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Sample records for high activity effluent

  1. Co-epuration of winery and pesticides effluents, activated sludge with tertiary nanofiltration, two new technologies for pesticides effluents treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, A; Esteve, K; Poupot, C; Mietton-Peuchot, M

    2010-01-01

    Wine-related activities produce significant volumes of wastewater characterized by high concentrations in organic matter. The term of pesticides effluents defines the water coming from the emptying and the rinsing of the equipment used to pulverize the phytosanitary products on the vines. Pesticide pollution of surface waters from vineyards applications represents a considerable hazard for the aquatic environment. The nature of these wastes is very variable, indeed more than 150 active molecules can be employed. So, the main characteristic of these effluents is their toxicity towards the environment. In this study, an approach was developed to estimate the possibility of developing two biological wastewater treatment process for pesticides effluents treatment. The first one is particulary designed for small vineyard and is a co-epuration process combining winery wastewater treatment with pesticides effluents treatment. The second one is an activated sludge with tertiary nanofiltration and is particularly suited for large vineyards or regroupings of wine growers.

  2. A Study Of Dyehouse Activities And Effluent Treatment Practices In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the treatment practices of dyehouse effluent in Mauritius. An overview of the activities of dyehouses, characteristics of wastewater as well as effluent treatment methods is given. The effectiveness of different treatment systems is summarized. Finally appropriate pollution prevention measures have been ...

  3. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  4. Ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, M; Ozturk, I; Aydin, A F

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents involving significant amounts of ammonia, by applying magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation technology. Two types of industrial effluents have been tested in the study. The first plant was an opium alkaloid processing industry and the second one was a baker's yeast industry. High chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and unacceptable dark brown color characterized effluents from both industries. Effluents from the biologically treated opium alkaloid and baker's yeast industries were both applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1:1:1) and above the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1.1:1:1.1) to MAP precipitation. NH4 removals of 61-80% were achieved at the pH of 9.2 at the stoichiometric ratio, whereas 83% NH4 removal was obtained at the pH of 9.2 above the stoichiometric ratio. Experimental studies performed on both anaerobically and/or aerobically treated baker's yeast and opium alkaloid industry effluents have clearly indicated that MAP precipitation was an appropriate treatment option for NH4 removal or struvite recovery from high ammonia content agro industry effluents. Additional ammonia recovery studies were conducted on ozonated and Fenton's oxidation applied effluents and these have also indicated that the amounts of struvite and the quality of MAP precipitate was increased significantly. In this framework, MAP sludge recovered from combined biological and Fenton's oxidation treatment effluents were considered as a more valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of In Vitro Androgenic Activity in Feedlot Effluent. Lambright, CS 1 , Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville FLRecent studies have shown the presence of androgenic activity in water...

  6. A continuous active monitoring approach to identify cross-connections between potable water and effluent distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedler, E; Alfiya, Y; Shaviv, A; Gilboa, Y; Harussi, Y; Raize, O

    2015-03-01

    A continuous active monitoring approach was developed for identification of cross-connections between potable water supply systems and treated wastewater effluent reuse distribution systems. The approach is based on monitoring the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) at the potable water system while injecting sulfite (a reducing agent) into the effluent line. A sharp decrease in the ORP of the potable water would indicate a cross-connection event. The approach was tested in batch experiments on treated municipal wastewater effluent of varying degree of treatment, and at dilution ratios of up to 1:100 (effluent/potable). The approach was then examined under continuous flow conditions, which simulated cross-connection events at various dilution ratios (up to 1:100). In the continuous runs, differences between the potable water ORP and the effluent-potable water mixture (containing sulfite as sodium bisulfite (SBS)) ORP were 450-630 mV. This suggests high potential for identifying a cross-connection event. Implementation of the approach includes adding sulfite to effluent used for agricultural irrigation; hence, possible effects on soil and on crops were studied in soil columns and pots planted with basil (Ocimum basilicum) as a model plant. No negative effects of sulfite addition to the irrigation effluent were observed in the irrigated soils and plants, and therefore, it could be safely implemented also in agricultural applications.

  7. High-rate anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Ukita

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mil effluent (POME contains high amount of organic matter, oil & grease, total solids and suspended solids. Anaerobic treatment of POME was conducted at room temperature (30±2ºC and high temperature (50±0.5ºC. The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT, organic loading rate (OLR, COD:N ratio and temperature on the anaerobic digestion of POME were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be 10 days HRT, OLR of 9.50 kg COD m-3d-1, COD:N ratio of 65 and the optimum temperature at 50ºC. The highest COD reduction of 81.1% was achieved. Biogas production in general was greater than 0.30 m3/kg COD/d. Comparison on anaerobic treatment using POME and POME treated by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi Rhizopus sp. ST4 revealed that the biopretreated POME gave higher COD removal (72.6% but lower biogas production (0.97 m3/m3/d or 0.27 m3/kg COD/d than the POME without pretreatment (56.1% and 1.16 m3/m3/d or 0.37 m3/kg COD/d, respectively.

  8. Highly dealuminated Y zeolite as efficient adsorbent for the hydrophobic fraction from wastewater treatment plants effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalon, Sergio; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2009-07-15

    In this work we report that highly dealuminated zeolite Y is a hydrophobic material that is able to remove selectively fatty acids and hydrocarbon compounds from the effluent of an urban wastewater treatment plant (UWTP). This adsorbent capability of zeolite Y could lead to an improved quality of UWTP effluents. Typical domestic wastewaters contain detergents, soaps and surfactants that are only partially removed in conventional UWTP. In the present work using an effluent from a UWTP located at Ribarroja del Turia (Valencia, Spain) containing 10 ppm of total organic carbon, we have been able to retain by adsorption on the dealuminated Y zeolite up to 16 and 60% of the organic matter of the effluent at pH values 7.2 and 4, respectively. Characterization of the adsorbed organic matter by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), (1)H NMR and GC-MS after derivatization has shown that the zeolite adsorbs selectively the hydrophobic compounds of the effluent.

  9. INHIBITION OF RETINOID ACTIVITY BY COMPONENTS OF A PAPER MILL EFFLUENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cell line stably transfected with reporter genes activated by retinoic acid was used to test a paper mill effluent for the presence of retinoids or components that interfere with retinoic acid-stimulated gene transcription.

  10. IMPACT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Keywords: palm oil mill effluent, maize, catalase, peroxidase, malondialdehyde. INTRODUCTION. The oil palm – Elaeis guineensis, is indigenous to the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. (Wattanapenpaiboon and Wahlqvist 2003; Ola- gunju, 2008). In Nigeria, palm oil production takes place mainly in the southern ...

  11. Catalytic oxidation of pulping effluent by activated carbon-supported heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Bholu Ram; Garg, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with the non-catalytic and catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) for the removal of persistent organic compounds from the pulping effluent. Two activated carbon-supported heterogeneous catalysts (Cu/Ce/AC and Cu/Mn/AC) were used for CWO after characterization by the following techniques: temperature-programmed reduction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. The oxidation reaction was performed in a batch high-pressure reactor (capacity = 0.7  L) at moderate oxidation conditions (temperature = 190°C and oxygen pressure = 0.9 MPa). With Cu/Ce/AC catalyst, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and lignin removals of 79%, 77% and 88% were achieved compared to only 50% removal during the non-catalytic process. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to COD ratio (a measure for biodegradability) of the pulping effluent was improved to 0.52 from an initial value of 0.16. The mass balance calculations for solid recovered after CWO reaction showed 8% and 10% deduction in catalyst mass primarily attributed to the loss of carbon and metal leaching. After the CWO process, carbon deposition was also observed on the recovered catalyst which was responsible for around 3-4% TOC reduction.

  12. Optimal policies for activated sludge treatment systems with multi effluent stream generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouveia R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Most industrial processes generate liquid waste, which requires treatment prior to disposal. These processes are divided into sectors that generate effluents with time dependent characteristics. Each sector sends the effluent to wastewater treatment plants through pumping-stations. In general, activated sludge is the most suitable treatment and consists of equalization, aeration and settling tanks. During the treatment, there is an increase in the mass of microorganisms, which needs to be removed. Sludge removal represents the major operating costs for wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this work is to propose an optimization model to minimize sludge generation using a superstructure in which the streams from pumping-stations can be sent to the equalization tank. In addition, the aeration tank is divided into cells that can be fed in series and parallel. The model relies on mass balances, kinetic equations, and the resulting Nonlinear Programming problem generates the best operational strategy for the system feed streams with a high substrate removal. Reductions of up to 30 % can be achieved with the proposed strategy maintened BOD efficiency removal upper than 98 %.

  13. Biotreatment of highly contaminated effluents with phenolic compounds in bioaugmented UASB reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfiki-Hajji, K. [Biotechnology Research Inst., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lepine, F. [Inst. Armand Frappier, Laval, PQ (Canada); Guiot, S.R. [Univ. de Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada) Dept. Genie Civil

    1999-11-01

    Phenolic compounds are common pollutants of surface and groundwaters originating from industrial activities, such as hydrocarbon refining, coal conversion and fiber processing. Because of their high water solubility these compounds can be present at high concentrations in these waters posing serious health problems. Treatment of wastewater streams containing these chemicals by anaerobic methanogenic processes is a viable option to meet stringent environmental standards. A highly specific methanogenic consortium was developed, which simultaneously degrades a mixture of phenols as well as ortho- and para-cresol under methangenic conditions at concentrations usually found in a specific petroleum refinery effluent. A waste product from the milk industry is used as a co-substrate. Characterization of the consortium using specific activity tests and scanning electron microscopy showed that the consortium contains all the trophic groups involved in methanogenic fermentation. Anaerobic granules were bioaugmented with the above methangenic consortium by natural accretion and encapsulation. The bioaugmentation of the anaerobic granules by natural accretion impacted the performance of the reactors. In the reactor bioaugmented by encapsulation, the same efficiences were attained as in the reactor bioaugmented with the 10% of enriched consortium. The strain ph6 of the consortium was specifically monitored during the course of an experiment, intermittantly, by applying PCR methods on the biomass inside the reactors and in the effluent. The control reactor reached a level of removal efficiency similar to that of the reactor with 10% of the enriched consortium after 160 days of operation. Bioaugmentation with an enriched consortium especially by encapsulation on the short term improved the start up by reducing the time period for the reactor to reach its full capacity, and on the long term significantly increased the specific degradation potential of the biomass with respect to

  14. Comparison of treatment potential of electrocoagulation of distillery effluent with and without activated Areca catechu nut carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, N; Karthikeyan, G; Tamilselvan, N

    2006-10-11

    Physico-chemical characteristics of distillery effluent samples have been determined. The water quality parameters (WQPs) measured are colour, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, total hardness (THA), calcium, iron, bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Almost all the values of WQPs of the distillery effluents have been found to be very high and well above the permissible limit suggested by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Electrocoagulation (EC) technique is employed to treat the distillery effluents. Removal efficiency of WQPs is compared by adopting EC technique with and without the addition of indigenously prepared activated areca nut [botanical name: Areca catechu; kotta pakku, in (vernacular)] carbon (AAC). About 99% of turbidity has been removed in both the cases. The experimental results also revealed that the WQPs like EC, TDS, etc. of the effluents could be reduced. Loss of weight of sacrificial electrode (anode) is also ascertained. EC with AAC is found to be more effective than EC without AAC.

  15. Removal of chromium from tannery industry effluents with (activated carbon and fly ash) adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S; Lade, H S; Kadam, T A; Ramana, T V; Krishnamacharyulu, S K G; Deshmukh, S; Gyananath, G

    2007-10-01

    Adsorption is a strong choice for removal operations as it is very simple to recover a high quality product from waste sludge. The efficiency of adsorbents like fly ash and activated carbon are tested based on their performance to remove chrome at various pH values, bed heights, and concentration of adsorbents. The removal efficiency was also tested for wastewater characteristics in a pilot plant in addition to the use of adsorbents. The concentration of chromium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer). The results depicted that the efficiency of removal increased with increasing pH and bed height and decreased with increasing concentration. The removal efficiency with fly ash as an adsorbent was comparatively better than activatedcarbon. Thus, adsorbents can be used for chromium removal from tannery industry effluent.

  16. Novel two stage bio-oxidation and chlorination process for high strength hazardous coal carbonization effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, Pravin; Biswas, Rima; Karthik, Manikavasagam; Nandy, Tapas

    2011-05-15

    Effluent generated from coal carbonization to coke was characterized with high organic content, phenols, ammonium nitrogen, and cyanides. A full scale effluent treatment plant (ETP) working on the principle of single stage carbon-nitrogen bio-oxidation process (SSCNBP) revealed competition between heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria in the bio-degradation and nitrification process. The effluent was pretreated in a stripper and further combined with other streams to treat in the SSCNBP. Laboratory studies were carried on process and stripped effluents in a bench scale model of ammonia stripper and a two stage bio-oxidation process. The free ammonia removal efficiency of stripper was in the range 70-89%. Bench scale studies of the two stage bio-oxidation process achieved a carbon-nitrogen reduction at 6 days hydraulic retention time (HRT) operating in an extended aeration mode. This paper addresses the studies on selection of a treatment process for removal of organic matter, phenols, cyanide and ammonia nitrogen. The treatment scheme comprising ammonia stripping (pretreatment) followed by the two stage bio-oxidation and chlorination process met the Indian Standards for discharge into Inland Surface Waters. This treatment process package offers a techno-economically viable treatment scheme to neuter hazardous effluent generated from coal carbonization process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Colour removal and carbonyl by-production in high dose ozonation for effluent polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzanotte, V; Fornaroli, R; Canobbio, S; Zoia, L; Orlandi, M

    2013-04-01

    Experimental tests have been conducted to investigate the efficiency and the by-product generation of high dose ozonation (10-60 mg O3 L(-1)) for complete colour removal from a treated effluent with an important component of textile dyeing wastewater. The effluent is discharged into an effluent-dominated stream where no dilution takes place, and, thus, the quality requirement for the effluents is particularly strict. 30, 60 and 90 min contact times were adopted. Colour was measured as absorbance at 426, 558 and 660 nm wavelengths. pH was monitored throughout the experiments. The experimental work showed that at 50 mg L(-1) colour removal was complete and at 60 mg O3 L(-1) the final aldehyde concentration ranged between 0.72 and 1.02 mg L(-1). Glyoxal and methylglyoxal concentrations were directly related to colour removal, whereas formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and acrolein were not. Thus, the extent of colour removal can be used to predict the increase in glyoxal and methylglyoxal concentrations. As colour removal can be assessed by a simple absorbance measurement, in contrast to the analysis of specific carbonyl compounds, which is much longer and complex, the possibility of using colour removal as an indicator for predicting the toxic potential of ozone by-products for textile effluents is of great value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY OF KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Vitro Androgenic Activity of Kraft Mill Effluent is Associated with Masculinization of Female Fish. Lambright, CS 1 , Parks, LG 1, Orlando, E 2, Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Ankley, G 3, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville ...

  19. Standardized application of yeast bioluminescent reporters as endocrine disruptor screen for comparative analysis of wastewater effluents from membrane bioreactor and traditional activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Eldridge, Melanie; Menn, Fu-min; Dykes, Todd; Sayler, Gary

    2015-12-01

    A standardized protocol is demonstrated for bioluminescent strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES, BLYAS and BLYR as high-throughput screening tools to monitor the estrogenic, androgenic and toxic potencies in wastewater. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay in wastewater monitoring was evaluated for 7 day semi-continuous batch reactor using activated sludge with hormones spiked raw sewage. Yeast bioluminescent assay successfully captured the rapid removal of estrogenic and androgenic activities in the bioreactors, and demonstrated rapid response (≤4 h) with good reproducibility. This standardized protocol was then applied in a 12 months monitoring of the effluent of a WWTP located at Powell, TN, USA featuring parallel-operated full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and traditional activated sludge (TAS) treatment. Monitoring results showed that estrogenic activity was persistent in all TAS and most MBR effluent samples, while residual androgenic activity was non-detectable throughout the monitored period. The estrogenic equivalents (EEQ) in TAS effluent ranged from 21.61 ng/L to 0.04 pg/L and averaged 3.25 ng/L. The EEQ in MBR effluent ranged from 2.88 ng/L to 0.0134 pg/L and averaged ~10 fold less (0.32 ng/L) than TAS. Despite the large temporal variation, MBR effluent EEQ was consistently lower than TAS on any given sampling date. Most MBR effluent samples also exhibited less cytotoxicity than TAS. Further analysis did not demonstrate significant correlation between effluent EEQ level and WWTP operational parameters including MLSS, SRT, HRT and BOD.

  20. Metabolite Characterization in Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent Using High-resolution 1H and 1H-13C NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Guleria, Anupam; Rawat, Atul; Khetrapal, C L; Prasad, Narayan; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Metabolite analysis of peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluent may provide information regarding onset and progression of complications associated with prolonged PD therapy. In this context, the NMR detectable small metabolites of PD effluent samples were characterized using high resolution 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. The various spectra were recorded (at 800 MHz proton frequency) on PD effluent samples obtained after 4 hour (intraperitoneal) dwell time from patients with end stage renal failure (ESRF) and continuing normally on PD therapy. Inspite of devastating spectral feature of PD effluent due to the presence of intense resonances from glucose and lactate, we were able to identify about 53 small endogenous metabolites (including many complex coupled spin systems) and more than 90 % of the total CH cross peaks of 1H-13C HSQC spectrum were identified specific to various metabolites of PD effluent. We foresee that the characteristic fingerprints of various metabolites of control PD effluent samples will be us...

  1. High Laccase Expression by Trametes versicolor in a Simulated Textile Effluent with Different Carbon Sources and PHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ottoni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc activity (80.2 U∙L−1 was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction. Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs.

  2. An Assessment of the Model of Concentration Addition for Predicting the Estrogenic Activity of Chemical Mixtures in Wastewater Treatment Works Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Karen L.; Gross-Sorokin, Melanie; Johnson, Ian; Brighty, Geoff; Tyler, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of simple mixtures of chemicals, with similar mechanisms of action, can be predicted using the concentration addition model (CA). The ability of this model to predict the estrogenic effects of more complex mixtures such as effluent discharges, however, has yet to be established. Effluents from 43 U.K. wastewater treatment works were analyzed for the presence of the principal estrogenic chemical contaminants, estradiol, estrone, ethinylestradiol, and nonylphenol. The measured concentrations were used to predict the estrogenic activity of each effluent, employing the model of CA, based on the relative potencies of the individual chemicals in an in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (rYES) and a short-term (14-day) in vivo rainbow trout vitellogenin induction assay. Based on the measured concentrations of the four chemicals in the effluents and their relative potencies in each assay, the calculated in vitro and in vivo responses compared well and ranged between 3.5 and 87 ng/L of estradiol equivalents (E2 EQ) for the different effluents. In the rYES, however, the measured E2 EQ concentrations in the effluents ranged between 0.65 and 43 ng E2 EQ/L, and they varied against those predicted by the CA model. Deviations in the estimation of the estrogenic potency of the effluents by the CA model, compared with the measured responses in the rYES, are likely to have resulted from inaccuracies associated with the measurement of the chemicals in the extracts derived from the complex effluents. Such deviations could also result as a consequence of interactions between chemicals present in the extracts that disrupted the activation of the estrogen response elements in the rYES. E2 EQ concentrations derived from the vitellogenic response in fathead minnows exposed to a series of effluent dilutions were highly comparable with the E2 EQ concentrations derived from assessments of the estrogenic potency of these dilutions in the rYES. Together these data support the

  3. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils.

  4. Ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration of wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reungoat, J; Escher, B I; Macova, M; Argaud, F X; Gernjak, W; Keller, J

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the fate of trace organic chemicals (TrOCs) in three full-scale reclamation plants using ozonation followed by biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration to treat wastewater treatment plant effluents. Chemical analysis was used to quantify a wide range of TrOCs and combined with bioanalytical tools to assess non-specific toxicity (Microtox assay) and estrogenicity (E-SCREEN assay). Limited dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal (recycling schemes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  6. Palm oil mill effluent treatment using coconut shell – based activated carbon: Adsorption equilibrium and isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaman Sherlynna Parveen Deshon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current ponding system applied for palm oil mill effluent (POME treatment often struggle to comply with the POME discharge limit, thus it has become a major environmental concern. Batch adsorption study was conducted for reducing the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Color of pre-treated POME using coconut shell-based activated carbon (CS-AC. The CS-AC showed BET surface area of 744.118 m2/g, with pore volume of 04359cm3/g. The adsorption uptake was studied at various contact time and POME initial concentration. The CS-AC exhibited good ability with average percentage removal of 70% for COD, TSS and Color. The adsorption uptake increased over time and attained equilibrium in 30 hours. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. Based on the coefficient regression and sum of squared errors, the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption of COD satisfactorily, while best described the TSS and Color adsorption; giving the highest adsorption capacity of 10.215 mg/g, 1.435 mg/g, and 63.291 PtCo/g respectively. The CS-AC was shown to be a promising adsorbent for treating POME and was able to comply with the Environmental Quality Act (EQA discharge limit. The outcome of treated effluent using CS-AC was shown to be cleaner than the industrial biologically treated effluent, achieved within shorter treatment time.

  7. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Juanes, L.; Amat, A.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Arques, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain)], E-mail: aarques@txp.upv.es; Bernabeu, A.; Silvestre, M.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Ano, E. [Departamento de Gestion e Innovacion, Area de producto y desarrollo sostenible, Asociacion de Investigacion de la Industria del Juguete, Conexas y Afines (AIJU), Avda. de la industria, 23, 03440 Ibi (Spain)], E-mail: m.ambiente@aiju.info

    2008-05-30

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC{sub 50} of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN{sup -} and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO{sub 2}, but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu{sup 2+} and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay.

  8. Optimization of the do concentration in activated sludge systems treating petrochemical effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Haandel, A.; Cavalcanti, P. F.F.; Medeiros, U. T. P.

    2009-07-01

    Electric energy is normally one the important cost factors of activated sludge systems. If the aeration intensity is reduced, energy consumption will be lower, but the resulting reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the mixed liquor may affect the treatment system in three ways: (1) reduction of the efficiency of organic material removal and nitrification, resulting in higher residual BOD, COD and NH{sub 3} concentrations in the effluent, (2) reduction of the metabolic activity of heterotrophic or auto trophic bacteria and (3) deterioration of the sludge settleability which may reduce the separation efficiency in the final settler. (Author)

  9. Effect of microalgae/activated sludge ratio on cooperative treatment of anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudsari, Fatemeh Pourasgharian; Mehrnia, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, Akram; Moayedi, Zohreh; Ranjbar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this work, capability of the green microalga (MA), Chlorella vulgaris, in treating synthetic anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater was investigated. While pure C. vulgaris (100 % MA) provided maximum soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies of 27 and 72 % respectively, addition of activated sludge (AS) to MA in different mass ratios (91, 80, 66.7, 9 % MA) improved wastewater treatment efficiency. Thus giving maximum sCOD and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies 85 and 86.3 % (for MA/AS = 10/1), respectively. Utilizing AS without C. vulgaris, for treating the synthetic wastewater resulted in 87 % maximum sCOD and 42 % maximum N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies. Furthermore, algal growth and specific growth rates were measured in the systems with microalga as the dominant cellular population. As a result, faster algal growth was observed in mixed systems. Specific growth rate of C. vulgaris was 0.14 (day(-1)) in 100 % MA and 0.39 (day(-1)) in 80 % MA. Finally, data gathered by online measurement of dissolved oxygen indicate that algae-activated sludge mixture improves photosynthetic activity of examined microalga strain during anaerobic effluent treatment.

  10. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Isolation, Identification and Characteristic Analysis of an Oil-producing Chlorella sp. Tolerant to High-strength Anaerobic Digestion Effluent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuang; Wang, Wen-guo; Ma, Dan-wei; Tang, Xiao-yu; Hu, Qi-chun

    2015-07-01

    A Chlorella strain tolerant to high-strength anaerobic digestion effluent was isolated from the anaerobic digestion effluent with a long-term exposure to air. The strain was identified as a Chlorella by morphological and molecular biological methods, and named Chlorella sp. BWY-1, The anaerobic digestion effluent used in this study was from a biogas plant with the raw materials of swine wastewater after solid-liquid separation. The Chlorella regularis (FACHB-729) was used as the control strain. The comparative study showed that Chlorella sp, BWY-Ihad relatively higher growth rate, biomass accumulation capacity and pollutants removal rate in BG11. and different concentrations of anaerobic digestion effluent. Chlorella sp. BWY-1 had the highest growth rate and biomass productivity (324.40 mg.L-1) in BG11, but its lipid productivity and lipid content increased with the increase of anaerobic digestion effluent concentration, In undiluted anaerobic digestion effluent, the lipid productivity and lipid content of Chlorella sp. BWY-1 were up to 44. 43% and 108. 70 mg.L-1, respectively. Those results showed that the isolated algal strain bad some potential applications in livestock wastewater treatment and bioenergy production, it could be combined with a solid-liquid separation, anaerobic fermentation and other techniques for processing livestock wastewater and producing biodiesel.

  12. Electroadsorption of acilan blau dye from textile effluents by using activated carbon-perlite mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparal, A S; Yavuz, Y; Bakir Ogütveren, U

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the removal of dye stuffs from textile effluents by electroadsorption has been investigated. An activated carbon-perlite mixture with a ratio of 8:1 for bipolarity has been used as the adsorbent. Conventional adsorption experiments have also been conducted for comparison. A bipolar trickle reactor has been used in the electroadsorption experiments. The model wastewater has been prepared by using acilan blau dye. Initial dye concentration, bed height between the electrodes, applied potential, flowrate, and the supporting electrolyte concentration have been examined as the parameters affecting the removal efficiency. A local textile plant effluent has been treated in the optimum values of these parameters obtained from the experimental studies. Adsorption kinetics and the amount of adsorbent required to reach the maximum removal efficiency have also been investigated and mass-transfer coefficients have been calculated for adsorption and electroadsorption. The results showed that a removal efficiency of up to 100% can be achieved with energy consumption values of 1.58 kWh/m3 of wastewater treated. However, energy consumption decreases to 0.09 kWh/m3 if an exit dye concentration of 4.65 mg/L is accepted. It can be concluded from this work that this method combines all of the advantages of the activated-carbon adsorption and electrolytic methods for the removal of dyes from wastewater.

