan sesuai dengan fungsinya masing-masing.

  6. Professional judgement and decision-making in adventure sports coaching: the role of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study presents the view that coaching practice places demands on the coach's adaptability and flexibility. These requirements for being adaptive and flexible are met through a careful process of professional judgement and decision-making based on context-appropriate bodies of knowledge. Adventure sports coaches were selected for study on the basis that adventure sports create a hyper-dynamic environment in which these features can be examined. Thematic analysis revealed that coaches were generally well informed and practised with respect to the technical aspects of their sporting disciplines. Less positively, however, they often relied on ad hoc contextualisation of generalised theories of coaching practice to respond to the hyper-dynamic environments encountered in adventure sports. We propose that coaching practice reflects the demands of the environment, individual learning needs of the students and the task at hand. Together, these factors outwardly resemble a constraints-led approach but, we suggest, actually reflect manipulation of these parameters from a cognitive rather than an ecological perspective. This process is facilitated by a refined judgement and decision-making process, sophisticated epistemology and an explicit interaction of coaching components.

  7. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Indoor and Outdoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Retirement Communities of the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminassab, Sina; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Delfino, Ralph J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted at three retirement homes in the Los Angeles Basin during two separate phases (cold and warm) between 2005 and 2006. Indoor-to-outdoor relationships of PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined and sources of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were evaluated using a molecular marker-based chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) model. Indoor levels of elemental carbon (EC) along with metals and trace elements were found to be significantly affected by outdoor sources. EC, in particular, displayed very high indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) mass ratios accompanied by strong I/O correlations, illustrating the significant impact of outdoor sources on indoor levels of EC. Similarly, indoor levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and steranes were strongly correlated with their outdoor components and displayed I/O ratios close to unity. On the other hand, concentrations of n-alkanes and organic acids inside the retirement communities were dominated by indoor sources (e.g. food cooking and consumer products), as indicated by their I/O ratios, which exceeded unity. Source apportionment results revealed that vehicular emissions were the major contributor to both indoor and outdoor PM2.5, accounting for 39 and 46% of total mass, respectively. Moreover, the contribution of vehicular sources to indoor levels was generally comparable to its corresponding outdoor estimate. Other water-insoluble organic matter (other WIOM), which accounts for emissions from uncharacterized primary biogenic sources, displayed a wider range of contributions, varying from 2 to 73% of PM2.5, across all sites and phases of the study. Lastly, higher indoor than outdoor contribution of other water-soluble organic matter (other WSOM) was evident at some of the sites, suggesting the production of secondary aerosols as well as direct emissions from primary sources (including cleaning or other consumer products) at the

  8. Personal exposure to PM 2.5 and element composition—A comparison between outdoor and indoor workers from two Mexican cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovalin-Ahumada, Horacio; Whitehead, Lawrence; Blanco, Salvador

    Many individuals work outdoors in the formal and informal economy of the large urban areas in developing countries, where they are potentially exposed for long periods to high concentrations of ambient airborne particulate matter (PM). This study describes the personal exposures to PM of 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter and smaller (PM 2.5) for a sample of outdoor and indoor workers in two cities, Mexico City and Puebla, in central Mexico. Thirty-six workers in Mexico City and 17 in Puebla were studied. Thirty were outdoor workers (i.e., taxi and bus drivers, street vendors, and vehicle inspectors) and 23 were indoor (office) workers. Their personal exposures to PM 2.5 were monitored for a mean 19-h period. In Mexico City, the street vendors and taxi drivers overall exposures were significantly higher than indoor workers were. In Puebla, bus drivers had a higher overall exposure than vehicle inspectors or indoor workers. Most of the exposures were above the 65 μg m -3 24-h Mexican standard. In Mexico City, exposures to Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and Cd were higher for outdoor than for indoor workers. In Puebla, exposures to Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, and Zn also were higher for outdoor workers. In Mexico City outdoor workers exposures to Cu, Pb, Cr, Se and Mo were 4 or more times higher than for Puebla outdoor workers, while Puebla outdoor workers' exposures to V, Si, Fe and Ca were 3 or more times higher than Mexico City outdoor workers. These results suggest that for these outdoor workers the elevated local ambient air PM concentrations and an extended period spent outside are more important contributors to total exposures than indoor concentrations. These workers could be at particular risk of increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient PM.

  9. Indoor/outdoor ozone concentrations at a contemporary art gallery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, T.D.; Ramer, B.; Kaspyzok, G.; Delany, A.C.

    1984-02-01

    Ozone concentrations were measured both inside and outside the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, near a small city in rural eastern England, during a three-week period in summer. The inside concentration was typically 70 +/- 10% of the outside concentration during the period of expected maximum outside levels. During the period of observation the maximum outside ozone levels have been well in excess of 120 ppb. The relatively high indoor/outdoor ozone ratio is a function of the Centre's design, its internal geometry, and its ventilation system. Conventional art galleries and museums experience much lower indoor ozone exposure. The measured indoor ozone levels imply deleterious effects on the gallery exhibits and an enhanced ozone exposure may have to be considered in the design of modern galleries and museums. 8 references.

  10. An Analysis of Outdoor Leaders' Ethics: Guiding Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, Denise

    Outdoor leaders model their values, and their ethical frameworks and moral development help shape their influence on others. Outdoor leaders face many obstacles as they seek to define ethical standards, including the challenge of defining common ethics, lack of professional certifications, the limits of professional ethics, and issues of power and…

  11. Getting the Most Out of Journaling: Strategies for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet E.; O'Connell, Timothy S.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor educators often ask students to write journals without training them in journal writing. A workshop in journal writing for university students in outdoor education courses covers how to write entries related to specific content areas; an understanding of Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Thinking and how it applies to journal writing; and…

  12. Rain and Romanticism: The Environment in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education provides an opportunity to engage with natural environments in ways that are distinct from other physical education teacher education (PETE) courses. This research examines how pre-service teachers (PSTs) within a PETE degree experienced "environment" on an outdoor education camp. Using self-study methodology and…

  13. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...

  14. The ODELIA Study on Noise Limits for Outdoor Machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Carletti, E.; Spellerberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the ODELIA study for the European Commission an assessment of the outdoor equipment noise directive 2000/14/EC and its amendment 2005/88/EC has been performed. The directive requires noise marking for 57 types of equipment used outdoors, and sets noise limits for 22 of these. Since the limits

  15. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  16. Market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bratyhina; Irina Toimenceva

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to questions to market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities. Authors allocate the main segments of consumers of goods for sports and outdoor activities, carry out market segmentation on types of goods and services, and as segmentation on the competing organizations.

  17. Rain and Romanticism: The Environment in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education provides an opportunity to engage with natural environments in ways that are distinct from other physical education teacher education (PETE) courses. This research examines how pre-service teachers (PSTs) within a PETE degree experienced "environment" on an outdoor education camp. Using self-study methodology and…

  18. Outdoor Education Summer Curriculum Project--1979. Phoenix Elementary District #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Arthur; And Others

    Outside the classroom there are many opportunities that provide a variety of environmental, ecological and academic-oriented experiences. For inner city minority children from low income families the need for outdoor education programs is particularly critical. Much of the outdoor experience can be established right on the school site by using the…

  19. The Implementation of Mobile Learning in Outdoor Education: Application of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  20. Foucault on Camp: What Does His Work Offer Outdoor Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Robyn; Burrows, Lisette

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine aspects of French social theorist, Michel Foucault's work and the contributions these can make to understanding practices in outdoor education. We look specifically at his notions of practice, discourse, power and the self and the lines of questioning that these concepts make possible in relation to outdoor education. We…

  1. Market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bratyhina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to questions to market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities. Authors allocate the main segments of consumers of goods for sports and outdoor activities, carry out market segmentation on types of goods and services, and as segmentation on the competing organizations.

