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Sample records for high additive contents

  1. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Effects of High-Content Limstone Addition on Combustion Characteristics of Taixi Anthracite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; LI Mei; SUN Min; WEI Xian-yong

    2004-01-01

    Combustion characteristics of Taixi anthracite admixed with high content of limestone addition were investigated with thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that limestone addition has a little promoting effect on the ignition of raw coals as a whole. The addition of limestone is found to significantly accelerate the combustion and burnout of raw coals. The higher the sample mass is, the more significant the effect will be. The results also show that the change of limestone proportion between 45%-80% has little effect on ignition temperatures of coal in the blended samples. Increasing limestone content lowers the temperature corresponding to the maximum weight loss. Although higher maximum mass loss rates are observed with higher limestone content, the effect is found not ascribed to changing limestone addition, but to the decrease of absolute coal mass in the sample. The change of limestone proportion has little effect on its burnout temperature. Mechanism analysis indicates that these phenomena result mainly from improved heat conduction due to limestone addition.

  2. Terahertz-dependent evaluation of water content in high-water-cut crude oil using additive-manufactured samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, LiMei; Zhan, HongLei; Miao, XinYang; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Kun

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of water content in crude oil is of significance to petroleum exploration and transportation. Terahertz (THz) waves are sensitive to fluctuations in the dipole moment of water. However, due to the strong absorption of water in the THz range, it is difficult for the THz spectrum to determine high water content with the common sampler. In this research, micron-grade samplers for THz detection were designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Oil-water mixtures with water content from 1.8% to 90.6% were measured with the THz-TDS system using sample cells. In addition, a detailed analysis was performed of the relationships among THz parameters such as signal peak, time delay, and refractive index as well as absorption coefficient and high water content (>60%). Results suggest that the combination of THz spectroscopy and AM technique is effective for water content evaluation in crude oil and can be further applied in the petroleum industry.

  3. Terahertz-dependent evaluation of water content in high-water-cut crude oil using additive-manufactured samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, LiMei; Zhan, HongLei; Miao, XinYang; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Kun

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of water content in crude oil is of significance to petroleum exploration and transportation. Terahertz (THz) waves are sensitive to fluctuations in the dipole moment of water. However, due to the strong absorption of water in the THz range, it is difficult for the THz spectrum to determine high water content with the common sampler. In this research, micron-grade samplers for THz detection were designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Oil-water mixtures with water content from 1.8% to 90.6% were measured with the THz-TDS system using sample cells. In addition, a detailed analysis was performed of the relationships among THz parameters such as signal peak, time delay, and refractive index as well as absorption coefficient and high water content (>60%). Results suggest that the combination of THz spectroscopy and AM technique is effective for water content evaluation in crude oil and can be further applied in the petroleum industry.

  4. Mix design of concrete with high content of mineral additions: Optimisation to improve early age strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I.A. Khokhar; E. Roziere; P. Turcry; F. Grondin; A. Loukili [Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (GeM), Nantes (France)

    2010-05-15

    The concrete industry is an important source of CO{sub 2} gas emissions. The cement used in the design of concrete is the result of a chemical process linked to the decarbonation of limestone conducted at high temperature and results in a significant release of carbon dioxide. Under the project EcoBeton (Green concrete) funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), concrete mixtures have been designed with a low cement quantity, by replacing cement by mineral additions i.e., blast-furnace slag, fly ash or limestone fillers. Replacement of cement by other materials at high percentages generally lowers the early age strength of the resulting concrete. To cope with this problem, an optimisation method for mix design of concrete using Bolomey's law has been used. Following the encouraging results obtained from mortar, a series of tests on concretes with various substitution percentages were carried out to validate the optimisation method.

  5. Copolymer SJ-1 as a Fluid Loss Additive for Drilling Fluid with High Content of Salt and Calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Quan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A ternary copolymer of 2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS, acrylamide (AM, and allyl alcohol polyoxyethylene ether (APEG with a side chain polyoxyethylene ether (C2H4On SJ-1 were designed and synthesized in this work. Good temperature resistance and salt tolerance of “–SO3-” of AMPS, strong absorption ability of “amino-group” of AM, and good hydrability of side chain polyoxyethylene ether (C2H4On of APEG provide SJ-1 excellent properties as a fluid loss additive. The chemical structure of ternary copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The molecular weight and its distribution were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The API fluid loss of drilling fluid decreased gradually with the increasing concentration of NaCl and CaCl2 in the mud system. SJ-1 was applied well in the drilling fluid even at a high temperature of 220°C. Results of zeta potential of modified drilling fluid showed the dispersion stability of drilling fluid system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis showed the microstructure of the surface of the filter cake obtained from the drilling fluid modified by SJ-1.

  6. Precipitation of Laves phase Fe2Mo type in HSLA steel with copper addition and high content of molybdenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pytel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of mechanical properties and microstructure of low-carbon copper bearing steel after quenching and tempering at temperaturerange of processing precipitation of particles rich in copper and particles intermetallic phase are presented in this paper. When content molybdenum increases in tempering temperature range from 550°C to 600°C that decrease of the impact energy measured at roomtemperature was observed. Microstructure analysis was conducted by transmission electron microscope (TEM and was disclosed theoccurrence of Fe2Mo Laves phase on crystallites boundaries of retained austenite. Observed sudden drop of ductility in higher-molybdenum content steels (1,88 % and 2,94 % should be connected with occurrence precipitation processes of the hard and brittle Laves phase in range of discussion tempering temperatures.

  7. Formation of Mixture of A and C Centres in Diamond Synthesized with Fe90Ni10-C-High-Content Additive NaN3 by HPHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhong-Zhu; JIA xiao-Peng; LIANG Jing-Qiu

    2007-01-01

    Very rich nitrogen concentration with the dominant C centres and some A centres are found in diamonds grown from a Fe90Ni10-C-high-content NaN3 additive system.The concentrations of C centres rapidly increase with increasing content of NaN3 additive,while the concentrations of A centres increase slowly.The total nitrogen concentration tends to increa.rapidly with increasing content of NaN3 additive when the content of NaNa is below 0.7wt%.However,the total concentration of nitrogen in the diamonds increases slowly when the content of NaN3 is further increased up to 1.0wt%,and the total nitrogen average concentration are calculated to be around 2230ppm for most of the analysed synthetic diamonds.Furthermore,the nitrogen impurities in different crystal sectors of the diamonds are inhomogeneously distributed.The nitrogen impurities in the diamonds in [111] zones are incorporated more easily than that in[100].

  8. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  9. Determination of additive contents in aviation and turbine oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakunin, V.N.; Krotova, I.B.; Echin, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    A relatively simple and sufficiently accurate method for determining additive contents in oils using thin-layer chromatography is proposed. Details of the analysis are briefly described with particular reference to the determination of antioxidation additives in synthetic aviation oils and determination of Ionol in turbine oils. The relative accuracy of the method is estimated at 5.5-18.2 percent for 10 parallel tests. 8 refs.

  10. 10 CFR 70.65 - Additional content of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional content of applications. 70.65 Section 70.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL... sufficient detail to understand the theory of operation; and, for each process, the hazards that...

  11. Efeito da incorporação de lodo de ETA contendo alto teor de ferro em cerâmica argilosa Effect of addition of high iron content sludge from water treatment plant on a clay-based ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. C. Paixão

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigados os efeitos da adição de um lodo de estação de tratamento de água nas características físicas e mecânicas de uma cerâmica preparada com massa argilosa (cerâmica vermelha. O lodo "bruto" apresentou partículas grossas e angulares (tamanho médio ~200 µm, elevado teor de ferro (73,0% Fe2O3 para 12,6% SiO2, 8,6% Al2O3, 5,2% CaO e predominância de composto com estrutura amorfa. O lodo calcinado a 1000 °C transformou-se principalmente nas fases hematita e magnetita e as partículas mantiveram a forma original. O lodo bruto foi adicionado em uma massa cerâmica industrial em frações de 0 (controle, 2, 5 e 10% em peso. Os corpos prensados foram sinterizados a 950, 1000 e 1050 °C em forno elétrico. A adição de lodo causou diminuição da resistência à flexão do corpo seco, devido à redução da retração linear de secagem. A temperatura máxima de sinterização da cerâmica com lodo, para a não ocorrência de retração linear excessiva, foi diminuída para ~1000 °C. Até esta temperatura, a incorporação do lodo pouco afetou a retração linear da cerâmica, mas aumentou a absorção de água e diminuiu a resistência à flexão. Os efeitos deletérios da incorporação do lodo foram associados à formação de microtrincas ao redor das partículas do lodo, que pouco interagiu com a matriz argilosa. A calcinação ou a cominuição do lodo possibilitou aumentar a resistência à flexão, pela diminuição da severidade das microtrincas.The effect of addition of sludge from water treatment plant on the physical and mechanical properties of a structural clay ceramic (red tile was investigated. Raw sludge presented large and angular particles (average size of ~200 µm with high iron content (73.0% Fe2O3, 12.6% SiO2, 8.6% Al2O3, 5.2% CaO, and predominantly amorphous structure. After heating at 1000 °C the sludge presented hematite and magnetite as predominant phases, and the particles remained with original

  12. Influence of Different Additives at Various Contents on the Properties of Pottery Clay Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongdej LIMPAIBOON

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of clay body is a highly important step during the production of local decorative pottery, especially the local unglazed low-fired terracotta. In this study, sand (size < 178 mm and Bulrush pulp were employed as an additive blended with clay (size < 125 mm in the preparation of clay body. Various sand contents (2 - 18 wt% and pulp contents (1 - 14 wt% were tested. The properties of each clay body were evaluated in terms of shrinkage, water absorption and modulus of rupture. The results obtained showed that higher sand or pulp content gave higher water absorption and lower shrinkage of clay body. The dried MOR value of pulp-clay body was much higher than that of sand-clay body at the same content. The maximum fired MOR value of sand-clay body (84.51 kgf/cm2 at sand content of 2 wt% was a little higher than that of pulp-clay body (80.44 kgf/cm2 at pulp content of 4 wt%. However, at a sand content ranging between 2 and 14 % or a pulp content ranging between 1 and 5 %, the fired MOR values of clay bodies were enhanced above that of local pottery clay body (60.14 kgf/cm2. From these results the pulp could adequately be used as an additive as well. Finally, a suitable sand or pulp content for producing smooth clay bodies was between 2 and 14 wt% or between 1 and 4 wt%, respectively, due to clay bodies obtained having more smooth texture and higher strength than local pottery clay body.

  13. [Aluminium content in foods with aluminium-containing food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichiro; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) content of 105 samples, including bakery products made with baking powder, agricultural products and seafoods treated with alum, was investigated. The amounts of Al detected were as follows (limit of quantification: 0.01 mg/g): 0.01-0.37 mg/g in 26 of 57 bakery products, 0.22-0.57 mg/g in 3 of 6 powder mixes, 0.01-0.05 mg/g in all three agricultural products examined, 0.03-0.90 mg/g in 4 of 6 seafood samples, 0.01-0.03 mg/g in 3 of 11 samples of instant noodles, 0.04-0.14 mg/g in 3 of 4 samples of vermicelli, 0.01 mg/g in 1 of 16 soybean products, but none in soybeans. Amounts equivalent to the PTWI of a 16 kg infant were detected in two samples of bakery products, two samples of powder mixes and one sample of salted jellyfish, if each sample was taken once a week. These results suggest that certain foods, depending on the product and the intake, might exceed the PTWI of children, especially infants.

  14. Computer vision for high content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Oren Z; Frey, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    High Content Screening (HCS) technologies that combine automated fluorescence microscopy with high throughput biotechnology have become powerful systems for studying cell biology and drug screening. These systems can produce more than 100 000 images per day, making their success dependent on automated image analysis. In this review, we describe the steps involved in quantifying microscopy images and different approaches for each step. Typically, individual cells are segmented from the background using a segmentation algorithm. Each cell is then quantified by extracting numerical features, such as area and intensity measurements. As these feature representations are typically high dimensional (>500), modern machine learning algorithms are used to classify, cluster and visualize cells in HCS experiments. Machine learning algorithms that learn feature representations, in addition to the classification or clustering task, have recently advanced the state of the art on several benchmarking tasks in the computer vision community. These techniques have also recently been applied to HCS image analysis.

  15. Highly stereoselective addition of stannylcuprates to alkynones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; de Dios, M.A.C.; Tanner, David Ackland

    2002-01-01

    The addition of stannylcuprate reagents such as (Bu3Sn)(PhS)CuLi to alkynones has been found to proceed in high yield and with excellent stereoselectivity for the Z isomer of the product (>95%). The behavior of the stannylcuprates is thus very different from that of their "carbocuprate" counterpa...

  16. Topsoil organic carbon content of Europe, a new map based on a generalised additive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brogniez, Delphine; Ballabio, Cristiano; Stevens, Antoine; Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca; van Wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for up-to-date spatially continuous organic carbon (OC) data for global environment and climatic modeling. Whilst the current map of topsoil organic carbon content for Europe (Jones et al., 2005) was produced by applying expert-knowledge based pedo-transfer rules on large soil mapping units, the aim of this study was to replace it by applying digital soil mapping techniques on the first European harmonised geo-referenced topsoil (0-20 cm) database, which arises from the LUCAS (land use/cover area frame statistical survey) survey. A generalized additive model (GAM) was calibrated on 85% of the dataset (ca. 17 000 soil samples) and a backward stepwise approach selected slope, land cover, temperature, net primary productivity, latitude and longitude as environmental covariates (500 m resolution). The validation of the model (applied on 15% of the dataset), gave an R2 of 0.27. We observed that most organic soils were under-predicted by the model and that soils of Scandinavia were also poorly predicted. The model showed an RMSE of 42 g kg-1 for mineral soils and of 287 g kg-1 for organic soils. The map of predicted OC content showed the lowest values in Mediterranean countries and in croplands across Europe, whereas highest OC content were predicted in wetlands, woodlands and in mountainous areas. The map of standard error of the OC model predictions showed high values in northern latitudes, wetlands, moors and heathlands, whereas low uncertainty was mostly found in croplands. A comparison of our results with the map of Jones et al. (2005) showed a general agreement on the prediction of mineral soils' OC content, most probably because the models use some common covariates, namely land cover and temperature. Our model however failed to predict values of OC content greater than 200 g kg-1, which we explain by the imposed unimodal distribution of our model, whose mean is tilted towards the majority of soils, which are mineral. Finally, average

  17. Synergistic Effect of Selenium Addition and Water Stress on Melilotus officinalis L. Mineral Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota KOSTOPOULOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the combined effects of selenium (Se enrichment and water stress on the accumulation of available macro- and micronutrients in Melilotus officinalis L. aerial parts. Plants of M. officinalis were subjected to three levels of Se addition (0, 1 and 3 mg Se L-1 water and to two water treatments: a full irrigation and b limited irrigation (water stress. The above ground biomass (stems and leaves was analyzed for Se, potassium (K, sodium (Na, magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe, copper (Cu, calcium (Ca, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn. Se addition differentially affected the K, Mg and Ca content of M. officinalis aerial parts, while it led to the reduction of the micronutrients Cu, Fe and Mn. Water stress resulted in the increase of K, Na, Mg, Ca and Cu, and to the decrease of the Fe, Zn and Mn content. An interaction between selenium addition and water treatment was more notable for Ca and Mg, which decreased under water stress at low Se level and for Zn and Cu, which increased under water stress at high Se level. According to our findings, Se-induced increased accumulation of some inorganic ions in the aerial parts of this species under water stress conditions could serve as a means to alleviate the adverse impact of water deficit on important metabolic processes, enhancing M. officinalis tolerance to water stress.

  18. Mechanical properties of potato starch modified by moisture content and addition of lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Mateusz; Molenda, Marek; Horabik, Józef; Mueller, Peter; Opaliński, Ireneusz

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to deliver a set of characteristics of structure and mechanical properties of pure starch and starch with an addition of a lubricant - magnesium stearate. Considerable influence of moisture content of potato starch was found in the case of density, parameters of internal friction, coefficients of wall friction and flowability. Elasticity was found to be strongly influenced by water content of the material. Addition of magnesium stearate affected density and parameters of flowability, internal friction and elasticity. Bulk density increased from 604 to 774 kg m-3 with decrease in moisture content of potato starch from 17 to for 6%. Addition of magnesium stearate resulted in approximately 10% decrease in bulk density. Angle of internal friction obtained for 10 kPa of consolidation stress decreased from 33 to 24º with increase in moisture content, and to approximately 22º with addition of the lubricant. With an increase of moisture content from 6 to 18% and with addition of the lubricant, the modulus of elasticity during loading decreased from approximately 1.0 to 0.1 MPa. Modulus of elasticity during unloading was found in the range from 19 to 42 MPa and increased with increase of moisture content and amount of lubricant.

  19. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

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    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  20. The Standard Addition-Elution Method for the Determination of Lead Content in High-salt Food%标准加入-洗脱法测定高盐食品中铅含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常松

    2011-01-01

    实验先洗脱高盐食品大部分的钠盐或钾盐,再加入铅标准系列溶液,使校准曲线的组成与样品接近。该法能很好地消除高浓度盐对铅的严重干扰,提高了方法的灵敏度,十分适合食品检测实验室精确的测定铅元素。%The first elution high-salt food most of the sodium or potassium salt,then adding lead series of standard solution to let the calibration curve and the composition of the sample is close to.This method can well eliminate the high concentration of salt to lead the serious interference.

  1. Effects of Glucose Addition on N Transformations in Paddy Soils with a Gradient of Organic C Content in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jun-xian; LI Zhong-pei; LIU Ming; CHE Yu-ping

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the interaction of N transformation and exogenous C source and manage N fertilization,the effects of glucose addition on N transformation were determined in paddy soils with a gradient of soil organic C content.Changes in N mineralization,nitrification and denitrification,as well as their response to glucose addition were measured by incubation experiments in paddy soils derived from Quaternary red clay in subtropical China.Mineralization and denitrification were changed in order of increasing soil fertilities: high>middle>low.During the first week of incubation,net N mineralization and denitrification rates in paddy soil with high fertility were 1.9 and 1.1 times of those in soil with middle fertility and 5.3 and 2.9 times of those in soil with low fertility,respectively.Addition of glucose decreased net N mineralization by approximately 78.8,109.2 and 177.4% in soils with high,middle and low fertility,respectively.However,denitrification rates in soils with middle and low fertility were increased by 14.4 and 166.2% respectively.The highest nitrate content among the paddy soils tested was 0.62 mg kg-1 and the highest nitrification ratio was 0.33%.Addition of glucose had no obvious effects on nitrate content and nitrification ratio.It was suggested that the intensity of mineralization and denitrification was quite different in soils with different fertility,and increased with increasing soil organic C content.Addition of glucose decreased mineralization,but increased denitrification,and the shifts were greater in soil with low than in soil with high organic C content.Neither addition of glucose nor inherent soil organic C had obvious effects on nitrification in paddy soils tested.

  2. New aluminium alloys with high lithium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemme, K.; Velten, B.

    1989-06-01

    Since the early 80's there have been made great efforts to replace the high strength aluminium alloys for the aircraft and space industry by a new generation of aluminium-lithium alloys. The attractivity of this kind of alloys could be increased by a further reduction of their density, caused by an increasing lithium content (/ge/ 5 wt.% Li). Therefore binary high-lithium containing alloys with low density are produced and metallografically investigated. A survey of their strength and wear behavior is given by using tensile tests and pin abrasing tests. (orig.).

  3. Different additives to enhance the gelation of surimi gel with reduced sodium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cando, Deysi; Herranz, Beatriz; Borderías, A Javier; Moreno, Helena M

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the effect of adding tetra-sodium pyrophosphate, cystine and lysine as surimi gelation enhancers (Alaska Pollock) in order to reduce the sodium content of gels up to 0.3%. These gels were compared with others that contained 3% NaCl content (the amount typically used for surimi processing). To induce protein gelation, gels were first heated and then set at 5 °C/24 h. Once the physicochemical and rheological properties of the gels were determined, cystine and lysine were found to be the most effective additives improving the characteristics of low NaCl surimi gels. The action of these additives is mainly based on the induction of myofibrillar protein unfolding thus facilitating the formation of the types of bonds needed to establish an appropriate network. It was found that a setting period was needed for gel processing to maximize the effect of the additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. INFLUENCE OF ADDITION OF OAT AND LENTIL ON THE CONTENT OF THE DETECTED COMPONENTS IN BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results obtained by bread products analysis made with the addition of oats and lentils, which increased its nutrition value are presented. Breads were prepared with addition of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 % which were analyzed for Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd content. Prepared products were evaluated also from viewpoint of their technological and nutritional value. Use of oat in bread increased with the addition of a quantity of 50 % content of nutritionally significant elements such as Fe (3.2 times, Mn (3.13 times, Zn (2.23 times, Cu (2.01 times and Cr (1.2 times. The addition of lentils increased particularly Cu content (3.55 times, Zn (2.96 times and Mn (1.29 times. None of the samples showed exceeded maximum limit (1.0 mg.kg-1 for lead. Based on the analysis results it was confirmed, that the most problematic element in our soils and subsequently in the foodstuffs is cadmium. Exceeded values (-1 were detected in 8 samples from 11, in finished products the values were within the limits ranging from 0.090 mg.kg-1 Cd to 0.180 mg.kg-1 Cd.doi:10.5219/42

  5. A combination of additives can synergically decrease acrylamide content in gingerbread without compromising sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, Tomáš; Pridal, Antonin; Mikulíková, Renata; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Cwiková, Olga; Nedomová, Šárka; Sýkora, Vladimír

    2017-02-01

    The present study tested whether replacement of the leavening agent ammonium carbonate by sodium hydrogen carbonate in combination with calcium cation and acidifying agent will synergically decrease acrylamide (AA) content in gingerbread. The type of leavening agent and the presence of Ca(2+) and citric acid accounted for 33.6%, 13.2% and 53.2% of the explained variability of the AA content, respectively (P 0.05) in the organoleptic quality of gingerbread produced using calcium cation and citric acid. The present study demonstrates that the combination of additives NaHCO3 /Ca(2+) /citric acid synergically decreases AA content in gingerbread without compromising the sensory quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Electronic Dictionary as a Tool for Integration of Additional Learning Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefka Kovacheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Dictionary as a Tool for Integration of Additional Learning Content This article discusses electronic dictionary as an element of the „Bulgarian cultural and historical heritage under the protection of UNESCO” database developed in IMI (BAS, that will be used to integrate additional learning content. The electronic dictionary is described as an easily accessible book of reference, offering information to the shape, meaning, usage and the origin of words in connection to the cultural-historical heritage sites in Bulgaria, protected by UNESCO. The dictionary targets 9–11 year old students from Bulgarian schools, who study the subjects “Man and Society” in 4th grade and “History and Civilization” in 5th grade.

  7. Quantitative analysis of organic additive content in a polymer by ToF-SIMS with PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidemi; Kono, Teiichiro

    2008-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of organic materials by ToF-SIMS is intrinsically difficult because of their tendency to decompose under ion irradiation. In this study, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) as a means of compensation for the spectral degradation caused by this decomposition and thus improve the accuracy of the quantitative analysis, using as models two organic additives of quite different composition and vulnerability to decomposition under ion irradiation, in polystyrene. This enables the extraction of a principal component related to their content that is independent of the decomposition. The effectiveness of this approach in quantitative analysis of organic additives content in polymers without loss in accuracy due to spectral degradation will be discussed.

  8. Influence of refrigeration length and of sugar addition on ascorbic acid content in some natural juices

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Avramiuc; Liviu Fartaies

    2009-01-01

    Following some studies concerning the main factors influencing the concentration of vitamins within food raw materials, especially ascorbic acid, this work tries to evidence the influence of the refrigeration temperature and of the sucrose addition on content of this vitamin in three types of natural juice. The biological material was represented by orange, strawberry and kivi natural juices, obtained from these fruits by means a crushing out process. For each type of juice there ...

  9. High content screening in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Raymond; Paliwal, Saurabh; Levchenko, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Miniaturization is key to advancing the state-of-the-art in high content screening (HCS), in order to enable dramatic cost savings through reduced usage of expensive biochemical reagents and to enable large-scale screening on primary cells. Microfluidic technology offers the potential to enable HCS to be performed with an unprecedented degree of miniaturization. Areas covered in this review This perspective highlights a real-world example from the authors’ work of HCS assays implemented in a highly miniaturized microfluidic format. Advantages of this technology are discussed, including cost savings, high throughput screening on primary cells, improved accuracy, the ability to study complex time-varying stimuli, and ease of automation, integration, and scaling. What the reader will gain The reader will understand the capabilities of a new microfluidics-based platform for HCS, and the advantages it provides over conventional plate-based HCS. Take home message Microfluidics technology will drive significant advancements and broader usage and applicability of HCS in drug discovery. PMID:21852997

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CARBOHYDRATE-VITAMIN-MINERAL ADDITIVES WET PRESSING WITH INCREASE IN MOLASSES CONTENT TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology for wet pressing of carbohydrate-vitamin-mineral additives with increase in content of molasses was developed. In the UVMD wet pressing with increased molasses content two options for finished additives were considered: briquettes and pellets. In the first phase of work pilot batch of feed supplement for cattle was prepared: 25 % of rapeseed meal; 10 % of soybean meal; 4 % of feeding oil; 51 % of molasses; 5 % of lime; 5 % of premix. It is established that satisfactory mixing occurs when entering the molasses up to 40 %. Further increase in molasses content causes deterioration of mixing. In the second phase a research at the choice of materials, providing hardening of molasses briquette was carried out. At the same time additives for cattle contained 30 ... 50 % of molasses, sunflower meal, wheat bran, beet pulp, tricalcium phosphate, salt, premix. 3 % of hydrated lime and zeolite and also 5 % of limestone flour were used as the cementitious materials in the preparation of pellets with the molasses content of 40,0 %. Briquettes with 30 % and 50 % of molasses do not have sufficient strength. It has been established that when entering the 50 % of molasses and 3 % of hardeners countercurrent flow of material in the mixer stops, the mixture becomes viscous, of pasty consistency. Molasses briquettes had not hardened during storage, were soft and plastic. Briquettes containing 40,0 % of molasses and 3,0 % of hydrated or unhydrated lime were hard in comparison with briquettes containing other hardeners. With increasing input of hardeners up to 5 % molasses blocks were more solid and retained its shape.

  11. The effect of tungsten addition on metallurgical state and solute content in nanocrystalline electrodeposited nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakibi Nia, N., E-mail: niusha.shakibi_nia@univ-lr.fr; Creus, J.; Feaugas, X.; Savall, C.

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • The contamination in Ni and Ni–W deposited alloys is influenced by the elaboration conditions. • In nickel deposits the light elements contamination increased with grain size refinement. • According to SIMS analysis, H and O were distributed almost uniformly in Ni–W deposited alloys. • A maximum contamination for H, O and N around 10 at.% of W was found by the hot extraction method. - Abstract: It is usually difficult to control the incorporation of foreign species in electrodeposited coatings originating from the solvent or the chemical species used for the electrodeposition bath. However, the presence of these impurities can modify their physicochemical properties. In the present study, complementary analytical techniques were used to evaluate the chemical contamination in nickel and nickel–tungsten alloys, electrodeposited from additive free baths. In order to better understand the relationship between impurity content and grain size refinement, the concentration of light elements (H, O and N) was systematically quantified by hot extraction analysis. Also, the distribution of contaminants was evaluated by SIMS analysis. We have shown that in nanocrystalline electrodeposited nickel the grain size refinement and the impurity contents are strongly related. However, in Ni–W alloys the evolution of the contamination is more complex, with a maximum amount for W contents around 10 at.%.

  12. High content analysis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Federica; Motti, Dario; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Kaspar, Brian K

    2017-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. Neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglial cells all undergo pathological modifications in the onset and progression of ALS. A number of genes involved in the etiopathology of the disease have been identified, but a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ALS has yet to be determined. Currently, people affected by ALS have a life expectancy of only two to five years from diagnosis. The search for a treatment has been slow and mostly unsuccessful, leaving patients in desperate need of better therapies. Until recently, most pre-clinical studies utilized the available ALS animal models. In the past years, the development of new protocols for isolation of patient cells and differentiation into relevant cell types has provided new tools to model ALS, potentially more relevant to the disease itself as they directly come from patients. The use of stem cells is showing promise to facilitate ALS research by expanding our understanding of the disease and help to identify potential new therapeutic targets and therapies to help patients. Advancements in high content analysis (HCA) have the power to contribute to move ALS research forward by combining automated image acquisition along with digital image analysis. With modern HCA machines it is possible, in a period of just a few hours, to observe changes in morphology and survival of cells, under the stimulation of hundreds, if not thousands of drugs and compounds. In this article, we will summarize the major molecular and cellular hallmarks of ALS, describe the advancements provided by the in vitro models developed in the last few years, and review the studies that have applied HCA to the ALS field to date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Information management for high content live cell imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High content live cell imaging experiments are able to track the cellular localisation of labelled proteins in multiple live cells over a time course. Experiments using high content live cell imaging will generate multiple large datasets that are often stored in an ad-hoc manner. This hinders identification of previously gathered data that may be relevant to current analyses. Whilst solutions exist for managing image data, they are primarily concerned with storage and retrieval of the images themselves and not the data derived from the images. There is therefore a requirement for an information management solution that facilitates the indexing of experimental metadata and results of high content live cell imaging experiments. Results We have designed and implemented a data model and information management solution for the data gathered through high content live cell imaging experiments. Many of the experiments to be stored measure the translocation of fluorescently labelled proteins from cytoplasm to nucleus in individual cells. The functionality of this database has been enhanced by the addition of an algorithm that automatically annotates results of these experiments with the timings of translocations and periods of any oscillatory translocations as they are uploaded to the repository. Testing has shown the algorithm to perform well with a variety of previously unseen data. Conclusion Our repository is a fully functional example of how high throughput imaging data may be effectively indexed and managed to address the requirements of end users. By implementing the automated analysis of experimental results, we have provided a clear impetus for individuals to ensure that their data forms part of that which is stored in the repository. Although focused on imaging, the solution provided is sufficiently generic to be applied to other functional proteomics and genomics experiments. The software is available from: fhttp://code.google.com/p/livecellim/

  14. Effect of Low-Temperature and High-Pressure Boiling and NaCl Addition on Protein Content and Flavor Components of Bovine Bone Broth%低温高压及预先添加NaCl对牛骨汤的煮制效果及风味成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文营; 李迎楠; 成晓瑜; 贾晓云; 曲超; 李家鹏; 陈文华

    2016-01-01

    研究加压煮制对牛骨汤煮制效果的影响,并对预先添加NaCl对骨汤风味的影响进行分析。结果表明:低温高压相较于常规煮制,蛋白质溶出速率有显著提升。气质联用对风味物质进行检测结果显示:肉汤中酯类、杂环物质、酮类、烃类、酸类、醛类、芳香族化合物和醇类等均有不同程度的变化;加入NaCl煮制时肉汤中酯类、酸类、芳香族和醇类物质种类和相对含量均有不同程度的增加,杂环物质种类和相对含量较仅加压制备样品有显著下降;酮类、醛类和醇类物质种类均有不同程度的增加,但是相对含量均较对照组要小;烃类物质种类没有发生变化,但是相对含量明显增加。因此,加压煮制过程中添加NaCl,对牛骨汤中挥发性物质的种类有明显影响。%The effect of boiling under pressurized condition on the protein content of bovine bone broth was investigated as well as the effect of NaCl addition during boiling on its lfavor components. The dissolution rate of protein was signiifcantly accelerated under low-temperature and high-pressure conditions compared with the conventional boiling method. The esters, heterocyclic compounds, hydrocarbons, ketones, acids, aldehydes, aromatic compounds and alcohols in the broth changed to different extents as detected by GC-MS. The composition and relative contents of esters, acids, aromatic compounds and alcohols were increased upon NaCl addition during boiling, while those of heterocyclic compounds in the sample boiled under pressurized condition without NaCl addition were signiifcantly reduced. In addition, the numbers of ketones, aldehydes and alcohols were increased, but their relative contents were lower than in the control group. The composition of hydrocarbons did not change although their relative contents were signiifcantly enhanced. Thus, NaCl addition during boiling had a signiifcant effect on the composition of

  15. INFLUENCE OF SILAGE ADDITIVES ON FERMENTATION OF HIGH MOISTURE CRIMPED CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Gálik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to find influence of different silage additives on silages fermentation and nutritional value made from high moisture crimped corn, which were conserved in semi experimental conditions. Three variants were examined, untreated control (C, and two experimental variants conserved by biological (variant A and chemical (variant B additives. The maize crimped corn was hermetically filled into plastic bins with the capacity 50 dm3. In silage conserved by additives was lower content of crude fibre (significantly in both experimental variants and higher content of nitrogen free extract, starch and total sugars (significantly in variant A established. In silages form both experimental variants we found significantly lower content of lactic acid. The highest concent we detected in silage conserved without additives. In silage conserved by biological inoculant we found lower content of acetic acid and higher content of butyric acid, but their content was generally very low. Additives used in the experiment decreased content of amonia (0.074 g.kg-1 in variant A and 0.095 g.kg-1 of dry matter in variant B and alcohols too.

  16. Advances in High Temperature Materials for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Nurul Amira Binti; Johar, Muhammad Akmal Bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Halim Irwan Bin; Marwah, Omar Mohd Faizan bin

    2017-08-01

    In today’s technology, additive manufacturing has evolved over the year that commonly known as 3D printing. Currently, additive manufacturing have been applied for many industries such as for automotive, aerospace, medical and other commercial product. The technologies are supported by materials for the manufacturing process to produce high quality product. Plus, additive manufacturing technologies has been growth from the lowest to moderate and high technology to fulfil manufacturing industries obligation. Initially from simple 3D printing such as fused deposition modelling (FDM), poly-jet, inkjet printing, to selective laser sintering (SLS), and electron beam melting (EBM). However, the high technology of additive manufacturing nowadays really needs high investment to carry out the process for fine products. There are three foremost type of material which is polymer, metal and ceramic used for additive manufacturing application, and mostly they were in the form of wire feedstock or powder. In circumstance, it is crucial to recognize the characteristics of each type of materials used in order to understand the behaviours of the materials on high temperature application via additive manufacturing. Therefore, this review aims to provide excessive inquiry and gather the necessary information for further research on additive material materials for high temperature application. This paper also proposed a new material based on powder glass, which comes from recycled tempered glass from automotive industry, having a huge potential to be applied for high temperature application. The technique proposed for additive manufacturing will minimize some cost of modelling with same quality of products compare to the others advanced technology used for high temperature application.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Janssen, Niels; Smith, Stefan; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with

  18. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing: Route to High Structural Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivel, S.; Sidhar, H.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    Aerospace and automotive industries provide the next big opportunities for additive manufacturing. Currently, the additive industry is confronted with four major challenges that have been identified in this article. These challenges need to be addressed for the additive technologies to march into new frontiers and create additional markets. Specific potential success in the transportation sectors is dependent on the ability to manufacture complicated structures with high performance. Most of the techniques used for metal-based additive manufacturing are fusion based because of their ability to fulfill the computer-aided design to component vision. Although these techniques aid in fabrication of complex shapes, achieving high structural performance is a key problem due to the liquid-solid phase transformation. In this article, friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) is shown as a potential solid-state process for attaining high-performance lightweight alloys for simpler geometrical applications. To illustrate FSAM as a high-performance route, manufactured builds of Mg-4Y-3Nd and AA5083 are shown as examples. In the Mg-based alloy, an average hardness of 120 HV was achieved in the built structure and was significantly higher than that of the base material (97 HV). Similarly for the Al-based alloy, compared with the base hardness of 88 HV, the average built hardness was 104 HV. A potential application of FSAM is illustrated by taking an example of a simple stiffener assembly.

  19. Effects of thyme as a feed additive in broiler chickens on thymol in gut contents, blood plasma, liver and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselmeyer, Alexander; Zentek, Jürgen; Chizzola, Remigius

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic herbs as feed additives in animal production are encountering growing interest, but data on the fate of the aromatic compounds from the plant in the animal body are very scarce. In the present study, thyme (Thymus vulgaris) herb consisting of leaves and flowers without stems was used as an ingredient in the diet for broilers. The herb was fed for 35 days to five groups of broilers (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 1% w/w in the diet). Animal performance and the concentrations of the main essential oil component from thyme, thymol, were measured in gut contents, plasma and liver and muscle tissues using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. There were no differences between the groups in feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion and slaughter weight. Thymol was detected in gut contents, plasma and liver and muscle tissues. Increased intestinal thymol concentrations were found in the group with 1% thyme compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). In liver and muscle tissues the thymol levels were close to the limit of quantification. The data do not indicate a positive effect of thyme on animal performance. With high dietary levels of thyme herb, thymol concentrations increased in gut contents and plasma but were very low in edible tissues such as liver and flesh. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Laser additive manufacturing of high-performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    This book entitled “Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials” covers the specific aspects of laser additive manufacturing of high-performance new materials components based on an unconventional materials incremental manufacturing philosophy, in terms of materials design and preparation, process control and optimization, and theories of physical and chemical metallurgy. This book describes the capabilities and characteristics of the development of new metallic materials components by laser additive manufacturing process, including nanostructured materials, in situ composite materials, particle reinforced metal matrix composites, etc. The topics presented in this book, similar as laser additive manufacturing technology itself, show a significant interdisciplinary feature, integrating laser technology, materials science, metallurgical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This is a book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, and manufacturing industry professionals interested i...

  1. Cast Iron With High Carbon Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A.; Hendrix, J. C.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Method proposed for solidifying high-carbon cast iron without carbon particles segregating at upper surface. Solidification carried out in low gravity, for example on airplane flying free-fall parabolic trajectory. Many different microstructures obtained by proposed technique, and percentage by weight of carbon retained in melt much higher than at present.

  2. High-Content Screening for Quantitative Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzi Usaj, Mojca; Styles, Erin B; Verster, Adrian J; Friesen, Helena; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2016-08-01

    High-content screening (HCS), which combines automated fluorescence microscopy with quantitative image analysis, allows the acquisition of unbiased multiparametric data at the single cell level. This approach has been used to address diverse biological questions and identify a plethora of quantitative phenotypes of varying complexity in numerous different model systems. Here, we describe some recent applications of HCS, ranging from the identification of genes required for specific biological processes to the characterization of genetic interactions. We review the steps involved in the design of useful biological assays and automated image analysis, and describe major challenges associated with each. Additionally, we highlight emerging technologies and future challenges, and discuss how the field of HCS might be enhanced in the future.

  3. Content-Based Curriculum for High-Ability Learners, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce, Ed.; Little, Catherine A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The newly updated "Content-Based Curriculum for High-Ability Learners" provides a solid introduction to curriculum development in gifted and talented education. Written by experts in the field of gifted education, this text uses cutting-edge design techniques and aligns the core content with national and state standards. In addition to a revision…

  4. Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition of briquettes has had an influence of a chemical composition of cast iron above all on content of sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. It was not reflected in decrease in tensile strength and in microstructure. Yield of metal from briquettes was not lower then 70%.

  5. High Capacity and Resistance to Additive Noise Audio Steganography Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Ismael Shahadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art of message hiding in a cover signal without attracting attention. The requirements of the good steganography algorithm are security, capacity, robustness and imperceptibility, all them are contradictory, therefore, satisfying all together is not easy especially in audio cover signal because human auditory system (HAS has high sensitivity to audio modification. In this paper, we proposed a high capacity audio steganography algorithm with good resistance to additive noise. The proposed algorithm is based on wavelet packet transform and blocks matching. It has capacity above 35% of the input audio file size with acceptable signal to noise ratio. Also, it is resistance to additive Gaussian noise to about 25 db. Furthermore, the reconstruction of actual secret messages does not require the original cover audio signal.

  6. A novel high-efficiency methodology for metal additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jun; Wei, Zhengying; Wang, Xin; Fang, Xuewei; Zhao, Guangxi

    2016-11-01

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) offers unrivalled design freedom with the ability to manufacture complex parts. However, the high capital costs and slow throughput printing have severely restricted its application. In this paper, a new metal AM process, referred to as the "metal fused-coating additive manufacturing (MFCAM)", was developed for highly efficient metal parts production. This new process is the combination of metal fused-coating process and laser surface melting process. A two-dimensional numerical model was established to provide an insight into the primary thermo-physical phenomena occurring in the MFCAM process. Experiments of single-track formation were conducted using MFCAM to validate the feasibility of the proposed process. The good agreement between experimental and simulated results demonstrated the reasonableness of the established models.

  7. High-dimensional additive hazard models and the Lasso

    CERN Document Server

    Gaïffas, Séphane

    2011-01-01

    We consider a general high-dimensional additive hazard model in a non-asymptotic setting, including regression for censored-data. In this context, we consider a Lasso estimator with a fully data-driven $\\ell_1$ penalization, which is tuned for the estimation problem at hand. We prove sharp oracle inequalities for this estimator. Our analysis involves a new "data-driven" Bernstein's inequality, that is of independent interest, where the predictable variation is replaced by the optional variation.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocelík, V.; Janssen, N.; Smith, S. N.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2016-07-01

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with different amounts of aluminum prepared by arc melting were investigated and compared with the laser beam remelted HEAs with the same composition. Attempts to form HEAs coatings with a direct laser deposition from the mixture of elemental powders were made for AlCoCrFeNi and AlCrFeNiTa composition. A strong influence of solidification rate on the amounts of face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phase, their chemical composition, and spatial distribution was detected for two-phase AlCoCrFeNi HEAs. It is concluded that a high-power laser is a versatile tool to synthesize interesting HEAs with additive manufacturing processing. Critical issues are related to the rate of (re)solidification, the dilution with the substrate, powder efficiency during cladding, and differences in melting points of clad powders making additive manufacturing processing from a simple mixture of elemental powders a challenging approach.

  9. Effect of Fruit Lemon Juice Addition to The Content of Protein, Fat, Lactose and Probiotic on Soy Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, F. M. T.; Zackiyah; Azizah, N.

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to determine the effect of lemon juice to the content of protein, fat, lactose and probiotics, in beverages soy yogurt. Soy yogurt which produced was a multifunction yogurt drink high levels of antioxidants, contains probiotics and can be used by people with lactose intolerance. The research method includes the production of fortified soy yogurt with lemon juice, were made with the ratio between the lemon juice and soy yogurt were 0:10 (L0); 1:9 (L1); 2:8 (L2); and 3:7 (L3). Analysis of the results include the content of protein by Kjeldahl method, the content of fat by Soxhletasi method, lactose test by Luff Schoorls method and content of probiotics with total plate count enumeration techniques. The results showed fortified yogurt had a protein content greater than before fortification (L3 > L2 > L1 > L0); The fat content L0 > L1 > L2 > L3. Fortified yogurt lactose content is smaller than before fortification (L0 > L1 > L2 > L3). The content of probiotic yogurt fortified L1 > L3 > L2. From this research can be concluded that the yoghurt fortified (L3) is the best, with the highest protein content, low fat, low lactose than L1 and L2, and had probiotics content. It is advised to conduct further research on the expired time of fortified soy yogurt products

  10. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples.

  11. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  12. Addition of Aegilops U and M Chromosomes Affects Protein and Dietary Fiber Content of Wholemeal Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Rakszegi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal grain fiber is an important health-promoting component in the human diet. One option to improve dietary fiber content and composition in wheat is to introduce genes from its wild relatives Aegilops biuncialis and Aegilops geniculata. This study showed that the addition of chromosomes 2Ug, 4Ug, 5Ug, 7Ug, 2Mg, 5Mg, and 7Mg of Ae. geniculata and 3Ub, 2Mb, 3Mb, and 7Mb of Ae. biuncialis into bread wheat increased the seed protein content. Chromosomes 1Ug and 1Mg increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1Ub and 6Ub led to its decrease. Both Aegilops species had higher proportions of β-glucan compared to arabinoxylan (AX than wheat lines, and elevated β-glucan content was also observed in wheat chromosome addition lines 5U, 7U, and 7M. The AX content in wheat was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug, and 1Ub while water-soluble AX was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5U, 5M, and 7M, and to a lesser extent by chromosomes 3, 4, 6Ug, and 2Mb. Chromosomes 5Ug and 7Mb also affected the structure of wheat AX, as shown by the pattern of oligosaccharides released by digestion with endoxylanase. These results will help to map genomic regions responsible for edible fiber content in Aegilops and will contribute to the efficient transfer of wild alleles in introgression breeding programs to obtain wheat varieties with improved health benefits.Key Message: Addition of Aegilops U- and M-genome chromosomes 5 and 7 improves seed protein and fiber content and composition in wheat.

  13. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  14. Stereoscopic high-speed imaging using additive colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankin, Georgy N.; Piech, David; Zhong, Pei

    2012-04-01

    An experimental system for digital stereoscopic imaging produced by using a high-speed color camera is described. Two bright-field image projections of a three-dimensional object are captured utilizing additive-color backlighting (blue and red). The two images are simultaneously combined on a two-dimensional image sensor using a set of dichromatic mirrors, and stored for off-line separation of each projection. This method has been demonstrated in analyzing cavitation bubble dynamics near boundaries. This technique may be useful for flow visualization and in machine vision applications.

  15. Optimization of additive content and their combination to improve the quality of pure barley bread

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pojić, Milica; Dapčević Hadnađev, Tamara; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Rakita, Slađana; Torbica, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    ...) on breadmaking potential of barley flour by using response surface methodology. Addition of these ingredients had significant effect on specific bread volume, crust and crumb lightness, crumb texture, average cell size and crumb density...

  16. Oxidative stability of pullulan nanofibers loaded with fish oil: effect of oil content and antioxidants addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, C.; Stephansen, K.

    tension) as well as on the morphology of NFM and oxidative stability of NMF during storage (20 days at 20 °C and relative humidity of 33%) was studied. Secondly, the effect on the oxidative stability of the NMS of incorporating hydrophilic antioxidants (e.g. EDTA) to pullulan solutions and/or liphophilic...... antioxidants (e.g. tocopherols) to fish oil was evaluated. Preliminary results show that neat fish oil can be incorporated into pullulan NMS by adding 30% Tween20 (by weight to respect to fish oil content), leading to NMS not containing antioxidants with a peroxide value lower that 20 meq O2/kg oil at day 0....

  17. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content ...

  18. An oral multispecies biofilm model for high content screening applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommerein, Nadine; Stumpp, Sascha N.; Müsken, Mathias; Ehlert, Nina; Winkel, Andreas; Häussler, Susanne; Behrens, Peter; Buettner, Falk F. R.; Stiesch, Meike

    2017-01-01

    Peri-implantitis caused by multispecies biofilms is a major complication in dental implant treatment. The bacterial infection surrounding dental implants can lead to bone loss and, in turn, to implant failure. A promising strategy to prevent these common complications is the development of implant surfaces that inhibit biofilm development. A reproducible and easy-to-use biofilm model as a test system for large scale screening of new implant surfaces with putative antibacterial potency is therefore of major importance. In the present study, we developed a highly reproducible in vitro four-species biofilm model consisting of the highly relevant oral bacterial species Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella dispar and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The application of live/dead staining, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and urea-NaCl fluorescence in situ hybridization (urea-NaCl-FISH) revealed that the four-species biofilm community is robust in terms of biovolume, live/dead distribution and individual species distribution over time. The biofilm community is dominated by S. oralis, followed by V. dispar, A. naeslundii and P. gingivalis. The percentage distribution in this model closely reflects the situation in early native plaques and is therefore well suited as an in vitro model test system. Furthermore, despite its nearly native composition, the multispecies model does not depend on nutrient additives, such as native human saliva or serum, and is an inexpensive, easy to handle and highly reproducible alternative to the available model systems. The 96-well plate format enables high content screening for optimized implant surfaces impeding biofilm formation or the testing of multiple antimicrobial treatment strategies to fight multispecies biofilm infections, both exemplary proven in the manuscript. PMID:28296966

  19. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods.

  20. EFFECT OF WASTE MINERAL ADDITIVES ON FLOW STABILITY OVER TIME IN SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE MIXES WITH LOW CLINKER CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Grabiec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary solutions in concrete technology are varied, and consist in e.g. the use of new generation concretes, including the most spectacular achievement of the 1990s – self-compacting concrete (SCC being the subject of continuous research, as well as protection of the environment against excessive anthropogenic pressures, such as carbon dioxide which is a major emission substance from the cement industry. The studies analysed the possibilities for replacing part of the clinker binder (cement CEM I 42.5 R in self-compacting concrete with three types of waste mineral additives: fly ash, limestone powder, and granite powder. Focus was placed on key technological characteristics of concrete mixes: air content and rheological properties, maximal diameter of slump-flow and changes thereof over time, as well as the mix’s flow time into the 500 mm diameter, determining the flow dynamics. 28-day compressive strength of the concrete was recognised as a secondary property which in self-compacting concretes results from achieving the right range of the mix’s rheological properties. Concretes were produced using gravel-sand aggregate in 3-fraction composition and a high-efficiency superplasticiser. The studies were conducted as a planned experiment in the 3-ingredient mixes plan.

  1. Flame Retardant Polyamide Fibres: The Challenge of Minimising Flame Retardant Additive Contents with Added Nanoclays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Horrocks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6, fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt % of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant formulations. The latter include (i aluminium diethyl phosphinate (AlPi at 10 wt %, known to work principally in the vapour phase and (ii ammonium sulphamate (AS/dipentaerythritol (DP system present at 2.5 and 1 wt % respectively, believed to be condense phase active. The nanoclay chosen is an organically modified montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 25A. The effect of each additive system is analysed in terms of its ability to maximise both filament tensile properties relative to 100% PA6 and flame retardant behaviour of knitted fabrics in a vertical orientation. None of the AlPi-containing formulations achieved self-extinguishability, although the presence of nanoclay promoted lower burning and melt dripping rates. The AS/DP-containing formulations with total flame retardant levels of 5.5 wt % or less showed far superior properties and with nanoclay, showed fabric extinction times ≤ 39 s and reduced melt dripping. The tensile and flammability results, supported by thermogravimetric analysis, have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of action of each flame retardant/nanoclay type.

  2. Enhanced ferroelectric phase content of polyvinylidene difluoride fibers with the addition of magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, J S; Clarke, D R

    2008-08-19

    Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) fibers with continuously dispersed ferrite (Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4) nanoparticles were prepared by electrospinning from dimethyl formamide (DMF) solutions. The effects of the electrospinning processing conditions and nanoparticle loading on the formation of the alpha, beta, and gamma phases of PVDF were studied using infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The amount of the ferroelectric beta and gamma phases present in the fibers was found to increase with increased nanoparticle loading. We have shown that the formation of PVDF phases with extended chain conformations can be enhanced by the addition of a well-dispersed nanoparticle phase. At increased nanoparticle loadings, the alpha phase is completely converted to the more extended beta and gamma phases.

  3. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  4. IMPACTS OF LIGNIN CONTENTS AND YEAST EXTRACT ADDITION ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SPRUCE PULPS AND CRUDE RECOMBINANT PAENIBACILLUS ENDOGLUCANASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Ko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Crude recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase was employed to investigate its ability to gain access into and to degrade spruce pulps having different lignin and pentosan contents. Since yeast extract is commonly present in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes as a nitrogen source, its effect on the accessibility and degradability of crude endoglucanase was examined. Pulps with more lignin contents adsorbed more overall proteins. More protein impurities other than the recombinant Paenibacillus endoglucanase were found to be preferentially adsorbed on the surfaces of pulp with higher lignin contents. The addition of yeast extracts further enhanced the above trends, which might reduce the non-productive binding by pulp lignin. Pulps with more lignin contents were more difficult to be degraded by the crude endoglucanase; the reductions of degree of polymerization (DP for pulps were more sensitive to the dosage of endoglucanase applied. The presence of yeast extracts increased the DP degradation rate constants, but decreased the release of reducing sugars during hydrolysis for pulp with higher lignin contents.

  5. Properties and Microstructural Characteristic of Kaolin Geopolymer Ceramics with Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Romisuhani; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Hussin, Kamarudin; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Binhussain, Mohammed; Ain Jaya, Nur

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties and microstructure of kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene were studied. Inorganic polymers based on alumina and silica polysialate units were synthesized at room temperature from kaolin and sodium silicate in a highly alkaline medium, followed by curing and drying at 80 °C. Alkaline activator was formed by mixing the 12 M NaOH solution with sodium silicate at a ratio of 0.24. Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene to the kaolin geopolymer are fabricated with Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene content of 2, 4, 6 and 8 (wt. %) by using powder metallurgy method. The samples were heated at 1200 °C and the strength and morphological were tested. It was found that the flexural strength for the kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of UHMWPE were improved and generally increased with the increasing of UHMWPE loading. The result revealed that the optimum flexural strength was obtained at UHMWPE loading of 4 wt. % (92.1 MPa) and the flexural strength started to decrease. Microstructural analysis showed the samples appeared to have more number of pores and connected of pores increased with the increasing of UHMWPE content.

  6. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking. PMID:24451845

  7. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Giménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking.

  8. Effects of bread making and wheat germ addition on the natural deoxynivalenol content in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-21

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking.

  9. Shedding light on filovirus infection with high-content imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Gianluca; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G

    2012-08-01

    Microscopy has been instrumental in the discovery and characterization of microorganisms. Major advances in high-throughput fluorescence microscopy and automated, high-content image analysis tools are paving the way to the systematic and quantitative study of the molecular properties of cellular systems, both at the population and at the single-cell level. High-Content Imaging (HCI) has been used to characterize host-virus interactions in genome-wide reverse genetic screens and to identify novel cellular factors implicated in the binding, entry, replication and egress of several pathogenic viruses. Here we present an overview of the most significant applications of HCI in the context of the cell biology of filovirus infection. HCI assays have been recently implemented to quantitatively study filoviruses in cell culture, employing either infectious viruses in a BSL-4 environment or surrogate genetic systems in a BSL-2 environment. These assays are becoming instrumental for small molecule and siRNA screens aimed at the discovery of both cellular therapeutic targets and of compounds with anti-viral properties. We discuss the current practical constraints limiting the implementation of high-throughput biology in a BSL-4 environment, and propose possible solutions to safely perform high-content, high-throughput filovirus infection assays. Finally, we discuss possible novel applications of HCI in the context of filovirus research with particular emphasis on the identification of possible cellular biomarkers of virus infection.

