WorldWideScience

Sample records for high adult ses

  1. Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Yunhwan

    2011-01-01

    With rapid population aging, increasing attention is given to the mental health of older people. This study examined the association between SES and depressive symptoms in older adults. The study population consisted of a representative community sample of 4165 persons aged 65 and older from Wave 1 of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was used to measure the extent of depressive symptoms. Socioeconomic indicators included education, household income, and net worth. Analyses were conducted by gender, using multiple linear regression analysis, to identify independent effects of socioeconomic variables on depressive symptoms, controlling for demographics and health-related variables. There was an inverse association between higher levels of socioeconomic factors and depressive symptoms in the study population. A clear difference in the association between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors by gender was observed. In the multivariate analysis, wealth was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in men, whereas education and income was so in women. Gender disparities in depressive symptoms across social gradients suggest the need for gender-sensitive investments in health and social services for the disadvantaged segments of the older population.

  2. Stress at work: Differential experiences of high versus low SES workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, Sarah; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2016-05-01

    This paper asks whether workers with higher socioeconomic status (SES) experience different levels of stress at work than workers with lower SES and, if so, what might explain these differences. We collected innovative assessments of immediate objective and subjective measures of stress at multiple time points across consecutive days from 122 employed men and women. We find that in comparison to higher SES individuals, those with lower SES reported greater happiness at work, less self-reported stress, and less perceived stress; cortisol, a biological marker of stress, was unrelated to SES. Worker's momentary perceptions of the workplace were predicted by SES, with higher SES individuals more commonly reporting feeling unable to meet work demands, fewer work resources, and less positive work appraisals. In turn, perceptions of the workplace had a generally consistent and robust effect on positive mood, subjective stress, and cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parenting processes and dating violence: the mediating role of self-esteem in low- and high-SES adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, Jacqueline C; Vazsonyi, Alexander T

    2006-08-01

    The current investigation tested a model in which low self-esteem mediated the effects by parenting processes (monitoring, closeness, and support) on measures of dating violence (victimization, perpetration, attitudes, and perceptions) in a sample of adolescents (n=809; mean age=16.4 years) from both low- and high-socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds. Hierarchical regression analyses provided evidence that low self-esteem partially mediated the link between parenting processes and dating violence, with unique differences observed between low- and high-SES youth. Specifically, in low-SES youth, low self-esteem mediated the relationship between closeness as well as support and dating violence behaviours, while in high-SES youth, it only mediated the relationship between maternal support and dating violence attitudes.

  4. Why are the benefits of increased resources not impacting the risk of HIV infection for high SES women in Cameroon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce N Mumah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite evidence of a positive SES-HIV gradient in some SSA countries, researchers and policy-makers frequently assume that a range of protective interventions--increasing awareness of mechanisms of HIV transmission, techniques for prevention, greater access to health care facilities, and greater availability of condoms--will reduce the likelihood of contracting HIV, even among higher SES populations. We therefore explore the relationships between SES and these intervening behaviors to illuminate the complex factors that link SES and HIV among women in Cameroon. METHODS: We use bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis to examine patterns among the 5, 155 women aged 15-49 who participated in the 2004 CDHS. RESULTS: The results show a strong pattern where higher SES women have greater access to and use of health care facilities, higher levels of condom use, more HIV knowledge, and command higher power within their relationships, yet also have higher rates of HIV. These traditionally protective factors appear to be offset by riskier sexual behaviors on the part of women with increased resources, most notably longer years of premarital sexual experience, multiple partners in last 12 months, and sexual encounters outside of relationship. Multivariate analyses suggests net of the effect of other factors, women who command higher decision-making power, have greater access to health care, more negative attitudes toward wife beating, longer years of premarital sexual exposure, and partners with professional/white collar jobs (characteristics associated with rising SES had higher odds of testing positive for HIV. CONCLUSION: Results show that higher riskier sexual practices on part of high SES women offset benefits that may have accrued from their increased access to resources. The results suggest that traditional approaches to HIV prevention which rely on poverty reduction, improving access to health care, improving HIV knowledge, and

  5. The Effectiveness of School-Based Smoking Prevention Interventions among Low- and High-SES European Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Crone, M. R.; De Vries, H.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lien, N.; Fagiano, F.; Vitoria, P. D.; Van Lenthe, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing smoking initiation among adolescents of lower socio-economic groups is crucial for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in health. The aim of the present study was to examine whether effective smoking prevention interventions in Europe are equally effective among adolescents of low- and high-socio-economic status (SES). As part…

  6. Parenting Processes and Dating Violence: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem in Low- and High-SES Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2006-01-01

    The current investigation tested a model in which low self-esteem mediated the effects by parenting processes (monitoring, closeness, and support) on measures of dating violence (victimization, perpetration, attitudes, and perceptions) in a sample of adolescents (n=809; mean age=16.4 years) from both low- and high-socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds.…

  7. Parenting Processes and Dating Violence: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem in Low- and High-SES Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2006-01-01

    The current investigation tested a model in which low self-esteem mediated the effects by parenting processes (monitoring, closeness, and support) on measures of dating violence (victimization, perpetration, attitudes, and perceptions) in a sample of adolescents (n=809; mean age=16.4 years) from both low- and high-socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds.…

  8. The Effectiveness of School-Based Smoking Prevention Interventions among Low- and High-SES European Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Crone, M. R.; De Vries, H.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lien, N.; Fagiano, F.; Vitoria, P. D.; Van Lenthe, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing smoking initiation among adolescents of lower socio-economic groups is crucial for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in health. The aim of the present study was to examine whether effective smoking prevention interventions in Europe are equally effective among adolescents of low- and high-socio-economic status (SES). As part…

  9. Adult Food Intake Patterns Are Related to Adult and Childhood Socioeconomic Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey...... to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high...... adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns...

  10. Are physical activity interventions equally effective in adolescents of low and high socio-economic status (SES) : results from the European Teenage project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified

  11. Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…

  12. SES-related Aspects of Neuropsychological Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waber, Deborah P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that high-SES children process information more efficiently using mechanisms associated with the left hemisphere and that low-SES children process more efficiently using the right. A laterality task was administered tachistoscopically to 120 children, divided evenly by SES (high and low), sex, and grade (fifth and seventh).…

  13. Trends in breast and colorectal cancer screening among U.S. adults by race, healthcare coverage, and SES before, during, and after the great recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Taylor E; Pernenkil, Vikash; Akinyemiju, Tomi F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is examine trends in breast and colorectal cancer screening in the U.S. by race, healthcare coverage, and socio-economic status (SES) before the Great Recession (2003-2005), during the recession (2007-2009), and post-recession/Affordable Care Act (ACA) period (2010 - 2012). Data on a representative sample of U.S. adults was obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Breast and colorectal cancer screening were defined in line with U.S. Preventative Services Task Force guidelines, and survey weighted statistical methods were utilized to analyze trends in cancer screening among 1,858,572 BRFSS participants. Overall, 83% of women received mammograms in the past 2 years, while 95% of adults received colorectal cancer screening in the past 10 years. Compared with the pre-recession period, the odds of colorectal screening within 5 years were slightly higher during the recession (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03-1.08) but significantly lower in the post-recession/ACA period (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.72-0.75). Odds of mammography screening were lower during (OR: 0.94,95% CI: 0.91-0.96) and post-recession/ACA period (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.78-0.82). Breast cancer screening rates declined in the recession and post-recession, while colorectal cancer screening rates increased during the recession and decreased post-recession. Low SES adults and those without healthcare coverage were the least likely to receive screening.

  14. Adult food intake patterns are related to adult and childhood socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2011-05-01

    Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. Dietary data were collected at follow-up using a 195-item FFQ. Food patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Two food patterns labeled "traditional-western food pattern" and "green food pattern" were identified. In men, adult SES was inversely associated with adherence to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns, whereas adult SES seems more important for adult male food intake patterns.

  15. Differences in oral health behaviour between children from high and children from low SES schools in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jerkovic, K.; Binnekade, J. M.; van der Kruk, J. J.; van der Most, J. A.; Talsma, A. C.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Objective To identify the determinants of dental caries in relation to socio-economic status (SES) within oral health, children's eating habits and parental attitudes towards oral health. Basic research design Dental screening data were collected from 6- and 10-year old schoolchildren from low and

  16. Differences in oral health behaviour between children from high and children from low SES schools in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jerkovic, K.; Binnekade, J. M.; van der Kruk, J. J.; van der Most, J. A.; Talsma, A. C.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the determinants of dental caries in relation to socio-economic status (SES) within oral health, children's eating habits and parental attitudes towards oral health. Basic research design Dental screening data were collected from 6- and 10-year old schoolchildren from low and h

  17. Infant SES as a predictor of personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    ), and Eysenck personality traits in adulthood. An additional aim was to investigate whether intelligence and education may mediate this association. METHODS: SES of 9125 children in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort was recorded at a 1-year examination. A subsample of this cohort, comprising 1182 individuals...... correlations, and the mediating effects of intelligence and years of education were analysed. RESULTS: Higher SES in infancy was associated with lower neuroticism (r = -0.06; p = 0.05), lower lie-scale scores (r = -0.11; p = 0.0002), and higher psychoticism (r = 0.09; p = 0.003). However, analyses of mediation...... revealed no direct effect of infant SES on any of the adult personality traits, but only indirect effects mediated by intelligence and years of education, with intelligence being the main mediating factor. CONCLUSION: Only weak associations were observed between infant SES and personality in young...

  18. Socioeconomic Determinants of Sodium Intake in Adult Populations of High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestral, Carlos; Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Petrovic, Dusan; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    A poorer quality diet among individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) may partly explain the higher burden of noncommunicable disease among disadvantaged populations. Because there is a link between sodium intake and noncommunicable diseases, we systematically reviewed the current evidence on the social patterning of sodium intake. To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the evidence on the association between SES and sodium intake in healthy adult populations of high-income countries. We followed the PRISMA-Equity guidelines in conducting a literature search that ended June 3, 2016, via MEDLINE, Embase, and SciELO. We imposed no publication date limits. We considered only peer-reviewed articles meeting the following inclusion criteria: (1) reported a measure of sodium intake disaggregated by at least 1 measure of SES (education, income, occupation, or any other socioeconomic indicator); (2) were written in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, or Italian; and (3) were conducted in a high-income country as defined by the World Bank (i.e., per capita national gross income was higher than $12 746). We also excluded articles that exclusively sampled low-SES individuals, pregnant women, children, adolescents, elderly participants, or diseased patients or that reported results from a trial or intervention. As summary measures, we extracted (1) the direction (positive, negative, or neutral) and the magnitude of the association between each SES indicator and sodium intake, and (2) the estimated sodium intake according to SES level. When possible and if previously unreported, we calculated the magnitude of the relative difference in sodium intake between high- and low-SES groups for each article, applying this formula: ([value for high-SES group - value for low-SES group]/[value for high-SES group]) × 100. We considered an association significant if reported as such, and we set an arbitrary 10% relative difference as clinically relevant and

  19. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  20. Shared energy savings (SES) contracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, D.R. Jr. [Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This paper discusses the use of a Shared Energy Savings (SES) contract as the procurement vehicle to provide, install, and maintain closed-loop ground-coupled heat pumps (CLGCHP`s) for 4,003 family-housing units at Fort Polk, Louisiana. In addition to the requirement relative to heat pumps, the contract allows the energy service company (ESCO) to propose additional projects needed to take full advantage of energy cost-saving opportunities that may exist at Fort Polk. The paper traces the development of the SES contract from feasibility study through development of the request for proposal (RFP) to contract award and implementation. In tracing this development, technical aspects of the project are set forth and various benefits inherent in SES contracting are indicated. The paper concludes that, due to the positive motivation inherent in the shared-savings, as well as partnering aspects of SES contracts, SES contracting is well suited to use as a procurement vehicle.

  1. Childhood socioeconomic status amplifies genetic effects on adult intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C; Lewis, Gary J; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Studies of intelligence in children reveal significantly higher heritability among groups with high socioeconomic status (SES) than among groups with low SES. These interaction effects, however, have not been examined in adults, when between-families environmental effects are reduced. Using 1,702 adult twins (aged 24-84) for whom intelligence assessment data were available, we tested for interactions between childhood SES and genetic effects, between-families environmental effects, and unique environmental effects. Higher SES was associated with higher mean intelligence scores. Moreover, the magnitude of genetic influences on intelligence was proportional to SES. By contrast, environmental influences were constant. These results suggest that rather than setting lower and upper bounds on intelligence, genes multiply environmental inputs that support intellectual growth. This mechanism implies that increasing SES may raise average intelligence but also magnifies individual differences in intelligence.

  2. The reactions of magnesium and its alloys with moist gases at high temperatures; Les reactions du magnesium et de ses alliages avec les gaz humides aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-02-15

    The kinetics and mechanisms of the reaction of pure or low alloyed magnesium with various gas saturated by water vapor: oxygen, argon, nitrogen, air, carbon dioxide, have been studied and compared in the temperature range 350-600 deg C. After picturing the large chemical reactivity of magnesium surface, the more or less properties of the oxide film, always made of magnesia, have been shown depending on the nature of the gas carrying water vapor; in fact, metal sublimation occurs the more easily as the surrounding atmosphere is less oxidizing. Moreover, an activation energy change is systematic, but at a temperature which depends also on the latter. In the case of the alloys, the linear oxidation rate is generally obtained only after short induction periods, parabolic in nature. Two possibilities of corrosion inhibition of magnesium by water vapor are then demonstrated and explained: either by a partial superficial fluoridation, or when the carrier gas is carbon dioxide. Also, the extreme conditions of oxidation were studied, that is the ignition processes that occur at a particular temperature in every gas mixture. Finally, it is tried to evolve the fundamental and practical significance of all the results. (author) [French] On a etudie et compare par voie thermogravimetrique, micrographique et radiocristallographique, les cinetiques et les mecanismes de reaction du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages avec diverses atmospheres saturees en vapeur d'eau: oxygene, argon, azote, air, gaz carbonique, dans un domaine de temperatures s'etendant de 350 a 600 deg C, Apres avoir illustre l'extreme sensibilite chimique de la surface du magnesium, on a tout d'abord montre que la valeur plus ou moins protectrice de la couche d'oxyde formee, pourtant toujours constituee de magnesie normale, depend de la nature du gaz porteur de la vapeur d'eau; en effet, la sublimation du metal intervient d'autant plus facilement que les atmospheres en

  3. Disentangling the Role of High School Grades, "SAT"® Scores, and SES in Predicting College Achievement. Research Report. ETS RR-13-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on high school grade-point average (HSGPA) in college admissions may foster ethnic diversity and communicate the importance of high school performance. It has further been claimed that HSGPA is the best single predictor of college grades and that it is more equitable than test scores because of a smaller association with socioeconomic…

  4. Is Childhood Socioeconomic Status Independently Associated with Adult BMI after Accounting for Adult and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is inversely associated with adult weight in high income countries. Whether the influence of childhood SES on adult weight is best described using a critical period model or an accumulation of risk model is not yet settled. This research tests whether childhood SES is associated with adult BMI and likelihood of obesity independent of adult socioeconomic status and neighborhood characteristics. Data on individual childhood and adult characteristics come from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 13,545). Data on neighborhood characteristics come from the 2000 Decennial Census and American Community Survey (2005-2009). In the fully adjusted models, perceived financial hardship before the age of sixteen and having a father who was unemployed are associated with higher BMI among males and, among females, paternal education remains associated with adult BMI. However, childhood SES is not associated with likelihood of obesity after fully adjusting for adult SES and neighborhood characteristics, suggesting that the direct effects of early childhood SES on BMI are small relative to the other factors associated with obesity in adulthood.

  5. Classification of refractory ceramic fibres and repercussions on high temperature insulation; La classification des fibres ceramiques refractaires et ses consequences sur l'isolation haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Class, Ph. [Thermal Ceramics de France (France)

    2000-09-01

    1999 saw the implementation of the European directive 97/69/CE on the classification of man made vitreous (silicate) fibres. This major change and its extent may be difficult to understand but is of great importance to all industries using such materials. The author, expert in Health, Safety and Environment at Thermal Ceramics Europe and representative of the European Ceramic Fibre Industry Association (ECFIA), develops this classification here, giving emphasis to the repercussions it will have on refractory ceramic fibres and high temperature insulating wools. (author)

  6. 75 FR 69706 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Performance Review Board (PRB). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Emily Carroll, Chief, Human Resources... and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor and... SAFETY BOARD SES Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Transportation Safety Board. ACTION:...

  7. 76 FR 70169 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ..., Performance Review Board (PRB). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Emily T. Carroll, Chief, Human Resources... and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor and... SAFETY BOARD SES Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Transportation Safety Board. ACTION:...

  8. 78 FR 60321 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ..., Performance Review Board (PRB). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Emily T. Carroll, Chief, Human Resources... and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor and... SAFETY BOARD SES Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Transportation Safety Board. ACTION:...

  9. 77 FR 60146 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ..., Performance Review Board (PRB). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Emily T. Carroll, Chief, Human Resources... and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor and... SAFETY BOARD SES Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Transportation Safety Board. ACTION:...

  10. 77 FR 65552 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... objectivity in the performance appraisal process. DATES: Effective Date: October 29, 2012. FOR FURTHER... performance appraisal ratings and performance awards for the Senior Executive Service employees. The following... ADMINISTRATION SES Performance Review Board AGENCY: General Services Administration. ACTION: Notice....

  11. AN ASSESSMENT ON THE TOPICS RELATED TO PHONOLOGY AND PHONETICS CONTAINED IN THE HIGH SCHOOL COURSE BOOKS ORTAÖĞRETİM DİL BİLGİSİ KİTAPLARINDAKİ SES BİLGİSİ ve SES BİLİMİYLE İLGİLİ KONULAR ÜERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet SOLMAZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Course books are the most widely used sources by both students and teachers in attaining knowledge. Researches show that in language teaching classes also the most widely used materials are the course books. The purpose of this study was to appraise the grammar course books in the secondary schools, where at least four million students go on, on the account of phonetics and aspects related to phonetics. Three different grammar books prepared for different programs were analyzed and many lackings and shortcomings were realized related to phonetics and issues related to phonetics. The findings of the study showed that scientific principles and methods are not applied enough in the preparation of the grammar course books Ders kitapları, bilgiye ulaşma konusunda öğrenciler ve öğretmenler tarafından günümüzde en sık başvurulan ders araçlarıdır. Yapılan araştırmalar, dil bilgisi öğretiminde de en çok kullanılan öğretim malzemelerinin ders kitapları olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Bu araştırmada, dört milyondan fazla öğrencinin öğrenim gördüğü ortaöğretim basamağında kullanılan dil bilgisi ders kitapları, dil biliminin ses bilgisi ve ses bilimi alanıyla ilgili konular açısından değerlendirilmiştir. Farklı öğretim programları için hazırlanmış olan üç ayrı ders kitabının incelendiği çalışmada, söz konusu ders kitaplarında ses bilgisi ve ses bilimiyle ilgili çeşitli eksikliklerle ele alınan konularda birçok problem tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın bulguları, ortaöğretim basamağında kullanılan dil bilgisi ders kitaplarının hazırlanmasında bilimsel ilke ve yöntemlere yeterince uyulmadığını ortaya koymaktadır.

  12. Executive Function as a Mediator between SES and Academic Achievement throughout Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Gwendolyn M.; Farah, Martha J.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES), as measured by parental education and family income, is highly predictive of academic achievement, but little is known about how specific cognitive systems shape SES disparities in achievement outcomes. This study investigated the extent to which executive function (EF) mediated associations between parental…

  13. Executive Function as a Mediator between SES and Academic Achievement throughout Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Gwendolyn M.; Farah, Martha J.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES), as measured by parental education and family income, is highly predictive of academic achievement, but little is known about how specific cognitive systems shape SES disparities in achievement outcomes. This study investigated the extent to which executive function (EF) mediated associations between parental…

  14. A lunguistica pour ses quarante ans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvik Horvat Le Doyen

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En tant que doyen de la Faculté des Lettres de l'Universite de Ljubljana, j'ai l'honneur d'introduire le volume qui celebre les quarante ans de publication de cette revue linguistique. La parution de la revue conçua à l' origine comme supplàment pour la linguistique non slave de la revue Slavistična revija (dont la renommée était déjà affirmée, eut lieu en 1958. Ses inspirateurs, ses fondateurs et ses premiers directeurs, auxquels nous gardons une profonde reconnaissance, furent l'italianiste Stanko Škerlj et le latiniste Milan Grošelj, professeurs de notre Faculté. Des sa quatrieme année ce modeste supplement devint revue autonome, telle que nous la connaissons aujourd'hui.

  15. The Surprisingly Modest Relationship between SES and Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Michael; Maeda, Yukiko; Bishop, Kyoungwon; Xie, Aolin

    2017-01-01

    Measures of socioeconomic status (SES) are routinely used in analyses of achievement data to increase statistical power, statistically control for the effects of SES, and enhance causality arguments under the premise that the SES-achievement relationship is moderate to strong. Empirical evidence characterizing the strength of the SES-achievement…

  16. Infant SES as a predictor of personality--is the association mediated by intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Flensborg-Madsen

    Full Text Available Although research into the continuity and change of personality traits during a lifespan has been fairly extensive, little research has been conducted on childhood predictors of adult personality.We aimed to investigate the association between infant socioeconomic status (SES, and Eysenck personality traits in adulthood. An additional aim was to investigate whether intelligence and education may mediate this association.SES of 9125 children in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort was recorded at a 1-year examination. A subsample of this cohort, comprising 1182 individuals, participated in a follow-up at 20-34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ which includes measures of neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism and the so-called lie-scale. Associations of SES with each of the four personality traits were analysed by bivariate and partial correlations, and the mediating effects of intelligence and years of education were analysed.Higher SES in infancy was associated with lower neuroticism (r = -0.06; p = 0.05, lower lie-scale scores (r = -0.11; p = 0.0002, and higher psychoticism (r = 0.09; p = 0.003. However, analyses of mediation revealed no direct effect of infant SES on any of the adult personality traits, but only indirect effects mediated by intelligence and years of education, with intelligence being the main mediating factor.Only weak associations were observed between infant SES and personality in young adulthood, and the observed associations were mediated by adult intelligence and educational level. Thus, factors associated with infant SES or family background appears to have weak direct effects on personality development.

  17. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  18. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  19. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  20. 78 FR 66785 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ..., Chief, Human Resources Division, Office of Administration, National Transportation Safety Board, 490 L... Boards. The board reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the... SAFETY BOARD SES Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Transportation Safety Board. ACTION:...

  1. High prevalence of tuberculosis among adults with fever admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... High prevalence of tuberculosis among adults with fever admitted at a tertiary hospital in ... 1Department of Internal Medicine, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, Catholic University of Health and Allied.

  2. The Impact of Familial, Behavioural and Psychosocial Factors on the SES Gradient for Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Pischke, Claudia;

    2017-01-01

    Background: In highly developed countries, childhood overweight and many overweight-related risk factors are negatively associated with socioeconomic status (SES). Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the longitudinal association between parental SES and childhood overweight...... with a lower SES. For children who were initially overweight, a lower parental SES carries a lower probability for a non-overweight weight status at follow-up. The effect of parental SES is only moderately attenuated by single familial, psychosocial or behavioural factors; however, it can be fully explained...... association between SES, familial, psychosocial and behavioural factors, and the prevalence of childhood overweight. A total of 5819 children (50.5% boys and 49.5% girls) were included. Results: The risk for being overweight after 2 years at follow-up in children who were non-overweight at baseline increases...

  3. 76 FR 55677 - Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... objectivity in the performance appraisal process. DATES: Effective September 8, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... on the performance appraisal ratings and performance awards for the SES employees. The following have... ADMINISTRATION Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board AGENCY: General Services...

  4. 5 CFR 534.403 - SES rate range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SES rate range. 534.403 Section 534.403... Performance Awards Under the Senior Executive Service § 534.403 SES rate range. (a) SES rate range. (1) On the... basic pay of the SES rate range is set at an amount equal to the minimum rate of basic pay under 5...

  5. Changes in self-perceived economic satisfaction and mortality at old ages: evidence from a survey of middle-aged and elderly adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miaw-Chwen; Huang, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Experiencing a low socioeconomic status (SES) throughout the life course has been reported to be correlated with poor health outcomes. Several studies have suggested that income, wealth, and perceptions of economic status are associated with increased risk of death among elderly people. Few studies have investigated the association between lifetime SES and mortality among elderly adults. The analysis in this study was based on 2310 elderly adults for whom SES data from the four phases of the longitudinal survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan (1989, 1993, 1996, and 1999) were available, and who were alive in 1999. The SES measures included in the analysis were annual income, the household wealth, and the self-perceived economic satisfaction. A group-based trajectory modelling approach was employed to create SES trajectories. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to examine the association between SES trajectories and 8-year all-cause mortality (1999-2007). Irrespective of whether income, wealth, or self-perceived economic satisfaction was used, the elderly adults with consistently low SES trajectory throughout early old age were independently and significantly associated with higher hazards of mortality than were those in a consistently high SES trajectory. Downward or upward mobility of income and wealth were associated with increased hazard of mortality. However, decreased self-perceived economic satisfaction was not significantly associated with increased hazard of mortality. According to the results, the strong distinction between trajectory patterns of income, wealth, and self-perceived economic satisfaction among elderly adults indicate that neither should be overlooked when investigating the role of SES mobility in mortality. Retirement policies or strategies for maintaining and promoting favorable SES in early old age may benefit the health of elderly adults later in life.

  6. SES differentials in health by age and alternative indicators of SES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S; House, J S

    1996-08-01

    Despite the general persistence and even increase of strong socioeconomic status (SES) differentials in health in the United States, research suggests that SES differentials in health may diminish or become nonexistent at older ages. However, most research has used only limited measures of SES (e.g. education, income), and has not thoroughly investigated intra-elderly age differences in this trend. The current study investigates how SES differentials in health vary by age in the United States, using fairly detailed age categories (through ages 85+), and 2 alternative indicators (home ownership and liquid assets) of a major additional dimension of SES, financial assets, which may be especially important at older ages. We address (a) how strongly financial assets are associated with health, considered both alone and net of education and income; (b) if the health effects of financial assets vary by age; and, more specifically, (c) if their effects are especially pronounced in older age, again considered both alone and net of or relative to education and income. Results show that financial assets, especially liquid assets, considered both alone and net of education and income, are associated with health throughout adulthood and old age, at least until ages 85+. Furthermore, financial assets remain associated with health until quite late in life and become more important relative to education and income at older ages for some measures of health.

  7. 5 CFR 317.702 - General reinstatement: SES career appointees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General reinstatement: SES career... REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE SES Career Appointment by Reinstatement § 317.702 General reinstatement: SES career appointees. (a) Eligibility for general reinstatement. A former...

  8. E. Ostrom’s SES Framework to Understand the Factors of Successful and Unsuccessful Situation in the SES: A meta-analysis of community forests in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Lara Rivero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems are inherently complex and their destruction is highly due to a limited understanding of the processes that lead to their improvements in or deterioration. In an effort to respond to this problem, E. Ostrom and colleagues associated with the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University developed a Social-Ecological System (SES framework. however, even if the importance of SES framework to enhance the sustainability of complex social-ecological systems is highly accepted, its implication to understand the functionality of the SESs which may leads to successful or unsuccessful situations is still lacking. In this paper, referring to the context of decomposability of complex systems, and using E. Ostrom SES framework theory and a meta-analysis of 31 case studies of community forests in Mexico, the importance of using this framework in the course of explaining variable interactions and configurations to achieve desired system outcomes is explained.

  9. Exploring the Limitations of Measures of Students' Socioeconomic Status (SES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R. Dickinson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a nationally representative student dataset to explore the limitations of commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES. Among the identified limitations are patterns of missing data that conflate the traditional conceptualization of SES with differences in family structure that have emerged in recent years and a lack of theoretically-based guidance for how the components of SES should be combined. Using kindergarten achievement data, the study illustrates how both the observed relation between SES and achievement and the observed interaction between SES and kindergarten program would be impacted by the use of different measures of SES. This study also explores the measurement of SES within a structural equation modeling (SEM framework, highlighting both the relevant conceptual and measurement issues.

  10. Audiovisual Integration in High Functioning Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Brian P.; Rosenthal, Orna; Chun, Nicole H.; Shams, Ladan

    2010-01-01

    Autism involves various perceptual benefits and deficits, but it is unclear if the disorder also involves anomalous audiovisual integration. To address this issue, we compared the performance of high-functioning adults with autism and matched controls on experiments investigating the audiovisual integration of speech, spatiotemporal relations, and…

  11. The relationship of physical activity to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Élvio R; Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Odim, Angeany; Machado, Floramara T; Muniz, Bárbara R; Antunes, António A; Ornelas, Rui T; Gouveia, Bruna R

    2017-08-10

    (1) To study the relation of physical activity (PA) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (2) to investigate if the strength of these associations holds after adjustments for sex, age, and other key correlates. This study included 550 older adults from Amazonas. HDL-C was derived from fasting blood samples. PA at sport and leisure, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) were interviewed. Waist circumference (WACI) was assessed. HDL-C was positively related to PA sport, PA leisure, and SES (0.22≤r≤0.34; p≤0.001) and negatively related to smoking and WACI (r≤-0.10; p<0.05). Controlling for sex and age did not affect these relationships. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the relation of HDL-C to PA sport and leisure remained significant when controlling for all other investigated correlates (0.14≤β≤0.24; p≤0.001). In order to prevent low HDL-C in older adults, promoting PA seems to be an important additional component besides common recommendations concerning weight reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Approximation diffuse Hermite et ses applications

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    De nombreuses techniques de résolution d'équations aux dérivées partielles sans maillage ont été développées dans la dernière décennie, proposant une alternative attrayante lorsque les éléments finis atteignent leurs limites. Notre travail se concentre sur l'étude de l'approximation diffuse, de ses applications au lissage et a la résolution des équations différentielles : les éléments diffus. Cependant, les solutions proposées s'appliquent aussi à d'autres méthodes et de nombreux résultats nu...

  13. Thermodynamic properties of SeS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, M.D.

    1977-12-01

    Mass-spectrometry and Knudsen effusion experiments were used to study the equilibrium partial pressure of SeS formed by reaction of S/sub 2/ and Se/sub 2/ which were produced by thermally decomposing a mixture of In/sub 2/S/sub 3/ and In/sub 2/Se/sub 3/ in a Knudsen effusion cell. The heat of formation of SeS(g) was determined by the second law method to be -0.6 +- 3 kcal/mole. The entropy of formation of SeS(g) was calculated from spectrographic data in Ahmed and Barrow to be 1.5 cal/degree-mole at 298/sup 0/K.

  14. PISTES fête ses 10 ans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cloutier

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Bonjour, PISTES fête ses 10 ans. Comme le temps passe vite n’est-ce pas ! Depuis le premier numéro en 1999 que de chemin parcouru : plusieurs problématiques de recherche s’intéressant aux liens entre la santé et le travail ont été abordées, le nombre de lecteurs a augmenté sans cesse, la revue a été indexée dans diverses bases de données de références importantes, plusieurs articles sont maintenant traduits en anglais avec des résumés français, anglais et espagnol, une rubrique de défricheur ...

  15. The Impact of Familial, Behavioural and Psychosocial Factors on the SES Gradient for Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Pischke, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    with a lower SES. For children who were initially overweight, a lower parental SES carries a lower probability for a non-overweight weight status at follow-up. The effect of parental SES is only moderately attenuated by single familial, psychosocial or behavioural factors; however, it can be fully explained......Background: In highly developed countries, childhood overweight and many overweight-related risk factors are negatively associated with socioeconomic status (SES). Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the longitudinal association between parental SES and childhood overweight...... by their combined effect. Most influential of the investigated risk factors were feeding/eating practices, parental body mass index, physical activity behaviour and proportion of sedentary activity. Conclusion: Prevention strategies for childhood overweight should focus on actual behaviours, whereas acknowledging...

  16. HIGH DEGREE SPONDYLOLISTHESIS IN ADULTS: MONOSEGMENTAL REDUCTION AND FIXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Chiovato Abdala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate a method to reduce high degree spondylolisthesis in adults with monosegmental fixing preserving the adjacent level and the improvement of sagittal balance.Methods:A prospective study, with 12 adult patients with high degree spondylolisthesis (III and IV in adults who underwent surgery by the same team. We included 7 women and 5 men with a mean age of 37 years and lombosciatalgy that had no improvement with conservative treatment. The surgical technique used was total or partial reduction by Spondylolisthesis Reduction Instrument (SRI system, with instrumentation only in the affected level, thus sparing the adjacent level, associated with 360ofusion.Results:The L5-S1 level was involved in nine patients, L4-L5 in two, and VT-S1 in one patient. The isthmic type predominated in nine patients, followed by dysplastic type in two, and one iatrogenic spondylolisthesis. These patients were assessed by the Oswestry scale, which showed a preoperative average of 59% and postoperative average of 12.4% (P<0.05. A significant improvement in the average slip angle from 54.66% to 9.5% (35% to 0% was found. No major complications such as infection, neurological damage or material breaks were observed.Conclusion:The reduction of high degree listhesis instrumenting only the affected level produces good results, with good control of pain and functional improvement of patients. However, a larger follow-up is required to better evaluation.

  17. [Socioeconomic status and risky health behaviors in Croatian adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar

    2013-03-01

    Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our

  18. The influence of socioeconomic factors on health parameters in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Rásky, Éva; Großschädl, Franziska; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES) differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.

  19. The influence of socioeconomic factors on health parameters in overweight and obese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie T Burkert

    Full Text Available The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.

  20. Exploring the Limitations of Measures of Students' Socioeconomic Status (SES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Emily R.; Adelson, Jill L.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a nationally representative student dataset to explore the limitations of commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Among the identified limitations are patterns of missing data that conflate the traditional conceptualization of SES with differences in family structure that have emerged in recent years and a lack of…

  1. Exploring the Limitations of Measures of Students' Socioeconomic Status (SES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Emily R.; Adelson, Jill L.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a nationally representative student dataset to explore the limitations of commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Among the identified limitations are patterns of missing data that conflate the traditional conceptualization of SES with differences in family structure that have emerged in recent years and a lack of…

  2. High rates of unsuccessful transfer to adult care among young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Ciarán M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to describe the proportion of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA who had experienced an unsuccessful transfer from a pediatric rheumatology team to an adult rheumatologist and to compare the characteristics of those who achieved successful transfer to those who did not. Methods We conducted a systematic chart review of all patients with JIA who attended their final Montreal Children's Hospital JIA clinic appointment between 1992 and 2005. We tracked these patients for the two years after transfer to an adult rheumatologist. We then compared characteristics of patients with successful and unsuccessful transfers of care. Variables pertaining to disease characteristics, disease severity and psychosocial factors were examined. Univariate analyses were performed to determine if any single factor was associated with the outcome of unsuccessful transfer of care. Results 52% of patients fulfilled our criteria for unsuccessful transfer. Of the variables tested, an active joint count (AJC of zero at last visit was associated with the outcome of unsuccessful transfer (OR = 2.67 (CI 1.16-6.16; p = 0.0199. Conclusions Despite the presence of a coordinated process of transfer from pediatric to adult health care for the majority of the patients in this study, there was a high rate of unsuccessful transfer and/or sustained follow up which is disheartening. We found that patients with less active disease at the time of transfer, as indicated by a lower AJC, were more likely to be lost to follow up. Recent literature suggests that even in the least severe categories of JIA, 50% of patients persist with active disease into adulthood. Thus educating all JIA patients about the possibility of disease flare in adulthood may improve their adherence to recommendations for sustained follow-up in the adult milieu. This may lead to improvement of longitudinal outcomes for all JIA patients.

  3. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  4. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  5. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  6. The relationship between relative deprivation and adult nutritional status in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    To explore statistically the relationship between adult short-run nutritional status [body mass index (BMI)] and a measure of relative deprivation [subjective socioeconomic status (SES)] using panel data collected in a developing country where there is a high degree of poverty and a very uneven distribution of income. Study participants included men and women from a random sample of households located in a rural setting in Zambia. The data were collected during two waves of survey interviews in 2009. A multilevel model was used to estimate the relationship between subjective SES and adult BMI and controlled for individual absolute income as well as other correlates of adult health. The sample size included 254 observations. A positive relationship was established between individual absolute income and adult BMI at the 1% level. A negative and statistically significant association was found at the 1% level between lower subjective SES and adult BMI. Lower perception of place within the socioeconomic hierarchy was on average associated with a 0.44 decrease in adult BMI. This study found that, independent of individual absolute income, lower subjective SES was negatively related with adult BMI in rural Zambia. The result provides evidence that lower perception of place within the local socioeconomic hierarchy matters to health. Future studies should continue exploring the relationship between subjective and objective measures of relative deprivation and health in developing countries, where the bulk of the research focuses on material not relative deprivation as a key determinant of individual health. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Self-control forecasts better psychosocial outcomes but faster epigenetic aging in low-SES youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Brody, Gene H

    2015-08-18

    There are persistent socioeconomic disparities in many aspects of child development in America. Relative to their affluent peers, children of low socioeconomic status (SES) complete fewer years of education, have a higher prevalence of health problems, and are convicted of more criminal offenses. Based on research indicating that low self-control underlies some of these disparities, policymakers have begun incorporating character-skills training into school curricula and social services. However, emerging data suggest that for low-SES youth, self-control may act as a "double-edged sword," facilitating academic success and psychosocial adjustment, while at the same time undermining physical health. Here, we examine this hypothesis in a five-wave study of 292 African American teenagers from rural Georgia. From ages 17 to 20 y, we assessed SES and self-control annually, along with depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems. At age 22 y, we obtained DNA methylation profiles of subjects' peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data were used to measure epigenetic aging, a methylation-derived biomarker reflecting the disparity between biological and chronological aging. Among high-SES youth, better mid-adolescent self-control presaged favorable psychological and methylation outcomes. However, among low-SES youth, self-control had divergent associations with these outcomes. Self-control forecasted lower rates of depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems but faster epigenetic aging. These patterns suggest that for low-SES youth, resilience is a "skin-deep" phenomenon, wherein outward indicators of success can mask emerging problems with health. These findings have conceptual implications for models of resilience, and practical implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating social and racial disparities.

  8. Lifecourse Socioeconomic Status and Cancer-Related Risk Factors: Analysis of the WHO study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Ogunsina, Kemi; Okwali, Michelle; Sakhuja, Swati; Braithwaite, Dejana

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined cancer-related risk factors in relation to SES across the lifecourse in low to middle income countries. This analysis focuses on adult women in India, China, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, and examines the association between individual, parental and lifecourse SES with smoking, alcohol, BMI, nutrition and physical activity. Data on 22,283 women aged 18 years and older were obtained from the 2007 WHO Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE). Overall, 34% of women had no formal education, 73% had mothers with no formal education and 73% of women had low lifecourse SES. Low SES women were almost 4 times more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.23–12.10), and 68% more likely to smoke (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.01–2.80) compared with higher SES. Women with low SES mothers and fathers were more likely to have poor nutrition (Mothers OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.17–2.16; Fathers OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11–1.59) and more likely to smoke (Mothers OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15–1.87; Fathers OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.80–2.63) compared with those with high SES parents. Women with stable low lifecourse SES were more likely to smoke (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.47–4.43), while those with declining lifecourse SES were more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.07–12.34). Cancer-related risk factors varied significantly by lifecourse SES, suggesting that cancer prevention strategies will need to be tailored to specific subgroups in order to be most effective. PMID:27813060

  9. High Framingham risk score decreases quality of life in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Yosaputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity tend to occur together in the general population. Increasing prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors has been related to increased risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Studies have suggested that people with several risk factors of CVD may have impaired health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the association of CVD risk factors with quality of life (QOL among adults aged 40 to 65 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 220 subjects 40 - 65 years of age at a health center. The CVD risk factors were assessed using the Framingham risk score that is the standard instrument for assessment of the risk of a first cardiac event. The risk factors assessed were age, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. QOL was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument that had been prevalidated. The results of the study showed that 28.2% of subjects were smokers, 56.4% had stage 1 hypertension, 42.8% high total cholesterol and 13.6% low HDL cholesterol. The high risk group amounted to 45.5% and 42.3% constitued an intermediate risk group. High CVD risk scores were significantly associated with a low QOL for all domains (physical, psychological, social and environment (p=0.000. Preventing or reducing the multiple CVD risk factors to improve QOL is necessary among adults.

  10. Family Density and SES Related to Diabetes Management and Glycemic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Caccavale, Laura J.; Weaver, Patrick; Chen, Rusan; Streisand, Randi; Holmes, Clarissa S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) from single-parent families have poorer glycemic control; a finding confounded with socioeconomic status (SES). Family density (FD), or youth:adult ratio, may better characterize family risk status. Methods Structural equation modeling assessed the relation of single-parent status, SES, and FD to parenting stress, diabetes-related conflict, parental monitoring, adherence, and glycemic control using cross-sectional parent and youth data (n = 257). Res...

  11. Communalism Predicts Maternal Affect, Stress, and Physiology Better than Ethnicity and SES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J.; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J.; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult SES. African American and European American women (N=297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better-understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications regarding culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and as a potentially important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed. PMID:20658883

  12. Effects of SES on literacy development of deaf signing bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twitchell, Paul; Morford, Jill P; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Research on spoken-language monolinguals and bilinguals has shown that socioeconomic status significantly affects literacy outcomes. One explanation for this effect is that children in higher-SES homes have better oral proficiency in the language of literacy instruction (Hoff, 2013; Zhang et al., 2013). American Sign Language-English deaf bilingual children exhibit a unique profile because they achieve L2 literacy without prior development of spoken L2 proficiency. This provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of SES in literacy development without the confounding effect of the influence of spoken-language proficiency. The present study evaluated effects of SES and ASL proficiency on 135 deaf signing bilinguals' English reading proficiency. Although SES and ASL proficiency were not correlated in this sample, both factors were significant predictors of reading proficiency. The implications of these findings for educational reform in schools with deaf students are discussed.

  13. Many Young Adults with High Cholesterol Not on Statins as Recommended

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162877.html Many Young Adults With High Cholesterol Not on Statins as Recommended ... News) -- Too few Americans who need them -- especially young adults -- are getting cholesterol-lowering statin medications, a new ...

  14. Though disorder in high-functioning autistic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, E; Volkmar, F; Glick, M

    1991-09-01

    Examined thought disorder in a sample (n = 11) of high-functioning autistic young adults and older adolescents (mean IQ = 83) utilizing objective ratings from the Thought, Language and Communication Disorder Scale (TLC Scale) and projective data from the Rorschach ink blots. Results from the TLC Scale pointed to negative features of thought disorder in this sample (e.g., Poverty of Speech). Rorschach protocols revealed poor reality testing and perceptual distortions in every autistic subject, and also identified several areas of cognitive slippage (e.g., Incongruous Combinations, Fabulized Combinations, Deviant Responses, Inappropriate Logic). Comparing TLC Scale and Rorschach results to schizophrenic reference groups, autistic subjects demonstrated significantly more Poverty of Speech and less Illogically on the TLC Scale, and on the Rorschach they evidenced features of thought disorder that are encountered also in schizophrenia. Results are discussed in relation to the measures employed, and to areas of similarity and difference between autism and schizophrenia.

  15. Family Density and SES Related to Diabetes Management and Glycemic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Laura J; Weaver, Patrick; Chen, Rusan; Streisand, Randi; Holmes, Clarissa S

    2015-06-01

    Youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) from single-parent families have poorer glycemic control; a finding confounded with socioeconomic status (SES). Family density (FD), or youth:adult ratio, may better characterize family risk status. Structural equation modeling assessed the relation of single-parent status, SES, and FD to parenting stress, diabetes-related conflict, parental monitoring, adherence, and glycemic control using cross-sectional parent and youth data (n = 257). Single-parent status exhibited similar relations as SES and was removed. Lower FD was associated with better glycemic control (β = -.29, p = .014) via less conflict (β = .17, p = .038) and greater adherence (β = -.54, p Beyond SES, FD plays a significant role in adherence and glycemic control via diabetes-related conflict. In contrast, the effects of single-parent status were indistinguishable from those of SES. FD provides distinct information related to adolescent glycemic control. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Independent and Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Bilingualism on Children's Vocabulary and Verbal Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Natalia; Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms "a child with low-SES" and "a child speaking a minority language" are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian). A total of 120 children (88 bilingual children: 44 with low SES; and 32 monolingual children: 16 with low SES) with typical language development, aged 5; 7-6; 7, were tested in the societal language (SL-Hebrew) on expressive vocabulary and three repetition tasks [forward digit span (FWD), nonword repetition (NWR), and sentence repetition (SRep)], which tap into verbal short-term memory. The results indicated that SES and bilingualism impact different child abilities. Bilingualism is associated with decreased vocabulary size and lower performance on verbal short-term memory tasks with higher linguistic load in the SL-Hebrew. The negative effect of bilingualism on verbal short-term memory disappears once vocabulary is accounted for. SES influences not only linguistic performance, but also verbal short-term memory with lowest linguistic load. The negative effect of SES cannot be solely attributed to lower vocabulary scores, suggesting that an unprivileged background has a negative impact on children's cognitive development beyond a linguistic disadvantage. The results have important clinical implications and call for more research exploring the varied impact of language and life experience on children's linguistic and cognitive skills.

  17. High School 21+: A Competency-Based Diploma for Adults. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Adults who lack a high school diploma now have a new way to get a second chance. It's called "High School 21+," a competency-based high school diploma offered at Washington's community and technical colleges. Adults 21 years old and older can go to participating colleges to earn a high school diploma. An advisor will look at transcripts…

  18. Ego Strength Development of Adolescents Involved in Adult-Sponsored Structured Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Carol A.; Li, Xaioming; Blackshire, Shana L.; Wilfong, Juanita J.