  2. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  3. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  4. Playing with Nature: Supporting Preschoolers' Creativity in Natural Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Christine; Veselack, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Conducted at two separate natural outdoor classrooms with preschool-aged children from three to five years old, this qualitative research study investigated how outdoor environments supported children's creativity and imagination. Although many studies have explored the development of creative arts in the young children, few have focused on…

  5. Fancy a Career Doing Therapy in the Outdoors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Chris

    2003-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, no outdoor practitioner is working as a professional therapist and little formal training in outdoor therapy exists. Practice of this type requires supervision and professional accreditation. Interested undergraduates should check social work, probation, mental health, educational psychology, or occupational therapy…

  6. Outdoor activity and myopia in Singapore teenage children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, M; Tong, L; Gazzard, G; Zhang, X; Chia, A; Young, T L; Rose, K A; Mitchell, P; Saw, S-M

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the relationship of outdoor activities and myopia in Singapore teenage children. Teenage children (1249 participants), examined in the Singapore Cohort study Of Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM), during 2006 were included in analyses. Participants completed questionnaires that quantified total outdoor activity, and underwent an eye examination. The mean total time spent on outdoor activity was 3.24 h/day. The total outdoor activity (h/day) was significantly associated with myopia, odds ratio 0.90 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.96) (p = 0.004), after adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, school type, books read per week, height, parental myopia, parental education and intelligence quotient. In addition, the total time spent outdoors was associated with significantly less myopic refraction (regression coefficient = 0.17; CI 0.10 to 0.25, p<0.001) and shorter axial length (regression coefficient -0.06 (CI -0.1 to -0.03, p<0.001). Total sports was also significantly negatively associated with myopia (p = 0.008) but not indoor sports (p = 0.16). Participants who spent more time outdoors were less likely to be myopic. Thus, outdoor activity may protect against development of myopia in children, supporting recent Australian data. As near work did not predict outdoor activity, this can be viewed as an independent factor and not merely the reciprocal of near work.

  7. Assessment of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in an Educational, Research and Treatment Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital environments contain different types of microorganisms. Airborne fungi are one of these microbes and the major source of hospital indoor contamination that will be able to cause airborne fungal diseases. In the current study, the total count and diversity of the airborne filamentous and yeasts fungi were investigated in indoor and outdoor air of selective wards of Emam Reza Educational, Research and Treatment Center. This cross-sectional study was performed during the fall season. One hundred and ninety-two environmental samples of indoor and outdoor air from hematology, infectious diseases, Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU wards were collected by open plate technique (on Sabouraud dextrose agar media once a week. The cultures were then examined and evaluated according to macroscopic and microscopic examination criteria. In this study, 67 (62.03% of indoor samples and 81 (96.42% of outdoor samples were positive for fungi. The most isolated fungi were yeast species (17.12%, Penicillium spp. (16.34%, Alternaria spp. (14.39%, Aspergillus niger (11.28%, A. flavus (8.95%, respectively. Almost all of the wards showed high rates of contamination by various fungi. However, the analysis of the data showed that indoor air of hematology ward had the highest fungal pollution. In contrast, the outdoor air of ENT had the highest fungal pollution. Thus, these results demonstrated that the cleansing and disinfection procedures in the hospital wards should be improved yet.

  8. Effects of outdoor cultures on the growth and lipid production of Phaeodactylum tricornutum using closed photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ballardo, David U; Rendón-Unceta, María Del Carmen; Rossi, Sergio; Vázquez-Gómez, Rosa; Hernández-Verdugo, Sergio; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel

    2016-08-01

    One of the principal challenges for large scale production of microalgae is the high costs of biomass production. Aiming for minimize this problem, microalgal biodiesel production should focus on outdoors cultures, using available solar light and allowing lower energy cost process. Testing species that proved to be common and easy to culture may be a good approach in this process. The present work reports indoor-outdoor cultures of Phaeodactylum tricornutum using different bioreactors types, using cell growth, biochemical composition, and the profiles of the fatty acids produced as the parameters to test the optimization processes. The results show that the use of outdoor cultures is a good choice to obtain P. tricornutum biomass with a good potential for biodiesel production. The microalgae produced reached better growth efficiency, major lipid content and showed an increment in the percentage of saturated fatty acids (required on the biodiesel production) respect indoor cultures. These results are important to show the relevance of using outdoor cultures as a way to improve the efficiency and the energetic balance of the biodiesel production with P. tricornutum algae.

  9. Differences in 200-m sprint running performance between outdoor and indoor venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Amelia; Floria, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Athletes' times in 200-m indoor races are greater than in outdoor races. The purpose of this study was to determine which 50-m sections were slower indoors than outdoors in 200-m sprint events and by how much. Using 2-dimensional photogrammetric techniques, a 50-m split-time analysis was made of the performance of 17 men and 16 women, all well-trained athletes, at 4 national competitions held over 5 years. The time taken to run the 0- to 50-m section was longer indoors than outdoors in women (6.89 ± 0.12 vs. 6.75 ± 0.04 seconds; p 100- to 150-m section indoors (6.03 ± 0.15 vs. 5.84 ± 0.06 seconds; p 100 and 150-200 m in either sex. In both categories, the relative average velocity (RAV), percentage of average velocity relative to the maximum velocity reached in the fastest section (50-100 m), was about 3% lower indoors than outdoors in 100- to 150-m section. The athletes' lower capacity to develop speed indoors could be caused specifically, by the curved 0- to 50-m and 100- to 150-m sections of the indoor track. Coaches could use these data as reference values there being few published data from high-level competitions. The RAV could be used by coaches to compare results among athletes of different levels and sexes.

  10. PENGARUH GROUP INVESTIGATION BERBASIS OUTDOOR STUDY TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR ANALITIS SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriana Rasweda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to find out the Group Investigation outdoor study-based having an affect on student’s analytichal thinking ability. The type of research is PretestPosttest Control Group Design. The research was conducted at Lawang 1st Public Senior High School Malang Regency with experiment class X-IIS 1 and control class X-IIS 2. The data is an analytichal thinking ability. Data analysis was done by comparing the gain score student’s analytichal thinking ability using SPSS 17.0 for Windows. The results showed that Group Investigation outdoor study-based having an affect on student’s analytichal thinking ability.  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah model Group Investigation berbasis outdoor study berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir analitis siswa. Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian eksperimen semu (quasi experiment yang termasuk penelitian kuantitatif. Rancangan penelitian yang dikembangkan adalah Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMA Negeri 1 Lawang Kabupaten Malang. Kelas ekperimen ialah kelas X-IIS 1 dan kelas kontrol ialah kelas X-IIS 2. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kemampuan berpikir analitis. Analisis data dilakukan dengan membandingkan gain score kemampuan berpikir analitis siswa menggunakan bantuan program SPSS 17.0 for Windows. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa model Group Investigation berbasis outdoor study berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir analitis siswa.

  11. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 micro Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly <15 nm and are released as composite colloids attached to the organic binders of the paint. Microscopic results indicate that the Ag-NP are likely transformed to considerably less toxic forms such as Ag2S.

  12. Planning and Performing Outdoor Living Space Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fošnarič Samo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The nature is man’s first teacher. Slovenian people are generally proud of their country being a green oasis in the middle of Europe, characterized by many natural and geographical features. As we were interested to see whether younger primary school students had experience with learning about such features in outdoor classes, we completed an empirical research on a sample of 84 primary school class teachers in the Prekmurje region. We investigated if teachers included field trips (and how many in their lesson plans and how many of those they actually took their students to. We established that teachers (too rarely allowed their students to gain knowledge and information directly from nature.