  10. Shedding Light on Filovirus Infection with High-Content Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha G. Panchal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy has been instrumental in the discovery and characterization of microorganisms. Major advances in high-throughput fluorescence microscopy and automated, high-content image analysis tools are paving the way to the systematic and quantitative study of the molecular properties of cellular systems, both at the population and at the single-cell level. High-Content Imaging (HCI has been used to characterize host-virus interactions in genome-wide reverse genetic screens and to identify novel cellular factors implicated in the binding, entry, replication and egress of several pathogenic viruses. Here we present an overview of the most significant applications of HCI in the context of the cell biology of filovirus infection. HCI assays have been recently implemented to quantitatively study filoviruses in cell culture, employing either infectious viruses in a BSL-4 environment or surrogate genetic systems in a BSL-2 environment. These assays are becoming instrumental for small molecule and siRNA screens aimed at the discovery of both cellular therapeutic targets and of compounds with anti-viral properties. We discuss the current practical constraints limiting the implementation of high-throughput biology in a BSL-4 environment, and propose possible solutions to safely perform high-content, high-throughput filovirus infection assays. Finally, we discuss possible novel applications of HCI in the context of filovirus research with particular emphasis on the identification of possible cellular biomarkers of virus infection.

  11. High content screening as high quality assay for biological evaluation of photosensitizers in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela M F Vaz

    Full Text Available A novel single step assay approach to screen a library of photdynamic therapy (PDT compounds was developed. Utilizing high content analysis (HCA technologies several robust cellular parameters were identified, which can be used to determine the phototoxic effects of porphyrin compounds which have been developed as potential anticancer agents directed against esophageal carcinoma. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach a small detailed study on five porphyrin based compounds was performed utilizing two relevant esophageal cancer cell lines (OE21 and SKGT-4. The measurable outputs from these early studies were then evaluated by performing a pilot screen using a set of 22 compounds. These data were evaluated and validated by performing comparative studies using a traditional colorimetric assay (MTT. The studies demonstrated that the HCS assay offers significant advantages over and above the currently used methods (directly related to the intracellular presence of the compounds by analysis of their integrated intensity and area within the cells. A high correlation was found between the high content screening (HCS and MTT data. However, the HCS approach provides additional information that allows a better understanding of the behavior of these compounds when interacting at the cellular level. This is the first step towards an automated high-throughput screening of photosensitizer drug candidates and the beginnings of an integrated and comprehensive quantitative structure action relationship (QSAR study for photosensitizer libraries.

  12. EFFECT OF CARBON CONTENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH AND HIGH ELONGATION STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Chen; X.Chen; 等

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of new kind of hot-rolled high strength and high elongation steels with retained austenite were studied by discussing the in-fluence of different carbon content.The research results indicate that carbon content has a significant effect on retaining austenite and consequently resulting in high elon-gation.Besides,new findings about relationship between carbon content and retained austenite as well as properties were discussed in the paper.

  13. Evaluation of dissolution rate on high plutonium content MOX fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugaya, Shinichi; Kurita, Ichiro; Endo, Hideo; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kihara, Yoshiyuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ogasawara, Masahiro; Shinada, Masanori; Kowata, Masato [Inspection Development Company Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The dissolution rate of high Pu content MOX fuel into nitric acid was measured as a function of Pu content. MOX fuel samples, pressed and sintered, were dissolved in 7 M of boiling nitric acid, and the dissolution rate was measured by analyzing the Pu and U concentration in the solution. The dissolution rate of MOX fuel tended to decrease with the increase in the Pu content and was reduced after 6 hours of dissolution. These results agreed well with previous ones, but the dissolution rate was 3-6 times faster than those. It is estimated that the cause of this difference was due to underestimation of the surface area of MOX fuel powder and the difference of the MOX O/M ratio. (author)

  14. Developmental toxicity assay using high content screening of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz-McPeak, Susan; Guo, Xiaoqing; Cuevas, Elvis; Dumas, Melanie; Newport, Glenn D; Ali, Syed F; Paule, Merle G; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2015-03-01

    Typically, time-consuming standard toxicological assays using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model evaluate mortality and teratogenicity after exposure during the first 2 days post-fertilization. Here we describe an automated image-based high content screening (HCS) assay to identify the teratogenic/embryotoxic potential of compounds in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Automated image acquisition was performed using a high content microscope system. Further automated analysis of embryo length, as a statistically quantifiable endpoint of toxicity, was performed on images post-acquisition. The biological effects of ethanol, nicotine, ketamine, caffeine, dimethyl sulfoxide and temperature on zebrafish embryos were assessed. This automated developmental toxicity assay, based on a growth-retardation endpoint should be suitable for evaluating the effects of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants in a high throughput manner. This approach can significantly expedite the screening of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants, thereby improving the current risk assessment process by decreasing analysis time and required resources.

  15. Molecular Dynamics of Materials Possessing High Energy Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-26

    I -RI90 634 MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF MATERIALS POSSESSING HIGH ENERGY 1/1 r CONTENTCU) COLUMBIA UNIV MENd YORK N J TURRO 26 JAN GO I RFOSR-TR-88-0168...Bolling Air Force Base, D.C. 2 61102F_ 2303 I B2 11 T,TL.E (Inciuoe Security Classification) Molecular Dynamics of Materials Possessing High Energy...York 10027 (212) 280-2175 TITLE: MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF MATERIALS POSSESSING HIGH ENERGY CONTENT .. 0 0 88 2 ... "" ’% ,i u , . .. .. ....... ŝ" ;! ,i

  16. Aggressive content of high school students' TV viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jina S; Somers, Cheryl L

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' exposure to television programming with aggressive content and to explore whether consumption of aggressive TV varied by sex and ethnicity. Participants were 472 boys and girls from two high schools, one urban and one suburban. Definitions of both direct and indirect aggression were used to rate TV programs, and the participants' exposure to both was assessed. Analysis yielded a statistically significant effect for sex but not ethnicity as girls watched more TV programs containing indirect aggression. Also, exposure to aggressive TV content peaked in Grade 10 and fell sharply thereafter. The importance of educating adolescents about the images they view is highlighted. Implications for research are discussed.

  17. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  18. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchu, Nancy; Patel, Bhavini; Sebastian, Blaise; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium.

  19. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Gao; Yunmin Chen; Liangtong Zhan; Xuecheng Bian

    2015-01-01

    Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) depend largely on the waste’s initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW). After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW), the following findings were obtained: (1) HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC) than LKWC MSW, but the field ca-pacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2) the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3) compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG) generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4) the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5) the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  20. Liquid alternative diesel fuels with high hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancsok, Jenoe; Varga, Zoltan; Eller, Zoltan; Poelczmann, Gyoergy [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon Processing; Kasza, Tamas [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    Mobility is a keystone of the sustainable development. In the operation of the vehicles as the tools of mobility internal combustion engines, so thus Diesel engines will play a remarkable role in the next decades. Beside fossil fuels - used for power these engines - liquid alternative fuels have higher and higher importance, because of their known advantages. During the presentation the categorization possibilities based on the chronology of their development and application will be presented. The importance of fuels with high hydrogen content will be reviewed. Research and development activity in the field of such kind of fuels will be presented. During this developed catalytic systems and main performance properties of the product will be presented which were obtained in case of biogasoils produced by special hydrocracking of natural triglycerides and in case of necessity followed by isomerization; furthermore in case of synthetic biogasoils obtained by the isomerization hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins produced from biomass based synthesis gas. Excellent combustion properties (cetane number > 65-75), good cold flow properties and reduced harmful material emission due to the high hydrogen content (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}) are highlighted. Finally production possibilities of linear and branched paraffins based on lignocelluloses are briefly reviewed. Summarizing it was concluded that liquid hydrocarbons with high isoparaffin content are the most suitable fuels regarding availability, economical and environmental aspects, namely the sustainable development. (orig.)

  1. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  2. Addition of biochar to sewage sludge decreases freely dissolved PAHs content and toxicity of sewage sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    Due to an increased content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently found in sewage sludges, it is necessary to find solutions that will reduce the environmental hazard associated with their presence. The aim of this study was to determine changes of total and freely dissolved concentration of PAHs in sewage sludge-biochar-amended soil. Two different sewage sludges and biochars with varying properties were tested. Biochars (BC) were produced from biogas residues at 400 °C or 600 °C and from willow at 600 °C. The freely dissolved PAH concentration was determined by means of passive sampling using polyoxymethylene (POM). Total and freely dissolved PAH concentration was monitored at the beginning of the experiment and after 90 days of aging of the sewage sludge with the biochar and soil. Apart from chemical evaluation, the effect of biochar addition on the toxicity of the tested materials on bacteria - Vibrio fischeri (Microtox(®)), plants - Lepidium sativum (Phytotestkit F, Phytotoxkit F), and Collembola - Folsomia candida (Collembolan test) was evaluated. The addition of biochar to the sewage sludges decreased the content of Cfree PAHs. A reduction from 11 to 43% of sewage sludge toxicity or positive effects on plants expressed by root growth stimulation from 6 to 25% to the control was also found. The range of reduction of Cfree PAHs and toxicity was dependent on the type of biochar. After 90 days of incubation of the biochars with the sewage sludge in the soil, Cfree PAHs and toxicity were found to further decrease compared to the soil with sewage sludge alone. The obtained results show that the addition of biochar to sewage sludges may significantly reduce the risk associated with their environmental use both in terms of PAH content and toxicity of the materials tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High mobility tin oxide deposition with methanol addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Volintiru, I.; Graaf, A. de; Poodt, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    SnO 2 coated glass is widely used in thin film PV. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) is the most common method of deposition and apart from a tin precursor and oxygen precursor, other additives can improve the layer quality. In this contribution, the beneficial effect of methano

  4. Effect of Mg Addition on the Refinement and Homogenized Distribution of Inclusions in Steel with Different Al Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Zhang, Shuo; Ju, Jiantao

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of Mg addition on the refinement and homogenized distribution of inclusions, deoxidized experiments with different amounts of aluminum and magnesium addition were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C) under the condition of no fluid flow. The size distribution of three-dimensional inclusions obtained by applying the modified Schwartz-Saltykov transformation from the observed planar size distribution, and degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion quantified by measuring the inter-surface distance of inclusions, were studied as a function of the amount of Mg addition and holding time. The nucleation and growth of inclusions based on homogeneous nucleation theory and Ostwald ripening were discussed with the consideration of supersaturation degree and interfacial energy between molten steel and inclusions. The average attractive force acted on inclusions in experimental steels was estimated according to Paunov's theory. The results showed that in addition to increasing the Mg addition, increasing the oxygen activity at an early stage of deoxidation and lowering the dissolved oxygen content are conductive to the increase of nucleation rate as well as to the refinement of inclusions Moreover, it was found that the degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion decreases with an increase of the attractive force acted on inclusions, which is largely dependent on the inclusion composition and volume fraction of inclusions.

  5. Effect of Mg Addition on the Refinement and Homogenized Distribution of Inclusions in Steel with Different Al Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Zhang, Shuo; Ju, Jiantao

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Mg addition on the refinement and homogenized distribution of inclusions, deoxidized experiments with different amounts of aluminum and magnesium addition were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C) under the condition of no fluid flow. The size distribution of three-dimensional inclusions obtained by applying the modified Schwartz-Saltykov transformation from the observed planar size distribution, and degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion quantified by measuring the inter-surface distance of inclusions, were studied as a function of the amount of Mg addition and holding time. The nucleation and growth of inclusions based on homogeneous nucleation theory and Ostwald ripening were discussed with the consideration of supersaturation degree and interfacial energy between molten steel and inclusions. The average attractive force acted on inclusions in experimental steels was estimated according to Paunov's theory. The results showed that in addition to increasing the Mg addition, increasing the oxygen activity at an early stage of deoxidation and lowering the dissolved oxygen content are conductive to the increase of nucleation rate as well as to the refinement of inclusions Moreover, it was found that the degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion decreases with an increase of the attractive force acted on inclusions, which is largely dependent on the inclusion composition and volume fraction of inclusions.

  6. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  7. Rheology of high melt strength polypropylene for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagenteufel, Ralf; Hofstätter, Thomas; Kamleitner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    stability, whereas HMS-PP showed a more stable behavior at the investigated temperatures. Hereafter, the material was used in a fused deposition modeling additive manufacturing process, focusing on the investigation of possible improvements of HMS-PP over ABS. Based on the extrusion parameters for ABS...... material showed negligible changes. This leads to the conclusion that the thermal degradation of HMS-PP and ABS during the fused deposition modeling process is negligible, due to the short exposure time to elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press....

  8. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.

    2016-04-12

    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  9. High-rate stormwater clarification with polymeric flocculant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J; He, C; Rochfort, Q; Marsalek, J; Seto, P; Yang, M; Chessie, P; Kok, S

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of urban stormwater by clarification, with flocculant addition, was studied in Toronto, Canada using a pilot-scale clarifier with removable lamellar plates. Almost 90 stormwater runoff events were characterised at the study site and found fairly polluted. The previous research phase indicated good treatability of this stormwater by lamellar clarification with flocculant addition (total suspended solids, TSS, removal of 84%, at a surface load of 15 m/h), but there were concerns about cleaning plates after storm events. With the aid of numerical modelling, hydraulic improvements to the clarifier inlet zone were retrofitted in 2004 and permitted the removal of the lamellar pack without a loss in treatment efficiency. In the modified clarifier, a cationic polymeric flocculant dosage of 4 mg/L with conventional clarification provided a TSS removal of 77%, at surface loads up to 43 m/h. The use of the polymer did not increase the acute toxicity of the treated effluent. The clarifier sludge was severely polluted by several heavy metals and would require special disposal. The treatment process tested could be well applied in projects requiring intensive stormwater treatment at compact sites.

  10. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  11. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for High Volume Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lokitz, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ORNL worked with TruDesign, LLC to develop viable coating solutions to enable the use of large scale 3D printing for both low-temperature and high-temperature composite molds. This project resulted in two commercial products and successfully demonstrated the use of printed molds for autoclave processing for the first time.

  12. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  13. Fruit characterization of high oil content avocado varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-López Vicente Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To expand the data bank on avocado (Persea americana Mill. varieties all over the world, and to select good varieties for commercial or improving purposes, a partial fruit characterization of 13 high oil content (11.23-18.80% was performed. The chosen varieties are growing in a Venezuelan germplasm bank: Fuerte, Peruano, Lula, Ortega, Red Collinson, Alcemio, Araira 1, Pope, Ettinger, Gripiña 5, Barker, Duke, and Ryan. They were characterized for pulp oil and moisture; weight (whole fruit, seed, pulp and peel; length, width and fruit shape; peel characteristics (roughness, color and hand peeling; and ripeness time. The variety Ryan showed the highest oil content (18.80% and calorific value (191 Kcal/100 g wet flesh. Avocado varieties grown in Venezuela have generally less oil content and are generally lighter than those from other countries. Most of the varieties had low pulp proportion, and were pyriform, with rough green peel and difficult to hand peel. Red Collinson had an uncommon reddish peel. The ripening time was between 4 and 10 days after harvest.

  14. EFFECT OF CARBON CONTENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH AND HIGH ELONGATION STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Chen; X. Chen; P.H. Li; S.K. Pu; Z.X. Yuan; B.F. Xu; D.X. Lou; A.M. Guo; S.B.Zhou

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of new kind of hot-rolled high strengthand high elongation steels with retained austenite were studied by discussing the in-fluence of different carbon content. The research results indicate that carbon contenthas a significant effect on retaining austenite and consequently resulting in high elon-gation. Besides, new findings about relationship between carbon content and retainedaustenite as well as properties were discussed in the paper.

  15. Magnetic and mechanical properties of FeSi alloys with high Si content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Feng-shuang; QIAO Liang; BI Xiao-fang

    2006-01-01

    The chemical vapor(CVD) deposition-diffusion method was applied to prepare FeSi alloys with high silicon content up to 6.5%. In spite of various deposition and post-annealing, the sample remains α-Fe bcc structure. The cross section of the composition was analyzed to evaluate the Si content and distribution before and after annealing. The results show that the soft magnetic properties are improved by increasing the silicon content. For the samples containing about 6.5% Si, the coercivity decreases to 60 from 237.3 A/m of the original. It is also obtained that, in addition to the Si content, Si distribution has a large influence on the core loss due to the effect of resistivity. The micro-hardnesses were also evaluated along the cross-section after various annealings.

  16. Image analysis benchmarking methods for high-content screen design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C J; Straight, A F

    2010-05-01

    The recent development of complex chemical and small interfering RNA (siRNA) collections has enabled large-scale cell-based phenotypic screening. High-content and high-throughput imaging are widely used methods to record phenotypic data after chemical and small interfering RNA treatment, and numerous image processing and analysis methods have been used to quantify these phenotypes. Currently, there are no standardized methods for evaluating the effectiveness of new and existing image processing and analysis tools for an arbitrary screening problem. We generated a series of benchmarking images that represent commonly encountered variation in high-throughput screening data and used these image standards to evaluate the robustness of five different image analysis methods to changes in signal-to-noise ratio, focal plane, cell density and phenotype strength. The analysis methods that were most reliable, in the presence of experimental variation, required few cells to accurately distinguish phenotypic changes between control and experimental data sets. We conclude that by applying these simple benchmarking principles an a priori estimate of the image acquisition requirements for phenotypic analysis can be made before initiating an image-based screen. Application of this benchmarking methodology provides a mechanism to significantly reduce data acquisition and analysis burdens and to improve data quality and information content.

  17. Solvent additive to achieve highly ordered nanostructural semicrystalline DPP copolymers: toward a high charge carrier mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Tae Kyu; Kang, Il; Yun, Hui-jun; Cha, Hyojung; Hwang, Jihun; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Jiye; Kim, Yu Jin; Chung, Dae Sung; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Park, Chan Eon

    2013-12-23

    A facile spin-coating method in which a small percentage of the solvent additive, 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), is found to increase the drying time during film deposition, is reported. The field-effect mobility of a PDPPDBTE film cast from a chloroform-CN mixed solution is 0.46 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The addition of CN to the chloroform solution facilitates the formation of highly crystalline polymer structures.

  18. Design of High Compressive Strength Concrete Mix without Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akasha, N, M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the crashed Basalt and uncrushed granite is used in concrete mixes as coarse aggregate. The selected materials, with high specification using special production techniques, the properties ,the mix design procedure and mix proportion of the high strength concrete (HSC were discussed. Different proportions of Ordinary Portland cement (410,430 and 450 kg/m3 with different crashed Basalt and uncrushed Granite coarse aggregate amount (1120 and 1050 kg/m3 and fine aggregate with fine modulus of 3.65 were used. Eight concrete mixes were prepared: two as control mix for crashed Basalt and uncrushed Granite, three with crashed Basalt and three with uncrushed Granite coarse aggregate with mix amount(410:680:1120,430:610:1050 and 450:550:1050 kg/m3,(cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregaterespectively. The study showed that the use of granite coarse aggregate in concrete mixes has a clear effect in mix proportion. The compressive strength of concrete was measured at ages of 7, 28 and 56 days and it was found that the granite (Mix3 of (450:550:1050 kg/m3 with w/c of 0.46 give the highest of strength in 28 and 56 days among the abovementioned mixes its 56 and 64 N/mm2 respectively. The paper shows that good results of compressive strength and workability of concrete were obtained when using granite coarse aggregate.

  19. High resolution DNA content measurements of mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkel, D.; Lake, S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Van Dilla, M.A.; Stephenson, D.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-01-01

    The high condensation and flat shape of the mammalian sperm nucleus present unique difficulties to flow cytometric measurement of DNA content. Chromatin compactness makes quantitative fluorescent staining for DNA difficult and causes a high index of refraction. The refractive index makes optical measurements sensitive to sperm head orientation. We demonstrate that the optical problems can be overcome using the commercial ICP22 epiillumination flow cytometer (Ortho Instruments, Westwood, MA) or a specially built cell orientating flow cytometer (OFCM). The design and operation of the OFCM are described. Measurements of the angular dependence of fluorescence from acriflavine stained rabbit sperm show that it is capable of orienting flat sperm with a tolerance of +-7/sup 0/. Differences in the angular dependence for the similarly shaped bull and rabbit sperm allow discrimination of these cells. We show that DNA staining with 4-6 diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or an ethidium bromide mithramycin combination allows resolution of the X and Y populations in mouse sperm. They have also been successful with sperm from the bull, ram, rabbit, and boar. Reliable results with human sperm are not obtained. The accuracy of the staining and measurement techniques are verified by the correct determination of the relative content of these two populations in sperm from normal mice and those with the Cattanach (7 to X) translocation. Among the potential uses of these techniques are measurement of DNA content errors induced in sperm due to mutagen exposure, and assessment of the fractions of X and Y sperm in semen that may have one population artifically enriched.

  20. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol.

  1. Developing a High Thermal Conductivity Fuel with Silicon Carbide Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    baney, Ronald; Tulenko, James

    2012-11-20

    The objective of this research is to increase the thermal conductivity of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) without significantly impacting its neutronic properties. The concept is to incorporate another high thermal conductivity material, silicon carbide (SiC), in the form of whiskers or from nanoparticles of SiC and a SiC polymeric precursor into UO{sub 2}. This is expected to form a percolation pathway lattice for conductive heat transfer out of the fuel pellet. The thermal conductivity of SiC would control the overall fuel pellet thermal conductivity. The challenge is to show the effectiveness of a low temperature sintering process, because of a UO{sub 2}-SiC reaction at 1,377°C, a temperature far below the normal sintering temperature. Researchers will study three strategies to overcome the processing difficulties associated with pore clogging and the chemical reaction of SiC and UO{sub 2} at temperatures above 1,300°C:

  2. Strong and moldable cellulose magnets with high ferrite nanoparticle content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Sylvain; Andersson, Richard L; Ström, Valter; Olsson, Richard T; Berglund, Lars A

    2014-11-26

    A major limitation in the development of highly functional hybrid nanocomposites is brittleness and low tensile strength at high inorganic nanoparticle content. Herein, cellulose nanofibers were extracted from wood and individually decorated with cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles and then for the first time molded at low temperature (ferrite and cellulose material. A nanocomposite with 70 wt % ferrite, 20 wt % cellulose nanofibers, and 10 wt % epoxy showed a modulus of 12.6 GPa, a tensile strength of 97 MPa, and a strain at failure of ca. 4%. Magnetic characterization was performed in a vibrating sample magnetometer, which showed that the coercivity was unaffected and that the saturation magnetization was in proportion with the ferrite content. The used ferrite, CoFe2O4, is a magnetically hard material, demonstrated by that the composite material behaved as a traditional permanent magnet. The presented processing route is easily adaptable to prepare millimeter-thick and moldable magnetic objects. This suggests that the processing method has the potential to be scaled-up for industrial use for the preparation of a new subcategory of magnetic, low-cost, and moldable objects based on cellulose nanofibers.

  3. The Gray Institute 'open' high-content, fluorescence lifetime microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, P R; Tullis, I D C; Pierce, G P; Newman, R G; Prentice, J; Rowley, M I; Matthews, D R; Ameer-Beg, S M; Vojnovic, B

    2013-08-01

    We describe a microscopy design methodology and details of microscopes built to this 'open' design approach. These demonstrate the first implementation of time-domain fluorescence microscopy in a flexible automated platform with the ability to ease the transition of this and other advanced microscopy techniques from development to use in routine biology applications. This approach allows easy expansion and modification of the platform capabilities, as it moves away from the use of a commercial, monolithic, microscope body to small, commercial off-the-shelf and custom made modular components. Drawings and diagrams of our microscopes have been made available under an open license for noncommercial use at http://users.ox.ac.uk/~atdgroup. Several automated high-content fluorescence microscope implementations have been constructed with this design framework and optimized for specific applications with multiwell plates and tissue microarrays. In particular, three platforms incorporate time-domain FLIM via time-correlated single photon counting in an automated fashion. We also present data from experiments performed on these platforms highlighting their automated wide-field and laser scanning capabilities designed for high-content microscopy. Devices using these designs also form radiation-beam 'end-stations' at Oxford and Surrey Universities, showing the versatility and extendibility of this approach. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Runaway electron dynamics in tokamak plasmas with high impurity content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Loarte, A.; Lehnen, M.

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics of high energy runaway electrons is analyzed for plasmas with high impurity content. It is shown that modified collision terms are required in order to account for the collisions of the relativistic runaway electrons with partially stripped impurity ions, including the effect of the collisions with free and bound electrons, as well as the scattering by the full nuclear and the electron-shielded ion charge. The effect of the impurities on the avalanche runaway growth rate is discussed. The results are applied, for illustration, to the interpretation of the runaway electron behavior during disruptions, where large amounts of impurities are expected, particularly during disruption mitigation by massive gas injection. The consequences for the electron synchrotron radiation losses and the resulting runaway electron dynamics are also analyzed.

  5. High-content screening of functional genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rines, Daniel R; Tu, Buu; Miraglia, Loren; Welch, Genevieve L; Zhang, Jia; Hull, Mitchell V; Orth, Anthony P; Chanda, Sumit K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in functional genomics have enabled genome-wide genetic studies in mammalian cells. These include the establishment of high-throughput transfection and viral propagation methodologies, the production of large-scale cDNA and siRNA libraries, and the development of sensitive assay detection processes and instrumentation. The latter has been significantly facilitated by the implementation of automated microscopy and quantitative image analysis, collectively referred to as high-content screening (HCS), toward cell-based functional genomics application. This technology can be applied to whole genome analysis of discrete molecular and phenotypic events at the level of individual cells and promises to significantly expand the scope of functional genomic analyses in mammalian cells. This chapter provides a comprehensive guide for curating and preparing function genomics libraries and performing HCS at the level of the genome.

  6. Lanthanum additions and the toughness of ultra-high strength steels and the determination of appropriate lanthanum additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, Warren M. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)]. E-mail: wmg@andrew.cmu.edu; Maloney, James L. [Timken Company, 1835 Dueber Avenue S.W., Canton, OH 44706-0930 (United States)

    2005-08-25

    Studies of commercial heats of AF1410 steel suggest that under appropriate conditions additions of rare-earth elements can significantly enhance fracture toughness. This improvement in toughness is not due to an extremely low inclusion volume fraction but is apparently due to the formation of larger and more widely spaced inclusions. The purpose of this work is to discuss our experience in using rare-earth additions to laboratory scale vacuum induction melted and subsequently vacuum arc remelted heats of ultra-high strength steels to achieve inclusion distributions similar to those observed in commercial heats modified with lanthanum additions. The results indicate that lanthanum additions of 0.015 wt.% to low sulfur steels which have been well deoxidized using carbon-vacuum deoxidation can result in lanthanum rich inclusions which are similar in size, volume fraction and spacing to those obtained in commercially produced heats of ultra-high strength steel to which lanthanum has been added. The heat of steel to which lanthanum additions of 0.015 wt.% were made had significantly higher toughness than did the heat of the same steel in which the sulfur had been gettered as small and closely spaced particles of MnS and which had an inclusion volume fraction similar to that of the heat modified by the addition of 0.015 wt.% lanthanum. This improvement in toughness was attributed to an increase in inclusion spacing. An addition of 0.06 wt.% lanthanum was excessive. Such an addition of lanthanum resulted in a huge volume fraction of large cuboidal inclusions which primarily contain lanthanum and oxygen and which are extremely detrimental to toughness.

  7. Biofiltration of high formaldehyde loads with ozone additions in long-term operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Diaz, G; Arriaga, S

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) biofiltration was evaluated over 310 days with and without ozone addition. Without ozone, the biofilter was able to treat formaldehyde at inlet loads (ILs) lower than 40 g m(-3) h(-1), maintaining, under this condition, an average removal efficiency (RE) of 88 % for a few days before collapsing to zero. The continuous addition of ozone (90 ppbv) helped to recover the RE from zero to 98 ± 2 % and made it possible to operate at an IL of 40 g m(-3) h(-1) for long periods of operation (107 days). Furthermore, the ozone addition aided in operating the biofilter at a formaldehyde IL of up to 120 g m(-3) h(-1) values that have never before been reached. GC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed that dimethoxymethane was the common compound in leachate during the performance decay. Also, the addition of ozone aided in maintaining an optimal pH in the biofilter with values between 7.5 and 8.2, due to the carbonate species formed during the ozone reactions with formaldehyde and its by-products. Thus, the pH control was confirmed and the alkalinity of the biofilter increased from 334.1 ± 100.3 to 1450 ± 127 mg CaCO3 L(-1) when ozone was added. Ozone addition diminished the exopolymeric substances (EPS) content of biofilm and biofilm thickness without affecting cell viability. Kinetic parameters suggested that the best conditions for carrying out FA biofiltration were reached under ozone addition. The addition of ozone during formaldehyde biofiltration could be a good strategy to maintain the pH and the steady state of the system under high ILs and for long periods of operation.

  8. High-Reliability Low-Ag-Content Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints for Electronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnawah, Dhafer Abdulameer; Said, Suhana Binti Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Che, Fa Xing

    2012-09-01

    Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloy is currently recognized as the standard lead-free solder alloy for packaging of interconnects in the electronics industry, and high- Ag-content SAC alloys are the most popular choice. However, this choice has been encumbered by the fragility of the solder joints that has been observed in drop testing as well as the high cost of the Ag itself. Therefore, low-Ag-content SAC alloy was considered as a solution for both issues. However, this approach may compromise the thermal-cycling performance of the solders. Therefore, to enhance the thermal-cycling reliability of low-Ag-content SAC alloys without sacrificing their drop-impact performance, alloying elements such as Mn, Ce, Ti, Bi, In, Sb, Ni, Zn, Al, Fe, and Co were selected as additions to these alloys. However, research reports related to these modified SAC alloys are limited. To address this paucity, the present study reviews the effect of these minor alloying elements on the solder joint reliability of low-Ag-content SAC alloys in terms of thermal cycling and drop impact. Addition of Mn, Ce, Bi, and Ni to low-Ag-content SAC solder effectively improves the thermal-cycling reliability of joints without sacrificing the drop-impact performance. Taking into consideration the improvement in the bulk alloy microstructure and mechanical properties, wetting properties, and growth suppression of the interface intermetallic compound (IMC) layers, addition of Ti, In, Sb, Zn, Al, Fe, and Co to low-Ag-content SAC solder has the potential to improve the thermal-cycling reliability of joints without sacrificing the drop-impact performance. Consequently, further investigations of both thermal-cycling and drop reliability of these modified solder joints must be carried out in future work.

  9. The dust content of QSO hosts at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, F; Vignali, C; Pozzi, F; Pipino, A; Matteucci, F

    2013-01-01

    Infrared observations of high-z quasar (QSO) hosts indicate the presence of large masses of dust in the early universe. When combined with other observables, such as neutral gas masses and star formation rates, the dust content of z~6 QSO hosts may help constraining their star formation history. We have collected a database of 58 sources from the literature discovered by various surveys and observed in the FIR. We have interpreted the available data by means of chemical evolution models for forming proto-spheroids, investigating the role of the major parameters regulating star formation and dust production. For a few systems, given the derived small dynamical masses, the observed dust content can be explained only assuming a top-heavy initial mass function, an enhanced star formation efficiency and an increased rate of dust accretion. However, the possibility that, for some systems, the dynamical mass has been underestimated cannot be excluded. If this were the case, the dust mass can be accounted for by stan...

  10. Semisolid Slurry Preparation of Die Steel with High Chromium Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei-min; ZHAO Ai-min; ZHANG Li-juan; ZHONG Xue-you

    2004-01-01

    The semisolid slurry preparation of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV with high chromium content was studied. The results show that the semisolid slurry of both steels with solid of 40 %-60 % can be made by electromagnetic stirring method and is easy to be discharged from the bottom little hole of the stirring chamber. The sizes of the spherical primary austenite in the slurry of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV are 50-100 μm and 80-150 μm, respectively. The homogeneous temperature field and solute field for both steel melts are obtained. The strong temperature fluctuation in the melt with many fine primary austenite grains occurs and the remelting of the secondary arm roots at the same time is accelerated because of the electromagnetic stirring. These are the most important reasons for deposition of spherical primary austenite grains.

  11. Preparation of Garlic Powder with High Allicin Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; XU Shi-ying

    2007-01-01

    Garlic powder with high allicin content was prepared using microwave-vacuum and vacuum drying as well as microencapsulation to protect alliinase activity throughout the stomach and improve the ratio of alliin transforming into allicin. The results showed that the optimal drying condition was 376.1 W for 3 min, 282.1 W for 3 min, 188 W for 9 min, and 94 W for 3 min. The thiosulfinates retention after drying was 90.2%. Following drying, the garlic powder was microencapsulated by modified fluidized bed technique. Scanning electron microscope revealed good integrity and core materials that were embedded in the microcapsules. Studies on the release kinetics of microencapsulated garlic granulates in vitro using simulated intestinal fluid indicated that release of garlic powder could be controlled in the intestine by passing stomach conditions.

  12. Automation in high-content flow cytometry screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, U; Wand, M P

    2009-09-01

    High-content flow cytometric screening (FC-HCS) is a 21st Century technology that combines robotic fluid handling, flow cytometric instrumentation, and bioinformatics software, so that relatively large numbers of flow cytometric samples can be processed and analysed in a short period of time. We revisit a recent application of FC-HCS to the problem of cellular signature definition for acute graft-versus-host-disease. Our focus is on automation of the data processing steps using recent advances in statistical methodology. We demonstrate that effective results, on par with those obtained via manual processing, can be achieved using our automatic techniques. Such automation of FC-HCS has the potential to drastically improve diagnosis and biomarker identification.

  13. High-content analysis for drug delivery and nanoparticle applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Cryan, Sally-Ann; Dawson, Kenneth A; O'Brien, Peter J; Simpson, Jeremy C

    2015-08-01

    High-content analysis (HCA) provides quantitative multiparametric cellular fluorescence data. From its origins in discovery toxicology, it is now addressing fundamental questions in drug delivery. Nanoparticles (NPs), polymers, and intestinal permeation enhancers are being harnessed in drug delivery systems to modulate plasma membrane properties and the intracellular environment. Identifying comparative mechanistic cytotoxicity on sublethal events is crucial to expedite the development of such systems. NP uptake and intracellular routing pathways are also being dissected using chemical and genetic perturbations, with the potential to assess the intracellular fate of targeted and untargeted particles in vitro. As we discuss here, HCA is set to make a major impact in preclinical delivery research by elucidating the intracellular pathways of NPs and the in vitro mechanistic-based toxicology of formulation constituents.

  14. Adapting human pluripotent stem cells to high-throughput and high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbordes, Sabrina C; Studer, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as a source of cells for drug discovery, cytotoxicity assessment and disease modeling requires their adaptation to large-scale culture conditions and screening formats. Here, we describe a simple and robust protocol for the adaptation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to high-throughput screening (HTS). This protocol can also be adapted to human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and high-content screening (HCS). We also describe a 7-d assay to identify compounds with an effect on hESC self-renewal and differentiation. This assay can be adapted to a variety of applications. The procedure involves the culture expansion of hESCs, their adaptation to 384-well plates, the addition of small molecules or other factors, and finally data acquisition and processing. In this protocol, the optimal number of hESCs plated in 384-well plates has been adapted to HTS/HCS assays of 7 d.

  15. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  16. High Seas High Schoolers: Creating ERESE Content on an Expedition to Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, R.; English, B.; Staudigel, D.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Hart, S.

    2005-12-01

    As part of the ERESE program, three high school seniors aboard the ALIA expedition generated contents and published a live trip website with a wide range of information about the science and personal aspects of the cruise. These activities served to relate as much meaningful information about the month-long research cruise in the South Pacific as possible, to people of all ages and skills. The website http://earthref.org/ERESE/projects/ALIA/ has reports on almost every aspect of the research cruise; from what it is like staying on the Research Vessel Kilo Moana for a month, to operating machinery, to interviews with the captain and chief scientists, and even how the equipment aboard works, in less than technical terms. An effective way to relay what was actually going on aboard the Kilo Moana, were the daily reports, written by the high school students, complete with the pictures and videos taken that day. This website connected the ALIA cruise to high school students and classrooms, who were following the expedition through the website both in the United States and in Samoa. High school seniors designed and implemented the "CruiseWatch" feature on the Alia website. This "applet" extracts data from the shipboard datastream and relays them to the ERESE website at the San Diego Supercomputing center via satellite, where they are prepared for real-time display on the cruise website. Data displayed include the ships' location on the map, geographic coordinates, heading, speed and wind speed. During dredging operations it displays the length of wire deployed, wire speed and wire tension. Overall the website with the daily reports and photographs, in addition to other web media, gave this trip a unique ability to engage people from around the world in researching oceanographic and geological phenomena.

  17. Development of automatic image analysis methods for high-throughput and high-content screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, Zi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of image analysis methods for ultra-high content analysis of high-throughput screens where cellular phenotype responses to various genetic or chemical perturbations that are under investigation. Our primary goal is to deliver efficient and robust image analysis

  18. Development of automatic image analysis methods for high-throughput and high-content screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, Zi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of image analysis methods for ultra-high content analysis of high-throughput screens where cellular phenotype responses to various genetic or chemical perturbations that are under investigation. Our primary goal is to deliver efficient and robust image analysis

  19. Evolution of undissolved phases in high-zinc content super-high strength aluminum alloy during ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤; 刘志义; 叶呈武; 许晓嫦; 郑青春

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of undissolved phases in the high-zinc content super-high strength aluminum alloy during ageing was investigated by means of SEM and EIS. The results show that undissolved phases of Cu-rich M(AlZnMgCu) exist in the silver-free alloy at solid-solution state. With increasing the ageing time, the precipitation of agehardening precipitates MgZn2 stimulates Zn atoms within the undissolved phases to diffuse into the matrix, and thus the Cu content in the M(AlZnMgCu) phase increases relatively. For the silver-bearing alloy, small addition of Ag promotes the formation of Ag-rich M(A1ZnMgCuAg) undissolved phases and deteriorates mechanical properties of the alloy. At the early stage of ageing, Ag content within the M(AlZnMgCuAg) phases greatly decreases due to rapid diffusing of Ag atoms into the matrix and the co-clustering of Ag and Mg atoms. As the ageing time prolonging, the precipitation of MgZn2 results in the decrease of Zn content in the undissolved phases, and the relative increase of Ag and Mg contents.

  20. High School Science Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Content-Related Reading Comprehension Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Theresa

    In order to achieve academic success, students must be able to comprehend written material in content-area textbooks. However, a large number of high school students struggle to comprehend science content. Research findings have demonstrated that students make measurable gains in comprehending content-area textbooks when provided quality reading comprehension instruction. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of how high school science teachers perceived their responsibility to provide content-related comprehension instruction and 10 high school science teachers were interviewed for this study. Data analysis consisted of open, axial, and selective coding. The findings revealed that 8 out of the 10 participants believed that it is their responsibility to provide reading comprehension. However, the findings also revealed that the participants provided varying levels of reading comprehension instruction as an integral part of their science instruction. The potential for positive social change could be achieved by teachers and administrators. Teachers may use the findings to reflect upon their own personal feelings and beliefs about providing explicit reading comprehension. In addition to teachers' commitment to reading comprehension instruction, administrators could deliberate about professional development opportunities that might improve necessary skills, eventually leading to better comprehension skills for students and success in their education.

  1. The influence of additional water content towards the spectroscopy and physicochemical properties of genus Apis and stingless bee honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mardziah Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom; Tan, Kok Chooi; Mail, Mohd Hafiz; Seeni, Azman

    2016-04-01

    The major issues concerning to food products are related to its authenticity. Honey is one of the common food products that suffer from adulteration, mainly due to its constant high market demand and price. Several studies on the authenticity detection have been done mainly on honey from genus Apis (GA), but less research has been conducted on Stingless Bee Honey (SBH) even the market demand for this food product is increasing, particularly in Malaysia due to its possible health benefits. Thus, identification of unadulterated and authenticity of honey is a very key issue for products processors, retailers, consumers and regulatory authorities. There is an increasing demand for appropriate instruments and methods to shield consumers against fraud and to guarantee a fair competition between honey producers. The study presented in this paper shows the effect of diluting pure honey from both genus Apis and Stingless Bee towards its physicochemical attributes (i.e. soluble solids content and pH) and VIS-NIR spectral absorbance features.

  2. Investigations of non-linear polymers as high performance lubricant additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Qu, Jun; Bays, J. Timothy; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2015-03-22

    Off-the-shelf available engine oils contain an assortment of additives that increase the performance of base oils and maximize the overall efficiency of the machine. With ever increasing requirements for fuel efficiency, the demand for novel materials that outperform older generations is also on the rise. One approach towards increasing overall efficiency is to reduce internal friction and wear in an engine. From an additive approach, this is typically achieved by altering the bulk oil’s viscosity at high temperatures via polymers. In general, the hydrodynamic volume of polymers increase (expand) at elevated temperatures and decrease (contract/deflate) with declining temperatures and this effect is enhanced be carefully designing specific structures and architectures. The natural thinning tendency of base oil with increasing temperatures is in part mitigated by the expansion of the macromolecules added, and the overall effect is decreasing the viscosity losses at high temperatures. Traditional polymer architectures vary from linear to dendritic, where linear polymers of the same chemical composition and molecular weight to its dendritic counterpart will undergo a more significant free volume change in solution with regards to temperature changes. This advantage has been exploited in the literature towards the production of viscosity modifiers. However, one major disadvantage of linear polymers is degradation due to mechanical shear forces and high temperatures causing a shorter additive lifetime. Dendrimers on the other hand are known to demonstrate superior robustness to shear degradation when compared to their respective linear counterparts. An additional advantage of the dendritic architecture is the ability to tailor the peripheral end-groups towards influencing polymer-solvent and/or polymer-surface interactions. Comb-burst hyperbranched polymers are a hybrid of the aforementioned architectures and provide several compromises between the traditional

  3. Fast repurposing of high-resolution stereo video content for mobile use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglu, Ali; Lee, Bong Ho; Boev, Atanas; Cheong, Won-Sik; Gotchev, Atanas

    2012-06-01

    3D video content is captured and created mainly in high resolution targeting big cinema or home TV screens. For 3D mobile devices, equipped with small-size auto-stereoscopic displays, such content has to be properly repurposed, preferably in real-time. The repurposing requires not only spatial resizing but also properly maintaining the output stereo disparity, as it should deliver realistic, pleasant and harmless 3D perception. In this paper, we propose an approach to adapt the disparity range of the source video to the comfort disparity zone of the target display. To achieve this, we adapt the scale and the aspect ratio of the source video. We aim at maximizing the disparity range of the retargeted content within the comfort zone, and minimizing the letterboxing of the cropped content. The proposed algorithm consists of five stages. First, we analyse the display profile, which characterises what 3D content can be comfortably observed in the target display. Then, we perform fast disparity analysis of the input stereoscopic content. Instead of returning the dense disparity map, it returns an estimate of the disparity statistics (min, max, meanand variance) per frame. Additionally, we detect scene cuts, where sharp transitions in disparities occur. Based on the estimated input, and desired output disparity ranges, we derive the optimal cropping parameters and scale of the cropping window, which would yield the targeted disparity range and minimize the area of cropped and letterboxed content. Once the rescaling and cropping parameters are known, we perform resampling procedure using spline-based and perceptually optimized resampling (anti-aliasing) kernels, which have also a very efficient computational structure. Perceptual optimization is achieved through adjusting the cut-off frequency of the anti-aliasing filter with the throughput of the target display.

  4. Interaction genotype by season and its influence on the identification of beans with high content of zinc and iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Andrade Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral contents in common bean seeds are influenced, in addition to genetic variation, by environmental crop conditions, especially by the soil type and chemical composition and by the genotype x environment interaction. This study was carried out to verify if the zinc and iron contents are affected by the crop growing period. Ten lines with high iron and zinc contents and ten with low contents were assessed in three seasons: "wet season" of 2009/2010 (sowing in November; "dry season" of 2010 (sowing in February and "winter season" of 2010 (sowing in July, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with three replications and plots consisting of two rows of two meters, with a spacing of 0.50 m. The seeds harvested were assessed in regard to iron and zinc mineral contents. The greatest contents were observed in the winter season and the smallest ones in the dry season, with sowing in February. It was observed that in the mean of the three harvests, the lines classified as having high iron and zinc content exhibited an iron quantity 11.0% and a zinc quantity 6.8% above those of low content. The lines by seasons interaction occurs. However, its interference in identification of the groups with high and low content of the two nutrients is not great.

  5. Submerged Cultivation of Mycelium with High Ergothioneine Content from the Culinary-Medicinal Golden Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of submerged culture of the culinary-medicinal golden oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, was studied using a one-factor-at-a-time, two-stage stimulation and central composite rotatable design to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content. The optimal culture conditions for mycelia harvested at day 22 were a temperature of 25°C, an inoculation ratio of 5%, 2% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, and adjustment of the initial pH value to 10. The biomass and ergothioneine content were 8.28 g/L and 10.65 mg/g dry weight (dw), respectively. The addition of an amino acid precursor increased the ergothioneine content of mycelia; cysteine was the most effective. In addition, the results obtained from central composite rotatable design showed that the recommended combination for cysteine, histidine, and methionine was 8, 4, and 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. The predicted ergothioneine content was 13.90 mg/g dw, whereas the experimental maximal ergothioneine content was 14.57 mg/g dw. With the addition of complex precursors and under optimal culture conditions, mycelia harvested at days 16-20 had higher ergothioneine content. Accordingly, the information obtained could be used to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content.

  6. Electrodeposition of Sm–Co film with high Sm content from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Xiong-fei; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Li, Xin-hua; Xia, Qing-lin; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-12-02

    Sm–Co films with high Sm content were electrodeposited by potentiostat technique from the aqueous solution containing glycine as a complexing agent. The Cyclic Voltammetry measurements showed that the glycine plays a crucial role in the electrodeposition of Sm–Co films. The forming of stable complex [Co{sup II}Sm{sup III}(Gly{sup −}){sub 2}(HGly{sup ±})]{sup 3+} facilitated the codeposition of Sm with Co at relatively low potential, which made it possible to fabricate the Sm–Co films with high Sm content. The Sm–Co film with 43 at.% Sm had been obtained. X-ray diffraction showed that the as-deposited Sm–Co films were amorphous. After annealing at 600 °C for 2 h in Ar atmosphere, the films became crystalline and the permanent Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} phase was formed, which significantly enhanced the coercivity of the films. - Highlights: • The Sm–Co film with high Sm content is electrodeposited from aqueous solutions. • The addition of glycine facilitates the codeposition of Sm with Co at relatively low potential. • The Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} phase is formed in the annealed Sm–Co film.

  7. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    component of such validation studies is the selection of a challenging and balanced set of source (reference) HDR content. In order to facilitate this, we present an objective method based on the premise that a more challenging HDR scene encapsulates higher contrast, and as a result will show up more...

  8. Oophorectomy did not show any additional effect on bone density and mineral content in thyroxine treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulik, P D; Pacovský, V; Límanová, Z

    1989-03-01

    Experimental hyperthyroidism (thyroxine administration for 21 days) caused a significant decrease in ash mass, bone density and mineral content in the femora of mice, the same degree of reduction in individual measures of bone mass being found in oophorectomized and intact mice treated with thyroxine. It may be suggested that estrogens did not protect the skeleton against the resorbing action of thyroxine or triiodothyronine.

  9. The Effects of Providing Additional Reading Opportunities for Struggling Readers at Their Independent Reading Levels within Content Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasinko, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-methods study was conducted to determine if extra reading practice incorporated into fifth-and sixth-grade social studies and science content classes would have a positive impact on reading assessments for readers at risk. At-risk readers' independent reading levels were assessed using Dynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literacy Skills or…

  10. [Effects of nitrogen addition on available nitrogen content and acidification in cold-temperate coniferous forest soil in the growing season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao-Qi; Fu, Wa-Li; Luo, Ya-Chen; Gao, Wen-Long; Li, Sheng-Gong; Yang, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Based on a low-level and multi-form N addition control experiment, this study took cold-temperate coniferous forest in Daxing'an Ling as the research object. After long-term and continuous nitrogen addition in situ, the available nitrogen (NH4(+) -N & NO3(-) -N) contents and pH values of the soil (0-10 cm) were measured in the early growing season (May) and the peak growing season (August) in 2010, 2012 and 2013. The results showed that, the available nitrogen in the early and peak growing seasons was mainly NH4(+) -N which accounted for over 96% of the inorganic nitrogen content, while the content of NO3(-) -N was very low. With the time extension of nitrogen addition, the effects of nitrogen addition on the NH4(+) -N content in 0-10 cm soil were more obvious in the early growing season than that in the peak growing season, and the NH4(+) -N content was mainly affected by the type of nitrogen addition. On the contrary, the NO3(-) -N content in 0-10 cm soil was higher in the peak growing season than that in the early growing season. The effect of N input was obvious on NO3(-) -N content in both early and peak growing seasons, and low nitrogen treatment tended to promote the enrichment of NO3(-) -N. As time went on, the response of NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N content to N addition was changed from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. N addition had a significant impact on the pH value of the 0-10 cm soil in the early and peak growing seasons. The pH values of the soil with low nitrogen treatment and the soil in the peak growing season were relatively lower. With the extension of the nitrogen addition time, the response of pH value also turned from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. Because of the long-term and continuous nitrogen addition, the 0 - 10 cm soil in this cold-temperate coniferous forest was obviously acidified.

  11. The content of chromium and copper in plants and soil fertilized with sewage sludge with addition of various amounts of CaO and lignite ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokiński Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fertilization with fresh sewage sludge with the addition of calcium oxide and lignite ash in the proportions dry mass 6:1, 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1 on the content of chromium and copper in plants and soil and uptake of these elements was investigated in pot experiment. Sewage sludge were taken from Siedlce (sludge after methane fermentation and Łuków (sludge stabilized in oxygenic conditions, eastern Poland. The chromium content in the biomass of the test plants (maize, sunflower and oat was higher following the application of mixtures of sewage sludge with ash than of the mixtures with CaO. The copper content in plants most often did not significantly depend on the type of additives to the sludge. Various amounts of additives to the sewage sludge did not have a significant effect on the contents of either of the studied trace elements in plants. The contents of chromium and copper in soil after 3 years of cultivation of plants were higher than before the experiment, but these amounts were not significantly differentiated depending on the type and the amount of the used additive (i.e. CaO vs. ash to sewage sludge.

  12. Identification of some additional loss components in high-power low-voltage permanent magnet generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamalainen, H.

    2013-11-01

    Permanent magnet generators (PMG) represent the cutting edge technology in modern wind mills. The efficiency remains high (over 90%) at partial loads. To improve the machine efficiency even further, every aspect of machine losses has to be analyzed. Additional losses are often given as a certain percentage without providing any detailed information about the actual calculation process; meanwhile, there are many design-dependent losses that have an effect on the total amount of additional losses and that have to be taken into consideration. Additional losses are most often eddy current losses in different parts of the machine. These losses are usually difficult to calculate in the design process. In this doctoral thesis, some additional losses are identified and modeled. Further, suggestions on how to minimize the losses are given. Iron losses can differ significantly between the measured no-load values and the loss values under load. In addition, with embedded magnet rotors, the quadrature-axis armature reaction adds losses to the stator iron by manipulating the harmonic content of the flux. It was, therefore, re-evaluated that in salient pole machines, to minimize the losses and the loss difference between the no-load and load operation, the flux density has to be kept below 1.5 T in the stator yoke, which is the traditional guideline for machine designers. Eddy current losses may occur in the end-winding area and in the support structure of the machine, that is, in the finger plate and the clamping ring. With construction steel, these losses account for 0.08% of the input power of the machine. These losses can be reduced almost to zero by using nonmagnetic stainless steel. In addition, the machine housing may be subjected to eddy current losses if the flux density exceeds 1.5 T in the stator yoke. Winding losses can rise rapidly when high frequencies and 10-15 mm high conductors are used. In general, minimizing the winding losses is simple. For example, it can be

  13. Analysis of SSLP and Soluble Protein Contents in Leaves of Mutants Induced by High Pressure in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiu-ying; XU Shi-ping; LIAO Yao-ping; MAO Xing-xue; WENG Ke-nan; CHEN Zhao-ming; CHEN Yue-han; XIAO Wan-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Rice variety Yuexiangzhan and its mutants induced by high pressure were studied using microsatellite markers and soluble protein content analyses. Eleven of the 88 microsatellite primer pairs showed evident polymorphisms repeatedly, and the polymorphic frequencies were 3.4-11.3% between the mutants and Yuexiangzhan. The polymorphic markers were randomly located on chromosomes. The more similar the plant types of the mutants like their original variety, the less polymorphic loci were detected. In addition, there was variation in the soluble protein contents among the leaves of mutants,and the contents were significantly lower than those of the original variety.

  14. Novel high refractive index, thermally conductive additives for high brightness white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Richard Stephen

    In prior works the inclusion of nanoparticle fillers has typically been shown to increase the thermal conductivity or refractive index of polymer nanocomposites separately. High refractive index zirconia nanoparticles have already proved their merit in increasing the optical efficiency of encapsulated light emitting diodes. However, the thermal properties of zirconia-silicone nanocomposites have yet to be investigated. While phosphor-converted light emitting diodes are at the forefront of solid-state lighting technologies for producing white light, they are plagued by efficiency losses due to excessive heating at the semiconductor die and in and around the phosphor particles, as well as photon scattering losses in the phosphor layer. It would then be of great interest if the high refractive index nanoparticles were found to both be capable of increasing the refractive index, thus reducing the optical scattering, and also the thermal conductivity, channeling more heat away from the LED die and phosphors, mitigating efficiency losses from heat. Thermal conductance measurements on unfilled and nanoparticle loaded silicone samples were conducted to quantify the effect of the zirconia nanoparticle loading on silicone nanocomposite thermal conductivity. An increase in thermal conductivity from 0.27 W/mK to 0.49 W/mK from base silicone to silicone with 33.5 wt% zirconia nanoparticles was observed. This trend closely mirrored a basic rule of mixtures prediction, implying a further enhancement in thermal conductivity could be achieved at higher nanoparticle loadings. The optical properties of transparency and light extraction efficiency of these composites were also investigated. While overall the zirconia nanocomposite showed good transparency, there was a slight decrease at the shorter wavelengths with increasing zirconia content. For longer wavelength LEDs, such as green or red, this might not matter, but phosphor-converted white LEDs use a blue LED as the photon source

  15. Utilization of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to utilize wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content, whereas Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimize the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40°C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared with the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing.

  16. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-01-01

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>105 km3) within short time span (basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB. PMID:27143196

  17. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  18. Effects of Si Content and the Addition Amount of Al-3B Master Alloy on the Solidification Structures of Hypoeutectic Al-Si Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Effects of Si content and the addition amount of Al-3B master alloy on the solidification structures of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys were studied. The addition amounts of the master alloy were 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.7% and 1% (mass fraction, so as the follows), respectively. The Si content of Al-Si binary alloys investigated varied from 1% to 11%. The observation of macrostructures of non-refined samples showed that 3% Si constitutes a transition point at which the minimum grain size can be obtained. It was also found that Al-3B master alloy can shift the transition point towards a higher Si value when its addition amount increases, making this point appear at 4%, 5% and 6% Si as its addition amount increases up to 0.4%, 0.7% and 1%, respectively.