  13. Adsorption of colour, TSS and COD from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using acid-washed coconut shell activated carbon: Kinetic and mechanism studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sia Yong Yin; Tan Ivy Ai Wei; Abdullah Mohammad Omar

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of palm oil mill effluent (POME) without proper treatment before being discharged into natural water sources has become undesirable because of high concentration of suspended solid (SS), oil and grease (O&G), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). This study investigated the feasibility of removing colour, total suspended solid (TSS) and COD using acid-washed coconut shell based activated carbon (CSAC) through the evaluation of the adsorption uptake as w...

  14. Toxicity of two effluents from agricultural activity: Comparing the genotoxicity of sugar cane and orange vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Camila Fernandes H; Souza, Raphael B de; de Souza, Cleiton Pereira; Christofoletti, Cintya Ap; Fontanetti, Carmem S

    2017-08-01

    Vinasse, produced by several countries as a by-product of agricultural activity, has different alternatives for its reuse, mainly fertirrigation. Several monocultures, such as sugar cane and orange crops, produce this effluent. Sugar cane vinasse is already widely used in fertirrigation and orange vinasse has potential for this intention. However, its use as a fertilizer has caused great concern. Thus, ecotoxicological evaluation is extremely important in order to assess the possible effects on the environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of vinasse of two different crops: sugar cane and orange. For this purpose, bioassays with Allium cepa as a test organism were performed with two vinasse dilutions (2.5% and 5%) to detect chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus induction. The results showed that both types of vinasse are able to induce chromosomal aberrations in meristematic cells, mainly nuclear and anaphasic bridges, suggesting genotoxic potential. The induction of micronuclei in cells of the F 1 region suggests that the two residues have mutagenic potential. Thus, caution is advised when applying these effluents in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Aquaculture impact and treatment systems of effluents with aquatic macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Henry-Silva, Gustavo Gonzaga; Monteiro Camargo, Antonio Fernando [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Aquaculture effluents are enriched by nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter and contribute to increase eutrophication of the receiving water bodies and reduction or change in biodiversity. To reduce effluent loading is important to formulate highly digestible diets with lower nutrient levels. In addition, it is necessary to treat effluents to attend to new legislation demands and the pressure of environmentalist. This review of the aquaculture activities and its impacts on the environmental...

  16. Specific opsonic activity for staphylococci in peritoneal dialysis effluent during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Espersen, F; Kharazmi, A

    1992-01-01

    In a prospective study of intraperitoneal opsonins in 30 patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), the IgG concentration, the fibronectin concentration, the specific antistaphylococcal antibody level, and the opsonic activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis were...... measured in peritoneal dialysis effluent from the initiation of CAPD and monthly for 6 months. Significant correlation was found between the four assays, but the interindividual and intraindividual variations were considerable. No statistically significant correlation was observed between susceptibility...... of the patients to CAPD-related infectious peritonitis and any of the above-mentioned parameters of humoral defense. We conclude that at the present time it is not feasible to use these assays for the establishment of prognosis with regard to peritonitis in CAPD....

  17. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-04-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, 'potential water retention capacity' (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer's grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  18. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okine Abdul Razak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC, which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27 with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively, and their silages (n = 81. These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus, a root tuber source (potato pulp, a fruit source (apple pomace and a cereal source (brewer’s grain, respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3. Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01, with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76 between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  19. Steroid estrogens, conjugated estrogens and estrogenic activity in farm dairy shed effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadd, Jennifer B., E-mail: j.gadd@niwa.co.n [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: tremblayl@landcareresearch.co.n [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln, 7640 (New Zealand); Northcott, Grant L., E-mail: grant.northcott@plantandfood.co.n [Plant and Food Research, Private Bag 3123, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand)

    2010-03-15

    Agricultural wastes are a source of steroid estrogens and, if present, conjugated estrogens may add to the estrogen load released to soil and aquatic environments. Dairy shed effluent samples were collected from 18 farms for analysis of steroid estrogens by GC-MS, conjugated estrogens by LC-MS-MS, and estrogenic activity by E-screen in vitro bioassay. 17alpha-estradiol was found at highest concentrations (median 730 ng l{sup -1}), followed by estrone (100 ng l{sup -1}) and 17beta-estradiol (24 ng l{sup -1}). Conjugated estrogens (estrone-3-sulfate, 17alpha-estradiol-3-sulfate and 17beta-estradiol-3,17-disulfate) were measured in most samples (12-320 ng l{sup -1}). Median estrogenic activity was 46 ng l{sup -1} 17beta-estradiol equivalents. Conjugated estrogens contributed up to 22% of the total estrogen load from dairy farming, demonstrating their significance. Steroid estrogens dominated overall estrogenic activity measured in the samples. Significantly, 17alpha-estradiol contributed 25% of overall activity, despite potency 2% that of 17beta-estradiol, highlighting the importance in environmental risk assessments of this previously neglected compound. - In rural ecosystems, 17alpha-estradiol and conjugated estrogens are significant sources of environmental estrogens from agricultural wastes.

  20. Catalytic hydrothermal treatment of pulping effluent using a mixture of Cu and Mn metals supported on activated carbon as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Bholu Ram; Garg, Anurag

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the performance of activated carbon-supported copper and manganese base catalyst for catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) of pulping effluent. CWO reaction was performed in a high pressure reactor (capacity = 0.7 l) at temperatures ranging from 120 to 190 °C and oxygen partial pressures of 0.5 to 0.9 MPa with the catalyst concentration of 3 g/l for 3 h duration. With Cu/Mn/AC catalyst at 190 °C temperature and 0.9 MPa oxygen partial pressures, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), lignin, and color removals of 73, 71, 86, and 85 %, respectively, were achieved compared to only 52, 51, 53, and 54 % removals during the non-catalytic process. Biodegradability (in terms of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to COD ratio) of the pulping effluent was improved to 0.38 from an initial value of 0.16 after the catalytic reaction. The adsorbed carbonaceous fraction on the used catalyst was also determined which contributed meager TOC reduction of 3-4 %. The leaching test showed dissolution of the metals (i.e., Cu and Mn) from the catalysts in the wastewater during CWO reaction at 190 °C temperature and 0.9 MPa oxygen partial pressures. In the future, the investigations should focus on the catalyst reusability.

  1. Efficiency of chitosan (Poly-[D] Glucosamine as natural organic coagulant in pre-treatment of active carbon effluent in Panacan, Davao City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezel A. Cinco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of environmental friendly coagulant is widened which can be proposed as an imperative option for water treatment. In this study, the efficiency of Chitosan, a natural organic coagulant in pre-treating Active Carbon Effluent (ACE as alternative to conventional metal based coagulants in terms of Turbidity (T, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Total Suspended Solid (TSS was evaluated. Collection of effluent for testing was conducted at the Philippine – Japan Active Carbon Corporation, Panacan, Davao City, Philippines. Chitosan (Deacetylated chitin; Poly- [1- 4] – β- glucosamine was obtained from Qingdao Develop Chemistry Co., Ltd., China. Suspensions added with experimental coagulant dosages (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mgL-1 were made by sediment mixer maintained at pH 5 and analyzed with the following parameters: Total Suspended Solid (TSS, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Turbidity (T. The efficiency of the chitosan coagulation was found to be high in terms of turbidity (99.2%, Chemical Oxygen Demand (97.2% in 5 mg/L dose of chitosan and Total Suspended Solid (99.15% in 10 mg/L dose of chitosan. It can be concluded that Chitosan is an effective coagulant which can significantly reduce the level of turbidity, COD and TSS. A further study with different types of effluent and higher Chitosan doses are needed for recommending it for practical application as a natural organic coagulant.

  2. Comparison of the Results from Microscopic Tests Concerning the Quality of Activated Sludge and Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sowinska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical studies on wastewater quality and microscopic analyses of activated sludge are necessary to properly evaluate the condition of activated sludge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the sludge biotic index to determine when a change in treatment quality is short-lived, caused by, e.g., a change in influent quality or quantity, and when it indicates adverse changes in the biocenosis of activated sludge, which would very likely result in the lower efficiency of wastewater treatment in the near future. The objects of the study were two identical parallel running small wastewater treatment plants. The following indicators of contamination were analyzed: the chemical oxygen demand (COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, and total suspended solids (TSS. The authors additionally carried out a microscopic analysis. The study confirmed a correlation between the sludge biotic index and the removal efficiency of COD and BOD5; however, no correlation was found between the sludge biotic index and the removal efficiency of total suspended solids. The presence of metazoan microorganisms coincided in time with a good effluent treatment efficiency. When their quantity declined, a decrease in the efficiency of wastewater treatment was also observed.

  3. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Natali F. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: profederlima@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A. [Unit Operation Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande, FURG, R. Engenheiro Alfredo Huch 475, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Calvete, Tatiana [Universitary Center La Salle (UNILASALLE), Av. Victor Barreto 2288, 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for SP and AC, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4-99.0% and 93.6-97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  4. Combining Coagulation/MIEX with Biological Activated Carbon Treatment to Control Organic Fouling in the Microfiltration of Secondary Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A.; Fan, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    Coagulation, magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX) and biological activated carbon (BAC) were examined at lab scale as standalone, and sequential pre-treatments for controlling the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane by biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) using a multi-cycle approach. MIEX gave slightly greater enhancement in flux than coagulation due to greater removal of high molecular weight (MW) humic substances, although it was unable to remove high MW biopolymers. BAC treatment was considerably more effective for improving the flux than coagulation or MIEX. This was due to the biodegradation of biopolymers and/or their adsorption by the biofilm, and adsorption of humic substances by the activated carbon, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography. Coagulation or MIEX followed by BAC treatment further reduced the problematic foulants and significantly improved the flux performance. The unified membrane fouling index showed that the reduction of membrane fouling by standalone BAC treatment was 42%. This improved to 65%, 70%, and 93% for alum, ferric chloride and MIEX pre-treatment, respectively, when followed by BAC treatment. This study showed the potential of sequential MIEX and BAC pre-treatment for controlling organic fouling and thus enhancing the performance of microfiltration in the reclamation of BTSE. PMID:27483327

  5. Super-fine powdered activated carbon (SPAC) for efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Florence; Jost, Livia; Randin, Lea; Bonvin, Emmanuel; Kohn, Tamar

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to mitigate the discharge of micropollutants to surface waters, adsorption of micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) after conventional wastewater treatment has been identified as a promising technology for enhanced removal of pharmaceuticals and pesticides from wastewater. We investigated the effectiveness of super-fine powdered activated carbon, SPAC, (ca. 1 μm mean particle diameter) in comparison to regular-sized PAC (17-37 μm mean diameter) for the optimization of micropollutant removal from wastewater. Adsorption isotherms and batch kinetic experiments were performed for 10 representative micropollutants (bezafibrate, benzotriazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac, gabapentin, mecoprop, metoprolol, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) onto three commercial PACs and their super-fine variants in carbonate buffer and in wastewater effluent. SPAC showed substantially faster adsorption kinetics of all micropollutants than conventional PAC, regardless of the micropollutant adsorption affinity and the solution matrix. The total adsorptive capacities of SPAC were similar to those of PAC for two of the three tested carbon materials, in all tested waters. However, in effluent wastewater, the presence of effluent organic matter adversely affected micropollutant removal, resulting in lower removal efficiencies especially for micropollutants with low affinity for adsorbent particles in comparison to pure water. In comparison to PAC, SPAC application resulted in up to two-fold enhanced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal from effluent wastewater. The more efficient adsorption process using SPAC translates into a reduction of contact time and contact tank size as well as reduced carbon dosing for a targeted micropollutant removal. In the tested effluent wastewater (5 mg/L DOC), the necessary dose to achieve 80% average removal of indicator micropollutants (benzotriazole, diclofenac, carbamazepine, mecoprop and sulfamethoxazole) ranged

  6. The effect of the feeding pattern of complex industrial wastewater on activated sludge characteristics and the chemical and ecotoxicological effluent quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwé, Michel; Dobbeleers, Thomas; Daens, Dominique; Blust, Ronny; Geuens, Luc; Dries, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Research has demonstrated that the feeding pattern of synthetic wastewater plays an important role in sludge characteristics during biological wastewater treatment. Although considerable research has been devoted to synthetic wastewater, less attention has been paid to industrial wastewater. In this research, three different feeding strategies were applied during the treatment of tank truck cleaning (TTC) water. This industry produces highly variable wastewaters that are often loaded with hazardous chemicals, which makes them challenging to treat with activated sludge (AS). In this study, it is shown that the feeding pattern has a significant influence on the settling characteristics. Pulse feeding resulted in AS with a sludge volume index (SVI) of 68 ± 15 mL gMLSS-1. Slowly and continuously fed AS had to contend with unstable SVI values that fluctuated between 100 and 600 mL gMLSS-1. These fluctuations were clearly caused by the feeding solution. The obtained settling characteristics are being supported by the microscopic analysis, which revealed a clear floc structure for the pulse fed AS. Ecotoxicological effluent assessment with bacteria, Crustacea and algae identified algae as the most sensitive organism for all effluents from all different reactors. Variable algae growth inhibitions were measured between the different reactors. The chemical and ecotoxicological effluent quality was comparable between the reactors.

  7. Energy saving system with high effluent quality for municipal sewage treatment by UASB-DHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Takahashi, M; Yoneyama, Y; Syutsubo, K; Kato, K; Nagano, A; Yamaguchi, T; Harada, H

    2012-01-01

    An up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) - down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) was applied to Japanese municipal sewage treatment, and its treatability, energy consumption, and sludge production were evaluated. The designed sewage load was 50 m(3)/d. The sewage typically had a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 402 mg/L, a suspended solids (SS) content of 167 mg/L, and a temperature of 17-29 °C. The UASB and DHS exhibited theoretical hydraulic retention times of 9.7 and 2.5 h, respectively. The entire system was operated without temperature control. Operation was started with mesophilic anaerobic digested sludge for the UASB and various sponge media for the DHS. Continuous operational data suggest that although the cellulose decomposition and methanogenic process in the UASB are temperature sensitive, stable operation can be obtained by maintaining a satisfactory sludge volume index and sludge concentration. For the DHS, the cube-type medium G3-2 offers superior filling rates, biological preservation and operational execution. The SS derived from the DHS contaminated the effluent but could be removed by optional sand filtration. A comparison with conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment confirmed that this system is adequate for municipal sewage treatment, with an estimated energy requirement and excess sludge production approximately 75 and 85% less than those of CAS, respectively.

  8. Membrane Fouling Potential of Secondary Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) from Conventional Activated Sludge Process

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2012-01-01

    Secondary effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a conventional activated sludge process was filtered through constant-pressure dead-end filtration tests with a sequential ultrafiltration (UF, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 10k Dalton) and nanofiltration (NF, MWCO of 200 Dalton) array to investigate its membrane fouling potential. Advanced analytical methods including liquid chromatography with online carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescent excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) were employed for EfOM characterization. EfOM consisted of humic substances and building blocks, low molecular weight (LMW) neutrals, biopolymers (mainly proteins) and hydrophobic organics according to the sequence of their organic carbon fractions. The UF rejected only biopolymers and the NF rejected most humics and building blocks and a significant part of LMW neutrals. Simultaneous occurrence of cake layer and standard blocking during the filtration process of both UF and NF was identified according to constant-pressure filtration equations, which was possibly caused by the heterogeneous nature of EfOM with a wide MW distribution (several ten to several million Dalton). Thus the corresponding two fouling indices (kc for cake layer and ks for standard blocking) from UF and NF could characterize the fouling potential of macromolecular biopolymers and low to intermediate MW organics (including humics, building blocks, LMW neutrals), respectively. Compared with macromolecular biopolymers, low to intermediate MW organics exhibited a much higher fouling potential due to their lower molecular weight and higher concentration.

  9. Effect of effluent organic matter on the adsorption of perfluorinated compounds onto activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Lv, Lu; Lan, Pei; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming

    2012-07-30

    Effect of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was quantitatively investigated at environmentally relevant concentration levels. The adsorption of both perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) onto PAC followed pseudo-second order kinetics and fitted the Freundlich model well under the given conditions. Intraparticle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step in the PFC adsorption process onto PAC in the absence and presence of EfOM. The presence of EfOM, either in PFC-EfOM simultaneous adsorption onto fresh PAC or in PFC adsorption onto EfOM-preloaded PAC, significantly reduced the adsorption capacities and sorption rates of PFCs. The pH of zero point of charge was found to be 7.5 for fresh PAC and 4.2 for EfOM-preloaded PAC, suggesting that the adsorbed EfOM imparted a negative charge on PAC surface. The effect of molecular weight distribution of EfOM on the adsorption of PFCs was investigated with two EfOM fractions obtained by ultrafiltration. The low-molecular-weight compounds (compounds (>30kDa) had much less effect on PFC adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF CARBONATE ROCK MEDIATED BY BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM HIGH-STARCH AGRICULTURAL EFFLUENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi Salehi; Stephen Johnson; Gregory Bala; Jenn-Tai Liang

    2006-09-01

    Surfactants can be used to alter wettability of reservoir rock, increasing spontaneous imbibition and thus improving oil yields. Commercial synthetic surfactants are often prohibitively expensive and so a crude preparation of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, from Bacillus subtilis grown on high-starch industrial and agricultural effluents has been proposed as an economical alternative. To assess the effectiveness of the surfactin, it is compared to commercially available surfactants. In selecting a suitable benchmark surfactant, two metrics are examined: the ability of the surfactants to alter wettability at low concentrations, and the degree to which they are absorbed onto reservoir matrix. We review the literature to survey the adsorption models that have been developed to describe surfactant adsorption in porous media. These models are evaluated using the experimental data from this study. Crushed carbonate rock samples are cleaned and aged in crude oil. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of commercial anionic surfactants and surfactin is assessed using a two-phase separation; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption the rock is determined.

  11. Fowl play? Forensic environmental assessment of alleged discharge of highly contaminated effluent from a chicken slaughterhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P.; Taylor, M. P.; Handley, H. K.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple lines of geochemical and biological evidence are applied to identify and fingerprint the nature and source of alleged contamination emanating from a chicken slaughterhouse on the urban fringe of Sydney, Australia. The slaughterhouse has a long history of alleged environmental misconduct. The impact of the facility on catchment source waters by the slaughterhouse has been the subject of controversy. The facility owner has persistently denied breach of their licence condition and maintains it is `a very environmentally conscious operation'. The disputed nature of the possible sources of discharges and its contaminants required a detailed forensic environmental assessment. Water samples collected from off-site discharge points associated with the facility show highly elevated concentrations of faecal coliforms (max 68,000 cfu), ammonia-N (51,000 µg/L), total nitrogen (98,000 µg/L) and phosphorous (32,000 µg/L). Upstream and adjacent watercourses were markedly less contaminated. Water discharge points associated with the slaughterhouse and natural catchment runoff were sampled for arsenic speciation, including assessment for the organoarsenic compound Roxarsone. Roxarsone is used as a chicken growth promoter. Water draining the slaughterhouse facility contained concentrations around 10 times local background levels. The Roxarsone compound was not detected in any waters, but inorganic arsenic, As(V), was present in all waters with the greatest concentrations in waters draining from the slaughterhouse. The environmental evidence was compiled over a series of discharges events and presented to the NSW EPA. Subsequent to receipt of the data supported by their own investigations, the NSW EPA mandated that the slaughterhouse be subject to a pollution reduction program. The efficacy of the pollution reduction program to stem the release of highly contaminated effluent is currently subject to ongoing investigation using a suite of water chemistry measures including

  12. Soil microbial activities and solid-state {sup 1}3 CNMR to asses organic matter transformation in a reed-bed under cheese-dairy farm effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnet, A. M.; Prudent, P.; Ziarelli, F.; Domeizel, M.; Gros, R.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, we described the soil microbial activities involved in a small dairy effluent purification using a reed filter under a Mediterranean climate. We tested whether certain enzyme activities used as bio indicators of dairy waste degradation ({beta}-galactosidase and protease), vary through time which might influence organic matter degradation and to test whether specific microbial communities were selected at the contact of the effluent using community level catabolic profiles (CLCPs). (Author)

  13. Efficiency of chitosan (Poly-[D] Glucosamine) as natural organic coagulant in pre-treatment of active carbon effluent in Panacan, Davao City

    OpenAIRE

    Rezel A. Cinco; Jiros B. Mana-ay; Karen Mae A. Obillo; Milton Norman D. Medina; Emmanuel P. Leaño

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of environmental friendly coagulant is widened which can be proposed as an imperative option for water treatment. In this study, the efficiency of Chitosan, a natural organic coagulant in pre-treating Active Carbon Effluent (ACE) as alternative to conventional metal based coagulants in terms of Turbidity (T), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) was evaluated. Collection of effluent for testing was conducted at the Philippine – Japan Active Carbon Corpo...

  14. Volume and activity reduction by biological treatment and ultrafiltration of laundry effluent waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Rosenberger; Bernhard Christ [RWE NUKEM GmbH (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    An innovative patented treatment process (BIBRA) combining biological treatment and a separator centrifuge was developed in the Gundremmingen NPP starting in 1995. To date this process has been successfully implemented in the German NPP of Gundremmingen, Kahl, Brunsbuettel, Stade, Isar 1 and Neckarwestheim. This new process has not only significantly reduced the TOC content in the effluent and waste volumes (6,600 m{sup 3} result in only 160 kg final waste) of BWR and PWR but at the same time has increased the decontamination factor to 20 and more. The cost savings experienced within the plant are more than 125000 euros/a. These savings do not account the additional substantial savings on handling, disposal containers, transportation, interim storage and final disposal. In order to advance the biological treatment of radioactive wastes it is therefore required to find an alternative separation mechanism without loosing the advantages of discharging the inactive salts. An engineering review of possible separation processes that could help to remove these residual activity was conducted. It determined that crossflow filtration and in particular micro-filtration or ultrafiltration were the most promising technologies to further improve the separation efficiency. Ultrafiltration is able to remove bacteria, proteins and similar while allowing dissolved materials such ad salts to pass. Drawback for crossflow filtration systems is that they can experience significant problems with fouling (blocking) of the membranes from suspended solids (TSS) which typically requires the introduction of aggressive chemicals and that all these systems generate an effluent concentrate of typically 2% to 10 % of their throughput. In case of e.g. 6600 m{sup 3}/a waste generation a volume between 120 and 600 m{sup 3}/a concentrate would require additional treatment and conditioning. Almost at the same time as the biological treatment process was developed in Germany, RWE NUKEM matured

  15. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  16. Effect of effluent organic matter on the adsorption of perfluorinated compounds onto activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, 196 West Huayang Road, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Lv, Lu, E-mail: esellu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Lan, Pei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, 196 West Huayang Road, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Zhang, Shujuan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Pan, Bingcai, E-mail: bcpan@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zhang, Weiming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of EfOM significantly reduced the adsorption capacities and rates of PFCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low-molecular-weight EfOM compounds (<1 kDa) compete for adsorption sites of PFSs directly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large-molecular-weight EfOM compounds (>30 kDa) affect the adsorption through pore blockage or restriction effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Changes in surface properties of PAC caused by preloaded EfOM could affect PFCs adsorption. - Abstract: Effect of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was quantitatively investigated at environmentally relevant concentration levels. The adsorption of both perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) onto PAC followed pseudo-second order kinetics and fitted the Freundlich model well under the given conditions. Intraparticle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step in the PFC adsorption process onto PAC in the absence and presence of EfOM. The presence of EfOM, either in PFC-EfOM simultaneous adsorption onto fresh PAC or in PFC adsorption onto EfOM-preloaded PAC, significantly reduced the adsorption capacities and sorption rates of PFCs. The pH of zero point of charge was found to be 7.5 for fresh PAC and 4.2 for EfOM-preloaded PAC, suggesting that the adsorbed EfOM imparted a negative charge on PAC surface. The effect of molecular weight distribution of EfOM on the adsorption of PFCs was investigated with two EfOM fractions obtained by ultrafiltration. The low-molecular-weight compounds (<1 kDa) were found to be the major contributors to the significant reduction in PFC adsorption capacity, while large-molecular-weight compounds (>30 kDa) had much less effect on PFC adsorption capacity.

  17. High-resolution Mass Spectrometry of Skin Mucus for Monitoring Physiological Impacts in Fish Exposed to Wastewater Effluent at a Great Lakes AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promela...

  18. High COD wastewater treatment in an aerobic SBR: treatment of effluent from a small farm goat's cheese dairy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P h; Moletta, R; Delgenes, J P

    2004-01-01

    In France, small goat's cheese dairies using traditional craft methods often have no profitable solution for dealing with the whey byproduct of their cheesemaking activity: it is usually mixed with the cleaning wastewater which, in the absence of other possibilities, is then discharged directly into the environment. The volume of such wastewater is small but it has a high COD of around 12-15 g/L. An aerobic SBR was proposed as a method for treating the mixture of wastewater and whey and the first installation was set up on a farm with 170 goats. Its operations were monitored for 7.5 months, particularly in order to measure any excess volume of sludge and to check that such excess remained within acceptable limits, given the high COD of the effluent requiring treatment. The results obtained show that the treated wastewater was of excellent quality, well within the most rigorous discharge norms. With this type of wastewater, excess sludge was produced in only very low amounts with 0.2 g of SS/g of COD. Moreover, the sludge proved to be quick settling which made it possible to: i) maintain a high level of SS in the reactor (up to 15 g/L); ii) withdraw sludge with concentrations reaching 30 g/L after 2 hours of settling. This resulted in a low volume of excess sludge (less than 5% of treated volume), making such aerobic biological treatment in an SBR competitive when compared to the straightforward spreading of all the wastewater.

  19. Advanced treatment of effluents from an industrial park wastewater treatment plant by ferrous ion activated persulfate oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Songmei; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Haitao; Ye, Jianfeng; Ren, Jiamin; Gu, Lingyun; Wang, Luochun

    The advanced oxidation technology, ferrous ion (Fe(II)) activated persulfate (PS) producing sulfate radicals, was used for the advanced treatment of effluent from an integrated wastewater treatment plant in a papermaking industrial park. Separate and interactive effects of PS dosage, Fe(II)/PS ratio and initial pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that Fe(II)-PS system was effective in COD removal from the secondary effluent. PS dosage was the most dominant factor with positive influence on COD removal, followed by initial pH value. The optimum conditions with COD removal of 54.4% were obtained at PS/COD of 2.2, initial pH of 6.47 and Fe(II)/PS of 1.89. UV-visible spectrum analysis showed that after RSM optimization, Fe(II)-PS system effectively degraded large organic molecules into small ones, and decreased humification degree of the effluent. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis demonstrated that aromatic protein and fulvic substances were fully decomposed by the Fe(II)-PS treatment.