  13. Counseling for the Wilderness Athlete and Adventurer During a Preparticipation Evaluation for Preparation, Safety, and Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Justin Mark J; Campbell, Aaron D; Raastad, Kate K

    2015-12-01

    Wilderness sports and adventures continue to increase in popularity. Counseling is an essential element of the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for athletes in traditional sports. This approach can be applied to and augmented for the wilderness athlete and adventurer. The authors reviewed the literature on counseling during PPEs and gathered expert opinion from medical professionals who perform such PPEs for wilderness sports enthusiasts. The objective was to present findings of this review and make recommendations on the counseling component of a wilderness sports/adventure PPE. The counseling component of a PPE for wilderness sports/adventures should take place after a basic medical evaluation, and include a discussion on sport or activity-specific injury prevention, personal health, travel recommendations, and emergency event planning. Counseling should be individualized and thorough, and involve shared decision making. This should take place early enough to allow ample time for the athlete or adventurer to further prepare as needed based on the recommendations. Resources may be recommended for individuals desiring more information on selected topics.

  14. Thinking out of the box (and back in the plane). Concepts of space and spatial representation in two classic adventure games.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, J.I.L.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine location, space and spatial representation in two classic adventure games belonging to the same game series: Gabriel Knight Sins of the Fathers, a one screen at a time point-and-click adventure and Gabriel Knight Blood of the Sacred Blood of the Damned, a 3D game. Our aim

  15. Outdoor air pollution and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Rafael; García-Blàquez, Núria; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-15

    Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity, but its effects on male semen quality are still unclear. We performed a systematic review (up to June 2016) to assess the impact of air pollutants on sperm quality. We included 17 semi-ecological, panel, and cohort studies, assessing outdoor air pollutants, such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, and O3, and their effects on DNA fragmentation, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Thirteen studies assessed air pollution exposure measured environmentally, and six used biomarkers of air pollution exposure (two did both). We rated the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and assessed with the exposure method. Taking into account these factors and the number of studies finding significant results (positive or negative), the evidence supporting an effect of air pollution on DNA fragmentation is weak but suggestive, on sperm motility is limited and probably inexistent, on lower sperm count is inconclusive, and on sperm morphology is very suggestive. Because of the diversity of air pollutants and sperm parameters, and the studies' designs, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In summary, most studies concluded that outdoor air pollution affects at least one of the four semen quality parameters included in the review. However, results lack consistency, and furthermore, studies were not comparable. Studies using standardized air pollution and semen measures are required to obtain more reliable conclusions. CRD42015007175. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Real-time measurement of outdoor worker's exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmathapelo Makgabutlane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pretoria in South Africa receives considerable solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR because of its low latitude (22–35°S and relatively clear skies. Certain meteorological factors affect the amount of solar UVR that reaches the ground; the most dominant factors being stratospheric ozone, cloud cover and solar zenith angle. It is known that overexposure to solar UVR may lead to the development of adverse health conditions, the most significant being skin cancer. Outdoor workers spend a significant amount of time outside and are thus susceptible to this risk. In this case study, we estimated, for the first time, the real-time solar UVR exposure of an outdoor worker in Pretoria. Measurements were made on 27 and 28 May 2013 using a handheld ultraviolet index (UVI meter calibrated against a science-grade biometer at the South African Weather Service in Pretoria. Personal exposure estimation was used to discern the pattern in diurnal and annual sunburn risk for the outdoor worker. Ambient UVR levels ranged from 0 UVI to 4.66 UVI and the outdoor worker’s potential exposure estimates regularly exceeded 80% of these levels depending on the time of day. The risk of sunburn was evident; however, actual incidents would depend on individual skin photosensitivity and melanin content, as well as sun protection used. Further research is needed to determine the personal exposure estimations of outdoor workers in other provinces in which solar UVR levels may be equally high, or higher than those in Pretoria.

  17. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  18. Structures that Include a Semi-Outdoor Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papachristou, C.; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment of buildings with a second "skin" and semi-outdoor space is examined in the present study. A literature review was conducted on similar structures and only a few studies were found focusing on the thermal environment. Two different building case studies were chosen...... building can be used by the occupants. The study was based on weather data for Copenhagen. In addition to the simulations, physical measurements were performed in DoV to assess the thermal environment in the semi-outdoor space. Since existing standards are not applicable for semi-outdoor spaces...

  19. Child exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants in schools in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, I; Viana, M; Moreno, T; Pandolfi, M; Amato, F; Reche, C; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-08-01

    Proximity to road traffic involves higher health risks because of atmospheric pollutants. In addition to outdoor air, indoor air quality contributes to overall exposure. In the framework of the BREATHE study, indoor and outdoor air pollution was assessed in 39 schools in Barcelona. The study quantifies indoor and outdoor air quality during school hours of the BREATHE schools. High levels of fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), equivalent black carbon (EBC), ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentration and road traffic related trace metals were detected in school playgrounds and indoor environments. PM2.5 almost doubled (factor of 1.7) the usual urban background (UB) levels reported for Barcelona owing to high school-sourced PM2.5 contributions: [1] an indoor-generated source characterised mainly by organic carbon (OC) from organic textile fibres, cooking and other organic emissions, and by calcium and strontium (chalk dust) and; [2] mineral elements from sand-filled playgrounds, detected both indoors and outdoors. The levels of mineral elements are unusually high in PM2.5 because of the breakdown of mineral particles during playground activities. Moreover, anthropogenic PM components (such as OC and arsenic) are dry/wet deposited in this mineral matter. Therefore, PM2.5 cannot be considered a good tracer of traffic emissions in schools despite being influenced by them. On the other hand, outdoor NO2, EBC, UFP, and antimony appear to be good indicators of traffic emissions. The concentrations of NO2 are 1.2 times higher at schools than UB, suggesting the proximity of some schools to road traffic. Indoor levels of these traffic-sourced pollutants are very similar to those detected outdoors, indicating easy penetration of atmospheric pollutants. Spatial variation shows higher levels of EBC, NO2, UFP and, partially, PM2.5 in schools in the centre than in the outskirts of Barcelona, highlighting the influence of traffic emissions. Mean child exposure to

  20. Improvement of outdoor thermal comfort for a residential development in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souradeep Gupta, Prashant Anand, Shashwat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With more urbanization in an island country of limited land area like Singapore, Urban heat island (UHI is becoming a widely recognized phenomenon which is causing outdoor thermal discomfort to pedestrians and also causes high energy consumption by buildings. For a prospective residential development in Singapore, computational fluid dynamics simulation and temperature mapping have been conducted to highlight the urban parameters that should be considered to mitigate the adverse effects of UHI effect. Simulation shows higher day time and night time temperature at zones with exposed wall surfaces and pavements due to high sky view factor and higher storage of heat. Creation of more openness on ground and planting trees in such exposed spaces shows reduction in maximum temperature during day by about 2.2 ºC with increase in wind velocity as well. Improvement of outdoor thermal comfort from warm to neutral has been obtained with improved orientation of buildings and introduction of urban greenery.

  1. Effect of outdoor fungus concentrations on symptom severity of children with asthma and/or rhinitis monosensitized to molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Ayfer; Karakoc, Gulbin Bingol; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Pinar, Munevver; Ceter, Talip; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kendirli, Seval Guneser

    2008-03-01

    Although the relationship between asthma severity and exposure to airborne fungi has been well studied, little is known about the contribution of outdoor molds to the symptoms of children monosensitized to molds. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of outdoor mold spore concentrations on daily asthma and/or rhinitis scores in children monosensitized to molds. Nineteen children with asthma and/or rhinitis sensitized only to molds recorded their daily symptoms and PEF values to the diaries, from February 2005 to January 2006. Additionally, mold spores were measured daily using a Burkard 7-day recording volumetric spore trap in city atmosphere and compared with meteorological data. Total number of mold spores in atmosphere was found to be 352,867 spore/m3 during the study period. Cladosporium (53%) was the most common encountered outdoor fungi, followed by Altemaria (29%) and 1-septate Ascospore (3%). Outdoor fungi concentrations were significantly correlated with mean monthly rhinitis score (r = 0.877, p effect of outdoor fungi was highly evident on the symptoms of our patients with asthma and/or rhinitis monosensitized to molds.