  19. Influence of cooling rate and antimony addition content on graphite morphology and mechanical properties of a ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling rate and inoculation practice can greatly affect the graphite morphology of ductile irons. In the present research, the effects of the cooling rate and antimony addition on the graphite morphology and mechanical properties of ductile irons have been studied. Three ductile iron castings were prepared through solidification under cooling conditions S (slow, M (medium and F (fast. The cooling rates around the equilibrium eutectic temperature (1,150 ℃ for these cooling conditions (S, M and F were set at 0.21 ℃·min-1, 0.32 ℃·min-1 and 0.37 ℃·min-1, respectively. In addition, four ductile iron castings were prepared by adding 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04% (by weight antimony, respectively under the slow cooling condition. The results show that the nodularity index, tensile strength and hardness of the ductile iron castings without antimony addition are all improved with the increase of cooling rate, while the ductile iron casting solidified under the medium cooling rate possesses the largest number of graphite nodules. Furthermore, for the four antimony containing castings, the graphite morphology and tensile strength are also improved by the antimony additions, and the effect of antimony addition is intensified when the addition increases from 0.01% to 0.03%. Moreover, the rare earth elements (REE/antimony ratio of 2 appears to be the most effective for fine nodular graphite formation in ductile iron.

  20. Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaguso, Ivana; Nardini, Mirella

    2015-07-15

    Wine exerts beneficial effects on human health when it is drunk with moderation. Nevertheless, wine may also contain components negatively affecting human health. Among these, sulfites may induce adverse effects after ingestion. We examined total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of eight organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to those of eight conventional red wines. Polyphenols and flavonoids content were slightly higher in organic wines in respect to conventional wines, however differences did not reach statistical significance. The phenolic acids profile was quite similar in both groups of wines. Antioxidant activity was higher in organic wines compared to conventional wines, although differences were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition are comparable to conventional red wines with regard to the total polyphenols and flavonoids content, the phenolics profile and the antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY N"m A.R. TURNER AND A. WHITE...TO biEPROOU.; AND SELL THIS REPORT Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography A.R...8217/......... .. Availability Cooes Dist Avaiardlo A-i Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  2. Electric-arc synthesis of soot with high content of higher fullerenes in parallel arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutlov, A. E.; Nekrasov, V. M.; Sergeev, A. G.; Bubnov, V. P.; Kareev, I. E.

    2016-12-01

    Soot with a relatively high content of higher fullerenes (C76, C78, C80, C82, C84, C86, etc.) is synthesized in a parallel arc upon evaporation of pure carbon electrodes. The content of higher fullerenes in soot extract amounts to 13.8 wt % when two electrodes are simultaneously burnt in electric-arc reactor. Such a content is comparable with the content obtained upon evaporation of composite graphite electrodes with potassium carbonate impurity.

  3. Pedagogical content knowledge and preparation of high school physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Etkina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge—PCK. The program has been in place for 7 years and has a steady production rate of an average of six teachers per year who remain in the profession. The main purpose of the paper is to provide information about a possible structure, organization, and individual elements of a program that prepares physics teachers. The philosophy of the program and the coursework can be implemented either in a physics department or in a school of education. The paper provides details about the program course work and teaching experiences and suggests ways to adapt it to other local conditions.

  4. Effect of wine addition on microbiological characteristics, volatile molecule profiles and biogenic amine contents in fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloretti, Fabio; Tabanelli, Giulia; Chiavari, Cristiana; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Grazia, Luigi; Gardini, Fausto; Montanari, Chiara

    2014-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of wine addition during manufacturing of dry fermented sausages, in terms of safety aspects (biogenic amine accumulation), aroma profile and sensory characteristics. Three batches of salami were produced: without wine addition and with 7.5% or 15% (v/w) of white wine. The fermented sausages showed characteristics that can increase product diversification. Some of the sensory features (i.e. increased salty perception) can represent an important strategy because of the trend to reduce salt intake for health reasons. The presence of wine immediately reduced the pH and is a source of ethanol, which can have an inhibitory effect against undesirable microflora. The microbiological results observed regarding Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were encouraging. The addition of wine did not negatively affect the ripening time or increase the presence of biogenic amines. The samples containing wine showed reduced concentrations of putrescine.

  5. Halophilic properties of metal binding protein characterized by high histidine content from Chromohalobacter salexigens DSM3043.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Tokunaga, Masao

    2012-02-01

    Periplasmic metal binding protein characterized by high histidine content was cloned from moderate halophile, Chromohalobacter salexigens. The protein, termed histidine-rich metal binding protein (HP), was expressed in and purified from E. coli as a native form. HP bound to Ni- and Cu-loaded chelate columns with high affinity, and Co- and Zn-columns with moderate affinity. Although the secondary structure was not grossly altered by the addition of 0.2-2.0 M NaCl, the thermal transition pattern was considerably shifted to higher temperature with increasing salt concentration: melting temperature was raised by ~20 °C at 2.0 M NaCl over the melting temperature at 0.2 M NaCl. HP showed reversible refolding from thermal melting in 0.2-1.15 M NaCl, while it formed irreversible aggregates upon thermal melting at 2 M NaCl. Addition of 0.01-0.1 mM NiSO₄ stabilized HP against thermal melting with high reversibility, while addition above 0.5 mM resulted in irreversible melting due to aggregation.

  6. High content analysis of phagocytic activity and cell morphology with PuntoMorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Hassan; Gao, Han; Dalby-Hansen, Camilla; Peters, Vanessa Ann; Shi, Yan; Brambilla, Roberta

    2017-11-01

    Phagocytosis is essential for maintenance of normal homeostasis and healthy tissue. As such, it is a therapeutic target for a wide range of clinical applications. The development of phenotypic screens targeting phagocytosis has lagged behind, however, due to the difficulties associated with image-based quantification of phagocytic activity. We present a robust algorithm and cell-based assay system for high content analysis of phagocytic activity. The method utilizes fluorescently labeled beads as a phagocytic substrate with defined physical properties. The algorithm employs statistical modeling to determine the mean fluorescence of individual beads within each image, and uses the information to conduct an accurate count of phagocytosed beads. In addition, the algorithm conducts detailed and sophisticated analysis of cellular morphology, making it a standalone tool for high content screening. We tested our assay system using microglial cultures. Our results recapitulated previous findings on the effects of microglial stimulation on cell morphology and phagocytic activity. Moreover, our cell-level analysis revealed that the two phenotypes associated with microglial activation, specifically cell body hypertrophy and increased phagocytic activity, are not highly correlated. This novel finding suggests the two phenotypes may be under the control of distinct signaling pathways. We demonstrate that our assay system outperforms preexisting methods for quantifying phagocytic activity in multiple dimensions including speed, accuracy, and resolution. We provide a framework to facilitate the development of high content assays suitable for drug screening. For convenience, we implemented our algorithm in a standalone software package, PuntoMorph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of yeast extract addition on quality of fermented sausages at low NaCl content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Wagner, Roger; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Fermented sausages with 25% or 50% of their NaCl replaced by KCl and supplemented with 1% or 2% concentrations of yeast extract were produced. The sausage production process was monitored with physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. After production, the sausage samples were submitted to a consumer study and their volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The replacement of NaCl by KCl did not significantly influence the physical, chemical or microbiological characteristics. The sensory quality of the fermented sausages with a 50% replacement was poor compared with the full-salt control samples. The use of yeast extract at a 2% concentration increased volatile compounds that arose from amino acids and carbohydrate catabolism. These compounds contributed to the suppression of the sensory-quality defects caused by the KCl introduction, thus enabling the production of safe fermented sausages that have acceptable sensory qualities with half as much sodium content.

  8. Effect of Calcium Oxide Additive on the Performance of Iron Oxide Sorbent for High-Temperature Coal Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Fan; Kechang Xie; Ju Shangguan; Fang Shen; Chunhu Li

    2007-01-01

    The effect of calcium oxide additive in iron oxide sorbent for hot gas desulfurization was investigated by XRD and TPR techniques. XRD characterization showed that CaO was highly dispersed after the calcination of sorbents. Calcium sulfate formed in the desulfurization was decomposed and regenerated to CaO by reacting with CO before the next sulfidation process. Calcium participated in every sulfidation/regeneration cycle and contributed to the enhancement of sulfur capacity. The TPR results showed that the reduction temperature of the sorbent increased with the increase of the content of calcium. Calcium played a role of retarding reduction. Therefore, the addition of calcium oxide additive will benefit the utilization of iron oxide sorbent in strongly reducing atmospheres.

  9. A multi-channel high time resolution detector for high content imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lapington, J S; Miller, G M; Ashton, T J R; Jarron, P; Despeisse, M; Powolny, F; Howorth, J; Milnes, J

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging has long benefited from advances in photon counting detectors arising from space and particle physics. We describe a microchannel plate-based detector system for high content (multi-parametric) analysis, specifically designed to provide a step change in performance and throughput for measurements in imaged live cells and tissue for the ‘omics’. The detector system integrates multi-channel, high time resolution, photon counting capability into a single miniaturized detector with integrated ASIC electronics, comprising a fast, low power amplifier discriminator and TDC for every channel of the discrete pixel electronic readout, and achieving a pixel density improvement of order two magnitudes compared with current comparable devices. The device combines high performance, easy reconfigurability, and economy within a compact footprint. We present simulations and preliminary measurements in the context of our ultimate goals of 20 ps time resolution with multi-channel parallel analysis (1024 chan...

  10. Performance of a commercial inoculum for the aerobic biodegradation of a high fat content dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperena, Lyliam; Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Saravia, Verónica; Murro, Daiman; Lima, Cynthia; Ferrando, Lucía; Fernández, Ana; Lareo, Claudia

    2007-03-01

    The effectiveness of a commercial inoculum for degrading a dairy wastewater with high fat content was evaluated, and compared with an activated sludge inoculum from a dairy wastewater treatment pond. Both inocula reached similar chemical oxygen demand removal in batch experiments. The population dynamics was also studied by determining heterotrophic counts. Predominant microorganisms were differentiated by colony morphology and genomic fingerprinting (BOX-PCR) analysis. The higher population diversity and the wider range of CO2 production rate observed in batch reactors inoculated with activated-sludge, indicated that microorganisms from this inoculum were well adapted and may have had synergic activity for the degradation of the dairy effluent. When the bioreactor was operated with the commercial inoculum in continuous mode, according to its microbial growth kinetics, other microorganisms became predominant. These results showed that inoculated microorganisms did not persist in the open system and periodic addition of microorganisms may be needed to achieve a high performance treatment.

  11. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Solbrig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR operated from April 18, 1969, until 1990. ZPPR operated at low power for testing nuclear reactor designs. This paper examines the temperature of Pu content ZPPR fuel while it is in storage. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible cladding damage. Damage to the cladding could lead to fuel hydriding and oxidizing. A series of computer simulations were made to determine the range of temperatures potentially occuring in the ZPPR fuel. The maximum calculated fuel temperature is 292°C (558°F. Conservative assumptions in the model intentionally overestimate temperatures. The stored fuel temperatures are dependent on the distribution of fuel in the surrounding storage compartments, the heat generation rate of the fuel, and the orientation of fuel. Direct fuel temperatures could not be measured but storage bin doors, storage sleeve doors, and storage canister temperatures were measured. Comparison of these three temperatures to the calculations indicates that the temperatures calculated with conservative assumptions are, as expected, higher than the actual temperatures. The maximum calculated fuel temperature with the most conservative assumptions is significantly below the fuel failure criterion of 600°C (1,112°F.

  12. High dynamic range images for enhancing low dynamic range content

    OpenAIRE

    Banterle, Francesco; Dellepiane, Matteo; Scopigno, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This poster presents a practical system for enhancing the quality of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) videos using High Dynamic Range (HDR) background images. Our technique relies on the assumption that the HDR information is static in the video footage. This assumption can be valid in many scenarios where moving subjects are the main focus of the footage and do not have to interact with moving light sources or highly reflective objects. Another valid scenario is teleconferencing via webcams, where th...

  13. Processing and Characterization of High Density Polyethylene/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Blends with Different VA Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Y. Alothman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different series of high density Polyethylene/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (HDPE/EVA blends were prepared via melt blending in a corotating intermeshing twin screw extruder. The effects of VA percentage and EVA loading ratio on the thermal, rheological viscoelastic, mechanical, and fracture toughness of the blends were analyzed. The results showed that the addition of EVA to HDPE reduces the thermal, elastic, and viscoelastic properties of the blends. The microscopic examination of the fracture surface confirmed the ductile fracture of HDPE/EVA blends for all blend ratios and VA percentages. Increasing the EVA ratio and VA content caused a significant reduction in the blend crystallinity but had no significant effect on melting temperature. The complex viscosity increased with increasing the percentage of EVA due to the restriction of molecular mobility and reduction of free volume, induced by the addition of EVA. The storage modulus decreased with increasing the EVA ratio and temperature, while it increased with increasing the frequency. Young’s modulus, yield strength, and fracture strain decreased with increasing the EVA ratio. Similarly, the fracture toughness decreased proportional to the EVA percentage. Finally the results indicated that the VA content has significant effects on the mechanical, thermal, and dynamic properties of HDPE/EVA blends.

  14. Concrete with the addition of a high level of fly ash and effect of the additive on the concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo Lorente, A.J.

    1986-12-01

    Flyash is usually considered an acceptable substitute for Portland cement in concrete mixtures. However, this article is studying a type of concrete in which flyash makes up between 40 and 80% of the total weight of the conglomerate material, being considered as an additional ingredient to Portland cement, aggregates and water as well as requiring different proportions. 42 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Comparison of three cell fixation methods for high content analysis assays utilizing quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y; Byrne, S; Bashir, M; Davies, A; Whelan, A; Gun'ko, Y; Kelleher, D; Volkov, Y

    2008-10-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles or quantum dots are being increasingly utilized as fluorescent probes in cell biology both in live and fixed cell assays. Quantum dots possess an immense potential for use in multiplexing assays that can be run on high content screening analysers. Depending on the nature of the biological target under investigation, experiments are frequently required on cells retaining an intact cell membrane or also on those that have been fixed and permeabilized to expose intracellular antigens. Fixation of cell lines before or after the addition of quantum dots may affect their localization, emission properties and stability. Using a high content analysis platform we perform a quantitative comparative analysis of three common fixation techniques in two different cell lines exposed to carboxylic acid stabilized CdTe quantum dots. Our study demonstrates that in prefixed and permeabilized cells, quantum dots are readily internalized regardless of cell type, and their intracellular location is primarily determined by the properties of the quantum dots themselves. However, if the fixation procedures are preformed on live cells previously incubated with quantum dots, other important factors have to be considered. The choice of the fixative significantly influences the fluorescent characteristics of the quantum dots. Fixatives, regardless of their chemical nature, negatively affected quantum dots fluorescence intensity. Comparative analysis of gluteraldehyde, methanol and paraformaldehyde demonstrated that 2% paraformaldehyde was the fixative of choice. The presence of protein in the media did not significantly alter the quantum dot fluorescence. This study indicates that multiplexing assays utilizing quantum dots, despite being a cutting edge tool for high content cell imaging, still require careful consideration of the basic steps in biological sample processing.

  16. Study on The Content of Pb in Twigs And Leaves of Kangkung (Ipomoea reptans Poir Boiled With The Addition of NaCl And Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Hartatie Hardjo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Kangkung is a kind of favorable vegetables that used to grow near a river, and is cultivated and watered with water from the river. If the river is polluted by heavy metals, there is a risk that the plant is contaminated too. A study on the content of Pb in kangkung planted in Pb contaminated media has been conducted, and it was proven that Pb was found in the plant. Land kangkung (Ipomoea reptans was used as sample, and was planted in hydrophonic media, and watered with Multigrow Complete Plant Food (2000 mg/L and Pb solution (2 mg/L twice a day. Samples were taken based on the age of 54 days, then the twigs and leaves were boiled in different ways: I. Boiled with no addition, II. Boiled with addition of NaCl , and III. Boiled with addition of acetic acid. IV. Unboiled sample as the control. Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer (ICPS Fison 3410+ was used to measure the Pb content. It was shown that boiling the kangkung reduced the Pb content in the leaves as well as in the twigs; however, the acetic acid addition showed the least effect. In the leaves the three different ways of boiling did not show significant different, while in twigs the different was significant.

  17. Bed mixing dryer for high moisture content fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulkkonen, S.; Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Bed mixing dryer is a new type of fuel drying technology for fluidized bed combustion. The idea is to extract hot bed material from the fluidized bed and use it as a heat source for drying the fuel. Drying occurs at steam atmosphere which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation to process. This improves the thermal efficiency of the power plant process considerably, especially in combined heat and power applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed the Bed Mixing Dryer technology since early 1990s. The first pilot plant was built in 1994 to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant. The capacity of the plant is 6 MW{sub e} and 20 MW of district heat. In Kuusamo the dryer is connected to a bubbling fluidized bed. Since it`s commissioning the dryer has been used successfully for about 3000 hours during the heating season in wintertime. The second application of the technology will be a demonstration project in Oerebro (S). IVO Power Engineering Ltd will supply in 1997 a dryer to Oerebro Energi`s peat, wood and coal fired CHP plant equipped with circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel to be dried is sawdust with fuel input of about 60 MW. In Kuusamo the dryer produces 3 MW of additional district heat and in Oerebro 6 MW. The fuels in Kuusamo are peat, saw dust and bark. In addition to the municipal heat production this type of drying technology has its benefits in pulp and paper industry processes. Disposal of paper mill sludges is becoming more difficult and costly which has resulted in need of alternative treatment. Drying of the sludge before combustion in a boiler for power production is an attractive option. At the moment IVO is carrying out several studies to apply the Bed Mixing Dryer in pulp and paper industry processes. Economy of drying the sludge looks promising

  18. A Liposomal Formulation Able to Incorporate a High Content of Paclitaxel and Exert Promising Anticancer Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Kan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A liposome formulation for paclitaxel was developed in this study. The liposomes, composed of naturally unsaturated and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholines, with significant phase transition temperature difference, were prepared and characterized. The liposomes exhibited a high content of paclitaxel, which was incorporated within the segregated microdomains coexisting on phospholipid bilayer of liposomes. As much as 15% paclitaxel to phospholipid molar ratio were attained without precipitates observed during preparation. In addition, the liposomes remained stable in liquid form at 4∘C for at least 6 months. The special composition of liposomal membrane which could reduce paclitaxel aggregation could account for such a capacity and stability. The cytotoxicity of prepared paclitaxel liposomes on the colon cancer C-26 cell culture was comparable to Taxol. Acute toxicity test revealed that LD50 for intravenous bolus injection in mice exceeded by 40 mg/kg. In antitumor efficacy study, the prepared liposomal paclitaxel demonstrated the increase in the efficacy against human cancer in animal model. Taken together, the novel formulated liposomes can incorporate high content of paclitaxel, remaining stable for long-term storage. These animal data also demonstrate that the liposomal paclitaxel is promising for further clinical use.

  19. Quantitative high content imaging of cellular adaptive stress response pathways in toxicity for chemical safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Steven; Hiemstra, Steven; Huppelschoten, Suzanna; Danen, Erik; Niemeijer, Marije; Hendriks, Giel; Vrieling, Harry; Herpers, Bram; van de Water, Bob

    2014-03-17

    Over the past decade, major leaps forward have been made on the mechanistic understanding and identification of adaptive stress response landscapes underlying toxic insult using transcriptomics approaches. However, for predictive purposes of adverse outcome several major limitations in these approaches exist. First, the limited number of samples that can be analyzed reduces the in depth analysis of concentration-time course relationships for toxic stress responses. Second these transcriptomics analysis have been based on the whole cell population, thereby inevitably preventing single cell analysis. Third, transcriptomics is based on the transcript level, totally ignoring (post)translational regulation. We believe these limitations are circumvented with the application of high content analysis of relevant toxicant-induced adaptive stress signaling pathways using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter cell-based assays. The goal is to establish a platform that incorporates all adaptive stress pathways that are relevant for toxicity, with a focus on drug-induced liver injury. In addition, cellular stress responses typically follow cell perturbations at the subcellular organelle level. Therefore, we complement our reporter line panel with reporters for specific organelle morphometry and function. Here, we review the approaches of high content imaging of cellular adaptive stress responses to chemicals and the application in the mechanistic understanding and prediction of chemical toxicity at a systems toxicology level.

  20. A parallel microfluidic flow cytometer for high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian K; Evans, James G; Cheung, Man Ching; Ehrlich, Daniel J

    2011-05-01

    A parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) uses a high-speed scanning photomultiplier-based detector to combine low-pixel-count, one-dimensional imaging with flow cytometry. The 384 parallel flow channels of the PMC decouple count rate from signal-to-noise ratio. Using six-pixel one-dimensional images, we investigated protein localization in a yeast model for human protein misfolding diseases and demonstrated the feasibility of a nuclear-translocation assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing an NFκB-EGFP reporter.

  1. Effect of Alloying Additions on the Oxidation of High Speed Steels under Dry and Wet Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.C. RIZZO; M.J.MONTEIRO; S.R.J.SAUNDERS

    2009-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out into the effects of chromium and vanadium content on the oxidation rate and on the adhesion of oxide scales grown on three different chemical compositions of high speed steels under dry and wet conditions. The oxidation tests were carried out in a thermobalance at 650 ℃ for up to 14.4 ks. The mass gain of the specimens increased with increasing contents of water vapour. Alloy composition had no effect on the oxidation rate in dry conditions. The "adhesion" of the oxide scale was determined using indentation with a Rockwell C diamond and the pull adhesion test to determine the interfacial toughness and the tensile strength of the oxide metal bond, respectively. Generally, the results of the investigation indicated that oxide adhesion was lowest for the specimens exposed to dry conditions, and that with increasing water vapour content, the scale was more adherent. Indentation test results showed that an increase in the Ⅴ concentration was deleterious to oxidc adhesion in both the dry and wet environments, whereas an increase in the Cr-content had little effect on adhesion.

  2. Evaluating addition of a membrane layer in vacuum infusion processing of fiber reinforced epoxy composites in terms of flexural properties and void content

    OpenAIRE

    Seyhan, Abdullah Tuğrul

    2017-01-01

    The effect of addition of a membrane layer in vacuum infusion processwas investigated with emphasis being placed on the flexural properties and voidcontent of the resulting composites. E-glass fiber and epoxy were,respectively, used as filler and matrix constituents to produce the composites.Conducting a facile TGA based methodology, fiber volume fraction, density, andvoid content measurements were carried out on the samples taken from different zonesacross the composite parts. Despite giving...

  3. The Effects of Various Conductive Additive and Polymeric Binder Contents on the Performance of a Lithium-ion Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Kim, S.; Deng, Y.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.; Battaglia, V.S.

    2008-08-07

    Fundamental electrochemical methods, cell performance tests, and physical characterization tests such as electron microscopy were used to study the effects of levels of the inert materials (acetylene black (AB), a nano-conductive additive, and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), a polymer binder) on the power performance of lithium-ion composite cathodes. The electronic conductivity of the AB/PVDF composites at different compositions was measured with a four-point probe direct current method. The electronic conductivity was found to increase rapidly and plateau at a AB:PVDF ratio 0.2:1 (by weight), with 0.8:1 being the highest conductivity composition. AB:PVDF compositions along the plateau of 0.2:1, 0.4:1, 0.6:1 and 0.8:1 were investigated. Electrodes of each of those compositions were fabricated with different fractions of AB/PVDF to active material. It was found that at the 0.8:1 AB:PVDF, the rate performance improved with increases in the AB/PVDF loading, whereas at the 0.2:1 AB:PVDF, the rate performance improved with decreases in the AB/PVDF loading. The impedance of electrodes made with 0.6:1 AB:PVDF was low and relatively invariant.

  4. Organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content: syntheses and applications of silsesquioxanes

    KAUST Repository

    Croissant, Jonas G.

    2016-11-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials garner properties from their organic and inorganic matrices as well as synergistic features, and therefore have recently attracted much attention at the nanoscale. Non-porous organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content such as silsesquioxanes (R-SiO, with R organic groups) and bridged silsesquioxanes (OSi-R-SiO) are especially attractive hybrids since they provide 20 to 80 weight percent of organic functional groups in addition to the known chemistry and stability of silica. In the organosilica family, silsesquioxanes (R-SiO) stand between silicas (SiO) and silicones (RSiO), and are variously called organosilicas, ormosil (organically-modified silica), polysilsesquioxanes and silica hybrids. Herein, we comprehensively review non-porous silsesquioxane and bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials and their applications in nanomedicine, electro-optics, and catalysis.

  5. High content screening for G protein-coupled receptors using cell-based protein translocation assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grånäs, Charlotta; Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Heydorn, Arne

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been one of the most productive classes of drug targets for several decades, and new technologies for GPCR-based discovery promise to keep this field active for years to come. While molecular screens for GPCR receptor agonist- and antagonist-based drugs...... as valuable discovery tools for several years. The application of high content cell-based screening to GPCR discovery has opened up additional possibilities, such as direct tracking of GPCRs, G proteins and other signaling pathway components using intracellular translocation assays. These assays provide...... the capability to probe GPCR function at the cellular level with better resolution than has previously been possible, and offer practical strategies for more definitive selectivity evaluation and counter-screening in the early stages of drug discovery. The potential of cell-based translocation assays for GPCR...

  6. Effects of soil water content and organic matter addition on the speciation and bioavailability of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C., E-mail: maria.HernandezSoriano@ees.kuleuven.be [Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7619, 101 Derieux Street, 2232 Williams Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C. [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Purdue University, 201 S. University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were evaluated in three soils amended with different organic materials for two moisture regimes. Agricultural and reclamation activities impose fresh inputs of organic matter on soil while intensive irrigation and rainstorm increase soil waterlogging incidence. Moreover, scarcity of irrigation water has prompted the use of greywater, which contain variable concentrations of organic compounds such as anionic surfactants. Soils added with hay, maize straw or peat at 1% w/w were irrigated, at field capacity (FC) or saturated (S), with an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant Aerosol 22 (A22), corresponding to an addition of 200 mg C/kg soil/day. Soil solution was extracted after one month and analysed for total soluble metals, dissolved soil organic matter and UV absorbance at 254 nm. Speciation analyses were performed with WHAM VI for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. For selected scenarios, metal uptake by barley was determined. Metal mobility increased for all treatments and soils (Pb > Cu > Cd {>=} Zn) compared to control assays. The increase was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with soil organic matter solubilisation for Cd (R = 0.68), Cu (R = 0.73) and Zn (R = 0.86). Otherwise, Pb release was related to aluminium solubilisation (R = 0.75), which suggests that Pb was originally co-precipitated with Al-DOC complexes in the solid phase. The effect of A22 in metal bioavailability, determined as free ion activities (FIA), was mainly controlled by soil moisture regime. For soil 3, metal bioavailability was up to 20 times lower for soil amended with hay, peat or maize compared to soil treated only with A22. When soil was treated with A22 at FC barley yield significantly decreased (p < 0.05) for the increase of Pb (R = 0.71) and Zn (R = 0.79) concentrations in shoot, while for saturated conditions such uptake was up to 3 times lower. Overall, metal bioavailability was controlled by solubilisation of soil

  7. Effects of soil water content and organic matter addition on the speciation and bioavailability of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C; Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C

    2012-04-15

    The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were evaluated in three soils amended with different organic materials for two moisture regimes. Agricultural and reclamation activities impose fresh inputs of organic matter on soil while intensive irrigation and rainstorm increase soil waterlogging incidence. Moreover, scarcity of irrigation water has prompted the use of greywater, which contain variable concentrations of organic compounds such as anionic surfactants. Soils added with hay, maize straw or peat at 1% w/w were irrigated, at field capacity (FC) or saturated (S), with an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant Aerosol 22 (A22), corresponding to an addition of 200 mgC/kgsoil/day. Soil solution was extracted after one month and analysed for total soluble metals, dissolved soil organic matter and UV absorbance at 254 nm. Speciation analyses were performed with WHAM VI for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. For selected scenarios, metal uptake by barley was determined. Metal mobility increased for all treatments and soils (Pb>Cu>Cd≥Zn) compared to control assays. The increase was significantly correlated (psoil organic matter solubilisation for Cd (R=0.68), Cu (R=0.73) and Zn (R=0.86). Otherwise, Pb release was related to aluminium solubilisation (R=0.75), which suggests that Pb was originally co-precipitated with Al-DOC complexes in the solid phase. The effect of A22 in metal bioavailability, determined as free ion activities (FIA), was mainly controlled by soil moisture regime. For soil 3, metal bioavailability was up to 20 times lower for soil amended with hay, peat or maize compared to soil treated only with A22. When soil was treated with A22 at FC barley yield significantly decreased (psoil organic matter and formation of metal-organo complexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High content image cytometry in the context of subnuclear organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, W H; Van Neste, L; Dieriks, B; Joss, G H; Van Oostveldt, P

    2010-01-01

    The organization of proteins in space and time is essential to their function. To accurately quantify subcellular protein characteristics in a population of cells with regard for the stochasticity of events in a natural context, there is a fast-growing need for image-based cytometry. Simultaneously, the massive amount of data that is generated by image-cytometric analyses, calls for tools that enable pattern recognition and automated classification. In this article, we present a general approach for multivariate phenotypic profiling of individual cell nuclei and quantification of subnuclear spots using automated fluorescence mosaic microscopy, optimized image processing tools, and supervised classification. We demonstrate the efficiency of our analysis by determination of differential DNA damage repair patterns in response to genotoxic stress and radiation, and we show the potential of data mining in pinpointing specific phenotypes after transient transfection. The presented approach allowed for systematic analysis of subnuclear features in large image data sets and accurate classification of phenotypes at the level of the single cell. Consequently, this type of nuclear fingerprinting shows potential for high-throughput applications, such as functional protein assays or drug compound screening.

  9. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey A. Tinkov; Elizaveta V. Popova; Evgenia R. Gatiatulina; Anastasia A. Skalnaya; Elena N. Yakovenko; Irina B. Alchinova; Mikhail Y. Karganov; Anatoly V. Skalny; Nikonorov, Alexandr A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and method...

  10. Identification of differentially expressed genes in longissimus muscle of pigs with high and low intramuscular fat content using RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K S; Lee, K T; Park, J E; Chung, W H; Jang, G W; Choi, B H; Hong, K C; Kim, T H

    2017-04-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content in pork is an important element of consumer preference and is positively correlated with meat quality, including tenderness and juiciness. With advances in RNA sequencing technologies, transcriptome-related differences can be associated with specific traits in animals. The objective of this study was to investigate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) closely related to IMF content in porcine longissimus muscle using RNA sequencing. A total of 107 Berkshire pigs were used for IMF content measurements, and significant differences between extremely high (H, n = 3) and low (L, n = 3) IMF content groups were found (P change ≥2). Functional analyses with DEGs revealed that lipid metabolism (SCD and FASN) was one of the significant biological processes related to IMF content determination. In addition, we found that DEGs related to muscle regeneration (MYOG and VEGFA) and extracellular matrix (COL1A1, COL1A2, COL5A1, COL14A1 and COL15A1) were changed among individuals with extreme IMF contents. These results will aid in understanding the regulation of IMF content in pigs.

  11. Trend in Plutonium Content of MOX in Thermal Reactor Use and Irradiation Behavior of MOX with High Plutonium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, N.; Baba, T.; Kamimura, K. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization - JNES, TOKYU REIT Toranomon Bldg., 3-17-1, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001 (Japan); Verwerft, M.; Jutier, F. [SCK-CEN (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    The uranium enrichment of UO{sub 2} fuel for the current power reactors, both PWR and BWR, tends to increase because of increasing burn-up target. The plutonium content of MOX fuel used in thermal reactors shall be determined in order to have reactivity worth equivalent to enriched UO{sub 2} fuel based on physical accounting method for adjusting fissile enrichment, thus the plutonium content tends to increase according to the increment of the uranium enrichment of UO{sub 2} fuel and this trend shall further be accentuated due to the fact that Pu recovered from reprocessing of the spent high burnup UO{sub 2} fuel contains less fissile isotopes. The plutonium content is calculated by use of the physical accounting method with the plutonium having several kinds of isotope ratios and the calculation results indicate that the plutonium content in MOX will evolve to ratios in excess of 10%. It shall be, therefore, important to know the irradiation behavior of MOX with high plutonium content of more than 10 wt%. MOX fuel rods having a plutonium content of about 14 wt% and fabricated by use of MIMAS process have been irradiated under PWR conditions in the Belgian test reactors BR-3 and BR-2. The peak fuel rod burn-up of the fuel rods studied in this paper ranges from 31 to 37 GWd/t-HM, and their average burnup is about 22-26 GWd/t-HM with the rod averaged linear heat generation rate of about 15-21 kW/m. The MOX rods are investigated by destructive and non-destructive post irradiation examinations and some of them are now continued to be irradiated in BR-2. Mixed Oxide (U,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel produced by the MIMAS process results in a fine dispersion of Pu enriched particles in a UO{sub 2} matrix and effectively gives three enrichment classes: low, medium and high enriched. The high enriched particles (often called 'Pu spots'), have an enrichment of around 25 wt% Pu, the low enriched phase is the UO{sub 2} matrix and contains only trace amounts of Pu. An

  12. Salvinorin A content in legal high products of Salvia divinorum sold in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bello, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; García-Sosa, Karlina; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel; Vázquez-Hernández, Maribel; Ramos-Morales, Fernando Rafael; Corcoran, Olivia; Sánchez-Medina, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae) is a herb native to Mexico where it is used by Mazatec shamans for spiritual and divination purposes. S. divinorum products are easily available to consumers and are used worldwide as legal highs because of the hallucinogenic effects caused mainly by salvinorin A. Highly popular videos and websites on the internet depicting the use of S. divinorum products have contributed to an increase in their consumption. Recent reports have highlighted the potential of these products to induce psychosis in consumers. In Mexico, dried leaf extracts of S. divinorum are sold in different strengths, claiming to correlate with increasing amounts of salvinorin A. In order to determine the variability of salvinorin A content between brands and to investigate possible correlation between brand strengths, this study sought to quantify salvinorin A in commercial products available in Mexico using an HPLC method. The HPLC analytical method showed a correlation coefficient R(2)>0.99, with LOD of 0.44 μg/mL and LOQ of 1.34 μg/mL. The retention time for salvinorin A was 23.09±0.95 min and the measured concentrations ranged between 8.32±0.65 and 56.52±3.77 mg/g dried leaf. The results for brand c did not show an agreement between the declared and the calculated amount of salvinorin A. Additionally, the emergence in Mexico of high strength salvia products (100×), the lack of regulation and the observed variability of salvinorin A content between brands of commercial legal highs products of S. divinorum could result in a health problem for consumers.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Silicon Oxynitride MCM-41 with High Nitrogen Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cunman; XU Zheng; LIU Qian

    2005-01-01

    Mesoporous silicon oxynitrides MCM-41 were synthesized successfully. The resulting materials not only have high nitrogen contents and good structural characteristics of MCM-41 (high surface area, narrow pore size distribution and good order), but also are amorphous. The composition and structure of the materials were investigated by CNH element analysis, XPS, Si MAS NMR, XRD, HRTEM and N2 sorption, respectively. Mesoporous silicon oxynitrides MCM-41 with a high nitrogen content are still non-crystal (amorphous).

  14. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  15. Structural stability of the high-aluminium zinc alloys modified with Ti addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K. Krajewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is structural stability of the Zn-26 wt.% Al binary alloys doped with 2.2 wt.% Cu or 1.6 wt.% Ti addition. The structural stability of Zn-Al alloys with increased Al content is connected with stability of solid solution of zinc in aluminium α', which is the main component of these alloys microstructure. Such a solution undergoes phase transformations which are accompanied, among others, by changes in dimensions and strength properties.The structural stability of the ZnAL26Cu2.2 and ZnAl26Ti1.6 alloys was investigated using XRD examinations during long term natural ageing after casting, as well as during long term natural ageing after super-saturation and quenching. On the basis of the performed examinations it was stated that small Ti addition to the binary ZnAl25 alloy, apart from structure refinement, accelerates decomposition of the primary α' phase giving stable structure in a shorter period of time in comparison with the alloy without Ti addition. Addition of Ti in amount of 1.6 wt.%, totally replacing Cu, allows obtaining stable structure and dimensions and allows avoiding structural instability caused by the metastable ε−CuZn4phase present in the ZnAl26Cu2.2 alloy.

  16. Highly Diastereoselective Chelation-controlled Additions to α-Silyloxy Ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Gretchen R.; Koz, Gamze

    2011-01-01

    The polar Felkin-Anh, Cornforth, and Cram-chelation models predict that the addition of organometallic reagents to silyl–protected α–hydroxy ketones proceeds via a non-chelation pathway to give anti-diol addition products. This prediction has held true for the vast majority of additions reported in the literature and few methods for chelation-controlled additions of organometallic reagents to silyl–protected α–hydroxy ketones have been introduced. Herein, we present a general and highly diastereoselective method for the addition of dialkylzincs and (E)-di-, (E)-tri- and (Z)-disubstituted vinylzinc reagents to α-silyloxy ketones using alkyl zinc halide Lewis acids, RZnX, to give chelation-controlled products (dr ≥18:1). The compatibility of organozinc reagents with other functional groups makes this method potentially very useful in complex molecule synthesis. PMID:21534530

  17. An Effective Leading Zero Anticipation for High Speed Floating Point Addition and Subtraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Paidi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new leading-zero anticipatory (LZA logic for high-speed floating-point addition and subtraction is proposed. The pre-decoding for normalization concurrently with addition for the significant is carried out in this logic. Shift operation of normalization in parallel with the rounding operation is also performed. The use of simple Boolean algebra allows the proposed logic to be constructed from a simple CMOS circuit.

  18. Influence of Various Zirconia Additives on High Temperature Properties of Magnesia Spinel Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJialin; LIZhijian; 等

    1997-01-01

    Magnesia spinel refractory is a promising material because of its good properties at high temperature,good exfoliation-and coorosion-resistances,Three kinds of additives containing ZrO2 were added o magnesia spinel refacto-ries to get better exfoliation resistance,corrosion resistance and adhensiveness,Three kinds of ZrO2-containing additives added to optimize the properties of the material are particularly discussed in this paper.

  19. Stability of Conductive Carbon Additives for High-voltage Li-ion Battery Cathodes

    OpenAIRE

    Nilssen, Benedicte Eikeland

    2014-01-01

    Conductive carbon additives are important constituents of the current state-of-the-art Li-ion battery cathodes, as the traditional active cathode materials are characterized by too low electronic conductivities. In high-voltage Li-ion batteries, these additives are subject for anion intercalation and electrolyte oxidation, which might cause changes in the conductive carbon network in the cathode, and hence the overall cycling performance of the electrode. This thesis has focused on study the ...

  20. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to Char-N intimately depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the yield of Char-N reduced with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Under the same pyrolysis conditions, Tar-N production mainly depended on complex properties of the different biomasses, including volatile matter, nitrogen content and biomass functional groups. HCN was the predominant NOx precursor in the rapid pyrolysis of biomass, whereas in the slow pyrolysis of mycelial waste, more NH3 was produced than HCN due to the additional NH3 formation through the hydrogenation reaction of Char-N, HCN and H radicals. At the same time, some part of the char was analyzed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to get more information on the nitrogen functionality changes and the tar was also characterized by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GCMS to identify typical nitrogenous tar compounds. Finally, the whole nitrogen distribution in products was discussed.

  1. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  2. [High Throughput Screening Analysis of Preservatives and Sweeteners in Carbonated Beverages Based on Improved Standard Addition Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-fang; Liu, Yun; Gong, Li-hua; Dong, Chun-hong; Fu, De-xue; Wang, Guo-qing

    2016-02-01

    Simulated water samples of 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweeteners were formulated by using orthogonal design. Kernel independent component analysis (KICA) was used to process the UV spectra of the simulated water samples and the beverages added different amounts of the additive standards, then the independent components (ICs), i. e. the UV spectral profiles of the additives, and the ICs' coefficient matrices were used to establish UV-KICA-SVR prediction model of the simulated preservatives and sweeteners solutions using support vector regression (SVR) analysis. The standards added beverages samples were obtained by adding different amounts level of additives in carbonated beverages, their UV spectra were processed by KICA, then IC information represented to the additives and other sample matrix were obtained, and the sample background can be deducted by removing the corresponding IC, other ICs' coefficient matrices were used to estimate the amounts of the additives in the standard added beverage samples based on the UV-KICA-SVR model, while the intercept of linear regression equation of predicted amounts and the added amounts in the standard added samples is the additive content in the raw beverage sample. By utilization of chemometric "blind source separation" method for extracting IC information of the tested additives in the beverage and other sample matrix, and using SVR regression modeling to improve the traditional standard addition method, a new method was proposed for the screening of the preservatives and sweeteners in carbonated beverages. The proposed UV-KICA-SVR method can be used to determine 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweetener in the carbonate beverages with the limit of detection (LOD) are located with the range 0.2-1.0 mg · L⁻¹, which are comparable to that of the traditional high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method.

  3. Composition and Content of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits and Their Effects on Wheat Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jian-min; LIU Ai-feng; WU Xiang-yun; LIU Jian-jun; ZHAO Zhen-dong; LIU Guang-tian

    2002-01-01

    Sedimentation values, flour glutenin macropolymer (GMP) contents, composition and contents of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GS) of 233 flour samples were determined. Our data indicated that subunit 1 occurred more frequently at Glu-A1, subunit pair 7 + 8 at Glu- B1 and 2 + 12 at Glu-D1. The significant relationships between Glu-1 quality score and total HMW glutenin content, sedimentation value and GMP content suggested that the composition of HMW-GS affects wheat quality strongly. Moreover,the total content of HMW-GS was correlated with certain quality parameters more significantly. Relationship between subunit 5 + 10 content and breadmaking quality was better than others, but 2 + 12, 7 + 8, 7 + 9 and 4 + 12 also correlated with certain quality parameters significantly. The contents of total HMW-glutenin, x-type subunits and y-type subunits related with sedimentation value, flour GMP content, and Glu-1 quality score more strongly than that of individual subunit or subunit pair. The flour GMP content, with excellent correlation to sedimentation value, total contents of HMW glutenin, x- and y-type subunits and many other quality parameters, could be an ideal indicator of breadmaking quality at earlier generations for breeding purpose for its simple procedure and small scale.

  4. 添加剂和水分对光叶紫花苕青贮品质的影响%Effects of additive and moisture content on fermentation quality of smooth vetch silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏飞; 白史且; 杨富裕; 干友民

    2013-01-01

    The fermentation quality of smooth vetch (Vicia villosa var. ) silage kept for 60 days were investigated using smooth vetch with high (fresh) and low (wilt for 3 hours) moisture content. Ammonium formate (3, 6 L/t) , lactic acid bacteria (1.0×105 cfu/g FW) , antimicrobial mixture including sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, sodium nitrite, and hexamethylenetetramine (3, 6 L/t) were added separately at ensiling but the CK had no additives. The results indicated that the fermentation quality of smooth vetch silage with high and low moisture contents were highly significantly (P<0. 01) affected by additives, but positive performances depended on the levels. The moisture content played a highly significantly positive role in improving the fermentation quality of smooth vetch silage except for the pH value (P<0. 01). The group with low moisture content performed better than the one with high moisture content. Highly significant (P<0. 01) interactions occurred between the two factors (additives and moisture content). Overall, in the high moisture content silage group, the treatments with added ammonium formate (6 L/t) and antimicrobial mixture (3 L/t) showed the best performance in fermentation quality of smooth vetch silage. In the high moisture content silage group, all treatments showed positive effects compared with the CK but without significant differences. To make silage with high quality, reducing the moisture content and adding suitable additives before ensiling are suggested.%2种含水量(鲜草、晾晒3h)的光叶紫花苕,分别添加对照(CK)、3和6 L/t的甲酸铵(ATlo和AThi)、1.0×105 cfu/g鲜草的乳酸菌、以及添加3和6 L/t由苯甲酸钠、丙酸钠、亚硝酸钠和六亚甲基四胺组成的混合抗菌剂(AMlo和AMhi).结果表明,添加剂对光叶紫花苕的青贮发酵品质有极显著影响(P<0.01),各种添加剂均不同程度的提升了光叶紫花苕青贮饲料的发酵品质;除pH值外,含水量对光叶紫花苕青

  5. Glucose tolerance and antioxidant activity of spent brewer's yeast hydrolysate with a high content of Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Young; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Choi, Jang Won; Ra, Kyung Soo; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-03-01

    To elevate the Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) content in yeast, the yeast hydrolysate that was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis was subjected to various treatments. Flavourzyme-treated hydrolysate showed the highest CHP content (674.0 μg/g) among the various proteases treatments. Ultrafiltration was selected as the best method for concentrating CHP in yeast hydrolysate, based on the yields and CHP contents. In addition, we evaluated the radical scavenge and glucose tolerance of yeast hydrolysate with a high content of CHP. Yeast hydrolysate showed intense scavenging abilities of both 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals. The IC(50) values of yeast hydrolysate on DPPH and ABTS radicals were 1.9 and 0.9 mg/mL, respectively. There were significant differences in glucose level between the diabetes-control and yeast hydrolysate group at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after injection in a type 1 diabetes model (P CHP as an antioxidative and/or antidiabetic material for the preparation of functional foods. This study tried to develop a material containing a high content of CHP using yeast for possible applications of this cyclic dipeptide in the therapy of metabolic disorders. The yeast hydrolysate prepared with Flavourzyme showed a high level of CHP. The hydrolysate with a high content of CHP showed high levels of radical scavenging activities and oral glucose tolerance activity. Therefore, it is possible to use the yeast hydrolysate with high levels of CHP as an antioxidative and/or antidiabetic material for the preparation of functional foods.

  6. Combinatorial study of NaF addition in CIGSe films for high efficiency solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eid, J.

    2013-12-04

    We report on a sodium fluoride (NaF) thickness variation study for the H2Se batch furnace selenization of sputtered Cu(In,Ga) films in a wide range of Cu(In,Ga) film compositions to form Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) films and solar cells. Literature review indicates lack of consensus on the mechanisms involved in Na altering CIGSe film properties. In this work, for sputtered and batch-selenized CIGSe, NaF addition results in reduced gallium content and an increase in grain size for the top portion of the CIGSe film, as observed by scanning electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The addition of up to 20nm of NaF resulted in an improvement in all relevant device parameters: open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor. The best results were found for 15nm NaF addition, resulting in solar cells with 16.0% active-area efficiency (without anti-reflective coating) at open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 674mV. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. HC StratoMineR: A Web-Based Tool for the Rapid Analysis of High-Content Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omta, Wienand A; van Heesbeen, Roy G; Pagliero, Romina J; van der Velden, Lieke M; Lelieveld, Daphne; Nellen, Mehdi; Kramer, Maik; Yeong, Marley; Saeidi, Amir M; Medema, Rene H; Spruit, Marco; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Klumperman, Judith; Egan, David A

    2016-10-01

    High-content screening (HCS) can generate large multidimensional datasets and when aligned with the appropriate data mining tools, it can yield valuable insights into the mechanism of action of bioactive molecules. However, easy-to-use data mining tools are not widely available, with the result that these datasets are frequently underutilized. Here, we present HC StratoMineR, a web-based tool for high-content data analysis. It is a decision-supportive platform that guides even non-expert users through a high-content data analysis workflow. HC StratoMineR is built by using My Structured Query Language for storage and querying, PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor as the main programming language, and jQuery for additional user interface functionality. R is used for statistical calculations, logic and data visualizations. Furthermore, C++ and graphical processor unit power is diffusely embedded in R by using the rcpp and rpud libraries for operations that are computationally highly intensive. We show that we can use HC StratoMineR for the analysis of multivariate data from a high-content siRNA knock-down screen and a small-molecule screen. It can be used to rapidly filter out undesirable data; to select relevant data; and to perform quality control, data reduction, data exploration, morphological hit picking, and data clustering. Our results demonstrate that HC StratoMineR can be used to functionally categorize HCS hits and, thus, provide valuable information for hit prioritization.

  8. Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başpinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash.

  9. High nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Bassett, Shalome; Christensen, Michael J; Hume, David E; Johnson, Linda J; Johnson, Richard D; Simpson, Wayne R; Stacke, Christina; Voisey, Christine R; Xue, Hong; Newman, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between cool-season grasses and fungal endophytes is widely regarded as mutualistic, but there is growing uncertainty about whether changes in resource supply and environment benefit both organisms to a similar extent. Here, we infected two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars (AberDove, Fennema) that differ in carbohydrate content with three strains of Neotyphodium lolii (AR1, AR37, common strain) that differ intrinsically in alkaloid profile. We grew endophyte-free and infected plants under high and low nitrogen (N) supply and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate endophyte concentrations in harvested leaf tissues. Endophyte concentration was reduced by 40% under high N supply, and by 50% in the higher sugar cultivar. These two effects were additive (together resulting in 75% reduction). Alkaloid production was also reduced under both increased N supply and high sugar cultivar, and for three of the four alkaloids quantified, concentrations were linearly related to endophyte concentration. The results stress the need for wider quantification of fungal endophytes in the grassland-foliar endophyte context, and have implications for how introducing new cultivars, novel endophytes or increasing N inputs affect the role of endophytes in grassland ecosystems.

  10. Development and freeze-thaw durability of high flyash-content concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi, J.

    1987-01-01

    Objectives were to investigate the effects on concrete strength, drying shrinkage, freeze-thaw durability, and air-void system parameters of replacing various amounts of portland cement with different types of fly ash and to compare selected characteristics of such fly-ash concretes and fly-ash concretes containing a high-range water-reducing admixture to those of a control mixture. It was concluded that concrete mixtures with 90-day compressive strengths equal to the control could be produced when large amounts of cement were replaced by fly ash. In addition, when the high-range water-reducing admixtures was employed, very large amounts of cement could be replaced by fly ash to yield mixtures whose compressive strengths were equal to or greater than the strengths of the control mix at all ages. The maximum amount of cement that could be replaced for equal-strength mixtures depended upon the nature of the fly ash. Drying shrinkage of plain fly-ash concretes and fly-ash concretes containing the high-range water-reducing admixture were similar to those of the control mix. The optimum fly-ash content in a concrete is comparable in strength and durability to a conventional (control) concrete was influenced by the chemical and physical characteristics of the fly ash.

  11. REQUIREMENT OF FLUIDITY OF HIGH WATER CONTENT MATERIALS FORTHE GETWAY-SIDE BACKFILLING TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiTaiyue; MaNianjie

    1996-01-01

    Through analyzing the effects of water consumption, diameter of solid particle, and flow velocity on the fluidity of high water content material slurry, the relationship among the fluidity, the isotropy of the slurry, and the pumping facilities applied in getway-side backfilling has been found. And the requirment of fluidity of high water content material for the design of getway-side backfilling technique is put forward in the paper.

  12. A degradation model for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunmin; Guo, Ruyang; Li, Yu-Chao; Liu, Hailong; Zhan, Tony Liangtong

    2016-12-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has a high content of kitchen waste (KW), and therefore contains large quantities of water and non-hollocellulose degradable organics. The degradation of high KW content MSW cannot be well simulated by the existing degradation models, which are mostly established for low KW content MSW in developed countries. This paper presents a two-stage anaerobic degradation model for high KW content MSW with degradations of hollocellulose, sugars, proteins and lipids considered. The ranges of the proportions of chemical compounds in MSW components are summarized with the recommended values given. Waste components are grouped into rapidly or slowly degradable categories in terms of the degradation rates under optimal water conditions for degradation. In the proposed model, the unionized VFA inhibitions of hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis are considered as well as the pH inhibition of methanogenesis. Both modest and serious VFA inhibitions can be modeled by the proposed model. Default values for the parameters in the proposed method can be used for predictions of degradations of both low and high KW content MSW. The proposed model was verified by simulating two laboratory experiments, in which low and high KW content MSW were used, respectively. The simulated results are in good agreement with the measured data of the experiments. The results show that under low VFA concentrations, the pH inhibition of methanogenesis is the main inhibition to be considered, while the inhibitions of both hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis caused by unionized VFA are significant under high VFA concentrations. The model is also used to compare the degradation behaviors of low and high KW content MSW under a favorable environmental condition, and it shows that the gas potential of high KW content MSW releases more quickly.

  13. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  14. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  15. Midrapidity inclusive densities in high energy pp collisions in additive quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelski, Yu. M.; Shuvaev, A. G.

    2016-08-01

    High energy (CERN SPS and LHC) inelastic pp (pbar{p}) scattering is treated in the framework of the additive quark model together with Pomeron exchange theory. We extract the midrapidity inclusive density of the charged secondaries produced in a single quark-quark collision and investigate its energy dependence. Predictions for the π p collisions are presented.

  16. Enhanced ethanol fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high spermidine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Construction of robust and efficient yeast strains is a prerequisite for commercializing a biofuel production process. We have demonstrated that high intracellular spermidine (SPD) contents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to improved tolerance against various fermentation inhibitors, including furan derivatives and acetic acid. In this study, we examined the potential applicability of the S. cerevisiae strains with high SPD contents under two cases of ethanol fermentation: glucose fermentation in repeated-batch fermentations and xylose fermentation in the presence of fermentation inhibitors. During the sixteen times of repeated-batch fermentations using glucose as a sole carbon source, the S. cerevisiae strains with high SPD contents maintained higher cell viability and ethanol productivities than a control strain with lower SPD contents. Specifically, at the sixteenth fermentation, the ethanol productivity of a S. cerevisiae strain with twofold higher SPD content was 31% higher than that of the control strain. When the SPD content was elevated in an engineered S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose, the resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited much 40-50% higher ethanol productivities than the control strain during the fermentations of synthetic hydrolysate containing high concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. These results suggest that the strain engineering strategy to increase SPD content is broadly applicable for engineering yeast strains for robust and efficient production of ethanol.