    2005-01-01

    A psychosocial conception of ego strengths is presented in relation to adolescent involvement in adult-sponsored structured youth activities. Five-hundred and seventeen high school students completed measures on their involvement in structured activities and on 8 ego strengths. Gender, age, and SES were controlled in a MANCOVA procedure and it was…

  19. Is It Family Structure or Socioeconomic Status? Family Structure during Adolescence and Adult Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acock, Alan C.; Kiecolt, K. Jill

    1989-01-01

    In analyses controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), parental divorce during adolescence produced few negative effects on adult adjustment, and father's death during adolescence produced none. However, SES during adolescence and current SES affected nearly all aspects of adult adjustment, as did mother's and own educational attainment. Contains…

  20. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood.

  1. The design, development, and implementation of a solar environmental simulator (SES) for the SAO Faraday Cup on Solar Probe Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimets, Peter; Bookbinder, Jay; Freeman, Mark; Gates, Richard; Gauron, Thomas; Guth, Giora; Kasper, Justin; McCracken, Kenneth; Podgorski, William

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a solar simulator, know as the Solar Environment Simulator (SES), that can simulate solar flux levels up to those encountered at 9.8 solar radii. The paper outlines the design, and the challenges of realizing the SES. It also describes its initial uses for proving out the design of the Solar Winds Electrons, Alphas, and Protons (SWEAP) Faraday cup. The upcoming Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission requires that its in-situ plasma instrument (the Faraday Cup) survive and operate over an unprecedented range of temperatures. One of the key risk mitigation activities during Phase B has been to develop and implement a simulator that will enable thermal testing of the Faraday Cup under flight-like conditions. While still in the initial start-up, the SES has proven to be an instrumental component in the process of predicting the inflight performance of the SWEAP Faraday Cup. With near continuously variable power control above the threshold of 1.6kW/lamp up to approximately 6.5kW/lamp, the SES has been used to determine the system response to a wide range of incoming flux, thereby making it possible to correlate detailed thermal models to a high degree of certainty (see Ref. [1], Figure 1.1). The SES consists of a set of repurposed, and slightly re-designed standard movie projectors. The projectors have proven to be an economical and effective means to safely hold and control the xenon short-arc lamps that are the basis of the SES. This paper outlines the key challenges controlling the extremely high flux levels (~70w/cm^2) necessary to make the SES a useful test facility.

  2. The influence of mitigation evidence, ethnicity, and SES on death penalty decisions by European American and Latino venire persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Russ K E; Willis-Esqueda, Cynthia

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine whether European American and Latino mock jurors would demonstrate bias in death penalty decision making when mitigation evidence and defendant ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) were varied. A total of 561 actual venire persons acted as mock jurors and read a trial transcript that varied a defendant's case information (mitigating circumstances: strong/weak, defendant ethnicity: European American/Latino, and defendant SES: low/high). European American jurors recommended the death penalty significantly more often for the low SES Latino defendant when strength of mitigation evidence was weak. In addition, they also assigned this defendant higher culpability ratings and lower ratings on positive personality trait measures compared with all other conditions. Strong mitigation evidence contributed to lower guilt ratings by European American jurors for the high SES European American defendant. Latino jurors did not differ in their death penalty sentencing across defendant mitigation, ethnicity, or SES conditions. Discussion of in-group favoritism and out-group derogation, as well as suggestions for procedures to diminish juror bias in death penalty cases, is provided.

  3. Teaching a High-Level Contextualized Mathematics Curriculum to Adult Basic Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Daniel A.; Wollett, Chelsie; Reynolds, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a high level contextualized mathematics curriculum by 12 adult basic instructors in a midwestern state. The 10-week pilot curriculum embedded high level mathematics in contexts that were familiar to adult learners. Instructors' weekly online posts were coded, and the following themes emerged: (a)…

  4. Teaching a High-Level Contextualized Mathematics Curriculum to Adult Basic Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Daniel A.; Wollett, Chelsie; Reynolds, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a high level contextualized mathematics curriculum by 12 adult basic instructors in a midwestern state. The 10-week pilot curriculum embedded high level mathematics in contexts that were familiar to adult learners. Instructors' weekly online posts were coded, and the following themes emerged: (a)…

  5. In vivo high field magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of adult zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabli, Samira

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains the results of imaging of adult zebrafish by using different MR approaches. We present the first high resolution mMR images of adult zebrafish. To achieve high spatial resolution we used a magnetic field of 9.4T, in combination with strong magnetic field gradients (1000 mT/m) an

  6. El justiprecio expropiatorio en los Países Bajos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz Gielen, D.

    2009-01-01

    La plusvalía urbanística en los Países Bajos pertenece al propietario del suelo. La legislación expropiatoria es coherente con este principio al reconocer al propietario el derecho a un justiprecio que incluye la revalorización del suelo originada por su futuro uso. Desde finales de los 80, cuando l

  7. El justiprecio expropiatorio en los Países Bajos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz Gielen, D.

    2009-01-01

    La plusvalía urbanística en los Países Bajos pertenece al propietario del suelo. La legislación expropiatoria es coherente con este principio al reconocer al propietario el derecho a un justiprecio que incluye la revalorización del suelo originada por su futuro uso. Desde finales de los 80, cuando l

  8. El justiprecio expropiatorio en los Países Bajos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz Gielen, D.

    2009-01-01

    La plusvalía urbanística en los Países Bajos pertenece al propietario del suelo. La legislación expropiatoria es coherente con este principio al reconocer al propietario el derecho a un justiprecio que incluye la revalorización del suelo originada por su futuro uso. Desde finales de los 80,

  9. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  10. Post-error adaptation in adults with high functioning autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, Hans; Flamma, Bert; van der Meere, Jaap; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Deficits in executive function (EF), i.e. function of the prefrontal cortex, may be central in the etiology of autism. One of the various aspects of EF is error detection and adjusting behavior after an error. In cognitive tests, adults normally slow down their responding on the next trial after mak

  11. Best Adult Books for High School Students 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    During the past year, more than three dozen librarians working with teens in public, school, and college libraries have evaluated books published for the adult market with an eye toward identifying those that are worthy of teen reading as well. By examining more than 600 titles, this journal was able to select about 250 for review across the year.…

  12. Self-medication behaviors among Japanese consumers: sex, age, and SES differences and caregivers’ attitudes toward their children’s health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyama Ikuko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2009, when the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act was enacted in Japan, self-medication practices have increased. Because the concept of self-medication was recently introduced in Japan, few studies exist on this topic. Therefore, it is necessary to explore how self-medication is practiced. This study examined Japanese consumers’ self-medication practices and attitudes toward over-the-counter (OTC medicines based on their sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods The participants were 403 adults (Mage = 41.1 years, SD = 16.22. A quota sampling method was employed based on age group, and participants completed an online questionnaire. Results Participants in the 20–29 age group reported medical costs as an obstacle in seeing a doctor; in contrast, transportation was a mitigating factor for elderly people. Regarding SES, people at lower SES levels chose to rest instead of seeing a doctor or purchasing over-the-counter (OTC medicines when sick. They also placed more value on national brand OTC medicines than private brands (likely due to advertisements. This finding suggests individuals with a low SES do not select OTC medicines based on their effects or ingredients. Regarding attitudes toward OTC medicines, Japanese participants seemed to be unaware of the potential for abuse and side effects associated with OTC medicines. Finally, in relation to caregivers’ self-medication practices for their children, the majority of participants reported taking their children to the hospital since children tend to receive free medical care. Furthermore, caregivers with a high educational background are more confident in being able to help manage their children’s health. Conclusions Our results suggest that health and medical discrepancies among Japanese consumers pose new social problems. In Japan, universal health care is available, but the cost of receiving medical care is not completely free of charge. Thus

  13. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Charlotte B.; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test…

  14. Sexual Attitudes and Knowledge of High-Functioning Adolescents and Adults with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Opal Y.; Mesibov, Gary B.

    1991-01-01

    Interviews with 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism indicated that the mentally retarded group had more sexual experiences, with no intergroup differences in sexual knowledge or interest. Intelligence quotient was positively correlated with knowledge scores and males had…

  15. Attitudes of Superintendents of Ohio Comprehensive High Schools toward Adult Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.; Krill, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the knowledge of superintendents of Ohio comprehensive high schools toward adult vocational agricultural education. A summary of the demographic data revealed that 63 percent of the superintendents administered programs of adult vocational agriculture. Concepts on the survey with which superintendents agreed and…

  16. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Charlotte B.; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test…

  17. Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

  18. Care Coordination Challenges Among High-Needs, High-Costs Older Adults in a Medigap Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Timothy S.; Bhattarai, Gandhi R.; Hawkins, Kevin; Cheng, Yan; Ruiz, Joann; Barnowski, Cynthia A.; Spivack, Barney; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Many adults 65 years or older have high health care needs and costs. Here, we describe their care coordination challenges. Primary Practice Setting: Individuals with an AARP Medicare Supplement Insurance plan insured by UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company (for New York residents, UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company of New York). Methodology and Sample: The three groups included the highest needs, highest costs (the “highest group”), the high needs, high costs (the “high group”), and the “all other group.” Eligibility was determined by applying an internally developed algorithm based upon a number of criteria, including hierarchical condition category score, the Optum ImpactPro prospective risk score, as well as diagnoses of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or diabetes. Results: The highest group comprised 2%, although consumed 12% of health care expenditures. The high group comprised 20% and consumed 46% of expenditures, whereas the all other group comprised 78% and consumed 42% of expenditures. On average, the highest group had $102,798 in yearly health care expenditures, compared with $34,610 and $7,634 for the high and all other groups, respectively. Fifty-seven percent of the highest group saw 16 or more different providers annually, compared with 21% and 2% of the high and all other groups, respectively. Finally, 28% of the highest group had prescriptions from at least seven different providers, compared with 20% and 5% of the high and all other groups, respectively. Implications for Case Management Practice: Individuals with high health care needs and costs have visits to numerous health care providers and receive multiple prescriptions for pharmacotherapy. As a result, these individuals can become overwhelmed trying to manage and coordinate their health care needs. Care coordination programs may help these individuals coordinate their care. PMID:27301064

  19. Adolescent development of inhibition as a function of SES and gender: Converging evidence from behavior and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Galarce, Ezequiel M; Ladouceur, Cecile D; McMakin, Dana L; Olino, Thomas M; Forbes, Erika E; Silk, Jennifer S; Ryan, Neal D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2015-08-01

    The ability to adaptively inhibit responses to tempting/distracting stimuli in the pursuit of goals is an essential set of skills necessary for adult competence and wellbeing. These inhibitory capacities develop throughout childhood, with growing evidence of important maturational changes occurring in adolescence. There also has been intense interest in the role of social adversity on the development of executive function, including inhibitory control. We hypothesized that the onset of adolescence could be a time of particular opportunity/vulnerability in the development of inhibition due to the large degree of maturational changes in neural systems involved in regulatory control. We investigated this hypothesis in a longitudinal study of adolescents by examining the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the maturation of inhibition and concurrent brain function. Furthermore, we examined gender as a potential moderator of this relationship, given evidence of gender-specificity in the developmental pathways of inhibition as well as sex differences in adolescent development. Results reveal that lower SES is associated with worse behavioral inhibition over time and a concurrent increase in anterior cingulate (ACC) activation, but only in girls. We also found that lower SES girls exhibited decreased ACC ↔ dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) coupling over time. Our findings suggest that female adolescents with lower SES appear to develop less efficient inhibitory processing in dlPFC, requiring greater and relatively unsuccessful compensatory recruitment of ACC. In summary, the present study provides a novel window into the neural mechanisms by which the influence of SES on inhibition may be transmitted during adolescence.

  20. Trap levels in layered semiconductor Ga 2SeS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinli, A.; Gasanly, N. M.; Aytekin, S.

    2004-12-01

    Trap levels in nominally undoped Ga 2SeS layered crystals have been characterized by thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements. During the measurements, current was allowed to flow along the c-axis of the crystals in the temperature range of 10-300 K. Two distinct TSC peaks were observed in the spectra, deconvolution of which yielded three peaks. The results are analyzed by curve fitting, peak shape and initial rise methods. They all seem to be in good agreement with each other. The activation energies of three trapping centers in Ga 2SeS are found to be 72, 100 and 150 meV. The capture cross section of these traps are 6.7×10 -23, 1.8×10 -23 and 2.8×10 -22 cm 2 with concentrations of 1.3×10 12, 5.4×10 12 and 4.2×10 12 cm -3, respectively.

  1. Reusables get high marks in adult incontinence care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison-Rossman, J

    1992-11-01

    The adult incontinence care market is coming of age. As environmental concerns gradually erode the popularity of disposables, nursing homes and hospitals are looking at reusables in a new light. In addition, the aging of the U.S. population is expected to increase the demand for incontinence care products. A recent study found that the sales of reusable cloth diapers and pads accounted for $385 million annually. All of these factors add up to a lucrative market for textile rental companies that can supply these products.

  2. La clase media en países latinoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pressman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se utiliza el Estudio de Luxemburgo sobre Ingresos (ELI para analizar la dimensión de la clase media en varios países latinoamericanos. Uno de los principales hallazgos es que a mediados de la primera década de este siglo, el tamaño de la clase media en América Latina no parecía depender de factores demográficos. Un segundo hallazgo es que, en contraste con la mayor parte de los países desarrollados, las políticas gubernamentales de impuestos y gastos influyen poco en el aumento del tamaño de la clase media en los países latinoamericanos de la muestra. Por último, al igual que en el mundo desarrollado, los factores del mercado laboral no ejercen gran efecto en el tamaño de la clase media en Latinoamérica, siendo las principales excepciones Brasil y México, donde el empleo parece incrementar el tamaño de la clase media.

  3. Opportunities for Learning Math in Elementary School: Implications for SES Disparities in Procedural and Conceptual Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Heather J.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Castle Heatly, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether multiple opportunities to learn math were associated with smaller socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in fifth-grade math achievement using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). High amounts of procedural math instruction were associated with higher…

  4. Opportunities for Learning Math in Elementary School: Implications for SES Disparities in Procedural and Conceptual Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Heather J.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Castle Heatly, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether multiple opportunities to learn math were associated with smaller socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in fifth-grade math achievement using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). High amounts of procedural math instruction were associated with higher…

  5. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: STELLA-SES Radial Veocities of HD 208472 (Ozdarcan+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdarcan, O.; Carroll, T. A.; Kunstler, A.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Evren, S.; Weber, M.; Granzer, T.

    2016-07-01

    Precise radial velocity measurement of HD 208472 based on 229 high resolution Stella Echelle Spectrograph (SES) spectra obtained at STELLA robotic observatory on Tenerife, Spain from March 22, 2009 to July 20, 2011 are presented. High precision radial velocities allow one to trace spot jitter effect on measured radial velocities via residuals from spectroscopic orbit solution. In case of HD 208472, removing spot jitter effect from measured velocities, precision on calculated orbital parameters were improved by factor of 4 without changing the actual value of parameters. (1 data file).

  7. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

    2013-01-01

    .... the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA...

  8. Establishment and maintenance of a longitudinal study of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (the ULiSES scheme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, C; McKay, J S; Brooks, H W; Kelly, D F; Stidworthy, M F; Wibbelt, G; Morgan, K L

    2001-10-11

    compliance was generally high. The ULiSES scheme shows the feasibility of a country-wide longitudinal observational study spanning a period of several years and indicates the large impact of small numbers of non-compliant individuals.

  9. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eBijlenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  10. Intergenerational Transmission of Adaptive Functioning: A Test of the Interactionist Model of SES and Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Katherine J.; Neppl, Tricia M.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    The interactionist model (IM) of human development (R. D. Conger & M. B. Donellan, 2007) proposes that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and human development involves a dynamic interplay that includes both social causation (SES influences human development) and social selection (individual characteristics affect SES). Using a…

  11. Intergenerational Transmission of Adaptive Functioning: A Test of the Interactionist Model of SES and Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Katherine J.; Neppl, Tricia M.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    The interactionist model (IM) of human development (R. D. Conger & M. B. Donellan, 2007) proposes that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and human development involves a dynamic interplay that includes both social causation (SES influences human development) and social selection (individual characteristics affect SES). Using a…

  12. Verbal Measures of Cognitive Ability: The Gifted Low SES Student's Albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Carri, Louis

    1993-01-01

    Scores on cognitive abilities tests administered to students (n=80; grades 4-8) being considered for gifted placement were analyzed for differences between low socioeconomic status (SES) students and average or above average SES students. Analysis indicated that the primary reason low SES students did not meet criteria for gifted placement was low…

  13. 75 FR 15611 - Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San... United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety... Spectaculars is sponsoring the United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, which will include a fireworks...

  14. Finding sex partners on-line: a new high-risk practice among older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strombeck, Rita

    2003-06-01

    By the year 2004, it is estimated that more than 34 million older Americans will be Internet users. The revolution in mass communication has changed the way people of all ages interact. Studies indicate that love and romance rate very high among the concerns of older adults using the Internet, and older adults are using it to meet other people. Numerous web sites targeting older adults include channels for developing personal relationships. Although studies suggest that individuals who seek out sex partners on the Internet may be at increased risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases, very little is known about the attitudes and behaviors of older adults who seek and find sexual partners on-line. Because the number of older Internet users is predicted to grow exponentially as baby boomers age, research is needed about the Internet attitudes and practices of older adults.

  15. 17 Million U.S. Adults May Have Tough-to-Spot High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million U.S. Adults May Have Tough-to-Spot High Blood Pressure 'Masked' hypertension doesn't show up in a ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: High Blood Pressure Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics High ...

  16. High-Quality Preschool Programs Found to Improve Adult Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikart, David

    1996-01-01

    The longitudinal High Scope/Perry Preschool Study of 123 African Americans in poverty and at high risk of school failure interviewed 95% of participants at age 27. Profiles indicate that participants had fewer criminal arrests, higher earnings and property wealth, and greater commitment to marriage than nonparticipants, suggesting significant…

  17. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monteiro, Carlos A; Moura, Erly C; Conde, Wolney L; Popkin, Barry M

    2004-01-01

    .... The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity...

  18. Influence of Spatially Varying Flow on the Dynamic Response of a Waterjet inside an SES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Motley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface Effect Ships (SES are a promising fuel-efficient ship technology that typically carry most of their weight on an air cushion. To accommodate its shallow draft and slender side hulls and to absorb the high thrust and power required for high-speed applications, waterjets are typically used as the primary propulsion system. A waterjet typically has a flush mounted inlet and operates under complex three-dimensional flow conditions that result in highly nonuniform flows. The objectives of this work are to quantify the flow nonuniformity and the influence of unsteady cavitation on the response of an SES-waterjet system and to investigate the effect of flow nonuniformity and cavitation on the dynamic hydroelastic response of the rotor and stator blades. The results showed that as the flow advances through the pump, the ingested boundary layer from the bottom of the side hulls becomes increasingly nonuniform, particularly between the rotor and stator. The flow nonuniformity was shown to result in hydrodynamic load fluctuations and high side forces on the rotor and stator blades. The unbalanced blade loads lead to the generation of net upward forces on the pump casing and shaft. Flow nonuniformity also leads to unsteady cavitation and unsteady blade stresses and deformations.

  19. Parental attachment insecurity predicts child and adult high-caloric food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Aida; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-05-01

    Eating habits are established early and are difficult to change once formed. This study investigated the role of caregiver-child attachment quality and its associations with high-caloric food consumption in a sample of middle socio-economic status children and adults, respectively. Survey data were collected from an online questionnaire administered separately to 213 (143 girls) children and 216 parents (adult sample; 180 women). Two studies showed that an insecure parental attachment, whether actual (Study 1; children) or recalled (Study 2; adults), significantly and positively predicted high-caloric food consumption in both samples. The present findings highlight the importance of parental attachment and its association with unhealthy eating patterns in children and adults.

  20. Life course transitions in early adulthood and SES disparities in tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampel, Fred C; Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    A huge literature has documented adult socioeconomic disparities in smoking but says less about how these disparities emerge over the life course. Building on findings that smoking among adolescents differs only modestly by parental SES, we utilize a life course perspective on social differentiation to help explain the widening disparities in smoking in young adulthood. Our theory suggests that achieved socioeconomic status and the nature and timing of adult role transitions affect age-based trajectories of smoking and widen disparities in adult smoking. The analyses use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which follows a representative national sample over four waves from ages 11-17 in 1994/1995 to 26-34 in 2007/2008. The results show divergent age trajectories in smoking by parental education and that achieved socioeconomic status and life course roles in young adulthood account in good part for differences in the age trajectories. The findings demonstrate the value of the life course perspective in understanding processes of increasing stratification in health behavior and health during the transition to adulthood.

  1. Social disparities in body mass index (BMI) trajectories among Chinese adults in 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Changchun; Liang, Ying

    2017-08-16

    Obesity is a serious public health problem in China. The relationship between obesity and socio-economic status (SES) is changing and affected by uncertainty, particularly, in developing countries. The sex-related differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories are controversial and require substantial empirical data for updating and enriching. This study examined the relationship between SES and BMI in Chinese adults from a dynamic perspective using longitudinal data (1991-2011) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Then, sex-related differences were determined. A hierarchical linear model was used. SES positively affected the male BMI changes, with faster BMI growth rates in the high-SES males over the past 20 years. By contrast, female BMI was only affected by BMI baseline and residential area. Specifically, greater BMI baseline led to greater BMI growth rate and earlier BMI decline. In the past 20 years, the BMI growth rate has been greater in the urban females than in the rural females. The relationship between SES and obesity is complex in China, and a substantial sex-related difference exists. We argue that this large sex-related difference is due to the rapid economic and social changes that have affected national health and increased the gender inequality and social role restrictions in females. We provide insights for further research and policy recommendations.

  2. Job Pressure and SES-contingent Buffering: Resource Reinforcement, Substitution, or the Stress of Higher Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Jonathan; Schieman, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Analyses of the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce demonstrate that job pressure is associated with greater anxiety and job dissatisfaction. In this paper we ask, What conditions protect workers? The conventional buffering hypothesis in the Job-Demands Resource (JD-R) model predicts that job resources should attenuate the relationship. We test whether the conventional buffering hypothesis depends on socioeconomic status (SES). Support for conventional buffering is evident only for job dissatisfaction--and that generalizes across SES. When anxiety is assessed, however, we observe an SES contingency: Job resources attenuate the positive association between job pressure and anxiety among workers with lower SES, but exacerbate it among those with higher SES. We discuss the implications of this SES-contingent pattern for theoretical scenarios about "resource reinforcement," "resource substitution," and the "stress of higher status." Future research should consider SES indicators as potential contingencies in the relationship between job conditions and mental health.

  3. Iron Age walls in the Talayotic Culture. The fortified settlement of Ses Païses (Artà, Majorca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Gasch, Jordi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent excavations in the proto-historic settlement of Ses Païsses, in the Island of Mallorca, allowed the authors to recover stratigraphic and radiometric sequence that for the first time enable us to date the construction of the walls of Balearic Talayotic villages. In addition to listing different types of sites which were surrounded by walls, we describe the building techniques and the elements which comprise the walls and their typology, paying special attention to the unpublished findings made at Ses Païsses. The dated stratigraphy analysed allows us to assess the construction of the stone wall between the VIII and the VI century B.C., probably closer to the latter one.
    Finally, we interpret the appearance of the phenomenon and the function of the walls themselves in their relationship to the economic and social transformations detected. We propose a new evolutionary scheme in three parts for the talayotic village, developed from its predecessor the navetiform settlement.

    Las últimas excavaciones efectuadas en el poblado protohistórico de Ses Païsses en la isla de Mallorca han permitido a los autores recuperar series estratigráficas y radiométricas que por primera vez sitúan cronológicamente la construcción de las murallas que identifican a los poblados talayóticos baleares. Amén de enumerar los distintos tipos de enclaves que aparecen amurallados en ambas islas, se describen las técnicas edilicias de las murallas, los elementos que las componen, así como su tipología, prestando especial atención a los descubrimientos inéditos efectuados en Ses Païsses. La cronoestratigrafía analizada permite afirmar la construcción de la muralla pétrea entre los siglos VIII y VI a.C., posiblemente en la parte más reciente del arco cronológico.
    Finalmente, se interpreta la eclosión del fenómeno y la función de las murallas en relación con las transformaciones económicas y sociales de las que hay indicios, proponi

  4. Childhood Trauma Associated with Enhanced High Frequency Band Powers and Induced Subjective Inattention of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood trauma can lead to various psychological and cognitive symptoms. It has been demonstrated that high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG powers could be closely correlated with inattention. In this study, we explored the relationship between high frequency EEG powers, inattention, symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and childhood traumatic experiences. A total of 157 healthy Korean adult volunteers were included and divided into two groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score. The subjective inattention scores, ADHD scale, and anxiety and depression symptom were evaluated. EEG was recorded and quantitative band powers were analyzed. The results were as follows: (1 the high CTQ group showed significantly increased delta, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma, and significantly decreased low alpha power compared to the low CTQ group; (2 the high CTQ group had higher inattention score compared to the low CTQ group; (3 the high CTQ group had higher adult ADHD scores; (4 CTQ scores showed significant positive correlations with inattention scores, and adult ADHD scores; (5 unexpectedly, the inattention scores showed significant positive correlations with beta powers and a negative correlation with low alpha power; and (6 the moderated mediation model was confirmed: the depression fully mediated the path from state anxiety to inattention, and the CTQ significantly moderated the pathway between anxiety and depression. Our results show the possibility that childhood adversity may cause subjective inattention and adult ADHD symptoms. Depressive symptoms fully mediated the path from anxiety to inattention, especially in those who report severe childhood traumatic experiences.

  5. High Fluoride Dentifrices for Elderly and Vulnerable Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim Rud

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this work is to present the available evidence that toothpastes containing >1,500 ppm fluoride (2,500-2,800 and 5,000 ppm F) provide an additional caries preventive effect on root caries lesions in elderly patients compared to traditional dentifrices (1,000-1,450 ppm F). The se......The primary aim of this work is to present the available evidence that toothpastes containing >1,500 ppm fluoride (2,500-2,800 and 5,000 ppm F) provide an additional caries preventive effect on root caries lesions in elderly patients compared to traditional dentifrices (1,000-1,450 ppm F......). The secondary aim of this paper is to discuss why high fluoride dentifrices in general should perform better than traditional F-containing toothpaste. When examining the few studies that have considered the preventive benefits of high fluoride products on root caries the relative risk appears to be around 0.......5, and the risk can thus be halved by exchanging traditional F-containing toothpaste for toothpaste containing 5,000 ppm F. There is reasonable evidence that high fluoride dentifrices significantly increase the fluoride concentration in saliva during the day and the fluoride concentration in plaque compared...

  6. SLJ Presents the Best Adult Books for High School Students 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Francisca

    2008-01-01

    This article lists 30 titles, published between September 2007 and November 2008 (with reviews published in 2008), which the "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ's") Adult Books for High School Students Committee decided to recognize as the best for high school readers. The list includes realistic and historical novels as well as some genre-blending…

  7. SLJ Presents the Best Adult Books for High School Students 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Francisca

    2008-01-01

    This article lists 30 titles, published between September 2007 and November 2008 (with reviews published in 2008), which the "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ's") Adult Books for High School Students Committee decided to recognize as the best for high school readers. The list includes realistic and historical novels as well as some genre-blending…

  8. Emotional complexity and emotional well-being in older adults: risks of high neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Rebecca E; Åkerstedt, Anna M; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2012-01-01

    Older and midlife adults tend to report greater emotional complexity and greater emotional well-being than younger adults but there is variability in these factors across the lifespan. This study determined how the personality trait of neuroticism at baseline predicts emotional complexity and emotional well-being 10 years later; a goal was to determine if neuroticism is a stronger predictor of these emotion outcomes with increasing age in adulthood. Data were obtained from two waves of the MIDUS projects (N = 1503; aged 34-84). Greater neuroticism predicted less emotional complexity as indicated by associations between positive and negative affect, particularly for older participants. Neuroticism predicted lower emotional well-being and this association was stronger for older and midlife than for younger adults. Overall, high neuroticism may be a greater liability for poor emotion outcomes for older and perhaps for midlife adults than for younger persons. Clinical and theoretical implications of this conclusion are discussed.

  9. Romantic Relationships and Relationship Satisfaction Among Adults With Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Schermuck, Constanze; Ballerstein, Sarah; Ahlers, Christoph J; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience difficulties in maintaining romantic relationships. In this study high-functioning adults with ASD were examined concerning their romantic relationship interest and experience. Participants, 31 recruited via an outpatient clinic and 198 via an online survey, were asked to answer a number of self-report questionnaires. The total sample comprised 229 high-functioning adults with ASD (40% males, average age: 35 years). Of the total sample, 73% indicated romantic relationship experience and only 7% had no desire to be in a romantic relationship. ASD individuals whose partner was also on the autism spectrum were significantly more satisfied with their relationship than those with neurotypical partners. Severity of autism, schizoid symptoms, empathy skills, and need for social support were not correlated with relationship status. Our findings indicate that the vast majority of high-functioning adults with ASD are interested in romantic relationships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Teacher and headmaster attitudes towards benchmarking and high-stakes testing in adult teaching in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    Based on research, surveys and interviews the paper traces teacher and headmaster attitudes towards the introduction of benchmarking and high-stakes language testing introduced in the wake of a neo-liberal education policy in adult teaching for migrants in Denmark in the 2000s. The findings show...... that the majority of teachers and headmasters reject benchmarking. Meanwhile, due to both headmasters and language teachers the introduction of high stakes language testing has had an immense impact on the organization, content and quality of adult language teaching. On the one side teachers do not necessarily...... reject assessment and language tests or the fact that assessment may increase efficiency. According to the findings the introduction of high stakes testing in adult teaching on the other side has led to a range of paradoxes and negative effects such as less and diminished language competence among...

  11. High levels of serum hyaluronic acid in adults with dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Ausciutti Victorino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / objectives. Hyaluronic acid (HA is rarely described in dermatomyositis (DM. Thus, we determined any clinical association of serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional single-center analysis 75 DM and 75 healthy individuals, during the period from January 2012 to July 2013. An anti-HA antibody assay was performed using specific ELISA/EIA kits, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Results. The patients with DM and control subjects had comparable demographic distributions (p>0.05. The median time duration between disease diagnosis and initial symptoms was 6.0 [3.0-12.0] months, with a median DM disease duration of 4.0 [1.0-7.0] years. The median level of serum HA was significantly increased in patients with DM compared to the control group [329.0 (80.0-958.0 vs. 133.0 (30.0-262.0 ng/mL, respectively; p0.05. Serum HA also did not correlate with gender, ethnicity, auto-antibodies or drug use (p>0.05, but did correlate with cutaneous features, such as photosensitivity (p=0.001, “shawl” sign (p=0.018, “V-neck” sign (p=0.005 and cuticular hypertrophy (p=0.014. Conclusions. A high level of serum AH was observed in DM compared to healthy individuals. In DM, HA did not correlate to demographic, auto-antibodies and therapy parameters. However, HA correlated specifically with some cutaneous features, suggesting that this glycosaminoglycan could be involved in modulating cutaneous inflammation in this population. More studies are necessary to understand the correlation between AH and patients with DM.

  12. Henri de La Tour et ses réseaux

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Henri de La Tour est un personnage méconnu de l’historiographie actuelle des guerres de religion et de la Régence. Né en 1555, le fils de François III de La Tour, vicomte de Turenne, et d’Éléonore de Montmorency, perdit très vite ses parents et fut pour cette raison élevé par son grand-père le connétable Anne de Montmorency. Après avoir passé de longues années à la Cour, il partit dans le sud-ouest du royaume pour soutenir Henri de Navarre en pleines guerres de religion. Il y révéla des talen...

  13. Validity of the malnutrition screening tool for older adults at high risk of hospital readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Lin; Courtney, Mary D; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M; Finlayson, Kathleen; Isenring, Elisabeth A

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition is a serious problem in older adults, particularly for those at risk of hospital readmission. The essential step in managing malnutrition is early identification using a valid nutrition screening tool. The purpose of this study was to validate the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) in older adults at high risk of hospital readmission. Two RNs administered the MST to identify malnutrition risk and compared it with the comprehensive Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) to assess nutritional status for patients 65 and older who had at least one risk factor for hospital readmission. The MST demonstrates substantial sensitivity, specificity, and agreement with the SGA. These findings indicate that nursing staff can use the MST as a valid tool for routine screening and rescreening to identify patients at risk of malnutrition. Use of the MST may prevent hospital-acquired malnutrition in acute hospitalized older adults at high risk of readmission.

  14. High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

  15. Education-Related Parameters in High Myopia: Adults versus School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Ya Xing; Bi, Hong Sheng; Wu, Jian Feng; Jiang, Wen Jun; Nangia, Vinay; Sinha, Ajit; Zhu, Dan; Tao, Yong; Guo, Yin; You, Qi Sheng; Wu, Li Juan; Tao, Li Xin; Guo, Xiu Hua; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Since high myopia in the younger generation may differ etiologically from high myopia in older generations, we examined whether education-related parameters differ between high myopia in today´s school children and high pathological myopia in today´s elderly generation. Methods The investigation included the adult populations of the population-based Beijing Eye Study (BES) (3468 adults;mean age:64.6±9.8years;range:50–93years) and Central India Eye and Medical Study (CIEMS) (4711 adults;age:49.±13.2years;range:30–100years), and the children and teenager populations of the Shandong Children Eye Study (SCES) (6026 children;age:9.7±3.3years;range:4–18years;cycloplegic refractometry), Gobi Desert Children Eye Study (1565;age:11.9±3.5years;range:6–21 years;cycloplegic refractometry), Beijing Pediatric Eye Study (681 children;age:7.7±1.6years;range:5–13 years;non-cycloplegic refractometry,calculation of axial length to corneal curvature radius ratio), Beijing Children Eye Study (15066 children;age:13.2±3.4years;range:7–18years;non-cycloplegic refractometry), Beijing High School Teenager Eye Study (4677 children;age:16.9±0.7years;range:16–18years;non-cycloplegic refractometry). Results In the BES and CIEMS, educational level did not differ significantly between, or was significantly lower in the highly myopic group (myopic refractive error ≥6 diopters) than in the non-highly myopic group. In all non-adult study populations, higher prevalence of high myopia was significantly associated with higher degree of education related parameters such as attendance of high-level schools, and more time spent for indoors near work versus time spent outdoors. Conclusions Comparing associations of old or genetic high myopia in adults with new or acquired high myopia in school children revealed that education-related parameters did not show a clear association with old or genetic high myopia, while in contrast, new high myopia showed strong associations

  16. Education-Related Parameters in High Myopia: Adults versus School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available Since high myopia in the younger generation may differ etiologically from high myopia in older generations, we examined whether education-related parameters differ between high myopia in today´s school children and high pathological myopia in today´s elderly generation.The investigation included the adult populations of the population-based Beijing Eye Study (BES (3468 adults;mean age:64.6±9.8years;range:50-93years and Central India Eye and Medical Study (CIEMS (4711 adults;age:49.±13.2years;range:30-100years, and the children and teenager populations of the Shandong Children Eye Study (SCES (6026 children;age:9.7±3.3years;range:4-18years;cycloplegic refractometry, Gobi Desert Children Eye Study (1565;age:11.9±3.5years;range:6-21 years;cycloplegic refractometry, Beijing Pediatric Eye Study (681 children;age:7.7±1.6years;range:5-13 years;non-cycloplegic refractometry,calculation of axial length to corneal curvature radius ratio, Beijing Children Eye Study (15066 children;age:13.2±3.4years;range:7-18years;non-cycloplegic refractometry, Beijing High School Teenager Eye Study (4677 children;age:16.9±0.7years;range:16-18years;non-cycloplegic refractometry.In the BES and CIEMS, educational level did not differ significantly between, or was significantly lower in the highly myopic group (myopic refractive error ≥6 diopters than in the non-highly myopic group. In all non-adult study populations, higher prevalence of high myopia was significantly associated with higher degree of education related parameters such as attendance of high-level schools, and more time spent for indoors near work versus time spent outdoors.Comparing associations of old or genetic high myopia in adults with new or acquired high myopia in school children revealed that education-related parameters did not show a clear association with old or genetic high myopia, while in contrast, new high myopia showed strong associations with education. It confirms previous studies

  17. High prevalence of poor fitness among Danish adults, especially among those with high cardiovascular mortality risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Kirsten; Vinther Skriver, Mette; Terkildsen Maindal, Helle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Yet, our knowledge about the prevalence of poor CRF is limited. We investigated the prevalence of poor CRF among middle-aged Danish adults from a community-based health promotio...

  18. Computer-mediated communication in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Christine; Pollmann, Monique; Plaat, Aske; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are attracted to computer-mediated communication (CMC). In this study, we compare CMC use in adults with high-functioning ASD (N = 113) and a control group (N = 72). We find that people with ASD spend more time on CMC than contro

  19. Pragmatic inferences in high-functioning adults with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, J.; Hagoort, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.; Geurts, B.

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched

  20. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, J.; Hagoort, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.; Geurts, L.B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched

  1. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.; Happé, F.; Wheelwright, S.J.; Ecker, C.; Lombardo, M.V.; Johnston, P.; Daly, E.; Murphy, C.M.; Spain, D.; Lai, M-C.; Chakrabarti, B; Sauter, D.A.; MRC AIMS Consortium, [Unknown; Baron-Cohen, S.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of

  2. Challenging Stereotypes: Sexual Functioning of Single Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In…

  3. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  4. The Modality Shift Experiment in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    This study used the modality shift experiment, a relatively simple reaction time measure to visual and auditory stimuli, to examine attentional shifting within and across modalities in 33 children and 42 adults with high-functioning autism as compared to matched numbers of age- and ability-matched typical controls. An exaggerated "modality shift…

  5. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.; Happé, F.; Wheelwright, S.J.; Ecker, C.; Lombardo, M.V.; Johnston, P.; Daly, E.; Murphy, C.M.; Spain, D.; Lai, M-C.; Chakrabarti, B; Sauter, D.A.; MRC AIMS Consortium, [Unknown; Baron-Cohen, S.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of c

  6. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

  7. Narrative Skills in Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated narrative performances of 10 high-functioning young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) across personal and storybook narratives. Narratives were elicited with genre-specific procedures and then transcribed and scored using the narrative scoring scheme (NSS). One-tailed paired-sample t tests were…

  8. Career Technical Education: Keeping Adult Learners Competitive for High-Demand Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In today's turbulent economy, how can adult workers best position themselves to secure jobs in high-demand fields where they are more likely to remain competitive and earn more? Further, how can employers up-skill current employees so that they meet increasingly complex job demands? Research indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) aligned…

  9. Pragmatic inferences in high-functioning adults with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, J.; Hagoort, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.; Geurts, B.

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched

  10. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, J.; Hagoort, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.; Geurts, L.B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched

  11. Perception of Talker Age by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

    2013-01-01

    People with high-functioning Autism (HFA) can accurately identify social categories from speech, but they have more difficulty connecting linguistic variation in the speech signal to social stereotypes associated with those categories. In the current study, the perception and evaluation of talker age by young adults with HFA was examined. The…

  12. High Hopes in a Grim World. Emerging Adults' Views of Their Futures and "Generation X."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2000-01-01

    Explores views of the future among young adults age 21-28 years, focusing on quality of life, financial well-being, career achievements, and personal relationships. Data from interviews and questionnaires show a sharp distinction between how respondents view their personal futures (with high hopes) and how they view their generation's perspective…

  13. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  14. The Experiences and Needs of Female Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra

    2016-01-01

    There is limited large-scale research into the lived experiences of female adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on the findings of an Australia-wide survey, this report presents self-report data from n = 82 women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder in the areas of health,…

  15. Relationships between symptomatology and SES-related factors in hyperkinetic/MBD boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternite, C E; Loney, J; Langhorne, J E

    1976-04-01

    Relationships among symptomatology, socioeconomic status, and parenting styles were examined for 113 hyperkinetic/minimal brain dysfunction boys from intact families. Primary symptoms (e.g. hyperactivity) did not vary as a function of SES, but SES-related differences emerged for secondary symptoms (e.g., aggressive behavior, self-esteem deficits) and for parenting variables. Parenting variables were found to be better predictors of secondary symptoms than was SES. Implications for further research are offered.

  16. 78 FR 60816 - Senior Executive Services (SES) Performance Review Board: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Senior Executive Services (SES) Performance Review Board: Update... the performance of the senior executive. This notice updates the membership of the USAID OIG's...

  17. The validity of socioeconomic status measures among adolescents based on self-reported information about parents occupations, FAS and perceived SES; implication for health related quality of life studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Svedberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown inconsistencies in results and difficulties in conceptualization of assessment of socioeconomic status (SES among adolescents. The aim of this study was thus to test the validity of self-reported information on SES in two age-groups (11–13 and 14–16 years old in an adolescent population and to evaluate its relationship to self-reported health related quality of life (HRQOL. Different measures of SES commonly used in research in relation to HRQOL were tested in this study; parent’s occupations status, family material affluence status (FAS and perceived SES. Method A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 948 respondents (n = 467, 11–13 years old and n = 481, 14–16 years old completed questionnaires about SES and HRQOL. The adolescents’ completion rates were used, with chi2-test, to investigate differences between gender and age-group. Correlation was used for convergent validity and ANOVA for concurrent validity. Results We found a low completion rate for both fathers’ (41.7 % and mothers' (37.5 % occupation status, and a difference in completion rate between gender and age-groups. FAS had the highest completion rate (100 % compared to parent's occupations status and perceived SES. The convergent validity between the SES-indicators was weak (Spearman correlation coefficient below 0.3, suggesting that the indicators measured different dimensions of SES. Both FAS and perceived SES showed a gradient in mean HRQOL between low and high SES in relation to HRQOL, this was significant only for perceived SES (p < 0.01, both age-groups. Conclusion This study indicates the need for considering different approaches to measures of SES among adolescences and when evaluating SES in relation to HRQOL. Further research is needed to investigate sustainable ways to measure SES, delineating the relevance of tangible measures of education, occupation and income in relation to the perceived

  18. Independent and Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Status (SES and Bilingualism on Children’s Vocabulary and Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Meir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms “a child with low-SES” and “a child speaking a minority language” are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian. A total of 120 children (88 bilingual children: 44 with low SES; and 32 monolingual children: 16 with low SES with typical language development, aged 5; 7–6; 7, were tested in the societal language (SL-Hebrew on expressive vocabulary and three repetition tasks [forward digit span (FWD, nonword repetition (NWR, and sentence repetition (SRep], which tap into verbal short-term memory. The results indicated that SES and bilingualism impact different child abilities. Bilingualism is associated with decreased vocabulary size and lower performance on verbal short-term memory tasks with higher linguistic load in the SL-Hebrew. The negative effect of bilingualism on verbal short-term memory disappears once vocabulary is accounted for. SES influences not only linguistic performance, but also verbal short-term memory with lowest linguistic load. The negative effect of SES cannot be solely attributed to lower vocabulary scores, suggesting that an unprivileged background has a negative impact on children’s cognitive development beyond a linguistic disadvantage. The results have important clinical implications and call for more research exploring the varied impact of language and life experience on children’s linguistic and cognitive skills.

  19. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Kim, Jane J; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Jeste, Dilip V; Achim, Cristian L; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions.

  20. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Kesby

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old and aged (15 months old mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions.

  1. Employment activities and experiences of adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism (HFA) in Australia. Outcome measures include current occupation; occupational skill level and alignment with educational attainment; type of job contract; hours of work; support received to find work; support received in the workplace; and positive and negative experiences of employment. The findings confirm and expand upon existing evidence that adults with AD and HFA, despite their capacity and willingness to work, face significant disadvantages in the labour market and a lack of understanding and support in employment settings.

  2. The association between socioeconomic status and adult fast-food consumption in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorsky, Jay L; Smith, Patricia K

    2017-04-19

    Health follows a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in developed countries, with disease prevalence falling as SES rises. This pattern is partially attributed to differences in nutritional intake, with the poor eating the least healthy diets. This paper examines whether there is an SES gradient in one specific aspect of nutrition: fast-food consumption. Fast food is generally high in calories and low in nutrients. We use data from the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to test whether adult fast-food consumption in the United States falls as monetary resources rise (n=8136). This research uses more recent data than previous fast-food studies and includes a comprehensive measure of wealth in addition to income to measure SES. We find little evidence of a gradient in adult fast-food consumption with respect to wealth. While adults in the highest quintile are 54.5% less likely to report fast-food consumption than those in the lowest quintile, adults in the second and third quintiles are no less likely to report fast food-food intake than the poorest. Contrary to popular belief, fast-food consumption rises as income rises from the lowest to middle quintiles. The variation in adult fast-food consumption across income and wealth groups is, however, small. Those in the wealthiest quintile ate about one less fast-food meal on average than those in the lowest quintile. Other factors play a bigger role in explaining fast-food consumption: reading ingredient labels is negatively associated while soda consumption and hours of work are positively associated with fast-food consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Construction and Standardization of Spiritual Experiences Scale (SES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Mohammad Alipour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Spirituality as a cultural fact is one of the principles that will affect many aspects of life. This research aims to build a scale to assess and evaluate the reliability and validity of spiritual experiences and its exploratory factor structure.Materials and Methods: The research was a correlational study. The study population included all employees of the Shahid Beheshti University, including 220 participants (105 females and 115 males with the stratified sampling and proportional allocation method and Cohen's d formula, were selected. The instrument was spiritual experience scale (SES. For assessing the internal validity of instrument correlation coefficient was used for each question and the total score categories. The exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 25 items of the scale. internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha and retest was used for concurrent validity.Results: In the initial factor analysis, three factors were obtained with the particular value of greater than 1 and second factor analysis was limited to these three factors. Based on the content of the material three factors were named "personal relationship with God," "communication and perception beyond" and "the presence of God and receive spiritual support." The internal consistency of this scale was good (Cronbach's alpha, 93.0 and repeatability within ten days, 78.0.Conclusion: The study showed that the spiritual experience scale in Iranian society was valid and reliable. So self-report scale is a useful tool for research purposes.