  2. Chemical Composition of Indoor and Outdoor PM2.5 in Three Schools in the City of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tofful

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, children spend up to 30% of their time in school institutions; for this reason, the evaluation of indoor air quality in schools constitutes a necessary step forward in the direction of child health protection. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of PM2.5 collected simultaneously indoor and outdoor in three primary schools in Rome. Seasonal variations between winter and spring/summer were evaluated, as well as the role of the main macro-sources of PM (soil, sea, traffic, secondary inorganics and organics. During winter periods, characterized by strong atmospheric stability, the main contributors were organics and combustion products, which accounted for more than 70% of the total mass both indoor and outdoor. Spring/summer period was characterized by very low outdoor concentrations (12 μg/m3 on average and by a more balanced contribution of organic, traffic and secondary inorganic components. Indoor, the contribution of soil-related species from re-suspension of settled dust and secondary inorganic species from outdoor photochemical reactions became significant. Given that several indoor exceedances of the international air quality standards for PM2.5 were recorded during the most polluted days, the infiltration of outdoor air, due to the inadequate construction characteristics of the buildings and the absence of automated air filtration systems, seemed to be the main causes of the high PM concentrations measured indoor.

  3. Australian Outdoor (and) Environmental Education Research: Senses of "Place" in Two Constituencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The Outdoor Council of Australia's renaming of "Australian Journal of Outdoor Education" ("AJOE") as "Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education" ("JOEE") follows deliberations among Australian and international stakeholders in outdoor education about the future of publishing in the field and raises a…

  4. Australian Outdoor (and) Environmental Education Research: Senses of "Place" in Two Constituencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The Outdoor Council of Australia's renaming of "Australian Journal of Outdoor Education" ("AJOE") as "Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education" ("JOEE") follows deliberations among Australian and international stakeholders in outdoor education about the future of publishing in the field and raises a…

  5. Uranium mines and French mining companies: a magnificent adventure; Les mines d'uranium et leurs mineurs francais: une belle aventure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J

    2008-08-15

    The French mining adventure still arouses enthusiasm. The search for uranium began in 1945 with the creation of the Cea (Atomic Energy Board) whose one mission was to supply the nascent French nuclear programme with the necessary materials. Prospecting works were then led throughout France, Madagascar, the Ivory Coast and the French equatorial Africa. More than 60 years later the only surviving actor of this quest for uranium has become the mining department of Areva Nuclear Cycle which is itself a sub-company of Areva. The author, who was an ancient high executive of Cogema draws a detailed history of the French uranium mining industry with with its ups and downs, by analysing the impact of the 2 oil crisis and of the decline of nuclear energy in the decade following the Chernobyl accident. (A.C.)

  6. Adventure Time and the case Natasha Allegri: appropriation of cultural goods, fan art and new productive cycle television/ internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Baptista Reis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article endeavours in identifying the narrative and artistic relationships contained in the Natasha Allegri’s case and her gender swapped fan art version of the characters of the animated cartoon, of the north american cable network Cartoon Network, Adventure Time. The work focuses on the production circuit of fan art and appropriation of the narrative and characters of the animated cartoon by blogs and virtual communities through the influence of Allegri’s creation and the official appropriation by the producers and broadcasters of Adventure Time.

  7. Evolution of modern treatment of childhood acute leukemia and cancer: adventures and battles in the 1970s and 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi

    2015-02-01

    This article summarizes the adventures and explorations in the 1970s and 1980s in the treatment of children with leukemia and cancer that paved the way for the current success in childhood cancers. Indeed, these were adventures and bold steps into unchartered waters. Because childhood leukemia the most common of the childhood cancers, success in childhood leukemia was pivotal in the push toward cure of all childhood cancers. The success in childhood leukemia illustrates how treatment programs were designed using clinical- and biology-based risk factors seen in the patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The ABC's of Delivering A Research-Driven Adventure Learning Program From the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregont, P.; Porsild, M.

    2008-12-01

    A is for anchoring the delivery of your research to your audience in a standard-aligned curriculum. B is for BGAN Satellite Communication System assisting in delivering real-time authentic media. C is for a collaborative online learning environment to engage learners" Z is for the peaceful sleep you will get once your program is up and running! As part of Team GoNorth! (http://www.PolarHusky.com) it is our job to deliver adventure learning. We set out to do this back when the computer was a 4-foot, 50-lb box powered by a hand-crank where one would have a window of ten minutes in a 24-hour period to catch the satellite (before Al Gore created the Internet!). Every year we review the quantum leaps in what is now possible from the field and in the classroom, and over the years we have wrestled technical issues, solutions and numerous re-structures in the process of our of curriculum development. With this presentation we will provide some basic ABC's on how you can remained focused on your research, yet deliver an adventure learning program for learners to investigate real-world issues within your scientific research. Our scales are most likely different. The volume of our curriculum is an annual production of 4-500 pages to be used from Kindergarden through 12th grade around the world. The framework of our online learning environment must be able to supports millions of users at a time. "In the field" means on a a 3-4 month dogsled expedition - so sending out our live updates involve thawing out the computers and setting up the satellite communication system to work in a ground blizzard! But regardless of the scope and location of your field research, you can probably build on some of our experiences in the planning of an upcoming adventure learning program to engage learners of all or any ages in your scientific explorations!

  9. Indoor-outdoor relationships of respirable sulfates and particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Douglas W.; Spengler, John D.

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of respirable particulates and sulfates have been measured in 68 homes in six cities for at least 1 yr. A conservation of mass model was derived describing indoor concentrations in terms of outdoor concentrations, infiltration and indoor sources. The measured data were analysed to identify important building characteristics and to quantify their effect. The mean infiltration rate of outdoor fine particulates was found to be approximately 70%. Cigarette smoking was found to be the dominant indoor source of respirable particulates. Increased indoor concentrations of sulfates were found to be associated with smoking and also with gas stoves. The effect of full air conditioning of the building was to reduce infiltration of outdoor fine particulates by about one half, while preventing dilution and purging of internally generated pollutants. The model for indoor respirable particulate and sulfate levels was found to compare well with measurements.

  10. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (pOPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  11. Participation of divorced single parents and their children in outdoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation of divorced single parents and their children in outdoor activities to ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The leisure intervention programme played a positive role in improving ...

  12. Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Norling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.

  13. An Analysis of Mark Twain’s Writing Style on The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏笑

    2014-01-01

    Mark Twain is a great literary giant of America, who is considered as the true father of the American literature. With works like Huckleberry Finn, Twain shaped the world’s view of America and made a more extensive combination of American folk humor and serious literature than previous writers had ever done. His most famous novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn fully stands for his writing style. The humor and satire, symbolism, and his colloquial speech all together make him a worldwide known author, and make this novel well known. The writing style is just the greatness of this good novel.

  14. An Analysis of the Conversational Implicature in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏增强

    2009-01-01

    Mark Twain is one of the greatest writers in the world. His works are full of humor and satire with vivid conversations and brilliant and trenchant portrayals of those characters. This paper takes his classic The Adventures of Tom Sawyer as an example to analyze the conversational implicature from the perspective of Herbert Paul Grice's famous Cooperative Principle. Through the analysis, we can see that linguistic study can help us to study literary works deeply and it is necessary for us to study the conversational implicature systematically.