  17. Freezing point osmometry of milk to determine the additional water content – an issue in general quality control and German food regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holz Birger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The determination of the osmolality of aqueous samples using a freezing point osmometer is a well-established, routine laboratory method. In addition to their use in clinical and pharmaceutical laboratories, freezing point osmometers are also employed in food testing laboratories. One application is the determination of the osmolality of milk. Although cow's milk is a natural product whose water content is approximately 87%, the osmolality of milk is a significant value when the milk is collected from a larger population of animals. This value is used in milk processing to control the water content, based on the German Food Control Regulations for Milk. Results Measurement of the freezing point and osmolality of milk samples was performed with a Knauer Semi-Micro Freezing Point Osmometer. Osmolality was measured for the untreated milk samples and following their dilution (by volume with 10% and 50% water. The measurements were made after 1, 4 and 7 days to evaluate changes over time. All measurement values for the undiluted milk were spread over a small interval with an average of 271 mOsmol/kg. After mixing the milk samples with 10% water, the average decreased to 242 mOsmol/kg, while mixing with 50% water resulted in an average osmolality of 129 mOsmol/kg. There was no significant change for the osmolality within the 7 days (measurements from days 1, 4 and 7. Conclusion The results observed demonstrate clearly that the additional water content of milk can be determined easily using a freezing point osmometer. Milk samples that contain additional water have a significantly decreased osmolality, corresponding to an increased freezing point. The effect on osmolality of ageing the milk samples could not be determined in this study's time-dependent measurements.

  18. Recent advances in quantitative high throughput and high content data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsatsos, Ioannis K; Parker, Christian N

    2016-01-01

    High throughput screening has become a basic technique with which to explore biological systems. Advances in technology, including increased screening capacity, as well as methods that generate multiparametric readouts, are driving the need for improvements in the analysis of data sets derived from such screens. This article covers the recent advances in the analysis of high throughput screening data sets from arrayed samples, as well as the recent advances in the analysis of cell-by-cell data sets derived from image or flow cytometry application. Screening multiple genomic reagents targeting any given gene creates additional challenges and so methods that prioritize individual gene targets have been developed. The article reviews many of the open source data analysis methods that are now available and which are helping to define a consensus on the best practices to use when analyzing screening data. As data sets become larger, and more complex, the need for easily accessible data analysis tools will continue to grow. The presentation of such complex data sets, to facilitate quality control monitoring and interpretation of the results will require the development of novel visualizations. In addition, advanced statistical and machine learning algorithms that can help identify patterns, correlations and the best features in massive data sets will be required. The ease of use for these tools will be important, as they will need to be used iteratively by laboratory scientists to improve the outcomes of complex analyses.

  19. Effect of atmospheric CO 2 enrichment on rubisco content in herbaceous species from high and low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F.; Schäppi, Bernd; Körner, Christian

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment reduces Rubisco content in many species grown in controlled environments; however, relatively few studies have examined CO 2 effects on Rubisco content of plants grown in their natural habitat. We examined the response of Rubisco content to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment (600-680 μmol mol -1 in place of ppm) in 5 herbaceous species growing in a low altitude grassland (550 m) near Basel, Switzerland, and 3 herbaceous species from Swiss alpine grassland at 2470 m. At low elevation, the dominant grass Bromus erectus and the subdominant dicot Sanquisorba minor exhibited 20% to 25% reduction of Rubisco content following high CO 2 exposure; no CO 2 effect was observed in the subdominants Carex flacca, Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens. At the Alpine site, the subdominant grass Poa alpina maintained 27% less Rubisco content when grown at high CO 2 while the co-dominant forb Leontodon helveticus had 19% less Rubisco in high CO 2. Rubisco content was unaffected in the tundra dominant Carex curvula. Because the degree of Rubisco modulation was similar between high and low elevation sites, it does not appear that differences in local partial pressure of CO 2 (altitude) or differences in stress in general induce different patterns of modulation of photosynthetic capacity in response to high CO 2. In addition, the degree of Rubisco reduction (<30%) was less than might be indicated by the low biomass response to CO 2 enrichment previously observed at these sites. Thus, plants in Swiss lowland and alpine grassland appear to maintain greater Rubisco concentration and photosynthetic capacity than whole plants can effectively exploit in terms of harvestable biomass.

  20. STUDIES ON HIGH SOLID CONTENT AND STABLE EMULSIFIER—FREE EMULSION POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangGuangliang; HaoGuangjie; 等

    1998-01-01

    In this article,AHPS(3-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate salt) was synthesized to use in emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of BA/BMA/MMA system for high solid content latexes.Storage stability,flow behavior of the latexes,morphology of the obtained latex particles,dynamic viscoelastic behavior,tensile strength and water resistance properties of the resulted copolymers were investigated.The experimental results show that with the addition of AHPS,stability of the emulsion is greatly improved that there appears no apparent precipitation during the polymerization and storage at room temperature for 6 months and at -10℃ for four months.Flow of the latexes follows the Bingham body laws,diameter of the latex particles is about 0.6μm,of which is larger than that of by conventional emulsion polymerization(0.12μm).In addition,not only water resistance of the copolymers obtained by emulsifier-free emulstion polymerization is greatly improved,but also tensile strength is obviously enhanced.

  1. Structure and selected properties of high-aluminium Zn alloy with silicon addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zyska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations concerning the abrasive wear resistance, hardness, and thermal expansion of high-aluminium zinc alloys are presented. The examinations were carried out for five synthetic ZnAl28 alloys with variable silicon content ranging from 0.5% to 3.5%, and – for the purpose of comparison – for the standardised ZnAl28Cu4 alloy. It was found that silicon efficiently increases the tribological properties and decreases the coefficient of thermal expansion of zinc alloys. The most advantageous set of the examined properties is exhibited by the alloys containing over 2.5% Si. They are characterised by higher parameters as compared with the standardised alloy. Observations of microstructures reveal that silicon precipitates as a separate compact phase, and its morphology depends on t he Si content in the alloy. The performed examinations show that silicon can satisfactorily replace copper in high aluminium Zn alloys, thus eliminating the problem of dimensional instability of castings.

  2. Development of a New Foxtail Millet Germplasm with Super Early Maturity and High Iron Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-li; SUN Shi-xian; CHENG Ru-hong; HUANG Wen-sheng; LIU Jun-xin; QU Zhu-feng; XIA Xue-yan; SHI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    Super Early Maturation No.2 is a new foxtail millet germplasm developed by using the targeted-character-gene-bankbreeding method. It has several outstanding characteristics. (1) Super early maturity. It can normally mature in Bashang,Hebei Province, China, where the altitude is around 1 400 meters, and it needs 1 650℃ of effective accumulated temperature in the growing period. (2) Millet is rich in iron. The iron content of the millet of Super Early Maturation No.2 is 54.10 mg kg-1,which is 62.0% higher than the average iron content of the foxtail millet varieties in China. (3) High crude fat content. Its crude fat content is 6.24%, which is 54.1% higher than the average content of foxtail millet varieties in China. (4) High crude protein content. The average of the crude protein content of all the foxtail millet varieties in China is 12.71%, only5% varieties surpass 14%, however, the crude protein content of Super Early Maturation No.2 is 14.36%, which is rare in improved varieties of foxtail millet in China. (5) Overall characteristics are good.

  3. Effect of additives on the properties of polyaniline nanofibers prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yibo; Arowo, Moses; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianfeng

    2015-05-12

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers with improved properties were prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization in a rotating packed bed with the assistance of p-aminodiphenylamine (AD) and p-phenylenediamine (AP). The effects of reactor type, additive dosage, reaction temperature, and high-gravity level on the properties of products were investigated in detail. Three conclusions were made: (1) a small amount of additive can significantly improve some properties of the nanofibers such as uniformity, specific surface area, and specific capacitance; (2) in order to obtain high-quality nanofibers, the high-gravity level should coordinate with the reaction rate; (3) the molecular weight and conductivity of PANI decrease with the increase of additive dosage. The products have larger specific surface areas of up to 73.9 and 68.4 m(2)/g and consequently improved specific capacitance of up to 527.5 and 552 F/g for the PANI nanofibers prepared with AD and AP, respectively. However, the specific surface area and specific capacitance of pure PANI are only 49.1 m(2)/g and 333.3 F/g, respectively. This research provides a simple, reliable, and scalable method to produce PANI nanofibers of high performances.

  4. High-content screening of yeast mutant libraries by shotgun lipidomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarasov, Kirill; Stefanko, Adam; Casanovas, Albert;

    2014-01-01

    To identify proteins with a functional role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis we designed a high-throughput platform for high-content lipidomic screening of yeast mutant libraries. To this end, we combined culturing and lipid extraction in 96-well format, automated direct infusion nanoelectrosp......To identify proteins with a functional role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis we designed a high-throughput platform for high-content lipidomic screening of yeast mutant libraries. To this end, we combined culturing and lipid extraction in 96-well format, automated direct infusion...... factor KAR4 precipitated distinct lipid metabolic phenotypes. These results demonstrate that the high-throughput shotgun lipidomics platform is a valid and complementary proxy for high-content screening of yeast mutant libraries....

  5. Trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene as a novel electrolyte additive for high temperature application of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenqiang; Ye, Changchun; Yang, Xuerui; Xing, Lidan; Liao, Youhao; Liu, Xiang; Li, Weishan

    2017-10-01

    Electrolyte additives are necessary for the application of high potential cathode in high energy density lithium ion batteries, especially at elevated temperature. However, the electrolyte additives that can effectively suppress the dissolution of transition metal ions from cathode have seldom been developed up to date. In this work, we propose a novel electrolyte additive, trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene (SE), for high temperature application of a representative high potential cathode, lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4). It is found that the dissolution of Mn and Ni from LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 can be effectively suppressed by applying SE. With applying 0.25% SE, the dissolved amount of Mn and Ni is decreased by 97.4% and 98%, respectively, after 100 cycles at 55 °C. Correspondingly, the cyclic performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is significantly improved. Physical characterizations and electrochemical measurements show that SE can be preferentially oxidized and generate a protective film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. The resulting film inhibits the electrolyte decomposition and the transition metal ion dissolution.

  6. NeuriteQuant: An open source toolkit for high content screens of neuronal Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Eric

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, some of the most useful and physiologically relevant neuronal cell culture systems, such as high density co-cultures of astrocytes and primary hippocampal neurons, or differentiated stem cell-derived cultures, are characterized by high cell density and partially overlapping cellular structures. Efficient analytical strategies are required to enable rapid, reliable, quantitative analysis of neuronal morphology in these valuable model systems. Results Here we present the development and validation of a novel bioinformatics pipeline called NeuriteQuant. This tool enables fully automated morphological analysis of large-scale image data from neuronal cultures or brain sections that display a high degree of complexity and overlap of neuronal outgrowths. It also provides an efficient web-based tool to review and evaluate the analysis process. In addition to its built-in functionality, NeuriteQuant can be readily extended based on the rich toolset offered by ImageJ and its associated community of developers. As proof of concept we performed automated screens for modulators of neuronal development in cultures of primary neurons and neuronally differentiated P19 stem cells, which demonstrated specific dose-dependent effects on neuronal morphology. Conclusions NeuriteQuant is a freely available open-source tool for the automated analysis and effective review of large-scale high-content screens. It is especially well suited to quantify the effect of experimental manipulations on physiologically relevant neuronal cultures or brain sections that display a high degree of complexity and overlap among neurites or other cellular structures.

  7. High-throughput retrotransposon-based fluorescent markers: improved information content and allele discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dense genetic maps, together with the efficiency and accuracy of their construction, are integral to genetic studies and marker assisted selection for plant breeding. High-throughput multiplex markers that are robust and reproducible can contribute to both efficiency and accuracy. Multiplex markers are often dominant and so have low information content, this coupled with the pressure to find alternatives to radio-labelling, has led us to adapt the SSAP (sequence specific amplified polymorphism marker method from a 33P labelling procedure to fluorescently tagged markers analysed from an automated ABI 3730 xl platform. This method is illustrated for multiplexed SSAP markers based on retrotransposon insertions of pea and is applicable for the rapid and efficient generation of markers from genomes where repetitive element sequence information is available for primer design. We cross-reference SSAP markers previously generated using the 33P manual PAGE system to fluorescent peaks, and use these high-throughput fluorescent SSAP markers for further genetic studies in Pisum. Results The optimal conditions for the fluorescent-labelling method used a triplex set of primers in the PCR. These included a fluorescently labelled specific primer together with its unlabelled counterpart, plus an adapter-based primer with two bases of selection on the 3' end. The introduction of the unlabelled specific primer helped to optimise the fluorescent signal across the range of fragment sizes expected, and eliminated the need for extensive dilutions of PCR amplicons. The software (GeneMarker Version 1.6 used for the high-throughput data analysis provided an assessment of amplicon size in nucleotides, peak areas and fluorescence intensity in a table format, so providing additional information content for each marker. The method has been tested in a small-scale study with 12 pea accessions resulting in 467 polymorphic fluorescent SSAP markers of which

  8. Highly efficient heterogeneous procedure for the conjugate addition of amines to electron deficient alkenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XueZheng; QUAN NanNan; WANG Jian; YANG JianGuo

    2009-01-01

    The novel efficient procedure has been developed for the conjugate addition of amines to electron deficient alkenes.K2CO3 supported on different carriers have been synthesized for the conjugate addition of amines and alkenes.After optimizing the reaction conditions,K2CO3/MgO was chosen as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions.The results showed that the catalyst was very efficient for the conjugate addition of amines to electron deficient alkenes with the excellent yields in several minutes.Operational simplicity,without need of any solvent,low cost of the catalyst used,high yields,reusability,excellent chemoselectivity,and applicability to large-scale reactions are the key features of this methodology.

  9. Highly efficient heterogeneous procedure for the conjugate addition of amines to electron deficient alkenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The novel efficient procedure has been developed for the conjugate addition of amines to electron deficient alkenes. K2CO3 supported on different carriers have been synthesized for the conjugate addition of amines and alkenes. After optimizing the reaction conditions, K2CO3/MgO was chosen as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions. The results showed that the catalyst was very efficient for the conjugate addition of amines to electron deficient alkenes with the excellent yields in several minutes. Operational simplicity, without need of any solvent, low cost of the catalyst used, high yields, reusability, excellent chemoselectivity, and applicability to large-scale reactions are the key features of this methodology.

  10. Strength properties examination of high zinc aluminium alloys inoculated with Ti addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buras

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes studies on the influence of grain refinement treatment with respect to the composition and structure of high zinc aluminium casting alloys on the changes of their tensile properties. The Al-20wt.%Zn alloy was inoculated with master alloys AlTi5B1 and AlTi3C0.15 to determine the impact of a variable titanium addition on the tensile properties of AlZn20 alloy, and determine on this basis an optimal addition of Ti that would ensure the improvement of elongation of alloys cast in the sand mould, at the same time maintaining high tensile strength. Within the studies, light microscopy (LM and strength tests were applied. Experimental results showed that the inoculation of high zinc aluminium alloy AlZn20 with the master alloys AlTi5B1 and AlTi3C0.15 causes intensive structure refinement, while the intensity of reaction of both master alloys is comparable. The AlTi3C0.15 master alloy addition, selected for further studies, introducing about 100 ppm Ti, enhances the tensile properties of the alloy; the elongation increases about 20% and tensile strength increases about 10% against the initial values (uninoculated alloy. Further increase of the Ti addition up to 500?00 ppm leads to the 搊ver-inoculation?effect that is accompanied by the decrease of elongation. Therefore,the Ti addition should be reduced to the level of about 100 ppm which ensures obtaining a set of optimal properties.

  11. High-content live cell imaging with RNA probes: advancements in high-throughput antimalarial drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Serena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, a major public health issue in developing nations, is responsible for more than one million deaths a year. The most lethal species, Plasmodium falciparum, causes up to 90% of fatalities. Drug resistant strains to common therapies have emerged worldwide and recent artemisinin-based combination therapy failures hasten the need for new antimalarial drugs. Discovering novel compounds to be used as antimalarials is expedited by the use of a high-throughput screen (HTS to detect parasite growth and proliferation. Fluorescent dyes that bind to DNA have replaced expensive traditional radioisotope incorporation for HTS growth assays, but do not give additional information regarding the parasite stage affected by the drug and a better indication of the drug's mode of action. Live cell imaging with RNA dyes, which correlates with cell growth and proliferation, has been limited by the availability of successful commercial dyes. Results After screening a library of newly synthesized stryrl dyes, we discovered three RNA binding dyes that provide morphological details of live parasites. Utilizing an inverted confocal imaging platform, live cell imaging of parasites increases parasite detection, improves the spatial and temporal resolution of the parasite under drug treatments, and can resolve morphological changes in individual cells. Conclusion This simple one-step technique is suitable for automation in a microplate format for novel antimalarial compound HTS. We have developed a new P. falciparum RNA high-content imaging growth inhibition assay that is robust with time and energy efficiency.

  12. Nonparametric Independence Screening in Sparse Ultra-High Dimensional Additive Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Jianqing; Song, Rui

    2011-01-01

    A variable screening procedure via correlation learning was proposed Fan and Lv (2008) to reduce dimensionality in sparse ultra-high dimensional models. Even when the true model is linear, the marginal regression can be highly nonlinear. To address this issue, we further extend the correlation learning to marginal nonparametric learning. Our nonparametric independence screening is called NIS, a specific member of the sure independence screening. Several closely related variable screening procedures are proposed. Under the nonparametric additive models, it is shown that under some mild technical conditions, the proposed independence screening methods enjoy a sure screening property. The extent to which the dimensionality can be reduced by independence screening is also explicitly quantified. As a methodological extension, an iterative nonparametric independence screening (INIS) is also proposed to enhance the finite sample performance for fitting sparse additive models. The simulation results and a real data a...

  13. The use of Electrolyte Additives to Improve the High Temperature Resilience of Li-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Lucht, B. L.; Ratnakumar, Bugga V.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of electrolyte additves to improve the resillience of Lithium ion cells. The objective of this work is to identify lithium-ion electrolytes, which will lead to Li-ion cells with a wide operational temperature range (+60 to -60 C), and to develop Li-ion electrolytes which result in cells that display improved high temperature resilience. Significant improvement in the high temperature resilience of Li-ion cells containing these additives was observed, with the most dramatic benefit being displayed by addition of DMAc. When the electrochemical properties of the individual electrodes were analyzed, the degradation of the anode kinetics was slowed most dramatically by the incorporation of DMAc into the electrolytes. Whereas, the greatest retention in the cathode kinetics was observed in the cell containing the electrolyte with VC added.

  14. Effect of high temperature and excessive light on glutathione content in apple peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguang ZHANG; Shaochun CHEN; Yingli LI; Bao DI; Jianqiang ZHANG; Yufang LIU

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to examine the changing patterns of glutathione (GSH) contents in apple peel stressed by high temperature and excessive solar radiation. By comparing the parameters of temperature and light conditions where fruits grow with the GSH contents in them, the mutual relationship was disclosed. Meanwhile, the changes of antioxidant capacity of fruits stressed at different levels were studied under artificially controlled conditions in a laboratory. Also, the effect of applying various types of exogenous substances was evaluated on endogenous GSH contents. The results indicated that within a certain range, a positive correlation was found between the stressed extents to which fruits were subject by high temperature and exces-sive light, and GSH contents in fruit peel. Moreover, fruits on southwest (SW) exposure contained a very significantly higher amount of GSH than those on other exposures. In laboratory experiments, it was proved that fruit GSH contents increased with temperatures within a certain range but they declined beyond a given limit. The temperature rising modes had a great influence on fruit GSH contents, and gradual tem-perature increase was favorable to an increase of antioxidant capability in fruit peel, thus providing a theoretical basis for exerting appropriate acclimation on fruits. It was also docu-mented that application of four exogenous formulations could significantly increase the endogenous GSH contents, among which AsA (ascorbit acid)+BA (benzoic acid) and SA (sali-cylic acid) treatments exhibited better results, 33.97% and 31.81% higher than the control, respectively.

  15.  The additive hazards model with high-dimensional regressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers estimation and prediction in the Aalen additive hazards model in the case where the covariate vector is high-dimensional such as gene expression measurements. Some form of dimension reduction of the covariate space is needed to obtain useful statistical analyses. We study the...... model. A standard PLS algorithm can also be constructed, but it turns out that the resulting predictor can only be related to the original covariates via time-dependent coefficients...

  16. The additional possibilities afforded by the method of partial reflections using high-power transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, S. I.; Chernogor, L. F.

    1984-04-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of obtaining additional information on the parameters of the lower ionosphere by using the method of partial reflections implemented with high-power transmitters. It is shown that measurements of the characteristics of partially reflected signals for various levels of the transmitter power provide information on the electron temperature perturbations and on several other parameters of the lower ionosphere. Analytical results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  17. Additive manufacturing of a high resistance steel by MIG/MAG

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Valdemar Rebelo

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is considered to be part of the 4th Industrial Revolution in digital era with advances in product design, materials, process engineering and simulation and data transfer software. Recent developments focus in the production of metallic components with more complex shapes, big sizes at reduced costs. Special highlight has been given to welding technologies where the electric arc is the heat source and the consumable wire, the material to deposit. High deposition rat...

  18. L-prolinol as a highly enantioselective catalyst for Michael addition of cyclohexanone to nitroolefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Pei Juan; Tan, Bin; Zeng, Xiaofei; Zhong, Guofu

    2009-07-15

    Though many chiral amines such as l-proline and its derivatives have proven to be versatile catalysts in many reactions, L-prolinol was seldom used as organocatalyst for reactions. Herein, we report the first L-prolinol catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition of cyclohexanone to nitroolefins in the presence of benzoic acid to afford Michael adducts with high diastereoselectivities (87:13->99:1) and enantioselectivities (82-96%).

  19. Additive Manufacturing of Advanced High Temperature Masking Fixtures for EBPVD TBC Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feuerstein, Albert [Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc., (United States); Dehoff, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirka, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc. (PST) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was to develop an additive manufacturing process to fabricate next generation high temperature masking fixtures for coating of turbine airfoils with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) by the Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) process. Typical masking fixtures are sophisticated designs and require complex part manipulation in order to achieve the desired coating distribution. Fixtures are typically fabricated from high temperature nickel (Ni) based superalloys. The fixtures are fabricated from conventional processes by welding of thin sheet material into a complex geometry, to decrease the weight load for the manipulator and to reduce the thermal mass of the fixture. Recent attempts have been made in order to fabricate the fixtures through casting, but thin walled sections are difficult to cast and have high scrap rates. This project focused on understanding the potential for fabricating high temperature Ni based superalloy fixtures through additive manufacturing. Two different deposition processes; electron beam melting (EBM) and laser powder bed fusion were evaluated to determine the ideal processing route of these materials. Two different high temperature materials were evaluated. The high temperature materials evaluated were Inconel 718 and another Ni base alloy, designated throughout the remainder of this document as Alloy X, as the alloy composition is sensitive. Inconel 718 is a more widely utilized material for additive manufacturing although it is not currently the material utilized for current fixtures. Alloy X is the alloy currently used for the fixtures, but is not a commercially available alloy for additive manufacturing. Praxair determined it was possible to build the fixture using laser powder bed technology from Inconel 718. ORNL fabricated the fixture

  20. Hydrodynamic Instability in High-speed Direct Laser Deposition for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, Gleb; Zemlyakov, Evgeny; Klimova, Olga; Babkin, Konstantin

    High speed direct laser deposition, when product forms from metal powder, transferred by gas-powder jet, supplied coaxially or non-coaxially to focused laser beam, in one of most prospective additive technologies for production parts for aircraft engines. The limit of process productivity is connected with development of hydrodynamic instability of the melt pool in conditions of high power laser action and material supply by gas-powder jet. Theoretical analysis and experiments allowed clarified a physical nature of instability appearance, determine a stability conditions and invent a methods which allow avoid instability in deposition process. Nozzles for direct laser deposition, designed with consideration of stability conditions, allow get a level of process productivity more then 2 kg/h. The developed technology of deposition and technological equipment, based on high power fiber laser, has been used for manufacturing of parts for "high temperature" unit of aircraft engine.

  1. Optimisation of rubberised concrete with high rubber content: an experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Raffoul, S.; Garcia, R; Pilakoutas, K.; Guadagnini, M.; Flores Medina, N.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates experimentally the behaviour of rubberised concrete (RuC) with high rubber content so as to fully utilise the mechanical properties of vulcanised rubber. The fresh properties and short-term uniaxial compressive strength of 40 rubberised concrete mixes were assessed. The parameters examined included the volume (0–100%) and type of mineral aggregate replacement (fine or coarse), water or admixture contents, type of binder, rubber particle properties, and rubber surface...

  2. High and Low Consensus Groups: A Content and Relational Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStephen, Rolayne S.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed the complete interaction of high and low consensus groups in a basic small group course. Interaction analysis indicated that both the relational and content levels of communication are significantly different for high versus low consensus groups. The conclusion that increased feedback leads to decision satisfaction was confirmed. (JAC)

  3. Innovation management and marketing in the high-tech sector: A content analysis of advertisements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhard, D.; Brem, Alexander; Baccarella, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Advertizing high-technology products is a tricky and critical task for every company, since it means operating in an environment with high market uncertainty. The work presents results of a content analysis of 110 adverts for consumer electronics products which examines how these products and the...

  4. Enhanced superplasticity in an extruded high strength Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy with Ag addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movahedi-Rad, A. [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmudi, R., E-mail: mahmudi@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wu, G.H.; Jafari Nodooshan, H.R. [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Addition of 2% Ag to the base alloy refined the microstructure and increased m-value. • Volume fractions of both high angle grain boundaries and particles increased after Ag addition. • Ag-containing alloy had an m-value of 0.51, typical of superplastic materials. • Grain boundary sliding accommodated by lattice diffusion was the dominant deformation mechanism. - Abstract: The effect of 2 wt% Ag addition on the superplastic behavior of an extruded Mg–8.5Gd–2.5Y–0.5Zr (wt%) alloy was investigated by impression testing in the temperature range of 523–598 K. The average sizes of the dynamically recrystallized grains of the Ag-free and Ag-containing alloys were about 8 and 3 μm, respectively. Analysis of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) data confirmed the higher fractions of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) in the Ag-containing alloy. The deformation response of this alloy in proper temperature range conforms to regions I, II and III, typical of superplastic deformation behavior. The addition of Ag to the base alloys led to enhanced superplasticity in region II by increasing the strain rate sensitivity (SRS) indices (m-values) from 0.25 to 0.51 and 0.36 to 0.46 at 573 and 598 K, respectively. These high m-values together with the activation energy of 181 kJ/mol suggest that the major mechanism involved in superplastic deformation is grain boundary sliding (GBS) accommodated by lattice diffusion at temperatures above 573 K.

  5. Evaluation of Compatibility of ToxCast High-Throughput/High-Content Screening Assays with Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput and high-content screens are attractive approaches for prioritizing nanomaterial hazards and informing targeted testing due to the impracticality of using traditional toxicological testing on the large numbers and varieties of nanomaterials. The ToxCast program a...

  6. Testing the additional predictive value of high-dimensional molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulesteix Anne-Laure

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While high-dimensional molecular data such as microarray gene expression data have been used for disease outcome prediction or diagnosis purposes for about ten years in biomedical research, the question of the additional predictive value of such data given that classical predictors are already available has long been under-considered in the bioinformatics literature. Results We suggest an intuitive permutation-based testing procedure for assessing the additional predictive value of high-dimensional molecular data. Our method combines two well-known statistical tools: logistic regression and boosting regression. We give clear advice for the choice of the only method parameter (the number of boosting iterations. In simulations, our novel approach is found to have very good power in different settings, e.g. few strong predictors or many weak predictors. For illustrative purpose, it is applied to the two publicly available cancer data sets. Conclusions Our simple and computationally efficient approach can be used to globally assess the additional predictive power of a large number of candidate predictors given that a few clinical covariates or a known prognostic index are already available. It is implemented in the R package "globalboosttest" which is publicly available from R-forge and will be sent to the CRAN as soon as possible.

  7. Tuning perovskite morphology by polymer additive for high efficiency solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Chu, Cheng-Ya; Huang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chien-Wen; Chang, Shuang-Yuan; Chen, Chien-An; Chao, Chi-Yang; Su, Wei-Fang

    2015-03-04

    Solution processable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell is a very promising new technology for low cost renewable energy. One of the most common cell structures is FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/spiro-OMeTAD/Au. The main issues of this type of solar cell are the poor coverage and morphology control of the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx film on TiO2. For the first time, we demonstrate that the problems can be easily resolved by using a polymer additive in perovskite precursor solution during the film formation process. A 25% increase in power conversion efficiency at a value of 13.2% is achieved by adding 1 wt % of poly(ethylene glycol) in the perovskite layer using a 150 °C processed TiO2 nanoparticle layer. The morphology of this new perovskite was carefully studied by SEM, XRD, and AFM. The results reveal that the additive controls the size and aggregation of perovskite crystals and helps the formation of smooth film over TiO2 completely. Thus, the Voc and Jsc are greatly increased for a high efficiency solar cell. The amount of additive is optimized at 1 wt % due to its insulating characteristics. This research provides a facile way to fabricate a high efficiency perovskite solar cell by the low temperature solution process (TiO2 compact layer device.

  8. High Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles and Polymers Enabled by Vapor Permeable Polymer Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, Michael Thomas

    The structure and chemistry of nanoparticles and polymers are interesting for applications in electronics and sensors. However, because they are outside of the standard material set typically used for these applications, widespread use of these materials has not yet been realized. This is due in part to the limited ability of traditional manufacturing processes to adapt to these unique materials. As a result, several alternative manufacturing methods have been developed, including nanoimprint lithography, gravure printing, inkjet printing, and screen printing, among many others. However, these current processes are not able to simultaneously produce patterns with high resolution and high dimensional fidelity, rapidly, over large areas, and in a completely additive manner. In this work, high-resolution patterns of nanoparticles and polymers are created on a variety of substrates in a completely additive manner using a template-based microfluidic process. Permeation of solvent through a vapor-permeable polymer template is used to both drive the flow of ink and concentrate the solute inside of template features. This fluidic process is shown to allow gradual packing of solute inside the template features, enabling creation of three-dimensional features with low defect densities. Additionally, because the mechanical properties of the template material are found to significantly impact patterning resolution and fidelity, and a process for creating rigid, vapor permeable templates from poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) is developed. These templates are used for creating patterning of nanoparticles and polymers with a minimum line width of smaller than 350 nm. The process is then applied to the creation of low temperature metallization for polymer electronics using metallic nanoparticles and a highly-sensitive ultraviolet light sensor from zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  9. FOOD WEB OF A TROPICAL HIGH MOUNTAIN STREAM: EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Castro-Rebolledo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a nutrient enrichment experiment in an Andean mountain stream, we used stable isotope ratios (15N and 13C to analyze different trophic compartments: 1 basal level: CPOM and biofilm; 2 primary consumers – macroinvertebrates: collector-gatherers(Heterelmissp, Thraulodessp andTrichorythodessp, and collector-filterers (Simuliumsp; 3 predators – fish (Oncorhynchusmykiss and Trichomycterusbogotensis.The average fractionation of nitrogen among the primary consumers with respect to CPOM was 4.7‰ and 1.7‰ with respect to biofilm. Predators incrementedtheir15N signalby 5.9% with respect to primary consumers.A depletion of15N was observed in Impact with respect tocontrol reach after fertilization in different compartments (biofilm, Heterelmissp., Simuliumsp. andTricorythodessp., while depletion was not significant for top predators. In most cases, the 13C signal of biofilm overlapped with that of primary consumers, but a clear enrichment was observed with respect to CPOM.The macroinvertebrates referred to were selected to analyze their gut content and the results showed us that fine detritus is the most abundant food in invertebrates, and onlyHeterelmis sp. showed significant differences in fine detritus and vegetal matter between control and impact reaches after the nutrient addition.

  10. Environmental implications of high metal content in soils of a titanium mining zone in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, David M; Ndirangu, Douglas M; Mangala, Michael M; Boman, Johan; Shepherd, Keith; Gatari, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Mining activities contribute to an increase of specific metal contaminants in soils. This may adversely affect plant life and consequently impact on animal and human health. The objective of this study was to obtain the background metal concentrations in soils around the titanium mining in Kwale County for monitoring its environmental impacts. Forty samples were obtained with half from topsoils and the other from subsoils. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was used to determine the metal content of the soil samples. High concentrations of Ti, Mn, Fe, and Zr were observed where Ti concentrations ranged from 0.47 to 2.8 %; Mn 0.02 to 3.1 %; Fe 0.89 to 3.1 %; and Zr 0.05 to 0.85 %. Using ratios of elemental concentrations in topsoil to subsoil method and enrichment factors concept, the metals were observed to be of geogenic origin with no anthropogenic input. The high concentrations of Mn and Fe may increase their concentration levels in the surrounding agricultural lands through deposition, thereby causing contamination on the land and the cultivated food crops. The latter can cause adverse human health effects. In addition, titanium mining will produce tailings containing low-level titanium concentrations, which will require proper disposal to avoid increasing titanium concentrations in the soils of the region since it has been observed to be phytotoxic to plants at high concentrations. The results of this study will serve as reference while monitoring the environmental impact by the titanium mining activities.

  11. Effect of high contents of dietary animal-derived protein or carbohydrates on canine faecal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ingrid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable evidence suggests that food impacts both the gastro-intestinal (GI function and the microbial ecology of the canine GI tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-carbohydrate (HC, high-protein (HP and dry commercial (DC diets on the canine colonic microbiota in Beagle dogs. Diets were allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. For this purpose, microbial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and separated by density gradient centrifugation, resulting in specific profiling based on the guanine-cytosine content (%G + C. In addition, 16 S rRNA gene amplicons were obtained from the most abundant %G + C peaks and analysed by sequence analysis, producing a total of 720 non-redundant sequences (240 sequences per diet. Results The DC diet sample showed high abundance of representatives of the orders Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Coriobacteriales and Bacteroidales. Sequence diversity was highest for DC diet samples and included representatives of the orders Lactobacillales and Bacteroidales, which were not detected in samples from the HP and HC diets. These latter two diets also had reduced levels of representatives of the family Lachnospiraceae, specifically Clostridial cluster XIVa. The HC diet favoured representatives of the order Erysipelotrichales, more specifically the Clostridial cluster XVIII, while the HP diet favoured representatives of the order Fusobacteriales. Conclusions This study detected Coriobacteriales in dog faeces, possibly due to the non-selective nature of the %G + C profiling method used in combination with sequencing. Moreover, our work demonstrates that the effect of diet on faecal microbiota can be explained based on the metabolic properties of the detected microbial taxa.

  12. Belite cement clinker from coal fly ash of high Ca content. Optimization of synthesis parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Guerrero; S. Goni; I. Campillo; A. Moragues [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion ' Eduardo Torroja' (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    The optimization of parameters of synthesis of belite cement clinker from Spanish coal fly ash of high Ca content is presented in this paper. The investigations were prompted by a need to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions produced by the cement industry. Belite Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} synthesis produces less CO{sub 2} than alite, the main component of Portland cement clinker. The synthesis process is based on the hydrothermal-calcination-route of the fly ash without extra additions. The hydrothermal treatment was carried out in demineralized water and a 1 M NaOH solution for 4 h at the temperatures of 100, 150, and 200{sup o} C. The precursors obtained during the hydrothermal treatment were heated at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000{sup o}C. The changes of fly ash composition after the different treatments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, surface area (BET-N{sub 2}), and thermal analyses. From the results obtained it was concluded that the optimum temperature of the hydrothermal treatment was 200{sup o}C, and the optimum temperature for obtaining the belite cement clinker was 800{sup o}C. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Robust content-dependent high-fidelity watermark for tracking in digital cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Jeffrey; Bloom, Jeffrey A.; Cheng, Hui

    2003-06-01

    Forensic digital watermarking is a promising tool in the fight against piracy of copyrighted motion imagery content, but to be effective it must be (1) imperceptibly embedded in high-definition motion picture source, (2) reliably retrieved, even from degraded copies as might result from camcorder capture and subsequent very-low-bitrate compression and distribution on the Internet, and (3) secure against unauthorized removal. No existing watermarking technology has yet to meet these three simultaneous requirements of fidelity, robustness, and security. We describe here a forensic watermarking approach that meets all three requirements. It is based on the inherent robustness and imperceptibility of very low spatiotemporal frequency watermark carriers, and on a watermark placement technique that renders jamming attacks too costly in picture quality, even if the attacker has complete knowledge of the embedding algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on HD Cinemascope source material exhibited in a digital cinema viewing room. The watermark is imperceptible, yet recoverable after exhibition capture with camcorders, and after the introduction of other distortions such as low-pass filtering, noise addition, geometric shifts, and the manipulation of brightness and contrast.

  14. Discovering Molecules That Regulate Efferocytosis Using Primary Human Macrophages and High Content Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santulli-Marotto

    Full Text Available Defective clearance of apoptotic cells can result in sustained inflammation and subsequent autoimmunity. Macrophages, the "professional phagocyte" of the body, are responsible for efficient, non-phlogistic, apoptotic cell clearance. Controlling phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages is an attractive therapeutic opportunity to ameliorate inflammation. Using high content imaging, we have developed a system for evaluating the effects of antibody treatment on apoptotic cell uptake in primary human macrophages by comparing the Phagocytic Index (PI for each antibody. Herein we demonstrate the feasibility of evaluating a panel of antibodies of unknown specificities obtained by immunization of mice with primary human macrophages and show that they can be distinguished based on individual PI measurements. In this study ~50% of antibodies obtained enhance phagocytosis of apoptotic cells while approximately 5% of the antibodies in the panel exhibit some inhibition. Though the specificities of the majority of antibodies are unknown, two of the antibodies that improved apoptotic cell uptake recognize recombinant MerTK; a receptor known to function in this capacity in vivo. The agonistic impact of these antibodies on efferocytosis could be demonstrated without addition of either of the MerTK ligands, Gas6 or ProS. These results validate applying the mechanism of this fundamental biological process as a means for identification of modulators that could potentially serve as therapeutics. This strategy for interrogating macrophages to discover molecules regulating apoptotic cell uptake is not limited by access to purified protein thereby increasing the possibility of finding novel apoptotic cell uptake pathways.

  15. Calculation Method to Determine the Group Composition of Vacuum Distillate with High Content of Saturated Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Galina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation method to determine the group composition of the heavy fraction of vacuum distillate with high content of saturated hydrocarbons, obtained by vacuum distillation of the residue from the West Siberian oil with subsequent hydrotreating, are given in this research. The method is built on the basis of calculation the physico-chemical characteristics and the group composition of vacuum distillate according to the fractional composition and density considering with high content of saturated hydrocarbons in the fraction. Calculation method allows to determine the content of paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic hydrocarbons and the resins in vacuum distillate with high accuracy and can be used in refineries for rapid determination of the group composition of vacuum distillate.

  16. Graph cut and image intensity-based splitting improves nuclei segmentation in high-content screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Muhammad; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Emmenlauer, Mario; Rämö, Pauli; Yli-Harja, Olli; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    Quantification of phenotypes in high-content screening experiments depends on the accuracy of single cell analysis. In such analysis workflows, cell nuclei segmentation is typically the first step and is followed by cell body segmentation, feature extraction, and subsequent data analysis workflows. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that the first steps of high-content analysis are done accurately in order to guarantee correctness of the final analysis results. In this paper, we present a novel cell nuclei image segmentation framework which exploits robustness of graph cut to obtain initial segmentation for image intensity-based clump splitting method to deliver the accurate overall segmentation. By using quantitative benchmarks and qualitative comparison with real images from high-content screening experiments with complicated multinucleate cells, we show that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art nuclei segmentation methods. Moreover, we provide a modular and easy-to-use implementation of the method for a widely used platform.

  17. HYDROGEN ADDITION ON COMBUSTION AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH SPEED SPARK IGNITION ENGINE- AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIVAPRASAD K. V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at characterizing the combustion and emission parameters of a single cylinder high speed SI engine operating with different concentrations of hydrogen with gasoline fuel. The conventional carburetted SI engine was modified into an electronically controllable engine, wherein ECU was used to control the injection timings and durations of gasoline. The engine was maintained at a constant speed of 3000 rpm and wide open throttle position. The experimental results demonstrated that heat release rate and cylinder pressure were increased with the addition of hydrogen until 20%. The CO and HC emissions were reduced considerably whereas NOx emission was increased with the addition of hydrogen in comparison with pure gasoline engine operation.

  18. Effect of Additives on Magnetic Properties of High Frequency MnZn Power Ferrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhong; LAN Zhongwen; WANG Jingmei; ZHANG Yidong; WANG Haocai

    2004-01-01

    The effect of additives,such as CaO and V2O5 on the magnetic properties of high frequency MnZn power ferrite is studied by the conventional ceramic process.As a result,the grain boundary resistivity increases and the power loss declines with the addition of CaO enriched at the grain boundary.By adding an optimum amount of V2O5 which acts indirectly via liquid phase formation and influences the microstructural development during sintering,the crystalline grain of ferrite was refined,the porosity decreases,the amount of grain boundary and the grain boundary resistivity increased,so the power loss is suppressed.

  19. Search for additional high mass Higgs bosons decaying to muon-tau pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Jongewaard, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Lepton Flavour Violation (LFV) is not allowed in the Standard Model (SM), but can happen in some BSM theories like 2HDMs, like theories with additional Higgs particles. Therefore, these additional Higgs particles might be found through their LFV decay modes. This project presents the 95\\% CL upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio for high mass Higgs bosons decaying to $\\mu$-$\\tau$ pairs.. The branching ratio is computed as a function of the Higgs mass, from 120 GeV up to 1 TeV. For the SM Higgs and 0 jets, a 95\\% CL upper limit of BR($H\\rightarrow\\mu\\tau$) $<$ 1.73$\\%$ is found (assuming a SM cross section), or $\\sigma$ $\\times$ BR $<$ 0.78 pb.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane; Bigelow, Glen S.; Elahinia, Mohammad; Moghaddam, Narges Shayesteh; Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Saedi, Soheil; Toker, Guher Pelin; Karaca, Haluk

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of a NiTi-20Hf high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) was investigated. A selective laser melting (SLM) process by Phenix3D Systems was used to develop components from NiTiHf powder (of approximately 25-75 m particle fractions), and the thermomechanical response was compared to the conventionally vacuum induction skull melted counterpart. Transformation temperatures of the SLM material were found to be slightly lower due to the additional oxygen pick up from the gas atomization and melting process. The shape memory response in compression was measured for stresses up to 500 MPa, and transformation strains were found to be very comparable (Up to 1.26 for the as-extruded; up to 1.52 for SLM).

  1. Communication: Virial coefficients and demixing in highly asymmetric binary additive hard-sphere mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Haro, Mariano; Tejero, Carlos F; Santos, Andrés

    2013-04-28

    The problem of demixing in a binary fluid mixture of highly asymmetric additive hard spheres is revisited. A comparison is presented between the results derived previously using truncated virial expansions for three finite size ratios with those that one obtains with the same approach in the extreme case in which one of the components consists of point particles. Since this latter system is known not to exhibit fluid-fluid segregation, the similarity observed for the behavior of the critical constants arising in the truncated series in all instances, while not being conclusive, may cast serious doubts as to the actual existence of a demixing fluid-fluid transition in disparate-sized binary additive hard-sphere mixtures.

  2. A yttrium-containing high-temperature titanium alloy additively manufactured by selective electron beam melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯圣路; 汤慧萍; 马前; 洪权; 曾立英

    2015-01-01

    A yttrium-containing high-temperature titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-2.7Sn-4Zr-0.4Mo-0.45Si-0.1Y, mass fraction, %) has been additively manufactured using selective electron beam melting (SEBM). The resulting microstructure and textures were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and compared with the conventionally manufactured form. A notable distinct difference of microstructures is that additive manufacturing by SEBM enables homogeneous precipitation of fine Y2O3 dispersoids in the size range of 50−250 nm throughout the as-fabricated alloy, despite the presence of just trace levels of oxygen (7×10−4, mass fraction) and yttrium (10−3, mass fraction) in the alloy. In contrast, the conventionally manufactured alloy shows inhomogeneously distributed coarse Y2O3 precipitates, including cracked or debonded Y2O3 particles.

  3. Optimization of the Content of Tricalcium Silicate of High Cementing Clinker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; SHEN Xiaodong; MA Suhua; HUANG Yeping; ZHONG Baiqian

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the content of tricalcium silicate (C3S) of high cementing clinker was investigated. The content of free-CaO(f-CaO), mineral composite, the content of C3S in the clinker and the hydration product were analyzed by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). "K Value" method of QXRD was selected as a quantitative analysis way to measure the content of C3S, and the strength of cement paste was determined. The results show that at a water cement ratio of 0.29, the strength of cement paste with 73% C3S can be up to 97.5 MPa at 28 days age. The strength at 28 d of cement with 73% C3S is 16% higher than that with 78% C3S at water requirement for normal consistency. The relationship between the strength of high cementing Portland cement and the content of C3S in the clinker is nonlinear. According to the strength of cement paste, the optimal content of C3S in cement clinker is around 73% in this paper.

  4. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Tinkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and methods. A total of 48 adult female Wistar rats were used in the present study. Rats were fed either control (10% of fat or high fat diet (31.6% of fat. Adipose tissue zinc content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rats’ serum was examined for adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum glucose and apolipoprotein spectrum were also evaluated. Results. High fat feeding resulted in a significant 34% decrease in adipose tissue zinc content in comparison to the control values. Fat pad zinc levels were significantly inversely associated with morphometric param- eters, circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and HOMA-IR values. At the same time,      a significant correlation with apolipoprotein A1 concentration was observed. Conclusion. Generally, the obtained data indicate that (1 high fat feeding results in decreased adipose tis- sue zinc content; (2 adipose tissue zinc content is tightly associated with excessive adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenic changes.

  5. Experimental determination and prediction of the compressibility factor of high CO2 content natural gas with and without water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqiang Bian; Zhimin Du; YongTang

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effect of different CO2 contents on gas compressibility factor (Z-factor),the JEFRI-PVT apparatus has been used to measure the Z-factor of dry natural gas with CO2 content range from 10.74 to 70.42 mol% at the temperature range from 301.2 to 407.3 K and pressure range from 7 to 44 MPa.The results show that Z-factor decreases with increasing CO2 content in natural gas at constant temperature and increases with increasing temperature for natural gas with the same CO2 content.In addition,the Z-factor of water-saturated natural gas with high CO2 content has been measured.A comparison of the Z-factor between natural gas with and without saturated water vapor indicates that the former shows a higher Z-factor than the latter.Furthermore,Peng-Robinson,Hall-Yarborough,and Soave-Benedict-WebbRubin equations of state (EoS) are used for the calculation of Z-factor of high CO2 content natural gas with and without water vapor.The optimal binary interaction parameters (BIP) for PR EoS are presented.The measured Z-factor is compared with the calculated Z-factor based on three models,which shows that PR EoS combined with van der Waals mixing rule for gas without water and Huron-Vidal mixing rule for water-saturated gas,are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. High Temperature Performances of Spherical Nickel Hydroxide with Additive Y2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米欣; 叶茂; 阎杰; 魏进平; 高学平

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Y2O3 as additive to the positive electrode on the high-temperature performances of the Ni-MH batteries was studied. The specific capacities of the positive electrode in Ni-MH battery at higher temperatures are much lower than usual. In order to improve high-temperature performances, charge/discharge curves of the Ni(OH)2 electrodes with different amounts of Y2O3 at different temperatures were studied. It is found that the specific capacities of the spherical Ni(OH)2 with Y2O3 as additive are much higher than those of the regular at higher temperatures. The specific capacity of Ni(OH)2 containing 1% Y2O3 at 0.2C C/D rate is 35% higher than that of the regular. The specific capacity of Ni(OH)2 containing 0.2% Y2O3 at 1C C/D rate is 15% higher than that of the regular. Mechanism of Y2O3 improving high temperature performances of Ni(OH)2 electrode was also discussed in detail.

  7. High-content single-cell analysis on-chip using a laser microarray scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Wu, Yu; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Fan, Rong

    2012-12-07

    High-content cellomic analysis is a powerful tool for rapid screening of cellular responses to extracellular cues and examination of intracellular signal transduction pathways at the single-cell level. In conjunction with microfluidics technology that provides unique advantages in sample processing and precise control of fluid delivery, it holds great potential to transform lab-on-a-chip systems for high-throughput cellular analysis. However, high-content imaging instruments are expensive, sophisticated, and not readily accessible. Herein, we report on a laser scanning cytometry approach that exploits a bench-top microarray scanner as an end-point reader to perform rapid and automated fluorescence imaging of cells cultured on a chip. Using high-content imaging analysis algorithms, we demonstrated multiplexed measurements of morphometric and proteomic parameters from all single cells. Our approach shows the improvement of both sensitivity and dynamic range by two orders of magnitude as compared to conventional epifluorescence microscopy. We applied this technology to high-throughput analysis of mesenchymal stem cells on an extracellular matrix protein array and characterization of heterotypic cell populations. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a laser microarray scanner for high-content cellomic analysis and opens up new opportunities to conduct informative cellular analysis and cell-based screening in the lab-on-a-chip systems.

  8. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of biomasses having a high dry matter (DM) content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for liquefaction and saccharification of polysaccharide containing biomasses, having a relatively high dry matter content. The present invention combines enzymatic hydrolysis with a type of mixing relying on the principle of gravity ensuring that the bio......The present invention relates to a process for liquefaction and saccharification of polysaccharide containing biomasses, having a relatively high dry matter content. The present invention combines enzymatic hydrolysis with a type of mixing relying on the principle of gravity ensuring...

  9. [INVITED] Laser-induced forward transfer: A high resolution additive manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaporte, Philippe; Alloncle, Anne-Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Among the additive manufacturing techniques, laser-induced forward transfer addresses the challenges of printing thin films in solid phase or small volume droplets in liquid phase with very high resolution. This paper reviews the physics of this process and explores the pros and cons of this technology versus other digital printing technologies. The main field of applications are printed electronics, organic electronics and tissue engineering, and the most promising short terms ones concern digital laser printing of sensors and conductive tracks. Future directions and emerging areas of interest are discussed such as printing solid from a liquid phase and 3D digital nanomanufacturing.

  10. Multiparametric Cell Cycle Analysis Using the Operetta High-Content Imager and Harmony Software with PhenoLOGIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Massey

    Full Text Available High-content imaging is a powerful tool for determining cell phenotypes at the single cell level. Characterising the effect of small molecules on cell cycle distribution is important for understanding their mechanism of action especially in oncology drug discovery but also for understanding potential toxicology liabilities. Here, a high-throughput phenotypic assay utilising the PerkinElmer Operetta high-content imager and Harmony software to determine cell cycle distribution is described. PhenoLOGIC, a machine learning algorithm within Harmony software was employed to robustly separate single cells from cell clumps. DNA content, EdU incorporation and pHH3 (S10 expression levels were subsequently utilised to separate cells into the various phases of the cell cycle. The assay is amenable to multiplexing with an additional pharmacodynamic marker to assess cell cycle changes within a specific cellular sub-population. Using this approach, the cell cycle distribution of γH2AX positive nuclei was determined following treatment with DNA damaging agents. Likewise, the assay can be multiplexed with Ki67 to determine the fraction of quiescent cells and with BrdU dual labelling to determine S-phase duration. This methodology therefore provides a relatively cheap, quick and high-throughput phenotypic method for determining accurate cell cycle distribution for small molecule mechanism of action and drug toxicity studies.

  11. A one-step bioprocess for production of high-content fructo-oligosaccharides from inulin by yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da; Li, Fu-Li; Wang, Shi-An

    2016-10-20

    Commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are predominantly produced from sucrose by transfructosylation process that presents a maximum theoretical yield below 0.60gFOSgSucrose(-1). To obtain high-content FOS, costly purification is generally employed. Additionally, high-content FOS can be produced from inulin by using endo-inulinases. However, commercial endo-inulinases have not been extensively used in scale-up production of FOS. In the present study, a one-step bioprocess that integrated endo-inulinase production, FOS fermentation, and non-FOS sugars removal into one reactor was proposed to produce high-content FOS from inulin. The bioprocess was implemented by a recombinant yeast strain JZHΔS-TSC, in which a heterologous endo-inulinase gene was expressed and the inherent invertase gene SUC2 was disrupted. FOS fermentation at 40°C from 200g/L chicory inulin presented the maximun titer, yield, and productivity of 180.2±0.8g/L, 0.9gFOSgInulin(-1), and 7.51±0.03g/L/h, respectively. This study demonstrated that the one-step bioprocess was simple and highly efficient.

  12. Multi Feature Content Based Video Retrieval Using High Level Semantic Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy K. Elminir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Content-based retrieval allows finding information by searching its content rather than its attributes. The challenge facing content-based video retrieval (CBVR is to design systems that can accurately and automatically process large amounts of heterogeneous videos. Moreover, content-based video retrieval system requires in its first stage to segment the video stream into separate shots. Afterwards features are extracted for video shots representation. And finally, choose a similarity/distance metric and an algorithm that is efficient enough to retrieve query - related videos results. There are two main issues in this process; the first is how to determine the best way for video segmentation and key frame selection. The second is the features used for video representation. Various features can be extracted for this sake including either low or high level features. A key issue is how to bridge the gap between low and high level features. This paper proposes a system for a content based video retrieval system that tries to address the aforementioned issues by using adaptive threshold for video segmentation and key frame selection as well as using both low level features together with high level semantic object annotation for video representation. Experimental results show that the use of multi features increases both precision and recall rates by about 13% to 19 % than traditional system that uses only color feature for video retrieval.

  13. Preliminary study on optimization of pH, oxidant and catalyst dose for high COD content: solar parabolic trough collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, solar photocatalytic oxidation has been investigated through laboratory experiments as an alternative to conventional secondary treatment for the organic content reduction of high COD wastewater. Experiments have been performed on synthetic high COD wastewater for solar photocatalytic oxidation using a parabolic trough reactor. Parameters affecting the oxidation of organics have been investigated. The experimental design followed the sequence of dark adsorption studies of organics, followed by photolytic studies (in absence of catalyst and finally photocatalytic studies in presence and absence of additional oxidant (H2O2. All the experimental studies have been performed at pH values of 2, 4, 6,8,10 and the initial pH value of the wastewater (normal pH. For photocatalytic studies, TiO2 has been used as a photocatalyst. Optimization of catalyst dose, pH and H2O2 concentration has been done. Maximum reduction of organic content was observed at the normal pH value of the wastewater (pH = 6.8. The reaction rate was significantly enhanced in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The optimum pH other than the Normal was in the alkaline range. Acidic pH was not found to be favourable for organic content reduction. pH was found to be a dominant factor affecting reaction rate even in presence of H2O2 as an additional oxidant. Also, the solar detoxification process was effective in treating a waste with a COD level of more than 7500 mg/L, which is a otherwise a difficult waste to treat. It can therefore be used as a treatment step in the high organic wastewater treatment during the primary stage also as it effectively reduces the COD content by 86%.