  4. Maurice Riès et ses fils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukian Prijac

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Maurice Riès [1858-1945], originaire de Marseille, arrive à Aden en 1876 comme employé de César Tian. Très vite, il s'impose dans l'entreprise et devient l'associé de son patron en 1891. M. Riès est le dernier associé d'Arthur Rimbaud, et est avant-tout un négociant spécialiste du commerce yéménite et plus particulièrement du café qu'il exporte en Europe. Mais c'est aussi un diplomate et dès 1897, il devient l'agent consulaire de France à Aden. Cette gérance, il l'effectue en collaboration avec ses fils Paul et Adolphe Riès jusqu'en 1920. Les Riès par leurs actions commerciales et diplomatiques surent contribuer au renom de la France au Yémen mais aussi dans la région (mer Rouge, péninsule Arabique et corne de l'Afrique, région où ils sont toujours présents aujourd'hui.

  5. High or low? Comparing high and low-variability phonetic training in adult and child second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Brown, Helen; Clayards, Meghan; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    High talker variability (i.e., multiple voices in the input) has been found effective in training nonnative phonetic contrasts in adults. A small number of studies suggest that children also benefit from high-variability phonetic training with some evidence that they show greater learning (more plasticity) than adults given matched input, although results are mixed. However, no study has directly compared the effectiveness of high versus low talker variability in children. Native Greek-speaking eight-year-olds (N = 52), and adults (N = 41) were exposed to the English /i/-/ɪ/ contrast in 10 training sessions through a computerized word-learning game. Pre- and post-training tests examined discrimination of the contrast as well as lexical learning. Participants were randomly assigned to high (four talkers) or low (one talker) variability training conditions. Both age groups improved during training, and both improved more while trained with a single talker. Results of a three-interval oddity discrimination test did not show the predicted benefit of high-variability training in either age group. Instead, children showed an effect in the reverse direction-i.e., reliably greater improvements in discrimination following single talker training, even for untrained generalization items, although the result is qualified by (accidental) differences between participant groups at pre-test. Adults showed a numeric advantage for high-variability but were inconsistent with respect to voice and word novelty. In addition, no effect of variability was found for lexical learning. There was no evidence of greater plasticity for phonetic learning in child learners. This paper adds to the handful of studies demonstrating that, like adults, child learners can improve their discrimination of a phonetic contrast via computerized training. There was no evidence of a benefit of training with multiple talkers, either for discrimination or word learning. The results also do not support the

  6. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  7. 75 FR 43944 - Membership of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Defense Logistics Agency Membership of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Senior Executive Service (SES... performance awards and other actions related to management of the SES cadre. DATES: Effective Date: September 16, 2010. ADDRESSES: Defense Logistics Agency, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Suite 2533, Fort...

  8. Split-liver transplantation in the high-MELD adult patient: are we being too cautious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadalin, Silvio; Schaffer, Randolph; Fruehauf, Nils

    2009-07-01

    The fear that patients with high-mathematical model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score may not be suitable candidates for segmental grafts because of their need for greater liver mass has continued to push the transplant community toward the use of whole LT (WLT) in preference to split LT (SLT). In order to define the outcome of segmental liver transplantation in a better manner in high-MELD patients (score > or =26), we queried the UNOS registry for graft and patient survival results according to MELD score in adult patients receiving WLT and SLT in the United States from the inception of MELD allocation (February 27, 2002) through March 9, 2007. A total of 316 adult patients received a SLT as compared with 20 778 WLTs. Patient and graft survival rates at 6 and 12 months were comparable for all MELD ranges, including the 'high-MELD' recipients (e.g. at MELD score 31-35, patients' and grafts' survival rates at 12 months was 87.5% in SLT group vs. 84.4% and 76.7% in WLT group respectively). The results even at higher MELD scores (i.e. >35) were more than acceptable. In conclusion, patient and graft survival rates for SLT in high-MELD adult patients are comparable to the same for WLT.

  9. Strategies for obstacle crossing in older adults with high and low risk of falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui-Fen; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Chang, Wei-Ning; Renn, Jenn-Huei; Wu, Hong-Wen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Tripping is a frequent cause of falls among aging adults. Appropriate limb movements while negotiating obstacles are critical to trip avoidance. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanics of obstacle crossing in older adults at low or high risk of falling. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty community-dwelling adults aged ≥55 years, were evaluated with the Tinetti Balance and Gait scale and classified as being at high or low risk of falling. Between-group comparisons of kinematics were evaluated for obstacle heights of 10%, 20%, and 30% of leg length. [Results] The high-risk group demonstrated greater toe-obstacle clearance of the leading leg. Increasing obstacle height led to increased maximal toe-obstacle clearance, toe-obstacle distance, and shortened swing phase of the leading limb. Adaptation of clearance height was greater for the trailing leg. Individuals at high risk of falling demonstrated less symmetry between the leading and trailing legs and a narrower step width, features that increase the likelihood of tripping. [Conclusion] Kinematic parameters of obstacle clearance, including the symmetry index described in our study, could provide clinicians with a quick screening tool to identify patients at risk of falling and to evaluate outcomes of training programs. PMID:27313384

  10. Conflitos e convergências na ALCA numa perspectiva de vantagens comparativas reveladas de países das Américas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Bender

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo calculamos o padrão de vantagens comparativas reveladas de 12 países das Américas no período de 1981 a 1999. A partir desse padrão de vantagens comparativas reveladas averiguamos a similaridade existente entre esses países. O grau de similaridade entre países permite inferir sobre o custo econômico de ajustamentos setoriais resultantes de uma integração comercial entre eles, assim como possibilita fazer conjeturas sobre os incentivos que subgrupos de países têm para atuar conjunta e sistematicamente numa negociação comercial. Os resultados alcançados mostram que os países das Américas podem ser agrupados em três grupos distintos entre si, que o custo econômico de integração comercial entre o conjunto desses países (ALCA é relativamente elevado e que entre os países sul-americanos há um grupo de países similares entre si, ou bloco natural. Esse grupo de países, portanto, possui um incentivo natural, pela conjugação dos interesses comerciais, para atuar conjuntamente em negociações comerciais, como a de integração regional de comércio da ALCA.In this paper the industry sectors' revealed comparative advantages for 12 Americas' countries were calculated from 1981 to 1999. The countries' revealed comparative advantage patterns are then used to establish the similarity degree among these 12 countries. This similarity degree gives us both an indication of the economic costs in a commercial integration and also some insights about incentives that sub-groups of countries have to act as a group in a negotiation for commercial integration. The results show that these 12 countries can be grouped in three subsets of countries distinct to each other subset, that the economic costs of commercial integration among these 12 countries (ALCA is relatively high, and that there is a sub-group of South American countries that are similar among them, which therefore have a natural incentive to negotiate as a group in a

  11. Putting the "E" in SES: unpacking the ecology in the Ostrom social-ecological system framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Vogt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ostrom social-ecological system (SES framework offers an interdisciplinary tool for studies of linked human-natural systems. However, its origin in the social sciences belies the effectiveness of its interdisciplinary ambitions and undermines its ability to cope with ecological complexity. To narrow the gap between inherently dynamic ecological systems and the SES framework, we need to explicitly recognize that SES outcomes are coproduced by social systems in which choices are made, as well as an ecological system with a diverse assortment of dynamic natural processes that mediate the effect of those choices. We illustrate the need for more explicit incorporation of ecological attributes into the SES framework by presenting a case study of a community-managed forest in Indiana, USA. A preliminary set of ecological attributes are also proposed for inclusion in the SES framework with the aim of spurring interest in further development of a truly interdisciplinary framework for the study of SESs.

  12. The effect of high-fat--high-fructose diet on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cigliano, Luisa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect of isoenergetic administration to adult rats of high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet for 2 weeks on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic. Body and skeletal muscle composition, energy balance, plasma lipid profile and glucose tolerance were measured, together with mitochondrial functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. Rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, together with significantly higher plasma glucose and insulin response to glucose load. Skeletal muscle triglycerides and ceramide were significantly higher in rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency and uncoupling protein 3 content were significantly higher, while adenine nucleotide translocase content was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet. The results suggest that a high-fat--high-fructose diet even without hyperphagia is able to increase lipid flow to skeletal muscle and mitochondrial energetic efficiency, with two detrimental effects: (a) energy sparing that contributes to the early onset of obesity and (b) reduced oxidation of fatty acids and lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, which could generate insulin resistance.

  13. Clinical evidence on high flow oxygen therapy and active humidification in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotera, C; Díaz Lobato, S; Pinto, T; Winck, J C

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in an alternative to conventional oxygen therapy: the heated, humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC). A number of physiological effects have been described with HFNC: pharyngeal dead space washout, reduction of nasopharyngeal resistance, a positive expiratory pressure effect, an alveolar recruitment, greater humidification, more comfort and better tolerance by the patient, better control of FiO2 and mucociliary clearance. There is limited experience of HFNC in adults. There are no established guidelines or decision-making pathways to guide use of the HFNC therapy for adults. In this article we review the existing evidence of HFNC oxygen therapy in adult patients, its advantages, limitations and the current literature on clinical applications. Further research is required to determine the long-term effect of this therapy and identify the adult patient population to whom it is most beneficial. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Le soudage de l'aluminium et de ses alliages

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, G

    2005-01-01

    Le soudage de l'aluminium requiert un savoir-faire spécifique pour éviter la formation, dans la soudure, de défauts rédhibitoires tels que les manques de fusion ou soufflures. Ces défauts ont pour causes principales la présence d’une couche d'alumine, une diffusivité thermique élevée et une solubilité très faible de l’hydrogène dans le métal à l’état solide. Les règles de l’art à appliquer pour la préparation des assemblages et pour le choix des paramètres de soudage sont rappelées. Les divers procédés de soudage mis en Å"uvre par la section TS-MME-AS (faisceau d’électrons, laser, TIG, MIG) sont ensuite exposés à travers quelques applications récentes liées au LHC et à ses expériences. Enfin, une nouvelle technologie, le Friction Stir Welding (FSW), est présentée. Ce procédé de friction malaxage se déroule à l’état pâteux sans fusion. Il permet de réaliser des assemb...

  15. High School Sports Involvement Diminishes the Association Between Childhood Conduct Disorder and Adult Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Elkins, Irene J; Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2015-07-01

    Life course-persistent antisocial behavior manifests as a display of aggressive and antisocial behavior beginning in childhood (conduct disorder [CD]) and lasting through adulthood (adult antisocial personality disorder). This study aimed to build on prior research by evaluating whether involvement in high school sports helped attenuate the association between CD and subsequent adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A prospective sample of 967 male and female adolescents (56% adopted) was used. Structured interviews were used to assess CD (symptoms before the age of 15 years), involvement in sports during high school, and past-year adult antisocial personality disorder symptoms in young adulthood (M age = 22.4 years). As expected, the association between CD and AAB was significantly less for those involved in sports (β = .28; p sports (β = .49; p behavior in the model (age, gender, adoption status), and results were consistent across males and females. Involvement in other extracurricular activities (e.g., student government, plays, clubs) did not significantly moderate the relationship between CD and AAB. Although selection effects were evident (those with more CD symptoms were less likely to be involved in sports), findings nevertheless suggest high school sports involvement may be a notable factor related to disrupting persistent antisocial behavior beginning in childhood and adolescence and lasting through young adulthood. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brief Report: Face Configuration Accuracy and Processing Speed Among Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Merkle, Kristen; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the accuracy and speed of face processing employed by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Two behavioral experiments measured sensitivity to distances between features and face recognition when performance depended on holistic versus featural information. Results suggest adults with ASD were less accurate, but responded as quickly as controls for both tasks. In contrast to previous findings with children, adults with ASD demonstrated a...

  17. Adult mortality in a low-density tree population using high-resolution remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, James R; Hubbell, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    We developed a statistical framework to quantify mortality rates in canopy trees observed using time series from high-resolution remote sensing. By timing the acquisition of remote sensing data with synchronous annual flowering in the canopy tree species Handroanthus guayacan, we made 2,596 unique detections of 1,006 individual adult trees within 18,883 observation attempts on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI) during an 11-yr period. There were 1,057 observation attempts that resulted in missing data due to cloud cover or incomplete spatial coverage. Using the fraction of 123 individuals from an independent field sample that were detected by satellite data (109 individuals, 88.6%), we estimate that the adult population for this species on BCI was 1,135 individuals. We used a Bayesian state-space model that explicitly accounted for the probability of tree detection and missing observations to compute an annual adult mortality rate of 0.2%·yr(-1) (SE = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.06-0.45). An independent estimate of the adult mortality rate from 260 field-checked trees closely matched the landscape-scale estimate (0.33%·yr(-1) , SE = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.12-0.74). Our proof-of-concept study shows that one can remotely estimate adult mortality rates for canopy tree species precisely in the presence of variable detection and missing observations. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. IMPACT OF SCHOOL TUTORING IN THE PROJECTION OF HIGH SCHOOL ADULT STUDENTS, SEMIPRESENTIAL MODALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor José Peinado-Guevara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipresential modality at high school level for adults, as the offered in the nightlife high school of the Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, that creates high expectations for Sinaloa´s society, to give the student an opportunity to continue its educational development in high school level and, lead him to continue with their vocational training. With this investigation, and given to their conditions, the objective it´s to know the competitive level at the beginning and during the development in the institution, also to identify the influence of the school tutoring in the development of adult students in high school. It was identified the income profile of students to the institution; was necessary to rescue the results of CENEVAL and EDAOM tests, practiced at the entry of students to the institution. Together this tools, was necessary to practice two questionnaires to evaluate the students perception about their teachers; and another one to identify the main problems they faced and the function of their school tutor in the institution. With the data obtained, were identified some deficiencies of semipresential system, especially in educational planning. Even though the students recognizes that the tutoring its fundamental to the incorporation of students to academic activities and that exists a high level of acceptance to the programs set by the institution.

  19. High antibody titer in an adult with Pompe disease affects treatment with alglucosidase alfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Juna M; van der Beek, Nadine A M E; Kroos, Marian A; Ozkan, Lale; van Doorn, Pieter A; Richards, Susan M; Sung, Crystal C C; Brugma, Jan-Dietert C; Zandbergen, Adrienne A M; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Reuser, Arnold J J

    2010-12-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa in infants, children and adults with Pompe disease. Recent studies have shown that high antibody titers can occur in patients receiving ERT and counteract the effect of treatment. This particularly occurs in those patients with classic-infantile Pompe disease that do not produce any endogenous acid α-glucosidase (CRIM-negative). It is still unclear to what extent antibody formation affects the outcome of ERT in adults with residual enzyme activity. We present the case of a patient with adult-onset Pompe disease. He was diagnosed at the age of 39years by enzymatic testing (10.7% residual activity in fibroblasts) and DNA analysis (genotype: c.-32-13T>G/p.Trp516X). Infusion-associated reactions occurred during ERT and the patient's disease progressed. Concurrently, the antibody titer rose to a similarly high level as reported for some CRIM-negative patients with classic-infantile Pompe disease. Using newly developed immunologic-assays we could calculate that approximately 40% of the administered alglucosidase alfa was captured by circulating antibodies. Further, we could demonstrate that uptake of alglucosidase alfa by cultured fibroblasts was inhibited by admixture of the patient's serum. This case demonstrates that also patients with an appreciable amount of properly folded and catalytically active endogenous acid α-glucosidase can develop antibodies against alglucosidase alfa that affect the response to ERT.

  20. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Young Adults in Ternate, Eastern Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Susan Irawati; Turyadi; Sidarta, Erick; Sadhewa, Arkasha; Purnomo, Gludhug Ariyo; Soedarmono, Yuyun S M; Pattiiha, Mochtar Zein; Thedja, Meta Dewi; Harahap, Alida R; Muljono, David H

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been declining thanks to the universal hepatitis B infant immunization program. Nevertheless, young adults born before the program implementation might have acquired HBV in early childhood or remain susceptible to infection. This study aimed to evaluate hepatitis B epidemiology in asymptomatic young adult population in Ternate, eastern Indonesia. Serum samples of 376 subjects (aged 17-25, mean 19.82 ± 1.69 years; male/female 138/238) were screened for HBV parameters serologically (HBV surface antigen [HBsAg]; its antibody [anti-HBs]; anti-core antigen [anti-HBc]), and molecularly (HBV DNA). HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and HBV DNA prevalence were 15.7%, 36.2%, 24.2%, and 27.9%, respectively, with male predominance. Of all subjects, 13.0% were HBsAg negative with detectable HBV DNA (occult hepatitis B [OHB]), and 56.4% showed negativity for all seromarkers. This population showed high hepatitis B prevalence with substantial occurrence of OHB. However, a high percentage of the population were still susceptible and at risk of HBV infection. This study emphasizes the necessity to improve prevention strategies to screen and manage HBV carriers, including the adoption of catch-up or booster vaccination targeted to young adult populations. Investigations on the roles of host-virus interactions associated with OHB and its implications are warranted.

  1. Effectiveness of Different Preventive Programs in Cariogram Parameters of Young Adults at High Caries Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Karabekiroğlu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of different preventive programs in young adults at high caries risk using Cariogram software. Methods. Sixty-six young adults with high caries risk were evaluated. Dental caries risk for all subjects was determined according to WHO criteria. Subjects were divided into three different preventive groups (control: OH, fluoride varnish: FV, and chlorhexidine varnish: CV. They were followed for 12 weeks (baseline: T0, 1 week: T1, 4 weeks: T2, and 12 weeks: T3. Plaque index, diet frequency, and salivary chairside tests (to record the flow rate, buffer capacity, and mutans streptococci and lactobacillus counts were performed at each visit. Based on these data, ten caries-related variables were collected and inserted into the Cariogram software to calculate the predicted chance of avoiding caries for each subject. Results. Significant changes were obtained about the Cariogram parameters (diet, bacteria, susceptibility, circumstances, and Cariogram risk group. No significant differences were found between the three methods regarding mean Cariogram scores after 3 months (p>0.05. Conclusions. The regular and effective short-term (three months use of 1450 ppm fluoridated toothpaste, one visit application of fluoride, and chlorhexidine varnishes were effective for reducing caries risk in young adults, which can be clearly demonstrated using Cariogram software.

  2. Right Directions, Wrong Maps: Understanding the Involvement of Low-SES African American Parents to Enlist Them as Partners in College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Research extols the benefits of parent involvement in college choice, but low-SES African American parents are unable to match efforts of wealthier parents. This qualitative study found that in their communities the high school diploma was the normative credential for upward mobility. To this end, parents used narratives of struggle to motivate…

  3. Mothers' and Teachers' Estimations of First Graders' Literacy Level and Their Relation to the Children's Actual Performance in Different SES Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between mothers' and teachers' estimations of 60 children's literacy level and their actual performance were investigated in two different socio-economic status (SES) groups: low (LSES) and high (HSES). The children's reading (fluency, accuracy and comprehension) and spelling levels were measured. The mothers evaluated their own…

  4. The structure of intelligence in children and adults with high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gerald; Allen, Daniel N; Minshew, Nancy J; Williams, Diane L; Volkmar, Fred; Klin, Ami; Schultz, Robert T

    2008-05-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses of the commonly used 11 subtests of the Wechsler child and adult intelligence scales were accomplished for 137 children and 117 adults with high functioning autism (HFA) and for comparable age groups from the standardization samples contained in the Wechsler manuals. The objectives were to determine whether the structure of intelligence in HFA groups was similar to that found in the normative samples, and whether a separate "social context" factor would emerge that was unique to HFA. Four-factor models incorporating a Social Context factor provided the best fit in both the autism and normative samples, but the subtest intercorrelations were generally lower in the autism samples. Findings suggest similar organization of cognitive abilities in HFA, but with the possibility of underconnectivity or reduced communication among brain regions in autism.

  5. Expanding the environment: gene × school-level SES interaction on reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Soden, Brooke; Johnson, Wendy; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2013-10-01

    Influential work has explored the role of family socioeconomic status (SES) as an environmental moderator of genetic and environmental influences on cognitive outcomes. This work has provided evidence that socioeconomic circumstances differentially impact the heritability of cognitive abilities, generally supporting the bioecological model in that genetic influences are greater at higher levels of family SES. The present work expanded consideration of the environment, using school-level SES as a moderator of reading comprehension. The sample included 577 pairs of twins from the Florida Twin Project on Reading, Behavior and Environment. Reading comprehension was measured by the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT) Reading in third or fourth grade. School-level SES was measured by the mean Free and Reduced Lunch Status (FRLS) of the schoolmates of the twins. The best-fitting univariate G × E moderation model indicated greater genetic influences on reading comprehension when fewer schoolmates qualified for FRLS (i.e., 'higher' school-level SES). There was also an indication of moderation of the shared environment; there were greater shared environmental influences on reading comprehension at higher school-level SES. The results supported the bioecological model; greater genetic variance was found in school environments in which student populations experienced less poverty. In general, 'higher' school-level SES allowed genetic and probably shared environmental variance to contribute as sources of individual differences in reading comprehension outcomes. Poverty suppresses these influences. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley R. Dean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. Objective: We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large region of Texas. Design: A cross-sectional study using data on 1,878 adult participants (urban = 734 and rural = 1,144, who were recruited by random digit dialing to participate in the seven-county 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Data included demographic characteristics, eating behaviors (SSB consumption, frequency of fast-food meals, frequency of breakfast meals, and daily fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity. Results: The prevalence of any consumption of SSB and the prevalence of high consumption of SSB were significantly higher among rural adults compared with urban counterparts. The multivariable logistic regression models indicated that a high level of SSB consumption (≥3 cans or glasses SSB/day was associated with demographic characteristics (poverty-level income and children in the home, frequent consumption of fast-food meals, infrequent breakfast meals, low fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity especially among rural adults. Conclusions: This study provides impetus for understanding associations among multiple eating behaviors, especially among economically and geographically disadvantaged adults. New strategies are needed for educating consumers, not only about how to moderate their SSB intake, but also how to simultaneously disrupt the co-occurrence of undesirable eating and promote healthful eating.

  7. Enduring links from childhood mathematics and reading achievement to adult socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the determinants of socioeconomic status (SES) is an important economic and social goal. Several major influences on SES are known, yet much of the variance in SES remains unexplained. In a large, population-representative sample from the United Kingdom, we tested the effects of mathematics and reading achievement at age 7 on attained SES by age 42. Mathematics and reading ability both had substantial positive associations with adult SES, above and beyond the effects of SES at birth, and with other important factors, such as intelligence. Achievement in mathematics and reading was also significantly associated with intelligence scores, academic motivation, and duration of education. These findings suggest effects of improved early mathematics and reading on SES attainment across the life span.

  8. Retrospective analysis of multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics (SES in 70 patients with suspected central nervous system infections: A single-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Krishnan Tiruppur Chinnappan Ramalingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central nervous system (CNS infections present a grave health care challenge due to high morbidity and mortality. Clinical findings and conventional laboratory assessments are not sufficiently distinct for specific etiologic diagnosis. Identification of pathogens is a key to appropriate therapy. Aim: In this retrospective observational study, we evaluated the efficacy and clinical utility of syndrome evaluation system (SES for diagnosing clinically suspected CNS infections. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis included inpatients in our tertiary level neurointensive care unit (NICU and ward from February 2010 to December 2013. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples of 70 patients, clinically suspected of having CNS infections, were subjected to routine laboratory tests, culture, imaging, and SES. We analyzed the efficacy of SES in the diagnosis of CNS infections and its utility in therapeutic decision-making. Results: SES had a clinical sensitivity of 57.4% and clinical specificity of 95.6%. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the top two bacterial pathogens, whereas Herpes simplex virus (HSV was the most common viral pathogen. Polymicrobial infections were detected in 32.14% of SES-positive cases. SES elicited a change in the management in 30% of the patients from initial empiric therapy. At discharge, 51 patients recovered fully while 11 patients had partial recovery. Three-month follow-up showed only six patients to have neurological deficits. Conclusion: In a tertiary care center, etiological microbial diagnosis is central to appropriate therapy and outcomes. Sensitive and accurate multiplex molecular diagnostics play a critical role in not only identifying the causative pathogen but also in helping clinicians to institute appropriate therapy, reduce overuse of antimicrobials, and ensure superior clinical outcomes.

  9. Multitasking and aging: do older adults benefit from performing a highly practiced task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip A; Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Voss, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The present study examined the effect of training on age differences in performing a highly practiced task using the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm (Pashler, 1984, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10, 358-377). Earlier training studies have concentrated on tasks that are not already overlearned. The present question of interest is whether task dual-task integration will be more efficient when single-task performance is approaching asymptotic levels. Task 1 was red/green signal discrimination (green = "go" and red = "wait"; analogous to pedestrian signals) and Task 2 was tone discrimination (white noise vs. a horn "honk"; analogous to traffic sound). The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between Task 1 and Task 2 was varied (50, 150, 600, and 1000 ms). All individuals participated in eight sessions spread over 8 weeks (one session per week). Participants completed a dual-task pretest (Week 1), followed by 6 weeks of single-task testing (Weeks 2-7), followed by a dual-task posttest (Week 8). Although older adults showed larger overall dual-task costs (i.e., PRP effects), they were able to reduce the costs with practice as much as younger adults. However, even when training on Task 1 results in asymptotic performance, this still did not lead to an appreciable reduction in dual-task costs. Also, older adults, but not younger adults, responded more rapidly to green stimuli than to red stimuli in the Task 1 training latency data. The authors confirmed this green/go bias using diffusion modeling, which takes into account response time and error rates at the same time. This green/go bias is potentially dangerous at crosswalks, especially when combined with large dual-task interference, and might contribute to the high rate of crosswalk accidents in the elderly.

  10. High treatment burden in adults with cystic fibrosis: challenges to disease self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Gregory S; Sellers, Deborah E; Robinson, Walter M

    2009-03-01

    More aggressive management of cystic fibrosis (CF), along with the use of new therapies, has led to increasing survival. Thus, the recommended daily treatment regimens for most CF adults are complex and time consuming. In the Project on Adult Care in CF (PAC-CF), an ongoing longitudinal study of CF adults, we assessed self-reported daily treatment activities and perceived treatment burden as measured by the CF Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R), a disease-specific quality of life measure. Among the 204 respondents, the median number of daily therapies reported was 7 (IQR 5-9) and the mean reported time spent on treatment activities was 108 minutes per day (SD 58 min). Respondents reported a median of 3 inhaled and 3 oral therapies on the day prior to the survey. Only 49% reported performing airway clearance (ACT) on that day. There were no differences in the number of medications or the time to complete therapies based on gender, age or FEV1. The mean CFQ-R treatment burden domain score was 52.3 (SD 22.1), with no significant differences in the treatment burden based on age or FEV1. In a multivariable model controlling for age, gender, and FEV1, using 2 or more nebulized medications and performing ACT for >or=30 min were significantly associated with increased treatment burden. The level of daily treatment activity is high for CF adults regardless of age or disease severity. Increasing number of nebulized therapies and increased ACT time, but not gender, age, or pulmonary function, are associated with higher perceived treatment burden. Efforts to assess the effects of high treatment burden on outcomes such as quality of life are warranted.

  11. Viabilidad fiscal en países de mercados emergentes con un enfoque en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Díaz Alvarado; Alejandro Izquierdo; Ugo Panizza

    2004-01-01

    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo se revisa la obra publicada recientemente sobre la viabilidad fiscal, con acento especial en los países de mercados emergentes. Se tratan los elementos principales que distinguen a los países de mercados emergentes de los países industrializados, y luego se analiza la manera en que los modelos probabilísticos pueden ayudar a evaluar la viabilidad fiscal en un entorno incierto. En base a este análisis, el trabajo emplea a Ecuador para il...

  12. ¿Cuándo los países aumentan sus exportaciones les va mejor?

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Comparando las exportaciones por habitante de diferentes países con los índices HDI (Human Development Index) y el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) por habitante, obtenidos para los años 1990 y 1998, es posible establecer que los países a medida que incrementan sus exportaciones totales y por habitante también mejoran en sus índices de bienestar de la población, lo que es un fiel indicativo que la calidad de vida de sus habitantes ha mejorado. Así mismo, se pudo comprobar que los países que dismi...

  13. La tecnología y los países en desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Rey Romero

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las potencias - Los EE.UU. y la U.R.S.S. - Y los países industrializados avanzan, ampliando la brecha económica, mientras los países en desarrollo, en particular los NPI, incrementan su capacidad tecnológica, mediante la adecuada combinación de sus recursos. Los políticos internacionales en financiación, comercio y tecnología determinan la división mundial entre países pobres y ricos.

  14. A High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Results in Weight Loss among Adults at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Edelstein, Sharon L; Walford, Geoffrey; Boyko, Edward J; Horton, Edward S; Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Knowler, William C; Montez, Maria G; Temprosa, Marinella; Hoskin, Mary; Rother, Kristina I; Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-09-27

    Background: Weight loss is a key factor in reducing diabetes risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a completed clinical trial that randomly assigned individuals at high risk of diabetes to a placebo (PLBO), metformin (MET), or intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) group, which included physical activity (PA) and reduced dietary fat intake.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between diet and weight at baseline and to identify specific dietary factors that predicted weight loss among DPP participants.Methods: Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The associations between intakes of macronutrients and various food groups and body weight among DPP participants at baseline were assessed by linear regression, adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, sex, calorie intake, and PA. Models that predicted weight loss at year 1 were adjusted for baseline weight, change in calorie intake, and change in PA and stratified by treatment allocation (MET, ILS, and PLBO). All results are presented as estimates ± SEs.Results: A total of 3234 participants were enrolled in the DPP; 2924 had completed dietary data (67.5% women; mean age: 50.6 ± 10.7 y). Adjusted for calorie intake, baseline weight was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake (-1.14 ± 0.18 kg body weight/100 kcal carbohydrate, P fat (1.25 ± 0.21 kg/100 kcal, P fat (1.96 ± 0.46 kg/100 kcal, P loss after 1 y was associated with increases in carbohydrate intake, specifically dietary fiber, and decreases in total fat and saturated fat intake.Conclusions: Higher carbohydrate consumption among DPP participants, specifically high-fiber carbohydrates, and lower total and saturated fat intake best predicted weight loss when adjusted for changes in calorie intake. Our results support the benefits of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet in the context of overall calorie reduction leading to weight loss, which may prevent diabetes in high-risk individuals. This trial was registered at

  15. Reaffirming normal: the high risk of pathologizing healthy adults when interpreting the MMPI-2-RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, Anthony P; Lammy, Andrew B; Perle, Jonathan G; Martin, Phillip K; Grote, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to determine the proportion of the normal population expected to have scale elevations on the MMPI-2-RF when multiple scores are interpreted. Results showed that when all 40 MMPI-2-RF scales are simultaneously considered, approximately 70% of normal adults are likely to have at least one scale elevation at or above 65 T, and as many as 20% will have five or more elevated scales. When the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales are under consideration, 34% of normal adults have at least one elevated score. Interpretation of the Specific Problem Scales and Personality Psychopathology Five Scales--Revised also yielded higher than expected rates of significant scores, with as many as one in four normal adults possibly being miscategorized as having features of a personality disorder by the latter scales. These findings are consistent with the growing literature on rates of apparently abnormal scores in the normal population due to multiple score interpretation. Findings are discussed in relation to clinical assessment, as well as in response to recent work suggesting that the MMPI-2-RF's multiscale composition does not contribute to high rates of elevated scores.

  16. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisinger Christa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65 and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65, while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73. In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01 and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03 values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a

  17. Women's scores on the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS/SES): Gender similarities and differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, D.; Janssen, E.; Graham, C.; Vorst, H.C.M.; Wicherts, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS/SES) assess individual propensities to become sexually aroused and to inhibit arousal. Prior analyses of men’s SIS/SES data (Janssen, Vorst, Finn, & Bancroft, 2002a) yielded one excitation factor (SES) and two inhibitory factors (SIS1/Threat of Per

  18. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J.; Choquet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  19. 75 FR 74091 - Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Pamela S. Pope, Human Resources Services Division (NAH), National Archives... Board shall review the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor and... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board; Members AGENCY:...

  20. 75 FR 6729 - Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Pamela S. Pope, Human Resources Services Division (NAH), National Archives... Board shall review the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor and... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board; Members AGENCY:...

  1. Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is associated with low socioeconomic status (SES) : A cross-sectional reference study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, Inge E.; Janse, Ineke C.; van der Zee, Hessel H.; Nijsten, Tamar; Boer, Jurr; Horvath, Barbara; Prens, Errol P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic debilitating disease, whereby school attendance and employment can be disturbed. Objective: We sought to determine the socioeconomic status (SES) in patients with HS relative to other dermatologic patients, and whether specific clinical HS

  2. Minimal second language exposure, SES, and early word comprehension: New evidence from a direct assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanda, Stephanie; Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Although the extant literature provides robust evidence of the influence of language exposure and socioeconomic status (SES) on language acquisition, it is unknown how sensitive the early receptive vocabulary system is to these factors. The current study investigates effects of minimal second language exposure and SES on the comprehension vocabulary of 16-month-old children in the language in which they receive the greatest exposure. Study 1 revealed minimal second language exposure and SES exert significant and independent effects on a direct measure of vocabulary comprehension in English-dominant and English monolingual children (N = 72). In Study 2, we replicated the effect of minimal second language exposure in Spanish-dominant and Spanish monolingual children (N = 86), however no effect of SES on vocabulary was obtained. Our results emphasize the sensitivity of the language system to minimal changes in the environment in early development.

  3. Prevalence of and factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure in Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure among adults in Brazilian state capitals. METHODS The study uses data from Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel – Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases by Telephone Survey collected in 2013. Prevalence rates and their respective 95% confidence intervals by gender were estimated according to sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, reported noncommunicable diseases and self-rated health status. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to identify variables associated with self-reported high blood pressure with α < 0.05. RESULTS Prevalence of self-reported high blood pressure among adults living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District was 24.1%. The following variables were associated with self-reported high blood pressure: age group, taking 18-24 as reference (all age groups presented increased risk – from 25-34 years [OR = 2.6; 95%CI 2.0–3.4] up to 65 years or more [OR = 28.1; 95%CI 21.7–36.4]; low education level (9 to 11 years of study [OR = 0.8; 95%CI 0.7–0.9] and 12 years or more [OR = 0.6; 95%CI 0.6–0.7]; Black race or skin color (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1–1.5; being a former smoker (OR = 1.2; 95%CI 1.1–1.3; obesity (OR = 2.7; 95%CI 2.4–3.0; diabetes (OR = 2.9; 95%CI 2.5–3.5%, and high cholesterol (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.8–2.2. CONCLUSIONS Approximately one quarter of the adult population living in Brazilian state capitals reported having high blood pressure. Information from Vigitel is useful to monitor high blood pressure and identity its associated factors, supporting public policies for health promotion, surveillance and care.

  4. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  5. Gender, childhood and adult socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability among Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yaqin; Wang, Jian; Nicholas, Stephen

    2017-09-02

    Gender difference and life-course socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability may exist among older adults. However, the association is less well understood among Chinese older population. The objective is to provide empirical evidences on this issue by exploring the association between gender, childhood and adult socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability. Data from the 2013 wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was utilized. Functional disability was assessed by the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by birthplace, father's education and occupation. Adult SES was measured in terms of education and household income. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to assess the association between gender, childhood and adult SES and functional disability. Based on a sample of 18,448 older adults aged 45 years old and above, our results showed that the prevalence of ADL and IADL disability was higher among women than men, but gender difference disappeared after adult SES and adult health were controlled. Harsh conditions during childhood were associated with functional disability but in multivariate analyses only father's education was associated with IADL disability (OR for no education = 1.198; 95% CI = 1.062-1.353). Current SES such as higher education and good economic situation are protective factors of functional disability. Childhood and adult SES were both related to functional disability among older adults. Our findings highlight the need for policies and programs aimed at decreasing social inequalities during childhood and early adulthood, which could reduce socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability in later life.

  6. Possible interrelation between the lead time of precursory seismic electric signals (SES and geodynamics in Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dologlou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismicity of the last 15 years in the Aegean Sea revealed that earthquakes (Mw > 5 with epicentres falling within the Sporades basin and the confined area north of Samos island were preceded by electric seismic signals (SES with a remarkably long lead time. A possible explanation of this behaviour by means of specific tectonics and geodynamics which characterise these two regions, such as a significant small crustal thickness and a high heat flow rate, has been attempted. New data seem to strengthen the above hypothesis.

  7. Poor sleep is highly associated with house dust mite allergic rhinitis in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Damien; Bonnefoy, Bénédicte; Pigearias, Bernard; de La Giclais, Bertrand; Chartier, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders are often underreported to physicians by patients with allergies. This study aimed to characterize the sleep disorders associated with respiratory allergy to house dust mites (HDM) at the time of initiation of sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) in routine clinical practice. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted between November 2014 and March 2015 at 189 French trial sites and included 1750 participants suffering from HDM allergy who were initiating SLIT. Participants aged less than 5 years old and those who had previously started an allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for HDM allergy were not enrolled in the study. Sleep disorders were assessed by self-administered questionnaires: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and a modified version of the Hotel Dieu-42 (HD-42) sleep disorder questionnaire. Logistic regression models adjusted for obesity, smoking status, asthma control and nasal obstruction were used to study the relationship between allergic rhinitis (AR) classification and sleep disorders/complaints. Of the 1786 participants enrolled, 1750 (907 adults and 843 children) composed the analysis population. The majority of participants (73.5% of adults and 65.8% of children) reported that their sleep disorders had prompted them to consult their physician. The most commonly observed sleep complaints were poor-quality sleep (50.3% of adults and 37.3% of children), snoring (48.1 and 41.4%, respectively) and nocturnal awakening (37.6 and 28.2%, respectively). Difficulties falling asleep were reported by 27.0% of adults and 24.7% of children. Adults and children suffering from severe persistent AR experienced sleep complaints significantly more often than participants with intermittent or mild persistent AR. This study highlights the high frequency of sleep disorders and their significant impact on patients with AR induced by HDM, in particular when AR is persistent and severe

  8. Executive functions and consumption of fruits/ vegetables and high saturated fat foods in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Executive functions play a critical role in regulating eating behaviors and have been shown to be associated with overeating which over time can result in overweight and obesity. There has been a paucity of research examining the associations among healthy dietary behaviors and executive functions utilizing behavioral rating scales of executive functioning. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations among fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of foods high in saturated fat, and executive functions using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version. A total of 240 university students completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version, the 26-Item Eating Attitudes Test, and the Diet subscale of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with two separate models in which fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat intake were the outcomes. Demographic variables, body mass index, and eating styles were controlled for in the analysis. Better initiation skills were associated with greater intake of fruits and vegetables in the last 7 days (standardized beta = -0.17; p fruit and vegetable consumption are distinct from those that predict avoidance of foods high in saturated fat. Future research should investigate whether continued skill enhancement in initiation and inhibition following standard behavioral interventions improves long-term maintenance of weight loss.

  9. High-resolution CT of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection in adult CF patients: diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, Sinead; Lavelle, Lisa; Kilcoyne, Aoife; McCarthy, Colin; Dodd, Jonathan D. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); DeJong, Pim A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles G. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine and National Referral Centre for Adult Cystic Fibrosis, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-12-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection (NTM) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Twenty-seven CF patients with sputum-culture-proven NTM (NTM+) underwent HRCT. An age, gender and spirometrically matched group of 27 CF patients without NTM (NTM-) was included as controls. Images were randomly and blindly analysed by two readers in consensus and scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Significant differences were seen between NTM (+) and NTM (-) patients in the severity of the bronchiectasis subscore [45 % (1.8/4) vs. 35 % (1.4/4), P = 0.029], collapse/consolidation subscore [33 % (1.3/3) vs. 15 % (0.6/3)], tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules subscore [43 % (1.7/3) vs. 25 % (1.0/3), P = 0.002] and the total CT score [56 % (18.4/33) vs. 46 % (15.2/33), P = 0.002]. Binary logistic regression revealed BMI, peribronchial thickening, collapse/consolidation and tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules to be predictors of NTM status (R{sup 2} = 0.43). Receiver-operator curve analysis of the regression model showed an area under the curve of 0.89, P < 0.0001. In adults with CF, seven or more bronchopulmonary segments showing tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules on HRCT is highly suggestive of NTM colonisation. (orig.)

  10. Social relationships in young adults at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robustelli, Briana L; Newberry, Raeana E; Whisman, Mark A; Mittal, Vijay A

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have smaller social networks and less satisfying relationships. However, much is still unknown about the typical quantity and quality of social relationships in young adults during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period. Investigating these relationships holds significant importance for improving understanding of etiological processes, mapping the social environment, and highlighting treatment targets in a critical period. A total of 85 participants (44 UHR and 41 healthy controls) completed measures examining the participants' social relationships, social support, and loneliness. Mean differences between the UHR and healthy control participants and associations between social relationships and symptoms and functioning were examined. Results indicated significant differences between groups on several indices. Specifically, the UHR youth reported fewer close friends, less diverse social networks, less perceived social support, poorer relationship quality with family and friends, and more loneliness. Notably, within the UHR group, being lonely and having fewer and worse quality relationships was associated with greater symptom severity and lower overall functioning. This study suggests that youth at high-risk of developing psychosis have fewer and poorer quality social relationships. Interventions that focus on increasing the quantity and quality of young adults' social networks may be beneficial for this population.

  11. Public library computer training for older adults to access high-quality Internet health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Bugg, Julie M

    2009-09-01

    An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at a state university. One hundred and thirty-one older adults aged 54-89 participated in the study between September 2007 and July 2008. Key findings include: a) participants had overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the training program; b) after learning about two NIH websites (http://nihseniorhealth.gov and http://medlineplus.gov) from the training, many participants started using these online resources to find high quality health and medical information and, further, to guide their decision-making regarding a health- or medically-related matter; and c) computer anxiety significantly decreased (p libraries, LIS academic programs, and other organizations interested in providing similar programs in their communities.

  12. Switching adolescent high-fat diet to adult control diet restores neurocognitive alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Boitard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al., 2014; Boitard et al., 2012; Boitard et al., 2015. Here, we assessed whether the effects of adolescent HF consumption on brain function are permanent or reversible. After adolescent exposure to HF, switching to a standard chow diet restored levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and normalized enhanced HPA axis reactivity, amygdala activity and avoidance memory. Therefore, while the adolescent period is highly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity, adult exposure to a standard diet appears sufficient to reverse alterations of brain function.

  13. Hypertension, abnormal cholesterol, and high body mass index among non-Hispanic Asian adults: United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yoon, Sung Sug; Chong, Yinong; Carroll, Margaret D

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hispanic Asian adults constituted 4.9% of the U.S. population in 2012, corresponding to 15.4 million people (2). This group primarily comprises persons of Chinese, Asian Indian, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese descent. The prevalence of hypertension (defined as having blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg or taking blood pressure-lowering medications) among non-Hispanic Asian adults aged 20 and over was 25.6%. As previously reported, this prevalence is similar to that of non-Hispanic white adults and Hispanic adults but lower than that of non-Hispanic black adults (3). Among non-Hispanic Asian adults, the prevalence of hypertension was higher among those who were older or had less education, similar to findings in U.S. adults overall (4,5). The prevalence of high total cholesterol (measured as cholesterol of at least 240 mg/dL) among non-Hispanic Asian adults was similar to that among adults of other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adults had a lower prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (measured as HDL less than 40 mg/dL) than Hispanic persons (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adult men were almost five times more likely than non-Hispanic Asian adult women to have low HDL cholesterol. While adult men in general are known to have a higher prevalence of low HDL cholesterol than adult women (7), the sex difference was larger than in other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). The prevalence of high BMI among non-Hispanic Asian adults (38.6%) was much lower than that previously reported for non-Hispanic white adults (66.7%), non-Hispanic black adults (76.7%), and Hispanic adults (78.8%) (8). BMI is widely used as a measure of body fat. However, at a given BMI level, body fat may vary by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. In particular, at a given BMI, Asian adults may have more body fat than white adults (9). Also, morbidity and mortality risk may be influenced by body composition and fat distribution in a manner that is

  14. Childhood socioeconomic status, adult socioeconomic status, and old-age health trajectories: Connecting early, middle, and late life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Zimmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper advances literature on earlier-life socioeconomic status (SES and later-life health in a number of ways, including conceptualizing later-life health as a developmental process and relying on objective rather than retrospective reports of childhood and adult SES and health. Methods: Data are from the Utah Population Database (N=75,019, which contains variables from Medicare claims, birth and death certificates, and genealogical records. The morbidity measure uses the Charlson Comorbidity Index. SES is based on converting occupation to Nam-Powers scores and then dividing these scores into quartiles plus farmers. Analyses are conducted in two steps. Group-based trajectory modeling estimates patterns of morbidity and survival and divides the sample into sex-specific groups ordered from least to most healthy. Multilevel ordered logistic regression incorporating Heckman selection predicts group trajectory membership by SES in adulthood conditioned upon childhood SES. Results: Higher SES in childhood is associated with membership in groups that have more favorable morbidity trajectories and survival probabilities. SES in adulthood has additive impact, especially for females. For example, if a female is characterized as being in the lowest SES quartile during childhood, her probability of having the most favorable health trajectory improves from 0.12 to 0.17 as her adult SES increases from the lowest to highest quartile. Conclusions: Results suggest both childhood and adult SES independently impact upon old-age health trajectories.