  20. Silage effluent management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of

  1. Electrolytic recovery of dilute copper from a mixed industrial effluent of high strength COD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellammal, S., E-mail: chellas_p@yahoo.co.in [Offshore Platform and Marine Electrochemistry Centre, CECRI Unit, New Harbour Area, Tuticorin 628 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Raghu, S.; Kalaiselvi, P.; Subramanian, G. [Offshore Platform and Marine Electrochemistry Centre, CECRI Unit, New Harbour Area, Tuticorin 628 004, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, the electrochemical treatment has been investigated in the real acidic effluent of copper-phthalocyanine dye manufacturing plant. Galvanostatic batch electrolyses have been carried out in an undivided cell using stainless steel as cathode, dimensionally stable anode (DSA) and graphite as anodes at different current densities and temperatures. The influence of these variables on current efficiency, cell voltage, energy consumption and deposit quality was reported. Under optimized conditions, the maximum copper recovery of 98% and COD removal efficiency of 87.3% with the energy consumption of about 11.23 kWh/kg of Cu and 6.08 kWh/kg of COD, respectively at 30 deg. C were achieved in the acidic raw effluent using 2D parallel-plate cathode. While in 3D stainless steel turning cathode reactor, 99.5% of copper can efficiently be recovered from dilute solution with an acceptable current efficiency of about 56.8% with minimum energy consumption of 2.37 kWh/kg of Cu. The experimental results suggested that the efficiency of copper removal is hindered by the presence of organic species in the mixed industrial effluent.

  2. Performance evaluation of a constructed wetland treating high-ammonium primary domestic wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, L A; Veneman, P L M; Simkins, S C; Long, S C

    2010-07-01

    An investigation of a top-loading, vertical-flow, submerged-bed constructed wetland system subject to a New York State discharge permit, of mineral nitrogen transformations occurring within the wetland units, and of the effects of local environment on system performance indicated 100% removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and mean 99.0 +/- 1.1% removal of ammonium (NH4(+)). The wetland system, located in Highland, New York, treats primary domestic wastewater effluent and consists of four beds presently operated in series. Influent and effluent samples from each of the four treatment units were analyzed for BOD, ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N), and nitrite-nitrogen (NO2(-)-N). During the study, mean influent wastewater concentrations were 170.8, 3.1, and 0.015 mg/L for NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, and NO2(-)-N, respectively. Mean effluent concentrations of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, and NO2(-)-N were 1.9, 4.2, and 0.002 mg/L, respectively.

  3. Changes in Septic Tank Effluent Due to Water Softener Use

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Patrick Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The compatibility of home water softeners and septic tanks is of concern for the on-site wastewater treatment community. Research has shown that high sodium levels in activated sludge plants can lead to deflocculation and poor effluent quality. Therefore, it is logical to assume that high sodium levels that result from the exchange of calcium and magnesium for sodium in home softeners could give rise to poor effluent quality from septic tanks, leading to shortened lives of drain fields. Addit...

  4. Ruthenium recovery from acetic acid industrial effluent using chemically stable and high-performance polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-Escherichia coli biomass composite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sok [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-E, E-mail: yechoi@korea.ac.kr [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeoung-Sang, E-mail: ysyun@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • The PEI-PSBF was fabricated and used for Ru recovery from industrial effluent. • PEI-PSBF was not swollen nor dissolved in the effluent. • PEI-PSBF showed superior sorption capacity to commercial resins. • Thin fiber type PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in flow-through column. - Abstract: Recovery of precious metal ions from waste effluents is of high concern. In general, ruthenium (Ru) is used in the Cativa process as promoter for carbonylation catalyst and discharged into acetic acid effluent. In the present work, we have designed and developed polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-bacterial biomass composite fiber (PEI-PSBF) to recover Ru from industrial effluent. The sorbent was manufactured by electrostatic attachment of polyethylenimine (PEI) to the surface of polysulfone-biomass composite fiber (PSBF), which was prepared through spinning of the mixture of polysulfone and Escherichia coli biomass in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) into water. Developed PEI-PSBF was highly stable in the acetic acid effluent. The maximum sorption capacity of the developed sorbent PEI-PSBF, coated with PEI (with M.W. of 75,000), was 121.28 ± 13.15 mg/g, which was much higher than those of ion exchange resins, TP214, Amberjet 4200, and M500. The PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in the flow-through column system, showing 120 beds of breakthrough volume.

  5. Textile industrial effluent induces mutagenicity and oxidative DNA damage and exploits oxidative stress biomarkers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Javeed, Aqeel; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity and oxidative damage. Aim of the present study was to quantify metals in industrial effluent and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. In-vitro comet assay revealed evidence of high oxidative DNA damage. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. On the basis of this study it is concluded that industrial effluent may cause mutagenicity, in-vitro oxidative stress-related DNA damage and cytotoxicity and may be associated with oxidative stress in rats. Vitamin C may have ameliorating effect when exposed to effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of derived emission limits for radioactive effluents resulted from the decommissioning activities of the VVR-S nuclear research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuca, C; Stochioiu, A; Sahagia, M; Gurau, D; Dragusin, M

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents complex studies on establishment of derived emission limits for potential radionuclides emitted as gaseous and liquid effluents, during the decommissioning activities (2nd and 3rd phases) of a nuclear research reactor, cooled and moderated with distilled water, type VVR-S, owned by the IFIN-HH. In the present paper there are described: the analysis methods and equipment used, the methodologies for calculating doses and the Derived Emission Limits (DEL), the experimentally measured activities of the representative radionuclides found in gaseous and liquid effluents resulted from decommissioning activities, as well as the effective derived limits of liquid and gaseous effluents, applying the calculation methodologies, specific to critical categories of exposed subjects. A constraint effective dose limit for a person from the critical group of 50 μSv/year was considered in calculations. From the comparison of the two series of values, measured released activities and DELs, there has been concluded that for the gaseous effluents they comply with the DELs, while in the case of liquid effluents they are higher and consequently they must be treated as liquid radioactive wastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavior of metals, pathogen parasites, and indicator bacteria in sewage effluents during biological treatment by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonani, K A A; Julião, F C; Trevilato, T M B; Takayanagui, A M M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of metals, pathogen parasites, and indicator bacteria in sewage effluents during biological treatment by activated sludge in a wastewater treatment plant in Ribeirão Preto (WTP-RP), Sao Paulo, Brazil. The evaluation was done during a period of 1 year. Results showed that metal concentrations in treated effluents decreased, reaching concentrations according to those established by national regulations. The activated sludge process at the WTP-RP promoted a partial removal of parasites considered as possible indicators according to the WHO guidelines. Reduction factors varied between 18.2% and 100% for agents such as Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hystolitica, Giardia sp., Ancylostoma sp., Ascaris sp., Fasciola hepatica, and Strongyloides stercoralis. A removal was also observed in total and fecal coliforms quantification. The present study represents an initial evaluation of the chemical and microbiological removal capacity of the WTP-RP. The results should be of interest for the authorities responsible for the environmental health at municipal, regional, national, and international levels.

  8. Enhanced removal of arsenic from a highly laden industrial effluent using a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingnan; Hua, Ming; Wu, Bian; Ma, Hongrui; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Quanxing

    2014-05-01

    Effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial wastewater is an important but challenging task. Here, a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process, with ferric chloride and calcium chloride as coprecipitation agents and polymer-based nanocomposite as selective adsorbent, has been validated for arsenic removal from tungsten-smelting wastewater. On the basis of operating optimization, a binary FeCl3 (520 mg/L)-CaCl2 (300 mg/L) coprecipitation agent could remove more than 93% arsenic from the wastewater. The resulting precipitate has proved environmental safety based on leaching toxicity test. Fixed-bed column packed with zirconium or ferric-oxide-loaded nanocomposite was employed for further elimination of arsenic in coprecipitated effluent, resulting in a significant decrease of arsenic (from 0.96 to less than 0.5 mg/L). The working capacity of zirconium-loaded nanocomposite was 220 bed volumes per run, much higher than that of ferric-loaded nanocomposite (40 bed volumes per run). The exhausted zirconium-loaded nanocomposite could be efficiently in situ regenerated with a binary NaOH-NaCl solution for reuse without any significant capacity loss. The results validated the combinational coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process to be a potential alternative for effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial effluent.

  9. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  10. Design quality control of the activity determination total alpha liquid effluents; Diseno de control de calidad de la determinacion de actividad alfa total en efluentes liquidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yague, L.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Noguerales, C.

    2011-07-01

    The total alpha activity index is the joint action of all alpha emissions in a sample. This is a very useful in designing the analytical control of liquid effluent into the environment. Presents the design of quality control applied to the determination of total alpha activity.

  11. Characteristic numbers of granular activated carbon for the elimination of micropollutants from effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstoem, F; Pinnekamp, J

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) is a promising step to extend existing treatment trains in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and, thus, to reduce the concentration of micropollutants (MPs) (e.g. pharmaceuticals) in wastewater. It is common practice to use characteristic numbers when choosing GAC for a specific application. In this study, characteristic numbers were correlated for five different GACs, with measured adsorption capacities of these carbons for three pharmaceutical MPs (carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) and dissolved organic carbon of a WWTP effluent. The adsorption capacities were measured using rapid small scale column tests. Density of GAC showed the highest correlation to adsorption of MP. All other characteristic numbers (iodine number, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface and methylene blue titre) are not suitable markers for choosing an appropriate activated carbon product for the elimination of MPs from municipal wastewater.

  12. The Effect of the Addition of Active Digester Effluent for Start-up Accelerator in Anaerobic Digestion of Soybean Curd Industry Waste Water (Basic Research for Biogas Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Wresta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from soybean curd industry waste water was studied in laboratory scale to improve the application of anaerobic digestion process. The problem with the soybean curd waste water was the fact that it does not sufficiently contain anaerobic microorganisms required in biogas production. Therefore, it is necessary to add a well-developed population of anaerobic microorganisms to accelerate the start-up of the anerobic digestion. This research was aimed to verify the influence of the addition of active digester effluent into the soybean curd waste water batches in an anaerobic digestion process. Batch experiments were done in two digesters. The first digester was only fed with soybean curd waste water while the second digester was fed with soybean curd waste water and active digester effluent from a digester processing cow manure which was very rich in anaerobic microorganism consortium. The results indicated that soybean curd industry waste water did not contain methanogenic bacteria but there existed some acidogenic bacteria. The addition of active digester effluent accelerated the anaerobic digestion start-up and directed the process pathway towards methanogenic process so that more methane was obtained. The high methane content obtained (more than 64% volume was very potential for power generation. The capacity of soybean curd industry must be as high as 697.13 kg soybean per day to generate the electric energy of 8.4 kWh.

  13. Fate of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds in batch experiments simulating soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Abel, Chol D T

    2013-06-30

    Reduction of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds from primary effluent during managed aquifer recharge was investigated using laboratory-scale batch reactors. Biologically stable batch reactors were spiked with different concentrations of sodium azide to inhibit biological activity and probe the effect of microbial activity on attenuation of various pollutants of concern. The experimental results obtained revealed that removal of dissolved organic carbon correlated with active microbial biomass. Furthermore, addition of 2 mM of sodium azide affected nitrite-oxidizing bacteria leading to accumulation of nitrite-nitrogen in the reactors while an ammonium-nitrogen reduction of 95.5 % was achieved. Removal efficiencies of the hydrophilic neutral compounds phenacetin, paracetamol, and caffeine were independent of the extent of the active microbial biomass and were >90 % in all reactors, whereas removal of pentoxifylline was dependent on the biological stability of the reactor. However, hydrophobic ionic compounds exhibited removal efficiency >80 % in batch reactors with the highest biological activity as evidenced by high concentration of adenosine triphosphate. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  14. Removal of high concentration of sulfate from pigment industry effluent by chemical precipitation using barium chloride: RSM and ANN modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navamani Kartic, D; Aditya Narayana, B Ch; Arivazhagan, M

    2018-01-15

    Sulfate ions pose a major threat and challenge in the treatment of industrial effluents. The sample of wastewater obtained from a pigment industry contained large quantities of sulfate in the form of sodium sulfate which resulted in high TDS. As the removal of sulfate from pigment industry effluent was not reported previously, this work was focused on removing the sulfate ions from the effluent by chemical precipitation using barium chloride. The efficiency of sulfate removal was nearly 100% at an excess dosage of barium chloride, which precipitates the dissolved sulfate ions in the form of barium sulfate. Optimization of the parameters was done using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). This work is the first attempt for modeling the removal of sulfate from pigment industry effluent using RSM and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Prediction by both the models was evaluated and both of them exhibited good performance (R2 value > 0.99). It was observed that the prediction by RSM (R2 value 0.9986) was closer to the experimental results than ANN prediction (R2 value 0.9955). The influence on the pH and conductivity of the solution by dosage of precipitant was also studied. The formation of barium sulfate was confirmed by characterization of the precipitate. Therefore, the sulfate removed from the effluent was converted into a commercially valuable precipitate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of an In Vitro, Nuclear Receptor Assay Panel to Characterize the Endocrine-Disrupting Activity Load of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of an In Vitro, Nuclear Receptor Assay Panel to Characterize the Endocrine-Disrupting Activity Load of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Extracts Katie B. Paul 1.2, Ruth Marfil-Vega 1 Marc A. Mills3, Steve 0. Simmons2, Vickie S. Wilson4, Kevin M. Crofton2 10ak Rid...

  16. Activated carbons from end-products of tree nut and tree fruit production as sorbents for removing methyl bromide in ventilation effluent from postharvest chamber fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    End-products of tree nuts and tree fruits grown in California, USA were evaluated for the ability to remove methyl bromide from the ventilation effluent of postharvest chamber fumigations. Activated carbon sorbents from walnut and almond shells as well as peach and prune pits were prepared using dif...

  17. Preparation and evaporation of Hanford Waste treatment plant direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream involves concentrating the condensate in a new evaporator at the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and returning it to the LAW melter. The LMOGC stream will contain components, e.g. halides and sulfates, that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in glass waste forms, and present a material corrosion concern. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components are expected to accumulate in the LMOGC stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfates in the glass and is a key objective of this program. In order to determine the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, determine the formation and distribution of key regulatoryimpacting constituents, and generate an aqueous stream that can be used in testing of the subsequent immobilization step. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of the LMOGC stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to (1) prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter Off-gas Condensate expected during DFLAW operations, (2) demonstrate evaporation in order to predict the final composition of the effluents from the EMF

  18. Comprehensive Two-dimensional Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Characterization of Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, X.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Legler, J.; van der Oost, R.; de Boer, J.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC. ×. LC) system coupled with a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-ToF MS) was developed and applied for analysis of emerging toxicants in wastewater effluent. The system was optimized and validated using

  19. Dynamics of microbiological parameters, enzymatic activities and worm biomass production during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of bakery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Suthar, S; Garg, V K

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the changes in microbial parameters and enzymatic activities during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) of bakery industry spiked with cow dung (CD) by Eisenia fetida. Six vermibins containing different ratios of ETPS and CD were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 15 weeks. Total bacterial and total fungal count increased upto 7th week and declined afterward in all the bins. Maximum bacterial and fungal count was 31.6 CFU × 10(6) g(-1) and 31 CFU × 10(4) g(-1) in 7th week. Maximum dehydrogenase activity was 1921 μg TPF g(-1) h(-1) in 9th week in 100 % CD containing vermibin, whereas maximum urease activity was 1208 μg NH4 (-)N g(-1) h(-1) in 3rd week in 100 % CD containing vermibin. The enzyme activity and microbial counts were lesser in ETPS containing vermibins than control (100 % CD). The growth and fecundity of the worms in different vermibins were also investigated. The results showed that initially biomass and fecundity of the worms increased but decreased at the later stages due to non-availability of the palatable feed. This showed that quality and palatability of food directly affect biological parameters of the system.

  20. Polyphasic bacterial community analysis of an aerobic activated sludge removing phenols and thiocyanate from coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfoldi, T.; Szekely, A.J.; Goral, R.; Barkacs, K.; Scheirich, G.; Andras, J.; Racz, A.; Marialigeti, K. [Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Microbiology

    2010-05-15

    Biological purification processes are effective tools in the treatment of hazardous wastes such as toxic compounds produced in coal coking. In this study, the microbial community of a lab-scale activated sludge system treating coking effluent was assessed by cultivation-based (strain isolation and identification, biodegradation tests) and culture-independent techniques (sequence-aided T-RFLP, taxon-specific PCR). The results of the applied polyphasic approach showed a simple microbial community dominated by easily culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Comamonas badia was identified as the key microbe of the system, since it was the predominant member of the bacterial community, and its phenol degradation capacity was also proved. Metabolism of phenol, even at elevated concentrations (up to 1500 mg/L), was also presented for many other dominant (Pseudomonas, Rhodanobacter, Oligella) and minor (Alcaligenes, Castellaniella, Microbacterium) groups, while some activated sludge bacteria (Sphingomonas, Rhodopseudomonas) did not tolerate it even in lower concentrations (250 mg/L). In some cases, closely related strains showed different tolerance and degradation properties. Members of the genus Thiobacillus were detected in the activated sludge, and were supposedly responsible for the intensive thiocyanate biodegradation observed in the system. Additionally, some identified bacteria (e.g. C. badia and the Ottowia-related strains) might also have had a significant impact on the structure of the activated sludge due to their floc-forming abilities.

  1. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial effluents are generally discharged into receiving water bodies or disposed on land. These effluents are often used by the communities around for domestic activities like farming. Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of ...

  2. Trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality of activated sludge processes under seasonal variations of wastewater temperature and mean cell retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingbo; Fu, Xin; Andrés Baquero, G; Sobhani, Reza; Nolasco, Daniel A; Rosso, Diego

    2016-03-15

    Over the seasonal cycles, the mean cell retention time (MCRT) of the activated sludge process is varied to compensate the wastewater temperature variations. The effects of these variations on the carbon footprint (CFP) and effluent quality index (EQI) of a conventional activated sludge (CAS) process and a nitrification/denitrification (NDN) process were quantified. The carbon emission included both biogenic and non-biogenic carbon. Carbon emissions of wasted biosolids management were also addressed. Our results confirmed that the effluent quality indicated by EQI was not necessarily improved by increasing MCRT. Higher MCRT increased the carbon emission and reduced excess sludge production, which decreased the potential for biogas energy recovery. The NDN process was preferable to the CAS process from the perspective of effluent quality. This consideration extended to the whole plant CFP if the N2O emitted during NDN was limited ([N2O]intensity (γ) derived from CFP and EQI, our work provides a quantitative tool for decision makers evaluating process alternatives when there is a trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil Aquifer Treatment : Assessment and Applicability of Primary Effluent Reuse in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, C.D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis showed that soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an effective polishing technology for reuse of primary effluent. The study experimentally revealed relatively high removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients, pharmaceutically active compounds and pathogens indicators under

  4. Soil Aquifer Treatment: Assessment and Applicability of Primary Effluent Reuse in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, C.D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis showed that soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an effective polishing technology for reuse of primary effluent. The study experimentally revealed relatively high removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients, pharmaceutically active compounds and pathogens indicators under

  5. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  6. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary medicine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Souza Maselli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from veterinary pharmaceutical industries that formulate medicines are mainly generated during the washing of equipment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical industry. The industrial effluent treatment system comprises a step of chemical treatment (coagulation-sedimentation forced followed by aerobic biological treatment (activated sludge process. Five samplings campaigns were performed from October 2011 to July 2012. The raw effluent samples showed high acute and chronic toxicity (acute: fourth sampling with EC50 - 48-h of <0.001% and chronic: third sampling with IC50 - 7-d of <0.0001%. The chemically treated effluent samples were the most toxic with EC50 - 48-h between <0.001 and 0.1% and IC50 - 7-d between 0.00001 and 0.0001%. This increase in toxicity is probably related to the use of aluminum sulfate as flocculating agent. The biological treatment led to a small reduction in toxicity of the effluents. The selected ecotoxicological tests were adequate for detecting the effluent toxicity and useful for evaluating the efficiency of the steps of the effluent treatment. Improvements in the industrial wastewater treatment system should be implemented in order to reduce the observed toxicity of the final effluent.

  7. Performance enhancement with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating distillery effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyawali, Yamini [TERI University, 10, Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110070 (India); Balakrishnan, Malini, E-mail: malinib@teri.res.in [TERI University, 10, Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110070 (India); Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Darbari Seth Block, India Habitat Center, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India)

    2009-10-15

    This work investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater (spentwash). The 8 L reactor was equipped with a submerged 30 {mu}m nylon mesh filter with 0.05 m{sup 2} filtration area. Detailed characterization of the commercial wood charcoal based PAC was performed before using it in the MBR. The MBR was operated over 200 days at organic loading rates (OLRs) varying from 4.2 to 6.9 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. PAC addition controlled the reactor foaming during start up and enhanced the critical flux by around 23%; it also prolonged the duration between filter cleaning. Operation at higher loading rates was possible and for a given OLR, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher with PAC addition. However, biodegradation in the reactor was limited and the high molecular weight compounds were not affected by PAC supplementation. The functional groups on PAC appear to interact with the polysaccharide portion of the sludge, which may reduce its propensity to interact with the nylon mesh.

  8. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  9. Hybrid matrices of ZnO nanofibers with silicone for high water flux photocatalytic degradation of dairy effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar A., E-mail: kanjwalmuzafar@gmail.com [Nano-Bio Science Research Group, DTU-Food Technical University of Denmark, Soltofts Plads, B 227, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dept. of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Hail, Hail 81451 (Saudi Arabia); Shawabkeh, Ali Qublan [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Hail, Hail 81451 (Saudi Arabia); Alm, Martin; Thomsen, Peter [BioModics ApS, Gregersensvej 7, DK-2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Barakat, Nasser A.M. [Department of Textile Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Chronakis, Ioannis S., E-mail: ioach@food.dtu.dk [Nano-Bio Science Research Group, DTU-Food Technical University of Denmark, Soltofts Plads, B 227, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-09-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofibers were produced by electrospinning technique and surface coated on silicone elastomer substrate (diameter: 10.0 mm; thickness: 2.0 mm) by a dipcoating method. The obtained hybrid nanoporous matrices were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformation infrared techniques (FTIR). These characterizations reveal that the surface morphology of electrospun nanofibers remained intact by the dipcoating technique. The produced hybrid matrices showed high water flux of 9407 L/m{sup 2}h, 38% removal rate of dairy effluent (DE) and 2298 ml/g h rate of hydrogen production. - Highlights: • Hybrid ZnO silicon nanoporous matrices are introduced. • The water flux is high 9407 L/m{sup 2}h for ZnO silicon nanoporous matrices. • The ZnO silicon nanoporous matrices showed good photocatalytic properties. • The ZnO nanoporous matrices showed 2298 ml/g h rate of hydrogen production.

  10. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available 3815 9 D A Lord Department of Oceanography University of Port Elizabeth P 0 Box 1600 PORT ELIZABETH 6000 N D Geldenhuys Department of Environment Affairs Private Bag X9005 CAPE TOWN 8000 Cover: Richards Bay from the air showing city... of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material...

  11. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluents For Thyroid Hormone Disrupting Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two ass...

  12. Feasibility of Typha latifolia for high salinity effluent treatment in constructed wetlands for integration in resource management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, J M; Calheiros, C S C; Castro, P M L; Borges, M T

    2014-01-01

    High salinity wastewaters have limited treatment options due to the occurrence of salt inhibition in conventional biological treatments. Using recirculating marine aquaculture effluents as a case study, this work explored the use of Constructed Wetlands as a treatment option for nutrient and salt loads reduction. Three different substrates were tested for nutrient adsorption, of which expanded clay performed better. This substrate adsorbed 0.31 mg kg(-1) of NH4(+)-N and 5.60 mg kg(-1) of PO4(3-)-P and 6.9 mg kg(-1) dissolved salts after 7 days of contact. Microcosms with Typha latifolia planted in expanded clay and irrigated with aquaculture wastewater (salinity 2.4%, 7 days hydraulic retention time, for 4 weeks), were able to remove 94% NH(4+)-N (inlet 0.25 +/- 0.13 mg L(-1)), 78% NO2(-)-N (inlet 0.78 +/- 0.62 mg L(-1)), 46% NO3(-)-N (inlet 18.83 +/- 8.93 mg L(-1)) whereas PO4(3-)-P was not detected (inlet 1.41 +/- 0.21 mg L(-1)). Maximum salinity reductions of 52% were observed. Despite some growth inhibition, plants remained viable, with 94% survival rate. Daily treatment dynamics studies revealed rapid PO4(3-)-P adsorption, unbalancing the N:P ratio and possibly affecting plant development. An integrated treatment approach, coupled with biomass valorization, is suggested to provide optimal resource management possibilities.

  13. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Nam, Ji Hyun; Shin, Ji Hye; Yun, Seo Yeon; Cho, Young Cheol; Oh, Kyoung hee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  14. Aerobic wastewater treatment under high and varying temperatures : thermophilic process performance and effluent quality

    OpenAIRE

    Suvilampi, Juhani

    2003-01-01

    Industries, such as the pulp and paper industry, generate high-temperature process waters and wastewaters. Biological treatment at high temperatures may be an attractive option for the treatment of hot or concentrated wastewaters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of thermophilic aerobic wastewater treatment in laboratory experiments, in which thermophilic processes were compared with mesophilic processes. A combined thermophilic-mesophilic treatment was used to impr...