  14. Preliminary Study on Optimization of pH, Oxidant and Catalyst Dose for High COD Content: Solar Parabolic Trough Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, solar photocatalytic oxidation has been investigated through laboratory experiments as an alternative to conventional secondary treatment for the organic content reduction of high COD wastewater.Experiments have been performed on synthetic high COD wastewater for solar photocatalytic oxidation using aparabolic trough reactor. Parameters affecting the oxidation of organics have been investigated.The experimental design followed the sequence of dark adsorption studies of organics, followed by photolytic studies (in absence of catalyst and finally photocatalytic studies in presence and absence of additional oxidant(H2O2. All the experimental studies have been performed at pH values of 2, 4, 6,8,10 and the initial pH value of the wastewater (normal pH. For photocatalytic studies, TiO2 has been used as a photocatalyst. Optimization of catalyst dose, pH and H2O2 concentration has been done. Maximum reduction of organic content was observed at the normal pH value of the wastewater (pH = 6.8. The reaction rate was significantly enhanced in presence ofhydrogen peroxide. The optimum pH other than the Normal was in the alkaline range. Acidic pH was not found to be favourable for organic content reduction. pH was found to be a dominant factor affecting reaction rate even in presence of H2O2 as an additional oxidant. Also, the solar detoxification process was effective in treating a waste with a COD level of more than 7500 mg/L, which is a otherwise a difficult waste to treat. It can therefore be used as a treatment step in the high organic wastewater treatment during the primary stage also as it effectively reduces the COD content by 86%.

  15. A highly efficient electric additive for enhancing photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    N-cetylpyridinium iodide (N-CPI) as a new electric additive for enhancing photovoltaic performance of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was studied.It showed high efficiency for enhancing both the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current density of DSSC when the suitable amount of N-CPI as 0.02 M was added in liquid electrolyte.The energy conversion effi- ciency of DSSC increased from 4.429% to 6.535%,with 47.55% enhancement.Therefore,it is a highly efficient electric addi- tive for DSSC.The intrinsic reason is owing to the special molecular structure of N-CPI,which contains two different polarity groups.As a surfactant,N-CPI could form ordered arrangement in liquid electrolyte,which affects the diffusing ability and the redox reaction of I-/I3-,and further affects the photovoltaic performance of DSSC.

  16. Determination of plastic additives in packaging by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María-Teresa

    2015-10-02

    A simple and sensitive analytical method for the determination of several plastic additives in multilayer packaging based on solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to variable wavelength (VWD) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detectors is presented. The proposed method allows the simultaneous determination of fourteen additives belonging to different families such as antioxidants, slip agents and light stabilizers, as well as two oxidation products in only 9min. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and intermediate precision. The instrumental method showed satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision at concentrations closed to LOQ with RSDs less than 7 and 20%, respectively, and LODs until 5000 times more sensitive than other GC-FID and HPLC-VWD methods previously reported. Also, focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) was optimized and evaluated to extract plastic additives from packaging. Extraction results obtained by FUSLE and SLE were compared to those obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). All extraction methods showed excellent extraction efficiency for slip agents, however quantitative recovery of all analytes was achieved only by SLE with just 5ml of hexane for 10h. Finally, the selected method was applied to the analysis of packaging samples where erucamide, Irgafos 168, oxidized Irgafos 168, Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010 were detected and quantified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Innovation management and marketing in the high-tech sector: A content analysis of advertisements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhard, D.; Brem, Alexander; Baccarella, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Advertizing high-technology products is a tricky and critical task for every company, since it means operating in an environment with high market uncertainty. The work presents results of a content analysis of 110 adverts for consumer electronics products which examines how these products...... and the incorporated technology are communicated to the customer. Based on established coding schemes, the content and the appeals of the adverts are evaluated by coders. The results show that these adverts are very informative, mainly have rational appeals and feature products being in the early stage of their life...... cycles. Regarding the specific content, the ‘mother brand’ is shown to play a very important role. On the other hand, the results show that incorporated technology, its superiority and functionality do not play an important role in the advertisements...

  18. High boron content carboranyl-functionalized aryl ether derivatives displaying photoluminescent properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, Frédéric; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc; Núñez, Rosario; Abreu, Arturo; Xochitiotzi, Elba; Santillan, Rosa; Farfán, Norberto

    2007-05-21

    The reaction of alpha,alpha'-bis(3,5-bis(bromomethyl)phenoxy-p-xylene (3) with 4 equiv of the monolithium salt of 1-Ph-1,2-C2B10H11 or 1-Me-1,2-C2B10H11 gave the corresponding neutral carboranyl-functionalized aryl ether derivatives closo-4 and closo-5, respectively. These compounds contain four closo clusters that were degraded using basic conditions with KOH in EtOH, affording the corresponding nido-6 and nido-7 as potassium salts. Nido species were also isolated with tetramethylammonium as cation giving compounds nido-8 and nido-9 in good yield. The potassium salts showed good solubility in water and polar solvents. All these compounds were characterized by 1H, 11B and 13C NMR spectroscopy and UV-vis. The electronic data in different solvents indicated a solvatochromic shift for all compounds and a red shift of the absorption maxima for the nido species with respect to the closo derivatives. These neutral and anionic carboranyl-functionalized aryl ether derivatives represent a new family of high boron content luminescent compounds that show strong fluorescence emission in different solvents at room temperature. This phenomenon is very interesting considering the fact that none of the precursors have such a property. The fluorescence emission depends on the cluster substituent (Ph or Me) and the solvent polarity. Additionally, the fluorescence emission intensity was clearly dependent on the solvent polarity; the closo species showed strongest fluorescence intensities in the non-polar solvents, while anionic species were highly emissive in polar solvents.

  19. Normalizing for individual cell population context in the analysis of high-content cellular screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-content, high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi offers unprecedented possibilities to elucidate gene function and involvement in biological processes. Microscopy based screening allows phenotypic observations at the level of individual cells. It was recently shown that a cell's population context significantly influences results. However, standard analysis methods for cellular screens do not currently take individual cell data into account unless this is important for the phenotype of interest, i.e. when studying cell morphology. Results We present a method that normalizes and statistically scores microscopy based RNAi screens, exploiting individual cell information of hundreds of cells per knockdown. Each cell's individual population context is employed in normalization. We present results on two infection screens for hepatitis C and dengue virus, both showing considerable effects on observed phenotypes due to population context. In addition, we show on a non-virus screen that these effects can be found also in RNAi data in the absence of any virus. Using our approach to normalize against these effects we achieve improved performance in comparison to an analysis without this normalization and hit scoring strategy. Furthermore, our approach results in the identification of considerably more significantly enriched pathways in hepatitis C virus replication than using a standard analysis approach. Conclusions Using a cell-based analysis and normalization for population context, we achieve improved sensitivity and specificity not only on a individual protein level, but especially also on a pathway level. This leads to the identification of new host dependency factors of the hepatitis C and dengue viruses and higher reproducibility of results.

  20. Additive manufacturing of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy by selective electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, H.P., E-mail: thpfys@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Yang, G.Y.; Jia, W.P.; He, W.W.; Lu, S.L. [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Qian, M., E-mail: ma.qian@rmit.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); RMIT University, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Centre for Additive Manufacturing, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia)

    2015-06-11

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers a radical net-shape manufacturing approach for titanium aluminide alloys but significant challenges still remain. A study has been made of the AM of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy (Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W, in at% throughout the paper) using selective electron beam melting (SEBM). The formation of various types of microstructural defects, including banded structures caused by the vaporization of aluminum, was investigated with respect to different processing parameters. To avoid both micro- and macro-cracks, the use of higher preheating temperatures and an intermediate reheating process (to reheat each solidified layer during SEBM) was assessed in detail. These measures enabled effective release of the thermal stress that developed during SEBM and therefore the avoidance of cracks. In addition, the processing conditions for the production of a fine full lamellar microstructure were identified. As a result, the Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W alloy fabricated showed outstanding properties (compression strength: 2750 MPa; strain-to-fracture: 37%). SEBM can be used to fabricate high performance titanium aluminide alloys with appropriate processing parameters and pathways.

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Multifunctional Components Using High Density Carbon Nanotube Yarn Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John M.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for design freedom and part complexity not currently attainable using traditional manufacturing technologies. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), for example, can yield novel component geometries and functionalities because the method provides a high level of control over material placement and processing conditions. This is achievable by extrusion of a preprocessed filament feedstock material along a predetermined path. However if fabrication of a multifunctional part relies only on conventional filament materials, it will require a different material for each unique functionality printed into the part. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an attractive material for many applications due to their high specific strength as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity. The presence of this set of properties in a single material presents an opportunity to use one material to achieve multifunctionality in an additively manufactured part. This paper describes a recently developed method for processing continuous CNT yarn filaments into three-dimensional articles, and summarizes the mechanical, electrical, and sensing performance of the components fabricated in this way.

  2. Effect of Ti-V-Nb-Mo addition on microstructure of high chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Youping

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of trace additions of multi-alloying elements (Ti, Nb, V, Mo on carbides precipitation and as-cast microstructure of eutectic high chromium cast iron containing 2.85wt.%C and 31.0wt.%Cr were investigated from thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. The thermodynamic calculations show that Ti and Nb exist in the multi-alloying system in the forms of TiC and NbC. The formation of VC during the solidification is not feasible from the thermodynamic consideration. XRD analysis shows that the V exists in alloy compounds (VCr2C2, VCrFe8. The first precipitated high melting point particles (TiC, NbC can act as the heterogeneous substrate of M7C3 carbides, which results in significant refinement of the M7C3 carbides. After the addition of alloying elements, C atom diffusion is hindered due to the strong affinities of the strong carbide forming elements for carbon, which decreases the growth rate of carbides. The combined roles of the increase of nucleation rate and the decrease of carbides growth rate lead to the finer microstructure.

  3. Soil respiration characteristics in different land uses and response of soil organic carbon to biochar addition in high-latitude agricultural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Geng, Xiaojun; Huang, Wejia; Hao, Fanghua; Zhao, Jinbo

    2016-02-01

    The farmland tillage practices changed the soil chemical properties, which also impacted the soil respiration (R s ) process and the soil carbon conservation. Originally, the farmland in northeast China had high soil carbon content, which was decreased in the recent decades due to the tillage practices. To better understand the R s dynamics in different land use types and its relationship with soil carbon loss, soil samples at two layers (0-15 and 15-30 cm) were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total carbon (TC), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), soil particle size distribution, as well as the R s rate. The R s rate of the paddy land was 0.22 (at 0-15 cm) and 3.01 (at 15-30 cm) times of the upland. The average concentrations of OC and clay content in cultivated areas were much lower than in non-cultivated areas. The partial least squares analysis suggested that the TC and TN were significantly related to the R s process in cultivated soils. The upland soil was further used to test soil CO2 emission response at different biochar addition levels during 70-days incubation. The measurement in the limited incubation period demonstrated that the addition of biochar improved the soil C content because it had high concentration of pyrogenic C, which was resistant to mineralization. The analysis showed that biochar addition can promote soil OC by mitigating carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. The biochar addition achieved the best performance for the soil carbon conservation in high-latitude agricultural area due to the originally high carbon content.

  4. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  5. Cultural Parallax and Content Analysis: Images of Black Women in High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyshner, Christine; Schocker, Jessica B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the representation of Black women in high school history textbooks. To examine the extent to which Black women are represented visually and to explore how they are portrayed, the authors use a mixed-methods approach that draws on analytical techniques in content analysis and from visual culture studies. Their findings…

  6. Exceptional heat stability of high protein content dispersions containing whey protein particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to aggregation and/or gelation during thermal treatment, the amount of whey proteins that can be used in the formulation of high protein foods e.g. protein drinks, is limited. The aim of this study was to replace whey proteins with whey protein particles to increase the total protein content and

  7. The content and role of formal contracts in high-tech alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G. de; Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate the governance structure of innovation processes in high-tech alliances, focusing on the content and role of formal contracts. The design of a formal agreement is one of the most important strategic decisions for alliance partners. Drawing upon transaction cost arguments

  8. [Determination of high content of tin in geochemical samples by solid emission spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian-Zhen; Hao, Zhi-Hong; Tang, Rui-Ling; Li, Xiao-Jing; Li, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Qin

    2013-11-01

    A method for the determination of high content of tin in geochemical samples by solid emission spectrometry was presented. The dedicated high content tin spectrum standard series was developed. K2S2O7, NaF, Al2O3 and carbon powder were used as buffers and Ge was used as internal standard, and the ratio of sample/matrix/buffer is 1 : 1 : 2. A weak sensitive line (Sn 242. 170 0 nm) was used as the analytical line. The technologies of vertical electrodes, AC arc overlap spectrograph, interception of the exposure, quantitative computer translation spectrum and background correction were used. The determination range is 100-22 350 microg x g(-1), the detection limit is 16.64 microg x g(-1), and the precision is (RSD, n = 12) 4.11%-6.46%. The accuracy of the method has been verified by determination of high content of tin in national geochemical standard samples and the results are in agreement with certified value. The method can be used for measurement directly without dilution of high content of tin in geochemical samples, and it greatly improved the detection upper limit for the determination of tin with solid emission spectroscopy and has certain practical value.

  9. The content and role of formal contracts in high-tech alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gjalt; Woolthuis, Rosalinde Ja Klein

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate the governance structure of innovation processes in high-tech alliances, focusing on the content and role of formal contracts. The design of a formal agreement is one of the most important strategic decisions for alliance partners. Drawing upon transaction cost arguments

  10. Nanoscale high-content analysis using compositional heterogeneities of single proteoliposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Signe; Christensen, Sune M.; Fung, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    heterogeneities can severely skew ensemble-average proteoliposome measurements but also enable ultraminiaturized high-content screens. We took advantage of this screening capability to map the oligomerization energy of the β2-adrenergic receptor using ∼10(9)-fold less protein than conventional assays....

  11. Cultural Parallax and Content Analysis: Images of Black Women in High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyshner, Christine; Schocker, Jessica B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the representation of Black women in high school history textbooks. To examine the extent to which Black women are represented visually and to explore how they are portrayed, the authors use a mixed-methods approach that draws on analytical techniques in content analysis and from visual culture studies. Their findings…

  12. Adhesive performance of washed cottonseed meal at high solid contents and low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown as a promising biobased wood adhesive. Recently, we prepared WSCM in a pilot scale for promoting its industrial application. In this work, we tested the adhesive strength and viscosity of the adhesive preparation with high solid contents (up to 30%...

  13. High Water Content Material Based on Ba-Bearing Sulphoaluminate Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jun; CHENG Xin; LU Lingchao; HUANG Shifeng; YE Zhengmao

    2005-01-01

    A new type of high water content material which is made up of two pastes is prepared, one is made from lime and gypsum, and another is based on Ba-bearing stdphoaluminate cement. It has excellent properties such as slow single paste solidifing,fast double pastes solidifing,fast coagulating and hardening, high early strength, good suspension property at high W/C ratio and low cost. Meanwhile, the properties and hydration mechanism of the material were analyzed by using XRD , DTA- TG and SEM. The hydrated products of new type of high water content material are Ba-bearing ettringite, BaSO4 , aluminum gel and C-S-H gel.

  14. High Temperature Thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing Using Low-Cost, Open-Source Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John M.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Yashin, Edward A.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) via Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), also known as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), is a process where material is placed in specific locations layer-by-layer to create a complete part. Printers designed for FFF build parts by extruding a thermoplastic filament from a nozzle in a predetermined path. Originally developed for commercial printers, 3D printing via FFF has become accessible to a much larger community of users since the introduction of Reprap printers. These low-cost, desktop machines are typically used to print prototype parts or novelty items. As the adoption of desktop sized 3D printers broadens, there is increased demand for these machines to produce functional parts that can withstand harsher conditions such as high temperature and mechanical loads. Materials meeting these requirements tend to possess better mechanical properties and higher glass transition temperatures (Tg), thus requiring printers with high temperature printing capability. This report outlines the problems and solutions, and includes a detailed description of the machine design, printing parameters, and processes specific to high temperature thermoplastic 3D printing.

  15. Additive manufacturing of collagen scaffolds by three-dimensional plotting of highly viscous dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lode, Anja; Meyer, Michael; Brüggemeier, Sophie; Paul, Birgit; Baltzer, Hagen; Schröpfer, Michaela; Winkelmann, Claudia; Sonntag, Frank; Gelinsky, Michael

    2016-02-27

    Additive manufacturing (AM) allows the free form fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) structures with distinct external geometry, fitting into a patient-specific defect, and defined internal pore architecture. However, fabrication of predesigned collagen scaffolds using AM-based technologies is challenging due to the low viscosity of collagen solutions, gels or dispersions commonly used for scaffold preparation. In the present study, we have developed a straightforward method which is based on 3D plotting of a highly viscous, high density collagen dispersion. The swollen state of the collagen fibrils at pH 4 enabled the homogenous extrusion of the material, the deposition of uniform strands and finally the construction of 3D scaffolds. Stabilization of the plotted structures was achieved by freeze-drying and chemical crosslinking with the carbodiimide EDC. The scaffolds exhibited high shape and dimensional fidelity and a hierarchical porosity consisting of macropores generated by strand deposition as well as an interconnected microporosity within the strands as result of the freeze-drying process. Cultivation of human mesenchymal stromal cells on the scaffolds, with and without adipogenic or osteogenic stimulation, revealed their cytocompatibility and potential applicability for adipose and bone tissue engineering.

  16. The effect of High Pressure and High Temperature processing on carotenoids and chlorophylls content in some vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Celia; Baranda, Ana Beatriz; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2014-11-15

    The effect of High Pressure (HP) and High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) processing on carotenoid and chlorophyll content of six vegetables was evaluated. In general, carotenoid content was not significantly influenced by HP or HPHT treatments (625 MPa; 5 min; 20, 70 and 117 °C). Regarding chlorophylls, HP treatment caused no degradation or slight increases, while HPHT processes degraded both chlorophylls. Chlorophyll b was more stable than chlorophyll a at 70 °C, but both of them were highly degraded at 117 °C. HPHT treatment at 117 °C provided products with a good retention of carotenoids and colour in the case of red vegetables. Even though the carotenoids also remained in the green vegetables, their chlorophylls and therefore their colour were so affected that milder temperatures need to be applied. As an industrial scale equipment was used, results will be useful for future industrial implementation of this technology.

  17. Effect of highly dispersed yttria addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, P., E-mail: pparente@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Savoini, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Ferrari, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Sanchez-Herencia, A.J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    The capability of the colloidal method to produce yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as an alternative method to the conventional method of mechanical mixing and sintering for developing HA-based materials that could exhibit controllable and enhanced functional properties. A water based colloidal route to produce HA materials with highly dispersed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been applied, and the effect of 10 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to HA investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These measurements evidence a remarkable effect of this Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on decomposition mechanisms of synthetic HA. Results show that incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dispersed second phase is beneficial because it hinders the decomposition mechanisms of HA into calcium phosphates. This retardation will allow the control of the sintering conditions for developing HA implants with improved properties. Besides, substitution of Ca{sup 2+} with Y{sup 3+} ions appears to promote the formation of OH{sup -} vacancies, which could improve the conductive properties of HA favorable to osseointegration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reveal the influence of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} delays decomposition of hydroxyapatite to calcium phosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} enables sintering conditions more favorable to the densification.

  18. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates.

  19. Properties of high calcium fly ash geopolymer pastes with Portland cement as an additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoo-ngernkham, Tanakorn; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Sata, Vanchai; Pangdaeng, Saengsuree; Sinsiri, Theerawat

    2013-02-01

    The effect of Portland cement (OPC) addition on the properties of high calcium fly ash geopolymer pastes was investigated in the paper. OPC partially replaced fly ash (FA) at the dosages of 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% by mass of binder. Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions were used as the liquid portion in the mixture: NaOH 10 mol/L, Na2SiO3/NaOH with a mass ratio of 2.0, and alkaline liquid/binder (L/B) with a mass ratio of 0.6. The curing at 60°C for 24 h was used to accelerate the geopolymerization. The setting time of all fresh pastes, porosity, and compressive strength of the pastes at the stages of 1, 7, 28, and 90 d were tested. The elastic modulus and strain capacity of the pastes at the stage of 7 d were determined. It is revealed that the use of OPC as an additive to replace part of FA results in the decreases in the setting time, porosity, and strain capacity of the paste specimens, while the compressive strength and elastic modulus seem to increase.

  20. PROCESSING OF MULTI-DIGIT ADDITIONS IN HIGH MATH-ANXIOUS INDIVIDUALS: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ISABEL eNÚÑEZ-PEÑA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the time course of neural processing of multi-digit additions in high- (HMA and low-math anxious (LMA individuals. Seventeen HMA and 17 LMA individuals were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to perform a verification task. Behavioral data showed that HMA were slower and more error prone than their LMA peers, and that incorrect solutions were solved more slowly and less accurately than correct ones. Moreover, HMA individuals tended to need more time and commit more errors when having to verify incorrect solutions than correct ones. They also took longer and made more errors than their LMA peers. ERPs time-locked to the presentation of the addends (calculation phase and to the presentation of the proposed solution (verification phase were also analyzed. In both phases, a P2 component of larger amplitude was found for HMA individuals than for their LMA peers. Moreover, in the verification phase, LMA individuals showed a larger late positive component (LPC for incorrect solutions at parietal electrodes than their HMA counterparts. Because the P2 component is considered to be a biomarker of the mobilization of attentional resources towards emotionally negative stimuli, these results suggest that HMA individuals may invest more attentional resources during the arithmetical

  1. Porosity evolution in additively manufactured aluminium alloy during high temperature exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J.; Ding, H. L.; Gu, J. L.; Wang, X. S.; Qiu, H.

    2017-01-01

    A 2319 aluminum alloy is deposited by the Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing technology with Cold Metal Transfer process. Porosity that are both existing in the as-deposited and as-heat treated state metal are revealed by optical microscopy and quantitatively analyzed. It explains the reason why the newly initiated pores are easily tend to gather between each layer around the fusion line zone for the WAAM metal after heat treatment. The inner morphology of the pores are demonstrated by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Porosity evolution and distribution during high temperature exposure are demonstrated. Thus two porosity growth and number increase mechanisms are proposed eventually, providing theoretical basis for related material design and process optimization.

  2. High performance of N-alkoxycarbonyl-imines in triethylborane-mediated tin-free radical addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ken-ichi; Konishi, Takehito; Nakano, Mayu; Fujii, Shintaro; Cadou, Romain; Yamamoto, Yasutomo; Tomioka, Kiyoshi

    2012-02-03

    Triethylborane-mediated tin-free radical alkylation of N-alkoxycarbonyl-imines, such as N-Boc-, N-Cbz-, and N-Teoc-imines, proceeded smoothly at a low temperature (-78 to -20 °C) to give the corresponding adducts in high yield. Although the formation of isocyanate was the major unfavorable reaction at room temperature, a one-pot conversion of N-Boc-imine to N-ethoxycarbonyl-adduct was possible through the corresponding isocyanate generated in situ. The higher performance of N-alkoxycarbonyl-imine than those of N-Ts- and N-PMP-imines is rationalized by a moderate electron-withdrawing character of an alkoxycarbonyl group that makes both addition of alkyl radical and trapping of the resulting aminyl radical by triethylborane efficiently fast.

  3. High-temperature grain size stabilization of nanocrystalline Fe–Cr alloys with Hf additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lulu, E-mail: lli18@ncsu.edu; Saber, Mostafa; Xu, Weizong; Zhu, Yuntian; Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O.

    2014-09-08

    The influence of 1–4 at% Hf additions on the thermal stability of mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline Fe–14Cr alloys was studied in this work. XRD-calculated grain size and microhardness results were reported versus isochronal annealing treatments up to 1100 °C. Microstructural evolution was investigated using channeling contrast FIB imaging and TEM. Grain size of samples with 4 at% Hf was found to be maintained in the nanoscale range at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Zener pinning was considered as a major source of high temperature grain size stabilization. By comparing the Orowan strengthening contribution to the total hardness, the deviation of grain size predictions from the actual grain size in Fe–14Cr–4Hf suggests the presence of thermodynamic stabilization by the solute segregation to grain boundaries (GBs). A predictive thermodynamic model indicates that the thermodynamic stabilization can be expected.

  4. Additive Manufacturing and High-Performance Computing: a Disruptive Latent Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    This presentation will discuss the relationship between recent advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, High-Performance Computing (HPC) simulation and design capabilities, and related advances in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ), and then examines their impacts upon national and international security. The presentation surveys how AM accelerates the fabrication process, while HPC combined with UQ provides a fast track for the engineering design cycle. The combination of AM and HPC/UQ almost eliminates the engineering design and prototype iterative cycle, thereby dramatically reducing cost of production and time-to-market. These methods thereby present significant benefits for US national interests, both civilian and military, in an age of austerity. Finally, considering cyber security issues and the advent of the ``cloud,'' these disruptive, currently latent technologies may well enable proliferation and so challenge both nuclear and non-nuclear aspects of international security.

  5. Selection of hybrids and edible citrus species with a high content in the diosmin functional compound. Modulating effect of plant growth regulators on contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, F R; Del Río, J A

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify species, hybrids, and cultivars of edible Citrus species with high contents of diosmin as a functional compound and also to identify the developmental progress of the fruit in which it reaches maximum levels; these findings would be useful for extraction purposes and for the modulating effect of plant growth regulators on diosmin content to increase the level of this flavone. The results obtained reveal that the highest contents of diosmin are present in immature fruits of certain varieties of citron (Buda's finger) and lemon (Meyer), whereas the contents in the edible parts of the fruits are irrelevant from a pharmacological point of view. Similarly, it is shown that it is possible to increase the content of this flavone using hormonal treatments (6-benzylaminopurine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) during the early stages of fruit growth.

  6. Photoluminescence efficiency of BGaN epitaxial layers with high boron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkevičius, J.; Mickevičius, J., E-mail: juras.mickevicius@ff.vu.lt; Kadys, A.; Kolenda, M.; Tamulaitis, G.

    2016-07-01

    High-boron-content epitaxial layers of BGaN intended for lattice-matching with AlGaN in UV light emitters were grown on SiC substrate and GaN and AlN templates on sapphire. Photoluminescence (PL) of these layers was studied under quasi-steady-state conditions by varying temperature and excitation intensity. The PL spectra in the samples with different boron content and their dynamics evidence formation of boron-rich regions occupying a small fraction of the total layer volume and acting as the emission killers. The room-temperature PL efficiency of the BGaN epilayers was estimated and shown to drastically decrease at increasing boron content with no significant correlation with either the type of substrate/template or technological conditions of the layer deposition.

  7. Determination of Ge content in high concentration Ge-doped Czochralski Si single crystals by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhongwei; ZHANG Weilian; NIU Xinhuan

    2005-01-01

    SiGe single crystals with different Ge concentrations were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) and 10 K. A new peak appears at the wave number of 710 cm-1 and the spectroscopy becomes clearer with an increase in Ge content. The absorption strength and wave sharp of the 710 cm-1 peak are independent of temperature. The relation of the absorption coefficient amax, the band width of half maximum (BWHM) W1/2 of the 710 cm-1 peak, and the Ge concentration is determined with the Ge content obtained by SEM-EDX. The conversion factor is k = 1.211 at 10 K. Therefore, the Ge content in high concentration Ge doped CZ-Si single crystals can be determined by FTIR.

  8. Structure and Content Analysis for Vocational High School Website in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagja, H.; Abdullah, A. G.; Trisno, B.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.

    2017-03-01

    Statistics about the condition of the school’s website in Indonesia is still difficult. This study aims to determine website quality in terms of completeness of content’s criteria of Vocational High School (VHS) in West Java, Indonesia. The method used is the content analysis and survey. Content analysis is reviewing the documents comprising the general category, while the survey is a observation process to get the facts from 272 school websites. Aspects of the structure and content of school website are including institutional information, educators and education personnel, curriculum, student, infrastructure, school achievement, and public access. The results of this study showed the average quality of the VHS website in West Java is still low. The recommendations are needed to improve the quality of the school website.

  9. Deposition of High Conductivity Low Silver Content Materials by Screen Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eifion Jewell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive experimental investigation has been carried out into the role of film thickness variation and silver material formulation on printing capability in the screen printing process. A full factorial experiment was carried out where two formulations of silver materials were printed through a range of screens to a polyester substrate under a set of standard conditions. The materials represented a novel low silver content (45%–49% polymer material and traditional high silver content (65%–69% paste. The resultant prints were characterised topologically and electrically. The study shows that more cost effective use of the silver in the ink was obtained with the low silver polymer materials, but that the electrical performance was more strongly affected by the mesh being used (and hence film thickness. Thus, while optimum silver use could be obtained using materials with a lower silver content, this came with the consequence of reduced process robustness.

  10. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  11. Reduction of phorbol ester content in jatropha cake using high energy gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runumi Gogoi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to remove phorbol ester present in jatropha cake by exposing it to gamma radiation. A sensitizer was also used to accelerate the degradation of phorbol esters. The phorbol ester content in the cake was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. It was observed that gamma irradiation of the jatropha seed cake was effective in reducing the phorbol ester content. Originally, the phorbol ester content in the cake was found as 0.29 mg/g, which on exposure to radiation was reduced by 33.4% and 96% with radiation dose of 30 and 125 kGy respectively. The presence of a sensitizer was found to enhances the susceptibility of phorbol esters degradation by oxidative degradation on exposure to ionizing radiation.

  12. Analysis of SSLP and Soluble Protein Contents in Leaves of Mutants Induced by High Pressure in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEXiu-ying; XuShi-ping; LIAoYao-ping; MAOXing-xue; WENGKe-nan; CHENZhao-ming; CHENYue-han; XIAOWan-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Rice variety Yuexiangzhan and its mutants induced by high pressure were studied using microsatellite markers and soluble protein content analyses. Eleven of the 88 microsatellite primer pairs showed evident polymorphisms repeatedly, and the polymorphic frequencies wcrc 3.4-11.3% between the mutants and Yuexiangzhan. The polymorphic markers were randomly located on chromosomes. The more similar the plant types of the mutants like their original variety., the less polymorphic loci were detected. In addition, there was variation in the soluble protein contents among the leaves of mutants, and the contents were significantly lower than those of the original variety.

  13. S-RHT FIXED-BED HYDROTREATING TECHNOLOGY FOR RESIDUE WITH HIGH SULFUR CONTENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To meet the demands of processing residue with high sulfur content, Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals (FRIPP) successfully developed the fixed-bed residue hydrotreating technology (S-RHT), which is suitable for treating high sulfur residue to produce diesel oil with low sulfur content. the hydrotreated 350 ℃+ residue is also a good feedstock for RFCC. Based on this technology, Maoming Petrochemical Company constructed the hydrotreating unit with a capacity of 2 Mt/a to treat high sulfur residue, in which loaded FZC series catalysts were developed by FRIPP. The unit was first put into commercial operation at the end of 1999. The commercial operation showed that the catalysts have good activities and the products meet the designed specifications.

  14. Nonparametric Independence Screening in Sparse Ultra-High Dimensional Additive Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Feng, Yang; Song, Rui

    2011-06-01

    A variable screening procedure via correlation learning was proposed in Fan and Lv (2008) to reduce dimensionality in sparse ultra-high dimensional models. Even when the true model is linear, the marginal regression can be highly nonlinear. To address this issue, we further extend the correlation learning to marginal nonparametric learning. Our nonparametric independence screening is called NIS, a specific member of the sure independence screening. Several closely related variable screening procedures are proposed. Under general nonparametric models, it is shown that under some mild technical conditions, the proposed independence screening methods enjoy a sure screening property. The extent to which the dimensionality can be reduced by independence screening is also explicitly quantified. As a methodological extension, a data-driven thresholding and an iterative nonparametric independence screening (INIS) are also proposed to enhance the finite sample performance for fitting sparse additive models. The simulation results and a real data analysis demonstrate that the proposed procedure works well with moderate sample size and large dimension and performs better than competing methods.

  15. Effects of Zn additions to highly magnetoelastic FeGa alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lograsso, Thomas A., E-mail: lograsso@ameslab.gov [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Jones, Nicholas J.; Wun-Fogle, Marilyn; Restorff, James B. [Metallurgy and Fasteners Branch, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, Maryland 20817 (United States); Schlagel, Deborah L. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Petculescu, Gabriela [University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Louisiana 70504 (United States); Clark, Arthur E. [Clark Associates, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Hathaway, Kristl B. [Spectrum Technology Group, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Fe{sub 1−x}M{sub x} (M = Ga, Ge, Si, Al, Mo and x ∼ 0.18) alloys offer an extraordinary combination of magnetoelasticity and mechanical properties. They are rare-earth-free, can be processed using conventional deformation techniques, have high magnetic permeability, low hysteresis, and low magnetic saturation fields, making them attractive for device applications such as actuators and energy harvesters. Starting with Fe-Ga as a reference and using a rigid-band-filling argument, Zhang et al. predicted that lowering the Fermi level by reducing the total number of electrons could enhance magnetoelasticity. To provide a direct experimental validation for Zhang's hypothesis, elemental additions with lower-than-Ga valence are needed. Of the possible candidates, only Be and Zn have sufficient solubility. Single crystals of bcc Fe-Ga-Zn have been grown with up to 4.6 at. % Zn in a Bridgman furnace under elevated pressure (15 bars) in order to overcome the high vapor pressure of Zn and obtain homogeneous crystals. Single-crystal measurements of magnetostriction and elastic constants allow for the direct comparison of the magnetoelastic coupling constants of Fe-Ga-Zn with those of other magnetoelastic alloys in its class. The partial substitution of Ga with Zn yields values for the magnetoelastic coupling factor, −b{sub 1}, comparable to those of the binary Fe-Ga alloy.

  16. Effects of Zn additions to highly magnetoelastic FeGa alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lograsso, Thomas A.; Jones, Nicholas J.; Schlagel, Deborah L.; Petculescu, Gabriela; Wun-Fogle, Marilyn; Restorff, James B.; Clark, Arthur E.; Hathaway, Kristl B.

    2015-05-01

    Fe1-xMx (M = Ga, Ge, Si, Al, Mo and x ˜ 0.18) alloys offer an extraordinary combination of magnetoelasticity and mechanical properties. They are rare-earth-free, can be processed using conventional deformation techniques, have high magnetic permeability, low hysteresis, and low magnetic saturation fields, making them attractive for device applications such as actuators and energy harvesters. Starting with Fe-Ga as a reference and using a rigid-band-filling argument, Zhang et al. predicted that lowering the Fermi level by reducing the total number of electrons could enhance magnetoelasticity. To provide a direct experimental validation for Zhang's hypothesis, elemental additions with lower-than-Ga valence are needed. Of the possible candidates, only Be and Zn have sufficient solubility. Single crystals of bcc Fe-Ga-Zn have been grown with up to 4.6 at. % Zn in a Bridgman furnace under elevated pressure (15 bars) in order to overcome the high vapor pressure of Zn and obtain homogeneous crystals. Single-crystal measurements of magnetostriction and elastic constants allow for the direct comparison of the magnetoelastic coupling constants of Fe-Ga-Zn with those of other magnetoelastic alloys in its class. The partial substitution of Ga with Zn yields values for the magnetoelastic coupling factor, -b1, comparable to those of the binary Fe-Ga alloy.

  17. Lignin valorization: lignin nanoparticles as high-value bio-additive for multifunctional nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dong; Hu, Jinguang; Bao, Jie; Chandra, Richard P; Saddler, Jack N; Lu, Canhui

    2017-01-01

    Although conversion of low value but high-volume lignin by-product to its usable form is one of the determinant factors for building an economically feasible integrated lignocellulose biorefinery, it has been challenged by its structural complexity and inhomogeneity. We and others have shown that uniform lignin nanoparticles can be produced from a wide range of technical lignins, despite the varied lignocellulosic biomass and the pretreatment methods/conditions applied. This value-added nanostructure lignin enriched with multifunctional groups can be a promising versatile material platform for various downstream utilizations especially in the emerging nanocomposite fields. Inspired by the story of successful production and application of nanocellulose biopolymer, two types of uniform lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) were prepared through self-assembling of deep eutectic solvent (DES) and ethanol-organosolv extracted technical lignins derived from a two-stage fractionation pretreatment approach, respectively. Both LPNs exhibited sphere morphology with unique core-shell nanostructure, where the DES-LNPs showed a more uniform particle size distribution. When incorporated into the traditional polymeric matrix such as poly(vinyl alcohol), these LPN products displayed great potential to formulate a transparent nanocomposite film with additional UV-shielding efficacy (reached ~80% at 400 nm with 4 wt% of LNPs) and antioxidant functionalities (reached ~160 μm mol Trolox g(-1) with 4 wt% of LNPs). At the same time, the abundant phenolic hydroxyl groups on the shell of LNPs also provided good interfacial adhesion with PVA matrix through the formation of hydrogen bonding network, which further improved the mechanical and thermal performances of the fabricated LNPs/PVA nanocomposite films. Both LNPs are excellent candidates for producing multifunctional polymer nanocomposites using facile technical route. The prepared transparent and flexible LNPs/PVA composite films with

  18. A Neuronal and Astrocyte Co-Culture Assay for High Content Analysis of Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, Janet L; Redpath, Stella; Ball, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    High Content Analysis (HCA) assays combine cells and detection reagents with automated imaging and powerful image analysis algorithms, allowing measurement of multiple cellular phenotypes within a single assay. In this study, we utilized HCA to develop a novel assay for neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity assessment represents an important part of drug safety evaluation, as well as being a significant focus of environmental protection efforts. Additionally, neurotoxicity is also a well-accepted in vitro marker of the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Recently, the application of HCA to neuronal screening has been reported. By labeling neuronal cells with βIII-tubulin, HCA assays can provide high-throughput, non-subjective, quantitative measurements of parameters such as neuronal number, neurite count and neurite length, all of which can indicate neurotoxic effects. However, the role of astrocytes remains unexplored in these models. Astrocytes have an integral role in the maintenance of central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis, and are associated with both neuroprotection and neurodegradation when they are activated in response to toxic substances or disease states. GFAP is an intermediate filament protein expressed predominantly in the astrocytes of the CNS. Astrocytic activation (gliosis) leads to the upregulation of GFAP, commonly accompanied by astrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. This process of reactive gliosis has been proposed as an early marker of damage to the nervous system. The traditional method for GFAP quantitation is by immunoassay. This approach is limited by an inability to provide information on cellular localization, morphology and cell number. We determined that HCA could be used to overcome these limitations and to simultaneously measure multiple features associated with gliosis - changes in GFAP expression, astrocyte hypertrophy, and astrocyte proliferation - within a single assay. In co

  19. A neuronal and astrocyte co-culture assay for high content analysis of neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, Janet L; Redpath, Stella; Ball, Andrew J

    2009-05-05

    High Content Analysis (HCA) assays combine cells and detection reagents with automated imaging and powerful image analysis algorithms, allowing measurement of multiple cellular phenotypes within a single assay. In this study, we utilized HCA to develop a novel assay for neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity assessment represents an important part of drug safety evaluation, as well as being a significant focus of environmental protection efforts. Additionally, neurotoxicity is also a well-accepted in vitro marker of the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Recently, the application of HCA to neuronal screening has been reported. By labeling neuronal cells with betaIII-tubulin, HCA assays can provide high-throughput, non-subjective, quantitative measurements of parameters such as neuronal number, neurite count and neurite length, all of which can indicate neurotoxic effects. However, the role of astrocytes remains unexplored in these models. Astrocytes have an integral role in the maintenance of central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis, and are associated with both neuroprotection and neurodegradation when they are activated in response to toxic substances or disease states. GFAP is an intermediate filament protein expressed predominantly in the astrocytes of the CNS. Astrocytic activation (gliosis) leads to the upregulation of GFAP, commonly accompanied by astrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. This process of reactive gliosis has been proposed as an early marker of damage to the nervous system. The traditional method for GFAP quantitation is by immunoassay. This approach is limited by an inability to provide information on cellular localization, morphology and cell number. We determined that HCA could be used to overcome these limitations and to simultaneously measure multiple features associated with gliosis - changes in GFAP expression, astrocyte hypertrophy, and astrocyte proliferation - within a single assay. In co

  20. Development of magnetodielectric materials to be used in additive manufacturing processes for high-frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Paul Emerson, II

    Electrical devices for very-high frequency (VHF, 0.03 -- 0.3 GHz) and ultra-high frequency (UHF, 0.3 -- 3.0 GHz) are commonly used for communications. However, the wavelengths, lambda, of these frequency bands correspond to lengths between 10 and 0.1 m, resulting in prohibitively large devices. Materials with an index of refraction, n, greater than 1 can be used to effectively shrink these devices by a factor of 1/ n. In this thesis, magnetodielectric materials (MDM), where n ≥1, have been made to be used in additive manufacturing processes with strict particle size requirements and were developed using various methods, such as polyol reduction and conventional ceramic solid state processing. These materials were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), to determine their crystalline, physical, and direct current (DC) magnetization properties. The techniques used to synthesize the MDM yielded particles that were chemically similar, but had drastically different physical properties which heavily influences their high-frequency electromagnetic properties. These materials were then uniformly dispersed into a non-conducting medium, such as a low-electrical loss polymer or resin, and formed into composite samples with variable volumetric loading. These composite samples were measured using several techniques to characterize the frequency-dependent electromagnetic (EM) properties, such as relative permeability, relative permittivity, and their respective losses. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were performed using these MDM-composites to design a spiral antenna to be used at approximately 585 MHz.

  1. Effect of religious context on the content of visual hallucinations in individuals high in religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Clarke, Natasha

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated the interaction between the current environment and personality factors associated with religiosity in determining the content of false perceptions (used as a model for hallucinations). A primed word-detection task was used to investigate the effect of a 'religious' context on false perceptions in individuals scoring highly on religiosity. After a subliminal prime, participants viewed letter strings, and stated any words that they saw. The prime and the actual words could have a religious connotation or not. Participants measuring high on religiosity were more likely to report false perceptions of a religious type than participants low on religiosity. It is suggested that context affects the content of false perceptions through the activation of stored beliefs and values, which vary between individuals, offering a mechanism for the effect of context on idiosyncratic content of hallucinations in schizophrenia. The effect of context and individual differences on false-perception content in the current study provides possibilities for future work regarding the underlying nature of hallucinations and their treatment.

  2. Effect of droplet heat content distribution on humping formation in high speed GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji CHEN; Chuansong WU

    2011-01-01

    The momentum of strong backward flowing melt jet and the thermal action from transferred droplets are two dominating factors affecting the formation of humping bead in high speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW).Appropriate describing the influence of the distribution mode of droplet heat content in the weld pool is essential to understand the physical mechanism of humping bead formation.Based on the experimental results,four kinds of droplet heat content distribution modes are proposed and employed to calculate the transient evolution of the temperature field and weld pool during high speed GMAW process.Through making comparison of predicted and measured weld bead dimensions,a suitable and adaptive distribution mode of droplet heat content is found,i.e.,droplet heat content is distributed in bottom layer of gouging region at the front of weld pool,and is averagely distributed in the whole layer at the rear of weld pool.The proposed mode is also validated by experimental observation of the weld pool images and measured by geometric dimensions of the weld bead.

  3. Influence of Ta Content in High Purity Niobium on Cavity Performance Preliminary Results*

    CERN Document Server

    Kneisel, P

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper* a program designed to study the influence of the residual tantalum content on the superconducting properties of pure niobium metal for RF cavities was outlined. The main rationale for this program was based on a potential cost reduction for high purity niobium, if a less strict limit on the chemical specification for Ta content, which is not significantly affecting the RRR–value, could be tolerated for high performance cavities. Four ingots with different Ta contents have been melted and transformed into sheets. In each manufacturing step the quality of the material has been monitored by employing chemical analysis, neutron activation analysis, thermal conductivity measurements and evaluation of the mechanical properties. The niobium sheets have been scanned for defects by an eddy current device. From three of the four ingots—Ta contents 100, 600 and 1,200 wppm—two single cell cavities each of the CEBAF variety have been fabricated and a series of tests on each ...

  4. A Categorical Content Analysis of Highly Cited Literature Related to Trends and Issues in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Sarah V; Pentimonti, Jill M; Cooray, Rochana; Jackson, Stephanie

    2017-07-01

    This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cross-categorical journal recognized for its impact in the field. Results indicated trends in the article type (i.e., commentary and position papers), content (i.e., reading and behavior), and methodology (i.e., small proportions of experimental and quasi-experimental designs). Results also revealed stability in the proportion of intervention research studies when compared to previous analyses and a decline in the proportion of those that disaggregated data specifically for students with LD.

  5. High-content, high-throughput analysis of cell cycle perturbations induced by the HSP90 inhibitor XL888.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K Lyman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many proteins that are dysregulated or mutated in cancer cells rely on the molecular chaperone HSP90 for their proper folding and activity, which has led to considerable interest in HSP90 as a cancer drug target. The diverse array of HSP90 client proteins encompasses oncogenic drivers, cell cycle components, and a variety of regulatory factors, so inhibition of HSP90 perturbs multiple cellular processes, including mitogenic signaling and cell cycle control. Although many reports have investigated HSP90 inhibition in the context of the cell cycle, no large-scale studies have examined potential correlations between cell genotype and the cell cycle phenotypes of HSP90 inhibition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this question, we developed a novel high-content, high-throughput cell cycle assay and profiled the effects of two distinct small molecule HSP90 inhibitors (XL888 and 17-AAG [17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin] in a large, genetically diverse panel of cancer cell lines. The cell cycle phenotypes of both inhibitors were strikingly similar and fell into three classes: accumulation in M-phase, G2-phase, or G1-phase. Accumulation in M-phase was the most prominent phenotype and notably, was also correlated with TP53 mutant status. We additionally observed unexpected complexity in the response of the cell cycle-associated client PLK1 to HSP90 inhibition, and we suggest that inhibitor-induced PLK1 depletion may contribute to the striking metaphase arrest phenotype seen in many of the M-arrested cell lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis of the cell cycle phenotypes induced by HSP90 inhibition in 25 cancer cell lines revealed that the phenotypic response was highly dependent on cellular genotype as well as on the concentration of HSP90 inhibitor and the time of treatment. M-phase arrest correlated with the presence of TP53 mutations, while G2 or G1 arrest was more commonly seen in cells bearing wt TP53. We draw

  6. Optimizing Cationic and Neutral Lipids for Efficient Gene Delivery at High Serum Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Hwu, Yeu-kuang; Liang, Keng S.; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential applications in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for applications is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of high serum contents on TE even though this may provide design guidelines for applications in vivo. Methods We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid (DOPC, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol), the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). Results In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, in particular at high serum content. Conclusions Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We suggest guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. PMID:24753287

  7. Active Learning Strategies for Phenotypic Profiling of High-Content Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin; Horvath, Peter

    2014-06-01

    High-content screening is a powerful method to discover new drugs and carry out basic biological research. Increasingly, high-content screens have come to rely on supervised machine learning (SML) to perform automatic phenotypic classification as an essential step of the analysis. However, this comes at a cost, namely, the labeled examples required to train the predictive model. Classification performance increases with the number of labeled examples, and because labeling examples demands time from an expert, the training process represents a significant time investment. Active learning strategies attempt to overcome this bottleneck by presenting the most relevant examples to the annotator, thereby achieving high accuracy while minimizing the cost of obtaining labeled data. In this article, we investigate the impact of active learning on single-cell-based phenotype recognition, using data from three large-scale RNA interference high-content screens representing diverse phenotypic profiling problems. We consider several combinations of active learning strategies and popular SML methods. Our results show that active learning significantly reduces the time cost and can be used to reveal the same phenotypic targets identified using SML. We also identify combinations of active learning strategies and SML methods which perform better than others on the phenotypic profiling problems we studied.

  8. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Spinels in Vanadium Slag with High CaO Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wang; Xie, Bing; Tan, Wen-Feng; Diao, Jiang; Zhang, Xie; Li, Hong-Yi

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigated the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the spinel crystals in vanadium slags containing high CaO content. Experiments were performed in combination with theoretical calculation to address this issue, and statistical analyses based on the Crystal Size Distribution theory. The results indicate that low cooling rate and high CaO content benefit the growth of spinel crystals. The growth mechanism is revealed to be controlled by interface reactions and diffusion at the cooling rates of 5 K/min and 15 K/min, respectively. However, at higher temperatures (>1673 K), the growth of spinel crystals is controlled by nucleation. While the temperature is decreased to 1523 K at the cooling rate of 5 K/min, the mean diameter of spinel crystals could reach 36.44 μm. Experimental results combining with theoretical reveal that low cooling rate benefits spinels growth, especially for the interval of 1523 K-1200 K.

  10. Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamon Pintana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min−1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14% and high (42% CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal.

  11. Aquatic heterotrophic bacteria have highly flexible phosphorus content and biomass stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Casey M; Cotner, James B

    2015-10-01

    Bacteria are central to the cycling of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in every ecosystem, yet our understanding of how tightly these cycles are coupled to bacterial biomass composition is based upon data from only a few species. Bacteria are commonly assumed to have high P content, low biomass C:P and N:P ratios, and inflexible stoichiometry. Here, we show that bacterial assemblages from lakes exhibit unprecedented flexibility in their P content (3% to less than 0.01% of dry mass) and stoichiometry (C:N:P of 28: 7: 1 to more than 8500: 1200: 1). The flexibility in C:P and N:P stoichiometry was greater than any species or assemblage, including terrestrial and aquatic autotrophs, and suggests a highly dynamic role for bacteria in coupling multiple element cycles.

  12. Effect of spinel content on the properties of phosphoric acid bonded high alumina castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zichun Yang; Hongwei Duan; Lin Li; Shuqin Li; Wen Ni

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the effect of fused spinel on the properties of phosphoric acid bonded high alumina castables, samples with different contents of fused spinel were prepared. The results show that when the contents of the fused spinel are between 8% and 16% (mass fraction), the castables have good properties. The castables overcome the shortages of the phosphoric acid bonded high alumina castables with bauxite cement as a hardening promoter. The experiments demonstrate that most of the service properties of the castables with fused spinel are better than those of the normal phosphoric acid bonded castables which use bauxite cement as a hardening promoter. The examination of the materials indicates that free MgO inclusions in the spinel powder can promote the hardening of the castables.

  13. Additions and improvements to the high energy density physics capabilities in the FLASH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2016-10-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation magnetohydrodynamics code that has the capabilities to treat a broad range of physical processes. FLASH performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive high energy density physics (HEDP) capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic HEDP community. We summarize these capabilities, emphasizing recent additions and improvements. In particular, we showcase the ability of FLASH to simulate the Faraday Rotation Measure produced by the presence of magnetic fields; and proton radiography, proton self-emission, and Thomson scattering diagnostics with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We also describe several collaborations with the academic HEDP community in which FLASH simulations were used to design and interpret HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under Grant PHY-0903997.

  14. A functional sulfonic additive for high efficiency and low hysteresis perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Luo, Junsheng; Malik, Haseeb Ashraf; Zhao, Bowen; Wan, Zhongquan; Jia, Chunyang

    2017-08-01

    Grain size of MAPbI3 and thickness of mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) film are found to influence current-voltage (J-V) hysteresis, where the J-V hysteresis is alleviated as grain size increases and thickness of mp-TiO2 varies. In this work, a low-cost and high-efficiency additive 4-methylbenzenesulfonic acid (4-MSA) is introduced into perovskite precursor solution to improve the performances of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and reduce the device hysteresis. By adjusting 4-MSA concentration, the fabricated PSC shows the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.58% (Jsc = 23.15 mA cm-2, Voc = 1.04 V and FF = 0.73) and a hysteresis index (HI) of 0.048 with a fixed device area of 0.15 cm2 under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2). The significantly improved device performances maybe due to the fact that the carriers more easily be collected for larger grain sizes and fewer grain boundaries by doping 4-MSA into perovskite precursor solution. Furthermore, the sulfonic group is chemically bonded to mp-TiO2 and phenyl backbone has π-conjugated structure, which benefits electron transfer.

  15. Continuous Digital Light Processing (cDLP): Highly Accurate Additive Manufacturing of Tissue Engineered Bone Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David; Jonathan, Wallace; Siblani, Ali; Wang, Martha O; Kim, Kyobum; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2012-03-01

    Highly accurate rendering of the external and internal geometry of bone tissue engineering scaffolds effects fit at the defect site, loading of internal pore spaces with cells, bioreactor-delivered nutrient and growth factor circulation, and scaffold resorption. It may be necessary to render resorbable polymer scaffolds with 50 μm or less accuracy to achieve these goals. This level of accuracy is available using Continuous Digital Light processing (cDLP) which utilizes a DLP(®) (Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX) chip. One such additive manufacturing device is the envisionTEC (Ferndale, MI) Perfactory(®). To use cDLP we integrate a photo-crosslinkable polymer, a photo-initiator, and a biocompatible dye. The dye attenuates light, thereby limiting the depth of polymerization. In this study we fabricated scaffolds using the well-studied resorbable polymer, poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) as a dye, Irgacure(®) 819 (BASF [Ciba], Florham Park, NJ) as an initiator, and diethyl fumarate as a solvent to control viscosity.

  16. High-Content Microscopy Analysis of Subcellular Structures: Assay Development and Application to Focal Adhesion Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Torsten; Schmidt, David; Schwanitz, Georg; Ahmad, Mubashir; Hamann, Jana; Schlosser, Corinne; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Böhm, Konrad J; Tuckermann, Jan; Ploubidou, Aspasia

    2016-07-01

    High-content analysis (HCA) converts raw light microscopy images to quantitative data through the automated extraction, multiparametric analysis, and classification of the relevant information content. Combined with automated high-throughput image acquisition, HCA applied to the screening of chemicals or RNAi-reagents is termed high-content screening (HCS). Its power in quantifying cell phenotypes makes HCA applicable also to routine microscopy. However, developing effective HCA and bioinformatic analysis pipelines for acquisition of biologically meaningful data in HCS is challenging. Here, the step-by-step development of an HCA assay protocol and an HCS bioinformatics analysis pipeline are described. The protocol's power is demonstrated by application to focal adhesion (FA) detection, quantitative analysis of multiple FA features, and functional annotation of signaling pathways regulating FA size, using primary data of a published RNAi screen. The assay and the underlying strategy are aimed at researchers performing microscopy-based quantitative analysis of subcellular features, on a small scale or in large HCS experiments. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  18. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Gu, Qinfen; Hemar, Yacine; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  19. Functional genomic and high-content screening for target discovery and deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Pache, Lars; Chanda, Sumit K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Functional genomic screens apply knowledge gained from the sequencing of the human genome toward rapid methods of identifying genes involved in cellular function based on a specific phenotype. This approach has been made possible through the use of advances in both molecular biology and automation. The utility of this approach has been further enhanced through the application of image-based high content screening, an automated microscopy and quantitative image analysis platform. These approaches can significantly enhance acquisition of novel targets for drug discovery. Areas covered Both the utility and potential issues associated with functional genomic screening approaches are discussed along with examples that illustrate both. The considerations for high content screening applied to functional genomics are also presented. Expert opinion Functional genomic and high content screening are extremely useful in the identification of new drug targets. However, the technical, experimental, and computational parameters have an enormous influence on the results. Thus, although new targets are identified, caution should be applied toward interpretation of screening data in isolation. Genomic screens should be viewed as an integral component of a target identification campaign that requires both the acquisition of orthogonal data, as well as a rigorous validation strategy. PMID:22860749

  20. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*. The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  1. New formulations of sunflower based bio-lubricants with high oleic acid content – VOSOLUB project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leao J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available VOSOLUB project is a demonstration project supported by Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME that aims at testing under real operating conditions new formulations of sunflower-based biolubricants with high oleic acid content. These biolubricant formulations (including hydraulic fluids, greases, and neat oil metal-working fluids will be tested in three European demonstrating sites. Their technical performance will be evaluated and compared to corresponding mineral lubricants ones. In order to cover the demand for the sunflower base oil, a European SMEs network will be established to ensure the supply of the base at a competitive market price. Results presented concerns the base oil quality confirmed to be in accordance with the specification required, in particular on Free Fatty acid content, Phosphorus content, rancimat induction time and oleic acid content (ITERG. The oil characteristics specific for lubricant application analyzed by BfB Oil Research under normalized methods, match with lubricant specifications requirement such as viscosity, cold & hot properties, surface properties, anti-oxidant properties and thermal stability, anti-wear and EP properties, anti-corrosion properties Performance of the new biolubricant have been assessed by formulators and TEKNIKER First results on the use of new lubricant on real condition for rail Grease (produced by RS CLARE and tested with Sheffield Supertram, Hydraulic oil (produced by BRUGAROLAS and cutting oil (produced by MOTUL TECH and tested with innovative machining, turning are described.