  15. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction for adult surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Meyhoff, Christian S; Jørgensen, Lars N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Available evidence on the effects of a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) of 60% to 90% compared with a routine fraction of inspired oxygen of 30% to 40%, during anaesthesia and surgery, on mortality and surgical site infection has been inconclusive. Previous trials and meta......-analyses have led to different conclusions on whether a high fraction of supplemental inspired oxygen during anaesthesia may decrease or increase mortality and surgical site infections in surgical patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of an FIO2 equal to or greater than 60% compared...... with a control FIO2 at or below 40% in the perioperative setting in terms of mortality, surgical site infection, respiratory insufficiency, serious adverse events and length of stay during the index admission for adult surgical patients.We looked at various outcomes, conducted subgroup and sensitivity analyses...

  17. Lipoid pneumonia in adults: findings on high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology]. E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com; Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Araujo Neto, Cesar [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Irion, Klaus L. [The Cardiothoracic Centre NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Rodrigues, Rosana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF); Mancano, Alexandre Dias [Hospital Regional de Taguatinga, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Capone, Domenico [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Fialho, Suzane Mansur [Centro Nuclear da Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Carolina Althoff [University of Ottawa (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at describing the findings on high-resolution computed tomography in patients with exogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to mineral oil aspiration. Materials and methods: Eight adult patients - four men and four women - with mean age of 69.4 years were studied. All of the patients were users of mineral oil for treating intestinal constipation. High-resolution computed tomography studies of these patients were blindly evaluated by two radiologists. Results: Air-space consolidation with areas of fat density and crazy paving pattern were the most frequent findings. The lesions were bilateral in six cases and unilateral in two. Conclusion: Air-space consolidation with areas of fat density, associated with a clinical history of mineral oil ingestion virtually indicates a diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia. (author)

  18. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T is associated with cognitive decline in older adults at high cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijsman, Liselotte W; de Craen, Anton JM; Trompet, Stella

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Cardiac troponin T (cTnT), measured with a high-sensitivity (hs) assay, is associated with cognitive decline, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We investigated the association of hs-cTnT with cognitive function and decline, and studied whether this association was independent....... Participants with pre-existent advanced clinical heart failure were excluded. Hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP obtained after 6 months of follow-up were related with cognitive function, tested repeatedly during a mean follow-up of 3.2 years. Participants with higher hs-cTnT performed worse at baseline on Stroop test...... diseases risk factors or Apolipoprotein E genotype. Further adjusting for NT-proBNP levels revealed the same results. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of hs-cTnT associate with worse cognitive function and steeper cognitive decline in older adults independent of cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and NT-proBNP....

  19. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker S.C. Poston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.

  20. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  1. Adaptive modulation of adult brain gray and white matter to high altitude: structural MRI studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxing Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate brain structural alterations in adult immigrants who adapted to high altitude (HA. Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM volumes, surface-based analysis of cortical thickness, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA based on MRI images were conducted on 16 adults (20-22 years who immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300-4400 m for 2 years. They had no chronic mountain sickness. Control group consisted of 16 matched sea level subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was also conducted. HA immigrants showed significantly decreased GM volumes in the right postcentral gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus, and increased GM volumes in the right middle frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior and middle temporal gyri, bilateral inferior ventral pons, and right cerebellum crus1. While there was some divergence in the left hemisphere, surface-based patterns of GM changes in the right hemisphere resembled those seen for VBM analysis. FA changes were observed in multiple WM tracts. HA immigrants showed significant impairment in pulmonary function, increase in reaction time, and deficit in mental rotation. Parahippocampal and middle frontal GM volumes correlated with vital capacity. Superior frontal GM volume correlated with mental rotation and postcentral GM correlated with reaction time. Paracentral lobule and frontal FA correlated with mental rotation reaction time. There might be structural modifications occurred in the adult immigrants during adaptation to HA. The changes in GM may be related to impaired respiratory function and psychological deficits.

  2. Metacognition, metamemory, and mindreading in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M; Lind, Sophie E

    2014-08-01

    Metacognition refers to cognition about cognition and encompasses both knowledge of cognitive processes and the ability to monitor and control one's own cognitions. The current study aimed to establish whether metacognition is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). According to some theories, the ability to represent one's own mental states (an aspect of metacognition) relies on the same mechanism as the ability to represent others' mental states ("mindreading"). Given numerous studies have shown mindreading is impaired in ASD, there is good reason to predict concurrent impairments in metacognition. Metacognition is most commonly explored in the context of memory, often by assessing people's ability to monitor their memory processes. The current study addressed the question of whether people with ASD have difficulty monitoring the contents of their memory (alongside impaired mindreading). Eighteen intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 18 IQ- and age-matched neurotypical adults participated. Metamemory monitoring ability and mindreading ability were assessed by using a feeling-of-knowing task and the "animations" task, respectively. Participants also completed a self-report measure of metacognitive ability. In addition to showing impaired mindreading, participants with ASD made significantly less accurate feeling-of-knowing judgments than neurotypical adults, suggesting that metamemory monitoring (an aspect of metacognition) was impaired. Conversely, participants with ASD self-reported superior metacognitive abilities compared with those reported by neurotypical participants. This study provides evidence that individuals with ASD have metamemory monitoring impairments. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings for our current understanding of metacognition in ASD and typical development are discussed. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Eye care utilization by older adults in low, middle, and high income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of visual impairment increases dramatically with age and therefore older adults should have their eyes examined at least every 1 to 2 years. Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to determine the frequency that older people had their eyes examined. We also examined factors associated with having a recent eye exam. Methods The World Health Surveys were conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2002-2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Participants 60 years and older from 52 countries (n = 35,839 were asked "When was the last time you had your eyes examined by a medical professional?". The income status of countries was estimated using gross national income per capita data from 2003 from the World Bank website. Prevalence estimates were adjusted to account for the complex sample design. Results Overall, only 18% (95% CI 17, 19 of older adults had an eye exam in the last year. The rate of an eye exam in the last year in low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries was 10%, 24%, 22%, and 37% respectively. Factors associated with having an eye exam in the last year included older age, female gender, more education, urban residence, greater wealth, worse self-reported health, having diabetes, and wearing glasses or contact lenses (p Conclusions Given that older adults often suffer from age-related but treatable conditions, they should be seen on a regular basis to prevent visual impairment and its disabling consequences.

  4. Teacher Implementation of "Bring Your Own Device" at a Suburban High School Serving High SES Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    As students gain access to personally-owned Mobile Communication Devices (MCDs), schools have begun to embrace MCDs as mobile-learning (m-learning) teaching and learning tools. A research gap currently exists for the innovation of m-learning with student-owned devices, which this study attempts to fill by answering the following Research Question:…

  5. Physical fitness and health indices in children, adolescents and adults with high or low motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan G; Tish Doyle-Baker, P K

    2008-04-01

    The overall purpose of the study was to examine if individuals with low motor competence achieve age-adequate fitness and health. A group of 149 children, adolescents, and adults with low or high motor competence participated in motor, fitness, and health assessments. Individuals with low motor competence did not differ on their basic physiological health parameters, but they had less optimal levels of overall health and fitness indices than those with high motor competence. As a function of age, musculoskeletal fitness was significantly compromised for the low motor competence group. The metabolic indices suggested that the low motor competence group had significantly higher BMI's compared to the high motor competence group. Motor skills and static balance were significant predictors of the BMI. Exercise intensity differed between children in the low and high motor competence group. The findings suggest that individuals with low motor competence have compromised health-related fitness. In order to discriminate between individuals with high and low motor competence, fitness assessment should include at least back extension, curl ups, and sit and reach. In addition, health-related fitness measurements such as BMI, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and bone mineral density are also recommended.

  6. Cues of High and Low Body Weight Negatively Influence Adults' Perceptions and Ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Volk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by presenting adults with normal faces as well as faces that were digitally altered to display high or low body weight. Cues of abnormal body weight significantly, and negatively, influenced adults’ ratings of adoption preference, health, and cuteness. Effect sizes were larger for cues of high body weight. Thus, infant and child facial cues of abnormal body weight may represent a relative risk factor to the quality of adult care obtained by children with abnormal body weight.

  7. Prosody recognition in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: from psychoacoustics to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globerson, Eitan; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat; Golan, Ofer

    2015-04-01

    Prosody is an important tool of human communication, carrying both affective and pragmatic messages in speech. Prosody recognition relies on processing of acoustic cues, such as the fundamental frequency of the voice signal, and their interpretation according to acquired socioemotional scripts. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficiencies in affective prosody recognition. These deficiencies have been mostly associated with general difficulties in emotion recognition. The current study explored an additional association between affective prosody recognition in ASD and auditory perceptual abilities. Twenty high-functioning male adults with ASD and 32 typically developing male adults, matched on age and verbal abilities undertook a battery of auditory tasks. These included affective and pragmatic prosody recognition tasks, two psychoacoustic tasks (pitch direction recognition and pitch discrimination), and a facial emotion recognition task, representing nonvocal emotion recognition. Compared with controls, the ASD group demonstrated poorer performance on both vocal and facial emotion recognition, but not on pragmatic prosody recognition or on any of the psychoacoustic tasks. Both groups showed strong associations between psychoacoustic abilities and prosody recognition, both affective and pragmatic, although these were more pronounced in the ASD group. Facial emotion recognition predicted vocal emotion recognition in the ASD group only. These findings suggest that auditory perceptual abilities, alongside general emotion recognition abilities, play a significant role in affective prosody recognition in ASD.

  8. High Self-Perceived Stress and Poor Coping in Intellectually Able Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-01-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population)…

  9. Different profiles of immune reconstitution in children and adults with HIV-infection after highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Manuel

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in characterizing the immune recovery of HIV-1-infected people have highlighted the importance of the thymus for peripheral T-cell diversity and function. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in immune reconstitution profiles after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART between HIV-children and adults. Methods HIV patients were grouped according to their previous clinical and immunological status: 9 HIV-Reconstituting-adults (HIV-Rec-adults and 10 HIV-Reconstituting-children (HIV-Rec-children on HAART with viral load (VL ≤400 copies/ml and CD4+ ≥500 cells/μL at least during 6 months before the study and CD4+ ≤300 cells/μL anytime before. Fifteen healthy-adults and 20 healthy-children (control subjects were used to calculate Z-score values to unify value scales between children and adults to make them comparable. Results HIV-Rec-children had higher T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC and lower interleukin (IL-7 levels than HIV-Rec-adults (p + (CD4+CD45RA hi+CD27+, naïve CD8+ (CD8+CD45RA hi+CD27+, and memory CD8+ (CD8+CD45RO+ cells/μl than HIV-Rec-adults, but similar memory CD4+ (CD4+CD45RO+ counts. HIV-Rec-children had lower naïve CD8+ Z-score values than HIV-Rec-adults (p = 0.05. Conclusion Our data suggest that HIV-Rec-children had better thymic function than HIV-Rec-adults and this fact affects the peripheral T-cell subsets. Thus, T-cell recovery after HAART in HIV-Rec-adults could be the consequence of antigen-independent peripheral T-cell expansion while in HIV-Rec-children thymic output could play a predominant role in immune reconstitution.

  10. ASSOCIATION OF CARIES EXPERIENCE WITH SOCIAL AND BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS AMONG ADULTS OF DIFFERENT AGES FROM IASI COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana BALAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to determine the possible occurrence of SES disparity in caries experience (DMFT in young adult and adult samples, and to establish whether differences in oral hygiene behaviors or preven‐ tive attitude can cause this disparity. Materials and method: A cross‐sectional study, conducted over 10 months in 2011, involved completion of a structured ques‐ tionnaire with information about the demographic profile, educational status, income, occupation, dental visits, rea‐ son of the visits, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, underlying systemic diseases, smoking. Oral health status was obtained through clinical examination, using the World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment form (Basic Oral Health Surveys, 1997. The examination was conducted by a single, trained, calibrated examiner (dentist. Results: The study was conducted on a sample group formed of 327 young adults (229 females and 98 males; mean age: 21.99 years, SD: 2.30 with ages between 18‐26 years, and on 161 adults (97 females and 64 males; mean age: 34.96 years, SD: 5.59 with ages between 27‐ 45 years. The prevalence of dental caries in young adults was 96.3% (females: 72.7%, males: 27.3%. The mean value of DMFT/S for females and males was 8.24 (4.99/13.67 (8.86, and 7.02 (6.15/11.77 (10.70, respectively. Signifi‐ cant differences were observed in caries prevalence and experience between sexes (p<0.05. The prevalence of den‐ tal caries in adults was 97.5% (females: 61.8%, males: 38.2%. The mean value of DMFT/S for females and males was 9.44 (4.32/16.86 (10.40 and 8.45 (5.19/15.64 (12.02, respectively. No significant difference was noticed in the prevalence between sexes (p<0.05. The authors found out that the mean values of caries experience (DMF and of decayed and missing components have a significant incre‐ ase in subjects with medium and low SES levels, compara‐ tively with those with a high SES level. Conclusions

  11. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congrong Wang

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012.From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants' body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test.The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period.This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial.

  12. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Huijuan; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Li, Ming; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Haibing; Yu, Haoyong; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Fang; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012. Methods From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants’ body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period. Conclusion This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial. PMID:25047241

  13. Advances in haplo-identical stem cell transplantation in adults with high-risk hematological malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; J; Ricci; Jeffrey; A; Medin; Ronan; S; Foley

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is a life-saving procedure for adults and children that have high-risk or relapsed hematological malignancies. Incremental advances in the procedure, as well as expanded sources of donor hematopoietic cell grafts have significantly improved overall rates of success. Yet, the outcomes for patients for whom suitable donors cannot be found remain a significant limitation. These patients may benefit from a hematopoietic cell transplant wherein a relative donor is fully haplotype mismatched. Previously this procedure was limited by graft rejection, lethal graft-versus-host disease, and increased treatmentrelated toxicity. Recent approaches in haplo-identical transplantation have demonstrated significantly improved outcomes. Based on years of incremental preclinical research into this unique form of bone marrow transplant, a range of approaches have now been studied in patients in relatively large phase Ⅱ trials that will be summarized in this review.

  14. Understanding advanced theory of mind and empathy in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that higher functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have specific deficits in advanced but not simple theory of mind (ToM), yet the questionable ecological validity of some tasks reduces the strength of this assumption. The present study employed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT), which uses video vignettes to assess comprehension of subtle conversational inferences (sarcasm, lies/deception). Given the proposed relationships between advanced ToM and cognitive and affective empathy, these associations were also investigated. As expected, the high-functioning adults with ASDs demonstrated specific deficits in comprehending the beliefs, intentions, and meaning of nonliteral expressions. They also had significantly lower cognitive and affective empathy. Cognitive empathy was related to ToM and group membership whereas affective empathy was only related to group membership.

  15. Metacognition of agency and theory of mind in adults with high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalla, Tiziana; Miele, David; Leboyer, Marion; Metcalfe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    We investigated metacognition of agency in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS) using a computer task in which participants moved the mouse to get the cursor to touch the downward moving X's and avoid the O's. They were then asked to make judgments of performance and judgments of agency. Objective control was either undistorted, or distorted by adding turbulence (i.e., random noise) or a time Lag between the mouse and cursor movements. Participants with HFA/AS used sensorimotor cues available in the turbulence and lag conditions to a lesser extent than control participants in making their judgments of agency. Furthermore, the failure to use these internal diagnostic cues to their own agency was correlated with decrements in a theory of mind task. These findings suggest that a reduced sensitivity to veridical internal cues about the sense of agency is related to mentalizing impairments in autism.

  16. Solar Spectral Irradiance at 782 nm as Measured by the SES Sensor Onboard Picard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Irbah, A.; Cessateur, G.; Bekki, S.; Damé, L.; Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.

    2016-04-01

    Picard is a satellite dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of the total and solar spectral irradiance, the solar diameter, the solar shape, and to the Sun's interior through the methods of helioseismology. The satellite was launched on June 15, 2010, and pursued its data acquisitions until March 2014. A Sun Ecartometry Sensor (SES) was developed to provide the stringent pointing requirements of the satellite. The SES sensor produced an image of the Sun at 782 ± 2.5 nm. From the SES data, we obtained a new time series of the solar spectral irradiance at 782 nm from 2010 to 2014. During this period of Solar Cycle 24, the amplitude of the changes has been of the order of ± 0.08 %, corresponding to a range of about 2× 10^{-3} W m^{-2} nm^{-1}. SES observations provided a qualitatively consistent evolution of the solar spectral irradiance variability at 782 nm. SES data show similar amplitude variations with the semi-empirical model Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstruction for the Satellite era (SATIRE-S), whereas the Spectral Irradiance Monitor instrument (SIM) onboard the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment satellite (SORCE) highlights higher amplitudes.

  17. Postnatal Growth Patterns in a Chilean Cohort: The Role of SES and Family Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Kang Sim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined how family environmental characteristics served as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and infant growth in a cohort of Chilean infants. Methods. We studied 999 infants, born between 1991 and 1996, from a longitudinal cohort which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial. SES (Graffar Index, the Life Experiences Survey, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME were assessed in infancy. Using path analysis, we assessed the relationships between the social factors, home environment, and infant growth. Results. During the first year, weight and length gain averaged 540 grams/month and 6.5 cm/month, respectively. In the path analysis model for weight gain, higher SES and a better physical environment were positively related to higher maternal warmth, which in turn was associated with higher average weight gain. Higher SES was directly related to higher average length gain. Conclusions. In our cohort, a direct relationship between SES and length gain developed during infancy. Higher SES was indirectly related to infant weight gain through the home environment and maternal warmth. As the fastest growing infants are at risk for later obesity, new strategies are needed to encourage optimal rather than maximal growth.

  18. The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B; Gorski, Sharon M

    2014-05-26

    Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that pro-Dcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo.

  19. Reproductive health education and sexual risk among high-risk female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.

  20. Alcohol Use, Depression, and High-Risk Occupations Among Young Adults in the Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polshkova, Svitlana; Chaban, Oleg; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-06-06

    This study examined alcohol consumption in relation to anxiety, depression, and involvement with high risk occupations (HRO; e.g., coal miners), among young adults in the Ukraine (aged 18-25) (N = 192; 60.9% male; 100% Caucasian). Participants were grouped on the basis of drinking status: (1) current drinkers (CDs; n = 132) or (2) nondrinkers (NDs; n = 60). Questionnaires assessed frequency of alcohol use, motives for drinking, problem identification, as well as anxiety and depression (i.e., Hamilton scales). Bivariate analyses showed that CDs were more likely than NDs to be single, have a HRO, and have greater anxiety and depression; for example, 91.7% of CDs had a HRO as compared to 56.7% of NDs. Drinking status was not significantly related to age or gender. Among CDs, common motives for use included: to reduce anxiety and fears (60.6%), because my friends use alcohol (75.0%), to fight stress (78.8%), and to increase self-esteem (64.4%). Among CDs, past month drinking days were: 25% 1-2 days, 37.9% 3-7 days, 25% 8-21 days, and 12.1% 22-30 days. Regarding problem identification, 29.5% reported not having a problem, 34.8% reported possibly having a problem, 21.9% reported having a problem but not needing help, and 13.6% reported having a problem/needing help. Young adults involved in HRO may be a particularly high risk population given increased likelihood of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Early intervention strategies that incorporate motivational interviewing approaches to address coping and social motives for use may be beneficial to address substance use and mental health problems.

  1. High pulse pressure and metabolic syndrome are associated with proteinuria in young adult women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome play causative roles in the increasing prevalence of proteinuria in the general population. However, in young adult women the clinical significance of incidentally discovered proteinuria and its association with metabolic syndrome are unclear. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for proteinuria in this population. Methods A total of 10,385 women aged 20 to 39 years who underwent health screenings were surveyed. Each patient was tested for proteinuria with a dipstick (−, ±, 1+, 2+, or 3+), and proteinuria was defined as 1+ or greater. Persistent proteinuria was established by confirming proteinuria in a subsequent test. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asia. Results The mean age was 28.9 ± 5.5 years, and the prevalence of persistent proteinuria was 1.0%. Among these subjects with persistent proteinuria, obesity and metabolic syndrome were found in 10.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome, as well as its components of hypertension, hyperglycemia, central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein levels, and high triglyceride levels, was closely related to the presence of proteinuria. In addition, a wide pulse pressure of ≥40 mmHg was another independent risk factor for proteinuria [odds ratio (OR) 3.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–11.91)]. This had an additive effect on metabolic syndrome in terms of predicting proteinuria. Even in subjects without metabolic syndrome, the influence of an increased pulse pressure was consistent (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.03–8.61). Conclusions Specific attention to proteinuria may be necessary in asymptomatic young women aged 20 to 39 years if they have metabolic syndrome or a wide pulse pressure. PMID:23433013

  2. SES Gradients Among Mexicans in the United States and in Mexico: A New Twist to the Hispanic Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Palloni, Alberto; Riosmena, Fernando; Wong, Rebeca

    2016-10-01

    Recent empirical findings have suggested the existence of a twist in the Hispanic paradox, in which Mexican and other Hispanic foreign-born migrants living in the United States experience shallower socioeconomic status (SES) health disparities than those in the U.S. In this article, we seek to replicate this finding and test conjectures that could explain this new observed phenomenon using objective indicators of adult health by educational attainment in several groups: (1) Mexican-born individuals living in Mexico and in the United States, (2) U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and (3) non-Hispanic American whites. Our analytical strategy improves upon previous research on three fronts. First, we derive four hypotheses from a general framework that has also been used to explain the standard Hispanic paradox. Second, we study biomarkers rather than self-reported health and related conditions. Third, we use a binational data platform that includes both Mexicans living in Mexico (Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006) and Mexican migrants to the United States (NHANES 1999-2010). We find steep education gradients among Mexicans living in Mexico's urban areas in five of six biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in the overall MetS score. Mexican migrants living in the United States experience similar patterns to Mexicans living in Mexico in glucose and obesity biomarkers. These results are inconsistent with previous findings, suggesting that Mexican migrants in the United States experience significantly attenuated health gradients relative to the non-Hispanic white U.S. Our empirical evidence also contradicts the idea that SES-health gradients in Mexico are shallower than those in the United States and could be invoked to explain shallower gradients among Mexicans living in the United States.

  3. Pneumococcal vaccination coverages among low-, intermediate-, and high-risk adults in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Corcoles, Angel; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga; Hospital, Imma; de Diego, Cinta; Satué, Eva; Bladé, Jordi; Ansa, Xabier; Guzmán, Jorge A; Salsench, Elisabet; Ramos, Francisca

    2016-11-01

    There is scarce data about pneumococcal vaccination coverages among adults in recent years. We investigated current pneumococcal vaccination coverages in Catalonia, Spain, with a cross-sectional population-based study including 2,033,465 individuals aged 50 y or older assigned to the Catalonian Health Institute at 01/01/2015 (date of survey). A previously validated institutional research clinical Database was used to classify study subjects by their vaccination status for both 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), to identify comorbidities and underlying conditions, and establish the risk stratum of each individual: High risk stratum: functional or anatomic asplenia, cochlear implants, CSF leaks, or immunocompromising conditions; medium risk stratum: immunocompetent persons with history of chronic cardiac or respiratory disease, liver disease, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism and/or smoking; low risk stratum: persons without high or medium risk conditions. Of the total 2,033,465 study population, an amount of 789,098 (38.8%) had received PPVS23, whereas 5031 (0.2%) had received PCV13. PPSV23 coverages increased largely with increasing age: 4.8% in 50-59 y vs 35.5% in 60-69 y vs 71.9% in 70-79 y vs 79.5% in 80 y or older; p < 0.001). PCV13 coverages also increased with age, although they were very low in all age groups. PPSV23 coverages were 59.2% in high risk stratum, 48.3% in medium risk stratum and 28.1% in low risk stratum (p < 0.001). For the PCV13, uptakes were 1.2%, 0.3% and 0.1% in high, medium and low stratum, respectively (p < 0.001). In conclusion, pneumococcal vaccination coverages in Catalonian adults are not optimal, being especially small for the PCV13 (even in high-risk subjects).

  4. The Impact of Childhood ADHD on Dropping out of High School in Urban Adolescents/Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampush, Joey W.; Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with high school dropout in urban adolescents with and without childhood ADHD. Method: In a longitudinal study, 49 adolescents/young adults with childhood ADHD and 44 controls who either dropped out or graduated from high school are included. Risk factors examined as potential…

  5. Illicit Drug Use, Smoking, and Drinking by America's High School Students, College Students, and Young Adults 1975-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    This report is the 11th in an annual series reporting the drug use and related attitudes of America's high school seniors and young adults. The findings, which cover the high school classes of 1975 through 1987, come from an ongoing national research and reporting program entitled "Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles…

  6. Fatty Acid de Novo Synthesis in Adult Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Offspring, and Adult Male Response to a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jennifer K; Han, Guang; Vega, Juan; Lee, Wai-Nang P; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2016-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with rapid catch-up growth leads to adult obesity and insulin resistance. We have previously shown that IUGR male rats demonstrated increased de novo fatty acid synthesis in the subcutaneous (SC) fat, but not the visceral fat, during the nursing period prior to the onset of obesity. Young IUGR females do not exhibit the same increase. We further hypothesized that in male IUGR offspring, de novo synthesis is a programmed intrinsic effect that persists to adulthood and does not suppress in response to a high fat diet. We measured fatty acid de novo synthesis in IUGR adult males (6 months) using deuterium-enriched drinking water as a stable isotope tracer, then further studied the response after consumption of an isocaloric high fat diet. Baseline de novo synthesis in adult females was also studied at age 9 months. Males demonstrated increased baseline de novo synthesis in both SC fat and visceral fat. Correspondingly, SC and visceral fat protein expression of lipogenic enzymes acetyl-coA carboxylase-α (ACCα) and fatty acid synthase were upregulated. After the isocaloric high fat diet, de novo synthesis was suppressed such that no differences remained between the two groups, although, IUGR SC fat demonstrated persistently increased lipogenic protein expression. In contrast, de novo synthesis among adult females is not impacted in IUGR. In conclusion, enhancement of male IUGR SC fat de novo synthesis appears to be an early consequence of metabolic programming, whereas enhancement in visceral fat appears to be a later consequence.

  7. How Japanese adults perceive memory change with age: middle-aged adults with memory performance as high as young adults evaluate their memory abilities as low as older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs.

  8. [Prevalence trends of high risk of mental disorders in the Spanish adult population: 2006-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra, Virginia

    To evaluate the prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity in the Spanish adult population and its changes between 2006 and 2012. Data from 47,905 participants obtained from the National Health Surveys in 2006 and 2012 were used. Mental health status was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire score. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity was 20.5% in 2012 and 21.3% in 2006. Using 2006 as the reference, the odds ratio (OR) for these problems in 2012 was 0.84 (0.79-0.89) in women and 1.10 (1.02-1.18) in men. In women, it decreased for all ages. In men, these ORs were 1.15 (1.04-1.27) in the aged 16-44 group, 1.23 (1.08-1.40) in the aged 45-64 group and 0.81 (0.68-0.96) in the aged ≥ 65 group. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity decreased except in males <65 years of age, who are more sensitive to the economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies on relationship of overweight and obesity with high blood pressure and high HCY in young and middle-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-dong YANG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlation between high blood pressure, high HCY and overweight as well as obesity in young and middle-aged adults by observing BMI and high HCY levels. Methods: To investigate BMI, blood pressure and HCY levels of 750 young and middle-aged adults, and to make statistical analysis according to the groups. Results: Proportion of overweight and obesity was 31.07% and 12.13% in 750 young and middle-aged adults. Proportion of overweight and obesity was higher in males than in females. (P<0.01. In total subjects, proportion of hypertension and high homocysteinemia were 17.07% and 9.73% , while proportion of hypertension and high homocysteinemia of overweight and obesity were 28.09% (91/324 and 19.75% (64/324, and they were significantly higher than the normal group (P<0.01. Blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and serum HCY levels were positively correlated with BMI (r=0.639,0.515,0.497,P<0.01. Conclusions: Over half Young and middle-aged adults, especially males, were overweight or obesity, high blood pressure and high HCY levels were correlated with BMI, high incidence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia HCY with overweight and obesity should be actively combat.

  10. SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A; Weisleder, Adriana

    2013-03-01

    This research revealed both similarities and striking differences in early language proficiency among infants from a broad range of advantaged and disadvantaged families. English-learning infants (n = 48) were followed longitudinally from 18 to 24 months, using real-time measures of spoken language processing. The first goal was to track developmental changes in processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary learning in this diverse sample. The second goal was to examine differences in these crucial aspects of early language development in relation to family socioeconomic status (SES). The most important findings were that significant disparities in vocabulary and language processing efficiency were already evident at 18 months between infants from higher- and lower-SES families, and by 24 months there was a 6-month gap between SES groups in processing skills critical to language development.

  11. ¿Cuando los países aumentan sus exportaciones les va mejor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Concha Velásquez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparando las exportaciones por habitante de diferentes países con los índices HDI (Human Development Index y el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB por habitante, obtenidos para los años 1990 y 1998, es posible establecer que los países a medida que incrementan sus exportaciones totales y por habitante también mejoran en sus índices de bienestar de la población, lo que es un fiel indicativo que la calidad de vida de sus habitantes ha mejorado. Así mismo, se pudo comprobar que los países que disminuyeron sus exportaciones por habitante también cayeron en los índices HDI y el PIB por habitante.

  12. Destino : educação – diferentes países, diferentes respostas

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    A série Destino: educação – diferentes países, diferentes respostas busca entender os desafios do acesso à educação de qualidade. Para isso, viaja pelo mundo exibindo boas práticas de países que têm em comum a boa colocação no ranking do Programa Internacional de Avaliação de Alunos (PISA), que avalia a qualidade da educação nos países por meio do desempenho dos estudantes. Para entender como em cenários tão distintos, como Coréia do Sul, Canadá, Chile, dentre outros, a educaçã...

  13. Intestinal microbiota in healthy U.S. young children and adults--a high throughput microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Ringel-Kulka

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the infant's microbiota is established during the first 1-2 years of life. However, there is scarce data on its characterization and its comparison to the adult-like microbiota in consecutive years.To characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota in healthy young children (1-4 years and healthy adults from the North Carolina region in the U.S. using high-throughput bacterial phylogenetic microarray analysis.Detailed characterization and comparison of the intestinal microbiota of healthy children aged 1-4 years old (n = 28 and healthy adults of 21-60 years (n = 23 was carried out using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip phylogenetic microarray targeting the V1 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR.The HITChip microarray data indicate that Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroidetes are the predominant phylum-like groups that exhibit differences between young children and adults. The phylum-like group Clostridium cluster XIVa was equally predominant in young children and adults and is thus considered to be established at an early age. The genus-like level show significant 3.6 fold (higher or lower differences in the abundance of 26 genera between young children and adults. Young U.S. children have a significantly 3.5-fold higher abundance of Bifidobacterium species than the adults from the same location. However, the microbiota of young children is less diverse than that of adults.We show that the establishment of an adult-like intestinal microbiota occurs at a later age than previously reported. Characterizing the microbiota and its development in the early years of life may help identify 'windows of opportunity' for interventional strategies that may promote health and prevent or mitigate disease processes.

  14. Adult male northern elephant seals maintain high rates of glucose production during extended breeding fasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Daniel E; Wenzel, Brian K; Champagne, Cory D; Houser, Dorian S

    2017-04-18

    Many species undergo natural fasts as part of their life histories. Extended fasting is associated with increased β-oxidation of fatty acids and reduced oxidation of glucose to minimize commitment of body protein to gluconeogenesis. However, the metabolic strategies used to sustain extended fasts simultaneous with high rates of energy expenditure are not well understood. Studies in fasting adult female and weanling northern elephant seals (NES) have revealed high rates of endogenous glucose production (EGP) under constraints of high nutrient demand for lactation or development but relatively low rates of metabolism. These studies revealed low rates of glucose oxidation and high rates of glucose recycling through the Cori cycle. We measured rates of glucose flux in fasting adult male NES to assess how significantly longer fasting durations, higher metabolic rates, and greater rates of muscular activity affect glucose kinetics. We measured glucose turnover in 18 adult males using the clearance of [6-H(3)] glucose during breeding and molting. Adult male NES maintain high rates of EGP across extended fasts. EGP greatly exceeded estimated needs for glucose-dependent tissues, varied directly with plasma insulin and lactate concentrations, and was inversely related to plasma ketoacid concentrations. Together, these findings suggest that high rates of glucose production and recycling during breeding maintain high blood glucose levels to support glucose-dependent tissues while minimizing production of ketoacids and commitment of protein stores to glucose production.

  15. Photoacoustic Tomography Imaging of the Adult Zebrafish by Using Unfocused and Focused High-Frequency Ultrasound Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubin Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish model provides an essential platform for the study of human diseases or disorders due to the possession of about 87% homologous genes with human. However, it is still very challenging to noninvasively visualize the structure and function of adult zebrafish based on available optical imaging techniques. In this study, photoacoustic tomography (PAT was utilized for high-resolution imaging of adult zebrafish by using focused and unfocused high-frequency (10 MHz ultrasound transducers. We examined and compared the imaging results from the two categories of transducers with in vivo experimental tests, in which we discovered that the unfocused transducer is able to identify the inner organs of adult zebrafish with higher contrast but limited regional resolution, whereas the findings from the focused transducer were with high resolution but limited regional contrast for the recovered inner organs.

  16. Axonal deficits in young adults with High Functioning Autism and their impact on processing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural white matter deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD have been suggested by both histological findings and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI studies, which show reduced fractional anisotropy (FA and increased mean diffusivity (MD. However, imaging reports are generally not consistent across studies and the underlying physiological causes of the reported differences in FA and MD remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further characterize white matter deficits in ASD by employing an advanced diffusion imaging method, the Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI, and a two-compartment diffusion model of white matter. This model differentially describes intra- and extra-axonal white matter compartments using Axonal Water Fraction (faxon a measure reflecting axonal caliber and density, and compartment-specific diffusivity measures. Diagnostic utility of these measures and associations with processing speed performance were also examined. Comparative studies were conducted in 16 young male adults with High Functioning Autism (HFA and 17 typically developing control participants (TDC. Significantly decreased faxon was observed in HFA compared to the control group in most of the major white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, cortico-spinal tracts, and superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi. Intra-axonal diffusivity (Daxon was also found to be reduced in some of these regions. Decreased axial extra-axonal diffusivity (ADextra was noted in the genu of the corpus callosum. Reduced processing speed significantly correlated with decreased faxon and Daxon in several tracts. faxon of the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculi showed good accuracy in discriminating the HFA and TDC groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest altered axonal microstructure in young adults with HFA which is associated with reduced processing speed. Compartment-specific diffusion

  17. Adult meningitis in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence: findings from 4961 suspected cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meintjes Graeme

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presentation and causes of adult meningitis in South Africa have changed substantially as a result of HIV. Knowledge of aetiology and laboratory findings in patients presenting with meningitis are important in guiding management. We performed a retrospective study to determine these findings in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence in Cape Town. Methods Patients undergoing lumbar punctures between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2008 at a public sector referral hospital were studied. Cases were classified by microbiological diagnosis, or in the absence of definitive microbiology as 1 normal CSF (neutrophils ≤ 1 × 106/L, lymphocytes ≤ 5 × 106/L, protein ≤ 0.5 g/dL, glucose ≥1.5 mmol/L, 2 minor abnormalities (neutrophils 2-5, lymphocytes 6-20, protein 0.51-1.0, glucose 1.0-1.49 or 3 markedly abnormal (neutrophils>5, lymphocytes>20, protein>1.0, glucose Results 5578 LPs were performed on 4549 patients, representing 4961 clinical episodes. Of these, 2293 had normal CSF and 931 had minor abnormalities and no aetiology identified. Of the remaining 1737, microbiological diagnoses were obtained in 820 (47%. Cryptococcus accounted for 63% (514 of microbiological diagnoses, TB for 28% (227, bacterial meningitis for 8% (68. Of the remaining 917 who had marked abnormalities, the majority (59% had a sterile lymphocytic CSF. Of note 16% (81 patients with confirmed Cryptococcus, 5% (12 with TB and 4% (3 with bacterial meningitis had normal CSF cell-counts and biochemistry. Conclusions Cryptococcal and tuberculous meningitis are now the commonest causes of adult meningitis in this setting. TB meningitis is probably underdiagnosed by laboratory investigation, as evidence by the large numbers presenting with sterile lymphocytic markedly abnormal CSFs.

  18. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Chang Won; Kim, Byung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m(2) and 23.3 kg/m(2) for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults.

  19. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley E. Keating

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.

  20. Kompartmentsyndrom kan også ses i underarmen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Broholm, Rikke; Bülow, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    Compartment syndrome can also be seen in the forearm Chronic compartment syndrome is a challenge for the clinician and symptomatic similar to neuropathies, tenosynovitis, stress fractures and referred pain from lumbar cervicalis. Thus, chronic compartment syndrome of the upper extremities...... is probably an underdiagnosed condition. In patients with stress-induced pain in the upper limbs, chronic compartment syndrome should be considered – particularly in young patients with high physical activity. Despite limited literature, the effect of surgical treatment is promising....

  1. Kompartmentsyndrom kan også ses i underarmen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Broholm, Rikke; Bülow, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Compartment syndrome can also be seen in the forearm Chronic compartment syndrome is a challenge for the clinician and symptomatic similar to neuropathies, tenosynovitis, stress fractures and referred pain from lumbar cervicalis. Thus, chronic compartment syndrome of the upper extremities...... is probably an underdiagnosed condition. In patients with stress-induced pain in the upper limbs, chronic compartment syndrome should be considered – particularly in young patients with high physical activity. Despite limited literature, the effect of surgical treatment is promising....

  2. ¿Cuando los países aumentan sus exportaciones les va mejor?

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Comparando las exportaciones por habitante de diferentes países con los índices HDI (Human Development Index) y el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) por habitante, obtenidos para los años 1990 y 1998, es posible establecer que los países a medida que incrementan sus exportaciones totales y por habitante también mejoran en sus índices de bienestar de la población, lo que es un fiel indicativo que la calidad de vida de sus habitantes ha mejorado. Así mismo, se ...

  3. THE APOCOPE IN THE LOAN WORDS ALINTI KELİMELERDE SON SES DÜŞMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin KOÇ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Disappearance is the loss of a sound in structure of the word with some reasons. There are three types of disappearance: apheresis, syncope and apocope. The apocope is disappearance of a vowel or consonant at the end of a word. This situation isn’t standard in whole dialects and accents. Some dropping sounds, have an intense in a spesific region, they aren’t seen in the other areas or have rare examples. This is rather common in the dialects. In this study will be handled the apocope in the loan words with the examples in Turkey Turkish and contemporary Turkish dialects. Bir kelimedeki seslerden birinin, çeşitli nedenlerle düşmesine ses düşmesi denir. Ses düşmesi üç çeşittir: ön ses düşmesi, iç ses düşmesi ve son ses düşmesi. Son ses düşmesi, kelimede son ses durumunda olan ünlü veya ünsüzün düşmesidir. Bu durum, bütün lehçelerde ve ağızlarda standart değildir. Düşen bazı sesler, belli bir bölge içinde yoğunlaşırken, bazı bölgelerde görülmemekte ve hatta birkaç ya da bir örnekle sınırlı kalabilmektedir. Bu daha çok ağızlarda görülür. Çalışmada, Türkiye Türkçesinde ve Çağdaş Türk Lehçelerinde alıntı kelimelerde son ses düşmesi bahsi örnekleriyle ele alınacaktır.

  4. Violência escolar e bullying em países europeus

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Isabel; Veiga, Feliciano

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo baseia-se num estudo realizado para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Educação do primeiro autor, cuja dissertação foi apresentada na Universidade de Lisboa, com o título Bullying e violência escolar em países europeus: Elementos comparativos, sendo orientada pelo segundo autor Este estudo teve como objectivo geral investigar aspectos do bullying e dos comportamentos disruptivos dos alunos, em escolas de países europeus (Finlândia, Itália, Polónia, Portugal, Reino Unido e S...

  5. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Eric; Harris, Ellis; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. DESIGN: In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women,...

  6. Feasibility and Impact of High-Intensity Walking Training in Frail Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovich, Margaret K; Conroy, David E; Hornby, T George

    2017-09-23

    To investigate the impact of high-intensity walking training (HIWT) on prefrail and frail older adults, five assisted living residents underwent a supervised 12-session intervention. The intervention consisted of 30 min of HIWT at 70-80% of heart rate reserve or ratings of 15 to 17 (hard to very hard) on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion scale. Training included walking at fast speeds, multi-directions, stairs, and outdoor surfaces with and without an assistive device. Training significantly reduced frailty using the SHARE-FI (p = .008), increased fast gait speed (p = .01), improved 6-min walk test distance (p = .03), and enhanced Berg Balance Scale scores (p = .03). There were no adverse events and all participants reached target training intensity in all 12 sessions. Participants viewed the walking intervention as highly satisfactory (9.6/10 on a Likert scale) and 100% recommended that the assisted living facility should offer HIWT as part of routine programming.

  7. Maternal High Fat Diet Alters Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Catalytic Activity in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Chantal A.; Hedges, Christopher P.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Markworth, James F.; Durainayagam, Brenan R.; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Vickers, Mark H.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.; Reynolds, Clare M.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise, such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory complex subunits were suppressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%), which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%). Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle. PMID:27917127

  8. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maribel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Babio, Nancy; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

  9. High neuronal/astroglial differentiation plasticity of adult rat hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells in response to the effects of embryonic and adult cerebrospinal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirouvi, T; Yekani, F; Azarnia, M; Massumi, M

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (hipp-NS/PCs) of the adult mammalian brain are important sources of neuronal and gial cell production. In this study, the main goal is to investigate the plasticity of these cells in neuronal/astroglial differentiations. To this end, the differentiation of the hipp-NS/PCs isolated from 3-month-old Wistar rats was investigated in response to the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) including E13.5, E17-CSF and the adult cerebrospinal fluid (A-CSF), all extracted from rats. CSF samples were selected based on their effects on cell behavioral parameters. Primary cell culture was performed in the presence of either normal or high levels of KCL in a culture medium. High levels of KCL cause cell depolarization, and thus the activation of quiescent NSCs. Results from immunocytochemistry (ICC) and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sRT-PCR) techniques showed that in E-CSF-treated groups, neuronal differentiation increased (E17>E13.5). In contrast, A-CSF decreased and increased neuronal and astroglial differentiations, respectively. Cell survivability and/or proliferation (S/P), evaluated by an MTT assay, increased by E13.5 CSF, but decreased by both E17 CSF and A-CSF. Based on the results, it is finally concluded that adult rat hippocampal proliferative cells are not restricted progenitors but rather show high plasticity in neuronal/astroglial differentiation according to the effects of CSF samples. In addition, using high concentrations of KCL in the primary cell culture led to an increase in the number of NSCs, which in turn resulted in the increase in neuronal or astroglial differentiations after CSF treatment.

  10. Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2011-01-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

  11. Control of fingertip forces in young and older adults pressing against fixed low- and high-friction surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G Keenan

    Full Text Available Mobile computing devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets that have low-friction surfaces require well-directed fingertip forces of sufficient and precise magnitudes for proper use. Although general impairments in manual dexterity are well-documented in older adults, it is unclear how these sensorimotor impairments influence the ability of older adults to dexterously manipulate fixed, low-friction surfaces in particular. 21 young and 18 older (65+ yrs adults produced maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs and steady submaximal forces (2.5 and 10% MVC with the fingertip of the index finger. A Teflon covered custom-molded splint was placed on the fingertip. A three-axis force sensor was covered with either Teflon or sandpaper to create low- and high-friction surfaces, respectively. Maximal downward forces (F(z were similar (p = .135 for young and older adults, and decreased by 15% (p<.001 while pressing on Teflon compared to sandpaper. Fluctuations in F(z during the submaximal force-matching tasks were 2.45× greater (p<.001 for older adults than in young adults, and reached a maximum when older adults pressed against the Teflon surface while receiving visual feedback. These age-associated changes in motor performance are explained, in part, by altered muscle activity from three hand muscles and out-of-plane forces. Quantifying the ability to produce steady fingertip forces against low-friction surfaces may be a better indicator of impairment and disability than the current practice of evaluating maximal forces with pinch meters. These age-associated impairments in dexterity while interacting with low-friction surfaces may limit the use of the current generation of computing interfaces by older adults.

  12. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  13. Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

  14. Privileged High School Girls' Responses to Depictions of Femininity in Popular Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suico, Theresa Go

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature has been a subject of contention for educators, adolescent psychologists, and critics for decades. Although some commentators maintain that young adult literature can be educationally and developmentally beneficial for adolescent readers, others argue that it often contains negative and potentially harmful messages that…

  15. Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

  16. Autism and Schizophrenia in high functioning adults: Behavioral differences and overlap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, Annelies A; Wouters, Saskia G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with th

  17. Early life exposures and the occurrence and timing of heart disease among the older adult Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnry, Mry; Palloni, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of early life conditions on the timing of the onset of heart disease. We use the remarkable example of a representative sample of the population of older Puerto Ricans aged 60-74 who lived in the countryside during childhood (n = 1,438) to examine the effects ofseasonal exposures to poor nutrition and infectious diseases during late gestation on the timing of the onset and the probability of ever experiencing adult heart disease. Cox and log logistic hazard models controlling for childhood conditions (self-reported childhood health status and socioeconomic status [SES], rheumatic fever, and knee height) and adult risk factors (adult SES, obesity, smoking, exercise, and self-reported diabetes) showed that the risk of onset of heart disease was 65% higher among those born during high-exposure periods compared with unexposed individuals. However, there were no significant differences in median time of onset for those ever experiencing heart disease. As a comparison, we found that there were no significant seasonality effects for those who lived in urban areas during childhood. We conclude that early exposures in utero have important ramifications for adult heart disease among the older Puerto Rican population. We show, however, that while exposure is associated with the probability of ever experiencing adult heart disease, it is not associated with the timing of onset among those who do experience it.