  15. Uma ferramenta de autoria para o desenvolvimento de adventures educacionais em realidade virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Augusto Bohner; Wazlawick, Raul Sidnei; Souza, Patrícia Cristiane de

    1997-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta uma ferramenta de autoria para ambientes educacionais altamente interativos baseados na crença de que o aprendiz constrói seu conhecimento quando se torna um agente ativo do seu processo de aprendizado. Estes ambientes possuem como paradigma os “adventure games” ou “role playing games’’, nos quais o aprendiz está inserido em um micro-mundo virtual e interage com este através do próprio papel que desempenha ao se tornar um personagem deste universo. Um protótipo da ferr...

  16. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Suk Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals.

  17. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  18. Traditional and New Tendencies to Outdoor Sacral Spaces in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Krūgelis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes some features and traditions of outdoor sacral spaces in Lithuania, includes a historical analysis and various features of different historical periods and explains the new tendencies and possibilities of future development in contemporary Lithuania. By analysing the phenomenon of outdoor sacral spaces, some archaeological and historical data is used to identify the principles of creating such sacral space.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2009-04-16

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  20. Large-scale autostereoscopic outdoor display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitterer, Jörg; Fidler, Franz; Saint Julien-Wallsee, Ferdinand; Schmid, Gerhard; Gartner, Wolfgang; Leeb, Walter; Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    State-of-the-art autostereoscopic displays are often limited in size, effective brightness, number of 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances, all of which are mandatory requirements for large-scale outdoor displays. Conventional autostereoscopic indoor concepts like lenticular lenses or parallax barriers cannot simply be adapted for these screens due to the inherent loss of effective resolution and brightness, which would reduce both image quality and sunlight readability. We have developed a modular autostereoscopic multi-view laser display concept with sunlight readable effective brightness, theoretically up to several thousand 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances of up to 60 meters. For proof-of-concept purposes a prototype display with two pixels was realized. Due to various manufacturing tolerances each individual pixel has slightly different optical properties, and hence the 3D image quality of the display has to be calculated stochastically. In this paper we present the corresponding stochastic model, we evaluate the simulation and measurement results of the prototype display, and we calculate the achievable autostereoscopic image quality to be expected for our concept.

  1. Energy Optimization for Outdoor Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Boukhechba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile phone is no longer only a communication device, but also a powerful environmental sensing unit that can monitor a user’s ambient context. Mobile users take their devices with them everywhere which increases the availability of persons’ traces. Extracting and analyzing knowledge from these traces represent a strong support for several applications domains, ranging from traffic management to advertisement and social studies. However, the limited battery capacity of mobile devices represents a big hurdle for context detection, no matter how useful the service may be. We present a novel approach to online recognizing users’ outdoor activities without depleting the mobile resources. We associate the places visited by individuals during their movements with meaningful human activities using a novel algorithm that clusters incrementally user’s moves into different types of activities. To optimize the battery consumption, the algorithm behaves variably on the basis of users’ behaviors and the remaining battery level. Studies using real GPS records from two big datasets demonstrate that the proposal is effective and is capable of inferring human activities without draining the phone resources.

  2. Outdoor Air Pollution and Pterygium in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Woong; Choi, Yoon Hyeong; Hwang, Sung Ha; Paik, Hae Jung; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated relationships between outdoor air pollution and pterygium in Korean adults. This study includes 23,276 adults in population-based cross-sectional data using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Pterygium was assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy. Air pollution data (humidity, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm [PM₁₀], ozone [O₃], nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], and sulfur dioxide levels [SO₂]) for 2 years preceding the ocular examinations were acquired. Associations of multiple air pollutants with pterygium or pterygium recurrence after surgery were examined using multivariate logistic models, after adjusting for several covariates. Distributed lag models were additionally used for estimating cumulative effects of air pollution on pterygium. None of air pollution factors was significantly associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence (each P > 0.05). Distributed lag models also showed that air pollution factors were not associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence in 0-to-2 year lags (each P > 0.05). However, primary pterygium showed a weak association with PM10 after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio [OR] 1.23; [per 5 μg/m³ PM₁₀ increase]; P = 0.023). Aging, male sex, and greater sun exposure were associated with pterygium, while higher education level and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium (each P ≤ 0.001). Male sex and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium recurrence (each P air pollution and overall pterygium or pterygium recurrence in Korean adults.

  3. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

  4. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  5. Developing an audit checklist to assess outdoor falls risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Angela; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter; Ormerod, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    Falls by older people (aged 65+) are linked to disability and a decrease in mobility, presenting a challenge to active ageing. As such, older fallers represent a vulnerable road user group. Despite this there is little research into the causes and prevention of outdoor falls. This paper develops an understanding of environmental factors causing falls or fear of falling using a walk-along interview approach with recent fallers to explore how older people navigate the outdoor environment and which aspects of it they perceived facilitate or hinder their ability to go outdoors and fear of falling. While there are a number of audit checklists focused on assessing the indoor environment for risk or fear of falls, nothing exists for the outdoor environment. Many existing street audit tools are focused on general environmental qualities and have not been designed with an older population in mind. We present a checklist that assesses aspects of the environment most likely to encourage or hinder those who are at risk of falling outdoors, developed through accounting for the experiences and navigational strategies of elderly individuals. The audit checklist can assist occupational therapists and urban planners, designers and managers in working to reduce the occurrence of outdoor falls among this vulnerable user group.

  6. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps. Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  7. Research on the influence of piloti on residential block’s outdoor thermal comfort by questionnaire survey and coupled simulation method in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Tianyu; Jin, Hong; Mochida, Akashi; Ding, Jianhua

    2017-06-01

    Piloti is commonly used to optimize the outdoor thermal environment in subtropical climate cities, and there are few studies regarding to the systematic influence of piloti on outdoor thermal comfort. As the outdoor thermal comfort differed by various climates and locations, this work firstly carried out a questionnaire survey in Guangzhou, China, to study on the local acceptance rate (TSV is lower than 1.5) during different SET* intervals. Secondly, a series of cases were simulated by coupled simulation method, which considering convection, radiation and conduction, offering high precision prediction results. At last, by adopting SET* as standard index, taking both of the questionnaire survey result and ASHRAE standard into consideration, the influence of piloti on residential block’s outdoor thermal comfort was analysed and discussed.

  8. Use of Mass-Participation Outdoor Events to Assess Human Exposure to Tickborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica L; Alpers, Kathrin; Bown, Kevin J; Martin, Stephen J; Birtles, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. From the number of tick bites recorded and prevalence of tick infection with Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi, we quantified the frequency of competitor exposure to the pathogens. Mass-participation outdoor events have the potential to serve as excellent windows for epidemiologic study of tickborne pathogens; their concerted use should improve spatial and temporal mapping of human exposure to infected ticks.

  9. Engineering solutions for open microalgae mass cultivation and realistic indoor simulation of outdoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Andreas Christoph; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    Microalgae could become an important renewable source for chemicals, food, and energy if process costs can be reduced. In the past 60 years, relevant factors in open outdoor mass cultivation of microalgae were identified and elaborate solutions regarding bioprocesses and bioreactors were developed. An overview of these solutions is presented. Since the cost of most microalgal products from current mass cultivation systems is still prohibitively high, further development is required. The application of complex computational techniques for cost-effective process and reactor development will become more important if experimental validation of simulation results can easily be achieved. Due to difficulties inherent to outdoor experimentation, it can be useful to conduct validation experiments indoors. Considerations and approaches for realistic indoor reproduction of the most important environmental conditions in microalgae cultivation experiments-light, temperature, and substance concentrations, are discussed.