  2. Analysis of the origins of content non-uniformity in high-shear wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Sarang; Smrčka, David; Kataria, Anjali; Emady, Heather; Muzzio, Fernando; Štěpánek, František; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2017-08-07

    In this study, the origins of granule content non-uniformity in the high-shear wet granulation of a model two-component pharmaceutical blend were investigated. Using acetaminophen as the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and microcrystalline cellulose as the excipient, the distribution of the API across the granule size classes was measured for a range of conditions that differed in the duration of the initial dry mixing stage, the overall composition of the blend and the wet massing time. The coarse granule fractions were found to be systematically sub-potent, while the fines were enriched in the API. The extent of content non-uniformity was found to be dependent on two factors - powder segregation during dry mixing and redistribution of the API between the granule size fractions during the wet massing phase. The latter was demonstrated in an experiment where the excipient was pre-granulated, the API was added later and wet massed. The content non-uniformity in this case was comparable to that obtained when both components were present in the granulator from the beginning. With increasing wet massing time, the extent of content non-uniformity decreased, indicating that longer wet massing times might be a solution for systems with a natural tendency for component segregation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of Citrosept addition to drinking water and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract on the content of selected mineral elements in the blood plasma of turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Lechowski, Jerzy; Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Zawiślak, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research work was to indicate the influence of Citrosept preparation and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, administered per os to growing turkey hens in 3 different dosages, on the content of selected mineral elements in blood plasma of slaughter turkey hens. An attempt was also made to specify the most effective dosage of the applied preparations with the highest efficiency as regards increased levels of examined macro- and microelements in the birds' blood. The research experiment was conducted on 315 turkey hens randomly divided into seven groups, each consisting of 45 turkey hens. Group K constituted the control group without experimental additions of the above-mentioned preparations. When it comes to turkey hens which belonged to groups II-IV, Citrosept preparation was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group II - 0.011 ml/kg of bm; Group III - 0.021 ml/kg of bm; Group IV - 0.042 ml/kg bm. For birds which belonged to groups V-VII preparation, which was Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group V - 0.009 ml/kg of bm; Group VI - 0.018 ml/kg of bm, Group VII - 0.036 ml/kg bm. In the examined plant extracts and blood plasma of the birds the levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, and Fe were identified. The use of examined extracts influenced the changes in the levels of all tested elements in slaughter turkey hens' blood plasma. An upward tendency was recorded which regarded the level of calcium and magnesium, and a downward tendency of sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in relation to the results achieved in the control group.

  4. Conductive additive content balance in Li-ion battery cathodes: Commercial carbon blacks vs. in situ carbon from LiFePO{sub 4}/C composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares, Veronica; Goni, Aintzane; Muro, Izaskun Gil de; Rojo, Teofilo [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, P.O. Box. 644, 48080, Bilbao (Spain); de Meatza, Iratxe; Bengoechea, Miguel [Energy Department, CIDETEC-IK4, P Miramon 196, Parque Tecnologico de San Sebastian, 20009, San Sebastian (Spain); Cantero, Igor [Departamento I+D+i Nuevas Tecnologias, CEGASA, Artapadura, 11, 01013 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Two samples of commercial conducting carbon black and the carbon generated in situ during LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite synthesis from citric acid are studied, with the aim of finding out whether carbon from the composite can fulfil the same function as carbon black in the electrode blend for a Li-ion battery. For this purpose, the carbon samples are analyzed by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, granulometry, BET specific area and conductivity measurements. Different cathode compositions and component proportions are tested for pellet and cast electrodes. Electrochemical results show that a moderate reduction of commercial carbon black content in both kinds of cathodes, by adding more LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite, enhanced the electrochemical behaviour by around 10%. In situ generated carbon can partially replace commercial conducting carbon black because its high specific surface probably enhances electrolyte penetration into the cathode, but it is always necessary to maintain a minimum amount of carbon black that provides better conductivity in order to obtain a good electrochemical response. (author)

  5. Multiple High-Fidelity Modeling Tools for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Despite the rapid commercialization of additive manufacturing technology such as selective laser melting, SLM, there are gaps in process modeling and material...

  6. Zero added oxygen for high quality sputtered ITO: A data science investigation of reduced Sn-content and added Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peshek, Timothy J. [The School for the Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 and The National Center for Photovoltaics, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Burst, James M.; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A., E-mail: tjp3@case.edu [The National Center for Photovoltaics, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The authors demonstrate mobilities of >45 cm{sup 2}/V s for sputtered tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films at zero added oxygen. All films were deposited with 5 wt. % SnO{sub 2}, instead of the more conventional 8–10 wt. %, and had varying ZrO{sub 2} content from 0 to 3 wt. %, with a subsequent reduction in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. These films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from nominally stoichiometric targets with varying oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient. Anomalous behavior was discovered for films with no Zr-added, where a bimodality of high and low mobilities was discovered for nominally similar growth conditions. However, all films showed the lowest resistivity and highest mobilities when the oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient was zero. This result is contrasted with several other reports of ITO transport performance having a maximum for small but nonzero oxygen partial pressure. This result is attributed to the reduced concentration of SnO{sub 2}. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} yielded the highest mobilities at >55 cm{sup 2}/V s and the films showed a modest increase in optical transmission with increasing Zr-content.

  7. Carbon flux from plants to soil microbes is highly sensitive to nitrogen addition and biochar amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, C.; Solaiman, Z. M.; Kilburn, M. R.; Clode, P. L.; Fuchslueger, L.; Koranda, M.; Murphy, D. V.

    2012-04-01

    material, microbial biomass and dissolved organic matter by IRMS, 13C and 15N in plant roots cells and intraradical mycorrhizal hyphae by NanoSims). Our results show that (1) C assimilated by plants was delivered within 4 hours to the soil microbial community both via roots and the mycorrhizal network (2) N addition during the labeling period strongly and rapidly increased the 13C flux of recently assimilated carbohydrates to the soil microbial biomass (3) the effect of N addition was not as rapid but was of the same magnitude when N was delivered to the plant exclusively by mycorrhizal hyphae as compared to taken up by roots (4) soils which had been amended with biochar (which were characterized by an increased abundance of mycorrhizal fungi) also showed a significant increase of C flux from plants to the soil. We conclude that plant belowground C allocation is highly sensitive to alterations of microbial community structure and nutritional status in the soil. Moreover, our results indicate that plants respond rapidly (within hours) to changing soil N availability by altering the rate of C transported belowground. Our results emphasise the ecological significance of plant-belowground interactions for ecosystem C cycling.

  8. Predicting In Vivo Anti-Hepatofibrotic Drug Efficacy Based on In Vitro High-Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many anti-fibrotic drugs with high in vitro efficacies fail to produce significant effects in vivo. The aim of this work is to use a statistical approach to design a numerical predictor that correlates better with in vivo outcomes. METHODS: High-content analysis (HCA) was performed with 49 drugs on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) LX-2 stained with 10 fibrotic markers. ~0.3 billion feature values from all cells in >150,000 images were quantified to reflect the drug effects. A sy...

  9. High-throughput analysis of total nitrogen content that replaces the classic Kjeldahl method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, T; Nokihara, K

    2001-10-01

    A high-throughput method for determination of total nitrogen content has been developed. The method involves decomposition of samples, followed by trapping and quantitative colorimetric determination of the resulting ammonia. The present method is rapid, facile, and economical. Thus, it can replace the classic Kjeldahl method through its higher efficiency for determining multiple samples. Compared to the classic method, the present method is economical and environmentally friendly. Based on the present method, a novel reactor was constructed to realize routine high-throughput analyses of multiple samples such as those found for pharmaceutical materials, foods, and/or excrements.

  10. Improving efficiency and color purity of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) through addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junfei; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Sen; Ying, Lei; Liu, Feng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the β-phase of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) was used as a probe to study the effects of the addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene on the nanostructures and electroluminescence of PFO films. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra showed that the content of the β-phase in PFO film was obviously enhanced as a result of the addition of a small amount of 1-chloronaphthalene into the processing solvent of p-xylenes. Apparently rougher morphology associated with the effectively enhanced ordering of polymer chains across the entire film was observed for films processed from p-xylene solutions consisting of a certain amount of 1-chloronaphthalene, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. In addition to the effects on the nanostructures of films, of particular interest is that the performance and color purity of polymer light-emitting devices can be noticeably enhanced upon the addition of 1-chloronaphthalene. These observations highlight the importance of controlling the nanostructures of the emissive layer, and demonstrate that the addition of a low volume ratio of high boiling-point additive can be a promising strategy to attain high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes.

  11. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-08-01

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications.

  12. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-01-01

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications. PMID:27488268

  13. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-08-04

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications.

  14. Addition of phenylephrine to high-dose insulin in dihydropyridine overdose does not improve outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Kristin M; Morgan, Matthew W; Stellpflug, Samuel J; Cole, Jon B; Anderson, Christopher P; Holger, Joel S

    2010-10-01

    Vasopressors are commonly used for calcium channel blocker (CCB)-induced cardiogenic shock after calcium and high-dose insulin (HDI). Vasopressor therapy is frequently used in combination with HDI to increase blood pressure and improve outcome. However, no studies have compared the efficacy of HDI to the combination of a vasopressor and HDI in dihydropyridine overdose. We conducted a study to compare the efficacy of HDI to phenylephrine (PE) plus HDI in a porcine model of dihydropyridine toxicity. Cardiogenic shock was induced by administering a nifedipine (NP) infusion of 0.0125 mcg/kg/min until a point of toxicity, defined as a 25% decrease in the baseline product of mean arterial pressure (MAP) × cardiac output (CO). Each arm was resuscitated with 20 mL/kg of saline (NS). The nifedipine infusion continued throughout a 4-h resuscitation protocol. The HDI group was titrated up to 10 units/kg/h of insulin and the HDI/PE group was titrated up to a dose of HDI 10 units/kg/h plus PE 3.6 mcg/kg/min. No baseline differences were found among groups including time to toxicity. Survival was not different between the HDI and HDI/PE arms. When comparing the HDI to the HDI/PE arm no differences were found for cardiac index (CI) (p = 0.06), systemic vascular resistance (p = 0.34), heart rate (HR) (p = 0.95), mean arterial pressure (p = 0.99), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (p = 0.07), or base excess (p = 0.36). In this model of nifedipine-induced cardiogenic shock, the addition of PE to HDI therapy did not improve mortality, cardiac output, blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), or base excess.

  15. Numerical Simulation of High Drag Reduction in a Turbulent Channel Flow with Polymer Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubief, Yves

    2003-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of long chain polymer molecules to wall-bounded flows can lead to dramatic drag reduction. Although this phenomenon has been known for about fifty years, the action of the polymers and its effect on turbulent structures are still unclear. Detailed experiments have characterized two distinct regimes (Warholic et al. 1999), which are referred to as low drag reduction (LDR) and high drag reduction (HDR). The first regime exhibits similar statistical trends as Newtonian flow: the log-law region of the mean velocity profile remains parallel to that of the Newtonian ow but its lower bound moves away from the wall and the upward shift of the log-region is a function of drag reduction, DR. Although streamwise fluctuations are increased and transverse ones are reduced, the shape of the rms velocity profiles is not qualitatively modified. At higher drag reductions, of the order of 40-50%, the ow enters the HDR regime for which the slope of the log-law is dramatically augmented and the Reynolds shear stress is small (Warholic et al. 1999; Ptasinski et al. 2001). The drag reduction is eventually bounded by a maximum drag reduction (MDR) (Virk & Mickley 1970) which is a function of the Reynolds number. While several experiments report mean velocity profiles very close to the empirical profile of Virk & Mickley (1970) for MDR conditions, the observations regarding the structure of turbulence can differ significantly. For instance, Warholic et al. (1999) measured a near-zero Reynolds shear stress, whereas a recent experiment (Ptasinski et al. 2001) shows evidence of non-negligible Reynolds stress in their MDR flow. To the knowledge of the authors, only the LDR regime has been documented in numerical simulations (Sureshkumar et al. 1997; Dimitropoulos et al. 1998; Min et al. 2001; Dubief & Lele 2001; Sibilla & Baron 2002). This paper discusses the simulation of polymer drag reduced channel ow at HDR using the FENE-P (Finite Elastic non

  16. Electrical resistance stability of high content carbon fiber reinforced cement composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zai-fu; TANG Zu-quan; LI Zhuo-qiu; QIAN Jue-shi

    2005-01-01

    The influences of curing time, the content of free evaporable water in cement paste, environmental temperature, and alternative heating and cooling on the electrical resistance of high content carbon fiber reinforced cement (CFRC) paste are studied by experiments with specimens of Portland cement 42.5 with 10 mm PAN-based carbon fiber and methylcellulose. Experimental results indicate that the electrical resistance of CFRC increases relatively by 24% within a hydration time of 90 d and almost keeps constant after 14 d, changes hardly with the mass loss of free evaporable water in the concrete dried at 50℃C, increases relatively by 4% when ambient temperature decreases from 15℃ to-20℃, and decreases relatively by 13% with temperature increasing by 88℃. It is suggested that the electric resistance of the CFRC is stable, which is testified by the stable power output obtained by electrifying the CFRC slab with a given voltage. This implies that such kind of high content carbon fiber reinforced cement composite is potentially a desirable electrothermal material for airfield runways and road surfaces deicing.

  17. Effect of skin care with an emollient containing a high water content on mild uremic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuyoshi; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2004-10-01

    Skin care is very important for preventing uremic pruritus. However, mild uremic pruritus has usually been treated with antihistamine and urea-containing ointments. We therefore examined the effects of an aqueous gel with higher water content. Twenty hemodialysis patients with mild pruritus who were not being treated with any emollient were divided into two groups of 10 each. Patients in one group were treated with an aqueous gel containing 80% water. This emollient was applied twice daily for 2 weeks. No emollient was applied for the next 2 weeks. The other group of patients were not treated with any emollient for the 4 weeks. Visual analog scale scores for itching in the experimental group at week 2 were significantly decreased compared with that at week 0 (3.5 +/- 0.3 vs 0.6 +/- 0.2, P emollient was stopped. There were no significant changes in the control group during the study. It is concluded that the aqueous gel with high water content reduced itching and improved xerosis in patients with mild uremic pruritus. It is reasonable that skin care with an emollient containing a high water content is first started for hemodialysis patients with xerosis, even if they do not feel itching.

  18. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser cladding of high silicon content coating on low silicon steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danyang Dong; Changsheng Liu; Bin Zhang; Jun Miao

    2007-01-01

    A pulsed Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser-based technique was employed to clad low silicon steel with preplaced Si and Fe mixed powders for high Si content. The surface morphology, microstructural evolution, phase composition, and Si distribution,within the obtained cladding coatings, were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), with associated energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microhardness was also measured along the depth direction of the specimens. A crack- and pore-free cladding coating through excellent metallurgical bonding with the substrate was successfully prepared on low silicon steel by means of optimized single-track and multi-track laser cladding. The phases of the coating are α-Fe, γ-Fe, and FeSi. The high microhardness of the lasercladding zone is considered as an increase in Si content and as the refined microstructure produced by the laser treatment. The Si contents of the cladding coatings were about 5.8wt% in the single-track cladding and 6.5wt% in the multi-track cladding, respectively.

  19. High Water Contents in the Siberian Cratonic Mantle: An FTIR Study of Udachnaya Peridotite Xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Luc S.; Peslier, Anne H.; Ionov, Dimitri A.; Brandon, Alan D.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Ashchepkov, Igor V.

    2013-01-01

    Water is believed to be a key factor controlling the long-term stability of cratonic lithosphere, but mechanisms responsible for the water content distribution in the mantle remain poorly constrained. Water contents were obtained by FTIR in olivine, pyroxene and garnet for 20 well-characterized peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite (central Siberian craton) and equilibrated at 2-7 GPa. Water contents in minerals do not appear to be related to interaction with the host kimberlite. Diffusion modeling indicates that the core of olivines preserved their original water contents. The Udachnaya peridotites show a broad range of water contents in olivine (6.5 +/- 1.1 to 323 +- 65 ppm H2O (2 sigma)), and garnet (0 - 23 +/- 6 ppm H2O). The water contents of olivine and garnet are positively correlated with modal clinopyroxene, garnet and FeO in olivine. Water-rich garnets are also rich in middle rare earth elements. This is interpreted as the result of interaction between residual peridotites and water rich-melts, consistent with modal and cryptic metasomatism evidenced in the Siberian cratonic mantle. The most water-rich Udachnaya minerals contain 2 to 3 times more water than those from the Kaapvaal craton, the only craton with an intact mantle root for which water data is available. The highest water contents in olivine and orthopyroxene in this study (>= 300 ppm) are found at the bottom of the lithosphere (> 6.5 GPa). This is in contrast with the Kaapvaal craton where the olivines of peridotites equilibrated at > 6.4 GPa have 6 GPa is lower or similar (8.4× 10(exp 16) to 8.0× 10(exp 18) Pa./s) to that of the asthenosphere (<= 3.7x10(exp 18) Pa./s ). Such lithologies would not be able to resist delamination by the convecting asthenosphere. However, seismology studies as well as the high equilibration pressures of our samples indicate that the Udachnaya cratonic lithosphere is 220-250 km thick. Consequently, the water-rich peridotites are likely not

  20. On the Functionality Selection Principle for High Voltage Lithium-ion Battery Electrolyte Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chi-Cheung; He, Meinan; Peebles, Cameron; Tornheim, Adam P.; Liao, Chen; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2017-09-13

    A new class of electrolyte additives based on cyclic fluorinated phosphate esters was rationally designed and identified as being able to stabilize the surface of a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC532) cathode when cycled at potentials higher than 4.6 V vs Li+/Li. Cyclic fluorinated phosphates were designed to incorporate functionalities of various existing additives to maximize their utilization. The synthesis and characterization of these new additives are described and their electrochemical performance in a NMC532/graphite cell cycled between 4.6 and 3.0 V are investigated. With 1.0 wt % 2-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane 2-oxide (TFEOP) in the conventional electrolyte the NMC532/graphite cell exhibited much improved capacity retention compared to that without any additive. The additive is believed to form a passivation layer on the surface of the cathode via a sacrificial polymerization reaction as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonsance (NMR) analysis results. The rational pathway of a cathode-electrolyte-interface formation was proposed for this type of additive. Both experimental results and the mechanism hypothesis suggest the effectiveness of the additive stems from both the polymerizable cyclic ring and the electron-withdrawing fluorinated alkyl group in the phosphate molecular structure. The successful development of cyclic fluorinated phosphate additives demonstrated that this new functionality selection principle, by incorporating useful functionalities of various additives into one molecule, is an effective approach for the development of new additives.

  1. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  2. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.;

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... they have large scatter. The data sets that have been measured at low pressures extrapolate well towards the ideal equilibrium values. The two models show similar results, but differ at high pressure and/or temperature. CPA is shown to extrapolate well for methane-water to 1000 bar and 573 K, and our...

  3. Gel spinning of PVA composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yizhe; Lai, Dengpan; Zou, Liming; Ling, Xinlong; Lu, Hongwei; Xu, Yongjing

    2015-07-01

    In this report, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide (MWCNTs-GO) hybrids were prepared by gel spinning, and were characterized by TGA, DSC, SEM, XL-2 yarn strength tester and electrical conductivity measurement. The total content of MWCNTs-GO hybrids in the PVA composite fibers, which is up to 25 wt%, was confirmed by TGA analysis. The DSC measurement shows that the melting and crystallization peaks decreased after the addition of nano-fillers. This is due to the reason that the motion of PVA chains is completely confined by strong hydrogen bonding interaction between PVA and nano-fillers. After the addtion of GO, the dispersibility of MWCNTs in composite fibers improved slightly. And the tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 38% and 67%, respectively. This is caused by the increased hydrogen bonding interaction and synergistic effect through hybridization of MWCNTs and GO. More significantly, the electrical conductivity of PVA/MWCNTs/GO composite fibers enhanced by three orders of magnitude with the addition of GO.

  4. Development of High Strength Steel Designed for Carbonitriding with High Nitrogen Content to Be Used for Automatic Transmission Gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youichi Watanabe

    2004-01-01

    To downsize and lighten automatic transmission components, the gears installed must be strengthened in terms of pitting endurance and/or wear resistance. The most important metallurgical factor affecting fractures is well known to be resistance to softening when steel is tempered at approximately 573 K. Carbonitriding with a high anount of nitrogen is a very effective production technique because nitrogen increases the resistance during tempering. However, structural anomalies begin to appear in the surface layer when the nitrogen content exceeds 0.6 mass% in the chromium steel generally used. To address this, we have developed new high-strength chromium steel with an optimized chemical composition that effectively inhibits anomalies even when carbonitriding with a nitrogen content of more than 0.6 mass%.We performed a drivetrain durability test on an automatic transmission component designed to have excellent contact fatigue strength and a tooth root bending impact and fatigue strength. We found that the developed steel that was carbonitrided with a content of about 0.9 mass%, and then shot peened hard, has a pitting life of roughly 4.5 times that of conventionally manufactured steel.

  5. High N-content a-C:N films elaborated by femtosecond PLD with plasma assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, C. [Université de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon, France, Université de Saint-Étienne, Laboratoire Hubert Curien (UMR 5516 CNRS) , 42000 Saint-Étienne (France); Donnet, C., E-mail: Christophe.Donnet@univ-st-etienne.fr [Université de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon, France, Université de Saint-Étienne, Laboratoire Hubert Curien (UMR 5516 CNRS) , 42000 Saint-Étienne (France); Loir, A.-S.; Tite, T. [Université de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon, France, Université de Saint-Étienne, Laboratoire Hubert Curien (UMR 5516 CNRS) , 42000 Saint-Étienne (France); Barnier, V. [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Rojas, T.C.; Sanchez-Lopez, J.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US) , Avda. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Wolski, K. [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Garrelie, F. [Université de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon, France, Université de Saint-Étienne, Laboratoire Hubert Curien (UMR 5516 CNRS) , 42000 Saint-Étienne (France)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nitrogen doped amorphous carbon films were deposited by DC reactive plasma femtosecond (fs) -PLD and conventional fs-PLD. • High nitrogen content in plasma assisted films. • More ordered sp2 rich graphitic clusters both in terms of structural and topological order. • Correlation length La of the clusters increases with nitrogen incorporation. • Formation of CN bonds at the expense of CC bonds with N content. • At the highest nitrogen concentration, terminal C≡N groups are incorporated in the film. • Correlation between film composition and plasma process. - Abstract: Amorphous carbon nitride (a-C:N) thin films are a interesting class of carbon-based electrode materials. Therefore, synthesis and characterization of these materials have found lot of interest in environmental analytical microsystems. Herein, we report the nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon thin film elaboration by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition (fs-PLD) both with and without a plasma assistance. The chemical composition and atomic bonding configuration of the films were investigated by multi-wavelength (MW) Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The highest nitrogen content, 28 at.%, was obtained with plasma assistance. The I(D)/I(G) ratio and the G peak position increased as a function of nitrogen concentration, whereas the dispersion and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of G peak decreased. This indicates more ordered graphitic like structures in the films both in terms of topological and structural, depending on the nitrogen content. EELS investigations were correlated with MW Raman results. The interpretation of XPS spectra of carbon nitride films remains a challenge. Plasma assisted PLD in the femtosecond regime led to a significant high nitrogen concentration, which is highlighted on the basis of collisional processes in the carbon plasma plume interacting with the nitrogen

  6. Microspheres with an ultra high holmium content for brachytherapy of malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira, Raphael A.; Myamoto, Douglas M.; Souza, Jaime R.; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia; Martinelli, Jose R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop biodegradable microspheres intended for internal radiation therapy which provides an improved treatment for hepatic carcinomas. The most studied brachytherapy system employing microspheres made of holmium-biopolymer system is composed by poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc). The importance of the holmium high content in the microspheres can be interpreted as follow from a therapeutic standpoint, to achieve an effective use of microspheres loaded with HoAcAc, a high content of holmium is required to yield enough radioactivity with a relatively low amount of microspheres.The usual amounts of holmium that are incorporated in the microspheres composed by poly(L-lactic acid) and HoAcAc are 17.0 {+-} 0.5% (w/w) of holmium, which corresponds to a loading of about 50% of HoAcAc. Different approaches have been investigated to increase that value. One updated approach towards this direction is the production of microspheres with ultrahigh holmium as matrix using HoAcAc crystals as the sole starting material without the use of biopolymer. Likewise, in the search of microspheres with increased holmium content , it has been demonstrated that by changing the HoAcAc crystal structure by its recrystallization from crystal phase to the amorphous there is lost of acetylacetonate and water molecules causing the increasing of the holmium content. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation, using holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) crystals as the sole ingredient. Microspheres were characterized by using light and scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-rays diffraction, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. (author)

  7. A Place for Content Literacy: Incorporating Vocabulary and Comprehension Strategies in the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misulis, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    To help students learn and apply science content, teachers can embed content literacy instruction within science instruction. This involves teaching the content and the literacy skills students need to learn that content, such as vocabulary and comprehension. In this article, the author provides tips on how to incorporate content literacy…

  8. High efficiency iron electrode and additives for use in rechargeable iron-based batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Aniszfeld, Robert; Manohar, Aswin; Malkhandi, Souradip; Yang, Bo

    2017-02-21

    An iron electrode and a method of manufacturing an iron electrode for use in an iron-based rechargeable battery are disclosed. In one embodiment, the iron electrode includes carbonyl iron powder and one of a metal sulfide additive or metal oxide additive selected from the group of metals consisting of bismuth, lead, mercury, indium, gallium, and tin for suppressing hydrogen evolution at the iron electrode during charging of the iron-based rechargeable battery. An iron-air rechargeable battery including an iron electrode comprising carbonyl iron is also disclosed, as is an iron-air battery wherein at least one of the iron electrode and the electrolyte includes an organosulfur additive.

  9. Defect-free high Sn-content GeSn on insulator grown by rapid melting growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Cong, Hui; Yang, Fan; Li, Chuanbo; Zheng, Jun; Xue, Chunlai; Zuo, Yuhua; Cheng, Buwen; Wang, Qiming

    2016-12-01

    GeSn is an attractive semiconductor material for Si-based photonics. However, large lattice mismatch between GeSn and Si and the low solubility of Sn in Ge limit its development. In order to obtain high Sn-content GeSn on Si, it is normally grown at low temperature, which would lead to inevitable dislocations. Here, we reported a single-crystal defect-free graded GeSn on insulator (GSOI) stripes laterally grown by rapid melting growth (RMG). The Sn-content reaches to 14.2% at the end of the GSOI stripe. Transmission electron microscopy observation shows the GSOI stripe without stacking fault and dislocations. P-channel pseudo metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) Schottky junction photodetectors were fabricated on these GSOIs. Good transistor performance with a low field peak hole mobility of 402 cm2/Vs is obtained, which indicates a high-quality of this GSOI structure. Strong near-infrared and short-wave infrared optical absorption of the MSM photodetectors at 1550 nm and 2000 nm were observed. Owing to high Sn-content and defect-free, responsivity of 236 mA/W@-1.5 V is achieved at 1550 nm wavelength. In addition, responsivity reaches 154 mA/W@-1.5 V at 2000 nm with the optical absorption layer only 200 nm-thick, which is the highest value reported for GeSn junction photodetectors until now.

  10. Foraminiferal indicators of high OC content in marine sediments; a question of OC source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice Cappelli, Elena; Austin, William; Smith, Laura; Ward, Hannah; Clarke, Jess; Green, Jade; Smeaton, Craig

    2017-04-01

    West Shetland voes (sea inlets), on Scotland northern maritime periphery, represent a range of environmental and depositional settings in an area of coastal ocean which is characterised by a generally high organic carbon content in marine sediments. Possible sources of organic carbon are fish farms, as this region is experiencing a large expansion in marine aquaculture, and/or erosion of peatland. Twenty-one sites in six voes were sampled in August 2015 following an organic carbon gradient. The aims of this study are: 1) to establish the modern biogeography of benthic foraminifera in west Shetland voes, 2) to explore the use of these organisms as bio-indicators of high organic carbon content in marine sediments, and 3) to trace the source of organic carbon and its transportation between different habitats and pools (e.g.: terrestrial to marine; marine aquaculture to sediments). To achieve this, we paired together spatial variations in the composition of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (species abundance and diversity) with changes in the physical properties of marine sediments determined by carbon stable isotope measurements and loss on ignition analysis. Preliminary results show a positive relationship between high abundance of the agglutinated benthic foraminifera Eggerelloides scaber, high organic carbon content in the sediments and proximity to fish farms. Although aquaculture farming in these areas may be a contributing factor, radiocarbon dates demonstrate that organic enrichment in the sediments pre-dates the introduction of aquaculture, while carbon stable isotope measurements point to peat erosion as a more likely source of organic carbon in west Shetland voes. Therefore, peatland erosion is a significant source of organic carbon in marine sediments and may be an important contributor to the store of blue carbon in west Shetland voes and, more in general, in the coastal ocean.

  11. Acetate Salts as Nonhalogen Additives To Improve Perovskite Film Morphology for High-Efficiency Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiliang; Zhou, Pengcheng; Zhou, Weiran; Wei, Xiangfeng; Chen, Tao; Yang, Shangfeng

    2016-06-22

    A two-step method has been popularly adopted to fabricate a perovskite film of planar heterojunction organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, this method often generates uncontrollable film morphology with poor coverage. Herein, we report a facile method to improve perovskite film morphology by incorporating a small amount of acetate (CH3COO(-), Ac(-)) salts (NH4Ac, NaAc) as nonhalogen additives in CH3NH3I solution used for immersing PbI2 film, resulting in improved CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology. Under the optimized NH4Ac additive concentration of 10 wt %, the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaches 17.02%, which is enhanced by ∼23.2% relative to that of the pristine device without additive, whereas the NaAc additive does not lead to an efficiency enhancement despite the improvement of the CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology. SEM study reveals that NH4Ac and NaAc additives can both effectively improve perovskite film morphology by increasing the surface coverage via diminishing pinholes. The improvement on CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology is beneficial for increasing the optical absorption of perovskite film and improving the interfacial contact at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface, leading to the increase of short-circuit current and consequently efficiency enhancement of the PSC device for NH4Ac additive only.

  12. Slurry wear characteristics of zinc-based alloys: Effects of sand content of slurry, silicon addition to alloy system and traversal distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.K. PRASAD; O.P. MODI

    2009-01-01

    This investigation deals with the observations pertaining to the effects of specimen and slurry compositions as well as traversal distance on the slurry wear response of a zinc-based alloy. The composition of the alloy was altered by adding 4% silicon to it. The slurry composition was varied through changing the concentration of the sand particles in the range of 0-60% that were suspended in the (liquid) electrolyte. The electrolyte contained 4 g sodium chloride and 5 mL concentrated sulphuric acid dissolved in 10 L of water. The slurry wear tests were conducted at a speed of 7.02 m/s over the traversal distance range of 15-500 km. The wear rate increased initially with traversal distance, attained a maximum and decreased thereafter irrespective of the specimen and test environment. However, the wear rate peaks were less prominent in the liquid plus sand environments than the liquid-only medium. Further, the wear rate peak in the liquid-only medium appeared at a shorter traversal distance than the one in the sand containing slurries. Addition of sand particles to the electrolyte reduced the wear rate of the samples to 5%-15% depending on the sand concentration of the slurry. Moreover, intermediate (40%) sand content led to a maximum wear rate when compared with in the liquid plus sand media. However, this maximum was still less than in the liquid-only medium. The silicon containing alloy suffered from higher wear rates than the silicon free alloy samples when tested in the liquid-only medium. On the contrary, the trend reversed in liquid plus 20% and 40% sand environments whereas a mixed response was noted in the slurry containing 60% sand. In the latter case, the presence of silicon proved deleterious initially while an opposite trend was observed at longer traversal distances. The wear response of the samples was discussed in terms of specific features of their microconstituents like silicon and the predominant material removal mechanism in a given set of

  13. New Literacies and Pedagogical Migration: Exploring Impacts of New Literacies on Instruction and Learning in High School Content Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Melody Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of integrating new literacies practices into high school curriculum content classrooms. This study examined data collected through observations and semi-structured interviews conducted with four high school content curriculum teachers. Analysis of the data resulted in essential findings emerging…

  14. Molecular Assisted Breeding and Adaptability Analysis of Zhongyouza 11 with Super High Oil Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-line system of Shaan 2A cytoplasmic male sterility, a hybrid variety rapeseed, Zhongyouza 11, was developed by the combination of traditional methods and a molecular marker-assisted breeding technique. This hybrid variety had high grain yield, high oil content, wide adaptability, and good quality. The oil content of Zhongyouza 11 is steadily above 43% in the three ecological regions along the Yangtze River valley, which is the largest winter oilseed production area in China. The highest oil content of Zhongyouza 11 reached 46.68% in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River valley in 2003-2004, which was the highest among all lines involved in the national regional rapeseed variety trials. In the regional yield trials in Hubei Province, the average yield of Zhongyouza 11 reached 2 853 kg ha-1 (2002-2004), yielding more than the control variety Zhongshuang 6 by 11.34%. In the national trials, the yield of Zhongyouza 11 reached 2 405.7, 2 697.3, and 2 770.2 kg ha-1 in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, yielding more than the control varieties by 11.52, 12.9, and 14.92%, respectively, in 2003-2005. Both the high oil content and high grain yield contributed to the high oil yield of Zhongyouza 11. The oil yield of Zhongyouza 11 in the national trials reached 1083.3, 1210.2, and 1224.8 kg ha-1, yielding more than the controls by 29.42, 27.65, and 20.98%, respectively, in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley. The highest oil yield reached 1369.65 kg ha-1 in the middle reach of the Yangtze River valley(2003-2004), with an increase of 46.21% compared to the control. The experimental sites distributed widely along the Yangtze River valley, cover most of the Chinese winter rapeseed production areas. Among the 89 experimental location/years, the yield of Zhongyouza 11 surpassed the controls at 77 location/years in the trials, indicating its wide adaptability.Zhongyouza 11 was the only one that passed the

  15. Use of a Machine Learning-Based High Content Analysis Approach to Identify Photoreceptor Neurite Promoting Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, John A; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Inglese, James; Zack, Donald J

    2016-01-01

    High content analysis (HCA) has become a leading methodology in phenotypic drug discovery efforts. Typical HCA workflows include imaging cells using an automated microscope and analyzing the data using algorithms designed to quantify one or more specific phenotypes of interest. Due to the richness of high content data, unappreciated phenotypic changes may be discovered in existing image sets using interactive machine-learning based software systems. Primary postnatal day four retinal cells from the photoreceptor (PR) labeled QRX-EGFP reporter mice were isolated, seeded, treated with a set of 234 profiled kinase inhibitors and then cultured for 1 week. The cells were imaged with an Acumen plate-based laser cytometer to determine the number and intensity of GFP-expressing, i.e. PR, cells. Wells displaying intensities and counts above threshold values of interest were re-imaged at a higher resolution with an INCell2000 automated microscope. The images were analyzed with an open source HCA analysis tool, PhenoRipper (Rajaram et al., Nat Methods 9:635-637, 2012), to identify the high GFP-inducing treatments that additionally resulted in diverse phenotypes compared to the vehicle control samples. The pyrimidinopyrimidone kinase inhibitor CHEMBL-1766490, a pan kinase inhibitor whose major known targets are p38α and the Src family member lck, was identified as an inducer of photoreceptor neuritogenesis by using the open-source HCA program PhenoRipper. This finding was corroborated using a cell-based method of image analysis that measures quantitative differences in the mean neurite length in GFP expressing cells. Interacting with data using machine learning algorithms may complement traditional HCA approaches by leading to the discovery of small molecule-induced cellular phenotypes in addition to those upon which the investigator is initially focusing.

  16. High phosphorylase activity is correlated with increased potato minituber formation and starch content during extended clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, O. M.; Schnyukova, E. I.; Leach, J. E.

    2003-05-01

    The major purpose of these experiments were to investigate growth of potato storage organs and starch synthesis in minitubers at slow horizontal clinorotation (2 rpm), which partly mimics microgravity, and a secondary goal was to study the activity and localization of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) in storage parenchyma under these conditions. Miniplants of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) were grown in culture for 30 days for both the vertical control and the horizontal clinorotation. During long-term clinorotation, an acceleration of minituber formation, and an increase of amyloplast number and size in storage parenchyma cells, as well as increased starch content, was observed in the minitubers. The differences among cytochemical reaction intensity, activity of phosphorylase, and carbohydrate content in storage parenchyma cells of minitubers grown in a horizontal clinostat were established by electron-cytochemical and biochemical methods. It is shown that high phosphorylase activity is correlated with increased starch content during extended clinorotation. The results demonstrate the increase in carbohydrate metabolism and possible accelerated growth of storage organs under the influence of microgravity, as mimicked by clinorotation; therefore, clinorotation can be used as a basis for future studies on mechanisms of starch synthesis under microgravity.

  17. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  18. Factor analysis in optimization of formulation of high content uniformity tablets containing low dose active substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Ivana; Muselík, Jan; Franc, Aleš; Goněc, Roman; Mika, Filip; Vetchý, David

    2017-09-11

    Warfarin is intensively discussed drug with narrow therapeutic range. There have been cases of bleeding attributed to varying content or altered quality of the active substance. Factor analysis is useful for finding suitable technological parameters leading to high content uniformity of tablets containing low amount of active substance. The composition of tabletting blend and technological procedure were set with respect to factor analysis of previously published results. The correctness of set parameters was checked by manufacturing and evaluation of tablets containing 1-10mg of warfarin sodium. The robustness of suggested technology was checked by using "worst case scenario" and statistical evaluation of European Pharmacopoeia (EP) content uniformity limits with respect to Bergum division and process capability index (Cpk). To evaluate the quality of active substance and tablets, dissolution method was developed (water; EP apparatus II; 25rpm), allowing for statistical comparison of dissolution profiles. Obtained results prove the suitability of factor analysis to optimize the composition with respect to batches manufactured previously and thus the use of metaanalysis under industrial conditions is feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Establishing a High-content Analysis Method for Tubulin Polymerization to Evaluate Both the Stabilizing and Destabilizing Activities of Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Chi Shing; Nickischer, Debra; Lei, Ming; Weston, Andrea; Zhang, Litao; Schweizer, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are important components of the cellular cytoskeleton that play roles in various cellular processes such as vesicular transport and spindle formation during mitosis. They are formed by an ordered organization of α-tubulin and β-tubulin hetero-polymers. Altering microtubule polymerization has been known to be the mechanism of action for a number of therapeutically important drugs including taxanes and epothilones. Traditional cell-based assays for tubulin-interacting compounds rely on their indirect effects on cell cycle and/or cell proliferation. Direct monitoring of compound effects on microtubules is required to dissect detailed mechanisms of action in a cellular setting. Here we report a high-content assay platform to monitor tubulin polymerization status by directly measuring the acute effects of drug candidates on the cellular tubulin network with the capability to dissect the mechanisms of action. This high-content analysis distinguishes in a quantitative manner between compounds that act as tubulin stabilizers versus those that are tubulin destabilizers. In addition, using a multiplex approach, we expanded this analysis to simultaneously monitor physiological cellular responses and associated cellular phenotypes.

  20. Mutational breeding and genetic engineering in the development of high grain protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Linscombe, Steve D

    2013-12-04

    Cereals are the most important crops in the world for both human consumption and animal feed. Improving their nutritional values, such as high protein content, will have significant implications, from establishing healthy lifestyles to helping remediate malnutrition problems worldwide. Besides providing a source of carbohydrate, grain is also a natural source of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, specific oils, and other disease-fighting phytocompounds. Even though cereal grains contain relatively little protein compared to legume seeds, they provide protein for the nutrition of humans and livestock that is about 3 times that of legumes. Most cereal seeds lack a few essential amino acids; therefore, they have imbalanced amino acid profiles. Lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine (Met), and tryptophan (Trp) are among the most critical and are a limiting factor in many grain crops for human nutrition. Tremendous research has been put into the efforts to improve these essential amino acids. Development of high protein content can be outlined in four different approaches through manipulating seed protein bodies, modulating certain biosynthetic pathways to overproduce essential and limiting amino acids, increasing nitrogen relocation to the grain through the introduction of transgenes, and exploiting new genetic variance. Various technologies have been employed to improve protein content including conventional and mutational breeding, genetic engineering, marker-assisted selection, and genomic analysis. Each approach involves a combination of these technologies. Advancements in nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics continue to improve public knowledge at a rapid pace on the importance of specific aspects of food nutrition for optimum fitness and health. An understanding of the molecular basis for human health and genetic predisposition to certain diseases through human genomes enables individuals to personalize their nutritional requirements. It is critically important

  1. [Characteristics of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of high-solids-content waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xi-hui

    2006-06-01

    Based on the experiments of digestion of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge in both mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) with 20, 10, 7.5, 5d hydraulic retention time (HRT), operating characteristics of ASBR for treatment of high-solids-content waste were investigated. ASBR can efficiently accumulates suspended solids and keep high concentration solids, however there exists a "critical point" of ASBR, which means the maximum capability to accumulate suspended solids without negative effects on ASBR stability, and beyond which the performance deteriorates. Under steady condition, ASBR can sustains high solid retention time (SRT) and mean cell retention time (MCRT), the SRT and MCRT is 2.53 approximately 3.73 and 2.03 approximately 3.14 times of hydraulic retention time (HRT) when treating thermo-hydrolyzed sludge, respectively. Therefore, compared to traditional continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR), the efficiency of ASBR enhances about 7.13% approximately 34.68%.

  2. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bragança

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO2 sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O2 level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (~60% for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  3. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R.; Castellan, J.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (similar to 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  4. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Braganca; J.L. Castellan [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidised bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (about 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Automated analysis of high-content microscopy data with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Oren Z; Grys, Ben T; Ba, Jimmy; Chong, Yolanda; Frey, Brendan J; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2017-04-18

    Existing computational pipelines for quantitative analysis of high-content microscopy data rely on traditional machine learning approaches that fail to accurately classify more than a single dataset without substantial tuning and training, requiring extensive analysis. Here, we demonstrate that the application of deep learning to biological image data can overcome the pitfalls associated with conventional machine learning classifiers. Using a deep convolutional neural network (DeepLoc) to analyze yeast cell images, we show improved performance over traditional approaches in the automated classification of protein subcellular localization. We also demonstrate the ability of DeepLoc to classify highly divergent image sets, including images of pheromone-arrested cells with abnormal cellular morphology, as well as images generated in different genetic backgrounds and in different laboratories. We offer an open-source implementation that enables updating DeepLoc on new microscopy datasets. This study highlights deep learning as an important tool for the expedited analysis of high-content microscopy data. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. High-content analysis screening for cell cycle regulators using arrayed synthetic crRNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strezoska, Žaklina; Perkett, Matthew R; Chou, Eldon T; Maksimova, Elena; Anderson, Emily M; McClelland, Shawn; Kelley, Melissa L; Vermeulen, Annaleen; Smith, Anja van Brabant

    2017-06-10

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been utilized for large-scale, loss-of-function screens mainly using lentiviral pooled formats and cell-survival phenotypic assays. Screening in an arrayed format expands the types of phenotypic readouts that can be used to now include high-content, morphology-based assays, and with the recent availability of synthetic crRNA libraries, new studies are emerging. Here, we use a cell cycle reporter cell line to perform an arrayed, synthetic crRNA:tracrRNA screen targeting 169 genes (>600 crRNAs) and used high content analysis (HCA) to identify genes that regulate the cell cycle. Seven parameters were used to classify cells into cell cycle categories and multiple parameters were combined using a new analysis technique to identify hits. Comprehensive hit follow-up experiments included target gene expression analysis, confirmation of DNA insertions/deletions, and validation with orthogonal reagents. Our results show that most hits had three or more independent crRNAs per gene that demonstrated a phenotype with consistent individual parameters, indicating that our screen produced high-confidence hits with low off-target effects and allowed us to identify hits with more subtle phenotypes. The results of our screen demonstrate the power of using arrayed, synthetic crRNAs for functional phenotypic screening using multiparameter HCA assays. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A-Yeon; Yi, Kye Sook; Rhim, Jung-Hyo; Kim, Kyu-Il; Park, Jae-Young; Keum, Eun-Hee; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

    2006-04-30

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput.

  8. Reactive nanophase oxide additions to melt-processed high-T(sub c) superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goretta, K. C.; Brandel, B. P.; Lanagan, M. T.; Hu, J.; Miller, D. J.; Sengupta, S.; Parker, J. C.; Ali, M. N.; Chen, Nan

    1994-10-01

    Nanophase TiO2 and Al2O3 powders were synthesized by a vapor-phase process and mechanically mixed with stoichiometric YBa2Cu3O(x) and TlBa2Ca2Cu3O(x) powders in 20 mole % concentrations. Pellets produced from powders with and without nanophase oxides were heated in air or O2 above the peritectic melt temperature and slow-cooled. At 4.2 K, the intragranular critical current density J(sub c)) increased dramatically with the oxide additions. At 35-50 K, effects of the oxide additions were positive, but less pronounced. At 77 K, the additions decreased J(sub c), probably because of inducing a depression of the transition temperature.

  9. Ionic Liquids as Mobile Phase Additives for Separation of Nucleotides in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Wen-Zhu(张文珠); HE,Li-Jun(何丽君); LIU,Xia(刘霞); JIANG,Sheng-Xiang(蒋生祥)

    2004-01-01

    Ionic liquids are a type of salts that are liquid at low temperature (< 100 ℃). Because of their some special properties, they have been widely used as new "green solvents" for many chemical reactions and liquid-liquid extraction in the past several years. In this paper, a new method for the separation of nucleotides is developed and the essential feature of the method is that 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium salts are used as mobile phase additives, resulting in a baseline separation of nucleotides without need of gradient elution and need of organic solvent addition as currently used in RP-HPLC. This study shows the potential application of ionic liquids as mobile phase additives in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

  10. Reactive nanophase oxide additions to melt-processed high-{Tc} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goretta, K.C.; Brandel, B.P.; Lanagan, M.T.; Hu, J.; Miller, D.J.; Sengupta, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Parker, J.C.; Ali, M.N. [Nanophase Technologies Corp., Darien, IL (United States); Chen, Nan [Illinois Superconductor Corp., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Nanophase TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were synthesized by a vapor-phase process and mechanically mixed with stoichiometric YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and TlBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} powders in 20 mole % concentrations. Pellets produced from powders with and without nanophase oxides were heated in air or O{sub 2} above the peritectic melt temperature and slow-cooled. At 4.2 K, the intragranular critical current density (J{sub c}) increased dramatically with the oxide additions. At 35--50 K, effects of the oxide additions were positive, but less pronounced. At 77 K, the additions decreased J{sub c}, probably because of inducing a depresion of the transition temperature.

  11. Tenside-free preparation of nanogels with high functional β-cyclodextrin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettel, Markus J; Hildebrandt, Haika; Schaefer, Karola; Moeller, Martin; Groll, Juergen

    2012-09-25

    We present the preparation of ultrafine (R(h), 50 -150 nm) nanogels through tenside-free condensation of reactive prepolymers with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in water. These nanogels possess a maximum content of 60 wt % functional β-CD that can form inclusion complexes as demonstrated by dye sorption with phenolphthalein. Aside of this extremely high uptake capacity to hydrophobic molecules, the nanogels also show good adhesion to surfaces in homogeneous distribution with size of R(h) of 25 nm under dry conditions.

  12. Process Modules for GeSn Nanoelectronics with high Sn-contents

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte-Braucks, C; Glass, S; Hofmann, E; Stange, D; Von Den Driesch, N; Hartmann, JM; Ikonic, Z; Zhao, GT; Buca, D.; Mantl, S

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematically studies GeSn n-FETs, from individual process modules to a complete device. High-k gate stacks and NiGeSn metallic contacts for source and drain are characterized in independent experiments. To study both direct and indirect bandgap semiconductors, a range of 0 at.% to 14.5 at.% Sn-content GeSn alloys are investigated. Special emphasis is placed on capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and Schottky-barrier optimization. GeSn n-FET devices are presented including t...

  13. Desulphurisation of high moisture content fuel-gases derived from low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, S.; Anderson, B. [HRL Technology, Mulgrave, Vic. (Australia); Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Regenerable sulphur sorbent materials have been developed specifically for fluidised-bed desulphurisation of high moisture content fuel-gases derived from the gasification of low-rank coals. Selection of the most appropriate sorbents was based on thermodynamic limitations, strength/attrition resistance, reactivity and sulphur capacity. Pilot-scale tests showed that sorbents based on iron and copper were able to reduce the level of H{sub 2}S in the fuel-gas (up to 2.5 MPa, 350 C) from about 3000 ppmv to less than 100 ppmv. (orig.)

  14. Optimal Dearsenification Parameters of Gold Sulfide Concentrate with a High As Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaozhong LAN; Rose W. Smith

    2005-01-01

    The gold sulfide concentrate with a high As content in Liangshan District, Sichuan Province, China, is a potentially important resource. This paper describes experiments of dearsenification of gold concentrate in a weakly reduced atmosphere in a rotary pipe furnace. The results showed that the optimal parameters were a temperature range of 650~700℃, 15%~16% CO2 of gas and a reaction time of 30~40 min. The removal rate of arsenic and sulfur was over 95% and 25%~28%, respectively. With further oxidization and roasting, residue sulfur in the roasted materials was dropped to below 4%, and the cyanide leaching recovery of gold was over 92%.

  15. Non-metallic inclusions structure dimension in high quality steel with medium carbon contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon structural steel. The production process involved two melting technologies: steel melting in a 140-ton basic arc furnace with desulfurization and argon refining variants, and in a 100-ton oxygen converter. Billet samples were collected to analyze the content of non-metallic inclusions with the use of an optical microscope and a video inspection microscope. The results were processed and presented in graphic form.

  16. Identification of Novel Macropinocytosing Human Antibodies by Phage Display and High-Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, K D; Bidlingmaier, S M; Su, Y; Lee, N-K; Liu, B

    2017-01-01

    Internalizing antibodies have great potential for the development of targeted therapeutics. Antibodies that internalize via the macropinocytosis pathway are particularly promising since macropinocytosis is capable of mediating rapid, bulk uptake and is selectively upregulated in many cancers. We hereby describe a method for identifying antibodies that internalize via macropinocytosis by screening phage-displayed single-chain antibody selection outputs with an automated fluorescent microscopy-based high-content analysis platform. Furthermore, this method can be similarly applied to other endocytic pathways if other fluorescent, pathway-specific, soluble markers are available. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Cr and Si Contents on Expulsion Phenomenon in Electric-Resistance Spot Welding of Advanced High-Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Jong-Pan; Kang, Chung-Yun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    An expulsion phenomenon occurred during resistance spot welding of advanced high-strength steel sheets, and the effects of the Cr and Si contents on the expulsion limit current (C{sub E}xp) were investigated. The correlation between C{sub E}xp and the steel properties (e.g., resistivity, melting point, coefficient of thermal expansion, high-temperature yield-strength and viscosity), were evaluated, as were the qualities of the alloying elements. The C{sub E}xp decreased with increasing Si contents. This resulted in a narrow range of acceptable welding current, as well as poor suitability for spot welding. On the other hand, the effects of Cr-contents on the C{sub E}xp, and on the acceptable range of welding current were minimal (with content of 3 wt%). Thus, the suitability for spot welding was not affected by the Cr-Contents (at the experimental concentration). As Si-Contents increased, resistivity also increased and the melting point decreased. This resulted in easy melting of the base metal at a low welding current (low heat input) and in the rapid increase of the pressure due to the increased coefficient of expansion. However, the high-temperature yield-strength of the corona bond, which blocked the expulsion of the molten melt, also decreased. Consequently, the C{sub E}xp of steel containing additional Si was lower than that containing Cr.

  18. Characterization of different Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their capsaicinoids content by high performance liquid chromatography, determination of pungency and effect of high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, Alberto; Sierra-Campos, Erick; Luna-Ortega, J Guadalupe; Pérez-Morales, Rebeca; Rodríguez Ortiz, Juan Carlos; García-Hernández, José L

    2013-10-31

    The chili pepper is a very important plant used worldwide as a vegetable, as a spice, and as an external medicine. In this work, eight different varieties of Capsicum annuum L. have been characterized by their capsaicinoids content. The chili pepper fruits were cultivated in the Comarca Lagunera region in North of Mexico. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the major and minor capsaicinoids; alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has been performed by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from a not detectable value for Bell pepper to 31.84 mg g(-1) dried weight for Chiltepín. Samples were obtained from plants grown in experimental field and in greenhouse without temperature control, in order to evaluate temperature effect. Analysis of the two principal capsaicinoids in fruits showed that the amount of dihydrocapsaicin was always higher than capsaicin. In addition, our results showed that the content of total capsaicinoids for the varieties Serrano, Puya, Ancho, Guajillo and Bell pepper were increased with high temperature, while the content of total capsaicinoids and Scoville heat units (SHU) for the varieties De árbol and Jalapeño decreased. However, the pungency values found in this study were higher for all varieties analyzed than in other studies.