  15. Surface Alteration of Activated Carbon for Detoxification of Copper (ii) from Industrial Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutto, Sadaf; Khan, M. Nasiruddin

    2013-04-01

    The low-cost modified activated carbons were prepared from Thar and Lakhra (Pakistan) coals by activation with sulfuric acid and further modified with citric, tartaric and acetic acids for the selective adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The original carbon obtained from activated Thar and Lakhra coals at pH 3.0 displayed significant adsorption capacity for lead and insignificant capacity values (0.880 and 0.830 mgṡg-1) for copper. However, after modification with citric, tartaric and acetic acid the copper adsorption capacities enhanced in the range of 5.56-21.85 and 6.05-44.61 times, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were used to elucidate the observed sorption phenomena. The isotherm equilibrium data was well fitted by the Langmuir and sufficiently fitted to the Freundlich models. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) inferred that the investigated adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Based on the results, it was concluded that the surface alteration with citric and tartaric acid, Thar and Lakhra activated carbons had significant potential for selective removal of copper(II) from industrial wastewater.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EFFLUENTS FROM SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathea...

  17. Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiliro, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.schiliro@unito.it [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Porfido, Arianna [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Spina, Federica; Varese, Giovanna Cristina [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Viale Mattioli 25, 10125 Torino (Italy); Gilli, Giorgio [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17{beta}-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35 {+-} 1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72 {+-} 0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18 {+-} 3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53 {+-} 2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p < 0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67 {+-} 26% and 52 {+-} 27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S = 0.650, p = 0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two in vitro tests are suited for oestrogenic activity assessment in textile WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a significant correlation between the results of the two in vitro tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oestrogenic activity of the effluent is reduced by ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The input of estrogenic substances into the river via textile WWTP is low.

  18. Micro-pollutant removal from wastewater treatment plant effluent by activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the removal of micro-pollutants from treated wastewater has been highly advocated throughout Europe and the rest of the world. The relevant regulations and the suitable techniques have been proposed accordingly, which promoted the innovation of the conventional wastewater

  19. Adsorption of colour, TSS and COD from palm oil mill effluent (POME using acid-washed coconut shell activated carbon: Kinetic and mechanism studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Yong Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of palm oil mill effluent (POME without proper treatment before being discharged into natural water sources has become undesirable because of high concentration of suspended solid (SS, oil and grease (O&G, chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD. This study investigated the feasibility of removing colour, total suspended solid (TSS and COD using acid-washed coconut shell based activated carbon (CSAC through the evaluation of the adsorption uptake as well as the adsorption kinetics and mechanism. The percentage removal of colour, TSS and COD from POME onto CSAC were 61%, 39%, 66%, respectively achieved within 48 hours of contact time. The kinetic models studied were pseudo-first-order (PFO, pseudo-second-order (PSO, and Elovich models. The intra-particle diffusion (IPD model was studied to interpret the adsorption diffusion mechanism. The adsorption of colour, TSS and COD onto CSAC were best interpreted by the PSO model, and well fitted by the Elovich model. The IPD and Boyd plots indicated that IPD and film diffusion controlled the adsorption of colour, TSS and COD onto the CSAC.

  20. A river-scale Lagrangian experiment examining controls on phytoplankton dynamics in the presence and absence of treated wastewater effluent high in ammonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Tamara; Carpenter, Kurt; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parker, Alexander; Stumpner, Elizabeth; Downing, Bryan D.; Travis, Nicole; Wilkerson, Frances; Kendall, Carol; Mussen, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplankton are critical component of the food web in most large rivers and estuaries, and thus identifying dominant controls on phytoplankton abundance and species composition is important to scientists, managers, and policymakers. Recent studies from a variety of systems indicate that ammonium ( NH+4) in treated wastewater effluent decreases primary production and alters phytoplankton species composition. However, these findings are based mainly on laboratory and enclosure studies, which may not adequately represent natural systems. To test effects of effluent high in ammonium on phytoplankton at the ecosystem scale, we conducted whole-river–scale experiments by halting discharges to the Sacramento River from the regional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and used a Lagrangian approach to compare changes in phytoplankton abundance and species composition in the presence (+EFF) and absence (−EFF) of effluent. Over 5 d of downstream travel from 20 km above to 50 km below the WWTP, chlorophyll concentrations declined from 15–25 to ∼2.5 μg L−1, irrespective of effluent addition. Benthic diatoms were dominant in most samples. We found no significant difference in phytoplankton abundance or species composition between +EFF and −EFF conditions. Moreover, greatest declines in chlorophyll occurred upstream of the WWTP where NH+4 concentrations were low. Grazing by clams and zooplankton could not account for observed losses, suggesting other factors such as hydrodynamics and light limitation were responsible for phytoplankton declines. These results highlight the advantages of conducting ecosystem-scale, Lagrangian-based experiments to understand the dynamic and complex interplay between physical, chemical, and biological factors that control phytoplankton populations.

  1. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  2. Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enormous volumes of effluent are generated at different stages of textile manufacturing, as a result of the use of copious amounts of chemicals and dyes. Several tons of textiles required to meet up with societal demands are produced daily in this industry. Effluent derived from the textile and dyestuff activities can provoke ...

  3. Nitrification and Microbial Activity in Response to Wastewater Effluent in the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challenor, T.; Damashek, J.; Tolar, B. B.; Francis, C.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-) by a coterie of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA), is a crucial step in removing nitrogen from marine ecosystems. The Sacramento/San Joaquin River delta receives ammonium-laden effluent from the Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SRWTP) and nitrate from agriculture runoff. The system provides freshwater to irrigate the Central Valley and drinking water for many millions of people. In recent years, however, this environment has experienced ecological turmoil - the Pelagic Organism Decline (POD) refers to a die-out of fish and other species over the course of three decades. One explanation implicated excessive ammonium input, claiming it limited primary productivity and hurt pelagic fish down the line. A new hypothesis, however, posits that the ecosystem may soon face the opposite problem: over-productivity and hypoxia due to increased light availability and reduced turbidity. Studying the rate of nitrification and the makeup of the microbial community will further elucidate how nutrient loading has impacted this ecosystem. Nitrification rates were calculated from water samples collected in the Sacramento River starting at the SRWTP and moving downstream. Samples were spiked with 15N-labeled ammonium and incubated for 24 hours in triplicate. Four time-points were extracted and the "denitrifier" method was used to measure the isotopic ratio of N over time. DNA and RNA were extracted from filtered water at each site and PCR and qPCR assays were used targeting the amoA gene, which encodes the α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase, responsible for oxidizing ammonium to nitrite (NO2-). Consistent with previous nitrification data, rates were highest in the lower river downstream of the SRWTP, where nitrate concentrations were correspondingly elevated. AOB predominated in the ammonia oxidizing community, and some clades were unique to this ecosystem. Nitrifying microbes provide an

  4. Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Abdel-Fatah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been considered as the basis for full scale design of the industrial capacity of 1600 m3/day treatment plant. Final effluent characteristics after treatment comply with Egyptian legalizations after reducing COD and BOD5 by about 97% and 95% respectively. So it is recommended to reuse treated effluent in textile industry in dyeing process.

  5. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  6. Evaluation of bioremediation potentiality of ligninolytic Serratia liquefaciens for detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Kumari, Vineeta; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-03-15

    Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. The strain was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated site. Biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain LD-5 belonged to the Serratia liquefaciens. The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. Extracellular LiP produced by S. liquefaciens during effluent decolourisation was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate (AMS) precipitation and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Detoxified effluent was evaluated for residual toxicity by alkaline single cell (comet) gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism. The toxicity reduction to treated effluent was 49.4%. These findings suggest significant potential of S. liquefaciens for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The disposal of industrial effluents on pastures | RE | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An agricultural project for the disposal of industrial liquid effluent has been initiated by African Explosives and Chemical Industries Limited at their Modderfontein factory. This effluent, which has a high nitrogen content, is sprayed on veld and sown pastures. In spite of two very dry years the effluent has stimulated the growth ...

  8. Influent pathogenic bacteria may go straight into effluent in full scale wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be adsorbed onto the activated sludge flocs, consumed by protozoan or to just die off. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. Thus......, it is assumed that the bacteria present in the effluent comprise primarily of those bacteria that thrive/grow in the plants. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria in the effluent, particularly pathogens, are based on culture-dependent methods, which may give erroneous results by underestimating...... with the effluent. Culture-independent 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. Over a sampling period of three months, the microbial community composition was investigated by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (V1 to V3 region) and MiDAS curated...

  9. Evaluation of culturable, nitrifying, ammonium-oxidizing, and metabolically active bacteria in shrimp farm effluents of Kino Bay, Sonora, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraza-Guardado R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from shrimp farm effluents in Kino Bay, Sonora, México were evaluated during the 2008 production cycle. The culturable bacterial populations considered were viable heterotrophic bacteria (VHB and Vibrio-like bacteria (VLB. In addition, total bacteria (TB, metabolically active bacteria (MAB, nitrifying bacteria (NB, and ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB were quantified by epifluorescence microscopy. Three sampling sites were established in the influence area of drain and one control site far from the discharge area. Average concentrations of VHB and VLB were 103 and 102 CFU mL-1, respectively. The TB ranged from 107 to 109 cells mL-1. The mean values of Mrelated to TB counts in the affected area were higher throughout the culture cycle compared to the control site, ranging from 1.09 to 27.35%. These results indicate that effluents modify the natural loads of bacteria in the discharge area, which could affect natural populations and the microbial balance of the area.

  10. The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of tannery effluent in bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvão, Mateus Flores; de Souza, Joyce Moreira; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto; Castro, André Luis da Silva; Rodrigues, Aline Sueli de Lima; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-09-01

    Some of the most polluting activities occur in bovine skin processing. Tannery generates effluents containing high concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds. The phases composing the leather production process generate a large volume of tannery effluents that are often discarded in aquatic environments without any previous treatment. However, the effect these xenobiotics have on adult representatives belonging to the class Amphibia remains unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study is to assess the geno- and cytotoxic effects of tannery effluent on adult male bullfrogs (Lithobates castesbeianus) exposed to it. Accordingly, the animals were divided into the following groups: negative control (tannery effluent-free water), positive control (cyclophosphamide), and effluent (water added with 5% tannery effluent). The animals were euthanized for blood collection, and erythrocyte analyses were conducted after 35 and 90 days of exposure. The micronuclei (MN) frequency and the frequency of other nuclear abnormalities in each of the animals in the experimental groups were assessed in 2000 erythrocytes. According to the present results, the exposure to tannery effluents increased MN frequency as well as other nuclear abnormalities (i.e., lobed nuclei, binucleated cell, kidney-shaped nuclei, notched nuclei, and apoptotic cell) in the erythrocytes of animals in the effluent group and in the positive control group after 35 and 90 exposure days. Thus, the current study corroborated the hypothesis that the tannery effluent has aneugenic and clastogenic potential in adult male bullfrogs (L. castesbeianus). The present study is the first to report such effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of effluent turbidity in mesophilic and thermophilic sludge reactors - origin of effluent colloidal material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Lier, van J.B.; Klapwijk, B.; Vries, M.C.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    Two lab-scale plug flow activated sludge reactors were run in parallel for 4 months at 30 and 55°C. Research focussed on: (1) COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, (2) effluent turbidity at both temperatures, (3) the origin of effluent colloidal material and (4) the possible role of protozoa on

  12. Continuous-flow photocatalytic treatment of pharmaceutical micropollutants: Activity, inhibition, and deactivation of TiO2 photocatalysts in wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Carbonaro, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts have been shown to be effective at degrading a wide range of organic micropollutants during short-term batch experiments conducted under ideal laboratory solution conditions (e.g., deionized water). However, little research has been performed regarding longer-term photocatalyst performance in more complex matrices representative of contaminated water sources (e.g., wastewater effluent, groundwater). Here, a benchtop continuous-flow reactor was developed for the purpose of studying the activity, inhibition, and deactivation of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysts during water treatment applications. As a demonstration, degradation of four pharmaceutical micropollutants (iopromide, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine) was monitored in both a pH-buffered electrolyte solution and a biologically treated wastewater effluent (WWE) to study the effects of non-target constituents enriched in the latter matrix. Reactor performance was shown to be stable over 7d when treating micropollutants in buffered electrolyte, with 7-d averaged kobs values (acetaminophen=0.97±0.10h-1; carbamazepine=0.50±0.04h-1; iopromide=0.49±0.03h-1; sulfamethoxazole=0.79±0.06h-1) agreeing closely with measurements from short-term circulating batch reactions. When reactor influent was switched to WWE, treatment efficiencies decreased to varying degrees (acetaminophen=40% decrease; carbamazepine=60%; iopromide=78%; sulfamethoxazole=54%). A large fraction of the catalyst activity was recovered upon switching back to the buffered electrolyte influent after 4d, suggesting that much of the observed decrease resulted from reversible inhibition by non-target constituents (e.g., scavenging of photocatalyst-generated OH). However, there was also a portion of the decrease in activity that was not recovered, indicating WWE constituents also contributed to photocatalyst deactivation (acetaminophen=6% deactivation; carbamazepine=24%; iopromide=16

  13. Study of a large scale powdered activated carbon pilot: Removals of a wide range of emerging and priority micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Coquet, Y; Deshayes, S; Zedek, S; Cren-Olivé, C; Cartiser, N; Eudes, V; Bressy, A; Caupos, E; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of a fluidized powdered activated carbon (PAC) pilot (CarboPlus(®)) was studied in both nominal (total nitrification + post denitrification) and degraded (partial nitrification + no denitrification) configuration of the Seine Centre WWTP (Colombes, France). In addition to conventional wastewater parameters 54 pharmaceuticals and hormones (PhPHs) and 59 other emerging pollutants were monitored in influents and effluents of the pilot. Thus, the impacts of the WWTP configuration, the process operation and the physico-chemical properties of the studied compounds were assessed in this article. Among the 26 PhPHs quantified in nominal WWTP configuration influents, 8 have high dissolved concentrations (>100 ng/L), 11 have an intermediary concentration (10-100 ng/L) and 7 are quantified below 10 ng/L. Sulfamethoxazole is predominant (about 30% of the sum of the PhPHs). Overall, 6 PhPHs are poorly to moderately removed (80%), i.e. beta blockers, carbamazepine or trimethoprim, and 11 are well eliminated (60-80%), i.e. diclofenac, naproxen or sulfamethoxazole. In degraded WWTP configuration, higher levels of organic matter and higher concentrations of most pollutants are observed. Consequently, most PhPHs are substantially less removed in percentages but the removed flux is higher. Thus, the PAC dose required to achieve a given removal percentage is higher in degraded WWTP configuration. For the other micropollutants (34 quantified), artificial sweeteners and phthalates are found at particularly high concentrations in degraded WWTP configuration influents, up to μg/L range. Only pesticides, bisphenol A and parabens are largely eliminated (50-95%), while perfluorinated acids, PAHs, triclosan and sweeteners are not or weakly removed (<50%). The remaining compounds exhibit a very variable fate from campaign to campaign. The fresh PAC dose was identified as the most influencing operation parameter and is strongly correlated to performances. Charge and

  14. Energy recovery from effluents of sugar processing industries in the UASB reactors seeded with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, D.M.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.

  15. Co-composting of alkaline tissue digester effluent with yard trimmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K C

    2008-01-01

    Alkaline digestion of animal carcasses is gaining popularity as a method of disposing of animals because of its very effective pathogen control and general ease of operation. Once completed, the resulting high-strength effluent can be released into the municipal sewer systems. In some cases where the municipal system is unable to handle this high-strength wastewater, alternate methods of treatment are required. Co-composting with a low-moisture substrate such as yard trimmings can be an effective option. This paper reports the results of absorption tests to determine the amount of digester effluent (from the Tissue Digestor process) that can be added to yard waste before leachate production begins. In addition, a low dosage of liquid effluent was added to yard trimmings and composted in laboratory bioreactors. Results show that leachate production begins when 0.6L-effluent is added per kg-unamended yard waste at an original moisture content of 55.6%. The amount of leachate produced increases exponentially following the empirical equation: leachate in mL/kg=0.145 e(6.007Effluent dosage in L/kg) (valid in the effluent addition range of 0-1.2L/kg). Composting of yard waste with effluent showed that the initial pH did not inhibit microbial activity up to 9.39 pH. Variability was high and there was no statistically significant difference in dry matter degradation between treatments (measured range was 1.3-6.0% of initial dry matter). Final compost had nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of approximately 1% and 0.1%, respectively. The potassium concentration increased with increasing effluent addition and was 1.84% in the 0.2-L/kg treatment. All regulated heavy metals were several-fold below US EPA limits.

  16. (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    , palm oil mill effluent. could solve several problems including reducing the high load of waste produced by palm oil industry. It can also create a market for biofertilizer which have proven to be more effective and cheaper than ...

  17. Treatment of oil refinery effluent in a continuous reactor using Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) in the activated sludge process; Tratamento de efluente de refinaria de petroleo em um reator continuo utilizando carvao ativado em po (CAP) no sistema de lodo ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Lidia; Campos, Juacyara C.; Valle, Alexandre Ornellas do; Souza, Andre Lopes de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The process of oil refining generates effluent containing toxic substances as high molecular weight hydrocarbons which have toxicity or are recalcitrant to biological degradation. This study examined the introduction of powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the system of activated sludge used to treat of oil refinery effluent. The process was conducted in two bioreactors continued, with a capacity of 2L: one to monitoring the performance of the activated sludge system without the addition of PAC and another to monitoring the performance of biological treatment using 2,0 g/L of PAC. The degradation of organic matter through activated sludge turned to physical adsorption associated with the addition of CAP promoted the values of COD reduction of 360 to 36 mg / L, which corresponds to an average of 90% of removal. It was also observed the reduction of the values of total organic carbon (TOC) of 285 to 86mg / L, which represents an increase of TOC removal of around 10 percentage points, which, probably, can be the portion of persistent organic matter that is not degraded by the biological system without CAP. (author)

  18. Bitumen coating of the radio-active sludges from the effluent treatment plant at the Marcoule centre. Review of the progress reports 1, 2, 3 and 4 (1963); Enrobage par le bitume des boues radioactives de la station de traitement des effluents du centre de Marcoule. Mise au point des etats d'avancement 1, 2, 3 et 4. (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Scheidhauer, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Besides the very high activity liquids containing fission products, the chemical treatment of irradiated fuels produces a large volume of aqueous effluents and solid waste of relatively low radioactivity. These weakly active products can be eliminated in the ground, in a hydrographic land system or in the sea. Techniques of evaporation, of resin concentration, and of coprecipitation give rise to inorganic sludges with a high water content. All these residues occupy a large volume and represent a far from negligible weight. In the case of the sludge, their relative fluidity necessitates a conditioning guaranteeing safe storage. The solution to the problem will consist in passing directly from a liquid or a suspension, to a solid whose structure is homogeneous and whose matter is inert with respect to the storage medium (soil, sea, etc. ). We have proposed to coat the radioactive products with bitumen. This article is designed to give a review of the studies undertaken on this method. It consists of a progress report rather than a final assessment. (authors) [French] En dehors des liquides de tres haute activite contenant des produits de fission, le traitement chimique des combustibles irradies produit un volume important d'effluents aqueux et de residus solides de radioactivite relativement faible. Ces produits, faiblement actifs, peuvent etre elimines dans le sol, dans un systeme hydrographique terrestre ou dans la mer. Les techniques d'evaporation, de concentration sur resine, de coprecipitation, permettent la decontamination prealable des liquides. La coprecipitation donne naissance a des boues minerales dont la teneur en eau est elevee. Tous ces residus occupent un volume important et representent un poids non negligeable. Dans le cas des boues, leur fluidite relative exige un conditionnement donnant toutes garanties de securite au stockage. La solution du probleme consistera a passer directement d'un liquide ou d'une suspension a un solide

  19. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongkanand, Anusorn [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  20. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Impact of urban effluents on summer hypoxia in the highly turbid Gironde Estuary, applying a 3D model coupling hydrodynamics, sediment transport and biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajaunie-Salla, Katixa; Wild-Allen, Karen; Sottolichio, Aldo; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Litrico, Xavier; Abril, Gwenaël

    2017-10-01

    Estuaries are increasingly degraded due to coastal urban development and are prone to hypoxia problems. The macro-tidal Gironde Estuary is characterized by a highly concentrated turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Field observations show that hypoxia occurs in summer in the TMZ at low river flow and a few days after the spring tide peak. In situ data highlight lower dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations around the city of Bordeaux, located in the upper estuary. Interactions between multiple factors limit the understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of hypoxia. A 3D biogeochemical model was developed, coupled with hydrodynamics and a sediment transport model, to assess the contribution of the TMZ and the impact of urban effluents through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sewage overflows (SOs) on hypoxia. Our model describes the transport of solutes and suspended material and the biogeochemical mechanisms impacting oxygen: primary production, degradation of all organic matter (i.e. including phytoplankton respiration, degradation of river and urban watershed matter), nitrification and gas exchange. The composition and the degradation rates of each variable were characterized by in situ measurements and experimental data from the study area. The DO model was validated against observations in Bordeaux City. The simulated DO concentrations show good agreement with field observations and satisfactorily reproduce the seasonal and neap-spring time scale variations around the city of Bordeaux. Simulations show a spatial and temporal correlation between the formation of summer hypoxia and the location of the TMZ, with minimum DO centered in the vicinity of Bordeaux. To understand the contribution of the urban watershed forcing, different simulations with the presence or absence of urban effluents were compared. Our results show that in summer, a reduction of POC from SO would increase the DO minimum in the vicinity of Bordeaux by 3% of saturation. Omitting

  2. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  3. Effects of volatile fatty acids in biohydrogen effluent on biohythane production from palm oil mill effluent under thermophilic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonticha Mamimin

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Preventing the high concentration of butyric acid, and propionic acid in the hydrogenic effluent could enhance methane production in two-stage anaerobic digestion for biohythane production.

  4. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  5. Spatio-temporal variations in the composition of organic matter in surface sediments of a mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents (New Caledonia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbroich, Adélaïde, E-mail: adelaide.aschenbroich@univ-brest.fr [UMR BOREA 7208 CNRS/MNHN/UPMC/IRD/UCBN, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CP 53, 61 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris cedex 5 (France); Marchand, Cyril [Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 7590, UR 206, BP A5, 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France); Molnar, Nathalie [UMR BOREA 7208 CNRS/MNHN/UPMC/IRD/UCBN, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CP 53, 61 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris cedex 5 (France); Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 7590, UR 206, BP A5, 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France); Deborde, Jonathan [Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 7590, UR 206, BP A5, 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France); Hubas, Cédric; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Meziane, Tarik [UMR BOREA 7208 CNRS/MNHN/UPMC/IRD/UCBN, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CP 53, 61 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris cedex 5 (France)

    2015-04-15

    In order to investigate spatio-temporal variations in the composition and origin of the benthic organic matter (OM) at the sediment surface in mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents, fatty acid (FA) biomarkers, natural stable isotopes (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N), C:N ratios and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations were determined during the active and the non-active period of the farm. Fatty acid compositions in surface sediments within the mangrove forest indicated that organic matter inputs varied along the year as a result of farm activity. Effluents were the source of fresh particulate organic matter for the mangrove, as evidenced by the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) distribution. The anthropogenic MUFA 18:1ω9 was not only accumulated at the sediment surface in some parts of the mangrove, but was also exported to the seafront. Direct release of bacteria and enhanced in situ production of fungi, as revealed by specific FAs, stimulated mangrove litter decomposition under effluent runoff condition. Also, microalgae released from ponds contributed to maintain high benthic chl-a concentrations in mangrove sediments in winter and to a shift in microphytobenthic community assemblage. Primary production was high whether the farm released effluent or not which questioned the temporary effect of shrimp farm effluent on benthic microalgae dynamic. This study outlined that mangrove benthic organic matter was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by shrimp farm effluent release and that responses to environmental condition changes likely depended on mangrove stand characteristics. - Highlights: • Fatty acid 18:1ω9 is a relevant marker to monitor effluent pathway in the mangrove. • OM nature and distribution at sediment surface varied in relation to farm activity. • Enhancement of litter-decomposer biomass and activity stimulates litter degradation. • Diatoms dominate the microalgae community under effluent runoff conditions. • Chl-a concentrations suggest

  6. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge derived activated carbon. ... The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances. KEY WORDS: Adsorption ...

  7. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  8. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  9. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  10. Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Effluents Release at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; dos Santos, Adir Janete Godoy

    2008-08-01

    A continuous effluent monitoring program has been established at IPEN's plant in order to allow an environmental impact assessment due to radioactive liquid effluent discharge to sanitary system. Representative samples of radioactive liquid effluents are analyzed by using high resolution gamma spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis, facing to Brazilian radioprotection regulatory rules. The results are consolidating yearly in the Institute source-term. In this paper, results of the source-term are presented, concerning to years 2004, 2005 and 2006. The total activity discharged was 8.5×l08 Bq, 5.7×108 Bq and 2.7×l08 Bq, respectively. As the release is strongly dependent on the total amount of the effluent and on the dilution factor, special attention is needed in order to obtain the correct value of that last one. The estimated inside plant dilution factor, considering the recent facilities and the reshaping of the sewerage system was 80, 180 and 130, for period of 2004, 2005 and 2006 discharged liquid radioactive effluent.

  11. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  12. Mesophilic and thermophilic activated sludge post treatment of anaerobic effluent : sludge and wastewater characterization using batch experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic pretreated paper process water was characterized in terms of readily biodegradable, slowly biodegradable, very slowly biodegradable and inert wastewater fractions under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The anaerobic pretreated paper process water contained a relatively high amount

  13. The determination of {sup 14}C in stack effluent gases by carbonate suspension counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Sang Ki; Woo, Hyung Joo; Cho, Soo Young; Kim, Nak Bae [Korea Institute of Geology Minning and Meterials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Dae [Chungbuk Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize carbonate suspension counting method for the measurements of high level activity of{sup 14}C in a reactor stack effluent gases. Although it is less sensitive method, the carbonate suspension counting method has been found to be a suitable technique for the{sup 14}C monitoring of samples with small amount but with high specific activity and to be relatively simple and fast.

  14. Integrated assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent estrogenicity in the Upper Murray River, Australia, using the native Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alan M.; Kumar, Anupama; Woods, Marianne; Williams, Mike; Doan, Hai; Tolsher, Peter; Kookana, Rai S.; Barber, Larry B.