  10. Insights into Indoor/Outdoor PM Concentration Ratios due to Dust Storms in an Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Krasnov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust storms have impacts on both human and physical environments, associated with an increase in atmospheric particulate matter (PM concentrations. Most studies on exposure to PM have focused on the outdoor air, while information on indoor pollution, is still lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of desert dust events on PM concentrations in indoor environments. A total of over 200 real time measurements of PM were conducted in houses in the Negev Desert during dust storms. Indoor and outdoor PM concentrations were characterized, as well as the relationships between the two datasets. The findings indicated that atmospheric PM10 concentrations can increase from 20–120 μg·m−3 on non-dust days to more than 1500 μg·m−3 during dust events. Indoor concentrations can reach as high as 1000 μg·m−3. The calculated indoor/outdoor (I/O PM ratio ranged from 0.79 for low-level storms to 0.58 during stronger events. Indoor PM concentrations were found to be dependent on the dust storm intensity (low, medium, high and duration with a time lag. The information obtained in this study is critical for assessment of policy interventions to reduce exposure risk and health effects due dust storms.

  11. Association between indoor and outdoor air pollution and adolescent asthma from 1995 to 1996 in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.N.; Ko, Y.C.; Chao, Y.Y.; Huang, C.C.; Lin, R.S.

    1999-10-01

    The study aim was to estimate the contribution of indoor and outdoor air pollution to the 1-year prevalence of adolescent asthma after personal susceptibility and other potential risk factors were taken into account. A large-scaled cross-sectional study was conducted among 165,173 high school students aged 11 to 16 years in the different communities of Kaohsiung and Pintong in Taiwan, from October 1995 to June 1996. Each student and his/her parents participating in the study completed a video and a written International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire about symptoms of wheezing and allergies, passive smoking, and demographic variables. After adjustment for potential confounders, adolescents exposed to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke were found to suffer from asthma at an increased frequency. The authors observed a statistically significant association between outdoor air pollution and asthma, after controlling for potential confound variables. Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, and airborne dust particles all displayed an independent association with asthma, respectively. There were no selection biases in this community-based study, which provides evidence that passive smoking and long-term, high average outdoor air pollution are independent risk factors of asthma.

  12. An Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences in Outdoor `Places' and Intentions for Teaching in the Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica; Patrick, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    This study explores pre-service teachers' past interactions with 'place' in outdoor settings and how these experiences contribute to their current perceptions of the importance of taking their own students into the outdoors. Specifically, the researchers were interested in investigating if current pre-service teachers are part of the 'nature-deficit disorder' generation described by Louv in his book, Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder (2005), as a generation of children growing up without direct experiences in nature. Study participants included 148 undergraduate pre-service elementary teachers enrolled in science teaching methods instructional courses at an urban college in the Northeastern United States and two suburban universities in the Southeastern United States. Participants wrote essay responses after reading Louv's Last Child in the Woods in which they were asked to relate the reading to their own past experiences and their ideas about elementary science education. Results indicate that a large majority of participants (97%) describe significant youth experiences in the outdoors, view nature as important in varying ways (89.9%), and express a desire to expose their own students to the outdoors (65.5%). Key findings are illustrated with direct quotations from the pre-service teachers' essay responses, as they write vividly of their interactions in outdoor places, referred to as 'place meanings'. Implications are presented for teacher educators working with pre-service teachers to build upon their outdoor experiences and prepare them for implementing nature-based instruction.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of the Outdoor Thermal Comfort in the Hot and Humid Summertime of Shenzhen, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Liu; Yaoyu Lin; Dan Wang; Jing Liu

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort has always been a major issue due to its irreplaceable role in maintaining good health and energy use. Thus, quantitative analysis of outdoor thermal comfort and discussions on influential factors seem very necessary to achieve the climate-conscious urban design. Therefore, an outdoor thermal comfort questionnaire survey and the simultaneous field measurement were conducted in six different places during the hot and humid summertime in Shenzhen. The results show that the overall weather conditions during the investigation can be expressed with high temperature and high humidity with strong solar radiation. The micro-meteorological parameters of six test sites vary greatly due to their different regional spatial layouts. Moderate range of air temperature ( Ta ) is between 28 to 30 ℃ while that of relative humidity ( RH ) mainly concentrates in 60%-70% with the thermal sensation votes. The main influential factors impacting outdoor thermal comfort are obtained and Ta has the greatest effect. The overall thermal comfortable ranges in Shenzhen are expressed by the range of 28. 14-32. 83 ℃ of PET and 24. 74-30. 45 ℃ of SET?. With the correlation analysis between the characteristic parameters of regional spatial layout and thermal climate and thermal comfort, it reveals that increasing the coverage ratio of water and green space ( S) helps lower Ta and increase RH . The global solar radiation ( G) has a significant negative correlation with the height of buildings ( H) and a positive correlation with sky view factor ( SVF ) . Overall, reasonable configuration of the regional spatial layout contributes to providing a thermal comfortable environment.

  14. Substitution of PFAS chemistry in outdoor apparel and the impact on repellency performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Philippa J; Taylor, Mark; Goswami, Parikshit; Blackburn, Richard S

    2017-08-01

    Intensifying legislation and increased research on the toxicological and persistent nature of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently influenced the direction of liquid repellent chemistry use; environmental, social, and sustainability responsibilities are at the crux. Without PFAS chemistry, it is challenging to meet current textile industry liquid repellency requirements, which is a highly desirable property, particularly in outdoor apparel where the technology helps to provide the wearer with essential protection from adverse environmental conditions. Herein, complexities between required functionality, legislation and sustainability within outdoor apparel are discussed, and fundamental technical performance of commercially available long-chain (C8) PFASs, shorter-chain (C6) PFASs, and non-fluorinated repellent chemistries finishes are evaluated comparatively. Non-fluorinated finishes provided no oil repellency, and were clearly inferior in this property to PFAS-finished fabrics that demonstrated good oil-resistance. However, water repellency ratings were similar across the range of all finished fabrics tested, all demonstrating a high level of resistance to wetting, and several non-fluorinated repellent fabrics provide similar water repellency to long-chain (C8) PFAS or shorter-chain (C6) PFAS finished fabrics. The primary repellency function required in outdoor apparel is water repellency, and we would propose that the use of PFAS chemistry for such garments is over-engineering, providing oil repellency that is in excess of user requirements. Accordingly, significant environmental and toxicological benefits could be achieved by switching outdoor apparel to non-fluorinated finishes without a significant reduction in garment water-repellency performance. These conclusions are being supported by further research into the effect of laundering, abrasion and ageing of these fabrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  16. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-09-30

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h(-1). At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h(-1). Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg(-1), for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  17. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luevano-Gurrola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  18. Proceedings of the 1984 Conference on Outdoor Recreation: A Landmark Conference in the Outdoor Recreation Field (1st, Bozeman, Montana, November 1-4, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, John C., Ed.; Watters, Ron, Ed.

    This document consists of materials presented at a conference organized by representatives of university outdoor programs to discuss issues and exchange ideas about outdoor topics. Twenty-six papers were presented: (1) "Conference on Outdoor Recreation for the Disabled: Breaking the Stereotype" (Tom Whittaker and Sheila Brashear); (2)…

  19. The evolutionary development of the scientific mind: A grounded theory of adventuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Katrina Martin

    Teaching and learning science is hard, and the cognitive skills needed to be successful in science are complex. Science educators have explored a number of different ways to teach and learn science that impacts the widest variety of learners in a classroom. The grounded theory of adventuring explains both why scientific thinking is an evolutionarily important trait and illustrates a common thread throughout a variety of teaching and learning behaviors. Adventuring incorporates the dimensions of exploring, mavericking, and acquiring and applying skills that are the hallmarks of positive science education. The disciplines of psychology, sociology, biology, and ecology are connected in this study in order to fully illustrate the complexities of the subject. By exploring the psychology/sociology of teachers teaching science and students learning science, and connecting that to the biology of the hardware, this study explains how we could be teaching and learning science in a way for which our brains are best suited, and in ways that reach all learners.