  19. Characterization of Different Capsicum Varieties by Evaluation of Their Capsaicinoids Content by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Determination of Pungency and Effect of High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González-Zamora

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The chili pepper is a very important plant used worldwide as a vegetable, as a spice, and as an external medicine. In this work, eight different varieties of Capsicum annuum L. have been characterized by their capsaicinoids content. The chili pepper fruits were cultivated in the Comarca Lagunera region in North of Mexico. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the major and minor capsaicinoids; alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has been performed by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from a not detectable value for Bell pepper to 31.84 mg g−1 dried weight for Chiltepín. Samples were obtained from plants grown in experimental field and in greenhouse without temperature control, in order to evaluate temperature effect. Analysis of the two principal capsaicinoids in fruits showed that the amount of dihydrocapsaicin was always higher than capsaicin. In addition, our results showed that the content of total capsaicinoids for the varieties Serrano, Puya, Ancho, Guajillo and Bell pepper were increased with high temperature, while the content of total capsaicinoids and Scoville heat units (SHU for the varieties De árbol and Jalapeño decreased. However, the pungency values found in this study were higher for all varieties analyzed than in other studies.

  20. APPLICATION OF LASER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE DIES FOR ALUMINIUM HIGH PRESSURE DIE-CASTING#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.V.T. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A number of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technologies can produce fully-dense metal components that potentially offer opportunities to apply the technology in die or mould making (known as rapid tooling. From these LAM technologies, three were selected for evaluation of their suitability as die cavity inserts in the manufacture of high pressure die-casting (HPDC dies. Apart from comparing the different LAM inserts with one another, their performance was also compared with components manufactured in a standard hot work steel. In the HPDC process, the die is unique to each component to be produced. Die cavities in particular are subjected to demanding conditions, such as cyclic heating caused by the introduction of molten aluminium at over 650°C, followed by cooling in water-based die release medium at temperatures around 25°C. Besides cyclic heating, the die cavities are also exposed to pressures exceeding 1500 MPa during the injection of molten aluminium into the cavities. This application of LAM, therefore, poses extreme challenges to the technology. The results of this study confirmed that the metals used in some of the LAM technologies did indeed meet the demanding requirements of the current application, and can lead to significant time- and cost-saving during product or process developments. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations are made for users interested in the application of LAM to produce die cavities.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Aantal laser laagvervaardigingstegnologieë (LLV tegnolgieë is in staat om volledig digte metaalkomponente te lewer, wat tot gevolg het dat hierdie tegnologie potensieel vir vormingsmatrys- of gietmatrysvervaardiging gebruik kan word (bekend as snelgereedskap. Drie van hierdie LLV tegnologieë is gekies vir evaluasie van hulle geskiktheid as gietvorminsetsels tydens die vervaardiging van gietmatryse vir hoë druk matrysgiet (HDMG. Benewens die onderlinge

  1. The effect of addition high rape cake and phytase on nutritive value of diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszkiewicz Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high rape cake content and phytase added to phosphorus and calcium deficient diets on the nutritive value for broiler chickens. Two experiments were performed: a growth experiment on four groups of one-day-old broilers Ross 308, 30 birds per group (6 replications x 5 birds and a digestibility experiment on 60 chickens divided into four groups of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds. The digestibility of the starter diets were evaluated on chickens at 7 days of age and of grower diets at 28 days of age. The diets used in the digestibility tests were the same for the growth trial. In the growth experiment four diets were prepared for the due periods: starters (1-21 day and growers (22-49 day of chicken life. The control diet (SBM did not contain rape cake, while experimental diets contained 15% (starters and 20% (growers rape cake of Lirajet cultivar. The experimental diet denoted RC HP had P and Ca contents equal the control diet (phosphorus about 7.5 g and calcium about 10 g.kg-1, while the diet denoted as RC LP contained less P and Ca (5.8 g and 6.8 g.kg-1 respectively than the control and RC HP diets. The diet denoted RC LP+ Phy was supplemented with an enzyme preparation containing phytase at a quantity of 875 FYT.kg-1. Application of 15% of rape cake into starter and 20% into grower diets (RC HP allowed for similar body weights and feed conversion ratio as the control group, whereas reduction of phosphorus and calcium content in the starter diet (RC LP significantly decreased body weight at day 21. The addition of phytase to the starter diet with low level of phosphorus and calcium showed the tendency to improve body weight in this period. Application of rape cake into starter and grower diets had poor effects on fat digestibility in all groups, whereas supplementation of grower diets with a low level of phytase phosphorus and calcium improved the digestibility of total phosphorus in

  2. Highly efficient ytterbium triflate catalyzed Michael additions of alpha-nitroesters in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, E; Feringa, B.L.

    Michael additions of alpha-nitroesters with enones and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes result in quantitative conversions to the corresponding 1,4-adducts by performing the reactions in water in the presence of ytterbium triflate as water-tolerant Lewis acid.

  3. Highly enantioselective rhodium-catalyzed conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to enones at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, SLX; Minnaard, AJ; Hessen, B; Feringa, BL; Martina, Sébastien L.X.; Feringa, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The rhodium-phosphoramidite-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to enones proceeds at room temperature using [Rh(OH)(cod)](2) or [RhCl(cod)](2)/KOH as stable and readily available catalyst precursors. (c) 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. High performance poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) composite parts fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Kishore, Vidya [ORNL; Chen, Xun [ORNL; Ajinjeru, Christine [ORNL; Duty, Chad [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hassen, Ahmed A [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.

  5. Highly efficient ytterbium triflate catalyzed Michael additions of alpha-nitroesters in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, E; Feringa, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    Michael additions of alpha-nitroesters with enones and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes result in quantitative conversions to the corresponding 1,4-adducts by performing the reactions in water in the presence of ytterbium triflate as water-tolerant Lewis acid.

  6. Simultaneous determination of 20 food additives by high performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Ma; Ya Nan Yang; Xiao Xiong Jiang; Min Zhao; Ye Qiang Cai

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and accurate analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 20 synthetic food additives,including three sweeteners,seven food colorants,nine synthetic preservatives and caffeine,by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detector (PDA).This method permits the detection of food additives at very low concentrations (0.005-0.150 μg/mL).The applicability was verified by the determination of food additives present in various foodstuffs.

  7. Experiences of High School Students about the Predictors of Tobacco Use: a Directed Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tobacco use is one of the most important risk factors that increases the burden of diseases worldwide. Based on the increasing speed of tobacco use, the aim of the present study was to explain the experiences of high school students about the determiners of use and non-use of tobacco (cigarettes and hookah based on the theory of protection motivation. Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative study based on content analysis that has been carried out for five months from 22, November of 2014 to 20, April of 2015 on male high schools in Noshahr. Data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews from 21 male high school students of whom 7 smoked cigarettes, 7 used hookah and 7 of them did not use any type of tobacco. Data analysis was carried out through the use of directed qualitative content analysis. Results: Data analysis led to the extraction of 99 primary codes that were categorized into 9 predetermined levels of protection motivation theory including perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity, fear, perceived self-efficacy, response expense, efficiency of the perceived answer, external perceived reward, internal perceived reward, protection motivation. The findings of the study showed that the most important predictors for the use of tobacco were the structures of response expense and high perceived rewards and the most important predictors for non-use of tobacco were perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity and high self-efficacy of students. Conclusions: the findings of the present study showed that the pressure from peers, being present in a group using tobacco and the absence of alternative recreational activities are among the most important factors of using tobacco. So, it is suggested that planners of the health department take the comprehensive interventions to improve effective individual and environmental factors of using tobacco so that they could reduce smoking cigarettes

  8. The combined use of a biosurfactant and an enzyme preparation to treat an effluent with a high fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Fernanda R C; Cammarota, Magali C; Freire, Denise M G

    2012-06-15

    The combined use of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and an enzyme pool produced by solid-state fermentation with Penicillium simplicissimum using babassu cake as culture medium in the anaerobic treatment of an effluent with a high fat content from a poultry processing plant was evaluated. Central composite rotatable design was used to evaluate the enzyme pool and biosurfactant concentrations and the treatment temperature of the effluent containing about 2400 mg oil and grease per liter. The combination that yielded the highest specific methane production was 0.19% (w/v) enzyme pool and 114 mg/L biosurfactant at 33 °C. It could therefore be concluded that the combined use of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant with an enzyme preparation obtained from solid-state fermentation may enhance methane production and enable the use of anaerobic technology in this sector, eliminating the need for physicochemical processes or the addition of costly commercial enzymes.

  9. Biochemistry in the High School Textbook: A Distance Between Content And Students Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simões-Pires

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several  contents  have  been  taught  in  a  decontextualized  way  within  the  area  of biology,  one  of  these  contents  is  Biochemistry.  Biochemistry  is  one  of  the  most present subjects in the student’s daily lives, because it can explain a huge number of  processes  that  happens  in  their  routine.  The  textbook  is  the  main  tool  in  the Brazilian  public  high  schools  classrooms,  so  a  huge  number  of  programs  to improve the textbooks were created by the government, like the National Program of the Textbook or PNLD( translated from the Portuguese ‘’Programa Nacional do Livro Didático’’. But despite the efforts to improve the textbook, their quality is still questionable, for such reasons like the distance between contents showed in the textbook and student’s reality. The main objective of this work is to evaluate how the  high  school  textbooks  show  the  content  related  to  biochemistry  and  how  this content is contextualized in the student’s reality.  To achieve this goal we analyzed four  textbooks  that  are  most  frequently  used  in  the  schools  today  and  evaluated parameters  related  with  contextualization  between  the  biochemistry  content  and students  daily  lives  situations.  The  analysis  was  done  on  a  qualitative  way.  We observed  a  lack  of  daily  examples  in  the  biochemical  contents,  an  excess  of scientific terms without clear explanations and also a huge presence of conceptual errors  in  all  four  textbooks.  The  data  showed  here  leads  us  to  conclude  that  the science’s textbooks analyzed in this study are inappropriate to teach biochemistry in an interesting way for the students.

  10. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy as tool for high-content-screening in yeast (HCS-FCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christopher; Huff, Joseph; Marshall, Will; Yu, Elden Qingfeng; Unruh, Jay; Slaughter, Brian; Wiegraebe, Winfried

    2011-03-01

    To measure protein interactions, diffusion properties, and local concentrations in single cells, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is a well-established and widely accepted method. However, measurements can take a long time and are laborious. Therefore investigations are typically limited to tens or a few hundred cells. We developed an automated system to overcome these limitations and make FCS available for High Content Screening (HCS). We acquired data in an auto-correlation screen of more than 4000 of the 6000 proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tagged with eGFP and expanded the HCS to use cross-correlation between eGFP and mCherry tagged proteins to screen for molecular interactions. We performed all high-content FCS screens (HCS-FCS) in a 96 well plate format. The system is based on an extended Carl Zeiss fluorescence correlation spectrometer ConfoCor 3 attached to a confocal microscope LSM 510. We developed image-processing software to control these hardware components. The confocal microscope obtained overview images and we developed an algorithm to search for and detect single cells. At each cell, we positioned a laser beam at a well-defined point and recorded the fluctuation signal. We used automatic scoring of the signal for quality control. All data was stored and organized in a database based on the open source Open Microscopy Environment (OME) platform. To analyze the data we used the image processing language IDL and the open source statistical software package R.

  11. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin

    Full Text Available BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC, and (ii heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  12. Human pluripotent stem cells on artificial microenvironments: a high content perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyalakshmi eViswanathan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-renewing stem cell populations are increasingly considered as resources for cell therapy and tools for drug discovery. Human pluripotent stem (hPS cells in particular offer a virtually unlimited reservoir of homogeneous cells and can be differentiated towards diverse lineages. Many diseases show impairment in self-renewal or differentiation, abnormal lineage choice or other aberrant cell behavior in response to chemical or physical cues. To investigate these responses, there is a growing interest in the development of specific assays using hPS cells artificial microenvironments and high content analysis. Several hurdles need to be overcome that can be grouped in: (i availability of robust, homogeneous and consistent cell populations as a starting point; (ii appropriate understanding and use of chemical and physical microenvironments; (iii development of assays that dissect the complexity of cell populations in tissues while mirroring specific aspects of their behavior. Here we review recent progress in the culture of hPS cells and we detail the importance of the environment surrounding the cells with a focus on synthetic material and suitable high content analysis approaches. The technologies described if properly combined have the potential to create a paradigm shift in the way diseases are modelled and drug discovery is performed.

  13. High-content analysis of single cells directly assembled on CMOS sensor based on color imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Saeki, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-12-15

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor was applied to high-content analysis of single cells which were assembled closely or directly onto the CMOS sensor surface. The direct assembling of cell groups on CMOS sensor surface allows large-field (6.66 mm×5.32 mm in entire active area of CMOS sensor) imaging within a second. Trypan blue-stained and non-stained cells in the same field area on the CMOS sensor were successfully distinguished as white- and blue-colored images under white LED light irradiation. Furthermore, the chemiluminescent signals of each cell were successfully visualized as blue-colored images on CMOS sensor only when HeLa cells were placed directly on the micro-lens array of the CMOS sensor. Our proposed approach will be a promising technique for real-time and high-content analysis of single cells in a large-field area based on color imaging.

  14. Development of high-content assays for kidney progenitor cell expansion in transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanker, Subramaniam; Cirio, Maria Cecilia; Vollmer, Laura L; Goldberg, Natasha D; McDermott, Lee A; Hukriede, Neil A; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Reactivation of genes normally expressed during organogenesis is a characteristic of kidney regeneration. Enhancing this reactivation could potentially be a therapeutic target to augment kidney regeneration. The inductive events that drive kidney organogenesis in zebrafish are similar to the initial steps in mammalian kidney organogenesis. Therefore, quantifying embryonic signals that drive zebrafish kidney development is an attractive strategy for the discovery of potential novel therapeutic modalities that accelerate kidney regeneration. The Lim1 homeobox protein, Lhx1, is a marker of kidney development that is also expressed in the regenerating kidneys after injury. Using a fluorescent Lhx1a-EGFP transgene whose phenotype faithfully recapitulates that of the endogenous protein, we developed a high-content assay for Lhx1a-EGFP expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos employing an artificial intelligence-based image analysis method termed cognition network technology (CNT). Implementation of the CNT assay on high-content readers enabled automated real-time in vivo time-course, dose-response, and variability studies in the developing embryo. The Lhx1a assay was complemented with a kidney-specific secondary CNT assay that enables direct measurements of the embryonic renal tubule cell population. The integration of fluorescent transgenic zebrafish embryos with automated imaging and artificial intelligence-based image analysis provides an in vivo analysis system for structure-activity relationship studies and de novo discovery of novel agents that augment innate regenerative processes.

  15. Two-step in situ biodiesel production from microalgae with high free fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-05-01

    The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from microalgae biomass is generally low via traditional extraction-conversion route due to the deficient solvent extraction. In this study a two-step in situ process was investigated to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This was accomplished with a pre-esterification process using heterogeneous catalyst to reduce FFA content prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The two-step in situ process resulted in a total FAME recovery up to 94.87±0.86%, which was much higher than that obtained by a one-step acid or base catalytic in situ process. The heterogeneous catalyst, Amberlyst-15, could be used for 8 cycles without significant loss in activity. This process have the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption.

  16. Optical High Content Nanoscopy of Epigenetic Marks Decodes Phenotypic Divergence in Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joseph J.; Bennett, Neal K.; Devita, Mitchel S.; Chahar, Sanjay; Viswanath, Satish; Lee, Eunjee A.; Jung, Giyoung; Shao, Paul P.; Childers, Erin P.; Liu, Shichong; Kulesa, Anthony; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hwang, Nathaniel S.; Madabhushi, Anant; Verzi, Michael P.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2017-01-01

    While distinct stem cell phenotypes follow global changes in chromatin marks, single-cell chromatin technologies are unable to resolve or predict stem cell fates. We propose the first such use of optical high content nanoscopy of histone epigenetic marks (epi-marks) in stem cells to classify emergent cell states. By combining nanoscopy with epi-mark textural image informatics, we developed a novel approach, termed EDICTS (Epi-mark Descriptor Imaging of Cell Transitional States), to discern chromatin organizational changes, demarcate lineage gradations across a range of stem cell types and robustly track lineage restriction kinetics. We demonstrate the utility of EDICTS by predicting the lineage progression of stem cells cultured on biomaterial substrates with graded nanotopographies and mechanical stiffness, thus parsing the role of specific biophysical cues as sensitive epigenetic drivers. We also demonstrate the unique power of EDICTS to resolve cellular states based on epi-marks that cannot be detected via mass spectrometry based methods for quantifying the abundance of histone post-translational modifications. Overall, EDICTS represents a powerful new methodology to predict single cell lineage decisions by integrating high content super-resolution nanoscopy and imaging informatics of the nuclear organization of epi-marks. PMID:28051095

  17. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Fontenay, Gerald; Cheng, Qingsu; Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Parvin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i) morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC), and (ii) heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  18. The Gray Institute ‘open’ high-content, fluorescence lifetime microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARBER, PR; TULLIS, IDC; PIERCE, GP; NEWMAN, RG; PRENTICE, J; ROWLEY, MI; MATTHEWS, DR; AMEER-BEG, SM; VOJNOVIC, B

    2013-01-01

    Summary We describe a microscopy design methodology and details of microscopes built to this ‘open’ design approach. These demonstrate the first implementation of time-domain fluorescence microscopy in a flexible automated platform with the ability to ease the transition of this and other advanced microscopy techniques from development to use in routine biology applications. This approach allows easy expansion and modification of the platform capabilities, as it moves away from the use of a commercial, monolithic, microscope body to small, commercial off-the-shelf and custom made modular components. Drawings and diagrams of our microscopes have been made available under an open license for noncommercial use at http://users.ox.ac.uk/~atdgroup. Several automated high-content fluorescence microscope implementations have been constructed with this design framework and optimized for specific applications with multiwell plates and tissue microarrays. In particular, three platforms incorporate time-domain FLIM via time-correlated single photon counting in an automated fashion. We also present data from experiments performed on these platforms highlighting their automated wide-field and laser scanning capabilities designed for high-content microscopy. Devices using these designs also form radiation-beam ‘end-stations’ at Oxford and Surrey Universities, showing the versatility and extendibility of this approach. PMID:23772985

  19. Corrosion Behavior of the Stressed Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels of High Nitrogen Content in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almubarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of high nitrogen content on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels in seawater under severe conditions such as tensile stresses and existence of sensitization in the structure. A constant tensile stress has been applied to sensitized specimens types 304, 316L, 304LN, 304NH, and 316NH stainless steels. Microstructure investigation revealed various degrees of stress corrosion cracking. SCC was severe in type 304, moderate in types 316L and 304LN, and very slight in types 304NH and 316NH. The electrochemical polarization curves showed an obvious second current peak for the sensitized alloys which indicated the existence of second phase in the structure and the presence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking. EPR test provided a rapid and efficient nondestructive testing method for showing passivity, degree of sensitization and determining IGSCC for stainless steels in seawater. A significant conclusion was obtained that austenitic stainless steels of high nitrogen content corrode at a much slower rate increase pitting resistance and offer an excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking in seawater.

  20. Influence of Zn Addition on Oxide Films on Alloy 690 in High Temperature Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI; Zheng-yin; WANG; Hui; XINChang-sheng; CAI; Min

    2013-01-01

    The application of zinc injection at pressurized water reactors(PWRs)shows great benefits in radiation field reduction,mitigating primary water stress corrosion cracking(PWSCC)initiation and some crack propagation of structure materials.It is widely used in the PWRs all over the world and AP1000 is about to use Zn addition technique to modify the water chemistry.Inconel 690 is a regular structural material for

  1. Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Soydan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tekinalp, Halil L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nelson, Kim [American Process Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-13

    ORNL worked with American Process Inc. to demonstrate the potential use of bio-based BioPlus® lignin-coated cellulose nanofibrils (L-CNF) as a reinforcing agent in the development of polymer feedstock suitable for additive manufacturing. L-CNF-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) testing coupons were prepared and up to 69% increase in tensile strength and 133% increase in elastic modulus were demonstrated.

  2. Investigations on drag reduction in turbulent pipe flows by addition of ionic and nonionic high polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeger, Helmut

    Drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow is obtained by addition of polymeric flow accelerator. Turbulent flow pattern is described on the basis of existing theories and reduction of loss of pressure heads is discussed. A turbulence rheometer is developed permitting the measurement of friction reduction for Reynolds numbers 1100 to 90,000. Effectiveness of water soluble polymer systems like polyacrylamide and coacrylate is studied in dependence of concentration, chemical composition, product aging and polymer chain deformation.

  3. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective reactions of γ-substituted butenolides through direct vinylogous conjugate additions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wen

    2012-09-05

    The strength of the weak: An L-tert-leucine-derived amine-thiourea catalyst (see scheme, green box) promotes the asymmetric vinylogous conjugate addition reaction between γ-aryl- and alkyl-substituted butenolides with the butenamides and enoates shown. Computational studies show the preference for the observed stereochemistry is a result of favourable weak non-bonding interactions, which stabilize the transition state. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R. R.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-10-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  5. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I C; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R R; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A; Paranthaman, M Parans

    2016-10-31

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm(3), and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m(3) (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  6. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R. R.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials. PMID:27796339

  7. Kenaf Powder Filled Recycled High Density Polyethylene/Natural Rubber Biocomposites: The Effect of Filler Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Viet Cao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of kenaf powder (KP as filler for recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE/natural rubber (NR thermoplastic elastomer (TPE composites was investigated. The composites with different filler loading were prepared in a Haake internal mixer. Increasing KP loading in rHDPE/NR/KP biocomposites reduced the tensile strength, elongation at break but increased the stabilization torque and the tensile modulus. SEM study of fracture surface indicated that fibrillation of rHDPE was reduced and detachment of kenaf powder from polymer matrix was present particularly at high filler loading. These observations were responsible for the deterioration of tensile strength and elongation at break of rHDPE/NR/KP biocomposites. Water absorption study also showed that the water absorption of these biocomposites increased with increasing KP content.

  8. High-Content Analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 Gene-Edited Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Carlson-Stevermer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of human cells and tissues holds much promise to advance medicine and biology, but standard editing methods require weeks to months of reagent preparation and selection where much or all of the initial edited samples are destroyed during analysis. ArrayEdit, a simple approach utilizing surface-modified multiwell plates containing one-pot transcribed single-guide RNAs, separates thousands of edited cell populations for automated, live, high-content imaging and analysis. The approach lowers the time and cost of gene editing and produces edited human embryonic stem cells at high efficiencies. Edited genes can be expressed in both pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. This preclinical platform adds important capabilities to observe editing and selection in situ within complex structures generated by human cells, ultimately enabling optical and other molecular perturbations in the editing workflow that could refine the specificity and versatility of gene editing.

  9. Comparison of multivariate data analysis strategies for high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Anne; Selzer, Paul; Beibel, Martin; Gubler, Hanspeter; Parker, Christian N; Gabriel, Daniela

    2011-03-01

    High-content screening (HCS) is increasingly used in biomedical research generating multivariate, single-cell data sets. Before scoring a treatment, the complex data sets are processed (e.g., normalized, reduced to a lower dimensionality) to help extract valuable information. However, there has been no published comparison of the performance of these methods. This study comparatively evaluates unbiased approaches to reduce dimensionality as well as to summarize cell populations. To evaluate these different data-processing strategies, the prediction accuracies and the Z' factors of control compounds of a HCS cell cycle data set were monitored. As expected, dimension reduction led to a lower degree of discrimination between control samples. A high degree of classification accuracy was achieved when the cell population was summarized on well level using percentile values. As a conclusion, the generic data analysis pipeline described here enables a systematic review of alternative strategies to analyze multiparametric results from biological systems.

  10. Selective-plane illumination microscopy for high-content volumetric biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorty, Ryan; Huang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Light-sheet microscopy, also named selective-plane illumination microscopy, enables optical sectioning with minimal light delivered to the sample. Therefore, it allows one to gather volumetric datasets of developing embryos and other light-sensitive samples over extended times. We have configured a light-sheet microscope that, unlike most previous designs, can image samples in formats compatible with high-content imaging. Our microscope can be used with multi-well plates or with microfluidic devices. In designing our optical system to accommodate these types of sample holders we encounter large optical aberrations. We counter these aberrations with both static optical components in the imaging path and with adaptive optics. Potential applications of this microscope include studying the development of a large number of embryos in parallel and over long times with subcellular resolution and doing high-throughput screens on organisms or cells where volumetric data is necessary.

  11. Construction and validation of two metagenomic DNA libraries from Cerrado soil with high clay content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; Allen, Heather; Williamson, Lynn L; Handelsman, Jo; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2011-11-01

    A challenge of metagenomic studies is in the extraction and purification of DNA from environmental samples. The soils of the Cerrado region of Brazil present several technical difficulties to DNA extraction: high clay content (>55% w/w), low pH (4.7) and high iron levels (146 ppm). Here we describe for the first time the efficient recovery and purification of microbial DNA associated with these unusual soil characteristics and the construction and validation of two metagenomic libraries: a 150,000 clones library with insert size of approximately 8 kb and a 65,000 clones library with insert size of approximately 35 kb. The construction of these metagenomic libraries will allow the biotechnological exploitation of the microbial community present in the soil from this endangered biome.

  12. High-Content Analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 Gene-Edited Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Stevermer, Jared; Goedland, Madelyn; Steyer, Benjamin; Movaghar, Arezoo; Lou, Meng; Kohlenberg, Lucille; Prestil, Ryan; Saha, Krishanu

    2016-01-12

    CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of human cells and tissues holds much promise to advance medicine and biology, but standard editing methods require weeks to months of reagent preparation and selection where much or all of the initial edited samples are destroyed during analysis. ArrayEdit, a simple approach utilizing surface-modified multiwell plates containing one-pot transcribed single-guide RNAs, separates thousands of edited cell populations for automated, live, high-content imaging and analysis. The approach lowers the time and cost of gene editing and produces edited human embryonic stem cells at high efficiencies. Edited genes can be expressed in both pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. This preclinical platform adds important capabilities to observe editing and selection in situ within complex structures generated by human cells, ultimately enabling optical and other molecular perturbations in the editing workflow that could refine the specificity and versatility of gene editing.

  13. Effect of Ni content on high temperature properties of 9Cr-7Mo steel strengthened by precipitation of intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Masayuki [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan). Materials Research Labs.

    1996-01-01

    Since ferritic steels strengthened by intermetallic precipitates exhibited excellent creep strength compared with any other commercial steels, they are promising core materials for advanced fast breeder reactors. It is, however, worried that their ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) increases markedly during service. Therefore, in order to improve the room temperature ductility of 9Cr-7Mo steels after aging with keeping high creep strength, influence of Ni addition on them were investigated. The tensile properties of the specimens aged for 100 h at 823 K and 923 K were markedly improved by Ni addition. And creep rupture strength at 923 K was also improved with increasing amount of Ni addition. The {alpha} to {gamma} transformation was partially observed in the specimens containing more than 6mass%Ni after creep testing. The formation of austenite would be effective to improve the long term creep strength, but it increases void swelling. The optimum Ni content in 9Cr-7Mo steel was approximately 3mass% for application of the fast breeder reactor core materials, considering the DBTT and the resistance to swelling. (author)

  14. High-content analysis of sequential events during the early phase of influenza A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indranil; Yamauchi, Yohei; Helenius, Ari; Horvath, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) represents a worldwide threat to public health by causing severe morbidity and mortality every year. Due to high mutation rate, new strains of IAV emerge frequently. These IAVs are often drug-resistant and require vaccine reformulation. A promising approach to circumvent this problem is to target host cell determinants crucial for IAV infection, but dispensable for the cell. Several RNAi-based screens have identified about one thousand cellular factors that promote IAV infection. However, systematic analyses to determine their specific functions are lacking. To address this issue, we developed quantitative, imaging-based assays to dissect seven consecutive steps in the early phases of IAV infection in tissue culture cells. The entry steps for which we developed the assays were: virus binding to the cell membrane, endocytosis, exposure to low pH in endocytic vacuoles, acid-activated fusion of viral envelope with the vacuolar membrane, nucleocapsid uncoating in the cytosol, nuclear import of viral ribonucleoproteins, and expression of the viral nucleoprotein. We adapted the assays to automated microscopy and optimized them for high-content screening. To quantify the image data, we performed both single and multi-parametric analyses, in combination with machine learning. By time-course experiments, we determined the optimal time points for each assay. Our quality control experiments showed that the assays were sufficiently robust for high-content analysis. The methods we describe in this study provide a powerful high-throughput platform to understand the host cell processes, which can eventually lead to the discovery of novel anti-pathogen strategies.

  15. Chronic AMP-activated protein kinase activation and a high-fat diet have an additive effect on mitochondria in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Natasha; Jacobs, Daniel L; Mills, David B; Winder, William W; Hancock, Chad R

    2010-08-01

    Factors that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle include AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), calcium, and circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). Chronic treatment with either 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR), a chemical activator of AMPK, or increasing circulating FFAs with a high-fat diet increases mitochondria in rat skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of chronic chemical activation of AMPK and high-fat feeding would have an additive effect on skeletal muscle mitochondria levels. We treated Wistar male rats with a high-fat diet (HF), AICAR injections (AICAR), or a high-fat diet and AICAR injections (HF + AICAR) for 6 wk. At the end of the treatment period, markers of mitochondrial content were examined in white quadriceps, red quadriceps, and soleus muscles, predominantly composed of unique muscle-fiber types. In white quadriceps, there was a cumulative effect of treatments on long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, cytochrome c, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein, as well as on citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity. In contrast, no additive effect was noted in the soleus, and in the red quadriceps only beta-HAD activity increased additively. The additive increase of mitochondrial markers observed in the white quadriceps may be explained by a combined effect of two separate mechanisms: high-fat diet-induced posttranscriptional increase in PGC-1alpha protein and AMPK-mediated increase in PGC-1alpha protein via a transcriptional mechanism. These data show that chronic chemical activation of AMPK and a high-fat diet have a muscle type specific additive effect on markers of fatty acid oxidation, the citric acid cycle, the electron transport chain, and transcriptional regulation.

  16. Strength properties examination of high zinc aluminium alloys inoculated with Ti addition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J.Bura? M.Szucki G.Piwowarski W.K.Krajewski P.K.Krajewski

    2017-01-01

    This paper includes studies on the influence of grain refinement treatment with respect to the composition and structure of high zinc aluminium casting alloys on the changes of their tensile properties. The Al-20 wt...

  17. Microstructure and high temperature stability of age hardenable AA2219 aluminium alloy modified by Sc, Mg and Zr additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, P. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, IIT-Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: puvvala_nagaraju@yahoo.com; Srinivasa Rao, K. [Metallurgical Engineering Department, Andhra University, Visakapatnam 530003 (India); Reddy, G.M. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500258 (India); Kamaraj, M.; Prasad Rao, K. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, IIT-Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2007-08-25

    The present work pertains to the improvement of high temperature stability of age hardenable AA2219 aluminium-copper (6.3%) alloy. Addition of scandium, magnesium and zirconium to the base metal AA2219 was adopted to improve this high temperature stability. These additions were systematically varied by preparing alloys of different composition using gas tungsten arc melting. Long time ageing studies and impression creep technique were used to study the high temperature stability of the alloys. These modified compositions of the alloy resulted in fine equiaxed grains, refined eutectics, large number of high temperature stable and finer precipitates. Among all the compositions, 0.8% Sc + 0.45% Mg + 0.2% Zr addition was found to be significant in improving the high temperature stability of AA2219 alloy. This may be attributed to the possible microstructural changes, solute enrichment of the matrix and pinning of the grain boundaries by the finer precipitates.

  18. Synergistic catalysis: highly diastereoselective benzoxazole addition to Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceban, Victor; Putaj, Piotr; Meazza, Marta; Pitak, Mateusz B; Coles, Simon J; Vesely, Jan; Rios, Ramon

    2014-07-18

    An expedited method has been developed for the diastereoselective synthesis of highly functionalized alkyl-azaarene systems with good yields and high diastereoselectivities (>15 : 1 dr). The methodology includes a synergistic catalysis event involving organometallic (10 mol% AgOAc) activation of an alkyl azaarene and Lewis base (10 mol% DABCO) activation of a Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonate. The structure and relative configuration of a representative product were confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  19. Preparation of pre-reduced pellet using pyrite cinder containing nonferrous metals with high temperature chloridizingreduction roasting technology—Effect of CaCl2additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈栋; 朱德庆; 洪澜; 陈瑶; 许继芳; 伍凌

    2015-01-01

    The role of CaCl2 during the high temperature chloridizing-reduction roasting process was investigated, aiming at acquiring high strength blast furnace burden with high iron grade and low nonferrous metals content. The effects of CaCl2 dosage on pelletizing, preheating and reduction were investigated. The results show that CaCl2 can improve the wet drop strength but reduces the thermostability of pyrite cinder green balls. When the dosage of CaCl2 exceeds 1%, the compressive strength of preheated pellets decreases while the growth of iron oxide particles is improved. Furthermore, the compressive strength of pre-reduced pellets increases but the metallization degree of pre-reduced pellets decreases with CaCl2 additive. The removal tests indicate that Zn can be removed completely without CaCl2 additive, Cu is removed only under the condition with CaCl2 additive and part of Pb must be removed by CaCl2 additive.

  20. Preparation of pre-reduced pellet using pyrite cinder containing nonferrous metals with high temperature chloridizing- reduction roasting technology-Effect of CaCl2 additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈栋; 朱德庆; 洪澜; 陈瑶; 许继芳; 伍凌

    2015-01-01

    The role of CaCl2 during the high temperature chloridizing-reduction roasting process was investigated, aiming at acquiring high strength blast furnace burden with high iron grade and low nonferrous metals content. The effects of CaCl2 dosage on pelletizing, preheating and reduction were investigated. The results show that CaCl2 can improve the wet drop strength but reduces the thermostability of pyrite cinder green balls. When the dosage of CaCl2 exceeds 1%, the compressive strength of preheated pellets decreases while the growth of iron oxide particles is improved. Furthermore, the compressive strength of pre-reduced pellets increases but the metallization degree of pre-reduced pellets decreases with CaCl2 additive. The removal tests indicate that Zn can be removed completely without CaCl2 additive, Cu is removed only under the condition with CaCl2 additive and part of Pb must be removed by CaCl2 additive.

  1. Low Temperature Deposition of High-k/Metal Gate Stacks on High-Sn Content (Si)GeSn-Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Braucks, C; von den Driesch, N; Glass, S; Tiedemann, A T; Breuer, U; Besmehn, A; Hartmann, J-M; Ikonic, Z; Zhao, Q T; Mantl, S; Buca, D

    2016-05-25

    (Si)GeSn is an emerging group IV alloy system offering new exciting properties, with great potential for low power electronics due to the fundamental direct band gap and prospects as high mobility material. In this Article, we present a systematic study of HfO2/TaN high-k/metal gate stacks on (Si)GeSn ternary alloys and low temperature processes for large scale integration of Sn based alloys. Our investigations indicate that SiGeSn ternaries show enhanced thermal stability compared to GeSn binaries, allowing the use of the existing Si technology. Despite the multielemental interface and large Sn content of up to 14 atom %, the HfO2/(Si)GeSn capacitors show small frequency dispersion and stretch-out. The formed TaN/HfO2/(Si)GeSn capacitors present a low leakage current of 2 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at -1 V and a high breakdown field of ∼8 MV/cm. For large Sn content SiGeSn/GeSn direct band gap heterostructures, process temperatures below 350 °C are required for integration. We developed an atomic vapor deposition process for TaN metal gate on HfO2 high-k dielectric and validated it by resistivity as well as temperature and frequency dependent capacitance-voltage measurements of capacitors on SiGeSn and GeSn. The densities of interface traps are deduced to be in the low 10(12) cm(-2) eV(-1) range and do not depend on the Sn-concentration. The new processes developed here are compatible with (Si)GeSn integration in large scale applications.

  2. Perfluoroalkyl-substituted ethylene carbonates: Novel electrolyte additives for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ye; Casselman, Matthew D.; Li, Yan; Wei, Alexander; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    A new family of polyfluoroalkyl-substituted ethylene carbonates is synthesized and tested as additives in lithium-ion cells containing EC:EMC + LiPF6-based electrolyte. The influence of these compounds is investigated in Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2//graphite cells via a combination of galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. Among the four additives studied in this work (4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (TFM-EC), 4-(perfluorobutyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFB-EC), 4-(perfluorohexyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFH-EC), and 4-(perfluorooctyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFO-EC)), small amounts (0.5 wt%) of PFO-EC is found to be most effective in lessening cell performance degradation during extended cycling. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy are used to further characterize the effects of PFO-EC on the positive and negative electrodes. LSV data from the electrolyte, and XPS analyses of electrodes harvested after cycling, suggest that PFO-EC is oxidized on the cathode forming surface films that slow electrode/cell impedance rise. Differential capacity (dQ/dV) plots from graphite//Li cells suggest that PFO-EC is involved in solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation. Raman data from anodes after cycling suggest that structural disordering of graphite is reduced by the addition of PFO-EC, which may explain the improved cell capacity retention.

  3. A multi-functional imaging approach to high-content protein interaction screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Matthews

    Full Text Available Functional imaging can provide a level of quantification that is not possible in what might be termed traditional high-content screening. This is due to the fact that the current state-of-the-art high-content screening systems take the approach of scaling-up single cell assays, and are therefore based on essentially pictorial measures as assay indicators. Such phenotypic analyses have become extremely sophisticated, advancing screening enormously, but this approach can still be somewhat subjective. We describe the development, and validation, of a prototype high-content screening platform that combines steady-state fluorescence anisotropy imaging with fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM. This functional approach allows objective, quantitative screening of small molecule libraries in protein-protein interaction assays. We discuss the development of the instrumentation, the process by which information on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET can be extracted from wide-field, acceptor fluorescence anisotropy imaging and cross-checking of this modality using lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting. Imaging of cells expressing protein constructs where eGFP and mRFP1 are linked with amino-acid chains of various lengths (7, 19 and 32 amino acids shows the two methodologies to be highly correlated. We validate our approach using a small-scale inhibitor screen of a Cdc42 FRET biosensor probe expressed in epidermoid cancer cells (A431 in a 96 microwell-plate format. We also show that acceptor fluorescence anisotropy can be used to measure variations in hetero-FRET in protein-protein interactions. We demonstrate this using a screen of inhibitors of internalization of the transmembrane receptor, CXCR4. These assays enable us to demonstrate all the capabilities of the instrument, image processing and analytical techniques that have been developed. Direct correlation between acceptor anisotropy and donor FLIM is observed for FRET

  4. Some Aspects Of Infiltration Of High Speed Steel Based Composites With Iron Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts have been made to describe the influence of the production process parameters and additions of iron powders on properties of copper infiltrated HSS based composites. The powder compositions used to produce skeletons for further infiltration were: M3/2, M3/2+20% Fe and M3/2+50% Fe. The powders were cold pressed at 800 MPa. The infiltration process was carried out in vacuum. Both green compacts and preforms sintered for 60 minutes at 1150°C in vacuum were contact infiltrated with copper to yield final densities exceeding 97% of the theoretical value.

  5. Physiological conditions conducive to high cell density and high cyanophycin content in Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 possessing a KDPG aldolase gene-dependent addiction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaichien; Elbahloul, Yasser; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    The recombinant strain of Ralstonia eutropha H16-PHB(-)4-∆eda (pBBR1MCS-2::cphA (6308)/eda (H16)) presenting a 2-keto-3-desoxy-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase (eda) gene-dependent catabolic addiction system for plasmid maintenance when using gluconate or fructose as sole carbon source was used in this study. The effects of the initial pH, the nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, the inorganic components of medium, the oxygen supply, and the different carbon and nitrogen sources on the cell dry matter (CDM) and the cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP) content of the cells were studied in a mineral salts medium (MSM) without any additional amino acids or CGP precursor substrates. The experiments were designed to systematically find out the optimal conditions for growth of cells to high densities and for high CGP contents of the cells. Maximum contents of water-insoluble CGP and water-soluble CGP, contributing to 47.5% and 5.8% (w/w) of CDM, respectively, were obtained at the 30-L scale cultivation when cells were cultivated in MSM medium containing sufficient supplements of fructose, NH(3), K(2)SO(4), MgSO(4)[Symbol: see text]7H(2)O, Fe(Ш)NH(4)-citrate, CaCl(2)[Symbol: see text]2H(2)O, and trace elements (SL6). The molecular masses of water-insoluble and water-soluble CGP ranged from 25 to 31 kDa and from 15 to 21 kDa, respectively. High cell densities of up to 82.8 g CDM/L containing up to 37.8% (w/w) water-insoluble CGP at the 30-L scale cultivation were also obtained. This is by far the best combination of high cell density and high cellular CGP contents ever reported, and it showed that efficient production of CGP at the industrial scale in white biotechnology could be achieved.

  6. High temperature tribological behaviors of nano-diamond as oil additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Yu-lin; SUN Xiao-feng; XU Bin-shi; MA Shi-ning

    2005-01-01

    The tribological behaviors of the nano-diamond particles including the nano-diamond and the nano-diamond modified were studied at high temperature using SRV multifunctional test system. The worn steel surfaces were analyzed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that nano-diamond particles can obviously improve the antiwear and friction reducing properties of the base oil at high temperature and the high load. The friction coefficient of the nano-diamond is very low at 200 ℃ when the test load is not more than 20 N. This tribological behaviors should attributed to the similarly to "ball bearing" lubrication action of the nano-diamond particles, so the movement between tribological pairs become sliding/rolling. The nano-diamond modified by dimer ester possesses excellent antiwear and friction reducing performance at 500 ℃ and load 500 N. The tribochemical reaction film between the nano-diamond particles and the renascent wear surface plays dominating lubrication role and the presence of the dimer ester on the rubbing surface can be propitious to form lubrication film containing nanodiamond on the worn surface at high temperature and high load.

  7. High water contents in basaltic melt inclusions from Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, J. A.; Plank, T.; Hauri, E. H.; Melson, W. G.; Soto, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    Despite the importance of water to arc magma genesis, fractionation and eruption, few quantitative constraints exist on the water content of Arenal magmas. Early estimates, by electron microprobe sum deficit, suggested up to 4 wt% H2O in olivine-hosted basaltic andesite melt inclusions (MI) from pre-historic ET-6 tephra (Melson, 1982), and up to 7 wt% H2O in plagioclase and orthopyroxene-hosted dacitic MI from 1968 lapilli (Anderson, 1979). These high water contents are consistent with abundant hornblende phenocrysts in Arenal volcanics, but inconsistent with geochemical tracers such as 10Be and Ba/La that suggest a low flux of recycled material (and presumably water) from the subduction zone. In order to test these ideas, and provide the first direct measurements of water in mafic Arenal magmas, we have studied olivine-hosted MI from the prehistoric (900 yBP; Soto et al., 1998) ET3 tephra layer. MI range from andesitic (> 58% SiO2) to basaltic compositions ( 4 wt%) found here for Arenal basaltic MI support the semi-quantitative data from earlier studies, but are somewhat unexpected given predictions from slab tracers. Arenal water contents (4%) approach those of the 1995 eruption of Cerro Negro in Nicaragua (4-5 wt% in basaltic MI; Roggensack et al., 1997), despite the fact that the latter has Ba/La of > 100, while Arenal has Ba/La Boletin de Volcanologia; Roggensack et al. (1997) Science; Soto et al. (1998) OSIVAM; Williams-Jones et al. (2001) Journal of Volc. and Geoth. Res.

  8. Noble strain of Sparassis latifolia produces high content of β-glucan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong; Ju; Lee; Min; Cheol; Jang; A; Ra; Jo; Hyun; Jun; Choi; Kwang-Sang; Kim; Youn-Tae; Chi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To classify four new Sparassis strains(CLM1, CKM1, CKM2, and KJM1) using the internal transcribed spacer sequence and to elucidate their β-glucan content and mycelial growth.Methods: Two different microbiological media were used to determine growth rate. The β-glucan contents were analyzed using the Megazyme Mushroom and Yeast Beta-Glucan kit. To determine the genetic relationships, phylogenetic trees were constructed using ClustalX. Multiple sequence alignments were printed and shaded with the BOXSHADE 3.21 program. Results: In this study, four new Sparassis strains were isolated from the southern region of the Korea Peninsula. They were all classified into the Sparassis latifolia clade as a monophyletic group based on the internal transcribed spacer sequence. Mycelial growth rate of the CLM1 strain was highest in potato dextrose agar and potato dextrose agar larch. The β-glucan content of the CLM1 strain was highest at 29.5%(w/w). A high degree of sequence divergence was detected in the RNA polymerase second largest subunit II gene(RPB2) within Sparassis spp. tested. The putative amino acid sequences of the RPB2 had a distinct sequence. The nucleotide sequences of the RPB2’s intron were also divergent among Sparassis spp., even though their nucleotide length was well conserved within Sparassis latifolia. Conclusions: These results indicate that the nucleotide sequences and the amino acid sequences of RPB2 can be used to identify individual Sparassis sp. The Sparassis strain CLM1 may be best for developing a remedy to prevent or treat cancer and other chronic diseases.

  9. Fat content increases the lethality of ultra-high-pressure homogenization on Listeria monocytogenes in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig-Sagués, A X; Velázquez, R M; Montealegre-Agramont, P; López-Pedemonte, T J; Briñez-Zambrano, W J; Guamis-López, B; Hernandez-Herrero, M M

    2009-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes CCUG 15526 was inoculated at a concentration of approximately 7.0 log(10) cfu/mL in milk samples with 0.3, 3.6, 10, and 15% fat contents. Milk samples with 0.3 and 3.6% fat content were also inoculated with a lower load of approximately 3.0 log(10) cfu/mL. Inoculated milk samples were subjected to a single cycle of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) treatment at 200, 300, and 400 MPa. Microbiological analyses were performed 2 h after the UHPH treatments and after 5, 8, and 15 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Maximum lethality values were observed in samples treated at 400 MPa with 15 and 10% fat (7.95 and 7.46 log(10) cfu/mL), respectively. However, in skimmed and 3.6% fat milk samples, complete inactivation was not achieved and, during the subsequent 15 d of storage at 4 degrees C, L. monocytogenes was able to recover and replicate until achieving initial counts. In milk samples with 10 and 15% fat, L. monocytogenes recovered to the level of initial counts only in the milk samples treated at 200 MPa but not in the milk samples treated at 300 and 400 MPa. When the load of L. monocytogenes was approximately 3.0 log(10) cfu/mL in milk samples with 0.3 and 3.6% fat, complete inactivation was not achieved and L. monocytogenes was able to recover and grow during the subsequent cold storage. Fat content increased the maximum temperature reached during UHPH treatment; this could have contributed to the lethal effect achieved, but the amount of fat of the milk had a stronger effect than the temperature on obtaining a higher death rate of L. monocytogenes.

  10. High-resolution prediction of soil available water content within the crop root zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghverdi, Amir; Leib, Brian G.; Washington-Allen, Robert A.; Ayers, Paul D.; Buschermohle, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed understanding of soil hydraulic properties, particularly soil available water content (AWC) within the effective root zone, is needed to optimally schedule irrigation in fields with substantial spatial heterogeneity. However, it is difficult and time consuming to directly measure soil hydraulic properties. Therefore, easily collected and measured soil properties, such as soil texture and/or bulk density, that are well correlated with hydraulic properties are used as proxies to develop pedotransfer functions (PTF). In this study, multiple modeling scenarios were developed and evaluated to indirectly predict high resolution AWC maps within the effective root zone. The modeling techniques included kriging, co-kriging, regression kriging, artificial neural networks (NN) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The efficiency of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as proximal data in the modeling process was assessed. There was a good agreement (root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.052 cm3 cm-3 and r = 0.88) between observed and point prediction of water contents using pseudo continuous PTFs. We found that both GWR (mean RMSE = 0.062 cm3 cm-3) and regression kriging (mean RMSE = 0.063 cm3 cm-3) produced the best water content maps with these accuracies improved up to 19% when ECa was used as an ancillary soil attribute in the interpolation process. The maps indicated fourfold differences in AWC between coarse- and fine-textured soils across the study site. This provided a template for future investigations for evaluating the efficiency of variable rate irrigation management scenarios in accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic attributes.

  11. High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon - I. Effects of gas composition and metal addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, M.P.; Strickler, B.W.; Lizzio, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Various types of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for their ability to remove H2S from a simulated coal gas stream at a temperature of 550 ??C. The ability of activated carbon to remove H2S at elevated temperature was examined as a function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal addition), and gas composition. A sorbent prepared by steam activation, HNO3 oxidation and impregnated with Zn, and tested in a gas stream containing 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% N2, had the greatest H2S adsorption capacity. Addition of H2, CO, and H2O to the inlet gas stream reduced H2S breakthrough time and H2S adsorption capacity. A Zn impregnated activated carbon, when tested using a simulated coal gas containing 0.5% H2S, 49.5% N2, 13% H2, 8.5% H2O, 21% CO, and 7.5% CO2, had a breakthrough time of 75 min, which was less than 25 percent of the length of breakthrough for screening experiments performed with a simplified gas mixture of 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, and 49.5% N2.

  12. Additive effects in high-voltage layered-oxide cells: A statistics of mixtures approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahore, Ritu; Peebles, Cameron; Abraham, Daniel P.; Gilbert, James; Bloom, Ira

    2017-09-01

    Li1.03(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)0.97O2 (NMC)-based coin cells containing the electrolyte additives vinylene carbonate (VC) and tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphite (TMSPi) in the range of 0-2 wt% were cycled between 3.0 and 4.4 V. The changes in capacity at rates of C/10 and C/1 and resistance at 60% state of charge were found to follow linear-with-time kinetic rate laws. Further, the C/10 capacity and resistance data were amenable to modeling by a statistics of mixtures approach. Applying physical meaning to the terms in the empirical models indicated that the interactions between the electrolyte and additives were not simple. For example, there were strong, synergistic interactions between VC and TMSPi affecting C/10 capacity loss, as expected, but there were other, more subtle interactions between the electrolyte components. The interactions between these components controlled the C/10 capacity decline and resistance increase.

  13. Additional dose assessment from the activation of high-energy linear accelerators used in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateia Embarka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that medical linear accelerators generate activation products when operated above certain electron (photon energies. The aim of the present work is to assess the activation behavior of a medium-energy radiotherapy linear accelerator by applying in situ gamma-ray spectrometry and dose measurements, and to estimate the additional dose to radiotherapy staff on the basis of these results. Spectral analysis was performed parallel to dose rate measurements in the isocenter of the linear accelerator, immediately after the termination of irradiation. The following radioisotopes were detected by spectral analysis: 28Al, 62Cu, 56Mn, 64Cu, 187W, and 57Ni. The short-lived isotopes such as 28Al and 62Cu are the most important factors of the clinical routine, while the contribution to the radiation dose of medium-lived isotopes such as 56Mn, 57Ni, 64Cu, and 187W increases during the working day. Measured dose rates at the isocenter ranged from 2.2 µSv/h to 10 µSv/h in various measuring points of interest for the members of the radiotherapy staff. Within the period of 10 minutes, the dose rate decreased to values of 0.8 µSv/h. According to actual workloads in radiotherapy departments, a realistic exposure scenario was set, resulting in a maximal additional annual whole body dose to the radiotherapy staff of about 3.5 mSv.

  14. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Modified with Different Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate comprehensive performance of high modulus asphalt concrete (HMAC and propose common values for establishing evaluation system. Three gradations with different modifiers were conducted to study the high and low temperature performance, shearing behavior, and water stability. The laboratory tests for HMAC included static and dynamic modulus tests, rutting test, uniaxial penetration test, bending test, and immersion Marshall test. Dynamic modulus test results showed that modifier can improve the static modulus and the improvements were remarkable at higher temperature. Moreover, modulus of HMAC-20 was better than those of HMAC-16 and HMAC-25. The results of performance test indicated that HMAC has good performance to resist high temperature rutting, and the resistances of the HMAC-20 and HMAC-25 against rutting were better than that of HMAC-16. Then, the common values of dynamic stability were recommended. Furthermore, common values of HMAC performance were established based on pavement performance tests.

  15. New Spheroidizing Technique of Ultra-High Carbon Steel With Aluminum Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-juan; WANG Bao-qi; SONG Xiao-yan; GUO Su-zhen; GU Nan-ju

    2006-01-01

    A new spheroidizing process of ultra-high carbon steel (UHCS) containing C 1.55%, Cr 1.45%, and Al 1.5% in mass percent has been proposed. The effect of processing parameters on the microstructure was analyzed. The UHCS produced by this new process has a microstructure with recrystallized ferrite matrix and fine and uniform carbide particles. After this spheroidizing, the UHCS exhibits good mechanical properties at ambient temperature, for example σb=1 100 MPa, σs=915 MPa, δ=8% and high ratio of σs/σb.

  16. Content-Based High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Retrieval via Unsupervised Feature Learning and Collaborative Affinity Metric Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the urgent demand for automatic management of large numbers of high-resolution remote sensing images, content-based high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval (CB-HRRS-IR has attracted much research interest. Accordingly, this paper proposes a novel high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval approach via multiple feature representation and collaborative affinity metric fusion (IRMFRCAMF. In IRMFRCAMF, we design four unsupervised convolutional neural networks with different layers to generate four types of unsupervised features from the fine level to the coarse level. In addition to these four types of unsupervised features, we also implement four traditional feature descriptors, including local binary pattern (LBP, gray level co-occurrence (GLCM, maximal response 8 (MR8, and scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT. In order to fully incorporate the complementary information among multiple features of one image and the mutual information across auxiliary images in the image dataset, this paper advocates collaborative affinity metric fusion to measure the similarity between images. The performance evaluation of high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval is implemented on two public datasets, the UC Merced (UCM dataset and the Wuhan University (WH dataset. Large numbers of experiments show that our proposed IRMFRCAMF can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art approaches.