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of major continental river systems by endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) derived from the discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can affect human and ecosystem health. As part of a long-term effort to develop a native fish model organism for assessment of endocrine disruption in Australia's largest watershed, the Murray-Darling River Basin, the present study evaluated endocrine disruption in adult males of the native Australian Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) exposed to effluent from an activated sludge WWTP and water from the Murray River during a 28-d, continuous-flow, on-site experiment. Analysis of the WWTP effluent and river water detected estrone and 17β-estradiol at concentrations up to approximately 25 ng L−1. Anti-estrogenicity of effluent samples was detected in vitro using yeast-based bioassays (yeast estrogen screen) throughout the experiment, but estrogenicity was limited to the first week of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the testes indicated significant suppression of spermatogenesis by WWTP effluent after 28 d of exposure. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations and expression of vitellogenin messenger RNA in liver were not significantly affected by exposure to WWTP effluent. The combination of low contaminant concentrations in the WWTP effluent, limited endocrine disrupting effects in the Murray rainbowfish, and high in-stream dilution factors (>99%) suggest minimal endocrine disruption impacts on native Australian fish in the Murray River downstream from the WWTP outfall. 

  15. A multi-assay screening approach for assessment of endocrine-active contaminants in wastewater effluent samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris D., E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.ca [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Kleywegt, Sonya [Standards Development Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 40 St. Clair Ave. West, Toronto, ON, M4V 1M2 (Canada); Letcher, Robert J. [Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Topp, Edward [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, London, ON, N5V 7T3 (Canada); Wagh, Purva; Trudeau, Vance L.; Moon, Thomas W. [Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    Environmental agencies must monitor an ever increasing range of contaminants of emerging concern, including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). An alternative to using ultra-trace chemical analysis of samples for EDCs is to test for biological activity using in vitro screening assays, then use these assay results to direct analytical chemistry approaches. In this study, we used both analytical approaches and in vitro bioassays to characterize the EDCs present in treated wastewater from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Ontario, Canada. Estrogen-mediated activity was assessed using a yeast estrogenicity screening (YES) assay. An in vitro competitive binding assay was used to assess capacity to interfere with binding of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4) to the recombinant human thyroid hormone transport protein, transthyretin (i.e. hTTR). An in vitro binding assay with a rat peroxisome proliferator responsive element transfected into a rainbow trout gill cell line was used to evaluate binding and subsequent gene expression via the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR). Analyses of a suite of contaminants known to be EDCs in extracts from treated wastewater were conducted using either gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Estrogenic activity was detected in the YES assay only in those extracts that contained detectable amounts of estradiol (E2). There was a positive relationship between the degree of response in the T4-hTTR assay and the amounts of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47 and 99, triclosan and the PBDE metabolite, 4-OH-BDE17. Several wastewater extracts gave a positive response in the PPAR assay, but these responses were not correlated with the amounts of any of the EDCs analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Overall, these data indicate that a step-wise approach is feasible using a combination of in vitro testing and instrumental analysis to monitor for

  16. Development of a quantitative high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for sucralose in sewage effluent, surface water, and drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, Gertrud E; Schuele, Leonard; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2011-05-13

    Sucralose, a persistent chlorinated substance used as sweetener, can already be found in waste water, and various countries focused on the release of sucralose into the aquatic environment. A quantitative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method, which is orthogonal to existing methods, was developed to analyze sucralose in water. After sample preparation, separation of up to 17 samples was performed in parallel on a HPTLC plate silica gel 60 F(254) with a mixture of isopropyl acetate, methanol and water (15:3:1, v/v/v) within 15 min. Due to the weak native UV absorption of sucralose (≤200 nm), various post-chromatographic derivatization reactions were compared to selectively detect sucralose in effluent and surface water matrices. Thereby p-aminobenzoic acid reagent was discovered as a new derivatization reagent for sucralose. Compared to the latter and to β-naphthol, derivatization with aniline diphenylamine o-phosphoric acid reagent was slightly preferred and densitometry was performed by absorbance measurement at 400 nm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of sucralose in drinking and surface water was calculated to be 100 ng/L for a given recovery rate of 80% and the extraction of a 0.5 L water sample. The sucralose content determined in four water samples obtained during an interlaboratory trial in 2008 was in good agreement to the mean laboratory values of that trial. According to the t-test, which compares the results with the target value, the means obtained by HPTLC were not significantly different from the respective means of six laboratories, analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-TOF-MS with the use of mostly isotopically labeled standards. The good accuracy and high sample throughput capacity proved HPTLC as a well suited method regarding quantification of sucralose in various aqueous matrices. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamics of size-fractionated bacterial communities during the coastal dispersal of treated municipal effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, SiGuang; Luo, YuanRong; Huang, LingFeng

    2016-07-01

    Everyday huge amount of treated municipal wastewater is discharged into the coastal seawater. However, microbial biomarkers for the municipal effluent instead of the fecal species from raw sewage have not been proposed. Meanwhile, bacterial taxa for degrading large amounts of input organics have not been fully understood. In this study, raw effluent and serial water samples were collected from the coastal dispersal of two sewage treatment plants in Xiamen, China. Free-living (FL) and particle-associated (PA) bacterial communities were analyzed via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR to measure bacterial abundance. The PA bacterial communities in our samples exhibited higher cell abundance, alpha diversity, and population dynamics than the FL bacterial communities, which supports greater environmental significance of the PA bacterial communities. Two non-fecal but typical genera in activated sludge, Zoogloea and Dechloromonas, exhibited decreased but readily detectable abundance along the effluent dispersal distance. Furthermore, the dominating microbial species near the outfalls were related to well-known marine indigenous taxa, such as SAR11 clade, OM60 clade, low-GC Actinobacteria, and unclassified Flavobacteriales, as well as the less understood taxa like Pseudohongiella and Microbacteriaceae. It is interesting that these taxa exhibited two types of correlation patterns with COD concentration. Our study suggested Zoogloea as a potential indicator of municipal effluents and also proposed potential utilizers of residual effluent COD in marine environments.

  18. Assessment of Coagulant Synergy for the Depollution of Binder Emulsion Plant Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Binder emulsion plant effluent is a source of intense pollution when discharged into the environment without proper degree of treatment due to its strong color as well as higher total suspended solids (TSS and chemical oxygen demand (COD contents. An empirical study was conducted to optimize the effect of the coagulants used for the removal of Color, Turbidity, TSS, and COD from binder emulsion effluent. The coagulants, used with and without the induction of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC to enhance the decrease in pollution concentration, included Ferrous Sulfate, Ferric Chloride, Alum and Lime. Ferric Chloride used in combination with PAC produced a synergistic effect in terms of effluent depollution and transpired into efficient removal of effluent COD (83%, Color (98%, Turbidity (97% and TSS (96%. Induction of PAC with all the coagulants combined proved highly effective as well in decreasing the effluent COD, color, Turbidity and TSS by 91%, 99%, 99% and 97% respectively. In a combined process of coagulation and adsorption, combination of ferric chloride and PAC gave effective results in terms of pollutants removal by around 90% as compared to combination of PAC with other coagulants, yielding removal percentages of lower than 50%.

  19. Potential for reuse of effluent from fish-processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Morena Rodrigues Vitor Dias Ferraciolli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common problems in the fish processing industry relate to high water consumption and the generation of effluents with concentrated organic loads. Given that reuse can represent an alternative for sustainable development, this study sought to assess the potential for recycling effluents produced in a fish-processing plant. In order to do so, the final industrial effluent was analyzed using the American Public Health Association (APHA standard effluent-analysis method (2005. In addition, the study assessed treatments which produce effluents meeting the requirements prescribed by different countries' regulations for reuse and recycling. The results found that effluents with smaller organic loads, such as those from health barriers and monoblock washing, can be treated in order to remove nutrients and solids so that they can be subsequently reused. For effluents produced by the washing and gutting cylinders, it is recommended that large fragments of solid waste be removed beforehand. Effluents can in this way attain a quality compatible with industrial reuse. This study further highlights the possibility of treating effluents so as comply with drinking water standards. This would potentially allow them to be used within the actual fish-processing procedure; in such a case, a revision of standards and measures for controlling use should be considered to prevent microbiological damage to products and risks to handlers and final consumers.

  20. The chemical composition of the effluent from Awassa Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effluent contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, and concentrations of about 70% of all the elements measured were higher (by 10 to 100 times) in effluent treated in ponds (biological lagoons) than straight from the factory, presumably due to concentration by evaporation. Chlorophyll-a concentration in lake ...

  1. Assessment of effluents discharged from textiles industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of effluents discharged from textiles industries in selected villages in Kaduna State, Nigeria. ... The study recommend the need for the intervention of appropriate regulatory agencies to ensure production of high quality treated final effluents by wastewater treatment facilities in selected villages of Kaduna.

  2. Degradation of 32 emergent contaminants by UV and neutral photo-fenton in domestic wastewater effluent previously treated by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz, N; Giménez, J; Esplugas, S; Grandjean, D; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

    2012-04-15

    This study focuses on the removal of 32 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors and biocides/pesticides) found in an effluent coming from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) based on activated sludge. Dissolved organic matter was present, with an initial total organic carbon of 15.9 mg L(-1), and a real global quantity of micropollutants of 29.5 μg L(-1). The treatments tested on the micropollutants removal were: UV-light emitting at 254 nm (UV(254)) alone, dark Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)) and photo-Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)/light). Different irradiation sources were used for the photo-Fenton experiences: UV(254) and simulated sunlight. Iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations were also changed in photo-Fenton experiences in order to evaluate its influence on the degradation. All the experiments were developed at natural pH, near neutral. Photo-Fenton treatments employing UV(254), 50 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2), with and without adding iron (5 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) added or 1.48 mg L(-1) of total iron already present) gave the best results. Global percentages of micropollutants removal achieved were 98 and a 97% respectively, after 30 min of treatments. As the H(2)O(2) concentration increased (10, 25 and 50 mg L(-1)), best degradations were observed. UV(254), Fenton, and photo-Fenton under simulated sunlight gave less promising results with lower percentages of removal. The highlight of this paper is to point out the possibility of the micropollutants degradation in spite the presence of DOM in much higher concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Elimination of micropollutants and transformation products from a wastewater treatment plant effluent through pilot scale ozonation followed by various activated carbon and biological filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Gregor; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Cornel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants are ineffective in removing a broad range of micropollutants, resulting in the release of these compounds into the aquatic environment, including natural drinking water resources. Ozonation is a suitable treatment process for micropollutant removal, although, currently, little is known about the formation, behavior, and removal of transformation products (TP) formed during ozonation. We investigated the elimination of 30 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, industrial chemicals, and TP) by biological treatment coupled with ozonation and, subsequently, in parallel with two biological filters (BF) or granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. The selected micropollutants were removed to very different extents during the conventional biological wastewater treatment process. Ozonation (specific ozone consumption: 0.87 ± 0.29 gO3 gDOC(-1), hydraulic retention time: 17 ± 3 min) eliminated a large number of the investigated micropollutants. Although 11 micropollutants could still be detected after ozonation, most of these were eliminated in subsequent GAC filtration at bed volumes (BV) of approximately 25,000 m(3) m(-3). In contrast, no additional removal of micropollutants was achieved in the BF. Ozonation of the analgesic tramadol led to the formation of tramadol-N-oxide that is effectively eliminated by GAC filters, but not by BF. For the antiviral drug acyclovir, the formation of carboxy-acyclovir was observed during activated sludge treatment, with an average concentration of 3.4 ± 1.4 μg L(-1) detected in effluent samples. Subsequent ozonation resulted in the complete elimination of carboxy-acyclovir and led to the formation of N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxo imidazolidin)-formamido-N-methoxyacetetic acid (COFA; average concentration: 2.6 ± 1.0 μg L(-1)). Neither the BF nor the GAC filters were able to remove COFA. These results highlight the importance of considering TP in the

  4. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  5. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Araújo de Almeida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze–slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyroplasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing.

  6. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent.

  7. Application of activated sludge process followed by physical-chemical processes in the treatment of industrial saline effluent for reuse - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Carvalho Bongiovani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of complex effluent with high salinity and sometimes with toxicity rates from a chemical plant is investigated. Two reactors were monitored continuously: control reactor R1 and reactor R2 adapted for saline effluent with 25h-HRT. The adaptation process to saline effluent (0 - 100% was effective in removing COD and N-NH4+, respectively with 70 and 85% efficiency. After adaptation, the sequence coagulation/flocculation (40 mg L-1 PAC coagulant and 0.3 mg L-1 cationic polymer, rapid downflow sand filter (120 m3 m-2 day and reverse osmosis to obtain water for reuse was analyzed. Results obtained by coagulation/flocculation and sand filter sequence were satisfactory, mainly with the removal rates of turbidity at 50-65 and 98%, respectively. Average removals of 91, 87, 98 and 98% were obtained for COD, N-NH4+, TOC and Cl-, respectively, in reverse osmosis, with all parameters below the limits for reuse in cooling towers. However, membrane fouling was detected.  

  8. Trends in emerging and high risk activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. White; Richard Schreyer; Kent Downing

    1980-01-01

    Newly emerging and high risk activities have increased markedly in the last generation, yet little is known about trends in participation. Factors such as technological innovation and creative experimentation with traditional activities appear to play a major role in the development of new activities. Christy's criteria for mass demand in recreation are used to...

  9. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-15

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  10. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  11. Enhancement of the performance of a combined microalgae-activated sludge system for the treatment of high strength molasses wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsioptsias, Costas; Lionta, Gesthimani; Deligiannis, Andreas; Samaras, Petros

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of molasses wastewater, by a combined microalgae-activated sludge process, for the simultaneous organics and total nitrogen reduction, was examined. Further enhancement of the performance of the combined process was accomplished, by means of biofilm carriers or electrocoagulation. A LED light tube was immersed into the reactor tank aiming to enhance the growth of photosynthetic microalgae, while in a similar unit, biofilm carriers were added to the system, representing a moving bed bioreactor. Exposure of the activated sludge biocommunity to light source, resulted in the growth of microalgae and photoreactors exhibited higher removal rates of total nitrogen and nitrates. However, operation at longer times resulted in low effluent quality due to the presence of microalgae cells as a result of high growth rates, and potential light shading effect. Nevertheless, the moving bed system was more beneficial than the single photoreactor, as biofilm carriers provided a self cleaning capacity of the light source, reducing the effect of microalgae deposition. Advanced treatment of the biological effluents, by electrocoagulation, increased even more the process efficiency: the combined photobioreactor and electrocoagulation process resulted in about 78% COD removal and more than 35% total nitrogen removal in the effluent, where nitrates represented almost the single form of total nitrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Unsupervised Analysis of the Effects of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent on the Fathead Minnow Ovarian Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain complex mixtures of chemicals, potentially including endocrine active chemicals (EACs), pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Due to the complex and variable nature of effluents, biological monitori...

  13. Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station

  14. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: roel.smolders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  15. Application of TAML {sup trademark} -catalysts to remove colour from pulp and paper mill effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, K.G.; Stuthridge, T.R. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Rotorua (New Zealand); Wright, L.J. [Dept. of Chemistry, The Univ. of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Horwitz, C.P.; Collins, T.J. [Dept. of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    A TAML{sup circledR} catalyst (0.5 {mu}M, 0.23 mg/L of effluent) combined with hydrogen peroxide (6.5 mM, 0.19 g/L of effluent) were capable of permanently removing 46% of the colour from bleach plant effluent (E{sub op}, pine-derived) in one hour at pilot scale (5 000 L effluent per day). When concentrations of catalyst and peroxide were increased to 2 {mu}M catalyst (0.9 mg/L of effluent) and 22 mM peroxide (0.75 g/L of effluent), respectively, this technology was able to remove 78% of the colour in the E{sub op} effluent. In addition, 29% of the chlorinated organic material (measured as AOX) was also removed from the effluent. A laboratory investigation of the structural changes in the effluent organic material during treatment indicated that the oxidative process predominantly removed phenolic structures from the effluent. The low aromatic content of the effluent meant that the majority of the organic material present in the effluent was not substantially altered during the treatment. Therefore, no significant change in concentration of chemical oxygen demand was observed. In addition to the removal of colour from effluent produced during the processing of softwood, this technology was also able to remediate effluent colour produced during the processing of hardwood (eucalypt). Laboratory studies on life-time of the TAML {sup trademark} catalyst during the effluent treatment demonstrated that activity was maintained for a sufficient period to eliminate all the chromophore available to the active species, but that the catalyst did not survive long enough to be discharged into the receiving environment. Microtox{sup TM} toxicity tests showed that any stable degradation products of the catalyst were not toxic to the receiving environment. (orig.)

  16. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effluent characterization and different modes of reuse in agriculture-a model case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhumita; Kumar, Ashwani

    2009-06-01

    High-quality waters are steadily retreating worldwide. Discharge of industrial effluent in the environment again declines soil/water quality to a great extent. On the other hand, effluent reuse in agriculture could be a means to conserve natural resources by providing assured water supply for growing crops. But industrial effluents are highly variable in nature, containing a variety of substances, and all are not favorable for farming. Appraisal and developing modes of effluent reuse is therefore a prerequisite to enable its proper use in agriculture. Effluents of various industries were assessed and approaches for their use in farming were developed for a particular region in this study. As per availability of effluents, the same could be implemented in other water-scarce areas. Effluents of 20 different industrial units were characterized by 24 attributes. Comparing these with corresponding irrigation water quality standards, the probability of their reuse was interpreted in the first approach. On the basis of relevant properties of major soil types dominated in a particular region, the soil-based usability of effluent was worked out in the second approach. By emphasizing the limitation of groundwater development where it went beyond 50% exploitation level, the land form and major soil type were then identified by applying a soil-based effluent reuse approach; the area-specific suitability of its use was perceived in the third approach. On the basis of irrigation water quality standards, the irrigation potentials of paper mill, fermentation (breweries and distilleries), and sugar factory effluents were recognized. In a soil-based approach, the compatibility of effluent with soil type was marked with A (preferred) and B (moderately preferred) classes and, compiling their recurring presence, the unanimous preference for paper mill effluent followed by rubber goods manufacturing industries/marine shrimp processing units, fermentation, and sugar mills was noted

  18. A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

    2014-01-15

    Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis of zero effluent multipurpose batch processes using effective scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available that characterize today’s markets. Secondly, batch processes tend to produce highly toxic effluent streams, albeit in relatively small quantities in comparison to their continuous counterparts. The stringent environmental conditions militate against the latter...

  20. Technical potential of microalgal bacterial floc raceway ponds treating food-industry effluents while producing microalgal bacterial biomass: An outdoor pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Beelen, Veerle; Julien, Lucie; Lefoulon, Alexandra; Vanhoucke, Thomas; Coolsaet, Carlos; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Rousseau, Diederik P L

    2016-10-01

    To replace costly mechanical aeration by photosynthetical aeration, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent of food-industry was treated in an outdoor MaB-floc raceway pond. Photosynthetic aeration was sufficient for nitrification, but the raceway effluent quality was below current discharge limits, despite the high hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35days. Hereafter, conventional activated sludge (CAS) effluent of food-industry was treated in this pond to recover phosphorus. The two-day HRT results in a more realistic pond area, but the phosphorus removal efficiency was low (20%). High biomass productivities were obtained, i.e. 31.3 and 24.9ton total suspended solids hapond(-1)year(-1) for UASB and CAS effluent, respectively. Bioflocculation enabled successful harvesting of CAS effluent-fed MaB-flocs by settling and filtering at 150-250μm to 22.7% total solids. To conclude, MaB-floc raceway ponds cannot be recommended as the sole treatment for these food-industry effluents, but huge potential lies in added-value biomass production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Textile effluent biodegradation potentials of textile effluent-adapted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental pollution has been recognized as one of the major problems of the modern world. The increasing demand for water and the dwindling supply has made the treatment and reuse of industrial effluents an attractive option. Textile effluents are of concern because they colour the drains and ultimately the water ...

  2. Exposure of composite tannery effluent on snail, Pila globosa: A comparative assessment of toxic impacts of the untreated and membrane treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-04-01

    Effluent from tannery industries can significantly affect the aquatic environment due to the presence of a variety of recalcitrant components. The present study focuses on a comparative assessment of the toxic impacts of an untreated tannery effluent and membrane treated effluents using snail, Pila globosa as an aquatic model. Composite tannery effluent collected from a common effluent treatment plant was selected as the untreated effluent. To investigate the effect of treated effluents on the aquatic organism the effluent was treated by two ways, viz. a single stage microfiltration (MF) using ceramic membrane and a two-step process involving MF followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The whole body tissue, gonad and mantle of P. globosa were subjected to enzyme assays like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx), glutathione S- transferase (GST), etc. for assessing toxic impact. Changes in the biochemical parameters like protein, carbohydrate and amino acid were observed including histological studies of gonad and mantle tissue upon treatment with tannery effluents. To examine potential DNA damage due to the exposure of the effluent, comet assay was conducted. The study revealed that with an exposure to the untreated effluent, activity of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly while the protein and carbohydrate content reduced largely in the whole body tissue, gonad as well as mantle tissues of P. globosa. Histological study indicated considerable damage in the gonad and mantle tissues following exposure to the untreated effluent. Comet assay using hemolymph of P. globosa following exposure to tannery effluent, showed significant genotoxicity. Interestingly, compared to the untreated effluent, damaging effect was reduced in molluscs tissues when exposed to MF treated effluent and even lesser when exposed to MF+RO treated effluent. Apart from the reduced activities of oxidative stress enzymes, the

  3. Performance evaluation of biofil toilet waste digester technologies in Ghana: the efficacy of effluent treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Philip; Gbenatey Nartey, Eric; Schrecongost, Alyse

    2016-12-01

    The study was carried out to assess the efficacy of a standard Biofil toilet digester with regard to its effluent quality and to evaluate the performance of new effluent polishing options being developed by BiofilCom. Influent and effluent were collected from 18 standard Biofil digesters connected to full-flush toilets. Effluent from five pilot installations with improved effluent polishing options were also taken for analyses. Ten other Biofil installations were selected to assess the impact of digester effluent discharge on the surrounding soil. Pollutant concentrations in the Biofil effluent exceeded both Ghana EPA and WHO standards for discharge though pollutant removal efficiencies were high: 84% for biochemical oxygen demand, 86.1% for chemical oxygen demand and 82.4% for total suspended solids. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were significantly reduced by 63% and 95.6%, respectively, and nutrients were the least removed from effluents. Generally, effluents from the majority of the pilot polishing options met most of the discharge standards. E. coli were present in the soil at all study sites, except one. Biofil digester effluent is discharged subsurface but comparing their effluent quality with standards for discharge into water courses is relevant especially in areas of frequent flooding and high water tables.

  4. Characterization of sorption sites and differential stress response of microalgae isolates against tannery effluents from ranipet industrial area-An application towards phycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Sushma, B; Pillai, C Varneetha; Shalini, M; Rajasekaran, C

    2016-08-02

    Phycoremediation ability of microalgae namely Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum were validated against the heavy metals from tannery effluent of Ranipet industrial area. The microalgae species were cultured in media containing tannery effluent in two different volumes and the parameters like specific growth rate, protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities were estimated. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out to know the sorption sites interaction. The antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased in microalgae species indicating the free radical scavenging mechanism under heavy metal stress. SOD activity was 0.502 and 0.378 units/gram fresh weight, CAT activity was 1.36 and 0.256 units/gram fresh weight, GSH activity was 1.286 and 1.232 units/gram fresh weight respectively in the effluent treated microalgae species. Bio sorption efficiency for Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum was 90% and 80% respectively. FTIR analysis revealed the interaction of microalgae species with chemical groups present in the tannery effluent. From the results, the microalgae Oscillatoria acuminate possess high antioxidant activity and bio sorption efficiency when compared to Phormidium irrigum and hence considered useful in treating heavy metals contaminated effluents.

  5. Infectivity of Giardia duodenalis Cysts from UV Light-Disinfected Wastewater Effluent Using a Nude BALB/c Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Alves, Delma Pegolo; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida; Cantusio Neto, Romeu; Durigan, Mauricio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan of public health interest that causes gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. In the city of Campinas in southeast Brazil, giardiasis is endemic, and this pathogen is detected at high concentrations in wastewater effluents, which are potential reservoirs for transmission. The Samambaia wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Campinas employs an activated sludge system for sewage treatment and ultraviolet (UV) light for disinfection of effluents. To evaluate this disinfection process with respect to inactivating G. duodenalis cysts, two sample types were investigated: (i) effluent without UV disinfection (EFL) and (ii) effluent with UV disinfection (EFL+UV). Nude immunodeficient BALB/c mice were intragastrically inoculated with a mean dose of 14 cysts of G. duodenalis recovered from effluent from this WWTP, EFL, or EFL+UV. All animals inoculated with G. duodenalis cysts developed the infection, but animals inoculated with UV-exposed cysts released a lower average concentration of cysts in their faeces than animals inoculated with cysts that were not UV disinfected. Trophozoites were also observed in both groups of animals. These findings suggest that G. duodenalis cysts exposed to UV light were damaged but were still able to cause infection. PMID:27335858

  6. Fast microbial reduction of ferrihydrite colloids from a soil effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Andreas; Bosch, Julian; Rennert, Thilo; Heister, Katja; Braunschweig, Juliane; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Totsche, Kai U.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the microbial reduction of synthetic iron oxide colloids showed their superior electron accepting property in comparison to bulk iron oxides. However, natural colloidal iron oxides differ in composition from their synthetic counterparts. Besides a potential effect of colloid size, microbial iron reduction may be accelerated by electron-shuttling dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as slowed down by inhibitors such as arsenic. We examined the microbial reduction of OM- and arsenic-containing ferrihydrite colloids. Four effluent fractions were collected from a soil column experiment run under water-saturated conditions. Ferrihydrite colloids precipitated from the soil effluent and exhibited stable hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 281 (±146) nm in the effluent fraction that was collected first and 100 (±43) nm in a subsequently obtained effluent fraction. Aliquots of these oxic effluent fractions were added to anoxic low salt medium containing diluted suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens. Independent of the initial colloid size, the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids were quickly and completely reduced. The rates of Fe2+ formation ranged between 1.9 and 3.3 fmol h-1 cell-1, and are in the range of or slightly exceeding previously reported rates of synthetic ferrihydrite colloids (1.3 fmol h-1 cell-1), but greatly exceeding previously known rates of macroaggregate-ferrihydrite reduction (0.07 fmol h-1 cell-1). The inhibition of microbial Fe(III) reduction by arsenic is unlikely or overridden by the concurrent enhancement induced by soil effluent DOM. These organic species may have increased the already high intrinsic reducibility of colloidal ferrihydrite owing to quinone-mediated electron shuttling. Additionally, OM, which is structurally associated with the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids, may also contribute to the higher reactivity due to increasing solubility and specific surface area of ferrihydrite. In conclusion, ferrihydrite

  7. Treatment of tannery effluent by passive uptake-parametric studies and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Rajamohan; Manivasagan, Rajasimman

    2017-06-08

    Galactomyces geotrichum was utilized as a potential biosorbent for the treatment of tannery effluent under controlled environmental conditions. Tannery effluent treatment was studied through parametric experiments to study the effect of effluent pH (3.0-10.0), initial COD (1100-4400 mg/L), and biosorbent dosage (0.3-3.0 g/L).The zeta potential of the biosorbent was determined and found to influence the optimal pH. Increase in effluent COD values resulted in decreased COD removal percentages which attributed to limited availability of surface active sites. The equation relating the COD removal efficiency and biosorbent dose was proposed. Two popular kinetic models, namely pseudo-second order and power function models, were employed to the experimental data. Pseudo-second order model proved to be a good fit with high values of regression coefficient (R (2) > 0.960). Potential application of a fungal biosorption process was explored and the optimal process parameters were identified.