  20. Adventurism in biomedical science: Washington University-Monsanto program in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J I

    1992-01-01

    The Washington University-Monsanto relationship has supported innovation in the biological sciences. It has done so in part by making the fence between an industrial and an academic institution more transparent and more easy to cross. A unique means of promoting intellectual adventurism may be lost, however, if this type of relationship is not structured to maximize the likelihood of obtaining products or if products are the only financial benefit that the industrial partner can derive from such interactions (for example other benefits could include governmental R&D tax credits for those relationships that satisfy some minimal criteria for size and/or length of commitment). I hope that this and other forms of industrial-university relationships that encourage discovery by providing institutional support for new ideas will flourish. Whatever their fate, the responsibility for promoting dreams must be shared by all of us: by those who are privileged to have students in their labs, by academic institutions as they seek to define their roles in the next century, by peer review boards, by national science policymakers, and perhaps by industry. I have presented the Washington University-Monsanto collaboration not as a complete answer to the question of how to promote intellectual adventurism in the biomedical sciences but rather as a concrete response to a problem that must be clearly articulated, thoroughly examined, and creatively addressed.

  1. On the Americans’National Traits Reflected in The Adventures of Huckle-berry Finn from the Perspective of History and Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金辉; 唐岩

    2013-01-01

    The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is Mark Twain’s masterpiece, the one book from which, as Ernest Hemingway noted,“ All modern American literature comes ”. It accounts the adventures of white Huck helping black slave Jim escape and pursue freedom. Through their long journey along the Mississippi River, we can see panorama of America, such as its slavery, ra-cial conflicts and integration, American Puritanism, and Westward Movement, etc. This thesis mainly deals with Americans ’na-tional traits reflected in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn from the perspective of American developmental history and American culture.

  2. A kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-up on select indoor and outdoor surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koontz, AM; Cooper, RA; Boninger, ML; Yang, YS; Impink, BG; van der Woude, LHV

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-LIP on select indoor and Outdoor surfaces. Eleven manual wheelchairs were fitted with a SMART(Wheel) and their users were asked to Push on a Course consisting of high- and low-pile carpet, indo

  3. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  4. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  5. Adventure-Based Experiential Therapy with Inpatients in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: An Approach to Practicability and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Florian; Rüth, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the use of adventure-based experiential therapy (AET) with child and adolescent psychiatry inpatients. AET environments, indications, practicality, therapeutic effects and research are outlined and clinical findings are reported. Activities such as rock-climbing, exploring a creek and caving are discussed and the limitations…

  6. 城市枢纽节点的户外广告意象效果影响因素研究--以合肥高铁南站为例%Factors Influencing Image Effect of Outdoor Advertising in Urban Hub Node:A Case Study of Hefei South High-speed Railw ay Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢震林; 杨柳

    2016-01-01

    Based on the theory of city image , the conceptual model of factors influencing the image effect of outdoor advertising in urban hub node is constructed .An empirical study of factors influen‐cing the image effect of outdoor advertising in urban hub node is conducted .Firstly ,based on the sur‐vey on the outdoor advertising image effect of Hefei South High‐speed Railway Station ,four main fac‐tors affecting the outdoor advertising image effect are extracted by using the exploratory factor analy‐sis(EFA) .Then the correlation between the four factors and outdoor advertising image effect is ana‐lyzed by using the multiple correlation analysis ,thus determining the key factors affecting the image effect of outdoor advertising in urban hub node .%运用城市意象理论,构建了城市枢纽节点户外广告意象效果影响因素概念模型。通过对合肥高铁南站户外广告意象效果的调查,采用探索型因子分析法,提取出影响户外广告意象效果的四个主要因子;再运用多元相关分析法分析这四个因子与户外广告意象效果的相关关系,找出影响节点户外广告意象效果的关键因素,以此作出对城市枢纽节点户外广告的意象效果影响因素的实证研究。

  7. Determination of lead, cations, and anions concentration in indoor and outdoor air at the primary schools in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g-7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca(2+) (39.51 ± 5.01 mg/g-65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-) were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3 (-) (29.72 ± 0.31 μg/g-32.00 ± 0.75 μg/g) was slightly higher than SO4 (2-). The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and Pb(2+), were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations.

  8. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  9. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecologia, Perif. Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31415 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E., E-mail: mrenteria@uach.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31136 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h{sup -1}. Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  10. CALCULATION OF OPERATION MODE OF OUTDOOR LIGHTING LINE WITH BILATERAL SUPPLY. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kozlovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical outdoor lighting grids are formed with a regard for their functional purpose. The present article draws the attention to the specific features of operation mode of an outdoor lighting line with a bilateral supply. This mode of operation is characteristic for main streets and circular roads. The article presents the method of calculating of the mode of such kind and the calculation itself that has been fulfilled on behalf of the outdoor lighting line with a bilateral supply described in the article. Luminaries with high pressure sodium lamps connected through electromagnetic ballasts were used as sources of light. The accuracy of parameters under calculation depends on the completeness of the source data. The calculations were implemented with the use of a program realized in MathCad. For each line phase the following mode parameters were defined: voltage in the circuit points, power, current, power loss and voltage drop on all segments of the line. The calculated data can be used for various purposes. Power magnitudes were determined for two points of supply and one can determine the power consumption provided that the time of operation of electric lighting is known. Estimation of the efficiency the mode on the basis of ensuring the necessary level of voltage at the luminaires was implemented. Active and reactive power of a luminary is determined by the voltage at the terminals of the luminaires. Magnitudes of power of luminaires located at different distances from the power source differ from each other. The voltage value has a significant effect on the electricity consumption values and on operating characteristics of a light source. With the use of the abovementioned program a line of outdoor lighting with a bilateral supply of any configuration can be simulated and different operation modes of a grid, viz. evening, night, dimming and other modes can be calculated.

  11. Cultivation options for indoor and outdoor growth of Chaetoceros gracilis with airlift photobioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasert Pavasant

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Various configurations and modes of airlift photobioreactors were examined in the cultivation of Chaetoceros gracilis. Internal loop and external loop airlifts were cultivated in a batch mode in a controlled indoor environment. The external loop system provided a better performance than the internal loop system due to better light exposure. A continuous operation was conducted in an internal loop airlift photobioreactors-inseri es. This was designed to minimise the effect of light blocking due to overgrown cells as the high-density culture was, in this configuration, only limited to the last airlift column in the series. Outdoor large-scale operation was conducted in a flat-panel airlift photobioreactor. Due to uneven light availability, the outdoor culture could not perform as well as the indoor one in terms of growth rate. Among the four systems investigated, the continuous culture in airlift photobioreactors-in-series provided the best performance with the highest cell density of 12.12 × 106 cells mL-1. Cost analysis based on the maximum number of reactors that can be installed in one square metre indicates that the indoor system requires lowest operating cost per unit cultivation area, whereas the outdoor system provides highest profit as a result of the inherited large productivity.

  12. Implications of climate and outdoor thermal comfort on tourism: the case of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Ferdinando; Golasi, Iacopo; Proietti, Riccardo; de Lieto Vollaro, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Whether a journey is pleasant or not usually depends on the climatic conditions which permit to perform outdoor activities. The perception of climatic conditions, determined by physiological and psychological factors, can vary according to different adaptation phenomena related to the person involved and the weather conditions of the place where they live. Studying the bioclimatology of a country characterized by a high flux of tourism, as e.g. Italy, can provide some important information about where and when is it better to visit a place. Some differences have to be specified though, like the local tourism, which is used to that type of climate, and international tourism, which is formed by people coming from countries with different types of climates. Therefore this paper examined the climatic conditions and outdoor thermal comfort through the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI) for local tourism and through the predicted mean vote (PMV) for international tourism. The cities examined were three (Venice, Rome and Palermo located in the North, Centre and South of Italy, respectively), where average information were collected every week for an entire year. Finally, a map of the entire Italian territory reporting the seasonal average values of these indexes was also reported.