  18. Book Reading Mediation, SES, Home Literacy Environment, and Children's Literacy: Evidence from Arabic-Speaking Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Arafat, Safieh H.; Aram, Dorit; Klein, Pnina

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the contribution of maternal mediation in storybook reading, socioeconomic status (SES), and home literacy environment (HLE) to children's literacy level in kindergarten and first grade in Israeli Arabic-speaking families. A total of 109 kindergarten children and their mothers participated. Children's literacy level was…

  19. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation by rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the SesC protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahrooei, M.; Hira, V.; Stijlemans, B.; Merckx, R.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Eldere, J. van

    2009-01-01

    Several well-studied proteins with defined roles in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation are LPXTG motif-containing proteins. Here, we investigate the possible use of the LPXTG motif-containing protein SesC (S. epidermidis surface protein C; accession no. NP_765787) as a target for antibodie

  20. 78 FR 37847 - Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... CONTACT: Pamela S. Pope, Office of Human Capital, Talent Management Division (HT), National Archives and... of the United States; William J. Bosanko, Chief Operating Officer; Sean M. Clayton, Chief Human... accordance with regulations prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management, one or more SES Performance...

  1. Embedded Library Services: Beyond Chance Encounters for Students from Low SES Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Anne; Maddox, Alexia; Hagel, Pauline; Currie, Michael; Owen, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports research that examined how the embedding of library services through the learning management system contributed to the experience of students from low socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. To evaluate the embedded practice, the researchers used a mixed-method approach involving surveys with students and interviews with…

  2. Early Development of the Low SES Infant Weighing Less Than 1001 Grams at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finello, Karen M.; And Others

    To evaluate outcomes in infants of very low birth weight born in 1982-83 to families of extremely low socioeconomic status (SES), 33 infants who weighed less than 1001 grams at birth and survived the nursery period were followed for 1 year. The sample was 79 percent Hispanic and 58 percent female. Mean birth weight was 868 grams and mean…

  3. Finaali pääses kümme Võrumaa koolitantsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Valgas toimunud "Koolitants 2009" piirkondlikult festivalilt pääses 18. ja 19. aprillil Pärnus toimuvale lõppkontserdile kümme Võrumaa tantsu. Ühe kahest arengu eripreemiast pälvis 7.-9. klasside šõutantsu kategoorias võistelnud Võru kunstikooli tantsutrupp Katariina tantsuga "Rock-rock-rock"

  4. Remesas a los Países Andinos: Tendencias, Costos e Impacto Económico

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Solimano

    2003-01-01

    Da a conocer las tendencias globales y regionales de las remesas en los países andinos, las características de los mercados internacionales, costos del envío de remesas y las políticas para reducir costos de envío de remesas.

  5. California Charter Schools Serving Low-SES Students: An Analysis of the Academic Performance Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovacek, Simeon P.; Kunnan, Antony J.; Kim, Hae-Jin

    This report presents the findings of an analysis of the Academic Performance Index (API) scores based on SATs taken in 1999, 2000, and 2001. It focuses on charter schools in California that serve students from low socioeconomic-status (SES) families. The purpose of the study was to see how standardized test scores from charter schools serving…

  6. Finaali pääses kümme Võrumaa koolitantsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Valgas toimunud "Koolitants 2009" piirkondlikult festivalilt pääses 18. ja 19. aprillil Pärnus toimuvale lõppkontserdile kümme Võrumaa tantsu. Ühe kahest arengu eripreemiast pälvis 7.-9. klasside šõutantsu kategoorias võistelnud Võru kunstikooli tantsutrupp Katariina tantsuga "Rock-rock-rock"

  7. Remesas a los países andinos: Tendencias, costos e impacto económico

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Solimano

    2003-01-01

    Da a conocer las tendencias globales y regionales de las remesas en los países andinos, las características de los mercados internacionales, costos del envío de remesas y las políticas para reducir costos de envío de remesas.

  8. El divorcio en las leyes de familia de los pa??ses ??rabes

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Almod??var, Caridad

    2006-01-01

    Estudio comparado de la legislaci??n del divorcio en los c??digos de estatuto personal de los siguientes pa??ses ??rabes: Argelia, Egipto, Iraq, Jordania, Kuwait, L??bano, Libia, Marruecos, Mauritania, Om??n, Siria, Sud??n, T??nez y Yemen.

  9. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation by rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the SesC protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahrooei, M.; Hira, V.; Stijlemans, B.; Merckx, R.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Eldere, J. van

    2009-01-01

    Several well-studied proteins with defined roles in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation are LPXTG motif-containing proteins. Here, we investigate the possible use of the LPXTG motif-containing protein SesC (S. epidermidis surface protein C; accession no. NP_765787) as a target for

  10. "Koolitantsu" finaali pääses kolm tantsu / Liisi Seil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seil, Liisi, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Ugala teatris peetud "Koolitants 2007" piirkondlikust festivalist. Tallinnas toimuvale lõppkontserdile pääses Viljandist Hebe tantsuga "Kilbiga ja kilbita", S-Stuudio tantsuga "Triinu sünnipäev" ja Eve Stuudio "ilma naljata". Kommenteerib festivali maakondlik korraldaja Anu Sööt

  11. Expanding the Environment: Gene × School-Level SES Interaction on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.; Soden, Brooke; Johnson, Wendy; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Background: Influential work has explored the role of family socioeconomic status (SES) as an environmental moderator of genetic and environmental influences on cognitive outcomes. This work has provided evidence that socioeconomic circumstances differentially impact the heritability of cognitive abilities, generally supporting the bioecological…

  12. Socio-economic and Psychosocial Determinants of Smoking and Passive Smoking in Older Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong Mei; HU Zhi; ORTON Sophie; WANG Jia Ji; ZHENG Jian Zhong; QIN Xia; CHEN Ruo Ling

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of socio-economic and psychosocial factors with active and passive smoking in older adults. Methods Using a standard interview method, we examined random samples of 6071 people aged≥60 years in 5 provinces of China during 2007-2009. Results World age-standardised prevalence for current and former smoking in men was 45.6% and 20.5%, and in women 11.1%and 4.5%. Current smoking reduced with older age but increased with men, low socioeconomic status (SES), alcohol drinking, being never-married, pessimistic and depressive syndromes. Former smoking was associated with men, secondary school education, a middle-high income, being a businessman, being widowed, less frequencies of visiting children/relatives and friends, and worrying about children. Among 3774 never-smokers, the prevalence of passive smoking was 31.5%, and the risk increased with women, low SES, alcohol drinking, being married, having a religious believe, and daily visiting children/relatives. There were sex differences in the associations, and an interaction effect of education and income on smoking and passive smoking. Conclusion Older Chinese had a higher level of smoking and passive smoking than those in high income countries, reflecting China’s failures in controlling smoking. The associations with low SES and different psychosocial aspects and sex differences suggest preventative strategies for active and passive smoking.

  13. Ambiente institucional e compra de terras por estrangeiros em países em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Simões Pongeluppe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com o Banco Mundial, desde o final dos anos 2000 o movimento de aquisição de terras por estrangeiros tem se acentuado nos países em desenvolvimento, impulsionado pelo boom dos preços das commodities. Em termos teóricos, a abordagem da Nova Economia Institucional (NEI argumenta que as instituições são importantes para as estratégias dos agentes econômicos e seu desempenho. Neste estudo, apoiado na NEI, pretende-se responder como as instituições presentes em países periféricos refletem o processo de aquisições de terras por investidores estrangeiros. Para esse objetivo, foram utilizados dados secundários de organizações internacionais, como Food and Agriculture Organization, Banco Mundial, Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre Comércio e Desenvolvimento, Fundo Monetário Internacional, Organização para a Cooperação Econômica e Desenvolvimento Econômico, Wall Street Journal e agências nacionais. A hipótese principal é que a força ou a fraqueza presente no ambiente institucional em países em desenvolvimento tem influência relevante no nível de Investimento Estrangeiro Direto (IED. Para testar a hipótese, adota-se como metodologia a análise estatística, na qual se verifica a relação entre o nível de IED nos países receptores (variável dependente contra variáveis independentes: liberdade de investimento, direitos de propriedade e nível de corrupção. Espera-se?que os pa?ses com?ambientes institucionais independentes: liberdade de investimento, direitos de propriedade e nível de corrupção. Espera-se que os países com ambientes institucionais fracos, ou menos seguros, tendam a receber menores investimentos em compra de terras e arrendamentos do que outros países que têm estrutura institucional que garanta os direitos de propriedade.

  14. State socioeconomic indicators and self-reported hypertension among US adults, 2011 behavioral risk factor surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Amy Z; Strasser, Sheryl M; Zhang, Xingyou; Fang, Jing; Crawford, Carol G

    2015-02-26

    Hypertension is the leading cause of chronic disease and premature death in the United States. To date, most risk factors for hypertension have been identified at the individual (micro) level. The association of macro-level (area) socioeconomic factors and hypertension prevalence rates in the population has not been studied extensively. We used the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine whether state socioeconomic status (SES) indicators predict the prevalence of self-reported hypertension. Quintiles of state median household income, unemployment rate among the population aged 16 to 64 years, and the proportion of the population under the national poverty line were used as the proxy for state SES. Hypertension status was determined by the question "Have you ever been told by a doctor, nurse, or other health professional that you have high blood pressure?" Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between state SES and hypertension with adjustment for individual covariates (demographic and socioeconomic factors and lifestyle behaviors). States with a median household income of $43,225 or less (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.16 [1.08-1.25]) and states with 18.7% or more of residents living below the poverty line (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.14 [1.04-1.24]) had a higher prevalence of hypertension than states with the most residents in the most advantageous quintile of the indicators. The observed state SES-hypertension association indicates that area SES may contribute to the burden of hypertension in community-dwelling adults.

  15. Effects of High-Speed Power Training on Muscle Performance and Braking Speed in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Sayers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether high-speed power training (HSPT improved muscle performance and braking speed using a driving simulator. 72 older adults (22 m, 50 f; age = 70.6 ± 7.3 yrs were randomized to HSPT at 40% one-repetition maximum (1RM (HSPT: n=25; 3 sets of 12–14 repetitions, slow-speed strength training at 80%1RM (SSST: n=25; 3 sets of 8–10 repetitions, or control (CON: n=22; stretching 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Leg press and knee extension peak power, peak power velocity, peak power force/torque, and braking speed were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. HSPT increased peak power and peak power velocity across a range of external resistances (40–90% 1RM; P<0.05 and improved braking speed (P<0.05. Work was similar between groups, but perceived exertion was lower in HSPT (P<0.05. Thus, the less strenuous HSPT exerted a broader training effect and improved braking speed compared to SSST.

  16. Functional alterations in neural substrates of geometric reasoning in adults with high-functioning autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamada

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC are known to excel in some perceptual cognitive tasks, but such developed functions have been often regarded as "islets of abilities" that do not significantly contribute to broader intellectual capacities. However, recent behavioral studies have reported that individuals with ASC have advantages for performing Raven's (Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM/RSPM, a standard neuropsychological test for general fluid intelligence, raising the possibility that ASC's cognitive strength can be utilized for more general purposes like novel problem solving. Here, the brain activity of 25 adults with high-functioning ASC and 26 matched normal controls (NC was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine neural substrates of geometric reasoning during the engagement of a modified version of the RSPM test. Among the frontal and parietal brain regions involved in fluid intelligence, ASC showed larger activation in the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC during an analytic condition with moderate difficulty than NC. Activation in the left LOTC and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC increased with task difficulty in NC, whereas such modulation of activity was absent in ASC. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis revealed a significant reduction of activation coupling between the left inferior parietal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during both figural and analytic conditions in ASC. These results indicate altered pattern of functional specialization and integration in the neural system for geometric reasoning in ASC, which may explain its atypical cognitive pattern, including performance on the Raven's Matrices test.

  17. Drinking water contributes to high salt consumption in young adults in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Malek, Abdul; Khan, Sheela; Chu, Cordia

    2016-04-01

    Increasing salinity of freshwater from environmental and anthropogenic influences is threatening the health of 35 million inhabitants in coastal Bangladesh. Yet little is known about the characteristics of their exposure to salt (sodium), a major risk factor for hypertension and related chronic diseases. This research examined sodium consumption levels and associated factors in young adults. We assessed spot urine samples for 282 participants (19-25 years) during May-June 2014 in a rural sub-district in southwestern coastal Bangladesh and measured sodium levels of their potable water sources. The significant factors associated with high sodium consumption were determined from logistic regression analyses. Mean sodium content in tube-well water (885 mg/L) was significantly higher than pond water (738 mg/L) (P = 0.01). Fifty three percent of subjects were consuming sodium at levels above the WHO recommended level (≥2 g/day). The users of tube-well water were more likely to consume sodium above this recommended level than pond water users. Salinity problems are projected to increase with climate change, and with large populations potentially at risk, appropriate public health and behavior-change interventions are an urgent priority for this vulnerable coastal region along with targeted research to better understand sodium exposure pathways and health benefits of alternative water supplies.

  18. Meningitis in a Canadian adult due to high level penicillin-resistant, cefotaxime-intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Cécile Tremblay; Anne-Marie Bourgault; Pierre St-Antoine

    1996-01-01

    Invasive penicillin-resistant pneumococcal (PRSP) infections are increasing worldwide. In Canada, the incidence of penicillin resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is estimated at greater than 6%. In Quebec, only one case of PRSP meningitis has been reported and involved an infant. An adult patient is described who presented with meningitis caused by high level penicillin-resistant, cefotaxime-intermediate S pneumoniae.

  19. Event-rate manipulation and its effect on arousal modulation and response inhibition in adults with high functioning autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymaekers, R; van der Meere, J; Roeyers, H

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate arousal modulation and response inhibition in adults with high functioning autism (HFA). Using a go/no-go paradigm with varying presentation rate, it was found that performance efficiency (Mean RT, Standard Deviation of RT and Errors of Commission) in adu

  20. The Association Between Blood Alcohol Content and Cheerfulness, Focus Distraction, and Sluggishness Among Young Adults Attending High School Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    The belief that alcohol makes you cheerful is one of the main reasons for engaging in high-risk drinking, especially among young adults. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between blood alcohol content (BAC) and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among students...

  1. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  2. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  3. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)

  4. Task Engagement in Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Generalization Effects of Behavioral Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package on task engagement in six young adults with high-functioning ASD who worked in a regular job-training setting. Experimental sessions were implemented in a small-group training format in a therapy room using unknown tasks. Data were collected on participant's off-task…

  5. Task engagement in young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: Generalization effects of behavioral skills training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, A.M.J.W.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package on task engagement in six young adults with high-functioning ASD who worked in a regular job-training setting. Experimental sessions were implemented in a small-group training format in a therapy room using unknown tasks.

  6. Measurement of specific IgE antibodies to Ses i 1 improves the diagnosis of sesame allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, N; Nakagawa, T; Ito, K; Cabanos, C; Borres, M P; Movérare, R; Tanaka, A; Sato, S; Ebisawa, M

    2016-01-01

    The number of reported cases of allergic reactions to sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) has increased significantly. The specific IgE tests and skin prick tests presently available for diagnosis of sesame allergy are all based on crude sesame extract and are limited by their low clinical specificity. Thus, oral food challenge (OFC) is still the gold standard in the diagnosis. The aim was to identify the allergen components useful to diagnose sesame-allergic children with the goal to reduce the number of OFCs needed. Ninety-two sesame-sensitized children were consecutively enrolled and diagnosed based on OFC or convincing history. Specific IgE to purified native 11S globulin (nSes i 11S), 7S globulin (nSes i 7S), 2S albumin (nSes i 2S), and two recombinant 2S albumins (rSes i 1 and rSes i 2) was measured by ELISA and/or ImmunoCAP (rSes i 1/streptavidin application). Based on area under curve (AUC) values from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, rSes i 1 was shown to have the best diagnostic performance of the allergen components in ELISA. The experimental rSes i 1 ImmunoCAP test had larger AUC (0.891; 95% CI, 0.826-0.955) compared to the commercially available sesame ImmunoCAP (0.697; 95% CI, 0.589-0.805). The clinical sensitivity and specificity for the rSes i 1 ImmunoCAP test at optimal cut-off (3.96 kUA /L) were 86.1% and 85.7%, respectively. Sensitization to Ses i 1 is strongly associated with clinical sesame allergy. Measurement of specific IgE to rSes i 1 could reduce the numbers of OFCs needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources-including clinical history.

  8. Misuse of prescription and illicit drugs among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Lankenau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA and New York (NY, which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods. Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs; homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results. In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion. Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs.

  9. The use of the Autism-spectrum Quotient in differentiating high functioning adults with autism, adults with schizophrenia and a neurotypical adult control group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Saskia G.M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to

  10. The use of the Autism-spectrum Quotient in differentiating high functioning adults with autism, adults with schizophrenia and a neurotypical adult control group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Saskia G.M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to

  11. The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

  12. Socioeconomic status and substance use among young adults: a comparison across constructs and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Wightman, Patrick; Schoeni, Robert F; Schulenberg, John E

    2012-09-01

    Little consensus exists regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and substance use. This study examined the associations of three indicators of family SES during childhood--income, wealth, and parental education--with smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use during young adulthood. Data were obtained from the national Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a survey of U.S. families that incorporates data from parents and their children. In 2005 and 2007, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was supplemented with two waves of Transition into Adulthood data drawn from a national sample of young adults, 18-23 years old. Data from the young adults (N = 1,203; 66.1% White; 51.5% female) on their current use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana were used as outcome variables in logistic regressions. Socioeconomic background was calculated from parental reports of education, wealth, and income during the respondent's childhood (birth through age 17 years). Smoking in young adulthood was associated with lower childhood family SES, although the association was explained by demographic and social role covariates. Alcohol use and marijuana use in young adulthood were associated with higher childhood family SES, even after controlling for covariates. Findings based on three indicators of family background SES--income, wealth, and parental education--converged in describing unique patterns for smoking and for alcohol and marijuana use among young adults, although functional relationships across SES measures varied. Young adults with the highest family background SES were most prone to alcohol and marijuana use.

  13. Isolation and culture of adult human microglia within mixed glial cultures for functional experimentation and high-content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy M; Gibbons, Hannah M; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard L M; Dragunow, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are thought to be involved in diseases of the adult human brain as well as normal aging processes. While neonatal and rodent microglia are often used in studies investigating microglial function, there are important differences between rodent microglia and their adult human counterparts. Human brain tissue provides a unique and valuable tool for microglial cell and molecular biology. Routine protocols can now enable use of this culture method in many laboratories. Detailed protocols and advice for culture of human brain microglia are provided here. We demonstrate the protocol for culturing human adult microglia within a mixed glial culture and use a phagocytosis assay as an example of the functional studies possible with these cells as well as a high-content analysis method of quantification.

  14. Quality of life in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder: The predictive value of disability and support characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renty, J O; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-09-01

    Although the concept of quality of life has increasingly been used in the field of intellectual disabilities over the past three decades, the factors contributing to quality of life of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received relatively little attention. In this study, disability and support characteristics associated with variations in the level of quality of life among adults with ASD are identified, using self-report measures. Fifty-eight high-functioning adults with ASD participated in the study. The results of a multiple linear regression analysis reveal that support characteristics are related to quality of life in adults with ASD, whereas disability characteristics are not. The R2 effect size (0.620) is large and significant. The results reinforce the significance of an available supportive social network, the importance of a substantial needs assessment and effective professional support.

  15. Obesity and Diabetes as Accelerators of Functional Decline; Can Lifestyle Interventions Maintain Functional Status in High Risk Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons has become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes. PMID:23832077

  16. Obesity and diabetes as accelerators of functional decline: can lifestyle interventions maintain functional status in high risk older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons have become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes. © 2013.

  17. Pubertal and adult windows of susceptibility to a high animal fat diet in Trp53-null mammary tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yirong; Aupperlee, Mark D; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Ying Siow; Kirk, Erin L; Sun, Xuezheng; Troester, Melissa A; Schwartz, Richard C; Haslam, Sandra Z

    2016-12-13

    Premenopausal breast cancer is associated with increased animal fat consumption among normal weight, but not overweight women (Farvid et al., 2014). Our previous findings in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice similarly showed promotion of carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis by a diet high in saturated animal fat (HFD). This effect was specific to pubertal versus adult HFD. This study identifies the effects of HFD during puberty versus adulthood in Trp53-null transplant BALB/c mice and investigates its mechanism of enhancing tumorigenesis. Either pubertal or adult HFD is sufficient to increase incidence of Trp53-null mammary tumors. Puberty-restricted HFD exposure promoted tumor cell proliferation, increased angiogenesis, and increased recruitment of total and M2 macrophages in epithelial tumors. Adult-restricted exposure to HFD similarly increased proliferation, angiogenesis, recruitment of total and M2 macrophages, and additionally reduced apoptosis. Adult HFD also increased incidence of spindle cell carcinomas resembling claudin-low breast cancer, and thus adult HFD in the Trp53-null transplantation system may be a useful model for human claudin low breast cancer. Importantly, these results on Trp53-null and our prior studies on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis demonstrate a pubertal window of susceptibility to the promotional effects of HFD, indicating the potential of early life dietary intervention to reduce breast cancer risk.

  18. The Role of SES in Chinese (L1) and English (L2) Word Reading in Chinese-Speaking Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and word reading in both Chinese (L1) and English (L2), with children's cognitive/linguistic skills considered as mediators and/or moderators. One hundred ninety-nine Chinese kindergarteners in Hong Kong with diverse SES backgrounds participated in this study. SES…

  19. Phonemic verbal fluency task in adults with high-level literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opasso, Patrícia Romano; Barreto, Simone Dos Santos; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2016-01-01

    To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters. The means for number of words beginning the letters F, A and S and for total number of words beginning with either letter generated per minute corresponded to 15.3, 14.4, 13.9 and 43.5, respectively. Reference values obtained from young adults with high levels of literacy submitted to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test in this study were similar to those reported in the international literature. These reference values can be used for clinical assessment of language disorder and neuropsychological evaluation. Obter parâmetros de normalidade na tarefa de fluência verbal fonêmica, versão F-A-S, em uma população de alto letramento de adultos falantes do português brasileiro. A amostra foi constituída por 40 voluntários, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 19 e 59 anos, e com mais de 8 anos de estudo. Todos os voluntários foram inicialmente submetidos ao Miniexame do Estado Mental e ao Teste do Desenho do Relógio, para fins de rastreio cognitivo, e, então, ao Teste de Fluência Verbal Fonêmica F-A-S. Neste último, os indivíduos foram orientados a produzirem o maior número de palavras que conseguissem, iniciadas com cada uma das três letras ditas pelo examinador, em um intervalo de 60 segundos cada. As médias das palavras produzidas com as letras F-A-S foram as seguintes: "F" = 15,3 palavras por minuto; "A" = 14,4 palavras por minuto; e "S" = 13,9 palavras por minuto. A m

  20. The spatial distribution of overweight and obesity among a birth cohort of young adult Filipinos (Cebu Philippines, 2005): an application of the Kulldorff spatial scan statistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahly, D L; Gordon-Larsen, P; Emch, M; Borja, J; Adair, L S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to test for spatial clustering of obesity in a cohort of young adults in the Philippines, to estimate the locations of any clusters, and to relate these to neighborhood-level urbanicity and individual-level socioeconomic status (SES). Subjects: Data are from a birth cohort of young adult (mean age 22 years) Filipino males (n=988) and females (n=820) enrolled in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Methods: We used the Kulldorff spatial scan statistic to detect clusters associated with unusually low or high prevalences of overweight or obesity (defined using body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage). Cluster locations were compared to neighborhood-level urbanicity, which was measured with a previously validated scale. Individual-level SES was adjusted for using a principal components analysis of household assets. Results: High-prevalence clusters were typically centered in urban areas, but often extended into peri-urban and even rural areas. There were also differences in clustering by both sex and the measure of obesity used. Evidence of clustering in males, but not females, was much weaker after adjustment for SES. PMID:23817443

  1. Evidence of differential allelic effects between adolescents and adults for plasma high-density lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita P S Middelberg

    Full Text Available A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA studies identified 95 loci that influence lipid traits in the adult population and found that collectively these explained about 25-30% of heritability for each trait. Little is known about how these loci affect lipid levels in early life, but there is evidence that genetic effects on HDL- and LDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides vary with age. We studied Australian adults (N = 10,151 and adolescents (N = 2,363 who participated in twin and family studies and for whom we have lipid phenotypes and genotype information for 91 of the 95 genetic variants. Heterogeneity tests between effect sizes in adult and adolescent cohorts showed an excess of heterogeneity for HDL-C (p(Het<0.05 at 5 out of 37 loci, but no more than expected by chance for LDL-C (1 out of 14 loci, or trigycerides (0 out 24. There were 2 (out of 5 with opposite direction of effect in adolescents compared to adults for HDL-C, but none for LDL-C. The biggest difference in effect size was for LDL-C at rs6511720 near LDLR, adolescents (0.021 ± 0.033 mmol/L and adults (0.157 ± 0.023 mmol/L, p(Het = 0.013; followed by ZNF664 (p(Het = 0.018 and PABPC4 (p(Het = 0.034 for HDL-C. Our findings suggest that some of the previously identified variants associate differently with lipid traits in adolescents compared to adults, either because of developmental changes or because of greater interactions with environmental differences in adults.

  2. Evidence of Differential Allelic Effects between Adolescents and Adults for Plasma High-Density Lipoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, Rita P. S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Whitfield, John B.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies identified 95 loci that influence lipid traits in the adult population and found that collectively these explained about 25–30% of heritability for each trait. Little is known about how these loci affect lipid levels in early life, but there is evidence that genetic effects on HDL- and LDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C) and triglycerides vary with age. We studied Australian adults (N = 10,151) and adolescents (N = 2,363) who participated in twin and family studies and for whom we have lipid phenotypes and genotype information for 91 of the 95 genetic variants. Heterogeneity tests between effect sizes in adult and adolescent cohorts showed an excess of heterogeneity for HDL-C (pHet<0.05 at 5 out of 37 loci), but no more than expected by chance for LDL-C (1 out of 14 loci), or trigycerides (0 out 24). There were 2 (out of 5) with opposite direction of effect in adolescents compared to adults for HDL-C, but none for LDL-C. The biggest difference in effect size was for LDL-C at rs6511720 near LDLR, adolescents (0.021±0.033 mmol/L) and adults (0.157±0.023 mmol/L), pHet = 0.013; followed by ZNF664 (pHet = 0.018) and PABPC4 (pHet = 0.034) for HDL-C. Our findings suggest that some of the previously identified variants associate differently with lipid traits in adolescents compared to adults, either because of developmental changes or because of greater interactions with environmental differences in adults. PMID:22530058

  3. Serum levels of high sensitivity C-Reactive protein and its association with lipidemic status in Bangladeshi healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rehnuma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic diseases are affecting human health all over the world. These chronic disease states are associated with high sensitive CRP. The present study aims to measure hsCRP and lipid levels in a group of healthy adults to work out the normal hsCRP levels and explore its relationship to lipidemic and anthropometric variables.Materials and Methods: A total of 149 adults, age 30-60 yrs, healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Vital statistics were taken along with measurement of blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and hsCRP levels. Data were analyzed using statistical Package for Social Program (SPSS for Windows version 10.Results: Mean (±SD hsCRP was 2.46±1.89 (mg/l with a cut off value of 3mg/l. Of the total 149 subjects 102 (66.4% and 47 (31.5% subjects had hsCRP level below and above the cutoff respectively. Triglyceride was significantly higher (p=0.033 and HDL was lower in subjects with high hsCRP. Total cholesterol and LDL was almost similar in both groups. Binary logistic regression showed significant negative association between hsCRP and HDLc (p=0.029 and but the model excluding HDL-c showed significant positive association (p=0.03 with triglyceride.Conclusion: About one-third of healthy Bangladeshi adults may have chronic subclinical inflammation and thus may have a risk of cardiovascular disorders. More than one-third healthy Bangladeshi adults have one or more type of dyslipidemia and the subclinical chronic inflammation in healthy Bangladeshi adults has a positive association with their serum triglyceride and negative association with their HDL-cholesterol levels.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11591 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 644-648

  4. High prevalence of medication non-adherence in a sample of community-dwelling older adults with adult protective services-validated self-neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anisha; Hochschild, Ann; Burnett, Jason; Zulfiqar, Amber; Dyer, Carmel B

    2012-09-01

    Medication non-adherence can exacerbate disease severity, leading to impairments that interfere with self-care activities in older adults, and, ultimately, death. Elder self-neglect is the most common report to Adult Protective Services (APS) across the USA and is a significant risk factor for early mortality. These individuals often suffer from multiple comorbid diseases that require careful management, but for various reasons they are unwilling or unable to provide themselves with the self-care resources necessary for maintaining health and safety. No studies have assessed whether medication adherence is associated with elder self-neglect. The purpose of this study was to assess and describe medication adherence in this population, as well as evaluate associations between medication adherence and cognitive impairment, depression, physical function, and abilities to perform basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADLs and IADLs). A cross-sectional study of 100 community-dwelling adults 65 years of age and older with APS-substantiated elder self-neglect were assessed. In-home comprehensive geriatric assessments (CGAs) were completed and included medication reviews. Information on each medication, including the amount taken from the date dispensed, was collected and used to determine adherence. The criteria for non-adherence were taking 110 % of at least one medication. The sample was also split into groups of low adherence (≤29 %), moderate adherence (29-86 %) and high adherence (≥86 %). Scores on the CGA measures Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, Physical Performance Test (PPT) and Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills were assessed to determine whether cognitive impairment, depression, physical function, and/or ability to perform BADLs and IADLs were associated with non-adherence or low, moderate or high levels of adherence. Twenty-five per cent of the sample was taking more than seven medications daily. The average rate of

  5. Effectiveness of A 16-week High-intensity Cardio-resistance Training (HICRT) Program in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Tina A; Greene, Daniel R; Ward, Nathan J; Reeser, Ginger E; Allen, Courtney M; Baumgartner, Nicholas W; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H; Barbey, Aron K

    2017-06-21

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel, 16-week High-Intensity Cardio-Resistance Training (HICRT) program on measures of aerobic fitness, agility, aerobic power, muscular endurance, lower body explosive power, and self-reported activity level. The intervention group (N=129; 63 f, 24.65±5.55 y) had a baseline VO2max of 39.83±9.13. These individuals participated in 26, 70-minute exercise sessions, and 4 fitness testing sessions. Participants were matched with a non-exercise control group, paired by sex, age, and baseline VO2max. Matched controls (N = 129, 63 f, 24.26±5.59 y) had a baseline VO2max of 39.86±8.59 and completed pre- and post-intervention VO2max testing only. The results demonstrate that participants in the fitness intervention group significantly increased their VO2max (2.72±0.31, Mdiff±SE; ptests. Specifically, significant improvements were observed for the 1-minute rower (5.32±0.505, Mdiff±SE; ptests (1.79±0.169, Mdiff±SE; p<0.001). No significant improvements were observed for the shuttle run (p=0.173) or standing long jump (p=0.137). These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a novel, HICRT intervention across multiple dimensions of fitness for young and middle aged adults. HICRT affords flexibility for tailoring to meet desired health and fitness outcomes and makes perceivably daunting high-intensity functional training and multimodal sports training more accessible to general, traditionally non-athletic, populations.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  6. Test-Retest Reliability of “High-Order” Functional Connectivity in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity (FC has become a leading method for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI analysis. However, the majority of the previous studies utilized pairwise, temporal synchronization-based FC. Recently, high-order FC (HOFC methods were proposed with the idea of computing “correlation of correlations” to capture high-level, more complex associations among the brain regions. There are two types of HOFC. The first type is topographical profile similarity-based HOFC (tHOFC and its variant, associated HOFC (aHOFC, for capturing different levels of HOFC. Instead of measuring the similarity of the original rs-fMRI signals with the traditional FC (low-order FC, or LOFC, tHOFC measures the similarity of LOFC profiles (i.e., a set of LOFC values between a region and all other regions between each pair of brain regions. The second type is dynamics-based HOFC (dHOFC which defines the quadruple relationship among every four brain regions by first calculating two pairwise dynamic LOFC “time series” and then measuring their temporal synchronization (i.e., temporal correlation of the LOFC fluctuations, not the BOLD fluctuations. Applications have shown the superiority of HOFC in both disease biomarker detection and individualized diagnosis than LOFC. However, no study has been carried out for the assessment of test-retest reliability of different HOFC metrics. In this paper, we systematically evaluate the reliability of the two types of HOFC methods using test-retest rs-fMRI data from 25 (12 females, age 24.48 ± 2.55 years young healthy adults with seven repeated scans (with interval = 3–8 days. We found that all HOFC metrics have satisfactory reliability, specifically (1 fair-to-good for tHOFC and aHOFC, and (2 fair-to-moderate for dHOFC with relatively strong connectivity strength. We further give an in-depth analysis of the biological meanings of each HOFC metric and highlight their differences compared to the

  7. Young Australian adults with NF1 have poor access to health care, high complication rates, and limited disease knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Emily C; Payne, Jonathan M; Foster, Sheryl L; Clarke, Nigel F; North, Kathryn N

    2013-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disease associated with a lifelong risk of debilitating and potentially life-limiting complications, however many adults with NF1 have no regular health surveillance. We interviewed and examined 17 young adults with NF1 between the ages of 25 and 33. Most had not been assessed for NF1-related complications within the previous 8 years, including patients with known serious vascular complications, for example, renal artery stenosis. Acute and/or chronic pain, particularly back and plexiform-related pain were common symptoms, and despite a significant impact on quality of life, was untreated in most instances. Symptom and examination-directed imaging revealed serious complications in 41% of the cohort. These included severe spinal cord compression (two cases), a highly SUV avid lesion suggestive of malignancy (one case), and a Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a patient without any previous NF1-related complications. Few study participants had a good understanding of NF1, its associated risks and complications, and many had not sought appropriate medical advice as questions or problems arose. NF1-related cognitive deficits in some participants, and the lack of a clear source of expert medical advice for adults with NF1 likely contributed to poor health surveillance and management in this population. Overall, these findings suggest that many Australian adults with NF1 are at risk of serious and life-threatening medical complications, but are not accessing and receiving adequate health care. Access to multidisciplinary adult clinics that specialize in NF1 may address many of the unmet health needs of young adults with NF1.

  8. Thermally stimulated currents in layered Ga4SeS3 semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, S.; Yuksek, N. S.; Goktepe, M.; Gasanly, N. M.; Aydinli, A.

    2004-10-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements are carried out on nominally undoped Ga4SeS3 layered semiconductor samples with the current flowing along the c-axis in the temperature range of 10 to 150 K. The results are analyzed according to various methods, such as curve fitting, initial rise and Chen's methods, which seem to be in good agreement with each other. Experimental evidence is found for the presence of three trapping centers in Ga4SeS3 with activation energies of 70, 210 and 357 meV. The calculation yielded 7.9 × 10-21, 7.0 × 10-19 and 1.5 × 10-13 cm2 for the capture cross section, and 1.6 × 1010, 6.5 × 1010 and 1.2 × 1011 cm-3 for the concentration of the traps studied.

  9. Davezies Laurent, La République et ses territoires : la circulation invisible des richesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lefèvre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet ouvrage, Laurent Davezies, économiste à l’Institut d’Urbanisme de Paris (université Paris 12, nous livre un condensé de ses travaux et de ses réflexions sur le développement territorial analysé à travers le prisme de la circulation des richesses, considérées notamment mais pas uniquement par le biais des circuits financiers entre échelles territoriales. Le thème central du livre est la compréhension du paradoxe « croissance sans développement », au cœur des tendances du développemen...

  10. Temporal dependence of the selectivity property of SES stations in western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dologlou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity property of the SES stations, IOA, PIR and PAT in western Greece, based on reported precursory SES signals and associated large earthquakes (Mw≥5.4 that occurred from 1983 to the end of 2008, has been examined. Interesting temporal dependence of the sensitive ability of these stations has been unveiled. Physical mechanisms for the observed changes in selectivity might be related with tectonic and geodynamic events. For instance, selectivity for IOA exhibits a time dependence, for PAT probably is related to the activation of Wadati-Benioff zone while for PIR seems to be related to the specific tectonics of two confined areas such as the Cephalonia Transform Faulting zone in Ionian Sea and the southwestern part of the Hellenic Trench.

  11. Eutelsat与SES Globat谈2006年数字电视发展倾向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    润雨

    2007-01-01

    Eutelsat和SES Global等卫星运营商在全球数字电视的发展中起着重要作用。这两家运营商与全世界许多频道提供商、DTH提供商和强大的数字电视平台订有协议。在接受《Inside Digital TV》的一次独家采访时.Eutelsat首席执行官Giuliano Berretta和SES Global首席执行官Romain Bausch谈了对2006年数字电视发展倾向的看法。

  12. Low-SES children's eyewitness memory: the effects of verbal labels and vocabulary skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Kulkofsky, Sarah; Debaran, Francisco; Wang, Qi; Hart, Sybil L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the verbal labels procedure and vocabulary skills on low-socioeconomic status (SES) preschool children's eyewitness memory. Children (N = 176) aged 3-5 years witnessed a conflict event and were then questioned about it in either a standard or a verbal labels interview. Findings revealed that children with higher rather than lower vocabulary skills produced more complete and accurate memories. Children who were given the verbal labels interview recalled more information, which included both correct and incorrect details. Overall, the verbal labels procedure did not improve children's performance on direct questions, but children with low vocabulary skills answered direct questions more accurately if they were given the verbal labels interview than when they were not. Implications of the findings for memory performance of low-SES children are discussed.

  13. Nível de desenvolvimento e tecnologia de distribuição de alimentos em países selecionados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Diana Souza de Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo comparar os sistemas de distribuição de alimentos em países com diferentes níveis de desenvolvimento. Especificamente: i identificar padrões de demanda e analisar as características do mercado de alimentos; ii verificar as relações entre a estrutura dos sistemas varejistas de alimento e padrões econômicos, sociais, culturais e prevalecentes de compra e iii identificar as estratégicas adotadas pelos varejistas. Para tanto, foi efetuada uma revisão em estudos prévios disponíveis. Os países estudados foram: renda alta (Estados Unidos e Reino Unido; renda média-alta (África do Sul e Brasil; renda média-baixa (China e Guatemala e renda baixa (Madagascar e Vietnã. Os resultados mostram a existência de importantes diferenças no desenvolvimento do varejo de alimentos entre os países analisados. Revelam, ainda, que qualidade e variedade dos produtos são fatores importantes na estratégia de varejo em países de renda alta e média-alta; nos países de renda média-baixa e baixa destaca-se o preço dos alimentos. A principal implicação é o impacto que os supermercados causam em todos os elos das cadeias agroindustriais.The aim of the article is to compare food distribution systems in different countries. For this purpose, a review of previous studies available was made. Specifically: i identification of demand patterns and analysis of characteristics of the food market; ii analysis of relations between the structure of the food retail systems and the economic, social, cultural and prevailing purchasing patterns and iii identification of strategies adopted by retailers. Countries studied were: high income (the United States and the United Kingdom; with upper-middle income (South Africa and Brazil; lower-middle income (China and Guatemala and low income (Vietnam and Madagascar. Results show that there are important differences in the development of food retailing among studied countries. Furthermore

  14. Perceptions about high blood pressure among mexican american adults diagnosed with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Sara E; Zarate-Abbott, Perla R; Gillespie, Maria; Deliganis, Jean; Norgan, Gary H

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension affects approximately 73 million Americans. Clients and providers working together to control the disease can help prevent life-threatening illnesses. Patient perceptions about their illness can influence health behaviors, but little is known about the perceptions of Mexican American adults in relation to hypertension. This descriptive study used semistructured interviews to elicit Patient Explanatory Models of hypertension among 15 hypertensive Mexican American adults. Findings revealed that personal models of cause, treatment, and outcomes were often vague. This information can be useful for planning individual education and treatment that provides meaningful care.

  15. SES and CHAOS as environmental mediators of cognitive ability: A longitudinal genetic analysis☆

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Deckard, Kirby Deater; Thompson, Lee A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined shared environmental influences on the longitudinal stability of general cognitive ability, as mediated by socioeconomic status and chaos in the home, using 287 pairs of elementary school-age twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading Project (WRRP). General cognitive ability was evaluated at two annual assessments using the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. SES was examined using the highest level of education achieved by the mother of the twins, and chaos by a 6-item p...

  16. A Time Study of Scientists & Engineers (S&Es) in the Air Vehicles Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A TIME STUDY OF SCIENTISTS & ENGINEERS (S&Es) IN THE AIR VEHICLES DIRECTORATE JoAnn McCabe and Col John Wissler, USAF The Air Vehicles...Defense Acquisition University www.dau.mil Keywords: Time Study of Scientists and Engineers, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Research, Air...Force Research Laboratory Time Study , How Scientists and Engineers Spend Their Time, Technology-Focused Research Organizations, Value and Non-Value

  17. Normativa constitucional ambiental comparada de varios países sudamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyanira Gómez Salazar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Existen grandes avances en la normativa constitucional en los países del sur en cuanto a la protección ambiental, varios se destacan por sus innovaciones, mientras que otros aún poseen una normativa pobre y básica. Sin embargo, lo importante es su reglamentación y aplicación por las autoridades y los ciudadanos

  18. As NICSPs e a Contabilidade Governamental de Países em Desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Chan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de alcançarem metas socioeconômicas ambiciosas, países em desenvolvimento precisam desenvolver capacidade institucional no setor público para estabelecer e implementar políticas públicas, as quais, por sua vez, prescindem de uma reforma na sua contabilidade governamental. O valor social da reforma na contabilidade governamental repousa, portanto, na sua contribuição para as metas de desenvolvimento, inclusive de redução da pobreza. Essa fundamentação tem conduzido os doadores e os financiadores internacionais e multilaterais a endossar as Normas Internacionais de Contabilidade para o Setor Público (NICSPs e a sua adoção em países em desenvolvimento. A ênfase em assegurar a integridade financeira e a mudança para o regime de competência pode tornar as NICSPs mais úteis na reforma da contabilidade pública em países em desenvolvimento.

  19. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  20. Meningitis in a Canadian Adult due to High Level Penicillin-Resistant, Cefotaxime-Intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Tremblay

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive penicillin-resistant pneumococcal (PRSP infections are increasing worldwide. In Canada, the incidence of penicillin resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is estimated at greater than 6%. In Quebec, only one case of PRSP meningitis has been reported and involved an infant. An adult patient is described who presented with meningitis caused by high level penicillin-resistant, cefotaxime-intermediate S pneumoniae.

  1. High risk of adrenal insufficiency in adults previously treated for idiopathic childhood onset growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Svendsen, Ole Lander;

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to reevaluate a group of adults treated for idiopathic childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) after 18 yr without GH treatment. Twenty-six (11 females) patients participated. All but two had isolated GHD. Childhood diagnosis was established by insulin tolerance test (ITT). The patients w...

  2. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  3. Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young…

  4. High prevalence of incontinence among young adults with spina bifida : description, prediction and problem perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, M; Lurvink, M; Barf, HA; Post, MWM; van Asbeck, FWA; Gooskens, RHJM; Prevo, AJH

    2005-01-01

    design: Cross-sectional study. Objectives: To study the prevalence of incontinence, problem perception and determinants of urinary and faecal incontinence in young adults with spina bifida. Setting: Nation-wide study in the Netherlands. Participants: A total of 179 of 350 invited patients participat

  5. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  6. Do Delinquent Young Adults have a High or a Low Level of Self-concept?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Schoot, Rens; Wong, Thessa M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the levels of self-concept of delinquent young adults (n = 873). This question is of theoretical and practical importance, as therapeutic programs addressing the self-concept must be based on clear evidence. The present study demonstrated that self-concept is related to delinquen

  7. Le mahdi oublié de l'Inde britannique : Sayyid Ahmad Barelwî (1786-1831, ses disciples, ses adversaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gaborieau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tournant le dos aux interprétations nationalistes indiennes et pakistanaises, cet article restitue la dimension millénariste de la carrière de Sayyid Ahmad Barelwî (1786-1831. Ce soufi naqshbandi, qui fut successivement soldat de fortune et réformateur religieux, lança en 1826 un jihâd contre les Sikhs et contre la présence britannique en Inde. Il disparut mystérieusement lors d'une bataille, et ses disciples attendirent son retour comme mahdi pendant plus d'un demi-siècle. Cette ultime arrière messianique est interprétée en quatre étapes. Je montre d'abord comment le contexte politique et social favorisait le développement d'idées millénaristes. La mentalité religieuse de l'époque et la place qu'y occupait l'eschatologie sont ensuite étudiées. La carrière posthume de Sayyid Ahmad comme mahdi est ensuite restituée à travers les sources coloniales. Enfin l'examen de documents originaux en persan écrit avant la mort de Sayyid Ahmad corrigera cette image coloniale, tout en montrant que, déjà de son vivant, il était bien perçu par ses disciples comme une sorte de mahdi du milieu des temps, analogue à certains égards au mujaddid tek que le concevaient les Naqshbandis.

  8. Prevalence of parasitemia and associated immunodeficiency among HIV-malaria co-infected adult patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caroline E Omoti; Chiedozie K Ojide; Patrick V Lofor; Emeka Eze; Joy C Eze

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the malaria parasitemia,CD4+ cell counts and some haematological indices amongHIV-malaria co-infected adult patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).Methods:A total of342 adultHIV positive subjects were recruited at the consultant outpatientHIV/AIDS clinic,University ofBeninTeachingHospital,BeninCity,Nigeria between June2011 toNovember2011.Blood samples were taken for malaria parasite count,CD4+ cell count and other haematological counts.Results:Out of the342 adultHIV positive subjects a total of254 patients (74.3%) were found to have malaria parasitemia.The incidence of malaria parasitemia increased with advancing clinical stage ofHIV infection and this was statistically significant (P=0.002).There was no statistical significance when gender was compared with the HIV-malaria status (P>0.05).Of the254 co-infected patients,134 (52.8%) had high parasitemia (>1.25×109/L).Sixty patients were found to be hyperparasitemic (>2.5 parasites/L).There was a significant association betweenCD4+ cell count and having significant parasitemia (P 0.05).Conclusions:The prevalence of parasitemia is high among theHIV/AIDS infected patients.