  8. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  9. Removal of melanoidin present in distillery effluent as a major colorant: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Radhika; Lata, Sneh; Gupta, Meera; Singh, Pratibha

    2010-07-01

    Effluent originating from distilleries contain large amount of dark brown coloured wastewater called molasses spent wash (MSW). This MSW is the unwanted residual liquid waste to dispose because of low pH, high temperature, dark brown colour, high ash content, unpleasant odour and high percentage of organic and inorganic matter. Dark brown colour of MSW is due to the presence of melanoidin pigment. It reduces sunlight penetration in rivers and lakes which in turn decrease both photosynthetic activity and dissolved oxygen concentration affecting aquatic life. So the disposal of this effluent is one of the critical environmental issues. A number of treatment processes have been employed for the distillery waste management. This review paper present an overview of the pollution problems caused by melanoidin and the technologies employed globally for its removal.

  10. Pretreatment of brewery effluent to cultivate Spirulina sp. for nutrients removal and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhong, Yuming; Ming, Caibing; Qian, Wei; Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianliang

    2017-10-01

    Due to the low concentration of nitrate and high contents of organics, brewery effluent was not suitable for the cultivation of Spirulina sp. This work changed the nutrient profile of brewery effluent effectively by dilution, addition of nitrate, and anaerobic digestion. The result showed that the optimum dilution rate and NaNO3 addition for brewery effluent were 20% and 0.5 g/L, respectively. Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent produced 1.562 mg/L biomass and reduced concentrations of nutrients to reach the permissible dischargeable limits. In addition, Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent had much higher protein content and oil content. So the appropriate treatment converted brewery effluent into a nutrient balanced medium for algae cultivation and alleviated the potential environmental problems. Pretreatment procedure developed in this work is an effective way to realize the sustainable utilization of brewery effluent and produce algal biomass with valuable nutrients.

  11. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.

    1977-07-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  12. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  13. Antiplasmodial Activity of 'Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-plasmodial effect of 'Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART) was investigated. A hundred and twenty healthy Swiss albino mice (20-24 g) were passaged with Chloroquine sensitive P.berghei and randomly assigned into three study groups: prophylactic, suppressive and curative study group. The animals ...

  14. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  15. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavropoulos George G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior.

  16. Microbiologia de sistema de lodos ativados e sua relação com o tratamento de efluentes industriais: a experiência da Cetrel Activated sludge system microbiology and its relationship with the industrial effluents treatment: the experience of the Cetrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Santos Silva de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar a comunidade microbiana de lodos ativados dos tanques de aeração (TA-2, TA-3 e TA-4 da estação de tratamento de efluentes (ETE da Cetrel e correlacioná-la com parâmetros físico-químicos de processo, bem como avaliar o impacto do efluente industrial (EI bruto na estrutura da comunidade do lodo. Adicionalmente, foi verificada a existência de possíveis correlações entre a qualidade do efluente tratado final (ETF e a comunidade do lodo para identificar algum grupo biológico que pudesse ser usado como bioindicador desta ETE. Os principais grupos encontrados nos TA foram ciliados (livre natantes, de vida livre e pedunculados e flagelados. Verificou-se que altas cargas de DBO e DQO no EI afetam negativamente o sistema, especialmente o grupo dos ciliados, que foram os melhores indicadores da elevada eficiência da ETE. O TA-2 mostrou ser o tanque mais estável e eficiente.The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial community of activated sludge in the aeration tanks (AT-2, AT-3 and AT-4 from the Cetrel wastewater treatment plant (WWTP and to correlate it to physical-chemical parameters, as well as to assess the impact of the raw industrial effluent (IE on the activated sludge community. Additionally, it was verified the relationship between the treated effluent (TE quality and the biological groups to determinate indicators of the WWTP efficiency. Ciliated protozoa (free-swimming, crawler and sessile and flagellates were the main biological groups found in the TA. It was demonstrated that high IE-BOD and -COD loads have a negative influence on the system, especially on the ciliated protozoa, which was the best indicator of high efficiency of the WWTP. The AT-2 was the more stable and efficient.

  17. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  19. In-line monitoring of effluents from high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel particle preparation processes by mass spectrometry. [UO/sub 2/; UC/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.A.; Constanzo, D.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Carpenter, J.A. Jr.; Rainey, W.T.; Canada, D.C.; Carter, J.A.

    1977-06-01

    The carbonization, conversion, and coating processes in the manufacture of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel particles have been studied with the use of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Noncondensable effluents from these fluidized-bed processes have been monitored continuously from the beginning to the end of the process. The processes monitored are these: uranium-loaded ion exchange resin carbonization, the carbothermic reduction of UO/sub 2/ to UC/sub 2/, buffer and low-temperature isotropic pyrocarbon coatings of fuel kernels, SiC coating of the kernels, and high-temperature particle annealing. Changes in concentrations of significant molecules with time and temperature have been useful in the interpretation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of process procedures.

  20. The effect of the natural bentonite to reduce COD in palm oil mill effluent by using a hybrid adsorption-flotation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Ratni; Sari, Ratna; Syafruddin

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent is waste produced from palm oil processing activities. This waste are comingfrom condensate water, process water and hydrocyclone water. The high levels of contaminants in the palm oil mill effluent causes the waste becomes inappropriate to be discharged to water body before processing, one of the most major contaminants in wastewater is fats, oils and COD.This study investigated the effectiveness of chemically activated bentonite that serves as an alternative to reduce the COD in adsorption and floatation based palm oil effluent waste processing. Natural bentonite was activated by using nitrit acid and benzene. In the existing adsorption material to improve COD reduction capability whereas the flotation method was used to further remove residual effluent which is still remain after the adsorption process. An adsorption columns which operated in batch was used in the present study. By varying the circulation time and adsorbent treatment (activated and non-activated), it was shown that percentage of COD reduction reached 75% at the circulation time of 180 minutes for non activated adsorbent. On the other hand the percentof COD reduction in adsorption and flotation process using activated bentonite reached as high as 88% and 93% at the circulation time of 180 minutes.

  1. Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies for the reduction of hormonal activity in effluents and connected surface water bodies by means of vitellogenin analyses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Anja; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine effects in the aquatic environment are in the focus of scientists and media along with debates on the necessity of further steps in wastewater treatment. In the present study VTG responses were compared to evaluate upgrades at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We investigated several advanced sewage treatment technologies at two WWTPs connected to the Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, for the reduction of hormonal activity: (1) a powdered activated charcoal filter at the WWTP Langwiese; and (2) a combination of ozonation, sand filter, and granulated activated carbon filter at the WWTP Eriskirch. Rainbow trout and brown trout were either directly exposed to the effluents in aquaria or cages, or in a bypass system flown through by surface water of the Schussen. As a reference, trout were kept in bypass aquaria at the Argen River, which is less influenced by micropollutants. As a biomarker for estrogenicity, we analyzed the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin in immature rainbow trout and brown trout and in trout larvae (100 days post-fertilization) prior to and after the upgrade with the new technologies. Trout of different ages and species were used to detect differences in their sensitivity. At both bypass stations, larvae of brown trout showed significantly higher vitellogenin levels prior to the upgrade compared to negative control levels. Female brown trout exposed at the bypass station downstream of the WWTP showed decreased vitellogenin levels after the upgrade. In 1-year-old immature trout directly exposed to the respective effluents, no significant effects of the upgrades on vitellogenin levels were found. In general, larger effects were observed in brown trout than in rainbow trout, indicating that they are more sensitive test organisms.

  2. Active vibration isolation of high precision machines

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.

  3. Purifying manure effluents with duckweed

    OpenAIRE

    Timmerman, M.; Hoving, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to recuperate nutrients from manure effluents and that the concerning duckweed can be utilized as a source of feed, energy and ingredients

  4. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  5. 454-Pyrosequencing analysis of highly adapted azo dye-degrading microbial communities in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating textile effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köchling, Thorsten; Ferraz, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Florencio, Lourdinha; Kato, Mario Takayuki; Gavazza, Sávia

    2017-03-01

    Azo dyes, which are widely used in the textile industry, exhibit significant toxic characteristics for the environment and the human population. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactor systems are efficient for the degradation of dyes and the mineralization of intermediate compounds; however, little is known about the composition of the microbial communities responsible for dye degradation in these systems. 454-Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was employed to assess the bacterial biodiversity and composition of a two-stage (anaerobic-aerobic) pilot-scale reactor that treats effluent from a denim factory. The anaerobic reactor was inoculated with anaerobic sludge from a domestic sewage treatment plant. Due to the selective composition of the textile wastewater, after 210 days of operation, the anaerobic reactor was dominated by the single genus Clostridium, affiliated with the Firmicutes phylum. The aerobic biofilter harbored a diverse bacterial community. The most abundant phylum in the aerobic biofilter was Proteobacteria, which was primarily represented by the Gamma, Delta and Epsilon classes followed by Firmicutes and other phyla. Several bacterial genera were identified that most likely played an essential role in azo dye degradation in the investigated system.

  6. Electrochemical treatment of textile dyes and dyehouse effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzisymeon, Efthalia [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Xekoukoulotakis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Coz, Alberto [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Kalogerakis, Nicolas [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Mantzavinos, Dionissios [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece)]. E-mail: mantzavi@mred.tuc.gr

    2006-09-21

    The electrochemical oxidation of textile effluents over a titanium-tantalum-platinum-iridium anode was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted in a flow-through electrolytic cell with internal recirculation at current intensities of 5, 10, 14 and 20 A, NaCl concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% and recirculation rates of 0.81 and 0.65 L/s using a highly colored, synthetic effluent containing 16 textile dyes at a total concentration of 361 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 281 mg/L. Moreover, an actual dyehouse effluent containing residual dyes as well as various inorganic and organic compounds with a COD of 404 mg/L was tested. In most cases, quantitative effluent decolorization was achieved after 10-15 min of treatment and this required low energy consumption; conversely, the extent of mineralization varied between 30 and 90% after 180 min depending on the operating conditions and the type of effluent. In general, treatment performance improved with increasing current intensity and salinity and decreasing solution pH. However, the use of electrolytes not containing chloride (e.g. FeSO{sub 4} or Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) suppressed degradation. Although the acute toxicity of the actual effluent to marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri was weak, it increased sharply following treatment, thus suggesting the formation of persistent toxic by-products.

  7. Microalgal Cultivation in Secondary Effluent: Recent Developments and Future Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication of water catchments and the greenhouse effect are major challenges in developing the global economy in the near future. Secondary effluents, containing high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, need further treatment before being discharged into receiving water bodies. At the same time, new environmentally friendly energy sources need to be developed. Integrating microalgal cultivation for the production of biodiesel feedstock with the treatment of secondary effluent is one way of addressing both issues. This article provides a comprehensive review of the latest progress in microalgal cultivation in secondary effluent to remove pollutants and accumulate lipids. Researchers have discovered that microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively from secondary effluent, accumulating biomass and lipids in the process. Immobilization of appropriate microalgae, and establishing a consortium of microalgae and/or bacteria, were both found to be feasible ways to enhance pollutant removal and lipid production. Demonstrations of pilot-scale microalgal cultures in secondary effluent have also taken place. However there is still much work to be done in improving pollutants removal, biomass production, and lipid accumulation in secondary effluent. This includes screening microalgae, constructing the consortium, making use of flue gas and nitrogen, developing technologies related to microalgal harvesting, and using lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA.

  8. The influence of agro-industrial effluents on River Nile pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeda M. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major agro-industrial effluents of sugarcane and starch industries pose a serious threat to surface waters. Their disposal in the River Nile around Cairo city transitionally affected the microbial load. In situ bacterial enrichment (50–180% was reported and gradually diminished downstream; the lateral not vertical effect of the effluent disposal was evident. Disposed effluents increased BOD and COD, and then progressively decreased downstream. Ammoniacal N was elevated, indicating active biological ammonification and in situ biodegradability of the effluents. In vitro, the nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria Crysomonas luteola, Azospirillum spp., Azomonas spp. and K. pneumoniae successfully grew in batch cultures prepared from the crude effluents. This was supported by adequate growth parameters and organic matter decomposition. Therefore, such biodegradability of the tested agro-industrial effluents strongly recommends their use for microbial biomass necessary for the production of bio-preparates.

  9. Application of expanded polystyrene filter for tertiary treatment of domestic waste effluent in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fylypchuk Viktor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of expanded polystyrene filters is a promising method for tertiary treatment of domestic waste effluent where biologically treated effluent is filtered through a layer of buoyant polystyrene beads. The advantage of such filters is in the absence of backwashing pumps, containers of clean washing water, while having low energy costs, high resistance of polystyrene to various chemical contaminants that may be in the effluent, easy automation of switching modes.

  10. Electrolytic treatment applied to the industrial effluent containing persistent wastes monitored by Bartha respirometric assays

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Régis; Ederio Dino Bidoia

    2005-01-01

    The effluent of a rubber chemical antioxidant and antiozonant producer industry, with high content of organic material was subjected to electrolytic process. To evaluate the speed of stabilization of the eletroctrolyzed effluents, and to evaluate the biodegradation the respirometric test of Bartha and Pramer was used. The monitoring of the biodegradation of the effluent, after different periods of electrolysis show that the ideal time of electrolysis was 10 and 25 min. It was concluded that t...

  11. Site Dependent Beneficial Effects of Aquaculture Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, K. M.; Viadero, R. C.

    2005-05-01

    The effect of aquaculture effluent on community structure was examined in a stream formed by the discharge of treated acid mine water. The mine water stream and the raceway stream whose source was treated mine water were sampled. In addition, a site below the confluence of the mine water and raceway streams was also sampled. Initially, there were no significant differences in macroinvertebrate density, diversity or community structure in the closed canopy, low light, mine water and raceway streams. However, in the high light environment below the confluence, the community included a substantial proportion of grazers and density was significantly lower. After an inadvertent resuspension of precipitated metal hydroxides from the AMD treatment facility, communities in the mine water stream and below the confluence were strongly dominated by chironomids while the raceway stream maintained much of its diversity. At the end of the study period diversity in all streams was significantly greater than in earlier samples however, densities were 6-8x lower than initial values in the raceway and mine water streams. This study demonstrated that there was little effect of aquaculture effluent on the benthic community in a low-light environment. Additionally, aquaculture effluent mediated the negative effects of AMD metals.

  12. Application of TAML catalysts to remove colour from pulp and paper mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, K G; Stuthridge, T R; Wright, L J; Horwitz, C P; Collins, T J

    2004-01-01

    A TAML catalyst (0.5 microM, 0.23 mg/L of effluent) combined with hydrogen peroxide (6.5 mM, 0.19 g/L of effluent) were capable of permanently removing 46% of the colour from bleach plant effluent (Eop, pine-derived) in one hour at 5,000 L effluent per day. Increasing concentrations to 2 microM catalyst (0.9 mg/L of effluent) and 22 mM peroxide (0.75 g/L of effluent), resulted in removal of 78% of the colour. In addition, 29% of the chlorinated organic material (AOX) was also removed. A laboratory investigation indicated that the oxidative process predominantly removed phenolic structures. The low aromatic content of the effluent meant that the majority of the organic material was not substantially altered during treatment. Thus chemical oxygen demand was essentially unchanged. This technology was able to remediate colour from effluents derived from both softwood (pine) and hardwood (eucalypt). Laboratory studies on catalyst life-time during effluent treatment, demonstrated that activity was maintained for a sufficient period to eliminate all the chromophore available to the active species, but that the catalyst did not survive long enough to be discharged into the receiving environment. Microtox tests showed that catalyst degradation products were not toxic to the receiving environment.

  13. Removal of phenolic compounds from the petrochemical effluent with a methanogenic consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charest, A.; Bisaillon, J.G.; Lepine, F.; Beaudet, R. [Quebec Univ., Laval, PQ, (Canada) INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier

    1999-03-01

    A specific petrochemical effluent was treated with a methanogenic consortium enriched for its ability to degrade phenolic compounds. The aim of using a well defined consortium, rather than undefined anaerobic sludges, was an interest in isolation of the bacterium responsible for the initial transformation of phenol into benzoic acid. The effluent was determined, and the degradation of the phenol was followed while the consortium was adapted by successive transfers in serum bottles with increasing concentrations of effluent. An assessment was made of the significance of some of the culture medium components on phenol removal. A study was carried out, after developing an upflow fixed-film anaerobic bioreactor, of the degradation of the various phenolic compounds present in two different batches of the same specific chemical effluent. The toxicity of batch A effluent was reduced by a factor of 2 after being treated in in the bioreactor, which is partially due to phenol and o-cresol removal. The biofilm was still active after exposure to the more concentrated and toxic B effluent, as evidenced by the the excellent phenol removal obtained with this effluent. Gas production was observed after exposure of the biofilm to effluent B, which showed that the methanogenic bacteria was still active. While there are other more efficient biological means for treating global petroleum refinery wastewaters, the anaerobic reactor indicates a good potential for the treatment of phenolic compounds in this specific effluent for the improvement of, at low cost, an existing wastewater treatment process. 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. 40 CFR 426.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. Modelling defined mixtures of environmental oestrogens found in domestic animal and sewage treatment effluents using an in vitro oestrogen-mediated transcriptional activation assay (T47D-KBluc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Gray, L Earl; Wilson, Vickie S

    2012-06-01

    There is growing concern of exposure of fish, wildlife and humans to water sources contaminated with oestrogens and the potential impact on reproductive health. Environmental oestrogens can come from various sources including concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFO), municipal waste, agricultural and industrial effluents. US EPA's drinking water contaminant candidate list 3 (CCL3) includes several oestrogenic compounds. Although these contaminants are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, they are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems and may require future regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Using an in vitro transcriptional activation assay, this study evaluated oestrogens from CCL3 both individually and as a seven oestrogen mixture (fixed ray design) over a broad range of concentrations, including environmentally relevant concentrations. Log EC(50) and Hillslope values for individual oestrogens were as follows: estrone, -11.92, 1.283; estradiol-17α, -9.61, 1.486; estradiol-17β, 11.77, 1.494; estriol, -11.14, 1.074; ethinyl estradiol-17α, -12.63, 1.562; Mestranol, -11.08, 0.809 and Equilin, -11.48, 0.946. In addition, mixtures that mirrored the primary oestrogens found in swine, poultry and dairy CAFO effluent (fixed-ratio ray design), and a ternary mixture (4 × 4 × 4 factorial design) of oestrogens found in hormone replacement therapy and/or oral contraceptives were tested. Mixtures were evaluated for additivity using both the concentration addition (CA) model and oestrogen equivalence (EEQ) model. For each of the mixture studies, a broad range of concentrations were tested, both above and below environmentally relevant concentrations. Results show that the observed data did not vary consistently from either the CA or EEQ predictions for any mixture. Therefore, either the CA or EEQ model should be useful predictors for modelling oestrogen mixtures. © 2012 The Authors

  16. Development of highly sensitive extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil, industrial effluents and standard alloy samples using pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Kumar, Jyothi Rajesh; Reddy, Koduru Janardhan; Thriveni, Thenepalli; Reddy, Ammireddy Varada

    2008-01-01

    Pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (PPT) is proposed as a new sensitive reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II). PPT reacts with nickel(II) in the pH range 4.0-6.0 to form a reddish brown colored complex, which was well-extracted into n-butanol. The absorbance value of the Ni(II)-PPT complex was measured at different time intervals at 430nm, to ascertain the stability of the complex. The system obeyed Beer's law up to 0.5-5.0microgmL(-1) of nickel(II), with an excellent linearity in terms of the correlation coefficient value of 0.99. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the extracted species are 1.92 x 10(4)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.003057microgcm(-2) respectively at 430nm. The detection limit of the method is 0.069microgmL(-1). To assess precision and accuracy of the developed method, determinations were carried out at different concentrations. The relative standard deviation of all measurements does not exceed 2.62%. The developed method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of nickel(II), when present alone or in the presence of diverse ions, which are usually associated with nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil and industrial effluent samples. Various standard and certified reference materials (CM 247 LC, IN 718, BCS 233, 266, 253 and 251) have also been tested for the determination of nickel for the purpose of validation of the present method. The results of the proposed method are compared with those obtained from an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS).

  17. 200 area effluent treatment facility opertaional test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-10-26

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (200 Area ETF) operational testing activities. These Operational testing activities demonstrated that the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area ETF have been met and identified open items which require retesting.

  18. Nutrient removal from farm effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Wong, L; Adriano, D C

    2004-09-01

    The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in a two-pond system used to treat dairy farm effluent was monitored over a period of 7 months. The retention of nutrients by two porous materials was examined both in the laboratory batch (zeolite and bark) and pilot-scale field (bark) experiments. The results indicated that biological treatment of farm effluents using the two-pond system was not effective in the removal of nutrients, which are likely to become pollutant when discharged to waterways. Both the bark and zeolite materials were effective in the removal of N, P and K from effluent. These materials can be placed in the second (i.e., aerobic) pond to treat effluents, which can then be discharged to streams with minimum impact on water quality. The nutrient-enriched porous materials can be recycled as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner.

  19. Silver precipitation from electrolytic effluents; Precipitacion de plata de efluentes electroliticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, I.; Patino, F.; Cruells, M.; Roca, A.; Vinals, J.

    2004-07-01

    The recovery of silver contained in electrolytic effluents is attractive due to its high economic value. These effluents are considered toxic wastes and it is not possible to dump them directly without any detoxification process. One of the most important way for silver recovery is the precipitation with sodium ditionite, sodium borohidride or hydrazine monohidrate. In this work, the most significant aspects related to the use of these reagents is presented. Results of silver precipitation with sodium ditionite from effluents containing thiosulfate without previous elimination of other species are also presented. silver concentration in the final effluents w <1 ppm. (Author) 15 refs.

  20. Robust adsorption of Direct Navy Blue-106 from textile industrial effluents by bio-hydrogen fermented waste derived activated carbon: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The developed bio-hydrogen fermented waste activated carbon (BHFW-AC has proven to be a cost effective, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbent, an alternative (low cost source of AC for the removal of Direct Navy Blue-106 (DNB-106. This study investigated the feasibility of BHFW at low temperature (100 °C using chemical carbonization treatment with H3PO4 for 24 h. The parameters pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and contact time have been optimized by batch experiments to increase the adsorption efficiency of the BHFW-AC. Interestingly, the batch adsorption equilibrium data followed the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich models with the Langmuir isotherm providing the best fit to the equilibrium data. On the other hand, the kinetic data followed closely the pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model. Besides, the thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic process.

  1. Reuse of washing effluent containing oxalic acid by a combined precipitation-acidification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Kim, Myoung-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the reuse feasibility of effluent produced by the soil washing of mine tailings with oxalic acid. Alkaline chemicals such as NaOH, Ca(OH)(2), and Na(2)CO(3) are used for the precipitation of arsenic and heavy metals in the effluent containing oxalic acid. All of the target contaminants are removed with very high efficiency (up to 100%) at high pH. The precipitation using NaOH at pH 9 is determined to be the most cost-effective method for the removal of arsenic as well as heavy metals in the effluent. The effluent decontaminated by NaOH is consecutively reused for the soil washing of raw mine tailings, resulting in considerable efficiency. Furthermore, even more arsenic and heavy metals are extracted from raw mine tailings by acidifying the decontaminated effluent under the alkaline condition, compared with direct reuse of the decontaminated effluent. Here, the oxalic acid, which is a weak complex-forming ligand as well as a weak acid, has noticeable effects on both soil washing and effluent treatment by precipitation. It extracts efficiently the contaminants from the mine tailings without adverse change of soil and also makes possible the precipitation of the contaminants in the effluent unlike strong chelating reagent. Reuse of the washing effluent containing oxalic acid would make the existing soil washing process more environment-friendly and cost-effective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacteria removal in septic effluent: influence of biofilm and protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaud, Sylvaine; Andres, Yves; Lakel, Abdel; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Numerous biological, physical and chemical parameters are involved in the retention and removal of bacteria in wastewater treatment systems. Biological parameters, such as biofilms and protozoa grazing activity, are often mentioned but few studies provide a better understanding of their influence. In this study, the effect of bacterivorous protozoa on pathogenic indicator bacteria removal was investigated in septic effluent and in the presence of a biofilm coating glass slides. Endogenous bacteria from septic effluent were quantified. First, bacteria removal was compared between septic effluents treated or not with an inhibitor of protozoa (cycloheximide). The mortality rates were 10 times lower in treated effluent (96 CFU mL(-1) d(-1)) than in untreated effluent (1100 CFU mL(-1) d(-1)). Secondly, the efficiency of bacteria removal was studied (i) with a biofilm surface and active protozoa, (ii) with a biofilm surface and inactivated protozoa, (iii) with a clean surface. Protozoa in the presence of a biofilm were responsible for 60% of bacteria removal. Biofilm without protozoa and a clean surface each removed similar quantities of bacteria. Grazing by protozoa could be an important biological mechanism for bacterial elimination in wastewater treatment systems.