  13. Influence of sky view factor on outdoor thermal environment and physiological equivalent temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiguang; Shen, Shuanghe; Li, Ju; Zhang, Benzhi; Zhang, Ziyue; Chen, Xiujie

    2015-03-01

    Sky view factor (SVF), which is an indicator of urban canyon geometry, affects the surface energy balance, local air circulation, and outdoor thermal comfort. This study focused on a continuous and long-term meteorological observation system to investigate the effects of SVF on outdoor thermal conditions and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the central business district (CBD) of Beijing (which is located within Chaoyang District), specifically addressed current knowledge gaps for SVF-PET relationships in cities with typical continental/microthermal climates. An urban sub-domain scale model and the RayMan model were used to diagnose wind fields and to calculate SVF and long-term PET, respectively. Analytical results show that the extent of shading contributes to variations in thermal perception distribution. Highly shaded areas (SVF 0.5), and vice versa. Because Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate with hot summers and long, cold, windy, and dry winters, a design project that ideally provides moderate shading should be planned to balance hot discomfort in summer and cold discomfort in winter, which effectively prolongs the comfort periods in outdoor spaces throughout the entire year. This research indicate that climate zone characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and thermal comfort requirements of residents must be accounted for in local-scale scientific planning and design, i.e., for urban canyon streets and residential estates.

  14. Outdoor thermal comfort in public space in warm-humid Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik; Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Arroyo, Ivette; Bengs, Christer

    2017-03-01

    The thermal environment outdoors affects human comfort and health. Mental and physical performance is reduced at high levels of air temperature being a problem especially in tropical climates. This paper deals with human comfort in the warm-humid city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The main aim was to examine the influence of urban micrometeorological conditions on people's subjective thermal perception and to compare it with two thermal comfort indices: the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the standard effective temperature (SET*). The outdoor thermal comfort was assessed through micrometeorological measurements of air temperature, humidity, mean radiant temperature and wind speed together with a questionnaire survey consisting of 544 interviews conducted in five public places of the city during both the dry and rainy seasons. The neutral and preferred values as well as the upper comfort limits of PET and SET* were determined. For both indices, the neutral values and upper thermal comfort limits were lower during the rainy season, whereas the preferred values were higher during the rainy season. Regardless of season, the neutral values of PET and SET* are above the theoretical neutral value of each index. The results show that local people accept thermal conditions which are above acceptable comfort limits in temperate climates and that the subjective thermal perception varies within a wide range. It is clear, however, that the majority of the people in Guayaquil experience the outdoor thermal environment during daytime as too warm, and therefore, it is important to promote an urban design which creates shade and ventilation.

  15. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-06-01

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematic variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.

  16. Control and protection of outdoor embedded camera for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, F.; Jegouzo, I.; Gaudemard, J.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of CABERNET- Podet-Met (CAmera BEtter Resolution NETwork, Pole sur la Dynamique de l'Environnement Terrestre - Meteor) project is the automated observation, by triangulation with three cameras, of meteor showers to perform a calculation of meteoroids trajectory and velocity. The scientific goal is to search the parent body, comet or asteroid, for each observed meteor. To install outdoor cameras in order to perform astronomy measurements for several years with high reliability requires a very specific design for the box. For these cameras, this contribution shows how we fulfilled the various functions of their boxes, such as cooling of the CCD, heating to melt snow and ice, the protecting against moisture, lightning and Solar light. We present the principal and secondary functions, the product breakdown structure, the technical solutions evaluation grid of criteria, the adopted technology products and their implementation in multifunction subsets for miniaturization purpose. To manage this project, we aim to get the lowest manpower and development time for every part. In appendix, we present the measurements the image quality evolution during the CCD cooling, and some pictures of the prototype.

  17. An outdoor test facility for the Cherenkov Telescope Array mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Medina, M C; Maya, J; Mancilla, A; Larrarte, J J; Rasztocky, E; Benitez, M; Dipold, J; Platino, M

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescopes Array (CTA) is planned to be an Observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy and will consist of several tens of telescopes which account for a reflective surface of more than 10000 m$^2$. The mirrors of these telescopes will be formed by a set of facets. Different technological solutions, for a fast and cost efficient production of light-weight mirror facets are under test inside the CTA Consortium. Most of them involve composite structures whose behavior under real observing conditions is not yet fully tested. An outdoor test facility has been built in one of the candidate sites for CTA, in Argentina (San Antonio de los Cobres [SAC], 3600m a.s.l) in order to monitor the optical and mechanical properties of these facets exposed to the local atmospheric conditions for a given period of time. In this work we present the preliminary results of the first Middle Size Telescope (MST) mirror-monitoring campaign, started in 2013.

  18. Long Term Outdoor Testing of Low Concentration Solar Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Minkin, Leonid; Huang, H. X.; Hebrink, Tim; Hurt, Rik; Boehm, Robert

    2011-12-01

    A 1-axis carousel tracker equipped with four 3-sun low-concentration mirror modules has now been under test outdoors at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas (UNLV) for three years. There are three unique features associated with this unit. First, simple linear mirrors are used to reduce the amount of expensive single crystal silicon in order to potentially lower the module cost while potentially maintaining cell efficiencies over 20% and high module efficiency. Simple linear mirrors also allow the use of a single axis tracker. Second, the azimuth carousel tracker is also unique allowing trackers to be used on commercial building rooftops. Third, an experiment is underway comparing aluminum based mirrors with novel 3M Company multilayer polymeric mirrors which are potentially very low cost. Comparing the data from March of 2008 through March of 2011 shows that the aluminum mirror degradation to date is negligible and that the carousel tracker has been operating continuously and reliable. Also, no degradation has been observed for the 3M brand cool mirrors after one year in use.

  19. Outdoor field experience with autonomous RPC based stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L.; Assis, P.; Blanco, A.; Carolino, N.; Cerda, M. A.; Conceição, R.; Cunha, O.; Ferreira, M.; Fonte, P.; Luz, R.; Mendes, L.; Pereira, A.; Pimenta, M.; Sarmento, R.; Tomé, B.

    2016-09-01

    In the last two decades Resistive Plate Chambers were employed in the Cosmic Ray Experiments COVER-PLASTEX and ARGO/YBJ. In both experiments the detectors were housed indoors, likely owing to gas distribution requirements and the need to control environment variables that directly affect RPCs operational stability. But in experiments where Extended Air Shower (EAS) sampling is necessary, large area arrays composed by dispersed stations are deployed, rendering this kind of approach impossible. In this situation, it would be mandatory to have detectors that could be deployed in small standalone stations, with very rare opportunities for maintenance, and with good resilience to environmental conditions. Aiming to meet these requirements, we started some years ago the development of RPCs for Autonomous Stations. The results from indoor tests and measurements were very promising, both concerning performance and stability under very low gas flow rate, which is the main requirement for Autonomous Stations. In this work we update the indoor results and show the first ones concerning outdoor stable operation. In particular, a dynamic adjustment of the high voltage is applied to keep gas gain constant.

  20. Free recall and outdoor running: cognitive and physical demand interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, Samantha L; Blakely, Megan J; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive resource theory is a proposed explanation for people's limited ability to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Reallocation of a restricted supply of cognitive resources to two or more tasks may be detrimental to performance on one or both tasks. Many professionals in high-risk fields, such as those engaged in firefighting, military, and search and rescue missions, face simultaneous mental and physical demands, yet little is known about the resources required to move over the natural terrain these operators may encounter. In the present research, we investigated whether interference was found between outdoor running and a word recall task. As hypothesized, a reduction in word recall was observed in the dual task compared to a recall-alone task; however, the distance run was not significantly different between the dual task and the run-alone task. Subjective reports of workload, task focus, and being "spent" (measures calculated from responses on a questionnaire) were greatest in the dual task. These results support the cognitive resource theory and have important theoretical and practical implications. Further research is required to better understand the type and extent of cognitive resources required by such physical tasks and the potential interference with simultaneous mental tasks.