  9. The Possible Role of Staphylococcus epidermidis LPxTG Surface Protein SesC in Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaparast, Laleh; Khodaparast, Ladan; Shahrooei, Mohammad; Stijlemans, Benoit; Merckx, Rita; Baatsen, Pieter; O'Gara, James P; Waters, Elaine; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Van Eldere, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common cause of device-associated infections. It has been shown that active and passive immunization in an animal model against protein SesC significantly reduces S. epidermidis biofilm-associated infections. In order to elucidate its role, knock-out of sesC or isolation of S. epidermidis sesC-negative mutants were attempted, however, without success. As an alternative strategy, sesC was introduced into Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 and its isogenic icaADBC and srtA mutants, into the clinical methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolate MSSA4 and the MRSA S. aureus isolate BH1CC, which all lack sesC. Transformation of these strains with sesC i) changed the biofilm phenotype of strains 8325-4 and MSSA4 from PIA-dependent to proteinaceous even though PIA synthesis was not affected, ii) converted the non-biofilm-forming strain 8325-4 ica::tet to a proteinaceous biofilm-forming strain, iii) impaired PIA-dependent biofilm formation by 8325-4 srtA::tet, iv) had no impact on protein-mediated biofilm formation of BH1CC and v) increased in vivo catheter and organ colonization by strain 8325-4. Furthermore, treatment with anti-SesC antibodies significantly reduced in vitro biofilm formation and in vivo colonization by these transformants expressing sesC. These findings strongly suggest that SesC is involved in S. epidermidis attachment to and subsequent biofilm formation on a substrate.

  10. Trajectories of BMI from early childhood through early adolescence: SES and psychosocial predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sean P; Bluestone, Cheryl; Burke, Christopher T

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the ways in which body mass index (BMI) percentile - an identified risk factor for overweight and cardiovascular disease in adulthood - develops from birth through early adolescence. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors, such as parenting style and maternal depression, mediated the link between socio-economic status (SES) and BMI growth. Design. Data were obtained from phases 1-3 of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) - a longitudinal study that followed children from 10 communities in the United States from birth to age 11. We applied growth mixture models to identify distinct subtypes of BMI development. Within these models, we performed between- and within-class mediation analyses to examine whether SES predicted class membership or differences in development within each class via maternal depression and parenting styles. Results identified three prototypic trajectories of BMI percentile growth, elevated, steady increase, and stable. We found evidence for both between- and within-class mediation, suggesting multiple pathways by which SES can affect BMI development. These findings add to the research that suggests that being in a family with a low SES is associated with falling into patterns of development characterized by early and lasting increases in BMI relative to one's peers, and that this association is partly accounted for by maternal depression and parenting styles. What is already known? Past research has found evidence that patterns of childhood overweight are impacted by socioeconomic status through psychosocial factors like parenting and depression. This evidence is often limited to individual points in time where neglectful, permissive, and authoritarian parenting and higher levels of maternal depression are associated with higher levels of overweight status among children from infancy to adolescence. However, little

  11. The impact of socioeconomic status on foodborne illness in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K L; Leon, J S; Rebolledo, P A; Scallan, E

    2015-09-01

    Foodborne illness is a major cause of morbidity and loss of productivity in developed nations. Although low socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with negative health outcomes, its impact on foodborne illness is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to examine the association between SES and laboratory-confirmed illness caused by eight important foodborne pathogens. We completed this systematic review using PubMed for all papers published between 1 January 1980 and 1 January 2013 that measured the association between foodborne illness and SES in highly developed countries and identified 16 studies covering four pathogens. The effect of SES varied across pathogens: the majority of identified studies for Campylobacter, salmonellosis, and E. coli infection showed an association between high SES and illness. The single study of listeriosis showed illness was associated with low SES. A reporting bias by SES could not be excluded. SES should be considered when targeting consumer-level public health interventions for foodborne pathogens.

  12. Perfil de mercado de la Unión Europea y los países de la EFTA

    OpenAIRE

    Casadiego, Vanessa; Villegas, Melissa; Beltrán, Paula Daniela

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de grado busca evaluar el perfil del mercado de la Unión Europea y los países de la EFTA para identificar las oportunidades comerciales de Colombia, más específicamente en los siguientes países: Suiza, Noruega, Liechtenstein, Islandia, Republica Checa, Rumania y Suecia. A través de esta investigación se realizó un análisis de los 25 productos más exportados de Colombia a cada uno de los países estudiados, tomando en cuenta sus códigos arancelarios. Adicionalmente, se e...

  13. Prevalence of and factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    To analyze factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure among adults in Brazilian state capitals. The study uses data from Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel - Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases by Telephone Survey) collected in 2013. Prevalence rates and their respective 95% confidence intervals by gender were estimated according to sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, reported noncommunicable diseases and self-rated health status. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to identify variables associated with self-reported high blood pressure with α Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) coletados no ano de 2013. Foram estimadas as prevalências e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança 95% por sexo segundo variáveis sociodemográficas, estilos de vida, doenças crônicas relatadas e avaliação do estado de saúde. Modelagem de regressão logística multivariada foi utilizada para identificar as variáveis associadas à hipertensão arterial autorreferida com α < 0,05. A prevalência de hipertensão arterial autorreferida entre os adultos residentes nas capitais brasileiras e Distrito Federal foi de 24,1%. Foram identificadas as seguintes associações com hipertensão arterial autorreferida: faixa etária, tomando 18 a 24 anos como referência, todas as faixas etárias apresentaram maior chance - de 25 a 34 anos (RC = 2,6; IC95% 2,0-3,4) até 65 anos ou mais (RC = 28,1; IC95% 21,7-36,4); baixa escolaridade (9 a 11 anos de estudo - RC = 0,8; IC95% 0,7-0,9; e 12 anos ou mais - RC = 0,6; IC95% 0,6-0,7); raça/cor da pele preta (RC = 1,3; IC95% 1,1-1,5); ser ex-fumante (RC = 1,2; IC95% 1,1-1,3); obesidade (RC = 2,7; IC95% 2,4-3,0); diabetes (RC = 2,9; IC95% 2,5-3,5); e colesterol elevado (RC = 1,9; IC95% 1,8-2,2). Cerca de um quarto da

  14. Factors affecting food choices of older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Healthiness, price, and convenience are typically indicated as important motives for food choices; however, it is largely unknown to what extent older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups differ in these underlying motives. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is an innovative way to elicit implicit motives for food choices. The aim was to investigate differences in food motives between socioeconomic groups by means of a DCE. A DCE was carried out during a face-to-face interview among older adults as part of the Health and Living Conditions in Eindhoven and surrounding cities (GLOBE) cohort study, The Netherlands. Participants (n = 399; mean age: 63.3 y) were offered a series of choice sets about a usual dinner at home and were asked to choose in each choice set between 2 meals and an opt-out choice, with different combinations of attribute levels. We included 5 meal attributes (taste, healthiness, preparation time, travel time to shops, and price) and 3 or 4 levels for each attribute. Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to the grocery store proved to significantly influence older adults' meal decisions; preparation time was not significant. Healthiness was the most important attribute for all of the participants. More highly educated participants rated a healthy and less expensive meal to be more important than did less educated participants. Those with a high income rated a meal that was healthy and very tasteful to be more important than did those with a lower income. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to grocery shops influenced older adults' meal decisions. Higher socioeconomic groups valued health more than did lower socioeconomic groups. DCEs represent a promising method to gain insight into the relative importance of motives for food choices. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN60293770. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  16. Perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells From the Adult Human Brain Harbor No Instrinsic Neuroectodermal but High Mesodermal Differentiation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojewski, Xenia; Srimasorn, Sumitra; Rauh, Juliane; Francke, Silvan; Wobus, Manja; Taylor, Verdon; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Hallmeyer-Elgner, Susanne; Kirsch, Matthias; Schwarz, Sigrid; Schwarz, Johannes; Storch, Alexander; Hermann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    potential in vitro and in vivo after in utero transplantation. This study showed the lack of an innate neuronal but high mesodermal differentiation potential. Because of their relationship to mesenchymal stem cells, these adult brain perivascular mesodermal cells are of great interest for possible autologous therapeutic use. ©AlphaMed Press.

  17. High risk of adrenal insufficiency in adults previously treated for idiopathic childhood onset growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Svendsen, Ole Lander;

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to reevaluate a group of adults treated for idiopathic childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) after 18 yr without GH treatment. Twenty-six (11 females) patients participated. All but two had isolated GHD. Childhood diagnosis was established by insulin tolerance test (ITT). The patients...... were retested with an ITT to evaluate adult GH status. In five patients, an arginine and a synacthen test were performed instead of an ITT. Eleven of 25 patients had a subnormal cortisol response to ITT or synacthen. Ten patients had a GH peak less than 3.0 microg/liter (0.5. +/- 0.5 microg....../liter), whereas 16 patients displayed a normal GH response (12.3 +/- 10.6 microg/liter) after ITT. IGF-I values were decreased in the patients with a pathological retest as well as in patients with a normal GH response compared with controls (P

  18. Adult Javanese migrants to Indonesian Papua at high risk of severe disease caused by malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J K; Basri, H; Weina, P; MaGuire, J D; Barcus, M J; Picarema, H; Elyazar, I R F; Ayomi, E; Sekartuti

    2003-08-01

    Migrants from Java arrive in hyperendemic Papua, Indonesia lacking exposure to endemic malaria. We evaluated records of evacuation to hospital with a diagnosis of severe malaria from a transmigration village in northeastern Papua. During the first 30 months, 198 residents with severe disease were evacuated (7.5 evacuations/100 person-years). During this period the risk of evacuation for adults (> 15 years of age) was 2.8. (95% CI = 2.1-3.8; P 16; 95% CI > or = 2.0-129; P = 0.0009), and diminished during the second 6 months (RR = 9.4; 95% CI = 2.7-32.8; P < 0.0001) and the third 6 months (RR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.7-7.9; P = 0.0004). During the next two 6-month intervals, the RR for adults was 1.6 and 1.5 (95 % CI range 0.8-2.6; P < 0.18). Adults lacking chronic exposure were far more likely to progress to severe disease compared to children during initial exposure, but not after chronic exposure to infection.

  19. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high-nitrate supplement but not by high-nitrate foods in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gary D; Marsh, Anthony P; Dove, Robin W; Beavers, Daniel; Presley, Tennille; Helms, Christine; Bechtold, Erika; King, S Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/nitric oxide cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs high-nitrate diet, with and without a high-nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics and blood pressure using a randomized 4-period crossover controlled design. We hypothesized that the high-nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and lower blood pressure compared with the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were 8 normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5 ± 4.7 years old) with no overt disease or medications that affect nitric oxide metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured before and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet + supplement (P < .001 and P = .017 for nitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high-nitrate diet + supplement (P = .001 and P = .002), but not for control diet (P = .713 and P = .741) or high-nitrate diet (P = .852 and P = .500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2-hour postmeal follow-up time points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high-nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction.

  20. Independence of hot and cold executive function deficits in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laird Zimmerman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD display diverse deficits in social, cognitive and behavioral functioning. To date, there has been mixed findings on the profile of executive function deficits for high-functioning adults (IQ >70 with ASD. A conceptual distinction is commonly made between cold and hot executive functions. Cold executive functions refer to mechanistic higher-order cognitive operations (e.g., working memory, whereas hot executive functions entail cognitive abilities supported by emotional awareness and social perception (e.g., social cognition. This study aimed to determine the independence of deficits in hot and cold executive functions for high-functioning adults with ASD. Forty-two adults with ASD (64% male, aged 18-66 years and 40 age and gender matched controls were administered The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; emotion recognition and social inference, Letter Number Sequencing (working memory and Hayling Sentence Completion Test (response initiation and suppression. Between-group analyses identified that the ASD group performed significantly worse than matched controls on all measures of cold and hot executive functions (d = .54-1.5. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the ASD sample performed more poorly on emotion recognition and social inference tasks than matched controls after controlling for cold executive functions and employment status. The findings also indicated that the ability to recognise emotions and make social inferences was supported by working memory and response initiation and suppression processes. Overall, this study supports the distinction between hot and cold executive function impairments for adults with ASD. Moreover, it advances understanding of higher-order impairments underlying social interaction difficulties for this population which, in turn, may assist with diagnosis and inform intervention programs.

  1. Emotion Perception Mediates the Predictive Relationship between Verbal Ability and Functional Outcome in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Sadao; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Zhao, Shuo; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify specific cognitive abilities that predict functional outcome in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to clarify the contribution of those abilities and their relationships. In total, 41 adults with ASD performed cognitive tasks in a broad range of neuro- and social cognitive…

  2. [The Discursive Analysis of Mental Health Promotion Efforts Targeting Community-Dwelling Young Adults at High Risk of Mental Illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Der-Yun; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Ma, Wei-Fen

    2015-08-01

    The mental health of adolescents and young adults is an issue of concern worldwide due to the increase in violent incidents that have been perpetrated by members of this age group. Young people at high-risk of mental disability are easily ignored. Therefore, social tensions in society have increased due to safety issues arising from the problems that are associated with mental disabilities in this population. This paper discusses the importance of early identification and early prevention of mental disabilities in high-risk young people, defines high-risk mental illness, and identifies the various subcategories of mental diseases. Based on our review of the literature, the present paper suggests targeting young people in high-risk categories with health promotion that addresses the following six health-promotion lifestyle habits: engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, managing stress, engaging in social relationships, taking responsibility for personal health, and fulfilling self-actualization. This discursive analysis discusses these strategies as safe and sustained interventions for adolescents and young adults that may improve self-awareness and thus maintain health and enhance opportunities to promote an ideal health status.

  3. Renacimiento cultural en los países árabes: nacimiento del teatro

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Renau, María del Mar

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio del origen del Teatro en el mundo árabe. Después del letargo cultural en el que se vieron sumidos los países árabes por el fenómeno de expansión turco-otomano, Egipto y Siria, en el siglo XIX, encabezaron un movimiento literario con la llegada de la Nahda (Renacimiento cultural) que trajo como consecuencia un proceso de transformación político-social, cultural y económico. Esto dio lugar, entre otras cosas, al nacimiento del Teatro que desde Egipto...

  4. Tendencias en la calidad de vida en países con dependencia mineral

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo describir tendencias a partir de algunos indicadores de calidad de vida en el conjunto de países de dependencia mineral. A partir de gráficos Box-Plot e índices de correlación, se procedió a la descripción de tendencias estadísticas para realizar precisiones en torno a la calidad de vida -analizada a través del índice de desarrollo humano [ÍDH] y componentes- y variables económicas [exportaciones minerales como porcentaje del total de exportaciones y de...

  5. Vulnerabilidades urbanas en los países andinos. Introducción general

    OpenAIRE

    D’Ercole, Robert; Hardy, Sébastien; Metzger, Pascale; Robert, Jérémy

    2014-01-01

    1. Vulnerabilidades urbanas Este número temático del Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines pretende ser una contribución al conocimiento de la vulnerabilidad urbana de tres países andinos: Bolivia, el Ecuador y el Perú. La vulnerabilidad urbana se entiende como la dificultad de las ciudades para anticipar y enfrentar fenómenos físicos o antrópicos (sismos, inundaciones, deslizamientos de tierra, incendios, explosiones o contaminaciones, etc.) capaces de causar daños, pero también p...

  6. Roncayolo, Marcel. La ville et ses territoires. París: Gallimard, 1997. 285 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patricia Sánchez García

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La ville et ses territoires fue publicado por primera vez en 1978, época marcada por la crisis de la teoría y de la práctica del urbanismo tras el cambio de las es-tructuras urbanas imperantes en los años cincuenta y sesenta, caracterizados por el auge y expansión capita- listas. El momento histórico en el que surge este libro está marcado por un contexto de crisis económica que obligó a su autor a repensar múltiples aspectos de la vida social, entre ellos, el urbano.

  7. Bilinguality and SES: approaching non-singular factor to a childs cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Rumentha Simanjuntak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Article attempted to argue that bilingualism have positive contributions toward a childs cognitive development. By applying library research the discussion is focused on the contribution bilingualism had in mitigating socioeconomic detrimental effects on a childs learning. Article started with discussing aspects of cognition, especially those shown through speech productions, of a bilingual child, then moving forward to discuss previous findings and arguments from the research pertaining to the issue of low socioeconomic status (henceforth SES and cognition. Finally, the discussion concluded that bilingualism should be discussed as a complex system of learning and not as separate strands of a childs learning.

  8. Países emergentes: polémica marxismo-institucionalismo

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se parte de la premisa de que el problema de la relación agencia-estructura o sujeto-estructura social resulta crucial para entender el momento actual del despliegue de la nueva fase de desarrollo o capitalismo del conocimiento, posterior a la reciente crisis global de 2007-2009, que expresa la contradicción entre el neoliberalismo, como proyección político-ideológica, y una nueva base tecnológico-productiva; así como la cuestión de la diferenciación de los países en desarroll...

  9. Panorama tributario de los países centroamericanos y opciones de reforma

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel R. Agosin; Alberto Daniel Barreix; Roberto Machado; Juan C. Gómez Sabaini

    2004-01-01

    Este estudio resume las conclusiones principales del proyecto "Reforma tributaria para el desarrollo humano en América Central y República Dominicana". Los países centroamericanos han realizado importantes mejoras en sus sistemas tributarios desde comienzos de la década del noventa. La carga tributaria (recaudación como porcentaje del PIB) ha aumentado, pero es aún baja para las necesidades de desarrollo de la región. Además, los sistemas tributarios todavía se encuentras rezagados con respec...

  10. Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Report from a Community-Based Survey in Jiaxing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingling Chen

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations of socioeconomic status (SES with intensity of different types of physical activity (PA in Chinese adults, aimed at outlining and projecting socioeconomic disparities in PA among the population undergoing a rapid nutrition transition.A community-based survey was conducted among 3,567 residents aged 30-65 years old in Jiaxing, China, in 2010. SES and PA were assessed by a structured questionnaire. SES was assessed as socioeconomic index (SEI score based on self-reported educational attainment, household income and occupation. Metabolic equivalents (METs were calculated for each subject to quantify the total amount of PA from occupation, exercise, transportation and housework.Intensity of overall PA in this population was 165 MET-hours/week, in which energy expenditure in occupational PA accounted for 82%. Both types and intensity of PA were significantly different by SES: middle SES groups had higher intensity of occupational activities; lower SES subjects engaged in more household work; whereas higher SES subjects were more likely to exercise, more active during commuting and had longer sedentary time. All the three components of SES, education attainment, income and occupation, contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population.Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic inequalities in PA among Chinese adults in Jiaxing, a typical city experiencing a rapid urbanization in China. There is an urgent need to promote leisure-time activities in this population.

  11. Engaging older adults in high impact volunteering that enhances health: recruitment and retention in The Experience Corps Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Iveris L; Frick, Kevin; Glass, Thomas A; Carlson, Michelle; Tanner, Elizabeth; Ricks, Michelle; Fried, Linda P

    2006-09-01

    Engagement in social and generative activities has benefits for the well-being of older adults; hence, methods for broadly engaging them in such activities are desired. Experience Corps Baltimore, a social model for health promotion for older adult volunteers in public schools, offers insight to such successful recruitment and retention. We report on data over a 4-year period in Baltimore City, Maryland, and describe a five-stage screening process implemented to recruit a diverse group of senior volunteers who would remain in the program for at least 1 year. The sample consisted of 443 older adults expressing an interest in and screened for volunteering. Comparisons were made with Chi-square and Fisher's t-test between those who entered the program and those who did not and those who were retained in the program. Gender, race, age group, and prior volunteering were significant in ultimate volunteer service in the schools. Overall, 38% of 443 persons recruited entered the schools; 94% of participants were over 60 years (p = 0.05) with a mean age of 69 years; 90% were women (p = 0.03), and 93% African-American (p = 0.005); 57% had not volunteered in the past year (p = 0.004). Ninety-two percent were retained in the first year; 80% returned a second year. Among the latter, 83% had volunteering regardless of baseline MMSE score, self-reported health, and motivation for volunteering. In conclusion, it is possible to recruit and retain a diverse pool of older adults to participate in a high-intensity volunteer program, including non-traditional volunteers. Of special note is the success in recruiting African-American women and those with lower education, who may particularly benefit from health promotion.

  12. Utilization of 3-Month Yoga Program for Adults at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongra Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various modes of physical activity, combined with dieting, have been widely recommended to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. Among these, yoga holds promise for reducing risk factors for type 2 diabetes by promoting weight loss, improving glucose levels and reducing blood pressure and lipid levels. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of implementing a 12-week yoga program among adults at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Twenty-three adults (19 Whites and 4 non-Whites were randomly assigned to the yoga intervention group or the educational group. The yoga group participated in a 3-month yoga intervention with sessions twice per week and the educational group received general health educational materials every 2 weeks. All participants completed questionnaires and had blood tests at baseline and at the end of 3 months. Effect sizes were reported to summarize the efficacy of the intervention. All participants assigned to the yoga intervention completed the yoga program without complication and expressed high satisfaction with the program (99.2%. Their yoga session attendance ranged from 58.3 to 100%. Compared with the education group, the yoga group experienced improvements in weight, blood pressure, insulin, triglycerides and exercise self-efficacy indicated by small to large effect sizes. This preliminary study indicates that a yoga program would be a possible risk reduction option for adults at high risk for type 2 diabetes. In addition, yoga holds promise as an approach to reducing cardiometabolic risk factors and increasing exercise self-efficacy for this group.

  13. High serum total cholesterol--an indicator for monitoring cholesterol lowering efforts: U.S. adults, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Susan E; Carroll, Margaret D; Lacher, David A; Hirsch, Rosemarie

    2007-12-01

    Elevated serum total cholesterol is a major and modifiable risk factor for heart disease, the lead-ing cause of death in the United States (1,2). Reducing mean total serum cholesterol levels among adults to less than 200 mg/dL and reducing the proportion who have levels of 240 mg/dL or higher to less than 17% are national Healthy People 2010 objectives (3). Age-adjusted mean serum cholesterol levels among adults aged 20-74 years declined from 222 mg/dL in 1960-1962 to 203 mg/dL in 1999-2002 (4). Among adults aged 20 years and older, the percent of the population with high serum total cholesterol levels (240 mg/dL or higher) declined from 20% during 1988-1994 to 17% during 1999-2002 (4). In individual patients, a high serum total cholesterol level indicates a potential increased risk for heart disease, but further evaluation of other risk factors and the specific components of cholesterol provide the basis for determining the need for initiating therapeutic lifestyle changes or treatment with medication (5). Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) is the cholesterol component associated with arterial blockage, and it is the primary clinical target for cholesterol management. High-density-lipoprotein (HDL) may help to protect individuals from developing heart disease. In populations, comparisons of total cholesterol levels over time can show if population groups are experiencing improvement in cholesterol levels, and knowledge of trends in levels of total cholesterol can help identify subgroups where additional prevention efforts may be needed.

  14. Statin use in adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease mortality: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Catriona

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to examine the extent to which statins are used by adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to European clinical guidelines. The high-risk groups examined are those with (1) known CVD, (2) known diabetes and (3) a high or very high risk (≥5%) of CVD mortality based on Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE).

  15. Hydrates removal during the exploration evaluation of the 3-SES-149A well; Remocao de hidrato na avaliacao exploratoria do poco 3-SES-149A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Filho, Armando F.; Franco, Marcus L. de A. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Luiz A.Q.M. [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The 3-SES-149A well, at a water depth of 1164 meters, is part of the SEAL-100 block located offshore of the State of Sergipe. The objective of the intervention was to evaluate the 3674-3682 meters interval of the Riachuelo Formation. Bottom hole gauges and real time data transmission to the surface were deployed for this test, during which the target interval produced gas and condensate, without any evidence of formation of hydrate at the surface. After the test, while pulling out the electrical cable with the Link Running Tool, it got stuck close to the subsea well-test tree at a depth of 1257 meters. The formation of hydrate not only kept the cable from moving up, but also rendered impossible the reverse circulation in the column and consequently pulling out the test string. Removing the hydrate would allow releasing the logging cable, thus enabling fluid circulation in the string and its safe retrieval. The goal was achieved via the injection of solvent through the subsea well-test tree, drilling fluid circulation through the annulus above the BOP, and fluid circulation on the top of the hydrate plug through Coiled Tubing. The greatest challenge was running the Coiled Tubing in the string with the electrical cable inside. (author)

  16. Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults.

  17. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  18. Long-Term High-Effort Endurance Exercise in Older Adults: Diminishing Returns for Cognitive and Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeremy C; Dowell, Nicholas G; Watt, Peter W; Tabet, Naji; Rusted, Jennifer M

    2016-10-01

    While there is evidence that age-related changes in cognitive performance and brain structure can be offset by increased exercise, little is known about the impact long-term high-effort endurance exercise has on these functions. In a cross-sectional design with 12-month follow-up, we recruited older adults engaging in high-effort endurance exercise over at least 20 years, and compared their cognitive performance and brain structure with a nonsedentary control group similar in age, sex, education, IQ, and lifestyle factors. Our findings showed no differences on measures of speed of processing, executive function, incidental memory, episodic memory, working memory, or visual search for older adults participating in long-term high-effort endurance exercise, when compared without confounds to nonsedentary peers. On tasks that engaged significant attentional control, subtle differences emerged. On indices of brain structure, long-term exercisers displayed higher white matter axial diffusivity than their age-matched peers, but this did not correlate with indices of cognitive performance.

  19. Nonsurgical treatment of adult open bite using edgewise appliance combined with high-pull headgear and class III elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Isao; Yamaki, Masaki; Hanada, Kooji

    2005-03-01

    This case report describes the effect of a combination of high-pull headgear and Class III elastics on the nonsurgical treatment of an adult open bite. The 19-year 1-month-old Japanese female presented with the anterior open bite of 4.0 mm and mild crowding. She had a skeletal Class II but a Class III molar relationship due to a severe proclination of the mandibular dental arch. Unilateral congenital missing premolars caused a discrepancy between the facial and dental midline. After extraction of two premolars and the impacted mandibular third molars, nonsurgical therapy was performed using the standard edgewise appliance combined with a high-pull headgear and Class III elastics. The successful treatment outcome and stability of the final occlusion indicates that a combination of high-pull headgear and Class III elastics is one of the effective devices in the nonsurgical treatment of open bite and, is especially helpful in uprighting the mandibular dental arch.

  20. High dose methylphenidate treatment in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebrenz Michael

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stimulant medication improves hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity in both pediatric and adult populations with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. However, data regarding the optimal dosage in adults is still limited. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian patient who was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder when he was nine years old. He then received up to 10 mg methylphenidate (Ritalin® and 20 mg sustained-release methylphenidate (Ritalin SR® daily. When he was 13, his medication was changed to desipramine (Norpramin®, and both Ritalin® and Ritalin SR® were discontinued; and at age 18, when he developed obsessive-compulsive symptoms, his medication was changed to clomipramine (Anafranil® 75 mg daily. Still suffering from inattention and hyperactivity, the patient began college when he was 19, but did not receive stimulant medication until three years later, when Ritalin® 60 mg daily was re-established. During the 14 months that followed, he began to use Ritalin® excessively, both orally and rectally, in dosages from 4800-6000 mg daily. Four years ago, he was referred to our outpatient service, where his Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was re-evaluated. At that point, the patient’s daily Ritalin® dosage was reduced to 200 mg daily orally, but he still experienced pronounced symptoms of, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder so this dosage was raised again. The patient’s plasma levels consistently remained between 60–187 nmol/l—within the recommended range—and signs of his obsessive-compulsive symptoms diminished with fluoxetine 40 mg daily. Finally, on a dosage of 378 mg extended-release methylphenidate (Concerta®, his symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have improved dramatically and no further use of methylphenidate has been recorded during the 24 months preceding this report. Conclusions Symptoms of

  1. Race and health profiles in the United States: an examination of the social gradient through the 2009 CHIS adult survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A B; Moser, R; Chou, W-Y

    2014-12-01

    To examine the role of the social gradient on multiple health outcomes and behaviors. It was predicted that higher levels of SES, measured by educational attainment and family income, would be associated with positive health behaviors (i.e., smoking, drinking, physical activity, and diet) and health status (i.e., limited physical activity due to chronic condition, blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, BMI, and perceived health condition). The study also examined the differential effects of the social gradient in health among different racial/ethnic groups (i.e., non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, Asian, Hispanics, and American Indians). Cross-sectional study. The data were from the adult 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Weighted multivariable linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine trends found between SES and health conditions and health behaviors. Polynomial trends were examined for all linear and logistic models to test for the possible effects (linear, quadratic, and cubic) of the social gradient on health behaviors and outcomes stratified by race/ethnicity. Findings indicated that, in general, Whites had more favorable health profiles in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups with the exception of Asians who were likely to be as healthy as or healthier than Whites. Predicted marginals indicated that Asians in the upper two strata of social class display the healthiest outcomes of health status among all other racial/ethnic groups. Also, the social gradient was differentially associated with health outcomes across race/ethnicity groups. While the social gradient was most consistently observed for Whites, education did not have the same protective effect on health among Blacks and American Indians. Also, compared to other minority groups, Hispanics and Asians were more likely to display curvilinear trends of the social gradient: an initial increase from low SES to mid-level SES was associated with worse health outcomes and

  2. [Physical performance of older adults living in rural areas at sea level and at high altitude in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estela-Ayamamani, David; Espinoza-Figueroa, Jossué; Columbus-Morales, Mauricio; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando; Parodi, José F; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-01-01

    Living at high altitudes requires the inhabitants to adapt biologically and socially to the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in physical performance (PP) in rural populations at sea level and at high altitude. A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural communities in Ancash, Peru, located at 3.345 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) and also in communities located in coastal areas at 6m.a.s.l. PP was measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and other associated factors. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated. A total of 130 older adults were assessed in the high altitude communities and 129 on the coast. The median age was 71.4 years, and 55.6% were female. Low physical performance (SPPB ≤ 6) was 10.0% at high altitude and 19.4% on the coast (p<0.05). Factors associated with low physical performance were residing at the coast (aPR: 2.10, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.33), self-reported poor health (aPR: 2.48, 95% CI 1.21 -5.08), hypertension (aPR: 1.73, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.98), and age (aPR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07), while being a farmer (aPR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.97), and being independent (aPR: 0.37, 95% CI 0,20-, 072) were found to be protective factors. It was also found that the inhabitants of the coast have a mean of 0.86 points lower total SPPB than the high altitude ones (p=0.004). There is an association between altitude of residence and PP in older adults. The prevalence of a low PP in older adults in rural areas at sea level is twice as high compared to those living in high altitude rural communities. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactive effects of chronic stress and a high-sucrose diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Cuevas-Romero, Estela; Luna-Moreno, Dalia; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2017-10-02

    Glucocorticoids have been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The influence of a palatable diet on the response to stress is controversial. This study explored whether a high-sucrose diet could protect from hepatic steatosis induced by chronic restraint stress in young adult rats. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were allocated into four groups (n = 6-8 per group): control, chronic restraint stress, 30% sucrose diet, and 30% sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress. After being exposed to either tap water or sucrose solution during eight weeks, half of the rats belonging to each group were subject or not to repeated restraint stress (1 h per day, 5 days per week) during four weeks. Triacylglycerol (TAG), oxidative stress, activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1), infiltration of immune cells, and glycogen amount in the liver were quantified. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and testosterone were also measured. The stressed group showed normal serum concentrations of corticosterone and did not have hepatic steatosis. However, this group showed increased glycogen, inflammation, mild fibrosis, oxidative stress, and a high activity of 11β-HSD-1 in the liver. The group exposed to the high-sucrose diet had lower concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis and moderate fibrosis. The group subject to high-sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress showed low concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and high concentrations of testosterone. Thus, restraint stress and a high-sucrose diet each generate different components of nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult rats. The combination of both the factors could promote a faster development of NAFLD.

  4. Usefulness of the Seattle Heart Failure Model to identify adults with congenital heart disease at high risk of poor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Ada; Macklin, Eric A; Lin, Elaine; Dudzinski, David M; Johnson, Jacob; Kennedy, Kevin F; Jacoby, Daniel; DeFaria Yeh, Doreen; Lewis, Gregory D; Yeh, Robert W; Liberthson, Richard; Lui, George; Bhatt, Ami B

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) differentiates patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) at high versus low risk for cardiovascular outcomes and poor exercise capacity. The ACHD population is growing and presents increasingly for care in the community and at tertiary centers. Few strategies exist to identify the patients with ACHD at high risk for heart failure and mortality.We studied 153 adults with transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, and single ventricle from 2 ACHD centers. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death, with a secondary composite outcome of death, transplant, ventricular assist device, cardiovascular admission, and treatment for arrhythmia. We defined risk groups based on SHFM 5-year predicted survival: high (predicted survival risk (>85%). Ten patients had the primary outcome of death, and 46 the combined end point. The hazard of death in the SHFM high- versus the intermediate-risk group was 7.09 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 33.4, p = 0.01; no deaths in the low-risk group) and the hazard of the composite outcome between the high- versus low-risk group was 6.64 (95% confidence interval 2.5 to 17.6, p = 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed greater probability of all-cause mortality (p = 0.003) in the high-risk group. In conclusion, the SHFM can help identify subjects with ACHD at risk for adverse outcome and poor cardiopulmonary efficiency. This may add to the care of patients with ACHD in the community and streamline care at tertiary centers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Países emergentes: polémica marxismo-institucionalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ordóñez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se parte de la premisa de que el problema de la relación agencia-estructura o sujeto-estructura social resulta crucial para entender el momento actual del despliegue de la nueva fase de desarrollo o capitalismo del conocimiento, posterior a la reciente crisis global de 2007-2009, que expresa la contradicción entre el neoliberalismo, como proyección político-ideológica, y una nueva base tecnológico-productiva; así como la cuestión de la diferenciación de los países en desarrollo en "exitosos" y "retardatarios". El institucionalismo y el marxismo de Gramsci han propuesto soluciones a la dicotomía agente-estructura bajo presupuestos teóricos muy diferentes tratando, el primero, de explicar la cuestión de la diferenciación de los países. Aquí se proporcionan elementos de una explicación alternativa, a partir de la solución gramsciana.

  6. Parental Participation and School Based Management in Nicaragua: An SES Analysis of Differentiated Parent Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, school-based management and decentralization have emerged as an important tool of education policy. The presumed benefits of school-based management designs depend, in large part, on broad parental participation in the programs that governments create to devolve decision making related to schooling. However, few studies examine the circumstances under which parents actually participate in newly established decentralized education programs. This article sheds partial light on these conditions by employing a socioeconomic status (SES perspective to examine school-based management reform in Nicaragua. Using data derived from five newly autonomous schools, the study compares parents’ self-reported levels of income, education, and community crime rates with their propensity to participate in newly formed school councils. Results give partial support to an SES hypothesis by revealing that parents who live in communities where violence is endemic participate less in the school councils. Findings support the argument that for decentralized education programs to be successful on equity issues, policy planners must attend to these socio-structural circumstances by providing commensurate support mechanisms that encourage marginal households and communities to participate in the new program.

  7. EL BALANCE VIDA-TRABAJO EN LAS ORGANIZACIONES DE DIFERENTES PAÍSES DEL MUNDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Guadalupe Parada Ruiz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios sociales, demográficos y económicos en el mundo han generado nuevos desafíos para las organizaciones en su búsqueda de la productividad y competitividad. Estos cambios afectan el equilibrio de la vida personal y laboral de los colaboradores incidiendo en su desempeño organizacional. El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar un análisis de la situación que presentan las organizaciones de diferentes países de Asia, África, Europa y América en relación al balance vida-trabajo y emitir recomendaciones que permitan a las organizaciones implementar políticas realmente efectivas que les generaran beneficios en términos de productividad y desempeño. Los resultados de la revisión permitieron concluir que existen diferencias significativas respecto del entorno cultural, económico y legal de los países analizados. Para que las intervenciones organizacionales que se implementen en la búsqueda del mejoramiento del balance vida-trabajo sean efectivas, es necesario adecuarlas al contexto general del país en el cual se pretenden implementar.

  8. El derecho como promotor de inversiones en países de Latinoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Estigarribia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza, desde la perspectiva del caso paraguayo, como una legislación interna de aplicación nacional que sea promotora e incentivadora a la inversión local y extranjera, sumada a un marco jurídico internacional e institucional adecuado que otorgue, a través de los mecanismos de resolución alternativa de controversias como son la mediación y el arbitraje, confianza y seguridad a los inversores, tanto nacionales como extranjeros, en una región de escasa percepción de seguridad jurídica y de adecuadas garantías a los inversionistas, como lo es la integrada por los países latinoamericanos, puede contribuir en forma decisiva y fundamental para promover y mejorar el nivel de inversiones en un país determinado. Asimismo se formulan sugerencias y conclusiones para mejorar la estructura legal e institucional para la promoción de las inversiones en los países latinoamericanos que integran el MERCOSUR y la UNASUR.

  9. High Prevalence of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Adult Patients with Bronchiectasis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duignan, N

    2016-07-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is frequently under-reported in patients with chronic lung disease and may have negative psychosocial consequences. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence, severity and treatment outcomes of SUI in female bronchiectasis patients referred for airway clearance techniques. Nineteen out of 40 (48%) patients reported SUI symptoms. Of these, 14 (74%) reported a reduced quality of life secondary to SUI. Following personalised intervention, symptom improvement was observed in 13\\/19 (68%). Five out of 19 (26%) required specialist referral for further continence care. No associations with lung disease severity and SUI were noted. SUI is common in adult female bronchiectasis patients and should be routinely screened for to improve patients’ overall quality of life.

  10. Creatine kinase response to high-intensity aerobic exercise in adult-onset muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren P; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Hansen, Regitze S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies.......We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies....

  11. Low-load high-repetition resistance training improves strength and gait speed in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Vaughan P; McKean, Mark R; Burkett, Brendan J

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effect of 26 weeks of low-load high-repetition resistance training (BodyPump™) on maximal strength, gait speed, balance and self-reported health status in healthy, active middle-aged and older adults. Two-group randomised control trial. Sixty-eight apparently healthy, active adults aged over 55 years completed either 26 weeks of BodyPump™ training (PUMP) or served as control participants (CON). The BodyPump™ group (n = 32, age = 66 ± 4 years) trained twice per week for 26 weeks while the control group (n = 36, age = 66 ± 5 years) continued with their normal activities. Leg-press and Smith-machine bench-press one repetition maximum (1RM), gait speed, balance, and self-reported health status were all assessed at baseline and follow-up. Significant group-by-time interactions in favour of the BodyPump™ group were found for leg-press 1RM (PUMP + 13%, CON + 3%, p = 0.007, partial eta(2) = 0.11), Smith-machine bench-press 1RM (PUMP + 14%, CON +5%, p = 0.001, partial eta(2) = 0.18), normal gait speed (PUMP + 23%, CON +9 %, p = 0.028, partial eta(2) = 0.08) and single leg balance right (PUMP + 24%, CON - 7%, p = 0.006, partial eta(2) = 0.12). There were no group-by-time interactions for health status measures. Three participants in the BodyPump™ group withdrew from training due to injury or fear of injury related to training. Low-load high-repetition resistance training in the form of BodyPump™ is effective at improving maximal strength, gait speed and some aspects of standing balance in adults over 55 years. The training was well tolerated by the majority of participants. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of intensive high performance training on adult height of female artistic gymnasts: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Alves FERREIRA-FILHO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the potential impact of the high performance training on the anthropometric and maturational characteristics of female artistic gymnasts and to compare the adult target height with international standards of growth. A sample consisted of 23 elite Brazilian female former gymnasts was evaluated. From a historic retrospective, about 29.56 yrs. ago (average of all they devoted themselves to the training for 9.3 (2.6 years, with a weekly 24.26 (4.2 training hours, and had been retired from competition around at 13.61 (5.12 years old. From the anthropometric data of the gymnasts (while still competing, their parents and their older sister (1 and younger sister (2, the target height was calculated by Tanner method {[(father’s height -13 cm + mother’s height] ÷ 2}. Additionally, training history, age of menarche occurrence, and growth classifying in accordance with the international standards was recorded, aimed at comparisons. The average stature shown normal adult stature (NCHS, and some cases surpassed the standard 75th, 90th and 95th percentile. They are higher than their mother (p = 0.039, but not their sister 1 (0.952 or sister 2 (p = 0.998, but the age of menarche was significantly later only than their sisters 1 (p = 0.008 and 2 (p = 0.017. According to the Brazilian percentiles reference (IBGE, the final height of the former gymnasts was always higher of the standard, slightly smaller than their sisters 2 (5th and 10th, but was taller than their mothers and sisters 1. In conclusion, there is no evidence of artistic gymnastics high performance training having adverse effects on the final adult height.

  13. Blood Lead Concentration Is Not Altered by High Dose Vitamin D Supplementation in Children and Young Adults with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Herold, Rachel A; Schall, Joan I; Wagner, Julia L; Dougherty, Kelly A; Zemel, Babette S; Rutstein, Richard M; Stallings, Virginia A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Optimal vitamin D status is known to have beneficial health effects and vitamin D supplements are commonly used. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may increase blood lead in children and adults with previous lead exposure. The objective was to determine the safety regarding lead toxicity during 12 weeks of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation in children and young adults with HIV. METHODS Subjects with HIV (age 8 to 24 yrs) were randomized to vitamin D3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and followed at 6 and 12 weeks for changes in 25D and whole blood lead concentration. This was a secondary analysis of a larger study of vitamin D3 supplementation in children and adolescents with HIV. RESULTS In 44 subjects (75% African American), the baseline mean ± SD serum 25D was 48.3 ± 18.6 nmol/L. 50% of subjects had baseline serum 25D 5.0 μg/dL at baseline or during subsequent visits. Whole blood lead and 25D were not correlated at baseline, and were negatively correlated after 12 weeks of supplementation (p= 0.014). Whole blood lead did not differ between those receiving 4000 IU versus 7000 IU of vitamin D3. CONCLUSION High dose vitamin D3 supplementation and the concomitant increased serum 25D did not result in increased whole blood lead concentration in this sample of children and young adults living in a northeastern urban city. PMID:23059649

  14. Relationship between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome among Nigerian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Abiodun; Adegoke, Olajire O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Awotidebe, Taofeek O

    2013-01-01

    The study determined the diastolic and systolic pressure, anthropometric parameters, serological parameters comprising fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as well as the socio-economic status (SES) of inhabitants of Ilora with a view to providing information on impact of SES on metabolic syndrome (MetS). One hundred participants (54 males and 46 females) whose ages ranged from 30 and 70 years, participated in the study. Participants were recruited from the three wards of the town using multi-stage random sampling procedure. Subjects' weights, height, blood pressure, waist circumference (WC) were measured using standard instruments. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured using a glucometer on participants' blood samples taken after at least 8h of fasting. Serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were analyzed using enzyme colometric assay kits in the laboratory. SES of the participants was determined by using a questionnaire, which sought information on annual income, occupation and education. Participants who had MetS were determined using the new International Diabetes Foundation definition of MetS. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The mean scores for the males and females systolic blood pressure (SBP) were 123.20 ± 20.72 mmHg and 117.78 ± 14.64 mmHg, and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 78.63 ± 11.72 mmHg and 75.98 ± 13.06 mmHg, respectively. The mean of serological variables scores for the males and females, respectively, were FBG (4.95 ± 0.81 mmol/L and 4.84 ± 1.36 mmol/L), TG (1.28 ± 0.75 mmol/L and 1.35 ± 1.05 mmol/L), HDL-C (1.26 ± 0.21 mmol/L and 2.32 ± 7.34 mmol/L). The mean SES scores for the males and females were 14.35 ± 4.75 and 13.13 ± 4.66, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 43.5% in females and 9.3% in males. Significant differences were found in SBP and FBG across the three SES groups (F=3

  15. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. Objective To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. Design In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age = 22.4 years, SD = 4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. Results The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p junk food. Conclusions Messages about the health effects of junk food and social normative messages about intake of junk food can motivate people to reduce their consumption of high calorie snack food. PMID:23738741

  16. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Harris, Ellis; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-06-05

    Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age = 22.4 years, SD = 4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p food or energy intake between the health and social norm message conditions. There was no evidence that the effect of the messages depended upon usual consumption of junk food. Messages about the health effects of junk food and social normative messages about intake of junk food can motivate people to reduce their consumption of high calorie snack food.

  17. Cross-country differences in basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana N Souza-Talarico

    Full Text Available Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries.Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST in both populations.Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants.These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.