  3. Influence of pesticide effluent on Allium cepa L. (onion plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made to find out the effect of different doses (25, 50, 75 and 100% of pesticide effluents (Indian Pesticide Ltd on plant growth and certain metabolic parameters (height, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and sugar contents, MDA content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Allium cepa L. plants. Plant growth in terms of its height, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and sugar contents were found to be decreased at increasing doses of pesticide effluents. However, other activities of two antioxidative iron viz. catalase and peroxidase also the MDA (Malondialdehyde content were found to be progressively stimulated at increasing doses of the effluent. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12629 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 95-105

  4. Strategies for decolorization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra K; Tripathi, Manikant

    2011-01-01

    The potential hazards associated with industrial effluents, coupled with increasing awareness of environment problems, have prompted many countries to limit the indiscriminate discharge of untreated wastewaters. The pulp and paper industry has been among the most significant of industrial polluters of the waterways, and therefore has been one of the industries of concern. The pulp and paper industry produces large quantities of brown/black effluent that primarily result from pulping, bleaching, and paper-making production stages. The dark color and toxicity of pulp-paper mill effluent comes primarily from lignin and its chlorinated derivatives (e.g., lignosulphonic acid, resins, phenols, and hydrocarbons) that are released during various processing steps of lignocellulosic materials. The color originates from pulping and pulp bleaching stages, while adsorbable organic halides (AOX) originates exclusively from chlorine bleaching. Discharge of untreated effluent results in increased BOD/COD, slime growth, thermal problems, scum formation, discoloration, loss of aesthetic quality and toxicity to the aquatic life, in the receiving waterbodies. The dark brow color of pulp-paper effluent is not only responsible for aesthetic unacceptability, but also prevents the passage of sunlight through colored waterbodies. This reduces the photosynthetic activity of aquatic flora, ultimately causing depletion of dissolved oxygen. The pulp-paper organic waste, coupled with the presence of chlorine, results in the generation of highly chlorinated organic compounds. These toxic constituents of wastewater pose a human health risk through long term exposure. via drinking water and\\or through consumption of fish that can bioaccumulate certain pollutants from the food chain. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused by many countries on decolorization of paper mill effluents , along with reduction in the contaminants that pose human health or other environmental hazards. Various

  5. FY16 ASME High Temperature Code Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, M. J. [Chromtech Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, R. I. [R. I Jetter Consulting, Pebble Beach, CA (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    One of the objectives of the ASME high temperature Code activities is to develop and validate both improvements and the basic features of Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). The overall scope of this task is to develop a computer program to be used to assess whether or not a specific component under specified loading conditions will satisfy the elevated temperature design requirements for Class A components in Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). There are many features and alternative paths of varying complexity in HBB. The initial focus of this task is a basic path through the various options for a single reference material, 316H stainless steel. However, the program will be structured for eventual incorporation all the features and permitted materials of HBB. Since this task has recently been initiated, this report focuses on the description of the initial path forward and an overall description of the approach to computer program development.

  6. Environmental regulatory guide for radiological effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is obligated to regulate its own activities so as to provide radiation protection for both workers and the public.'' Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards,'' further requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all Federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all actions necessary for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. This regulatory guide describes the elements of an acceptable effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance program for DOE sites involving radioactive materials. These elements are applicable to all DOE and contractor activities for which the DOE exercises environmental, safety, and health responsibilities, and are intended to be applicable over the broad range of DOE facilities and sites. In situations where the high-priority elements may not provide sufficient coverage of a specific monitoring or surveillance topic, the document provides additional guidance. The high-priority elements are written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed, and the guidance is written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed. The regulatory guide both incorporates and expands on requirements embodied in DOE 5400.5 and DOE 5400.1. 221 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Evaluating the potential of effluent extracts from pulp and paper mills in Canada, Brazil, and New Zealand to affect fish reproduction: Estrogenic effects in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Milestone, Craig B; Hewitt, L Mark; Guchardi, John; Heid-Furley, Tatiana; Slade, Alison; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Holdway, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    The authors examined the potential of pulp mill effluent from pulp-producing countries (Canada, Brazil, New Zealand) to affect fish reproduction. Specifically, the estrogenic effects in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) pulse-exposed to 11 different mill effluent extracts (intraperitoneal injections of solid-phase extraction-dichloromethane nonpolar fraction). The results indicated that effluent extracts were estrogenic in juvenile trout irrespective of the gender, as reflected by increasing level of plasma vitellogenin (VTG; Brazil > New Zealand > Canada). Despite the high variability observed among mills, differences in VTG levels were related to the type of mill process (kraft > elementary chlorine-free kraft > thermomechanical pulping). Moreover, effluent treatments did not appear to significantly decrease VTG induction. A consistent estrogenic effect was observed in those mills that process a combination of feedstocks (softwood and hardwood), with the highest increase in VTG related to eucalyptus feedstock. The results demonstrate significant estrogenic effects of pulp mill effluents on chronically exposed juvenile trout, suggesting that in vivo metabolic activation of precursors is necessary to cause the observed increases in VTG levels. This molecular estrogenic response provides a useful starting point for predicting population-level impacts through the adverse outcome pathway methodology. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1547-1555. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water.

  9. Unravelling riverine microbial communities under wastewater treatment plant effluent discharge in large urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yang; Bai, Yaohui; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-07-05

    In many highly urbanized areas, effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) represents a significant proportion of the water source for receiving rivers. Microbial communities are major components of riverine ecosystems and mediate the processes of nutrients and organic matter produced by treated and untreated WWTP effluent. To date, the impacts of WWTP effluent discharge on riverine microbial communities remain poorly understood. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and water quality analysis, we investigated the microbial community compositions and predicted functions in the effluents of five municipal WWTPs and their receiving rivers. The results showed that the microbial compositions in the five WWTP effluents with different treatment processes were similar. Significant differences in the microbial community were not noted between the effluent, upstream, and downstream sites for both sampling months. However, dissimilarity of microbial composition between two sampling periods was observed. The temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and ammonium were major environmental factors associated with microbial community changes. Functional annotations of microbial communities based on 16S amplicons identified xenobiotic degradation and metabolism functions in effluent and river samples. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed the dominance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) over ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the WWTP effluents and rivers, and significant positive correlation between AOB abundance and nitrate concentration was observed. These findings will help increase our understanding of the impact of effluent discharge on urban river ecosystems.

  10. EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF STREAM WATER. ... Global Journal of Engineering Research ... In this work, the effects of refinery effluent discharge on the physico-chemical parameters of the stream water has been studied, using treated effluent water discharged ...

  11. POLLUTION EFFECT OF FOOD AND BEVERAGES EFFLUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The main course of water pollution in the Alaro river is the direct discharge of food and beverages processing effluents. .... many polluting industries located at the estate, only food and beverage industries discharge effluents ..... protein bound glutathione substance in the effluent to release ammonia as a form of nitrogen is.

  12. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane sugar mill effluent is characterized by high COD, BOD and Suspended Solids (SS) contents and its treatment by aerobic biological methods is usually difficult. Due to the high content of lignin-cellulose in the SS of the wastewater, its pH falls rapidly during treatment to low levels, which is adverse to microorganisms.

  13. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Impact of abattoir effluents on surface waters of the Alamuyo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical analysis were carried out on samples collected from four sampling stations located along a stream that receives effluent discharge from an Abattoir in Ibadan, Nigeria using standard methods. The data revealed that the effluent discharge had high temperature (33.48±0.354oC); H+(7.70±0.86); ...

  15. Method for removing and decolorizing aqueous waste effluents containing dissolved or dispersed organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, F.N.; Ketchen, E.E.

    1975-10-14

    A method is provided for treating organic waste material dissolved or dispersed in an aqueous effluent, which comprises contacting the effluent with an inert particulate carbonaceous sorbent at an oxygen pressure up to 2000 psi, irradiating the resultant mixture with high energy radiation until a decolorized liquid is produced, and then separating the decolorized liquid.

  16. Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application

  17. Treatment of landfill leachate biochemical effluent using the nano-Fe3O4/Na2S2O8 system: Oxidation performance, wastewater spectral analysis, and activator characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanmeng; Li, Xian; Rao, Zhiwei; Hu, Fengping

    2018-02-15

    Nano-Fe3O4 was used as heterogeneous catalyst to activate Na2S2O8 for the generation of the sulfate radicals (SO4-) to oxidize the residual pollutants in landfill leachate biochemical effluent. The oxidation performance, wastewater spectral analysis and activator characterization were discussed. Oxidation experimental result shows that nano-Fe3O4 has obvious catalytic effect on Na2S2O8 and can significantly enhance the oxidation efficiencies of Na2S2O8 on landfill leachate biochemical effluent, with COD and color removals above 63% and 95%, respectively. Based on the analyses of three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectrum (3DEEM), ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-vis), and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of wastewater samples before and after treatment, it can be concluded that the pollution level of dissolved organic matter (DOM) declined and that the humic acid (HA) fractions were efficiently degraded into small molecules of fulvic acid (FA) fractions with less weight and stable structure. Compared to the raw wastewater sample, the aromaticity and substituent groups of the DOM were lessened in the treated wastewater sample. Moreover, the main structure of the organics and functional groups were changed by the Fe3O4/Na2S2O8 system, with substantial decrease of conjugated double bonds. The micro morphology of nano-Fe3O4 was characterized before and after reaction by the methods of scanning electron microscope spectra (SEM), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD pattern analysis showed that nano-Fe3O4 was oxidized into r-Fe2O3 and that the particle size of it also became smaller after reaction. XPS was employed to analyze the content and iron valence on the nano-Fe3O4 surface, and it can be found that the ratio of Fe3+/Fe2+ decreased from 1.8 before reaction to 0.8 after reaction. From the SEM analysis after the treatment, it was determined that the spacing between nano-Fe3O4 was

  18. Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white rot-fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C; Fajardo, S.; Manzanares, P.

    1996-07-01

    Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived molecules. In this work, strains A-137 and A-136 (IJFM collection, CIB-CSIC, Madrid) of Trameles versicolor, a ligninolytic white-rot fungus that have been frequently reported in relation to degradation of lignin, have been used for decolorisation studies of the straw alkaline-pulping effluent from SAICA factory (Zaragoza, Spain). From results obtained it can be concluded that decolorisation percentages about 80% can be obtained in 4-6 days (for maximum initial colour effluent between 12,000 and 15,000 CU) and total phenolics content can be reduced in about 90%. Mn-dependent peroxidase (about 20 IU/I) and high values of laccase activities (up to 700 IU/I) were produced, what may be of great interest to set up ligninolytic enzymes production processes for industrial uses. (Author) 19 refs.

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  20. Purifying manure effluents with duckweed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.; Hoving, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to

  1. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    10 Sulfur Content of Certain Liquid Fuels Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...diesel and gasoline components DIN Dissolved inorganic nitrogen THC Total hydrocarbon TKN Total Kjeldahl nitrogen HEM Hexane extractable...Benefit Analysis to support the impact assessment accompanying the revision of Directive 1999/32/EC on the sulfur content of certain liquid fuels

  2. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  3. Assessment of the effect of effluent discharge from coffee refineries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Therefore, urgent attention should be given to the coffee refinery for effluent ... as their maintenance and restoration. ... sound ecohydrological of river basin management, human activities can upset the ... determine the rivers' recovery potential. At each ... much stress from the coffee refineries disposal at p<0.05 and 0.01.

  4. Evaluation of Genotoxic Effect of Photographic Effluent Using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased need to keep graphic records of events has led to the use of photography in investigation and surveys and hence increased photographic activities. Toxicological survey of photographic effluents has received little attention in Nigeria, though the constituents have been shown to be very toxic. This study ...

  5. Nitrogen transformation in a denitrification layer irrigated with dairy factory effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L A; McGill, A

    2008-05-01

    Adoption of land-based effluent treatment systems can be constrained by the costs and availability of land. Sufficient land area is needed to ensure nitrate leaching from applied effluent is minimised. One approach to decrease required land area is to enhance N removal by denitrification. Layers of organic matter (100 mm thick) were installed below topsoil of a site irrigated with dairy factory effluent. These "denitrification" layers were tested to determine whether they could decrease nitrate leaching by increasing denitrification. Four plots (10x10 m2 each) were constructed with a denitrification layer installed at 300 mm below the surface, and N losses were measured in leachate using suction cups every 3 weeks for 19 months. N in leachate was compared with 4 control plots. Denitrifying enzyme activity, nitrate concentrations, and carbon availability were measured in samples collected from the denitrification layers. These measurements demonstrated that denitrification occurred in the layer; however, denitrification rates were not sufficiently high to significantly decrease nitrate leaching. Total N leaching was 296 kg N ha(-1) from control plots and 238 kg N ha(-1) from plots with denitrification layers; a total of 798 kg N ha(-1) was applied in effluent. More than 50% of the leached N to 40 cm was as organic N, presumably due to bypass flow. Other studies have demonstrated that thicker denitrification layers (more than 300 mm) can reduce nitrate leaching from small-scale septic tank drainage fields but this study suggests that it is probably not practical to use denitrification layers at larger scales.

  6. Radiation-adsorption treatment of effluents from livestock farms. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubin, V.N.; Brusentseva, S.A.; Dolin, P.I.; Fel' , N.S.; Karmanova, S.P.; Zaozerskaya, L.A.; Zorin, D.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii); Grishaev, I.D. (Inst. of Veterinary Sanitation of Agricultural Ministry, Moscow (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    A radiation-adsorption method of treatment of effluents from pig-breeding farms following biopurification is described. The residual organic pollutions dissolved in the effluents and various bacterial impurities are removed by active carbon. The main problem is the combination of continuous operation of the purifying plant with periodic regeneration of the sorption activity of carbon. This was achieved by continuous regeneration of active carbon by ..gamma..-irradiation, which destroys the sorbed organic products.

  7. Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer.

  8. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE REUSE OF A FOOD INDUSTRY EFFLUENT DEGRADED VIA PHOTOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Eliane Marchini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effluent reuse in industrial processes is an interesting alternative, especially nowadays, because of the serious environmental problems faced by the population every day. This practice reduces wastewater generation and saves money for the companies. This study aimed to evaluate the possible reuse of a food industry effluent through the use of a photochemical process, with direct UV radiation incidence. The samples of the raw and treated effluent were tested to measure pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC, spectrophotometry, turbidity, total solids, fixed and volatile solids and toxicity. The photochemical treatment caused complete removal of the effluent color, a 92% reduction of the total organic carbon, and a reduction of the levels of acute toxicity, what indicates the efficiency of the photodegradation in removing contaminating agents in industrial effluents. The inorganic carbon value was high, indicating a high concentration of carbonate and bicarbonate dissolved in the effluent. To classify this treated effluent, according to current legislation, it is necessary to monitor other parameters in details. According to the tests performed for this work, it is possible to conclude that a company can make use of an effluent generated on the production line and, in a not very distant future, direct on the production line.

  9. Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2013-06-01

    Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šabić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmented activated sludge with isolated mixed bacterial culture. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor in submerged conditions, at initial concentration of organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater, expressed as COD, 5.01 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of activated sludge, which ranged from 1.16 to 3.54 g dm–3. During the experiments, the COD, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and biomass were monitored. Microscopic analyses were performed to monitor the quality of activated sludge. Before starting with the bioremediation in the batch reactor, toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater was determined by toxicity test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the pharmaceutical wastewater bioremediation process in the batch reactor are presented in Table 1. The ratio γXv ⁄ γX maintained high values throughout all experiments and ranged from 0.90 and 0.95, suggesting that the concentrations of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments. The important kinetic parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely μmax, Ks, Ki, Y and kd were calculated from batch experiments (Table 2. Figs. 1 and 2 show the experimental

  11. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ⋅03; C2S–27⋅90; C4AF–10⋅21. Figure 1. Development of compressive strength of mortars depending on the alkali activator used and the composition of the binder and the time of hardening. 1. Slag + NaOH; 2. Silica fume activator + slag; 3.

  12. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent. J. Lin*, M. Reddy, ... Chlorinated phenols, widely used in industries, are of growing concern owing to their high toxicity, carcinogenicity and wide ..... biodegradation of phenolic compounds in industrial wastewater: Isolation and identification of ...

  13. Isolation of four hydrocarbon effluent-degrading Bacillaceae species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four bacterial strains belonging to the family Bacillaceae were isolated from a polluted site and tested for their efficiency in degrading a refinery effluent highly polluted with hydrocarbons. Among 13 strains isolated, four were selected for their efficiency. Each of these four strains demonstrated a strong ability to grow as a ...

  14. Impact of Effluent from Gudu District Sewage Treatment Plant on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gudu stream, the major stream providing water for Durumi 1, Durumi 2 and Durumi 3 settlements of Gudu District in Abuja, Nigeria was studied for impact assessment of discharged effluent from the Gudu District wastewater treatment plant. Studies on the physicochemical properties of the stream revealed high concentration ...

  15. Irrigation Suitability Assessment of Effluents From West Kano Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    This paper assesses the suitability of West Kano Rice Irrigation Scheme effluents for recycling. Water and wastewater quality variables of ten samples from two ..... becomes alkaline. High sodium soils are, therefore, plastic and sticky when wet and prone to clod and crust formation when dring. Excess sodium in irrigation ...

  16. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    is acidic, thus enhancing leaching and corrosive tendencies of the irrigation water. High level of heavy metals in the soil indicated contamination from the effluent from the factories in the area. Plant sampled indicated the presence of higher level of Pb and Cd in the tissues of leaf and roots than that of the reference samples.

  17. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Khandare, Rahul V. [School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India); Waghmare, Pankajkumar R.; Jagadale, Ashwini D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Jadhav, Jyoti P., E-mail: jpj_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent.

  18. Assessment of the environmental impact of artificial effluent lagoon in Jiayuguan City of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yuan-sheng; Luan, Zhao-kun; Barber, C; Williamson, D

    2003-07-01

    An artificial effluent lagoon for storing wastewater were excavated in Jiayuguan City since 1994. As a part of a demonstration project of Sino-Australia cooperation, an assessment of the environmental impact of the lagoon was carried out. The assessment was based on field and laboratory tests and predictive model. The main impacts from the lagoon site are likely to be on the groundwater system, and, to a lesser extent, on ambient air quality in the vicinity. Currently it is expected that groundwater is being polluted with effluent from the effluent lagoon. Air pollution (odor nuisance) is mainly caused by untreated effluent in the irrigation channel. The impact of high total dissolved salt (TDS) on groundwater is likely to be significant in the long run if the lagoon is continuously used. There is, consequently, no likelihood of contamination of surface water system, particularly of the city water supply system, from infiltration of effluent at the lagoon.

  19. Anammox for ammonia removal from pig manure effluents: Effect of organic matter content on process performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; García, M. C.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2009-01-01

    (from 95 mg COD L-1 to 237 mg COD L-1 and from 121 mg COD L-1 to 290 mg COD L-1 for the UASB-post-digested effluent and the partially oxidized effluent, respectively) negatively affected the anammox process and facilitated heterotrophic denitrification. Partial oxidation as a pre-treatment method......The anammox process, under different organic loading rates (COD), was evaluated using a semi-continous UASB reactor at 37 degrees C. Three different substrates were used: initially, synthetic wastewater, and later, two different pig manure effluents (after UASB-post-digestion and after partial...... oxidation) diluted with synthetic wastewater. High ammonium removal was achieved, up to 92.1 +/- 4.9% for diluted UASB-post-digested effluent (95 mg COD L-1) and up to 98.5 +/- 0.8% for diluted partially oxidized effluent (121 mg COD L-1). Mass balance clearly showed that an increase in organic loading...

  20. Predicting refinery effluent toxicity on the basis of hydrocarbon composition determined by GCxGC analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whale, G. [and others

    2013-04-15

    A high resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) was used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. From 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe 111 refinery effluents were collected in the period June 2008 to March 2009 (CONCAWE, 2010). The effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), oil in water (OiW), GCxGC speciated hydrocarbons, BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) and volatile organic compounds. This report describes the subsequent analysis of the GCxGC data, as described in hydrocarbon blocks, and uses the PETROTOX model, to predict the environmental toxicity (i.e. ecotoxicity) of the discharged effluents. A further analysis was undertaken to address the potential environmental impact of these predicted effects initially using default dilution factors and then,when necessary site specific factors. The report describes all the methods used to arrive at the predictions, and shows that for the majority of refinery effluents direct toxicity effects in the effluents are not anticipated. Furthermore, when applying either the EU Risk Assessment Technical Guidance Document (TGD) default dilution factors or site specific dilution factors, none of the refineries are predicted to exerting either acute or chronic toxicity to organisms in the receiving aquatic environment, based on their hydrocarbon composition present in the effluent samples.

  1. Occurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluents

    KAUST Repository

    Krasner, Stuart W.

    2009-11-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contain disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of health concern when the water is utilized downstream as a potable water supply. The pattern of DBP formation was strongly affected by whether or not the WWTP achieved good nitrification. Chlorine addition to poorly nitrified effluents formed low levels of halogenated DBPs, except for (in some cases) dihalogenated acetic acids, but often substantial amounts of N-nitrosodimethyamine (NDMA). Chlorination of well-nitrified effluent typically resulted in substantial formation of halogenated DBPs but much less NDMA. For example, on a median basis after chlorine addition, the well-nitrified effluents had 57 μg/L of trihalomethanes [THMs] and 3 ng/L of NDMA, while the poorly nitrified effluents had 2 μg/L of THMs and 11 ng/L of NDMA. DBPs with amino acid precursors (haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes) formed at substantial levels after chlorination of well-nitrified effluent. The formation of halogenated DBPs but not that of NDMA correlated with the formation of THMs in WWTP effluents disinfected with free chlorine. However, THM formation did not correlate with the formation of other DBPs in effluents disinfected with chloramines. Because of the relatively high levels of bromide in treated wastewater, bromine incorporation was observed in various classes of DBPs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. CALCIUM REMOVAL FROM PAPER MACHINE EFFLUENT BY PRECIPITATION/COPRECIPITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Leandro de Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In integrates pulp and paper mills, the effluent generated by the paper machine can be considered as a sector effluent, called white water, due to the high concentration of calcium. In this work, experiments were conducted to understand the behavior of the effluent in different pH values and to develop removal methods of calcium from the white water, aiming the reuse of water and the calcium recovery. Potentiometric titrations were carried out with HCl 0.022 mol L-1 and NaOH 0.025 mol L-1 standards, after adjusting the effluent pH at 12.0 and 2.0; respectively, which indicated inflection points for the carbonate, bicarbonate and kaolin, components capable of interaction with the soluble calcium. The methods for calcium removal consisted of coprecipitation/adsorption with iron (III and aluminum hydroxides, and precipitation in the presence of sodium oxalate. The results indicated that at low concentrations of ferric sulfate and aluminum sulfate, the removal of calcium is low. In the adsorption assays in the presence of Fe(OH3 and Al(OH3, the increased of the ferric sulfate concentration enabled a slight increase in the calcium removal (16.5 to 31.0 %, reaching 65.0% in the adsorption more precipitation process in pH 10.0. In case of aluminum sulfate, the removal percentages were indifferent (close to 10.0%. In the precipitation of Ca2+ in the oxalate presence, the possibility of satisfactory percentages of removal was observed (75 to 87%, keeping the effluent with the conductivity and pH unchanged, it’s very important, because the increase of effluent conductivity to reuse cause break of paper made. The calcium oxalate recuperated can be heated excessively and changed and calcium carbonate and to be reused. Tests in the highest scale have to be realized to approve the reuse of water and calcium of paper machine.

  3. Removal of bacterial cells, antibiotic resistance genes and integrase genes by on-site hospital wastewater treatment plants: surveillance of treated hospital effluent quality

    KAUST Repository

    Timraz, Kenda Hussain Hassan

    2016-12-15

    This study aims to evaluate the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants, including total cell counts, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs, e.g. tetO, tetZ, sul1 and sul2) and integrase genes (e.g. intl1 and intl2), by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated on-site of two hospitals (i.e., SH WWTP and IH WWTP). Both SH and IH WWTPs utilize the conventional activated sludge process but differences in the removal efficiencies were observed. Over the 2 week sampling period, IH WWTP outperformed SH WWTP, and achieved an approximate 0.388 to 2.49-log log removal values (LRVs) for total cell counts compared to the 0.010 to 0.162-log removal in SH WWTP. Although ARB were present in the hospital influent, the treatment process of both hospitals effectively removed ARB from most of the effluent samples. In instances where ARB were recovered in the effluent, none of the viable isolates were identified to be opportunistic pathogenic species based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. However, sul1 and intl1 genes remained detectable at up to 105 copies per mL or 8 x 10(-1) copies per 16S rRNA gene in the treated effluent, with an LRV of less than 1.2. When the treated effluent is discharged from hospital WWTPs into the public sewer for further treatment as per requirement in many countries, the detected amount of ARGs and integrase genes in the hospital effluent can become a potential source of horizontal gene dissemination in the municipal WWTP. Proper on-site wastewater treatment and surveillance of the effluent quality for emerging contaminants are therefore highly recommended.

  4. Effect of indigo dye effluent on the growth, biomass production and phenotypic plasticity of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorococcales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHIAS A. CHIA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of indigo dye effluent on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda ABU12 was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. The microalga was exposed to different concentrations of the effluent obtained by diluting the dye effluent from 100 to 175 times in bold basal medium (BBM. The growth rate of the microalga decreased as indigo dye effluent concentration increased (p <0.05. The EC50 was found to be 166 dilution factor of the effluent. Chlorophyll a, cell density and dry weight production as biomarkers were negatively affected by high indigo dye effluent concentration, their levels were higher at low effluent concentrations (p <0.05. Changes in coenobia size significantly correlated with the dye effluent concentration. A shift from large to small coenobia with increasing indigo dye effluent concentration was obtained. We conclude that even at low concentrations; effluents from textile industrial processes that use indigo dye are capable of significantly reducing the growth and biomass production, in addition to altering the morphological characteristics of the freshwater microalga S. quadricauda. The systematic reduction in the number of cells per coenobium observed in this study further confirms that environmental stress affects coenobium structure in the genus Scenedesmus, which means it can be considered an important biomarker for toxicity testing.