  17. Effects of amaranth addition on the pro-vitamin A content, and physical and antioxidant properties of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswa, Daniso; Dlamini, Nomusa R; Amonsou, Eric O; Siwela, Muthulisi; Derera, John

    2016-01-15

    Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetable may have a potential as nutritious and health-promoting products, especially in addressing vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in developing regions. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of adding amaranth leaf powder on the physical, antioxidant properties and pro-vitamin A content of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks. Extruded snacks were processed using four pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize varieties that were composited with amaranth leaf powder at 0%, 1% and 3% (w/w) substitution levels. At higher amaranth concentration, the expansion ratio of the snacks decreased, while their hardness increased by as much as 93%. The physical quality of the snacks may therefore need improvement. As amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased as well as the pro-vitamin A content. Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize with added amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are limited studies reporting on processing pro-vitamin A maize with complementary plant foods, which is common with white maize in southern Africa; thus the current study serves as a baseline. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. High-resolution and Monte Carlo additions to the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Zawada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS instrument on board the Odin spacecraft has been measuring limb-scattered radiance since 2001. The vertical radiance profiles measured as the instrument nods are inverted, with the aid of the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model, to obtain vertical profiles of trace atmospheric constituents. Here we describe two newly developed modes of the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model: a high-spatial-resolution mode and a Monte Carlo mode. The high-spatial-resolution mode is a successive-orders model capable of modelling the multiply scattered radiance when the atmosphere is not spherically symmetric; the Monte Carlo mode is intended for use as a highly accurate reference model. It is shown that the two models agree in a wide variety of solar conditions to within 0.2 %. As an example case for both models, Odin–OSIRIS scans were simulated with the Monte Carlo model and retrieved using the high-resolution model. A systematic bias of up to 4 % in retrieved ozone number density between scans where the instrument is scanning up or scanning down was identified. The bias is largest when the sun is near the horizon and the solar scattering angle is far from 90°. It was found that calculating the multiply scattered diffuse field at five discrete solar zenith angles is sufficient to eliminate the bias for typical Odin–OSIRIS geometries.

  19. Metal additive manufacturing of a high-pressure micro-pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel W.; Weitkamp, Sander J.; Es, van J.

    2013-01-01

    For the thermal control of future space applications pumped two-phase loops are an essential part to handle the increasing thermal power densities. This study investigates the design of a reliable, leak tight, low-weight and high-pressure micro-pump for small satellite applications. The developed mi

  20. Microstructural evolution in additive manufacturing with high power lasers : Deposition, characterization and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenadl, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    High power lasers provide time and cost effective method for metallic surface modification. In this work these modifications are explored as: 1) a simple melting and subsequent rapid solidification of a metallic surface – resulting in superior properties post-treatment; 2) deposition of an

  1. Metal additive manufacturing of a high-pressure micro-pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Weitkamp, Sander J.; van Es, J.; van Es, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    For the thermal control of future space applications pumped two-phase loops are an essential part to handle the increasing thermal power densities. This study investigates the design of a reliable, leak tight, low-weight and high-pressure micro-pump for small satellite applications. The developed

  2. Microstructural evolution in additive manufacturing with high power lasers : Deposition, characterization and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenadl, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    High power lasers provide time and cost effective method for metallic surface modification. In this work these modifications are explored as: 1) a simple melting and subsequent rapid solidification of a metallic surface – resulting in superior properties post-treatment; 2) deposition of an additiona

  3. High resolution and Monte Carlo additions to the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Zawada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The OSIRIS instrument on board the Odin spacecraft has been measuring limb scattered radiance since 2001. The vertical radiance profiles measured as the instrument nods are inverted, with the aid of the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model, to obtain vertical profiles of trace atmospheric constituents. Here we describe two newly developed modes of the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model: a high spatial resolution mode, and a Monte Carlo mode. The high spatial resolution mode is a successive orders model capable of modelling the multiply scattered radiance when the atmosphere is not spherically symmetric; the Monte Carlo mode is intended for use as a highly accurate reference model. It is shown that the two models agree in a wide variety of solar conditions to within 0.2%. As an example case for both models, Odin-OSIRIS scans were simulated with the Monte Carlo model and retrieved using the high resolution model. A systematic bias of up to 4% in retrieved ozone number density between scans where the instrument is scanning up or scanning down was identified. It was found that calculating the multiply scattered diffuse field at five discrete solar zenith angles is sufficient to eliminate the bias for typical Odin-OSIRIS geometries.

  4. A highly selective fluorescent probe based on Michael addition for fast detection of hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Baozhen; Cui, Lixia; Pan, Yong; Xue, Minjie; Zhu, Boyu; Zhang, Guomei; Zhang, Caihong; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan

    2017-02-01

    A new 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide-based compound (probe 1) has been designed and synthesized. The colorimetric and fluorescent properties of probe 1 towards hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were investigated in detail. The results show that the probe 1 could selectively and sensitively recognize H2S rather than other reactive sulfur species. The reaction mechanism of this probe is an intramolecular cyclization caused by the Michael addition of H2S to give 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide. The intramolecular charge transfer of 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide is significant. Probe 1 quickly responded to H2S and showed a 75-fold fluorescence enhancement in 5 min. Moreover, probe 1 could detect H2S quantitatively with a detection limit as low as 0.23 μM.

  5. Effectiveness of Additives in Improving Fuel Lubricity and Preventing Pump Failure at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Distillation Loss, % 1.5 max 1 0.3 .1 D56 Flash point, °C 38 min 48 42 37 D4052 Density at -15°C, kg/m³ 0.801 0.742 0.769 D2386 Freezing Point, °C...Cert 2007 Diesel D93 Flash Point, °C 52 min 76.6 D2709 Water and Sediment, vol % 0.05 max 0.01 D86 Distillation temp °C Initial boiling point...The transfer pump blades are sintered metal, and likely absorbed fuel to gain weight, or gain weight due to fuel deposition. In addition all fuel

  6. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  7. Live Broadcasting of High Definition Audiovisual Content Using HDTV over Broadband IP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Vegiris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper focuses on validating an implementation of a state-of-the art audiovisual (AV technologies setup for live broadcasting of cultural shows, via broadband Internet. The main objective of the work was to study, configure, and setup dedicated audio-video equipment for the processes of capturing, processing, and transmission of extended resolution and high fidelity AV content in order to increase realism and achieve maximum audience sensation. Internet2 and GEANT broadband telecommunication networks were selected as the most applicable technology to deliver such traffic workloads. Validation procedures were conducted in combination with metric-based quality of service (QoS and quality of experience (QoE evaluation experiments for the quantification and the perceptual interpretation of the quality achieved during content reproduction. The implemented system was successfully applied in real-world applications, such as the transmission of cultural events from Thessaloniki Concert Hall throughout Greece as well as the reproduction of Philadelphia Orchestra performances (USA via Internet2 and GEANT backbones.

  8. Effect of ammonium concentration on alcoholic fermentation kinetics by wine yeasts for high sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillandier, Patricia; Ramon Portugal, Felipe; Fuster, André; Strehaiano, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Kinetics of alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains in a synthetic medium with high sugar content were established for different nitrogen initial content and are presented for four strains. The composition of the medium was close to grape must except that the nitrogen source consisted mainly in ammonium and was varied from 120 to 290 mg N/l assimilable nitrogen. The overall nitrogen consumed was also estimated in order to determine nitrogen requirement variability. The effect of assimilable nitrogen was in general greater on sugar consumption rates than on growth and three kinds of effect on sugar consumption rates were observed: (i) existence of an optimal initial nitrogen level for a maximal sugar consumption rate (inhibition if excess), (ii) no effect of nitrogen beyond the intermediary level (saturation), (iii) sugar consumption rate proportional to the initial nitrogen level (activation). In all cases, the amount of consumed nitrogen increased with its initial concentration and so did the fructophilic capacity of the strains. The optimal requirement varied from 0.62 to 0.91 mg N/g of sugars according to different strains. There was no general correlation between the sugar assimilation rates and the nitrogen requirement.

  9. Protein adsorption of dialdehyde cellulose-crosslinked chitosan with high amino group contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ung-Jin; Lee, Yeong Ro; Kang, Tong Ho; Choi, Joon Weon; Kimura, Satoshi; Wada, Masahisa

    2017-05-01

    Crosslinked chitosan was prepared by Schiff base formation between the aldehyde groups of dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) and the amino groups of chitosan and a subsequent reduction. DAC was obtained through periodate oxidation of cellulose and solubilization in hot water at 100°C for 1h. Three grades of DAC-crosslinked chitosan were prepared by adding various amounts DAC. The degrees of crosslinking as determined by amino group content were 3.8, 8.3, and 12.1%, respectively. DAC-crosslinked chitosan showed higher stability in the pH 2-9 range and no cytotoxicity was identified over the course of a 21-day long-term stability test. Also, DAC-crosslinked chitosan showed remarkably high bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption capacity at pH 5.5 as a result of the increased amino group content, due to the reaction between DAC and chitosan molecular chains occurring at multiple points even though DAC-crosslinked chitosan showed a lower degree of crosslinking.

  10. Quantitative characterization of mitosis-blocked tetraploid cells using high content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Linnette E; Ghosh, Richik N

    2006-08-01

    A range of cellular evidence supporting a G1 tetraploidy checkpoint was obtained from different assay methods including flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and microscopy. Cancer research would benefit if these cellular properties could instead be measured by a single, quantitative, automated assay method, such as high content analysis (HCA). Thus, nocodazole-treated cells were fluorescently labeled for different cell cycle-associated properties, including DNA content, retinoblastoma (Rb) and histone H3 phosphorylation, p53 and p21(WAF1) expression, nuclear and cell sizes, and cell morphology, and automatically imaged, analyzed, and correlated using HCA. HCA verified that nocodazole-induced mitosis block resulted in tetraploid cells. Rb and histone H3 were maximally hyperphosphorylated by 24 h of nocodazole treatment, accompanied by cell and nuclear size decreases and cellular rounding. Cells remained tetraploid and mononucleated with longer treatments, but other targets reverted to G1 levels, including Rb and histone H3 dephosphorylation accompanied by cellular respreading. This was accompanied by increased p53 and p21(WAF1) expression levels. The range of effects accompanying nocodazole-induced block of mitosis and the resulting tetraploid cells' reversal to a pseudo-G1 state can be quantitatively measured by HCA in an automated manner, recommending this assay method for the large-scale biology challenges of modern cancer drug discovery.

  11. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.

    1999-01-01

    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  12. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  13. Effect of Zr Addition on Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of AlFeCrCoCuZrx High-entropy Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Hong-bo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, hardness and the corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution of the as-cast AlFeCrCoCuZrx(x=0, 0.5, 1 high-entropy alloys were investigated. The results show that typically cast dendrite structure is formed in the alloys. With the increase of Zr addition, phases in the dendrite region change from single BCC structure to two phases, while phase in the interdendrite region is Cu-rich FCC structure and kept unchanged. The hardness of the alloys increases with the increase of Zr addition and hardness AlFeCrCoCuZr alloy reaches the maximum of HV 698. The corrosion resistance of these alloys in 3.5% NaCl solution is better than that of 304L stainless steel, however as the Zr content increases, the corrosion resistance of alloys is degenerated.

  14. Covalent Triazine-Based Frameworks with Ultramicropores and High Nitrogen Contents for Highly Selective CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keke; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Wang, Chang; Li, Jinping; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-05-03

    Porous organic frameworks (POFs) are a class of porous materials composed of organic precursors linked by covalent bonds. The objective of this work is to develop POFs with both ultramicropores and high nitrogen contents for CO2 capture. Specifically, two covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTFs) with ultramicropores (pores of width capture CO2 due to ultramicroporous nature. Especially, CTF-FUM-350 has the highest nitrogen content (27.64%) and thus the highest CO2 adsorption capacity (57.2 cc/g at 298 K) and selectivities for CO2 over N2 and CH4 (102.4 and 20.5 at 298 K, respectively) among all CTF-FUM and CTF-DCN. More impressively, as far as we know, the CO2/CH4 selectivity is larger than that of all reported CTFs and ranks in top 10 among all reported POFs. Dynamic breakthrough curves indicate that both CTFs could indeed separate gas mixtures of CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 completely.

  15. Single-Crystal Tungsten Carbide in High-Temperature In-Situ Additive Manufacturing Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolopus, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boatner, Lynn A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-18

    Nanoindenters are commonly used for measuring the mechanical properties of a wide variety of materials with both industrial and scientific applications. Typically, these instruments employ an indenter made of a material of suitable hardness bonded to an appropriate shaft or holder to create an indentation on the material being tested. While a variety of materials may be employed for the indenter, diamond and boron carbide are by far the most common materials used due to their hardness and other desirable properties. However, as the increasing complexity of new materials demands a broader range of testing capabilities, conventional indenter materials exhibit significant performance limitations. Among these are the inability of diamond indenters to perform in-situ measurements at temperatures above 600oC in air due to oxidation of the diamond material and subsequent degradation of the indenters mechanical properties. Similarly, boron carbide also fails at high temperature due to fracture. [1] Transition metal carbides possess a combination of hardness and mechanical properties at high temperatures that offer an attractive alternative to conventional indenter materials. Here we describe the technical aspects for the growth of single-crystal tungsten carbide (WC) for use as a high-temperature indenter material, and we examine a possible approach to brazing these crystals to a suitable mount for grinding and attachment to the indenter instrument. The use of a by-product of the recovery process is also suggested as possibly having commercial value.

  16. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  17. Functionalisation of mesoporous materials for application as additives in high temperature PEM fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Monir

    2012-03-06

    The presented thesis contains six original research articles dedicated to the preparation and characterization of organic-inorganic mesoporous materials as additives for polymer electroly1e membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The mesoporous materials Si-MCM-41 and benzene-PMO (periodic mesoporous organosilica) were chosen for the investigations. These materials were modified with functional groups for enhanced proton conductivity and water-keeping properties. In order to improve these materials Broenstedt acidic groups were introduced in the framework of mesoporous Si-MCM-41. Therefore, some silicium atoms in the framework were substituted by aluminium using different aluminium sources. Here NaAlO{sub 2} exhibits clearly the best results because the entire aluminium incorporated within the framework is tetragonally coordinated as observed by {sup 2}7AI MAS NMR. The increase of the proton conductivities results from an improved hydrophilicity, a decreased particle size, and newly introduced Broenstedt acidity in the mesoporous Al-MCM-41. However, mesoporous Si-MCM-41 materials functionalised by co-condensation with sulphonic acid groups exhibit the best results concerning proton conductivity, compared to those prepared by grafting. Hence, these materials where characterized in more detail by SANS and by MAS NMR measurements. The first one indicated that by co-condensation the entire inner pore surface is altered by functional groups which are, thus, distributed much more homogeneously than samples functionalised by grafting. This result explains the improved proton conductivities. Additionally, {sup 2}9Si NMR spectra proved that samples prepared by co-condensation lead to a successful and almost complete incorporation of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilan (MPMS) into the mesoporous framework. Furthermore, it was shown by {sup 1}3C MAS NMR spectroscopy that the majority of the organic functional groups remained intact after H{sub 2}0{sub 2}-oxidation. However, proton

  18. Analysis of Information Content in High-Spectral Resolution Sounders using Subset Selection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Reyes, Miguel; Joiner, Joanna

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the results of the sensitivity analysis and data reduction carried out to determine the information content of AIRS and IASI channels. The analysis and data reduction was based on the use of subset selection techniques developed in the linear algebra and statistical community to study linear dependencies in high dimensional data sets. We applied the subset selection method to study dependency among channels by studying the dependency among their weighting functions. Also, we applied the technique to study the information provided by the different levels in which the atmosphere is discretized for retrievals and analysis. Results from the method correlate well with intuition in many respects and point out to possible modifications for band selection in sensor design and number and location of levels in the analysis process.

  19. THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF POTASSIUM GERMANATE GLASS WITH HIGH CONTENT OF NIOBIUM OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRĐAN D.MATIJAŠEVIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potassium germanate glass with molar ratio [GeO2]/[K2O] = 1.2 and Nb2O5 content of 34 mol% have been synthesized by a melt-quenching method. The crystallization behavior under non-isothermal and isothermal crystallization conditions was investigated. The results showed that this glass exposed complex primary crystallization. In the temperature range 800 °C. K10Nb22Ge4O68 and metastable KNbO3 and K4Nb6O17 were formed as secondary phases. The crystallization commenced at T > 640 °C with high homogeneous nucleation rate and spherulite crystal growth morphology. DTA curves recorded for powder samples particle size 0.1 mm showed two exothermic peaks and two endothermic peaks within temperature range of T = 640-1020 °C. The analysis of the dominant crystallization mechanism of powder glass sample and kinetics of crystallization is presented.

  20. Bench-scale synthesis of zeolite A from subbituminous coal ashes with high crystalline silica content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareonpanich, M.; Jullaphan, O.; Tang, C. [Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-15

    In this present work, fly ash and bottom ash with high crystalline silica content were obtained from the coal-fired boilers within the paper industries in Thailand. These coal ashes were used as the basic raw materials for synthetic zeolite production. The crystal type and crystallinity, specific surface area and pore size, and textural properties of zeolite products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), N{sub 2} sorption analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. It was found that sodalite octahydrate was selectively formed via the direct conventional (one-step) synthesis, whereas through a two-step, sodium silicate preparation and consecutive zeolite A synthesis process, 94 and 72 wt.% zeolite A products could be produced from the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively. The cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of fly ash and bottom ash-derived zeolite A products were closely similar to that of the commercial grade zeolite A.

  1. Process modules for GeSn nanoelectronics with high Sn-contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Braucks, C.; Glass, S.; Hofmann, E.; Stange, D.; von den Driesch, N.; Hartmann, J. M.; Ikonic, Z.; Zhao, Q. T.; Buca, D.; Mantl, S.

    2017-02-01

    This paper systematically studies GeSn n-FETs, from individual process modules to a complete device. High-k gate stacks and NiGeSn metallic contacts for source and drain are characterized in independent experiments. To study both direct and indirect bandgap semiconductors, a range of 0-14.5 at.% Sn-content GeSn alloys are investigated. Special emphasis is placed on capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and Schottky-barrier optimization. GeSn n-FET devices are presented including temperature dependent I-V characteristics. Finally, as an important step towards implementing GeSn in tunnel-FETs, negative differential resistance in Ge0.87Sn0.13 tunnel-diodes is demonstrated at cryogenic temperatures. The present work provides a base for further optimization of GeSn FETs and novel tunnel FET devices.

  2. High solids content, soap-free, film-forming latexes stabilized by laponite clay platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Guimarães, Thiago Rodrigues; Pereira, Ana Maria Cenacchi; Alves, Gizelda Maria; Moreira, José Carlos; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Dos Santos, Amilton Martins

    2010-11-01

    High solids content film-forming poly[styrene-co-(n-butyl acrylate)] [poly(Sty-co-BuA)] latexes armored with Laponite clay platelets have been synthesized by soap-free emulsion copolymerization of styrene and n-butyl acrylate. The polymerizations were performed in batch in the presence of Laponite and a methyl ether acrylate-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomer in order to promote polymer/clay association. The overall polymerization kinetics showed a pronounced effect of clay on nucleation and stabilization of the latex particles. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy observation confirmed the armored morphology and indicated that the majority of Laponite platelets were located at the particle surface. The resulting nanostructured films displayed enhanced mechanical properties.

  3. Colloidal processing of Fe-based metal ceramic composites with high content of ceramic reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escribano, J. A.; Ferrari, B.; Alvaredo, P.; Gordo, E.; Sanchez-Herencia, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    Major difficulties of processing metal-matrix composites by means of conventional powder metallurgy techniques are the lack of dispersion of the phases within the final microstructure. In this work, processing through colloidal techniques of the Fe-based metal-matrix composites, with a high content of a ceramic reinforcement (Ti(C,N) ), is presented for the first time in the literature. The colloidal approach allows a higher control of the powders packing and a better homogenization of phases since powders are mixed in a liquid medium. The chemical stability of Fe in aqueous medium determines the dispersion conditions of the mixture. The Fe slurries were formulated by optimising their zeta potential and their rheology, in order to shape bulk pieces by slip-casting. Preliminary results demonstrate the viability of this procedure, also opening new paths to the microstructural design of fully sintered Fe-based hard metal, with 50 vol. % of Ti(C,N) in its composition. (Author)

  4. tranSMART: An Open Source Knowledge Management and High Content Data Analytics Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Elisabeth; Aronzon, Dina; Coopersmith, Robert; McDuffie, Michael T; Kapoor, Manish; Uhrich, Christopher A; Avitabile, Jean E; Liu, Jinlei; Housman, Dan; Palchuk, Matvey B

    2014-01-01

    The tranSMART knowledge management and high-content analysis platform is a flexible software framework featuring novel research capabilities. It enables analysis of integrated data for the purposes of hypothesis generation, hypothesis validation, and cohort discovery in translational research. tranSMART bridges the prolific world of basic science and clinical practice data at the point of care by merging multiple types of data from disparate sources into a common environment. The application supports data harmonization and integration with analytical pipelines. The application code was released into the open source community in January 2012, with 32 instances in operation. tranSMART's extensible data model and corresponding data integration processes, rapid data analysis features, and open source nature make it an indispensable tool in translational or clinical research.

  5. Subfamily logos: visualization of sequence deviations at alignment positions with high information content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beitz Eric

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.

  6. MALDI-TOF MS for quality control of high protein content sport supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima D; Zambonin, Carlo G

    2015-06-01

    High protein content sport nutritional supplements are found as powder products containing, as ingredients, amino acids and proteins with important nutritional values as milk, soy and egg proteins. An EU Food Supplements Directive (2002) requires that supplements should be safe, both in dosages and in purity. It is important, then, to develop rapid and sensitive methods to be employed for the quality control of these substances. In this work, we apply, for the first time, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry as a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for the quality control of sport nutritional supplements based on proteins. To this aim, several commercial egg- and/or milk-based powder products have been processed by in gel or in solution digestion and analyzed in comparison to pure standard products. This strategy allowed to assess the reliability of the indications on proteins (as caseins, whey proteins and ovalbumin) declared in the label of several sport nutritional supplements.

  7. High Stellar FUV/NUV Ratio and Oxygen Contents in the Atmospheres of Potentially Habitable Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Feng; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Mauas, Pablo J D; Vieytes, Mariela C

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of several planet-hosting M dwarfs show that most have FUV/NUV flux ratios 1000 times greater than that of the Sun. Here we show that the atmospheric oxygen contents (O2 and O3) of potentially habitable planets in this type of UV environment could be 2~3 orders of magnitude greater than those of their counterparts around Sun-like stars as a result of decreased photolysis of O3, H2O2, and HO2. Thus detectable levels of atmospheric oxygen, in combination with the existence of H2O and CO2, may not be the most promising biosignatures on planets around stars with high FUV/NUV ratios such as the observed M dwarfs.

  8. Understanding a High School Physics Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlan; Buck, Gayle A.

    2016-08-01

    Scientific argumentation is an important learning objective in science education. It is also an effective instructional approach to constructivist science learning. The implementation of argumentation in school settings requires science teachers, who are pivotal agents of transforming classroom practices, to develop sophisticated knowledge of argumentation. However, there is a lack of understanding about science teachers' knowledge of argumentation, especially the dialogic meaning of argumentation. In this case study, we closely examine a high school physics teacher's argumentation-related pedagogic content knowledge (PCK) in the context of dialogic argumentation. We synthesize the teacher's performed PCK from his argumentation practices and narrated PCK from his reflection on the argumentation practices, from which we summarize his PCK of argumentation from the perspectives of orientation, instructional strategies, students, curriculum, and assessment. Finally, we describe the teacher's perception and adaption of argumentation in his class. We also identity the barriers to argumentation implementation in this particular case and suggest solutions to overcome these barriers.

  9. Modeling of Flow Stress of High Titanium Content 6061 Aluminum Alloy Under Hot Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Guan, Yingping; Wang, Zhenhua

    2016-09-01

    Hot compression tests were performed on high titanium content 6061 aluminum alloy (AA 6061-Ti) using a Gleeble-3500 thermomechanical testing system at temperatures from 350 to 510 °C with a constant strain rate in the range of 0.001-10 s-1. Three types of flow stress models were established from the experimental stress-strain curves, the correlation coefficient ( R), mean absolute relative error ( MARE), and root mean square deviation ( RMSD) between the predicted data and the experimental data were also calculated. The results show that the Fields-Backofen model, which includes a softening factor, was the simplest mathematical expression with a level of precision appropriate for the numerical simulations. However, the Arrhenius and artificial neural network (ANN) models were also consistent with the experimental results but they are more limited in their application in terms of their accuracy and the mathematical expression of the models.

  10. Doping of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} with high As content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levander, A.X.; Novikov, S.V.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; dos Reis, R.; Dubon, O.D.; Wu, J.; Foxon, C.T.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2011-09-22

    Recent work has shown that GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} can be grown across the entire composition range by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy with intermediate compositions being amorphous, but control of the electrical properties through doping is critical for functionalizing this material. Here we report the bipolar doping of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} with high As content to conductivities above 4 S/cm at room temperature using Mg or Te. The carrier type was confirmed by thermopower measurements. Doping requires an increase in Ga flux during growth resulting in a mixed phase material of polycrystalline GaAs:N embedded in amorphous GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x}.

  11. Skin-effect down hole electric heater for heavy oil and high wax content oil applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenglin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanhua [Liaoning Huafu Petroleum High-Tech Co., Ltd. (China); Xiao, Jon H; Klotz, Eric [ANDMIR Environmental Group Canada Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the increased production of oil and the depletion of conventional reserves, operators have started to exploit heavy oil and high wax content oil. Adequate production of such oils is difficult to achieve due to viscosity increase and mobility decrease during lifting as a result of heat loss. The down-hole electric heater has been developed to resolve these issues with the application of skin-effect electric heating technology. The aim of this paper is to present how this technology improves the production of heavy oil and waxy oil. Applications of the technology to wells in Chinese oilfields are studied. Results proved the technology to be efficient while being based on a simple process and operating in an easy and safe manner. This paper showed that the down-hole electric heater is a breakthrough technology, resolving the issues encountered in the heavy oil and waxy oil exploitation field, with broad application prospects.

  12. Characterization of SPAD Array for Multifocal High-Content Screening Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Tsikouras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Current instruments used to detect specific protein-protein interactions in live cells for applications in high-content screening (HCS are limited by the time required to measure the lifetime. Here, a 32 × 1 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD array was explored as a detector for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM in HCS. Device parameters and characterization results were interpreted in the context of the application to determine if the SPAD array could satisfy the requirements of HCS-FLIM. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using a known fluorescence standard; and the recovered fluorescence lifetime matched literature reported values. The design of a theoretical 32 × 32 SPAD array was also considered as a detector for a multi-point confocal scanning microscope.

  13. Identifying Content Knowledge for Teaching Energy: Examples from High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Amy D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Daane, Abigail R.; Gray, Kara E.; Aker, Leanna B.

    2017-01-01

    "Content knowledge for teaching" is the specialized content knowledge that teachers use in practice the content knowledge that serves them for tasks of teaching such as revoicing students' ideas, choosing an instructional activity to address a student misunderstanding, and evaluating student statements. We describe a methodology for…

  14. Identifying Content Knowledge for Teaching Energy: Examples from High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Amy D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Daane, Abigail R.; Gray, Kara E.; Aker, Leanna B.

    2017-01-01

    "Content knowledge for teaching" is the specialized content knowledge that teachers use in practice the content knowledge that serves them for tasks of teaching such as revoicing students' ideas, choosing an instructional activity to address a student misunderstanding, and evaluating student statements. We describe a methodology for…

  15. High-Temperature Oxidation of Fe3Al Intermetallic Alloy Prepared by Additive Manufacturing LENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Łyszkowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal oxidation of Fe-28Al-5Cr (at% intermetallic alloy microalloyed with Zr and B (<0.08 at% in air atmosphere, in the temperature range of 1000 to 1200 °C, was studied. The investigation was carried out on the thin-walled (<1 mm elements prepared by Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS from alloy powder of a given composition. Characterization of the specimens, after the oxidation, was conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, with back-scatter detector (BSE and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS attachments. The investigation has shown, that the oxidized samples were covered with a thin, homogeneous α-Al2O3 oxide layers. The intensity of their growth indicates that the material lost its resistance to oxidation at 1200 °C. Structural analysis of the thin-walled components’ has not shown intensification of the oxidation process at the joints of additive layers.

  16. Effect of Metal Additives on the Combustion Characteristics of High-Energy Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculation of combustion parameters and equilibrium composition of HEMs combustion products showed, that at the increase of aluminum powder dispersity the specific impulse and combustion temperature of solid propellants are reduced due to the decrease of the mass fraction of active aluminum in particles. Partial or complete replacement of aluminum by metal powder (B, Mg, AlB2, Al\\Mg alloy, Fe, Ti and Zr in HEMs composition leads to the reduce of the specific impulse and combustion temperature. Replacement of aluminum powder by boron and magnesium in HEM reduces the mass fraction of condensed products in the combustion chamber of solid rocket motor. So, for compositions HEMs with boron and aluminum boride the mass fraction in chamber is reduced by 24 and 36 %, respectively, with respect to the composition HEMs with Al powder. But the mass fraction of CCPs in the nozzle exit increases by 13 % for HEMs with aluminum boride due to the formation of boron oxide in the condensed combustion products. Partial replacement of 2 wt. % aluminum powder by iron and copper additives in HEM leads to the reduce of CCPs mass fraction in chamber by 4–10 % depending on the aluminum powder dispersity duo to these metals are not formed condensed products at the HEMs combustion in chamber.

  17. ADDITIONAL LANGUAGES AT HIGH SCHOOL: FROM THE ZONE OF (INDIFFERENCE TO THE ZONE OF TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia da Gama Torres

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we argue that traditional stereotypes related to the language learners such as non-native speaker; prejudices regarding the way communicative practices across languages take place may darken the communicative practices that arise locally. Such situated practices, as long as recognized, have the potential to become resources for the organization of learning and to broaden one’s participation in various domains of everyday life. It is noteworthy that any possibility of widening participation is mediated by locally situated interaction, which is open to interpretation. We understand that, in an additional language, people may be able to use situated communicative practices to participate in experiences with the emerging language and thus achieve their social goals. We conclude that failure to recognize the wealth of heterogeneity that may arise locally is a great loss and in order to recognize and interpret it in real time there is a need to overcome the conception of language as a modern and static object. Based on the principles of Critical Applied Linguistics and Sociocultural Studies, we seek to present a theoretical discussion about the need for understanding communicative practices at school beyond the traditional standards, which are grounded on essentialized structures and on a monolingual ideology.

  18. High-performance lubricant additives based on modified graphene oxide by ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Liping

    2015-08-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a layered material bearing a variety of oxygen-containing functional groups on its basal planes and edges, which allow it as a substrate to conduct a variety of chemical transformations. Here modified graphene oxide (MGO) was prepared using alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (LB104), 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (LP104) and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) amide (LF106)) via epoxide ring-opening reaction, cation-π stacking or van der Waals interactions, with LB104 modified graphene (MG) exfoliated from graphite rod by a moderate electrochemical method as a comparison. The stability and tribological properties of MGO and MG as multialkylated cyclopentanes (MACs) additives were investigated in detail. The results show that GO is converted into graphene through the chemical modification using ILs, and MGO with good dispersion and stability in MACs significantly improves the tribological performance (friction and wear were reduced about 27% and 74% with pure MACs as a comparison, respectively). The excellent tribological properties are attributed to the formation of an ILs-containing graphene-rich tribofilm on the sliding surfaces, which as the third body can prevent the sliding surfaces from straight asperity contact and improve friction reducing and anti-wear behaviors.

  19. Solar activity variability in the IRI at high latitudes: Comparisons with GPS total electron content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themens, David R.; Jayachandran, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    Total electron content (TEC) measurements from 10 dual-frequency GPS receivers in the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN) are used to evaluate the performance of International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)-2007 within the Canadian sector. Throughout the region, we see systematic underestimation of daytime TEC, particularly at solar maximum, where summer and equinox root-mean-square errors reach as high as 14 total electron content units, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU). It is also shown that the use of a monthly IG index, in place of the IRI's standard IG12 index, leads to an improvement in TEC specification by up to 3 TECU in the polar cap and up to 6 TECU in the subauroral region during periods of short-term, large amplitude changes in solar activity. On diurnal timescales, variability in TEC is found to be underestimated by the IRI, during equinox periods, by up to 40% at subauroral latitudes and up to 70% in the polar cap region. During the winter, diurnal variations are overestimated by up to 40% in the subauroral region and are underestimated within the polar cap by up to 80%. Using collocated ionosonde data, we find IRI bottomside TEC to be within 1 TECU of observation with errors largest during the equinoxes. For the topside we find good agreement during the winter but significant underestimation of topside TEC by the IRI during summer and equinox periods, exceeding 6 TECU at times. By ingesting measured NmF2 into the IRI, we show that the topside thickness parameterization is the source of the bulk of the observed TEC errors.

  20. Axillary block duration and related hemodynamic changes: high versus low dose Adrenaline addition to Lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariat Moharari R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Axillary block is used for inducing anesthesia in outpatient hand and forearm surgeries. Few researches have studied hemodynamic and blockade effects of low doses of Epinephrine. The aim of the present study was to compare the duration of analgesia and hemodynamic changes following the injection of high/low epinephrine doses in such surgeries. "nMethods: The present randomized clinical trial study was conducted on healthy individuals (ASA I-II who were candidates for hand and forearm surgeries. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. The first two groups were allocated to receive lidocaine with low (0.6µg/cc and high (5µg/cc doses of epinephrine whereas lidocaine plus normal saline was injected in the third group. The hemodynamic changes (Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate and the occurance of any side-effects along with the duration of analgesia and motor block were recorded. "nResults: From among the total of 75 patients, 15 cases were excluded due to incomplete blockade or failure needing general anesthesia. The duration of analgesia and the motor block were longer in the high dose epinephrine group, the difference, however, was not statistically significant. Heart rate changes within the groups was significant in the 4th-7th and 10th minutes. Mean arterial blood pressure changes was only significant in the 4th minute, within the groups. "nConclusions: Administering low doses of epinephrine plus lidocaine as a local anesthetic not only provides acceptable analgesia compared to higher doses of the medication, but also is associated with fewer side effects.

  1. Effects of Fibre Additive on the High Temperature Property of Asphalt Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Polyester fibre and floc xylogen fibre were used to prepare fibre-asphalt binder.An SHRP's dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) was employed to investigate the rheology charac teristics of fibre-asphalt binder, andthe flow resistance of binder was revealed by combining the rutting parameter, G * / sinδ.The results indicate that both kinds of fibres remarkably improved the high temperature pe~orrnance of asphalt binder.At the same time, the reinforcement mechanism of the fibres in the asphalt binder was also analyzed.

  2. Carbamoyl anion addition to N-sulfinyl imines: highly diastereoselective synthesis of α-amino amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Jonathan T; Tan, Zhulin; Herbage, Melissa A; Han, Zhengxu S; Marsini, Maurice A; Li, Zhibin; Li, Guisheng; Xu, Yibo; Fandrick, Keith R; Gonnella, Nina C; Campbell, Scot; Ma, Shengli; Grinberg, Nelu; Lee, Heewon; Lu, Bruce Z; Senanayake, Chris H

    2013-04-17

    Carbamoyl anions, generated from N,N-disubstituted formamides and lithium diisopropylamide, add with high diastereoselectivity to chiral N-sulfinyl aldimines and ketimines to provide α-amino amides. The methodology enables the direct introduction of a carbonyl group without the requirement of unmasking steps as with other nucleophiles. The products may be converted to α-amino esters or 1,2-diamines. Iterative application of the reaction enabled the stereoselective synthesis of a dipeptide. Spectroscopic and computational studies support an anion structure with η(2) coordination of lithium by the carbonyl group.

  3. High temperature ultralow water content carbon dioxide-in-water foam stabilized with viscoelastic zwitterionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzobaidi, Shehab; Da, Chang; Tran, Vu; Prodanović, Maša; Johnston, Keith P

    2017-02-15

    Ultralow water content carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) foams with gas phase volume fractions (ϕ) above 0.95 (that is foams may be stabilized with viscoelastic aqueous phases formed with a single zwitterionic surfactant at a concentration of only 1% (w/v) in DI water and over a wide range of salinity. Moreover, they are stable with a foam quality ϕ up to 0.98 even for temperatures up to 120°C. The properties of aqueous viscoelastic solutions and foams containing these solutions are examined for a series of zwitterionic amidopropylcarbobetaines, R-ONHC3H6N(CH3)2CH2CO2, where R is varied from C12-14 (coco) to C18 (oleyl) to C22 (erucyl). For the surfactants with long C18 and C22 tails, the relaxation times from complex rheology indicate the presence of viscoelastic wormlike micelles over a wide range in salinity and pH, given the high surfactant packing fraction. The apparent viscosities of these ultralow water content foams reached more than 120cP with stabilities more than 30-fold over those for foams formed with the non-viscoelastic C12-14 surfactant. At 90°C, the foam morphology was composed of ∼35μm diameter bubbles with a polyhedral texture. The apparent foam viscosity typically increased with ϕ and then dropped at ϕ values higher than 0.95-0.98. The Ostwald ripening rate was slower for foams with viscoelastic versus non-viscoelastic lamellae as shown by optical microscopy, as a consequence of slower lamellar drainage rates. The ability to achieve high stabilities for ultralow water content C/W foams over a wide temperature range is of interest in various technologies including polymer and materials science, CO2 enhanced oil recovery, CO2 sequestration (by greater control of the CO2 flow patterns), and possibly even hydraulic fracturing with minimal use of water to reduce the requirements for wastewater disposal.

  4. Spatial variability in the soil water content of a Mediterranean agroforestry system with high soil heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Antonio Jaime; Llorens, Pilar; Aranda, Xavier; Savé, Robert; Biel, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Variability of soil water content is known to increase with the size of spatial domain in which measurements are taken. At field scale, heterogeneity in soil, vegetation, topography, water input volume and management affects, among other factors, hydrologic plot behaviour under different mean soil water contents. The present work studies how the spatial variability of soil water content (SWC) is affected by soil type (texture, percentage of stones and the combination of them) in a timber-orientated plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) under Mediterranean climatic conditions. The experimental design is a randomized block one with 3 blocks * 4 treatments, based on two factors: irrigation (6 plots irrigated versus 6 plots not irrigated) and soil management (6 plots tillaged versus 6 plots not tillaged). SWC is continuously measured at 25, 50 and 100 cm depth with FDR sensors, located at two positions in each treatment: under tree influence and 2.5 m apart. This study presents the results of the monitoring during 2012 of the 24 sensors located at the 25 cm depth. In each of the measurement point, texture and percentage of stones were measured. Sandy-loam, sandy-clay-loam and loam textures were found together with a percentage of stones ranging from 20 to 70 %. The results indicated that the relationship between the daily mean SWC and its standard deviation, a common procedure used to study spatial variability, changed with texture, percentage of stones and the estimation of field capacity from the combination of both. Temporal stability analysis of SWC showed a clear pattern related to field capacity, with the measurement points of the sandy-loam texture and the high percentage of stones showing the maximun negative diference with the global mean. The high range in the mean relative difference observed (± 75 %), could indicate that the studied plot may be considered as a good field-laboratory to extrapolate results at higher spatial scales. Furthermore, the

  5. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fiber-Wood-Plastic Composites via Maleic Anhydride Grafted High-Density Polyethylene (MAPE Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanisms, using microscopy and strength testing approaches, by which the addition of maleic anhydride grafted high-density polyethylene (MAPE enhances the mechanical properties of basalt fiber-wood-plastic composites (BF-WPCs. The maximum values of the specific tensile and flexural strengths are achieved at a MAPE content of 5%–8%. The elongation increases rapidly at first and then continues slowly. The nearly complete integration of the wood fiber with the high-density polyethylene upon MAPE addition to WPC is examined, and two models of interfacial behavior are proposed. We examined the physical significance of both interfacial models and their ability to accurately describe the effects of MAPE addition. The mechanism of formation of the Model I interface and the integrated matrix is outlined based on the chemical reactions that may occur between the various components as a result of hydrogen bond formation or based on the principle of compatibility, resulting from similar polarity. The Model I fracture occurred on the outer surface of the interfacial layer, visually demonstrating the compatibilization effect of MAPE addition.

  6. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on carbon-nitrogen content and nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover in a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Tahir, M. M.; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2014-10-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, soil properties improvement and plant growth promotion. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water filled pore space (WFPS)) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues i.e. the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Poplus euramericana, Rubinia pseudoacacia and Elagnus umbellate incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed wide variation in total N, carbon, lignin, polyphenols and C/N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of G. max and the shoot and root of T. repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% of added N being released from these resources. The roots of G. max and Z. mays and the shoot of Z. mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation showing net immobilization. After an initial immobilization, leaves of P. euramericana, R. pseudoacacia and E. umbellate exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively and representing a 16, 32 and 33% of added N being released. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01), and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C/N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin/N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and ligin + polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating

  7. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover and carbon content of a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleeem Abbasi, M.; Tahir, M. Mahmood; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2015-02-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in soil-plant systems. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water-filled pore space) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues, i.e., the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata, incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed a wide variation in total N, C, lignin, polyphenols and C / N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of Glycine max and the shoot and root of Trifolium repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% recovery of N that had been released from these added resources. The roots of Glycine max and Zea mays and the shoot of Zea mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation. After an initial immobilization, leaves of Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively, and representing a 16, 32 and 33% N recovery, respectively. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01) and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C / N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin / N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol / N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and (lignin + polyphenol) : N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating a

  8. Cultivation Methods for Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with High Soluble Solids Content Using the Vertically Split Root System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HAYASHI, Hiroyuki; TOYOFUKU, Kyoko; TAGUCHI, Takiko; OGAWA, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    For the cultivation of tomatoes with high soluble solids content, the root system was split vertically and irrigation to the upper part of the root system was stopped to create split vertically (SR treatment...

  9. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models: e0148379

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin; Gerald Fontenay; Qingsu Cheng; Hang Chang; Ju Han; Bahram Parvin

    2016-01-01

    ...) cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony...

  10. Retardation the dewetting dynamics of ultrathin polystyrene films using highly branched aromatic molecules as additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pangpaiboon, Nampueng [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Traiphol, Nisanart, E-mail: Nisanart.T@chula.ac.th [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Promarak, Vinich [School of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Traiphol, Rakchart, E-mail: Rakchartt@nu.ac.th [Laboratory of Advanced Polymers and Nanomaterials, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); NANOTEC-MU Excellence Center on Intelligent Materials and Systems, Faculty of Science, Rama 6 Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-12-02

    This study introduces a new class of materials as a dewetting inhibitor for polystyrene (PS) ultrathin films. Two types of highly branched aromatic (HBA) molecules are added into PS films with thicknesses of 7 nm and 23 nm. Their concentrations range from 0.75 to 5 wt.%. The films are annealed in vacuum oven at elevated temperatures to accelerate dewetting process. Evolution of the film morphologies is followed by utilizing atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy. Contact angle measurements are used to evaluate interfacial interactions in each system. Dewetting area as a function of annealing time and HBA concentration are calculated. We have found that the presence of only 0.5 wt.% HBA can suppress the dewetting dynamics of PS films. Increasing the HBA concentration from 0.5 to 5 wt.% causes systematic decrease of the dewetting rate. In this system, the HBA molecules behave as physical cross-linking points for PS chains, which lead to the improvement of film stability. The efficiency of HBA as a dewetting inhibitor varies with molecular weight of PS while the change of HBA structure hardly affects the dewetting behaviors. - Highlights: • New method for improving stability of polystyrene (PS) thin films • Highly branched aromatic molecules (HBA) are used to suppress the dewetting. • Thermal stability of blended PS/HBA films greatly improves. • The effectiveness of HBA varies with molecular weight of PS. • Important results for designing materials in coating application.

  11. Factors affecting high-pressure solvent extraction (accelerated solvent extraction) of additives from polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburg, H J; Clifford, A A; Bartle, K D; Zhu, S A; Carroll, J; Newton, I D; Garden, L M

    1998-05-01

    Irganox 1010 (pentaerythritol tetrakis[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)] propionate) is successfully extracted from polypropylene using solvents at high temperatures and pressures in a homemade accelerated solvent extraction system. For example, using freeze-ground polymer, 90% extraction is possible within 5 min with 2-propanol at 150 °C. Extraction curves for 2-propanol and acetone fit well to the "hot ball" model, previously developed for supercritical fluid extraction. Diffusion coefficients are determined for extractions with 2-propanol, acetone, and cyclohexane over a range of temperatures, and the activation energies for the diffusion are 134, 107, and 61 kJ mol(-)(1), respectively. The lower figure for acetone and cyclohexane indicates that these solvents swell the polymer more than does 2-propanol. The polymer dissolves in the solvent at too high a temperature, which causes blockage of the transfer lines. For maximum extraction rates, the highest temperature for each solvent that avoids dissolution of the polymer should be used. The use of mixed solvents is investigated and shows advantages in some cases, with the aim of producing a solvent that will swell the polymer but not dissolve it.

  12. Difference in high-temperature oxidation resistance of amorphous Zr-Si-N and W-Si-N films with a high Si content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeman, P. [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 306 14 Plzen (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: zemanp@kfy.zcu.cz; Musil, J. [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 306 14 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2006-09-30

    The high-temperature oxidation resistance of amorphous Zr-Si-N and W-Si-N films with a high Si content ({>=}20 at.%) deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at different partial pressures of nitrogen was systematically investigated by means of a symmetrical high-resolution thermogravimetry in a flowing air up to an annealing temperature of 1300 deg. C (a temperature limit for Si(1 0 0) substrate). Additional analyses including X-ray diffraction (XRD), light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and microhardness measurement were carried out as well. The obtained results showed (i) an excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance of the Zr-Si-N films up to 1300 deg. C, (ii) a considerably lower oxidation resistance of the W-Si-N films. The W-Si-N films are completely oxidized at 800 deg. C with a subsequent volatilization of unstable WO {sub x} oxides. On the other hand, the Zr-Si-N films are oxidized only very slightly on the surface, where a stable oxide barrier layer preventing further inward oxygen diffusion is formed. The thickness of the oxide layer is only about of 3% of the total film thickness. The phase composition, thermal stability of individual phases and amorphous structure were found to be key factors to achieve a high oxidation resistance.

  13. Impact of electrolyte solvent and additive choices on high voltage Li-ion pouch cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jian; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Zhonghua; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    The effects that various electrolyte solvents and electrolyte additives had on both LaPO4-coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 and uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite pouch cells were studied using automated storage, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, gas production and long-term cycling experiments. Storage experiments showed that the voltage drop during storage at 4.3 or 4.4 V for both coated and uncoated cells was very similar for the same electrolyte choice. At 4.5 V or above, the LaPO4-coated cells had a significantly smaller voltage drop than the uncoated cells except when fluorinated electrolytes were used. Automated charge discharge cycling/impedance spectroscopy testing of cells held at 4.5 V for 24 h every cycle showed that all cells containing ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte or sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte exhibited severe capacity fade. By contrast, cells containing fluorinated electrolytes had the best capacity retention and smallest impedance growth during these aggressive cycling/hold tests. Long-term cycling experiments to 4.5 V confirmed that cells containing fluorinated electrolyte had the best cycling performance in the uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells while cells containing sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte had the best cycling performance in coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells.

  14. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties According to Nb Content of High Strength Steel Manufactured in VIM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byung-Hui Choi; Byung-Ki Choi

    2008-01-01

    As the aircraft and aerospace industry and the automobile industry are developed, the demand of reliable materials with high strength and high toughness is steadily increased. The grain miniature method which improves the ductility and the toughness simultaneously under high strength is the miniature of the casting microstructure. In this paper, the Nb which affects the austenite grain miniature is added by 0.00%, 0.03% and 0.06% in this steel and the ingot is manufactured in a vacuum induction melting furnace (VIM). The castingmi crostructure and the mechanical property of the maraging steel according to Nb contents are analyzed by conducting the solution annealing and the age hardening after hot rolling. In this result, a specimen containing 0.03% Nb is most miniature. When it does the long time age hardening, the precipitation estimated as the carbide is appeared. The mechanical properties are excellent if a specimen containing 0.06% Nb does the age hardening during 8 h in 482℃.

  15. Predicting In Vivo Anti-Hepatofibrotic Drug Efficacy Based on In Vitro High-Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baixue; Tan, Looling; Mo, Xuejun; Yu, Weimiao; Wang, Yan; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Welsch, Roy E.; So, Peter T. C.; Yu, Hanry

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Many anti-fibrotic drugs with high in vitro efficacies fail to produce significant effects in vivo. The aim of this work is to use a statistical approach to design a numerical predictor that correlates better with in vivo outcomes. Methods High-content analysis (HCA) was performed with 49 drugs on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) LX-2 stained with 10 fibrotic markers. ∼0.3 billion feature values from all cells in >150,000 images were quantified to reflect the drug effects. A systematic literature search on the in vivo effects of all 49 drugs on hepatofibrotic rats yields 28 papers with histological scores. The in vivo and in vitro datasets were used to compute a single efficacy predictor (Epredict). Results We used in vivo data from one context (CCl4 rats with drug treatments) to optimize the computation of Epredict. This optimized relationship was independently validated using in vivo data from two different contexts (treatment of DMN rats and prevention of CCl4 induction). A linear in vitro-in vivo correlation was consistently observed in all the three contexts. We used Epredict values to cluster drugs according to efficacy; and found that high-efficacy drugs tended to target proliferation, apoptosis and contractility of HSCs. Conclusions The Epredict statistic, based on a prioritized combination of in vitro features, provides a better correlation between in vitro and in vivo drug response than any of the traditional in vitro markers considered. PMID:22073152

  16. High content screening of a kinase-focused library reveals compounds broadly-active against dengue viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deu John M Cruz

    Full Text Available Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has a large impact in global health. It is considered as one of the medically important arboviruses, and developing a preventive or therapeutic solution remains a top priority in the medical and scientific community. Drug discovery programs for potential dengue antivirals have increased dramatically over the last decade, largely in part to the introduction of high-throughput assays. In this study, we have developed an image-based dengue high-throughput/high-content assay (HT/HCA using an innovative computer vision approach to screen a kinase-focused library for anti-dengue compounds. Using this dengue HT/HCA, we identified a group of compounds with a 4-(1-aminoethyl-N-methylthiazol-2-amine as a common core structure that inhibits dengue viral infection in a human liver-derived cell line (Huh-7.5 cells. Compounds CND1201, CND1203 and CND1243 exhibited strong antiviral activities against all four dengue serotypes. Plaque reduction and time-of-addition assays suggests that these compounds interfere with the late stage of viral infection cycle. These findings demonstrate that our image-based dengue HT/HCA is a reliable tool that can be used to screen various chemical libraries for potential dengue antiviral candidates.

  17. Highly Efficient Conjugate Addition of Amines to Electron Deficient Alkenes Catalyzed by KF Supported on Metal Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG, Xuezheng; ZHANG, Jinga; BAO, Shaohua; YANG, Jianguo

    2009-01-01

    A novel efficient procedure has been developed for the conjugate addition of amines to electron deficient al- kenes. A series of KF supported on different carders have been synthesized for the conjugate addition amines to al- kenes. After optimizing the reaction conditions, KF/MgO was chosen as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions. The results showed that the catalyst was very efficient for the conjugate addition of amines to electron deficient al- kenes with excellent yields in several minutes. Operational simplicity, no need of any solvent, low cost of the cata- lyst used, high yields, reusability, excellent chemoselectivity and wide applicability are the key features of this methodology.

  18. Effects of repeated high-dose methamphetamine and ceftriaxone post-treatments on tissue content of dopamine and serotonin as well as glutamate and glutamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althobaiti, Yusuf S; Almalki, Atiah H; Das, Sujan C; Alshehri, Fahad S; Sari, Youssef

    2016-11-10

    Repeated exposure to high doses of methamphetamine (METH) is known to alter several neurotransmitters in certain brain regions. Little is known about the effects of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, known to upregulate glutamate transporter subtype 1, post-treatment on METH-induced depletion of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) tissue content in brain reward regions. Moreover, the effects of METH and CEF post-treatment on glutamate and glutamine tissue content are not well understood. In this study, Wistar rats were used to investigate the effects of METH and CEF post-treatment on tissue content of dopamine/5-HT and glutamate/glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Rats received either saline or METH (10mg/kg, i.p. every 2h×4) followed by either saline or CEF (200mg/kg, i.p, every day×3) post-treatment. METH induced a significant depletion of dopamine and 5-HT in the NAc and PFC. Importantly, dopamine tissue content was completely restored in the NAc following CEF post-treatment. Additionally, METH caused a significant decrease in glutamate and glutamine tissue content in PFC, and this effect was attenuated by CEF post-treatment. These findings demonstrate for the first time the attenuating effects of CEF post-treatment on METH induced alterations in the tissue contents of dopamine, glutamate, and glutamine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solution-Processable Organic Molecule for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells with Low Acceptor Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Guo, Bing; Xu, Zhuo; Guo, Xia; Zhang, Maojie; Li, Yongfang

    2015-11-11

    A new planar D2-A-D1-A-D2 structured organic molecule with bithienyl benzodithiophene (BDT) as central donor unit D1 and fluorine-substituted benzothiadiazole (BTF) as acceptor unit and alkyl-dithiophene as end group and donor unit D2, BDT-BTF, was designed and synthesized for the application as donor material in organic solar cells (OSCs). BDT-BTF shows a broad absorption in visible region, suitable highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of -5.20 eV, and high hole mobility of 1.07 × 10(-2) cm(2)/(V s), benefitted from its high coplanarity and strong crystallinity. The OSCs based on BDT-BTF as donor (D) and PC71BM as acceptor (A) at a D/A weight ratio of 3:1 without any extra treatment exhibit high photovoltaic performance with Voc of 0.85 V, Jsc of 10.48 mA/cm(2), FF of 0.66, and PCE of 5.88%. The morphological study by transmission electron microscopy reveals that the blend of BDT-BTF and PC71BM (3:1, w/w) possesses an appropriate interpenetrating D/A network for the exciton separation and charge carrier transport, which agrees well with the good device performance. The optimized D/A weight ratio of 3:1 is the lowest acceptor content in the active layer reported so far for the high-performance OSCs, and the organic molecules with the molecular structure like BDT-BTF could be promising high-performance donor materials in solution-processable OSCs.

  20. The additional phase transition of DPPC monolayers at high surface pressure confirmed by GIXD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; Serna, Jorge B. de la; Struth, Bernd

    Pulmonary surfactant forms the alveolar monolayer at the air/aqueous interface within the lung. During the breathing process, the surface pressure periodically varies from ~40mN/m up to ~70mN/m. The film is mechanically stable during this rapid and reversible expansion. The monolayer consists...... of ~90% of lipid with 10% integrated proteins. Among its lipid compounds, di- palmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) dominates (~45wt%). No other lipid but DPPC was so far reported to be compressible to very high surface pressure (~70mN/m) before its monolayer collapsed. Its liquid......-expanded/liquid-condensed (LE/LC) phase transition at ~10mN/m is well known. Here we present results from Langmuir isotherm measurements that evidence a so far not documented second phase transition at elevated surface pressure Π (~50mN/m). The varying lateral structures of the monolayer at 8mN/m, 20mN/m, 30mN/m, 40mN/m, 50m...