  18. Altered Intermittent Rhythmic Delta and Theta Activity in the Electroencephalographies of High Functioning Adult Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Dominique; Maier, Simon; Feige, Bernd; Posielski, Nicole A.; Nickel, Kathrin; Ebert, Dieter; Riedel, Andreas; Philipsen, Alexandra; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with epilepsy. Previous studies have also shown increased rates of electroencephalographic (EEG) alteration in ASD patients without epilepsy. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA) events between high-functioning adult patients with ASD and matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Routine EEG records of 19 ASD patients and 19 matched controls were screened for IRDA/IRTA using a fully data driven analysis with fixed thresholds. IRDA/IRTA rates before and after hyperventilation (HV) as well as the HV-induced difference in IRDA/IRTA rates (HV difference) were analyzed. For inter-group measures, we used the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Significantly increased HV difference was detected in the ASD group (p = 0.0497). However, the groups showed no difference in IRDA/IRTA rates before HV (p = 0.564) and after HV (p = 0.163). Conclusions: The lack of any group differences regarding IRDA/IRTA before HV might be related to the fact that we only studied non-secondary high-functioning autism in a small sample of epilepsy-free adult patients. A significantly increased HV difference might be regarded as a marker of subtle neuronal network instability possibly causing short-term disturbances via local area network inhibition and long-term effects via epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:28265243

  19. Un système multi-scalaire, ses espaces de référence et ses mondes. L’Atlas Vidal-Lablache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claire Robic

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available À la différence de productions qui lui sont contemporaines, monoscalaires mais ethnocentrées (Levasseur ou cosmopolites (Reclus, ou multiscalaires à emboîtements des niveaux d’échelles (Geddes, l’atlas de Vidal de la Blache a une structure complexe, multiscalaire et polymorphe car il use d’« espaces de référence » différents d’une planche à l’autre. Cette structure est rendue possible par un assemblage iconographique et textuel qui repose sur une unité composite, la planche d’atlas, formant une composition devenue canonique : cartes, cartons, légende. L’étude de l’ensemble du dispositif iconographique et de l’apparat textuel montre que l’ouvrage est multiscalaire à double titre. D’abord parce que, conformément à l’épistémologie vidalienne, chaque région du monde est dotée de ses propres espaces de référence, qui lui donnent sa dimension spécifique. D’autre part parce que la Terre est en principe l’unité de référence ultime, la méta-échelle englobante. Cette méta-échelle recouvre en fait trois « mondes » dissociés, économique, impérial et de la civilisation, formant trois méta-échelles intermédiaires. Au-delà du souci d’universalité, les métropoles de l’un et de l’autre de ces mondes (la France et l’Europe restent centrales dans ce système de représentation.

  20. Turismo rural y gobernanza ambiental: conceptos divergentes en países desarrollados y países en vías de desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Eduardo Molina Orjuela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El turismo rural y la gobernanza ambiental son conceptos que aparentan ser complementarios pero que, en realidad, se encuentran influenciados, en primera instancia, por el desarrollo de una población que busca la disminución de los niveles de pobreza en las zonas apartadas de la centralidad del gobierno nacional; y en segunda instancia, por el cuidado del medio ambiente y la no extracción de los recursos naturales que son propios de las naciones y de comunidades específicas. El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una reflexión acerca de qué tan inmiscuidas están algunas naciones en temas de turismo rural y gobernanza ambiental. Pues por un lado América Latina busca salir de la pobreza con alternativas de ingreso para su población y, por el otro, los países desarrollados, como los europeos, presionan para la conservación del medio natural y olvidan el aspecto económico. La metodología que se usó a lo largo del escrito se basa en presentar resultados de investigación desde una perspectiva analítica, tomando como referencia fuentes académicas, y se arrojan resultados particulares. Es importante aclarar que los ejemplos que se incluyen en este artículo son particulares y no reflejan la problemática de todo un país o región –e.g. Europa o América Latina–, aunque permiten visualizar ciertas características y particularidades, además sobre todo verifica la tesis central, en el sentido que existe una fuerte tensión de conceptos, mostrando que el turismo rural impulsa un desarrollo que quizá la gobernanza ambiental no permita.

  1. Turismo rural y gobernanza ambiental: conceptos divergentes en países desarrollados y países en vías de desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Eduardo Molina Orjuela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El turismo rural y la gobernanza ambiental son conceptos que aparentan ser complementarios pero que, en realidad, se encuentran influenciados, en primera instancia, por el desarrollo de una población que busca la disminución de los niveles de pobreza en las zonas apartadas de la centralidad del gobierno nacional; y en segunda instancia, por el cuidado del medio ambiente y la no extracción de los recursos naturales que son propios de las naciones y de comunidades específicas. El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una reflexión acerca de qué tan inmiscuidas están algunas naciones en temas de turismo rural y gobernanza ambiental. Pues por un lado América Latina busca salir de la pobreza con alternativas de ingreso para su población y, por el otro, los países desarrollados, como los europeos, presionan para la conservación del medio natural y olvidan el aspecto económico. La metodología que se usó a lo largo del escrito se basa en presentar resultados de investigación desde una perspectiva analítica, tomando como referencia fuentes académicas, y se arrojan resultados particulares. Es importante aclarar que los ejemplos que se incluyen en este artículo son particulares y no reflejan la problemática de todo un país o región –e.g. Europa o América Latina–, aunque permiten visualizar ciertas características y particularidades, además sobre todo verifica la tesis central, en el sentido que existe una fuerte tensión de conceptos, mostrando que el turismo rural impulsa un desarrollo que quizá la gobernanza ambiental no permita.

  2. Effect of a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol on knee joint mechanics and muscle activation during gait in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Gillian Hatfield; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of impaired quadriceps function on knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular function during gait. Surface electromyograms, three-dimensional motion and ground reaction forces were collected during gait before and after 20 healthy adults completed a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol. Pattern recognition techniques were utilized to examine changes in amplitude and temporal characteristics of all gait variables. The fatigue protocol resulted in decreased knee extensor torque generation and quadriceps median power frequencies for 18 of 20 participants (p gait data from these 18 participants was analyzed. The knee external rotation angle increased (p knee motion and loading characteristics were altered following a high intensity fatigue protocol in a manner that may place the knee joint at greater risk for joint pathology and injury.

  3. Altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns in adult males with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Ohno, Taisei; Itahashi, Takashi; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Kanai, Chieko; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2014-04-01

    Functions of the orbitofrontal cortex include diverse social, cognitive and affective processes, many of which are abnormal in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recently, altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns have been revealed in several psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, indicating a possibility that altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral morphology reflects abnormal neurodevelopment. However, the presence of sulcal alterations in ASD remains unexplored. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging, subtypes of the 'H-shaped' sulcus (Type I, II and III, in order of frequency), posterior orbital sulcus (POS) and intermediate orbital sulcus were identified in each hemisphere of adult males with ASD (n = 51) and matched normal controls (n = 55) based on the study by Chiavaras and Petrides. ASD showed a significantly altered distribution of H-shaped sulcal subtypes in both hemispheres, with a significant increase of Type III. A significant alteration in the distribution of sulcal subtypes was also identified in the right hemisphere POS of ASD. Categorical regression analysis revealed that Type I and II expressions predicted a reduced total Autism-Spectrum Quotient score. Furthermore, Type I expression was associated with a reduced 'attention to detail' subscale score. The results demonstrate that altered sulcogyral morphology can be a marker for abnormal neurodevelopment leading to the increased risk of developing autism.

  4. High Prevalence of Hereditary Cancer Syndromes in Adolescents and Young Adults With Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Maureen E; You, Y Nancy; Ying, Jun; Bannon, Sarah A; Lynch, Patrick M; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Vilar, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Established guidelines recommend evaluation for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients younger than 50 years diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). This group has been well described in the literature; however, patients diagnosed as adolescents and young adults are not well represented in CRC studies. Here, we define the clinical profile, including the extent of hereditary cancer syndromes and family history of cancer, in patients diagnosed with CRC at age 35 or younger. We reviewed patients who underwent genetic counseling at our institution during 5 years (2009 to 2013). Data were collected regarding demographics, clinicopathologic information, tumor and genetic testing, and family history. Patients with an identified hereditary cancer syndrome were compared with those without a syndrome. Of the 193 patients with evaluable data, 35% had an identifiable hereditary cancer syndrome, including 23 with Lynch syndrome, 22 with mutation-negative Lynch syndrome, 16 with familial adenomatous polyposis, two with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency, two with biallelic MUTYH mutations, and one with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Patients without a hereditary syndrome more frequently presented with metastatic disease, whereas patients with a syndrome were more likely to present at earlier stages and to have a family history of cancer. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of the hereditary syndromes (19%) were diagnosed in individuals with no family history of the disease. We conclude that patients diagnosed with CRC at age 35 years or younger should receive genetic counseling regardless of their family history and phenotype. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. High quality nutrient intake is associated with higher household expenditures by Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Hiyoshi, Ayako

    2012-08-01

    There is little evidence of socioeconomic differences in dietary intake in the Japanese population. This study examined the association between household expenditures and dietary intake using nationally representative surveys of Japan. We analyzed data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003-2007. For subjects ages 18 to 74 years (11,240 men and 11,472 women), the sex-specific association between household expenditure quartiles and selected nutrient intake was examined using comparison of means and prevalence of a healthy intake. Higher household expenditures were associated with an increase in the mean levels of total energy, fat, protein, carbohydrates, calcium, vitamins A and C, niacin, and fiber for both men and women and salt for men. Prevalence comparison indicated that most of the recommendations for dietary intake were met for people with higher household expenditures than for those with lower household expenditures. There was no clear association between fat intake and expenditures. Higher household expenditures were associated with a healthy and balanced nutrient intake in Japanese adults. The findings suggest that socioeconomic differences in dietary patterns contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and morbidity in Japan.

  6. Skilled adult readers activate the meanings of high-frequency words using phonology: Evidence from eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; O'Donnell, Katrina

    2017-02-01

    We examined whether highly skilled adult readers activate the meanings of high-frequency words using phonology when reading sentences for meaning. A homophone-error paradigm was used. Sentences were written to fit 1 member of a homophone pair, and then 2 other versions were created in which the homophone was replaced by its mate or a spelling-control word. The error words were all high-frequency words, and the correct homophones were either higher-frequency words or low-frequency words-that is, the homophone errors were either the subordinate or dominant member of the pair. Participants read sentences as their eye movements were tracked. When the high-frequency homophone error words were the subordinate member of the homophone pair, participants had shorter immediate eye-fixation latencies on these words than on matched spelling-control words. In contrast, when the high-frequency homophone error words were the dominant member of the homophone pair, a difference between these words and spelling controls was delayed. These findings provide clear evidence that the meanings of high-frequency words are activated by phonological representations when skilled readers read sentences for meaning. Explanations of the differing patterns of results depending on homophone dominance are discussed.

  7. High-risk behaviors among adult men and women in Botswana: Implications for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keetile, Mpho

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20–64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors. PMID:25293869

  8. High-risk behaviors among adult men and women in Botswana: implications for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keetile, Mpho

    2014-01-01

    The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20-64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors.

  9. More automation and less cognitive control of imagined walking movements in high versus low fit older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Godde

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using motor imagery, we investigated brain activation in simple and complex walking tasks (walking forward and backward on a treadmill and analyzed if the motor status of older adults influenced these activation patterns. 51 older adults (64-79 years of age were trained in motor execution and imagery and then performed the imagination task and two control tasks (standing, counting backward in a horizontal position within a 3T MRI scanner (first person perspective, eyes closed. Walking backward as compared to walking forward required larger activations in the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum, but less activation in the cerebellum and brainstem. Motor high-fit individuals showed more activations and larger BOLD signals in motor-related areas compared to low-fit participants but demonstrated lower activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, parietal activation in high-fit participants remained stable throughout the movement period whereas low-fit participants revealed an early drop in activity in this area accompanied by increasing activity in frontal brain regions. Overall, walking forward seemed to be more automated (more activation in cerebellum and brainstem, whereas walking backward required more resources, e.g. for visual-spatial processing and sensorimotor control. Low-fit subjects in particular seemed to require more cognitive resources for planning and controlling. High-fit subjects, on the contrary, revealed more movement automation and a higher “attention span.” Our results support the hypothesis that high fitness corresponds with more automation and less cognitive control of complex motor tasks, which might help to free up cognitive resources.

  10. High School Community Service as a Predictor of Adult Voting and Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Donnelly, Thomas M.; Youniss, James; Atkins, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The influences of high school community service participation, extracurricular involvement, and civic knowledge on voting and volunteering in early adulthood were examined using the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The major finding in this study is that both voluntary and school-required community service in high school were strong…

  11. Tendencias en la calidad de vida en países con dependencia mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. González Oquendo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo describir tendencias a partir de algunos indicadores de calidad de vida en el conjunto de países de dependencia mineral. A partir de gráficos Box-Plot e índices de correlación, se procedió a la descripción de tendencias estadísticas para realizar precisiones en torno a la calidad de vida -analizada a través del índice de desarrollo humano [ÍDH] y componentes- y variables económicas [exportaciones minerales como porcentaje del total de exportaciones y del producto interno bruto] y demográficas [fecundidad, mortalidad infantil]. Aunque no se precisó alguna correlación estadística entre el porcentaje de exportaciones minerales como parte del PIB con el ÍDH o alguno de sus componentes, se encontró relación significativa con el porcentaje como parte del total de exportaciones aunque -en su relación con el IDH y con el índice de logro educativo- sólo había relaciones inversas de carácter leve. En relación con las variables demográficas, sólo se encontró relaciones leves entre el porcentaje de exportaciones minerales sobre exportaciones totales con la tasa de fecundidad total y la tasa de mortalidad infantil, sin que se haya encontrado alguna significatividad en la tasa de mortalidad de niños menores de 5 años. Se precisó que, aunque la mayor parte de los países con dependencia mineral poseen valores ÍDH medio, los valores reflejan fuertes diferencias regionales, distribuciones asimétricas positivas matizadas en lo referente a las exportaciones minerales y dispersión desigual de los valores ÍDH, siendo mayor entre los países de alta dependencia mineral.

  12. LOS PAÍSES EN DESARROLLO, LA RONDA DE DOHA Y EL ACUERDO SOBRE LOS ADPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oñate Acosta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del Comercio Internacional, la regulación de los derechos de propiedad intelectual relacionados con el Comercio ha sido el escenario donde, tal vez como en ningún otro, se han evidenciado las tensiones existentes entre “Norte” y “Sur” como consecuencia de sus intereses antagónicos y difícilmente conciliables. El artículo analiza los avances obtenidos por los países en desarrollo en las negociaciones de la Ronda de Doha en dos temas centrales del debate mundial sobre propiedad intelectual: los productos farmacéuticos y el conocimiento tradicional, y deja abierto el debate sobre el retroceso que el auge de la vía bilateral podría significar para la defensa de sus intereses. El objetivo de este artículo es evidenciar que a pesar de que los plazos previstos para finalizar la Ronda de Doha se han incumplido, el plazo inicial era el 1o de enero de 2005 y en diciembre de 2005 los miembros se propusieron extraoficialmente concluir las negociaciones a finales de 2006 –plazo que tampoco se cumplió– y que hasta ahora sólo puede ser calificada de fracaso –el bloqueo de las negociaciones obligaron a su suspensión indefinida en julio de 2006–, no debe desconocerse que, en lo que al Acuerdo sobre los ADPIC se refiere, permitió que los países en desarrollo iniciaran una ofensiva que no podrían haber contemplado veinte años atrás. Así, gracias al carácter multilateral de la OMC que tantas críticas ha despertado, en los países desarrollados han logrado defender sus intereses en un tema de vital importancia para sus reivindicaciones como es el del acceso a medicamentos y han abierto el debate para que finalmente se reconozca el derecho que tienen de proteger y beneficiarse de los conocimientos tradicionales.

  13. Determinantes dos investimentos diretos externos em países em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Braga Nonnenberg

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Basicamente, os determinantes dos investimentos diretos externos (IDE podem ser relativos às firmas e a características dos países de origem - push factors - ou a fatores locacionais - pull factors. A maior parte da literatura teórica relativa a empresas multinacionais nos últimos quarenta anos, justamente por focar sua atenção nas empresas, enfatizou os fatores relacionados a vantagens das firmas, dando pouca importância aos fatores macroeconômicos. O objetivo desse trabalho é estimar, com base em dados em painel para 33 países para o período 1975-2000, os principais determinantes dos IDEs em direção aos países em desenvolvimento. Fatores como o tamanho e o ritmo de crescimento do produto, a qualificação da mão de obra, a receptividade em relação ao capital externo, o risco do país e o desempenho das bolsas de valores estão entre os principais determinantes de IDE. Além disso, por meio da aplicação de uma teste de causalidade no contexto de dados em painel, foi possível mostrar que o investimento direto externo não tem efeito positivo sobre o PIB. Ao contrário, esse procedimento lidade mostrou que o PIB do país é que tem efeito sobre a entrada de IDE.Basically, foreign direct investments (FDI determinants may be referred to firms and country characteristics - push factors - or to locational factors - pull factors. Most of theoretical literature relative to multinational enterprises in the last forty years, has emphasized firms advantages, giving no weight to macroeconomic factors. The purpose of this paper is to estimate, based on panel data of 33 countries for the period 1975-2000, the main determinants of FDI inflows in developing economies. Factors as size and pace of growth of economic activity, the level of labor qualification, friendly policies towards foreign capital, country risk and stock market performance are the main determinants of FDI. In addition, a causality test, in the special context of panel

  14. High rate of pneumococcal bacteremia in a prospective cohort of older children and adults in an area of high HIV prevalence in rural western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oundo Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although causing substantial morbidity, the burden of pneumococcal disease among older children and adults in Africa, particularly in rural settings, is not well-characterized. We evaluated pneumococcal bacteremia among 21,000 persons ≥5 years old in a prospective cohort as part of population-based infectious disease surveillance in rural western Kenya from October 2006-September 2008. Methods Blood cultures were done on patients meeting pre-defined criteria - severe acute respiratory illness (SARI, fever, and admission for any reason at a referral health facility within 5 kilometers of all 33 villages where surveillance took place. Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done by latex agglutination and quellung reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using broth microdilution. We extrapolated incidence rates based on persons with compatible illnesses in the surveillance population who were not cultured. We estimated rates among HIV-infected persons based on community HIV prevalence. We projected the national burden of pneumococcal bacteremia cases based on these rates. Results Among 1,301 blood cultures among persons ≥5 years, 52 (4% yielded pneumococcus, which was the most common bacteria isolated. The yield was higher among those ≥18 years than 5-17 years (6.9% versus 1.6%, p 95%. The crude rate of pneumococcal bacteremia was 129/100,000 person-years, and the adjusted rate was 419/100,000 person-years. Nineteen (61% of 31 patients with HIV results were HIV-positive. The adjusted rate among HIV-infected persons was 2,399/100,000 person-years (Rate ratio versus HIV-negative adults, 19.7, 95% CI 12.4-31.1. We project 58,483 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia will occur in Kenyan adults in 2010. Conclusions Pneumococcal bacteremia rates were high among persons ≥5 years old, particularly among HIV-infected persons. Ongoing surveillance will document if expanded use of highly-active antiretroviral

  15. Association of High Blood Pressure with Body Mass Index, Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, George; Zerva, Efthimia; Zacharis, Ioannis; Papandreou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Effie; Tzima, Christina; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Evangelou, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resting blood pressure (BP), smoking, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in Greek young adults. Materials and Methodology: A standardised questionnaire and the Greek version of IPAQ-short were given to 1500 randomly selected health science students, in order to record smoking behaviour, PA status, BMI and resting BP. All healthy young adults aged 19-30 years old were eligible. The final size of the study cohort was 1249 students (522 men). Results: Males’ BP was 129.2/77.0 mmHg, significantly higher than the females’ values of 119.9/73.4 mmHg. Approximately 17% of the total population were classified as overweight and 3% as obese. In the overall population, smoking prevalence was 35.2%, with 15.3% being heavy smokers (≥21 cigs/d). Smoking prevalence did not differ significantly between sexes. The prevalence of health-enhancing PA (high PAclass) was only 14.0%, while 42.8% of the study population were classified as insufficiently active (low PAclass). Of the three lifestyle risk factors examined, only BMI was significantly and directly associated with systolic and diastolic BP levels. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was significantly higher in men compared to women, and in obese and overweight participants compared to normal-weight subjects. Smoking and categorical PA (PAclass) were not correlated with BP. Continuous vigorous PAscore was significantly and directly associated with systolic BP, but only in males. Conclusion: BMI was significantly and directly associated with resting BP in both sexes. Smoking prevalence and PA status were not associated with BP in this sample of Greek young adults. PMID:25834651

  16. Establishment of a reference interval for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I in healthy adults from the Sichuan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunjun; Zuo, Yue; Huang, Wenfang

    2017-04-01

    High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) has been used in the diagnosis and risk stratification of acute myocardial infarction. However, there is no common consensus on an hs-cTnI reference interval for the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of hs-TnI and establish the 99th percentile reference interval for hs-cTnI in healthy adults from the Sichuan area.Serum specimens were collected from 1485 healthy adults (731 men and 754 women ranging in age from 18 to 85 years) in Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital. All specimens were divided into 4 groups according to age distribution: 18 to 35 years, 36 to 50 years, 51 to 65 years, and ≥66 years. Specimens were further divided into younger/middle and older-aged groups based on a cut-off age of 50 years. The serum hs-cTnI concentration was determined using the Abbott ARCHITECT STAT hs-cTnI assay.The serum hs-cTnI concentration increased with age (P 51 to 65 years, and 27.9 versus 32.2 pg/mL for ≥66 years.The 99th percentile reference interval for hs-cTnI in healthy adults from the Sichuan area was similar to the manufacturer's recommendation. Men had a higher 99th percentile hs-cTnI value than women in the age range of 18 to 65 years.

  17. A high-fat meal increases cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakulj, Fabijana; Zernicke, Kristin; Bacon, Simon L; van Wielingen, Laura E; Key, Brenda L; West, Sheila G; Campbell, Tavis S

    2007-04-01

    The consumption of high levels of saturated fat over the course of several weeks may lead to exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity. The consumption of a single high-fat meal has been associated with a transient impairment of vascular function. In a randomized, repeated measures, crossover study we tested whether the consumption of a single high-fat meal by healthy, normotensive participants would affect cardiovascular reactivity when compared with an isocaloric, low-fat meal. Thirty healthy participants ate a high-fat (42 g) and a low-fat (1 g) meal on 2 separate occasions, and their cardiovascular response to 2 standard laboratory stressors was measured. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance were greater in participants following the consumption of the high-fat meal relative to the low-fat meal. The findings of the present study are consistent with the hypothesis that even a single high-fat meal may be associated with heightened cardiovascular reactivity to stress and offer insight into the pathways through which a high-fat diet may affect cardiovascular function.

  18. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.

  19. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop high blood pressure without preventative measures. Today, clinical guidelines recommend that physicians work with patients to keep ... is the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) clinical study, which ... the importance of lowering sodium (salt) intake. Most Americans consume ...

  20. Against all odds :the natural history of an alternative-adult high school program

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Charline J

    1995-01-01

    The traditional high school program is not appropriate for all students. Some students cannot cope with the pressures from social! family background, personal problems (independent of social/family) and school factors, and thus look to relieve these pressures outside of the educational system. The combination of these pressures, or risk factors, can cause a student to become a high school dropout, resulting in negative educational, social, and financial consequences to self and the nation.

  1. Genotype by environment interaction for adult body weights of shrimp Penaeus vannamei when grown at low and high densitie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famula Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shrimp is one of few marine species cultured worldwide for which several selective breeding programs are being conducted. One environmental factor that can affect the response to selection in breeding programs is the density at which the shrimp are cultured (low-medium-high. Phenotypic plasticity in the growth response to different densities might be accompanied by a significant genotype by environment interaction, evidenced by a change in heritabilities between environments and by a genetic correlation less than one for a unique trait between environments. Our goal was to understand whether different growth densities affect estimates of those genetic parameters for adult body weight (BW in the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. BW heritabilities were significantly different between environments, with the largest at high density. These differences resulted from both an increased additive genetic variance and a decreased environmental variance when grown at high density. The genetic correlation between BWs at the two environmental conditions was significantly less than one. Whereas these results might be suggestive for carrying out shrimp selective breeding for BW under high density conditions, further understanding of genetic correlations between growth and reproductive traits within a given environment is necessary, as there are indications of reduced reproductive fitness for shrimp grown at high densities.

  2. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism.

  3. L’enquête au sens pragmatiste et ses conséquences

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Dans ce texte-montage, Isaac Joseph avait commencé à développer son appel à articles pour la livraison de « Raisons pratiques » consacrée à La Croyance et l’enquête (2004). On y retrouve un certain nombre de ses thèmes de prédilection : la communauté d’explorateurs, en élaborant conjointement la raison publique par l’enquête et l’expérimentation, se fait communauté de croyants ; les publics vulnérables, exposés au risque de l’imposture, de la fausse nouvelle, du canular ou de la rumeur, sont ...

  4. Síndrome febril en pacientes procedentes de países tropicales

    OpenAIRE

    Gascón, Joaquím; Olivera, Inés; Corachán, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    El incremento de los viajes a países de baja renta a través de un medio tan rápido como es el avión, posibilita la importación de enfermedades infecciosas. Entre la patología importada, el síndrome febril es sin duda el más importante, por cuanto puede hacer peligrar en pocas horas la vida de una persona. En general, el riesgo de adquirir una enfermedad febril durante un viaje depende no solo del país visitado, sino del área concreta del país que se visita, de la duración del viaje, de las ac...

  5. El emprendimiento social: una comparativa entre España y países sudamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Nicolás Martínez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La crisis global que sufrimos en la actualidad está haciendo que las labores realizadas por las empresas sociales sean imprescindibles para alcanzar una sociedad igualitaria, eficiente y justa. El número empresas sociales va creciendo año tras año, atendiendo problemas sociales generalmente olvidados por las instituciones. Los estudios empíricos que profundizan en el conocimiento de este tipo de emprendimiento social son escasos. Este trabajo, bajo el marco del proyecto Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, analiza la influencia de una serie de variables objetivas y cognitivas del emprendedor social, sobre una muestra constituida por emprendedores sociales en España y en diversos países sudamericanos.

  6. « Lewis Henry Morgan, Le castor américain et ses ouvrages »,

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Compte - rendu Lewis Henry Morgan, Le castor américain et ses ouvrages », Gradhiva, 13 | 2011, 231-233.; Le présent ouvrage est la première traduction française du livre initialement publié en 1868 par Lewis Henry Morgan : The American Beaver and His Works. Cette première monographie digne de ce nom dédiée au castor a participé à la fondation de l’éthologie américaine. Mise en contexte du point de vue de l’histoire des idées par Lucienne Strivay, la traduction que nous proposent les éditions ...

  7. análisis de algunos factores determinantes en seis países

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2015-01-01

    mujeres; como factores más importantes para elegir CTIM destacan el interés por la ciencia, las lecciones que muestran aplicaciones prácticas, los buenos profesores de ciencias, las series de TV, los libros y las revistas de ciencia populares y algunas de las prioridades para el futuro (hacer algo interesante, usar el talento y el desarrollo personal. Muchos ítems muestran diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre hombres y mujeres, y prácticamente todos entre países. Se discuten las implicaciones para la enseñanza de la ciencia que mejoren el reclutamiento y la educación en los cursos CTIM.

  8. Religiöses Lernen angesichts gegenwärtiger Vielfalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Kohler-Spiegel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: A comprehensive study on the value orientation of adolescents in Vorarlberg will make the heterogeneity of today‘s youth apparent. To make one‘s own basic understanding of religious education evident within its variety, to stimulate religious education, and to continuously redevelop age appropriate forms of learning guidance are the vital tasks of educational science in a religious faculty seen in diversity and engagement. DEUTSCH: Eine umfangreiche Studie zu den Werthaltungen junger Menschen in Vorarlberg kann den Blick öffnen für die Heterogenität junger Menschen heute. In dieser Vielfalt das eigene religionspädagogische Grundverständnis transparent zu machen, religiöses Lernen anzuregen und immer wieder neu altersentsprechende Formen für die Begleitung dieses Lernens zu entwickeln, sind zentrale Aufgaben einer Religionspädagogik, die sich in Vielfalt und Dialog versteht.

  9. Crecimiento restringido por la balanza de pagos en países exportadores de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ignacio Chena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza las posibilidades de los países exportadores de alimentos en América Latina de evitar la restricción externa y crecer de forma sostenida con las nuevas tendencias en los precios mundiales de los commodities agropecuarios. En este nuevo escenario, el artículo destaca la importancia de la elasticidad ingreso de la demanda interna de alimentos como freno a un modelo de crecimiento impulsado por las exportaciones de bienes de primera necesidad. Todo ello en un contexto en el cual la heterogeneidad estructural propia de las economías latinoamericanas disminuye la efectividad de los cambios en los precios relativos como instrumento para sortear la restricción externa en el largo plazo.

  10. Le bois et ses usages dans le De architectura de Vitruve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Rougier-Blanc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ni traité d’architecture à proprement parler, ni véritable ouvrage philosophique, le De architectura de Vitruve permet d’aborder la question du matériau bois et de ses usages en architecture de manière à la fois précise et décevante pour l’historien des techniques : précise parce que le paragraphe 9 du livre II est plus particulièrement consacré à cette materia, mais décevante parce que le contenu ne répond pas aux attentes et ne permet pas de dresser un bilan des choix des essences en foncti...

  11. APPLICATION OF ACROBATIC EXEerCI SES IN A HANDBALL TRAINING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojica Marušić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ac ro bat exer ci ses re pre sent a ba se for ac qu i ring com plex hand ball exer ci sing techni qu es. Hand ball players get to know dif fe rent types of mo ving and put ting in mo tion dif fe rent parts of body. They ma ster the ba sic com po nents – di rec tion, speed, am pli tu de, in ten sity of ne u ro mu scu lar ten sion, and at the sa me ti me they le arn how to di rect the ir mo tion pre ci sely and how to co or di na te the ir mo ves in spa ce and ti me.

  12. Porque participaram tantos países nas missões do Kosovo?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Na sequência da intervenção militar da OTAN na Jugoslávia em 1999, a resolução 1244 do Conselho de Segurança da ONU estipulou o envio de forças internacionais para garantir a estabilidade e a administração do Kosovo. A força internacional de segurança então organizada pela OTAN, a KFOR, contou com um número particularmente elevado de Estados participantes (38 no total). O propósito do presente trabalho é, pois, o de responder à questão “Porque participaram tantos países nas missões do Kosovo?...

  13. Population-based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in an urban slum in Enugu, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeala-Adikaibe, B A; Orjioke, C; Ekenze, O S; Ijoma, U; Onodugo, O; Okudo, G; Okwara, C; Chime, P; Mbadiwe, N; Eddy, A; Onyekonwu, C; Onyebueke, G; Ulasi, I; Mba, A U

    2016-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle have modified the profile and pattern of various medical disorders. Apart from high prevalence rates, recent trends with regard to hypertension in Africa include: low levels of awareness, treatment and control. Although a large number of studies provide data about hypertension in SSA, few studies focused on special populations such as urban slum dwellers. The WHO STEP-wise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable diseases was used to access the prevalence of hypertension among adults in one of the urban slums in Enugu. Out of the 811 individuals aged 20 years and above surveyed, 774 (95.4%) cases were analyzed. About 4.7% and 2.7% reported a past history of diabetes and stroke, respectively, whereas 15% had a positive family history of hypertension. The mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) body mass index (BMI) was 23.7 (23.2-24.2) kg m(-2) among males and 26.6 (25.7-26.7) kg m(-2) among females (Phypertension was 52.5% (95% CI: 48.9-56.0) and 55.4% (95% CI: 49.5-61.3) in males and 50.8% (95% CI: 46.4-55.1) in females (P=0.23). It increased with age peaking at 45-54 years in females and ⩾55 years in males. About 40.1% were aware of their hypertension and 28.8% of those aware had normal blood pressure. In regression analysis, systolic (R(2)=0.192) and diastolic (R(2)=0.129) blood pressures increased with age and BMI. The prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Enugu slums is very high and a cause for concern, and calls for urgent attention.

  14. Decreasing prevalence of the full metabolic syndrome but a persistently high prevalence of dyslipidemia among adult Arabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M Al-Daghri

    Full Text Available A decade has passed since metabolic syndrome (MetS was documented to be highly prevalent in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No follow-up epidemiologic study was done. This study aims to fill this gap. In this cross-sectional, observational study, a total of 2850 randomly selected Saudi adults aged 18-55 years were recruited. Subjects' information was generated from a database of more than 10,000 Saudi citizens from the existing Biomarkers Screening in Riyadh Program (RIYADH Cohort, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics included body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, as well as waist and hip circumferences. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were determined using routine laboratory procedures. The definition of ATP-III (NHANES III was used for the diagnosis of the full MetS. The overall prevalence of complete MetS was 35.3% [Confidence-Interval (CI 33.5-37.01]. Age-adjusted prevalence according to the European standard population is 37.0%. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent of all MetS risk factors, affecting 88.6% (CI 87.5-89.7 and hypertriglyceridemia the second most prevalent, affecting 34% (CI 32.3-35.7 of the subjects. The prevalence of the full MetS decreased from previous estimates but remains high, while dyslipidemia remains extremely high, affecting almost 90% of middle-aged Arabs. Screening for dyslipidemia among Saudi adults is warranted, especially among those most at risk. Scientific inquiry into the molecular causes of these manifestations should be pursued as a first step in the discovery of etiologic therapies.

  15. Review of Adult Electrical Burn Injury Outcomes Worldwide: An Analysis of Low-Voltage vs High-Voltage Electrical Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jessica G; Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Jeschke, Marc G

    The aims of this article are to review low-voltage vs high-voltage electrical burn complications in adults and to identify novel areas that are not recognized to improve outcomes. An extensive literature search on electrical burn injuries was performed using OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE databases from 1946 to 2015. Studies relating to outcomes of electrical injury in the adult population (≥18 years of age) were included in the study. Forty-one single-institution publications with a total of 5485 electrical injury patients were identified and included in the present study. Fourty-four percent of these patients were low-voltage injuries (LVIs), 38.3% high-voltage injuries (HVIs), and 43.7% with voltage not otherwise specified. Forty-four percentage of studies did not characterize outcomes according to LHIs vs HVIs. Reported outcomes include surgical, medical, posttraumatic, and others (long-term/psychological/rehabilitative), all of which report greater incidence rates in HVI than in LVI. Only two studies report on psychological outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Mortality rates from electrical injuries are 2.6% in LVI, 5.2% in HVI, and 3.7% in not otherwise specified. Coroner's reports revealed a ratio of 2.4:1 for deaths caused by LVI compared with HVI. HVIs lead to greater morbidity and mortality than LVIs. However, the results of the coroner's reports suggest that immediate mortality from LVI may be underestimated. Furthermore, on the basis of this analysis, we conclude that the majority of studies report electrical injury outcomes; however, the majority of them do not analyze complications by low vs high voltage and often lack long-term psychological and rehabilitation outcomes after electrical injury indicating that a variety of central aspects are not being evaluated or assessed.

  16. Postmortem Adult Human Microglia Proliferate in Culture to High Passage and Maintain Their Response to Amyloid-β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Rezvanian, Aras; Kukreja, Lokesh; Hoveydai, Ramez; Bigio, Eileen H.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; El Khoury, Joseph; Geula, Changiz

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are immune cells of the brain that display a range of functions. Most of our knowledge about microglia biology and function is based on cells from the rodent brain. Species variation in the complexity of the brain and differences in microglia response in the primate when compared with the rodent, require use of adult human microglia in studies of microglia biology. While methods exist for isolation of microglia from postmortem human brains, none allow culturing cells to high passage. Thus cells from the same case could not be used in parallel studies and multiple conditions. Here we report a method, which includes use of growth factors such as granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, for successful culturing of adult human microglia from postmortem human brains up to 28 passages without significant loss of proliferation. Such cultures maintained their phenotype, including uptake of the scavenger receptor ligand acetylated low density lipoprotein and response to the amyloid-β peptide, and were used to extend in vivo studies in the primate brain demonstrating that inhibition of microglia activation protects neurons from amyloid-β toxicity. Significantly, microglia cultured from brains with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer’s disease displayed the same characteristics as microglia cultured from normal aged brains. The method described here provides the scientific community with a new and reliable tool for mechanistic studies of human microglia function in health from childhood to old age, and in disease, enhancing the relevance of the findings to the human brain and neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:27567845

  17. Pediatric and Adult High-Grade Glioma Stem Cell Culture Models Are Permissive to Lytic Infection with Parvovirus H-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josupeit, Rafael; Bender, Sebastian; Kern, Sonja; Leuchs, Barbara; Hielscher, Thomas; Herold-Mende, Christel; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Dinsart, Christiane; Witt, Olaf; Rommelaere, Jean; Lacroix, Jeannine

    2016-05-19

    Combining virus-induced cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic effects, oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for high-grade glioma (HGG). A clinical trial has recently provided evidence for the clinical safety of the oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) in adult glioblastoma relapse patients. The present study assesses the efficacy of H-1PV in eliminating HGG initiating cells. H-1PV was able to enter and to transduce all HGG neurosphere culture models (n = 6), including cultures derived from adult glioblastoma, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Cytotoxic effects induced by the virus have been observed in all HGG neurospheres at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) doses of input virus between 1 and 10 plaque forming units per cell. H-1PV infection at this dose range was able to prevent tumorigenicity of NCH421k glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) "stem-like" cells in NOD/SCID mice. Interestingly NCH421R, an isogenic subclone with equal capacity of xenograft formation, but resistant to H-1PV infection could be isolated from the parental NCH421k culture. To reveal changes in gene expression associated with H-1PV resistance we performed a comparative gene expression analysis in these subclones. Several dysregulated genes encoding receptor proteins, endocytosis factors or regulators innate antiviral responses were identified and represent intriguing candidates for to further study molecular mechanisms of H-1PV resistance.

  18. Pediatric and Adult High-Grade Glioma Stem Cell Culture Models Are Permissive to Lytic Infection with Parvovirus H-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Josupeit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Combining virus-induced cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic effects, oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for high-grade glioma (HGG. A clinical trial has recently provided evidence for the clinical safety of the oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV in adult glioblastoma relapse patients. The present study assesses the efficacy of H-1PV in eliminating HGG initiating cells. H-1PV was able to enter and to transduce all HGG neurosphere culture models (n = 6, including cultures derived from adult glioblastoma, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Cytotoxic effects induced by the virus have been observed in all HGG neurospheres at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 doses of input virus between 1 and 10 plaque forming units per cell. H-1PV infection at this dose range was able to prevent tumorigenicity of NCH421k glioblastoma multiforme (GBM “stem-like” cells in NOD/SCID mice. Interestingly NCH421R, an isogenic subclone with equal capacity of xenograft formation, but resistant to H-1PV infection could be isolated from the parental NCH421k culture. To reveal changes in gene expression associated with H-1PV resistance we performed a comparative gene expression analysis in these subclones. Several dysregulated genes encoding receptor proteins, endocytosis factors or regulators innate antiviral responses were identified and represent intriguing candidates for to further study molecular mechanisms of H-1PV resistance.

  19. Using self-reported health measures to predict high-need cases among Medicaid-eligible adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Laura R; Burns, Marguerite E; Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    To assess the ability of different self-reported health (SRH) measures to prospectively identify individuals with high future health care needs among adults eligible for Medicaid. The 1997-2008 rounds of the National Health Interview Survey linked to the 1998-2009 rounds of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (n = 6,725). Multivariate logistic regression models are fitted for the following outcomes: having an inpatient visit; membership in the top decile of emergency room utilization; and membership in the top cost decile. We examine the incremental predictive ability of six different SRH domains (health conditions, mental health, access to care, health behaviors, health-related quality of life [HRQOL], and prior utilization) over a baseline model with sociodemographic characteristics. Models are evaluated using the c-statistic, integrated discrimination improvement, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Self-reports of prior utilization provide the greatest predictive improvement, followed by information on health conditions and HRQOL. Models including these three domains meet the standard threshold of acceptability (c-statistics range from 0.703 to 0.751). SRH measures provide a promising way to prospectively profile Medicaid-eligible adults by likely health care needs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. High Frequency of Latent Conjunctival C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum Infections in Young Adults with Dry Eye Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest V. Boiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the frequency of detection of conjunctival C. trachomatis (CT, M. hominis (MH, and U. urealyticum (UU infections in young adults with dry eye disease (DED, since these infections may potentially produce the chronic subclinical inflammation characteristic of DED. Materials and Methods. The study included subjects of 25–45 years of age, divided into the DED (n=114 and nondry eye control (n=98 groups, with the diagnosis based on self-reported complaints, biomicroscopy, the Schirmer I test, and break-up time. All patients had conjunctival scrapings taken to detect CT, MH, and UU with direct fluorescent-antibody assay kits. Results. At least one of the three microorganisms was found in 87.7% of the DED patients versus 8.2% of the controls. Of all the DED patients, 63.2%, 50.8%, and 42.1% were found to be infected with CT, MH, and UU, respectively. Multiple pathogens were identified in 65% of the DED patients found to be infected. CT infection was detected in 6.1% of the controls. Conclusion. C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum were detected with high frequency in the conjunctiva of young adults with DED and may be an important risk factor for DED in them.

  1. High Frequency of Latent Conjunctival C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum Infections in Young Adults with Dry Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, Ernest V.; Pozniak, Alexei L.; Maltsev, Dmitrii S.; Suetov, Alexei A.; Nuralova, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine the frequency of detection of conjunctival C. trachomatis (CT), M. hominis (MH), and U. urealyticum (UU) infections in young adults with dry eye disease (DED), since these infections may potentially produce the chronic subclinical inflammation characteristic of DED. Materials and Methods. The study included subjects of 25–45 years of age, divided into the DED (n = 114) and nondry eye control (n = 98) groups, with the diagnosis based on self-reported complaints, biomicroscopy, the Schirmer I test, and break-up time. All patients had conjunctival scrapings taken to detect CT, MH, and UU with direct fluorescent-antibody assay kits. Results. At least one of the three microorganisms was found in 87.7% of the DED patients versus 8.2% of the controls. Of all the DED patients, 63.2%, 50.8%, and 42.1% were found to be infected with CT, MH, and UU, respectively. Multiple pathogens were identified in 65% of the DED patients found to be infected. CT infection was detected in 6.1% of the controls. Conclusion. C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum were detected with high frequency in the conjunctiva of young adults with DED and may be an important risk factor for DED in them. PMID:24967096

  2. High-dose dexamethasone vs prednisone for treatment of adult immune thrombocytopenia: a prospective multicenter randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu; Ji, Xue-bin; Wang, Ya-wen; Wang, Jing-xia; Yang, En-qin; Wang, Zheng-cheng; Sang, Yu-qi; Bi, Zuo-mu; Ren, Cui-ai; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Guo-qiang; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming

    2016-01-21

    This study compared the efficacy and safety of high-dose dexamethasone (HD-DXM) and conventional prednisone (PDN) on the largest cohort to date as first-line strategies for newly diagnosed adult primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Patients enrolled were randomized to receive DXM 40 mg/d for 4 days (n = 95, nonresponders received an additional 4-day course of DXM) or prednisone 1.0 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks and then tapered (n = 97). One or 2 courses of HD-DXM resulted in a higher incidence of overall initial response (82.1% vs 67.4%, P = .044) and complete response (50.5% vs 26.8%, P = .001) compared with prednisone. Time to response was shorter in the HD-DXM arm (P < .001), and a baseline bleeding score ≥8 was associated with a decreased likelihood of initial response. Sustained response was achieved by 40.0% of patients in the HD-DXM arm and 41.2% in the PDN arm (P = .884). Initial complete response was a positive indicator of sustained response, whereas presence of antiplatelet autoantibodies was a negative indicator. HD-DXM was generally tolerated better. We concluded that HD-DXM could be a preferred corticosteroid strategy for first-line management of adult primary ITP. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01356511.

  3. Use of prosody and information structure in high functioning adults with Autism in relation to language ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie R DePape

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal prosody is a striking feature of the speech of those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, but previous reports suggest large variability among those with ASD. Here we show that part of this heterogeneity can be explained by level of language functioning. We recorded semi-spontaneous but controlled conversations in adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder and measured features related to pitch and duration to determine (1 general use of prosodic features, (2 prosodic use in relation to marking information structure, specifically, the emphasis of new information in a sentence (focus as opposed to information already given in the conversational context (topic, and (3 the relation between prosodic use and level of language function. We found that, compared to typical adults, those with ASD with high language functioning generally used a larger pitch range than controls but did not mark information structure, whereas those with moderate language functioning generally used a smaller pitch range than controls but marked information structure appropriately to a large extent. Both impaired general prosodic use and impaired marking of information structure would be expected to seriously impact social communication and thereby lead to increased difficulty in personal domains, such as making and keeping friendships, and in professional domains, such as competing for employment opportunities.

  4. Dissecting DNA repair in adult high grade gliomas for patient stratification in the post-genomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christina; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Grundy, Richard; Auer, Dorothee T.; Walker, David; Lakhani, Ravi; Scott, Ian S.; Chan, Stephen; Ball, Graham; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of multiple DNA repair pathways may contribute to aggressive biology and therapy resistance in gliomas. We evaluated transcript levels of 157 genes involved in DNA repair in an adult glioblastoma Test set (n=191) and validated in ‘The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) cohort (n=508). A DNA repair prognostic index model was generated. Artificial neural network analysis (ANN) was conducted to investigate global gene interactions. Protein expression by immunohistochemistry was conducted in 61 tumours. A fourteen DNA repair gene expression panel was associated with poor survival in Test and TCGA cohorts. A Cox multivariate model revealed APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN as independently associated with poor prognosis. A DNA repair prognostic index incorporating APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN stratified patients in to three prognostic sub-groups with worsening survival. APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN also have predictive significance in patients who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. ANN analysis of APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN revealed interactions with genes involved in transcription, hypoxia and metabolic regulation. At the protein level, low APE1 and low PTEN remain associated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, multiple DNA repair pathways operate to influence biology and clinical outcomes in adult high grade gliomas. PMID:25026297

  5. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, M; Groen, Y; Wijers, A A; Noltes, H; Tucha, O; Hoekstra, P J

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the individual's approach and avoidance tendencies. All subjects participated in a randomised double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial where either oxytocin (OXT) or placebo was administered preceding the viewing of affective pictures.The pictures, selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), represented a systematic variation of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes with and without humans. Both cardiac (ECR) and cortical (LPP) evoked orienting responses were measured and both were enhanced for the pictures with humans, in particular for the unpleasant ones. No significant group differences were found, nor were there any treatment effects. Moderator analysis, however, demonstrated that OXT did enhance orienting to affective pictures with humansin male adults with ASD who are easily distressed when seeing others in stressful situations and in healthy males who are highly sensitive to anticipated punishment and criticism or have a low drive for goal achievement. Individual differences in stress-related avoidance tendencies should be taken into account when considering OXT as a treatment of social deficiencies in autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Continuidad y longitudinalidad en medicina general en cuatro países europeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor-Sánchez Raimundo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: El objetivo fue comparar la continuidad y longitudinalidad de la medicina general en cuatro países europeos del modelo público asalariado. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo y prospectivo. 63 médicos generales/de familia asalariados registraron todos los encuentros (directos/indirectos con sus pacientes durante una semana, en centros públicos y estatales de atención primaria de España, Finlandia, Portugal y Suecia. RESULTADOS: El 92% de los encuentros fueron en el despacho médico; fueron directos el 75%; la media de consultas por semana y médico fue de 103. El problema principal de salud fue crónico en el 42% de los casos y agudo en el 31%. El paciente había sido atendido previamente por ese problema en el 63% de los encuentros y por otro problema en el 79%. El médico conocía profesionalmente a algún familiar en el 66% de los pacientes atendidos. CONCLUSIONES: Los países estudiados presentan un grado variable de continuidad y longitudinalidad en medicina general (de mayor a menor: Portugal, España, Suecia y Finlandia. En España las consultas son de corta duración, y con un escaso uso de sistemas de prescripción repetida; en Portugal se forma lista de espera de pacientes, bloqueando la asistencia de los problemas agudos; en Finlandia falta el listado de pacientes, lo que despersonaliza la asistencia; y en Suecia también se forman listas de espera y se hace un mayor uso de la consulta indirecta (especialmente mediante el teléfono.

  7. Agrupamento de países segundo indicadores de padrão de vida Clustering of countries evaluated by standard of living indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Curi

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 125 países avaliados por um conjunto de 26 indicadores básicos, de saúde, econômicos e educacionais, usando-se três métodos estatísticos multivariados: Análise de Agrupamento, Análise de Componentes Principais e Análise de Variância Multivariada. As variáveis mais discriminatórias foram a expectativa de vida, as taxas de mortalidade infantil e de menores de cinco anos, as taxas de natalidade e de fertilidade e a taxa de matrícula no segundo grau para o sexo feminino. Os países foram ordenados de acordo com um "índice de padrão de vida" e separados em cinco grupos.The position of 125 countries is studied on the basis of a collection of 26 basic, health, economic and educational indicators. Multivariate statistical methods were used, including Cluster Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. The most discriminating variables were life expectancy the child mortality rate, the mortality rate of children of less than five years of age, the birth and fertility rates and the high-school female matriculation rate. The first principal component was interpreted as a measure of the living standard which made it possible to place the countries in order. Five clusters of countries are suggested.

  8. Factors Associated With High-Risk Alcohol Consumption Among LGB Older Adults: The Roles of Gender, Social Support, Perceived Stress, Discrimination, and Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Amanda E B; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults have elevated rates of high-risk alcohol consumption compared with heterosexual adults. Although drinking tends to decline with age in the general population, we know little about LGB older adults' drinking. Using 2014 data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS), we aimed to identify factors associated with high-risk drinking in LGB older adults. A U.S. sample of 2,351 LGB adults aged 50-98 years completed a survey about personal and social experiences, substance use, and health. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of past-month high-risk alcohol consumption. Approximately one fifth (20.6%) of LGB older adults reported high-risk drinking, with nonsignificantly different rates between men (22.4%) and women (18.4%). For women, current smoking and greater social support were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; older age, higher income, recovery from addiction, and greater perceived stress were associated with lower likelihood. For men, higher income, current smoking, and greater day-to-day discrimination were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; transgender identity and recovery from addiction were associated with lower likelihood. Social contexts and perceived drinking norms may encourage higher levels of alcohol consumption in LGB older women, whereas men's drinking may be linked with discrimination-related stress. Prevention and intervention with this population should take into account gender differences and sexual minority-specific risk factors. With future waves of data, we will be able to examine LGB older adults' drinking trajectories over time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. What does successful speech-in-noise perception in aging depend on? Electrophysiological correlates of high and low performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzmann, Stephan; Wascher, Edmund; Falkenstein, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Aging usually decreases the ability to understand language under difficult listening conditions. However, aging is also associated with increased between-subject variability. Here, we studied potential sources of inter-individual differences and investigated spoken language understanding of younger and older adults (age ranges 21-35 and 57-74 years, respectively) in a simulated "cocktail-party" scenario. A naturalistic "stock-price monitoring" task was employed in which prices of listed companies were simultaneously recited by four speakers at different locations in space. The participants responded when prices of a target company exceeded specific values, while ignoring all other companies. According to their individual performance levels three subgroups of participants were composed, consisting of 12 high-performing and 12 low-performing older adults, and 12 young adults matching the high-performing older group. The analysis of the event-related brain potentials indicated that all older adults showed delayed attentional control (indicated by a later P2) and reduced speech processing (indicated by a reduced N400), relative to the younger adults. High-performing older adults differed in increased allocation of attention and inhibitory control (indicated by a stronger P2-N2 complex) from their low-performing counterparts. The results are consistent with the idea of an adjustment of mental resources that could help compensating potential deficiencies in peripheral and central auditory processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospective comparative study of patients with culture proven and high suspicion of adult onset septic arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    GUPTA, M.; Sturrock, R; Field, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether patients with acute septic arthritis (SA) diagnosed by positive synovial fluid (SF) culture (Newman grade A) have different clinical and serological features from those with sterile SF in whom there is nonetheless a high suspicion of SA (Newman grades B and C).

  11. A 7-d exercise program increases high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Blaszczak, Alecia; Haus, Jacob M;

    2012-01-01

    High-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is the biologically active form of adiponectin and is related to enhanced insulin sensitivity and metabolic function. Previously, we found that 7 d of exercise improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects; however, whether short-term exercise training aff...

  12. High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This report offers a patient-based approach to lowering blood cholesterol levels which seeks to identify individuals at high risk who will benefit from intensive intervention efforts. The goal is to establish criteria that define the candidates for medical intervention and to provide guidelines on how to detect, set goals for, treat, and monitor…

  13. High-sensitive C-reactive protein is associated with reduced lung function in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F; Mikkelsen, D; Hancox, R J;

    2009-01-01

    Systemic inflammation has been associated with reduced lung function. However, data on the interrelationships between lung function and inflammation are sparse, and it is not clear if low-grade inflammation leads to reduced lung function. Associations between high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CR...

  14. Limitations to sustainable frankincense production: blocked regeneration, high adult mortality and declining populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, P.; Eshete, A.; Sterck, F.J.; Zuidema, P.A.; Bongers, F.

    2012-01-01

    1. Resins are highly valued non-timber forest products (NTFP). One of the most widely traded resins is frankincense, tapped from several Boswellia tree species (Burseraceae). Exploited Boswellia populations often show poor regeneration, but the demographic consequences of these bottlenecks are unkno

  15. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats maintain higher blood Se concentrations compared to dogs and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 µg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to high dietary concentrations of sodium

  16. Adult functioning of mothers with traumatic brain injury at high risk of child abuse: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet-Ruissen, Cora; McKinlay, Audrey; Taylor, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    There is little information regarding the impact that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has on the functioning of mothers at risk of child abuse. This study evaluated adult functioning (e.g. child abuse, substance use, criminal convictions, and mental health problems) of mothers, at high risk for child abuse, who also had a history of TBI compared with those without TBI. It was hypothesised that mothers with a history of TBI would engage in higher rates of dysfunctional behaviour compared to those with no history of TBI. Participants were 206 women engaged in a child abuse prevention programme for mothers who are highly socially disadvantaged, and at high risk for child abuse. Using historical data collected as part of the referral, and self report intake process, this study compared child abuse, mental health problems (depression, anxiety, substance use) and rates of criminal offending for mothers with a history of TBI versus those with no history of TBI. Mothers with TBI were no more likely than those without TBI to have engaged in child abuse. However, mothers with a history of TBI were significantly more likely to have one or more mental health problems, engage in substance use and have a history of criminal offending. Parents with TBI who have been identified as high risk for engaging in child abuse have increased risk for mental health problems and criminal offending. These issues need to be considered when designing parenting programmes in order for intervention strategies to be effective.

  17. High percentage of recent HIV infection leading to onward transmission in Odessa, Ukraine associated with young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Ruth; Semenenko, Igor; Tolpina, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of new HIV diagnoses between May and December 2009 across Odessa recently-infected was estimated using the BED-CEIA assay. Logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with testing as recent. Of 1,313 newly-diagnosed individuals, 321 (24 %) were classified...... as recent. Recent infection was less likely among older adults [odds ratio (OR) = 0.70 per 10-year increase, 95 % CI 0.60-0.82]. Compared to men residing in Odessa city, women in rural Odessa and non-resident men were more likely to be recently-infected (OR 1.85, 1.26-2.71 and 2.83, 1.15-6.97, respectively......). Reason for test was not associated with recent infection. In sensitivity analysis, after excluding individuals tested due to clinical indications, the proportion recently-infected and the association with age remained virtually unchanged. Our findings suggest a high risk of onward transmission...

  18. Idiopathic lymphocytic pleuritis: radiographic and high-resolution CT appearances and changes in response to therapy in two adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    Inflammatory conditions of the pleura characterized by a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate are described in several disorders. The commonest underlying aetiologies include tuberculous infection, autoimmune disorders (particularly Sjogren\\'s syndrome), and post coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Idiopathic lymphocytic pleuritis (ILP) is a rare form of diffuse pleural inflammation characterized by extensive lymphocytic infiltration for which no cause is found. Radiological descriptions of ILP are limited. We describe the radiographic and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging features and response to corticosteroid therapy of ILP in two adults. Both patients presented with bilateral diffuse pleural thickening of >10 mm thickness extending >10 cm craniocaudally with small focal areas of atelectasis. Both cases demonstrated marked improvement in the degree and extent of pleural thickening and rounded atelectasis following corticosteroid therapy. HRCT provided a useful noninvasive method of assessing disease response to therapy.

  19. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L

    2013-12-17

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world.

  20. Mental fatigue negatively influences manual dexterity and anticipation timing but not repeated high-intensity exercise performance in trained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Fowler, Nicholas; George, Oliver; Joyce, Samuel; Hankey, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a period of mental fatigue on manual dexterity, anticipation timing and repeated high intensity exercise performance. Using a randomised, repeated measures experimental design, eight physically trained adults (mean age = 24.8 ± 4.1 years) undertook a 40 minute vigilance task to elicit mental fatigue or a control condition followed by four repeated Wingate anaerobic performance tests. Pre, post fatigue/control and post each Wingate test, manual dexterity (Seconds), coincidence anticipation (absolute error) were assessed. A series of two (condition) by six (time) ways repeated measures ANOVAs indicated a significant condition by time interactions for manual dexterity time (p = 0.021) and absolute error (p = 0.028). Manual dexterity and coincidence anticipation were significantly poorer post mental fatigue compared with control. There were no significant differences in mean power between conditions or across trials (all p > 0.05).

  1. Obesity-related gene ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms and the response to a weight loss diet intervention in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise F. Saliba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual response to diet may be influenced by gene polymorphisms. This study hypothesized that ADRB2 (Gln27Glu, rs1042714 and Arg16Gly, rs1042713, ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994 and GHRL (Leu72Met, rs696217 polymorphisms moderate weight loss. The study was a seven weeks dietary weight loss intervention with Brazilian adult obese women (n = 109. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and polymorphisms in these genes were assessed by real-time PCR assays. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (2 x 2 were used to analyze the intervention effect between polymorphisms and BMI over the period and after stratification for age and socioeconomic status (SES. The weight loss intervention resulted in decreased BMI over the seven-week period (p < 0.001, for high and low SES (p < 0.05 and mainly for participants with 30-49 y. The intervention did not result in a statistically significant difference in weight loss between polymorphism carriers and non-carriers, and although, the ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms did not moderate weight loss, the Gln27Glu polymorphism carriers showed a lower BMI compared to non-carriers in the low SES (p = 0.018 and the 30-39 y (p = 0.036 groups, suggesting a role for this polymorphism related to BMI control.

  2. A difícil integração dos países do Cone Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata do longo processo de integração política e econômica dos países do Cone Sul. Ele aborda os primeiros passos da tentativa de união, ocorridos ainda no início da Guerra Fria. O texto estende-se até o começo da década de 90, quando quatro países - Brasil, Argentina, Uruguai e Paraguai - formaram o Mercado Comum do Sul - MERCOSUL.

  3. Epidemiología de las lesiones deportivas en países de la unión europea

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Azuara, D.; Pérez Flores, D.; Ríos Alcolea, M.

    2014-01-01

    La práctica deportiva es una actividad que se recomienda para mantener y promocionar la salud y los buenos hábitos. Sin embargo puede acarrear un riesgo importante de lesiones. Este estudio presenta, mediante técnicas de análisis multivariante, la relación que existe entre la tipo de lesiones, lugares del cuerpo donde se producen, los deportes más populares; fútbol, baloncesto, voleibol, y gimnasia, edad y países donde se practica, tomando datos de cinco países de la Unión Europea. Si relacio...

  4. Tratamiento comunitario al capital extranjero en los países de la Comunidad Andina desde 1970 hasta 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Carmen Victoria

    2001-01-01

    Con la presente investigación, se pretende ir más allá de una simple descripción de las normas que han regulado el capital extranjero en los países de la Comunidad Andina. El propósito principal es hallar las razones, que han motivado el cambio en las normas y las incidencias que ha tenido ese cambio sobre la afluencia de capital. Asimismo se pretende ver si la legislación comunitaria de los países andinos es compatible con la de la OMC. Para cumplir con este propósito se ha...

  5. Mediating Role of Psychological Resources on the Association Between Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Current Health in the Community Adult Population of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chiemi; Kawakami, Norito; Umeda, Maki

    2015-12-01

    The majority of studies on the role of psychological resources linking childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult health have been conducted in Western countries. Empirical evidence for mediation effects of psychological resources is currently lacking in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of psychological resources (mastery and sense of coherence [SOC]) on the association between childhood SES and current health. Analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data (1,497 men and 1,764 women) from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood Study (J-SHINE) in Tokyo. Psychological resources (mastery and SOC), childhood SES (parents' education and perceived childhood SES), and current health of adults (psychological distress measured by K6 and self-rated health) were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Mastery and SOC significantly and independently mediated the association between childhood SES and current health in the total sample after adjusting for age, gender, and respondent education, regardless of type of SES or health outcome indicators. Similar mediation effects were observed for both men and women. A few gender differences were observed; specifically, SOC significantly mediated the association between parents' education and current health only among women, and it mediated the association between perceived childhood SES and current health only among men. Overall, the findings underscore the importance of the mediating role of psychological resources in the association between childhood SES and current health.

  6. Evaluation of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in adults in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, K M; Carrington, D; Duncan, J; Figueroa, J P; Hirschorn, L; Manning, D; Jackson, S

    2008-06-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved morbidity and mortality and quality of life, revitalized communities and transformed the perception of HIV/AIDS from being a "death sentence" to a chronic illness. Strict and sustained adherence to medication is essential long-term viral suppression. In April 2005, an Adherence Support Programme was introduced to Jamaica's HIV Programme, whereby Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who had achieved high levels of adherence were trained to provide support to other PLWHA in order to increase their adherence to HAART regimens. A cross-sectional survey of 116 individuals with advanced HIV and on HAART was performed in June and July 2006. Many participants were unemployed, poor persons with limited education. Based on self-report of seven-day adherence, 54.8% of persons were 95-100% adherent, 37.5% were 80-94% adherent and 7.7% were alarm clocks and cell phones must be reinforced.

  7. A maximal cycle test with good validity and high repeatability in adults of all ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, L; Tolstrup, J S; Larsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    In 11 680 individuals (18-85 years) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was estimated indirectly in a maximal cycle test using a prediction model developed in a young population (15-28 years). A subsample of 182 individuals (23-77 years) underwent 2 maximal cycle tests with VO2max estimated...... we suggest a new prediction model of VO2max. The maximal cycle test was highly repeatable....

  8. Premorbid Multivariate Prediction of Adult Psychosis-Spectrum Disorder: A High-Risk Prospective Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily; Jameson, Nicole; Sorensen, Holger J.; Dodge, Shana; Tsuji, Thomas; Mortensen, Erik L; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2015-01-01

    Premorbid prediction of psychosis-spectrum disorders has implications for both understanding etiology and clinical identification. The current study used a longitudinal high-risk for psychosis design that included children of parents with schizophrenia as well as two groups of controls (children whose parents had no mental illness, and children with at least one parent with a non-psychotic psychiatric diagnosis). Premorbid neurological factors and an indication of social function, as measured...

  9. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  10. Obstructive sleep apnoea in adult indigenous populations in high-income countries: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Cindy E; Usher, Kim; Maguire, Graeme Paul

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is recognised as a common but under-diagnosed health issue. Currently, there is very little published data relating to the burden and impact of obstructive sleep apnoea among indigenous populations. The purpose of this review was to investigate the prevalence, impact, risk factors and treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea in indigenous populations in high-income countries. An integrative review was conducted on 25 English language studies and reports that investigated obstructive sleep apnoea among indigenous populations in high-income countries. Studies that did not focus on indigenous populations in the results or discussion were excluded. Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases and reference lists of eligible studies. Publication dates range from 1998 to 2012. Synthesis of studies indicates the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea is higher and severity is greater in indigenous populations compared with non-indigenous populations. Comparable risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea were identified in indigenous and non-indigenous populations, with only three studies identifying ethnicity as an independent risk factor. Indigenous populations in high-income countries are subject to an overall greater prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea that is also more severe. A higher prevalence of obesity, alcohol and tobacco use and comorbid medical conditions associated with low socioeconomic status rather than indigenous status per se appears to explain this disparity.

  11. A Numerical Method for Predicting Wash Waves of SES%一种计算SES船尾波(Wash wave)的数值方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢楠; Andrzej JASIONOWSKI; Dracos VASSALOS

    2004-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for predicting wash waves of Surface Effect Ships (SES)at deep waters.The wash waves of the SES are represented by the wave-making of a moving rectangular pressure distribution over the air cushion. Basing on the linear potential theory, the wash waves can be analytically expressed as integrals whose integrands oscillate with high frequency.The numerical procedure involves transformation of the integral variables,such that the integrands are monotonic for different vessel speed,shape of the pressure patch and locations of the wave to be calculated,and easy to facilitate the numerical calculation.The singularities of the integral can be also removed. Numerical results show that the present method is of high computational efficiency and with good agreement with the published results. Some results of wash waves of SES are presented and discussed.The characters of local and non-local effect parts of the wash wave of SES are discussed. Attempt is also tried to apply the present method in predicting wash wave of conversional catamaran,the comparison between the prediction and the model test measurement shows fairly good agreement.%本文提出了一种无限深水中表面效应船(Surface Effect Ship,SES)尾波(Wash wave)数值方法.SES的尾波被表达成分布在气垫上的压力在静水中航行产生的兴波波浪场.在线性势流假设下,该尾波可解析地表示为积分形式,而其被积函数带有奇性并高频振荡.文中提出了一个变换,使变换后对不同的航速,SES船形(气垫形状)和所要计算的波浪场位置尾波计算中的被积函数是单调变化,因而易于数值计算.积分中的奇性也予以去除.数值计算结果表明本文提出的数值方法具有较高的计算效率而且结果与已发表的结果吻合良好.文中给出了一些SES船尾波(Wash wave)的计算结果,并进一步分析了SES尾波(Wash wave)中的局部和非局部波浪场成分.文中还尝试使用本

  12. Neural activity to positive expressions predicts daily experience of schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms in adults with high social anhedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I; Benson, Taylor L; Gyurak, Anett; Yin, Hong; Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope

    2014-02-01

    Social anhedonia (SA), the diminished pleasure from social relationships, is a prominent characteristic of the vulnerability and manifestation of schizophrenia disorder. However, SA can develop for multiple reasons and little is known about its neural basis; these 2 issues hinder the utility and sensitivity of SA as a marker of schizophrenia pathology. This study investigated whether lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) deficits in social reward processing are associated with both SA and other schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms. During functional MRI (fMRI), a community sample of healthy adults (N = 30) with high and low SA viewed positive, negative, and neutral facial expressions. Afterward, participants completed an online daily diary in which they rated schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms and occurrence of interpersonal conflict each day for 21 days. Compared with low SA, high SA participants had less ventral (V)LPFC activity to positive versus neutral expressions. In addition, participants with a combination of high SA and low VLPFC activity to positive versus neutral expressions had worse daily diary ratings of schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, including worse cognition, paranoia, motivation/productivity, and vigor/positive affect (i.e., psychomotor activation). Finally, among high SA participants, VLPFC activity predicted the daily relationship between distress from interpersonal conflict and symptom-severity; specifically, high SA participants with low VLPFC activity had worse paranoia on days of high conflict distress. These findings indicate that VLPFC deficits in positive emotion are associated with both SA and other schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms and that understanding the interaction of SA, VLPFC function, and social stress could facilitate the use of SA in the prevention and treatment of schizophrenia.

  13. The effect of lower anterior high pull headgear on treatment of moderate open bite in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Showkatbakhsh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Various methods are used for treatment of open bite. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lower Anterior High Pull Headgear (LAHPH appliance in Class I subjects with moderate open bite and high lower lip line.Materials and Methods: The study group was composed of 10 subjects with a mean age of 15.8±2.5 years and 3.05 ± 0.07 mm moderate open bite. All the patients rejected orthognathic surgery. The treatment included extraction of upper and lower second premolars followed by leveling, banding, bonding, posterior space closure, and anterior retraction. After these procedures, the open bite was reduced to 2.04±1.17 mm. Afterwards, LAHPH was applied for 18 hours per day for 8±2 months. LAHPH appliance was composed of High Pull Headgear and two hooks mounted on its inner bow. Two elastics (1.8, light, Dentaurum connected the upper hooks on the inner bow to the lower hooks on the mandibular canines vertically. The forces produced by the prescribed elastics were 10 and 60 g during mouth closing and opening, respectively. Paired T-test was used to evaluate pre-andpost-treatment outcomes.Results: The pre-and post-treatment cephalometric evaluations showed that the LAHPH reduced effectively the open bite of the patients to 0.15±1.7 mm (P<0.001.Conclusion: This appliance can be used as an acceptable method for closing the open bite in Class I subjects.

  14. Deconstructing the Alcohol Harm Paradox: A Population Based Survey of Adults in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Angus, Colin; Brennan, Alan; Holmes, John; Kaner, Eileen; Meier, Petra; Michie, Susan

    The Alcohol Harm Paradox refers to observations that lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups consume less alcohol but experience more alcohol-related problems. However, SES is a complex concept and its observed relationship to social problems often depends on how it is measured and the demographic groups studied. Thus this study assessed socioeconomic patterning of alcohol consumption and related harm using multiple measures of SES and examined moderation of this patterning by gender and age. Data were used from the Alcohol Toolkit Study between March and September 2015 on 31,878 adults (16+) living in England. Participants completed the AUDIT which includes alcohol consumption, harm and dependence modules. SES was measured via qualifications, employment, home and car ownership, income and social-grade, plus a composite of these measures. The composite score was coded such that higher scores reflected greater social-disadvantage. We observed the Alcohol Harm Paradox for the composite SES measure, with a linear negative relationship between SES and AUDIT-Consumption scores (β = -0.036, pParadox is observed as a linear trend across SES groups or a phenomenon associated particularly with the most disadvantaged. The paradox also appears more concentrated in men and younger age groups.

  15. Occupational and educational aspirations and attainment of young adults with and without LD 2 years after high school completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, J W

    1999-01-01

    A national longitudinal database was used to compare the aspirations and attainment of individuals with and without learning disabilities (LD) 2 years after high school completion. Analyses revealed that individuals with LD reported lower graduation rates, were more likely to aspire to moderate- (men) or low-prestige (women) occupations, and were more likely to be employed and less likely to be enrolled in some type of postsecondary education program than their nondisabled peers. High educational aspirations in Grade 12 and successful completion of an academic or college-prep high school program were equally important in predicting 2-year postsecondary status for adolescents enrolled in postsecondary education regardless of disability status. However, depending on disability status, different predictors were identified for individuals who were either employed or out of the workforce. These results point to a continued need for transition planning and support for young adults with LD and suggest ways in which professionals can anticipate and adjust for identified differences in aspirations and postsecondary attainment.

  16. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced high susceptibility to metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring rats and its underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lin-Guo; Yuan, Chao; Guo, Yi-Tian; Kou, Hao; Xia, Li-Ping; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E; Xu, Dan; Wang, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) induced an intrauterine programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA)-associated neuroendocrine metabolism in 3-month-old offspring rats. In this study, we aimed to confirm this programming disorder and high susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in 10-month-old female PCE offspring with postnatal catch-up growth. We found that PCE female offspring rats showed decreased bodyweight but a higher rate of weight gain after birth. Moreover, in the offspring, basal hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were observed before unpredictable chronic stress (UCS), but serum total cholesterol (TCH) levels and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C), TCH/HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol/HDL-C (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio changes were increased after UCS, accompanied by morphological damage of the related tissues. These results suggested that PCE adult female offspring rats were highly susceptible to MS, which is related to HPAA-associated neuroendocrine-metabolic programming disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on monitoring hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics of adult respiratory distress syndrome secondary to high altitude pulmonary edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Siqing; Wu Tianyi; Cheng Qiang; Li Pei; Bian Huiping

    2013-01-01

    To study monitoring hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)secondary to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE),we performed clinic and laboratory studies in 8 patients who preliminarily developed high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) and then ARDS occurred at an altitude of 4500 m.After an initial emergency treatment on high mountains,all the patients were rapidly transported to a hospital at a lower altitude of 2808 m.The right cardiac catheterizations were carried out within 5 h after hospitalized.The monitoring hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics were studied via a thermodilution Swan-Gaze catheter.The results showed that before treatments at the beginning of monitoring,there presented a significant pulmonary artery hypertension with a decreased cardiac function,and a lower oxygen metabolism in all the 8 patients.However,after some effective treatments,including mechanical ventilation and using dexamethasone,furosemide,etc,four days later the result of a repeated monitoring showed that their pulmonary artery pressure had been decreased with an improved cardiac function with all the oxygen metabolic indexes increased significantly.Our studies suggested that performing monitoring hemodynamics in patients with ARDS secondary to HAPE will define the clinical therapeutic measures which will benefit the outcome.

  18. Vitamin E Concentrations in Adults with HIV/AIDS on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella J. Itinoseki Kaio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS patients are probably more predisposed to vitamin E deficiency, considering that they are more exposed to oxidative stress. Additionally, there are an extensive number of drugs in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART regimens that may interfere with vitamin E concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 182 HIV/AIDS patients receiving different HAART regimens. The patients were divided into three groups according to regimen: nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs + non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs; NRTIs + protease inhibitors + ritonavir; NRTIs + other classes. Alpha-tocopherol was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of HAART regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen on alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Alpha-tocopherol concentrations were on average 4.12 μmol/L lower for the NRTIs + other classes regimen when compared to the NRTIs + NNRTIs regimen (p = 0.037. A positive association (p < 0.001 was observed between alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations, a finding due, in part, to the relationship between liposoluble vitamins and lipid profile. This study demonstrated differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations between patients using different HAART regimens, especially regimens involving the use of new drugs. Long-term prospective cohort studies are needed to monitor vitamin E status in HIV/AIDS patients since the beginning of treatment.

  19. High endogenous salivary amylase activity is associated with improved glycemic homeostasis following starch ingestion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Abigail L; Breslin, Paul A S

    2012-05-01

    In the current study, we determined whether increased digestion of starch by high salivary amylase concentrations predicted postprandial blood glucose following starch ingestion. Healthy, nonobese individuals were prescreened for salivary amylase activity and classified as high (HA) or low amylase (LA) if their activity levels per minute fell 1 SD higher or lower than the group mean, respectively. Fasting HA (n = 7) and LA (n = 7) individuals participated in 2 sessions during which they ingested either a starch (experimental) or glucose solution (control) on separate days. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the participants drank each solution. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as diploid AMY1 gene copy number. HA individuals had significantly more AMY1 gene copies within their genomes than did the LA individuals. We found that following starch ingestion, HA individuals had significantly lower postprandial blood glucose concentrations at 45, 60, and 75 min, as well as significantly lower AUC and peak blood glucose concentrations than the LA individuals. Plasma insulin concentrations in the HA group were significantly higher than baseline early in the testing session, whereas insulin concentrations in the LA group did not increase at this time. Following ingestion of the glucose solution, however, blood glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ between the groups. These observations are interpreted to suggest that HA individuals may be better adapted to ingest starches, whereas LA individuals may be at greater risk for insulin resistance and diabetes if chronically ingesting starch-rich diets.

  20. High risk for obstructive sleep apnea in relation to hypertension among southeast Asian young adults: role of obesity as an effect modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Chen, Xiaoli; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to hypertension among middle-aged and older adults in Western countries. Few studies have focused on young adults, especially those in Southeast Asian countries undergoing epidemiologic transitions and experiencing elevated noncommunicable disease burden. We investigated associations of high risk for OSA with hypertension among Asian young adults. A total of 2,911 college students in Thailand participated in this study. The high risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measurements were taken by trained research staff. Elevated BP and hypertension were defined as BP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg and ≥ 140/90 mm Hg, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of elevated BP and hypertension. Stratified analyses were conducted to examine whether observed associations varied by weight status. High risk for OSA was significantly associated with elevated BP (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.68-3.39) and hypertension (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.57-4.15) after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. When body mass index was further controlled for, observed associations were greatly attenuated. The associations were only evident among overweight and obese students. The high risk for OSA among overweight and obese young adults is associated with elevated BP and hypertension. Enhanced efforts directed toward screening and diagnosing OSA and weight control among young adults could be one strategy for improving cardiovascular health.

  1. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression in healthy adults rapidly transported to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman NM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicole M Herman,1 Diane E Grill,2 Paul J Anderson,1 Andrew D Miller,1 Jacob B Johnson,1 Kathy A O’Malley,1 Maile L Ceridon Richert,1 Bruce D Johnson1 1Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Although mechanisms of high altitude illness have been studied extensively, the processes behind the development of these conditions are still unclear. Few genome-wide studies on rapid exposure to high altitude have been performed. Each year, scientists and support workers are transferred by plane from McMurdo Station in Antarctica (sea level to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station at 2,835 meters. This uniform and rapid transfer to altitude provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of hypobaric hypoxia on gene expression that may help illustrate the body's adaptations to these conditions. We hypothesized that an extensive number of genes would change with rapid exposure to altitude and further expected that these genes would correspond to inflammatory pathways proposed as a mechanism in development of acute mountain sickness. Peripheral venous blood samples were drawn from 98 healthy subjects at sea level and again on day two at altitude. Microarray analysis was performed on these samples. In total, 1,118 probe sets with significant P-values and fold changes (90% upregulated were identified and entered into MetaCore™ software. Several pathways, including oxidative phosphorylation, cytoskeleton remodeling, and platelet aggregation, were significantly represented by the data set and all were upregulated. Many genes changed expression, and the vast majority of these increased. Increased metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells suggests increased inflammatory activity. Keywords: peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microarray, gene expression, acute mountain sickness

  2. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective: The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method: Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34 to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST. Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results: Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions: The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area.

  3. Escalation of i.v. cocaine intake in peri-adolescent vs. adult rats selectively bred for high (HiS) vs. low (LoS) saccharin intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2013-05-01

    Adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability to the development of substance use disorders. High sweet preference is a genetically mediated behavioral trait that also predicts vulnerability to substances of abuse. Previous research has shown that while adolescent rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake acquire cocaine self-administration at the same rate as adult HiS rats, adolescent rats bred for low saccharin intake (LoS) acquire cocaine self-administration faster than adult LoS rats. This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of the addiction vulnerability factors of peri-adolescence and saccharin preference on cocaine intake using an animal model of escalation of cocaine consumption over 6-h/day sessions. Peri-adolescent and adult HiS and LoS female rats self-administered i.v. cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/inf) during short-access (2-h/day) sessions for 2 days. Next, a long-access (6-h/day) period (LgA) commenced and lasted 16 days. Following LgA, session length was returned to 2-h/day for a second short access phase. LoS peri-adolescent rats escalated cocaine intake over the LgA period and consumed more drug than LoS adult rats; however, peri-adolescent and adult HiS rats consumed similar amounts of cocaine during this period. Additionally, adult HiS rats self-administered more cocaine than adult LoS rats during the LgA period, while there was no phenotypic difference between the rat lines during peri-adolescence for the LgA period. During the first short-access phase, peri-adolescent rats self-administered more cocaine than adult rats. These results emphasize the importance of adolescent drug abuse prevention by illustrating that phenotypic protection from addiction may not be expressed until adulthood.

  4. A high-density EEG study of differences between three high speeds of simulated forward motion from optic flow in adult participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth eVilhelmsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-density EEG study was conducted to investigate evoked and oscillatory brain activity in response to high speeds of simulated forward motion. Participants were shown an optic flow pattern consisting of a virtual road with moving poles at either side of it, simulating structured forward motion at different driving speeds (25, 50, and 75 km/h with a static control condition between each motion condition. Significant differences in N2 latencies and peak amplitudes between the three speeds of visual motion were found in parietal channels of interest P3 and P4. As motion speed increased, peak latency increased while peak amplitude decreased which might indicate that higher driving speeds are perceived as more demanding resulting in longer latencies, and as fewer neurons in the motion sensitive areas of the adult brain appear to be attuned to such high visual speeds this could explain the observed inverse relationship between speed and amplitude. In addition, significant differences between alpha de-synchronizations for forward motion and alpha synchronizations in the static condition were found in the parietal midline (PM source. It was suggested that the alpha de-synchronizations reflect an activated state related to the visual processing of simulated forward motion, whereas the alpha synchronizations in response to the static condition reflect a deactivated resting period.

  5. Lexical decisions in adults with low and high susceptibility to pattern-related visual stress: a preliminary investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Gilchrist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pattern-related visual stress (PRVS is a form of sensory hypersensitivity that some people experience when viewing high contrast repeating patterns, notably alternating dark and light stripes. Those susceptible to PRVS typically have a strong aversion to such stimuli, and this is often accompanied by experiences of visual discomfort and disturbance. The patterns most likely to elicit symptoms of PRVS have a square-wave grating configuration of spatial frequency ~ 3 cycles/degree. Such stimuli are characteristic of printed text in which lines of words and the spaces between them present a high contrast grating-like stimulus. Consequently, much printed reading material has the potential to elicit PRVS that may impair reading performance, and this problem is now thought to be common in individuals with reading difficulties including dyslexia. However, the manner in which PRVS affects reading ability is unknown. One possibility is that the early sensory visual stress may interfere with the later cognitive word recognition stage of the reading process, resulting in reading performance that is slower and/or less accurate.To explore the association of PRVS with word recognition ability, lexical decision performance (speed and accuracy to words and pronounceable non-words was measured in two groups of adults, having low and high susceptibility to PRVS. Results showed that lexical decisions were generally faster but less accurate in high-PRVS, and also that high-PRVS participants made decisions significantly faster for words than for non-words, revealing a strong lexicality effect that was not present in low-PRVS. These findings are novel and, as yet, unconfirmed by other studies. We consider possible interpretation in terms of cortical activity and perceptual mechanisms.

  6. Lexical decisions in adults with low and high susceptibility to pattern-related visual stress: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James M; Allen, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Pattern-related visual stress (PRVS) is a form of sensory hypersensitivity that some people experience when viewing high contrast repeating patterns, notably alternating dark and light stripes. Those susceptible to PRVS typically have a strong aversion to such stimuli, and this is often accompanied by experiences of visual discomfort and disturbance. The patterns most likely to elicit symptoms of PRVS have a square-wave grating configuration of spatial frequency ~3 cycles/degree. Such stimuli are characteristic of printed text in which lines of words and the spaces between them present a high contrast grating-like stimulus. Consequently, much printed reading material has the potential to elicit PRVS that may impair reading performance, and this problem appears to be common in individuals with reading difficulties including dyslexia. However, the manner in which PRVS affects reading ability is unknown. One possibility is that the early sensory visual stress may interfere with the later cognitive word recognition stage of the reading process, resulting in reading performance that is slower and/or less accurate. To explore the association of PRVS with word recognition ability, lexical decision performance (speed and accuracy) to words and pronounceable non-words was measured in two groups of adults, having low and high susceptibility to PRVS. Results showed that lexical decisions were generally faster but less accurate in high-PRVS, and also that high-PRVS participants made decisions significantly faster for words than for non-words, revealing a strong lexicality effect that was not present in low-PRVS. These findings are novel and, as yet, unconfirmed by other studies.

  7. Contribution of parental blood pressures to association between low birth weight and adult high blood pressure: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian R; McConnachie, Alex; Noon, Joseph P; Webb, David J; Watt, Graham C M

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the possibility that low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to high blood pressure. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Primary care medical centre in Edinburgh. Subjects: One offspring of 452 families (231 men and 221 women aged 16-26 years) in whom blood pressure, weight, and height were measured in 1986 and whose parents had blood pressure measured in 1979. Birth weights were obtained from case records (270 offspring) or by questionnaires sent to the mothers (182 offspring). Main outcome measures: Birth weight and adult systolic blood pressure in offspring in relation to parental blood pressure. Results: If parental blood pressures were not considered, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with a 2.24 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure of offspring (P=0.06) after correction for current weight and sex. However, parental blood pressures correlated positively with blood pressure of offspring, and higher maternal blood pressure was associated with lower birth weight (−3.03 g/mm Hg, Ppressures, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with only a 1.71 mm Hg increase in the systolic blood pressure of the offspring (P=0.15). Conclusions: Low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to hypertension, perhaps because it is associated with higher maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. Parental blood pressure may be an important confounding factor in the relation between low birth weight and subsequent hypertension. Key messages Hypertension has both inherited and environmental causes The relation between low birth weight and hypertension in later life may result from the mother’s nutritional environment during pregnancy This study found that mothers who have higher blood pressure in later life deliver babies with lower birth weight, who also develop higher blood pressure Hereditary factors therefore explain part of the relation between low birth weight and adult

  8. Minimal residual disease assessed by multi-parameter flow cytometry is highly prognostic in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravandi, Farhad; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; O'Brien, Susan M; Jabbour, Elias; Thomas, Deborah A; Borthakur, Gautam; Garris, Rebecca; Huang, Xuelin; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Burger, Jan A; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William; Kadia, Tapan; Jain, Nitin; Wang, Sa A; Konoplev, Sergei; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E; McCue, Deborah; Estrov, Zeev; Cortes, Jorge E; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2016-02-01

    The prognostic value of minimal residual disease (MRD) assessed by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MFC) was investigated among 340 adult patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) treated between 2004 and 2014 using regimens including the hyperCVAD (hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone, methotrexate, cytarabine) backbone. Among them, 323 (95%) achieved complete remission (CR) and were included in this study. Median age was 52 years (range, 15-84). Median white blood cell count (WBC) was 9·35 × 10(9) /l (range, 0·4-658·1 ×1 0(9) /l). MRD by MFC was initially assessed with a sensitivity of 0·01%, using a 15-marker, 4-colour panel and subsequently a 6-colour panel on bone marrow specimens obtained at CR achievement and at approximately 3 month intervals thereafter. MRD negative status at CR was associated with improved disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0·004 and P = 0·03, respectively). Similarly, achieving MRD negative status at approximately 3 and 6 months was associated with improved DFS (P = 0·004 and P < 0·0001, respectively) and OS (P = 0·004 and P < 0·0001, respectively). Multivariate analysis including age, WBC at presentation, cytogenetics (standard versus high risk) and MRD status at CR, 3 and 6 months, indicated that MRD negative status at CR was an independent predictor of DFS (P < 0·05). Achievement of an MRD negative state assessed by MFC is an important predictor of DFS and OS in adult patients with ALL.

  9. Effects of maternal high-fat diet and sedentary lifestyle on susceptibility of adult offspring to ozone exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M; Schmid, J; Schladweiler, M C; Ledbetter, A; Snow, S J; Kodavanti, U P

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW. HF diet was terminated at PND 35 and all offspring were placed on CD. Body weight and %fat of dams were greatest in order; HF-SED > HF-RW > CD-SED > CD-RW. Adult offspring were exposed to O3 for two consecutive days (0.8 ppm, 4 h/day). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT), ventilatory parameters (plethysmography), and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) cell counts and protein biomarkers were performed to assess response to O3. Exercise and diet altered body weight and %fat of young offspring. GTT, ventilation and BALF cell counts were exacerbated by O3 with responses markedly exacerbated in males. HF diet and O3 led to significant exacerbation of several BALF parameters: total cell count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were increased in male HF-SED versus CD-SED. Males were hyperglycemic after O3 exposure and exhibited exacerbated GTT responses. Ventilatory dysfunction was also exacerbated in males. Maternal exercise had minimal effects on O3 response. The results of this exploratory study suggest a link between maternal obesity and susceptibility to O3 in their adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

  10. Estudio comparativo de la baremación de secuelas en diferentes países

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El Código Penal Colombiano establece las sanciones para las lesiones no fatales, que varían en rangos de años privativos de la libertad y multa económica en función de los días de incapacidad médico-legal y secuelas que se establecen en una valoración clínica realizada por un médico forense. El Reglamento Técnico Colombiano para el Abordaje Integral de Lesiones en Clínica Forense precisa de manera general cuáles deben ser los días de incapacidad de acuerdo al tiempo estimativo de reparación de los distintos tipos de las lesiones, y determina elementos para establecer las secuelas; sin embargo, no establece gradualidades cuantitativas ni cualitativas para la determinación de las mismas. Se realizó una revisión de los lineamientos jurídicos penales, históricos, conceptuales y médicos en relación a la determinación y valoración de las secuelas en diferentes países. Se utilizaron los motores de búsqueda PubMed, Medline, Google, Science Direct y Springer journal. Se encontró que el proceso de la valoración del daño corporal, desde el ámbito médico-legal, ha evolucionado en relación a las secuelas, se propende por realizar una valoración cuantitativa a través de los procesos de baremación, con el objetivo de unificar los criterios médicos, asegurar respaldo científico y disminuir la litigiosidad de los procesos. En Colombia es deseable realizar un proceso de graduación o baremación cuantitativa de las secuelas, teniendo como base fundamental la ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health y la experiencia de países líderes en el tema, como España y los Estados Unidos, con el propósito de unificar los procesos para la valoración del daño y su respectiva tasación jurídica.

  11. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analysis of Computation, Word Problem and Geometry Questions across Gender and SES Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, Giray

    1995-01-01

    Item characteristic curves were compared across gender and socioeconomic status (SES) groups for the university entrance mathematics examination in Turkey to see if any group had an advantage in solving computation, word-problem, or geometry questions. Differential item functioning was found, and patterns are discussed. (SLD)

  12. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  13. Bunkeya et ses chefs : évolution sociale d'une ville précoloniale (1870 -1992)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalenga Ngoy, Pierre Célestine

    2014-01-01

    Bunkeya et ses chefs provides a history of town of Bunkeya, a traditional centre of rule in Katanga, the south-easterly province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Primarily, it tells the history of the Yeke chiefs, the first of whom, Msiri, founded a kingdom based on slave exports and the control

  14. The Impact of Science Notebook Writing on ELL and Low-SES Students' Science Language Development and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study explored the impact of literacy integration in a science inquiry classroom involving the use of science notebooks on the academic language development and conceptual understanding of students from diverse (i.e., English Language Learners, or ELLs) and low socio-economic status (low-SES) backgrounds. The study derived from a…

  15. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  16. Autonomia dos Países Bálticos: uma questão geopolítica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larissa Rosevics

    2012-01-01

    ... histórica e geopoliticamente como russos e alemães influenciam na autonomia dos três Países Bálticos. The shores of the Baltic Sea are strategic areas disputed by centuries for the peoples of the region...

  17. Bridging the Numeracy Gap for Students in Low SES Communities: The Power of a Whole School Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasoni, Ann; Parish, Linda; Upton, Cait; Hadden, Teresa; Turkenburg, Kathie; Bevan, Kate; Livesey, Carole; Thompson, Deirdre; Croswell, Melissa; Southwell, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the "Bridging the Numeracy Gap Project" on the whole-number learning of Prep and Grade 1 students living in a low Socio-Economic Status (SES) community. The findings suggest that an approach that includes a specialist mathematics teacher who provides specialised programs for mathematically vulnerable…

  18. [High flow, humidified-reheated oxygen therapy: a new oxygenation technique for adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frat, J-P; Goudet, V; Girault, C

    2013-10-01

    Currently conventional oxygen therapy is the first choice symptomatic treatment in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF). However, conventional oxygen therapy has important limitations which have lead to the development of heated and humidified high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNO). HFNO is an innovative technique that can deliver, through special nasal cannulae, up to 100% of the inspired fraction (FiO2) with heated and humidified oxygen at a maximum flow of 70L/min. The characteristics of this technique (overcoming the patient's spontaneous inspiratory flow, heated humidification,) and its physiological effects (no dilution of FiO2, positive end-expiratory pressure, pharyngeal dead-space washout, decrease in airway resistance), allow efficient optimization of oxygenation with better tolerance for patients. Current data, mainly observational, show that HFNO could be used particularly for the management of hypoxemic ARF, notably in the more severe forms. Indications for using HFNO, alone or in association with noninvasive ventilation, are potentially very broad and may involve different types of ARF (post-operative, post-extubation, palliative care) and even the practice of invasive technical procedures (bronchial fibroscopy). However, though current studies are very encouraging and promise a clinical benefit on patient outcomes, randomized trials are still needed to demonstrate that HFNO avoids the need for endotracheal intubation in the management of ARF.

  19. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mariano da Rocha Silla

    Full Text Available This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years and women (14 to 30 years tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil.

  20. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956