  5. Comprehensive characterization of oil refinery effluent-derived humic substances using various spectroscopic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingbo, Li; Song, Yan; Congbi, Han; Guangbo, Shan

    2005-07-01

    Refinery effluent-derived humic substances (HS) are important for developing refinery effluent reclamation techniques and studying the environmental chemistry of wastewater effluents. In this study, dissolved organic matter (DOM) from refinery effluent was concentrated using a portable reverse osmosis (RO) system. HS were isolated from RO retentates with XAD-8 resin. A variety of approaches such as specific UV absorbance at 254nm (SUV(254)), elemental analysis, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), solid-state cross polarization magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry ((13)C CPMAS NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and electrospray ionization/ion trap/mass spectrometry (ESI/ion trap/MS) were employed for characterization of HS. The portable RO system exhibited high yield and recovery of DOM for concentrating refinery effluent. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the refinery effluent was 9.9mg/l, in which humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) accounted for 2.3% and 34.6%, respectively. Elemental and SUV(254) analyses indicated relative high amounts of aliphatic structures and low amounts of aromatic structures in refinery effluent-derived HS. Refinery effluent-derived HS displayed lower molecular weight than natural HS. The number-average molecular weight (M(n)) and the weight-average molecular weight (M(w)) of HA were 1069 and 2934, and those of FA were 679 and 1212 by SEC, respectively. By ESI/ion trap/MS, the M(n) and the M(w) of FA were 330 and 383. Four kinds of carbon structures (aliphatic, aromatic, heteroaliphatic, and carboxylic carbons) were found in refinery effluent-derived HS by (13)C NMR analysis. The quantitative results support the interpretation that these HS are rich in aliphatic carbons and poor in aromatic carbons. Proteinaceous materials were identified by FTIR analysis in refinery effluent-derived HS.

  6. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growing demands on the engineering properties of cement based materials and the urgency to decrease unsuitable ecologic impact of Portland cement manufacturing represent significant motivation for the development of new cement corresponding to these aspects. One category represents prospective alkali activated ...

  7. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dairy effluent. The first stage consists of treating the diary effluent in a photobioreactor (1 L) using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa while the second stage involves a two column sand bed filtration technique. Results Whilst NH4+-N was completely removed, a 98% removal of PO43--P was achieved within 96 h of two stage purification processes. The filtrate was tested for toxicity and no mortality was observed in the zebra fish which was used as a model at the end of 96 h bioassay. Moreover, a significant decrease in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand was achieved by this novel method. Also the biomass separated was tested as a biofertilizer to the rice seeds and a 30% increase in terms of length of root and shoot was observed after the addition of biomass to the rice plants. Conclusions We conclude that the two stage treatment of dairy effluent is highly effective in removal of BOD and COD besides nutrients like nitrates and phosphates. The treatment also helps in discharging treated waste water safely into the receiving water bodies since it is non toxic for aquatic life. Further, the algal biomass separated after first stage of treatment was highly capable of increasing the growth of rice plants because of nitrogen fixation ability of the green alga and offers a great potential as a biofertilizer. PMID:24355316

  8. Program review: Ground disposal of reactor effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1967-10-18

    With the exception of N Reactor the plutonium production reactors operated by Douglas United Nuclear, Inc., use treated Columbia River water as coolant on a once through basis. Thus, radionuclides formed by neutron activation of Columbia River salts not removed in the water treatment process and water treatment additives are discharged to the river. Although the quantity and possible effects of the radionuclides released are well within nationally accepted limits, emphasis has been placed for some time on reducing the releases to as low a level as possible. More recently increasing concern has been evidenced with regard to the heat which is also discharged to the river. This report discusses concept which not only would drastically reduce the radionuclide content of the river but which would also substantially decrease the heat discharge. This concept is the disposal of the reactor effluent to the ground either to a pond or to a network of trenches.

  9. Chloramination of wastewater effluent: Toxicity and formation of disinfection byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Julien; Plewa, Michael J; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Nihemaiti, Maolida; Dad, Azra; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-01

    The reclamation and disinfection of waters impacted by human activities (e.g., wastewater effluent discharges) are of growing interest for various applications but has been associated with the formation of toxic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). Monochloramine used as an alternative disinfectant to chlorine can be an additional source of nitrogen in the formation of N-DBPs. Individual toxicity assays have been performed on many DBPs, but few studies have been conducted with complex mixtures such as wastewater effluents. In this work, we compared the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) before and after chloramination. The toxicity of chloraminated EfOM was significantly higher than the toxicity of raw EfOM, and the more hydrophobic fraction (HPO) isolated on XAD-8 resin was more toxic than the fraction isolated on XAD-4 resin. More DBPs were also isolated on the XAD-8 resin. N-DBPs (i.e., haloacetonitriles or haloacetamides) were responsible for the majority of the cytotoxicity estimated from DBP concentrations measured in the XAD-8 and XAD-4 fractions (99.4% and 78.5%, respectively). Measured DBPs accounted for minor proportions of total brominated and chlorinated products, which means that many unknown halogenated compounds were formed and can be responsible for a significant part of the toxicity. Other non-halogenated byproducts (e.g., nitrosamines) may contribute to the toxicity of chloraminated effluents as well. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Combination of Na-modified zeolite and anion exchange resin for advanced treatment of a high ammonia-nitrogen content municipal effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyun; Li, Aimin; Zhang, Wei; Shuang, Chendong

    2016-04-15

    In this study, the exchange equilibrium and kinetic experiments of ammonia-nitrogen on the Na-form zeolite were conducted. The results indicated that the presence of humic acid have a negative effect on the equilibrium exchange capacity but have limited influence on the equilibrium time except shorten the sole intra-particle diffusion control time. The exchange equilibrium data could be well fitted by Freundlich model in the absence of humic acid but Langmuir model in the presence of humic acid. While the exchange kinetic data could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model in both situations. An anion exchange resin exhibited high removal efficiency to humic acid and dissolved organic matter through kinetic results and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy results. The use of the anion exchange resin prior to the Na-form zeolite improved the ammonia-nitrogen removal efficiency from 78% to 95% and increased the treatment volume of the Na-form zeolite from 51 BV (bed volume) to 76 BV. Both the resin and the Na-form zeolite could be successfully regenerated by the combination of alkaline and sodium chloride. Complete elution of ammonia-nitrogen was achieved when the mass percentage of sodium chloride and alkaline was 10% and 0.6% respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-06-01

    The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam.

  12. Application of Pre-coated Microfiltration Ceramic Membrane with Powdered Activated Carbon for Natural Organic Matter Removal from Secondary Wastewater Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Kurniasari, Novita

    2012-12-01

    Ceramic membranes offer more advantageous performances than conventional polymeric membranes. However, membrane fouling caused by Natural Organic Matters (NOM) contained in the feed water is still become a major problem for operational efficiency. A new method of ceramic membrane pre-coating with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC), which allows extremely contact time for adsorbing aquatic contaminants, has been studied as a pre-treatment prior to ceramic microfiltration membrane. This bench scale study evaluated five different types of PAC (SA Super, G 60, KCU 6, KCU 8 and KCU 12,). The results showed that KCU 6 with larger pore size was performed better compared to other PAC when pre-coated on membrane surface. PAC pre-coating on the ceramic membrane with KCU 6 was significantly enhance NOM removal, reduced membrane fouling and improved membrane performance. Increase of total membrane resistance was suppressed to 96%. The removal of NOM components up to 92%, 58% and 56% for biopolymers, humic substances and building blocks, respectively was achieved at pre-coating dose of 30 mg/l. Adsorption was found to be the major removal mechanism of NOM. Results obtained showed that biopolymers removal are potentially correlated with enhanced membrane performance.

  13. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants; Estudos dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante na toxicidade de efluentes que apresentam surfactantes anionicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Maria Cristina Franco de

    2004-07-01

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  14. Highly Stable and Active Catalyst for Sabatier Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly active Ru/TiO2 catalysts for Sabatier reaction have been developed. The catalysts have shown to be stable under repeated shutting down/startup conditions. When the Ru/TiO2 catalyst is coated on the engineered substrate Fe-CrAlY felt, activity enhancement is more than doubled when compared with an identically prepared engineered catalyst made from commercial Degussa catalyst. Also, bimetallic Ru-Rh/TiO2 catalysts show high activity at high throughput.

  15. Nile tilapia culture on domestic effluent treated in stabilization ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Matheus Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance and filet quality of tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus culture in effluent stabilization lagoons was tested at the densities of 3 fish/m2 (T3, 7 fish/m2 (T2 and 7 fish/m2 in clean water + diet (T1 with 3 repetitions in tanks of 2.57m2 and 0.60m of water column with supplemental aeration. Fish culture in clean water plus diet (T1 presented the highest growth. The higher density T3 (7/m2 compared to T2 (3/m2 did not result in any difference of total production (p > 0.05 but this was compensated by the increased individual fish growth rate at lower density. The conditions that sustain fish survival culture with ETE effluent were attested by the high survival (> 90% under both treatments, but only 10% of the water samples from T2 and T3 N-total ammonium was favorable for fish growth (< 2.0mg/L. The rearing system improved the effluent quality, reducing the total organic nitrogen and the solids in suspension. The faecal coliforms, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus from the effluent and fish were verified to be within the standards laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  16. Meeting NPDES permit limits for an effluent-dependent stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, W.L.

    1998-09-01

    When the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina received a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit containing very low copper and toxicity limits for an effluent-dependent stream, an innovative and cost-effective method to meet them was sought. The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control mandated that compliance with the new limits be achieved within three years of the effective date of the permit. SRS personnel studied various regulatory options for complying with the new limits including Water Effect Ratio, use of a Metals Translator, blending with additional effluents, and outfall relocation. Regulatory options were determined to not be feasible because the receiving stream is effluent dependent. Treatment options were studied after it was determined that none of the regulatory pathways were viable. Corrosion inhibitors were evaluated on a full-scale basis with only limited benefits. Ion exchange was promising, but not cost effective for a high flow effluent with a very low concentration of copper. A treatment wetlands, not normally given consideration for the removal of metals, proved to be the most cost effective method studied and is currently under construction.

  17. Gammarus fossarum as a sensitive tool to reveal residual toxicity of treated wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigh, Adriana; Geffard, Olivier; Abbaci, Khedidja; Francois, Adeline; Noury, Patrice; Bergé, Alexandre; Vulliet, Emmanuelle; Domenjoud, Bruno; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain

    2017-04-15

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one of the main sources of freshwater pollution eventually resulting in adverse effects in aquatic organisms. Treated effluents can contain many micropollutants at concentrations often below the limit of chemical quantification. On a regulatory basis, WWTP effluents have to be non-toxic to the aquatic environment, wherefore not only chemical abatement but also ecotoxicological evaluation through relevant bioassays is required. Standardized bioassays currently used are often not sensitive enough to reveal a residual toxicity in treated effluents. Therefore, attention must be paid to the development of better-adapted approaches implementing more sensitive organisms and relevant endpoints. In this study, the toxicity of two differently treated effluents (activated sludge treated effluents with and without ozonation) towards the ecologically relevant species Gammarus fossarum was evaluated. Organism fitness traits such as reproduction and sperm DNA integrity were followed in exposed organisms. In complement, enzymatic biomarkers were measured indicating the presence of neurotoxic compounds (acetylcholinesterase activity), the presence of pathogens likely to increase the toxic effects of chemical compounds (phenol-oxidase activity), and the presence of toxic compounds inducing detoxification mechanisms (glutathione-S-transferase activity). Enzymatic activities were not modified, but significant sub-lethal effects were observed in exposed organisms. In both effluents, females showed a retarded molt cycle, a reduced fecundity and fertility, and >90% of developed embryos exhibited developmental malformations. In addition, a slight but significant genotoxic effect was measured in gammarid sperm. In a whole, no difference in toxicity was found between both effluents. Coupling reproduction impairment and genotoxicity assessment in Gammarus fossarum seems to be a valuable and sensitive tool to reveal residual toxicity in effluents

  18. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Charles M.; Shapiro, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  19. Positively charged filters for virus recovery from wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L T; Farrah, S R; Bitton, G

    1981-01-01

    Positively charged Zeta Plus filters were used to concentrate enteroviruses from 19 liters of effluent from activated sludge units. Neither the addition of salts nor the acidification of the effluent was required for adsorption of viruses to the filters. Viruses adsorbed to the filters were eluted by treating the filters with a solution of 4 M urea buffered at pH 9 with 0.05 M lysine. Eluted viruses were concentrated into final volumes of 1 to 2 ml by using a two-step concentration procedure that employed inorganic and organic flocculation. Approximately 50% of the viruses added to effluents could be recovered in the final sample. The procedure was used to monitor effluents from activated sludge units at two wastewater treatment plants for the presence of enteroviruses. PMID:6274257

  20. Effects of Montreal municipal sewage effluents on immune responses of juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Harri M. [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada)], E-mail: harri.salo@ktl.fi; Hebert, Nancy; Dautremepuits, Claire [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada); Cejka, Patrick [Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant, 12 001 Maurice-Duplessis, Montreal, Que. H1C 1V3 (Canada); Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada)

    2007-10-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the immunotoxicity of treated Montreal sewage effluents on juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A comprehensive panel of immunological assays was used to evaluate the effects of exposure for 1 and 4 weeks to 1, 3, 10 and 20% sewage effluent. Phagocytic ingestion of fluorescent latex beads by head kidney macrophages and granulocytes was suppressed following 1-week of exposure, with the highest exposure concentration being the most suppressive. Phagocytic activity returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. The cytotoxic activity of head kidney derived non-specific cytotoxic cells was enhanced after a 1-week exposure, especially at the lowest exposure concentration, and returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to LPS and ConA activation was not affected following sewage effluent exposure, but nonactivated, spontaneous proliferation of lymphocytes was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner after 4 weeks of exposure. Plasma lysozyme activity was elevated at lowest exposure concentration after 4 weeks. No changes were noted in either the blood leukocyte/erythrocyte ratio or in the proportion of circulating lymphocytes and thrombocytes. The proportion of circulating granulocytes increased following exposure for 4 weeks to the low effluent concentration. Plasma cortisol levels were not affected by effluent exposure suggesting that mechanisms other than stress influenced the observed immunomodulation. In summary, this study demonstrates that sewage effluent can alter the immune functions of rainbow trout.

  1. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  2. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  3. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  4. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  5. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  6. Identification of effluent organic matter fractions responsible for low-pressure membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Filloux, Emmanuelle

    2012-11-01

    Anion exchange resin (AER), powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ozonation treatments were applied on biologically treated wastewater effluent with the objective to modify the effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrix. Both AER and PAC led to significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal, while the TOC remained nearly constant after ozonation. Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed that the AER treatment preferentially removed high and intermediate molecular weight (MW) humic-like structures while PAC removed low MW compounds. Only a small reduction of the high MW colloids (i.e. biopolymers) was observed for AER and PAC treatments. Ozonation induced a large reduction of the biopolymers and an important increase of the low MW humic substances (i.e. building blocks).Single-cycle microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) tests were conducted using commercially available hollow fibres at a constant flux. After reconcentration to their original organic carbon content, the EfOM matrix modified by AER and PAC treatments exhibited higher UF membrane fouling compared to untreated effluent; result that correlated with the higher concentration of biopolymers. On the contrary, ozonation which induced a significant degradation of the biopolymers led to a minor flux reduction for both UF and MF filtration tests. Based on a single filtration, results indicate that biopolymers play a major role in low pressure membrane fouling and that intermediate and low MW compounds have minor impact. Thus, this approach has shown to be a valid methodology to identify the foulant fractions of EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Types of Active Learning in High School and Junior High School

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 成章; 松田, 充; 佐藤, 雄一郎

    2017-01-01

    The current paper sought to analyze policy trend of Active Learning, to clarify the practical purpose and issues on Active Learning, and describe types of Active Learning in high school and junior high school. The types of Active Learning is analyzed from three perspectives of reforms including school curriculum, teaching method, and learning method. For the practice by Active Learning, it will be the key issue on which perspective is emphasized.

  8. Effect of nutrients on Chlorella pyrenoidosa for treatment of phenolic effluent of coal gasification plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Dayana Priyadharshini; Ayalur, Bakthavatsalam Kannappan

    2017-05-01

    The ability of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, a freshwater microalga, to degrade phenolic effluent of coal-based producer gas plant under ambient conditions was investigated. C. pyrenoidosa was able to grow in high-strength phenolic effluent. Major contaminant present in the effluent was phenol (C6H5OH). The effluent has 1475.3 ± 68 mg/L of initial total phenolic concentration. The effect of nutrients used for algal cultivation in phenol degradation was analyzed by inoculating four different concentrations, viz.,1, 2, 3, and 4 g of wet biomass/L of raw effluent of C. pyrenoidosa mixed with effluent into two batches (with and without nutrients). C. pyrenoidosa was able to degrade more than 95% of the phenol (C6H5OH) concentration with the algal concentrations of 3 and 4 g/L when supplemented with nutrients. With effluent devoid of nutrients, the average percent reduction in total phenolic compounds was observed to a maximum of 46%. No physical changes in the C. pyrenoidosa were observed during degradation. C. pyrenoidosa was able to consume the organic carbon present in the phenolic compounds as carbon source for its growth despite the inorganic carbon supplemented externally.

  9. Water movement and fate of nitrogen during drip dispersal of wastewater effluent into a semi-arid landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Robert L; Parzen, Rebecca; Tomaras, Jill; Lowe, Kathryn S

    2014-04-01

    Drip dispersal of partially treated wastewater was investigated as an approach for onsite water reclamation and beneficial reuse of water and nutrients in a semi-arid climate. At the Mines Park Test Site in Golden, Colorado, a drip dispersal system (DDS) was installed at 20- to 30-cm depth in an Ascalon sandy loam soil profile. Two zones with the same layout were established to enable study of two different hydraulic loading rates. Zones 1 and 2 each had one half of the landscape surface with native vegetation and the other with Kentucky bluegrass sod. After startup activities, domestic septic tank effluent was dispersed five times a day at footprint loading rates of 5 L/m(2)/d for Zone 1 and 10 L/m(2)/d for Zone 2. Over a two-year period, monitoring included the frequency and volume of effluent dispersed and its absorption by the landscape. After the first year of operation in October a (15)N tracer test was completed in the sodded portion of Zone 1 and samples of vegetation and soil materials were collected and analyzed for water content, pH, nitrogen, (15)N, and bacteria. Research revealed that both zones were capable of absorbing the effluent water applied at 5 or 10 L/m(2)/d. Effluent water dispersed from an emitter infiltrates at the emitter and along the drip tubing and water movement is influenced by hydrologic conditions. Based on precipitation and evapotranspiration at the Test Site, only a portion of the effluent water dispersed migrated downward in the soil (approx. 34% or 64% for Zone 1 or 2, respectively). Sampling within Zone 1 revealed water filled porosities were high throughout the soil profile (>85%) and water content was most elevated along the drip tubing (17-22% dry wt.), which is also where soil pH was most depressed (pH 4.5) due to nitrification reactions. NH4(+) and NO3(-) retention occurred near the dispersal location for several days and approximately 51% of the N applied was estimated to be removed by plant uptake and denitrification

  10. 300 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) Authorization Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WRIGHT, E.J.; STORDEUR, R.T.

    2000-04-07

    The purpose of this document is to establish the facility Authorization Envelope (AE) for the 300 Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEP )Project and identify the requirements related to the maintenance of the AE as Specified in HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The 300 LEF Project consists of two separate facilities operating under one management organization. They are the 310 Facility and the 340 Facility. The AE documents the limits of operations for all 300 LEF Project activities.

  11. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... tube mills, carbon and specialty. Subpart G Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations...

  12. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  13. 40 CFR 417.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  14. 40 CFR 417.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.22 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  15. 40 CFR 417.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  16. 40 CFR 417.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.12 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  17. 40 CFR 417.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.62 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  18. 40 CFR 417.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.32 Effluent limitations...

  19. 40 CFR 417.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  20. 40 CFR 417.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  1. 40 CFR 417.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  2. 40 CFR 417.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  3. Three-step effluent chlorination increases disinfection efficiency and reduces DBP formation and toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y; Zhang, X.; Yang, M; Liu, J.; Li, W; Graham, NJ; Li, X.; Yang, B.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorination is extensively applied for disinfecting sewage effluents, but it unintentionally generates disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Using seawater for toilet flushing introduces a high level of bromide into domestic sewage. Chlorination of sewage effluent rich in bromide causes the formation of brominated DBPs. The objectives of achieving a disinfection goal, reducing disinfectant consumption and operational costs, as well as diminishing adverse effects to aquatic organisms in receiving w...

  4. Application of chemical oxidation for removal of pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, G.; Ledin, A.; la Cour Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    ). In effluent 1 (35 mg/L COD), more than half of the APIs were already oxidized at 5 mg/L ClO2 in comparison to effluent 2 (55 mg/L COD) where significant increase in API oxidation was observed after treatment with 8 mg/L ClO2. The antiphlogistic diclofenac and antidiabetic repaglinide can be easily oxidized...... in removal of the APIs between the oxidants can be explained by the varying COD content of the wastewater effluents. This study illustrates that treatment of wastewater containing pharmaceuticals is possible with either chlorine dioxide or ozone as additional treatment depending on the target pollutant......This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of the chemical oxidation processes chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and ozone (O3) as tertiary steps in wastewater to remove traces of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Wastewater effluents of varying organic content (COD ~ 30-90 mg/L) were...

  5. The Effect of Detergent Effluent on the Physico-Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    4.35±0.09. Chloride (mg/L). 1.98±0.60 2.00±0.54. 1.98±0.50. Water temperature was within range as stipulated for aquatic organisms. The slightly alkaline values in pH might be caused by the industrial effluent entering the water body. Dissolved oxygen was low, while. Biological oxygen demand values were very high at.

  6. Preparation of Labeled Aflatoxins with High Specific Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, D. P. H.; Mateles, R. I.

    1971-01-01

    Resting cells of Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517 were used to prepare highly labeled aflatoxins from labeled acetate. High synthetic activity in growing cells was evidenced only during 40 to 70 hr of incubation. Glucose was required for high incorporation efficiency, whereas the concentration of the labeled acetate determined the specific activity of the product. When labeled acetate was continuously added to maintain a concentration near but not exceeding 10 mm, in a culture containing 30 g of glucose per liter, 2% of its labels could be recovered in the purified aflatoxins which have a specific activity more than three times that of the labeled acetate. PMID:4329435

  7. Activities of everyday life with high spinal loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Rohlmann

    Full Text Available Activities with high spinal loads should be avoided by patients with back problems. Awareness about these activities and knowledge of the associated loads are important for the proper design and pre-clinical testing of spinal implants. The loads on an instrumented vertebral body replacement have been telemetrically measured for approximately 1000 combinations of activities and parameters in 5 patients over a period up to 65 months postoperatively. A database containing, among others, extreme values for load components in more than 13,500 datasets was searched for 10 activities that cause the highest resultant force, bending moment, torsional moment, or shear force in an anatomical direction. The following activities caused high resultant forces: lifting a weight from the ground, forward elevation of straight arms with a weight in hands, moving a weight laterally in front of the body with hanging arms, changing the body position, staircase walking, tying shoes, and upper body flexion. All activities have in common that the center of mass of the upper body was moved anteriorly. Forces up to 1650 N were measured for these activities of daily life. However, there was a large intra- and inter-individual variation in the implant loads for the various activities depending on how exercises were performed. Measured shear forces were usually higher in the posterior direction than in the anterior direction. Activities with high resultant forces usually caused high values of other load components.

  8. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly-active 8th grade girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W.; Pate, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly-active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Methods Data from 1,866 8th grade girls from 6 field centers across the U.S. participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. Results High-active girls were taller, had lower BMIs and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure-time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Conclusions Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. PMID:23384978

  9. Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, and microalgae was added 10% (v/v, 0.08% (w/v, 0.04% (w/v, 50% (v/v of mixing solution volume, respectively. The pH of slurry was adjusted with range 6.8-7.2 and was measured daily and corrected when necessary with Na2CO3. The total biogas production was measured daily by the water displacement technique. Biogas production from the ungelling and gelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid and 198 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture without yeast was 58.6 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture added by microalgae without yeast was 58.72 ml/g total solid and that with yeast was 189 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea in semi-continuous process was 581.15 ml/g total solid. Adding of microalgae as nitrogen source did not give significant effect to biogas production. But adding of yeast as substrate activator was very helpful to accelerate biogas production. The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added. Requirement of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to increase alkalinity or buffering capacity of fermenting solution depends on pH-value

  10. Nutrient loading on subsoils from on-site wastewater effluent, comparing septic tank and secondary treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, L W; O'Luanaigh, N; Johnston, P M; Misstear, B D R; O'Suilleabhain, C

    2009-06-01

    The performance of six separate percolation areas was intensively monitored to ascertain the attenuation effects of unsaturated subsoils with respect to on-site wastewater effluent: three sites receiving septic tank effluent, the other three sites receiving secondary treated effluent. The development of a biomat across the percolation areas receiving secondary treated effluent was restricted on these sites compared to those sites receiving septic tank effluent and this created significant differences in terms of the potential nitrogen loading to groundwater. The average nitrogen loading per capita at 1.0m depth of unsaturated subsoil equated to 3.9 g total-N/d for the sites receiving secondary treated effluent, compared to 2.1 g total-N/d for the sites receiving septic tank effluent. Relatively high nitrogen loading was, however, found on the septic tank sites discharging effluent into highly permeable subsoil that counteracted any significant denitrification. Phosphorus removal was generally very good on all of the sites although a clear relationship to the soil mineralogy was determined.

  11. Treatment of poplar alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) effluent with Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingzhi; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2011-08-01

    Although the moderate load (COD of 5000-10,000 mg/L) and biodegradability of the APMP pulping effluent should allow biological treatment, toxic compounds in the effluent can interfere with this type of treatment. Studies were conducted to determine if treatment of the effluent with Aspergillus niger S13 was feasible. Under the optimized conditions (3% inoculum, pH 6, shaking at 160 rpm, 60-72 h, and 30°C), this fungus was able to remove about 97% of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) extractives, and 60%, 77% and 43% of the chemical oxygen demand, turbidity and color even without a pre-flocculation step. These results are of practical interest in China because the APMP process has become popular, and efficient and cost-effective effluent treatment technologies are in high demand. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electro-coagulation applied to the treatment of industrial effluents; Electrocoagulation appliquee en traitement des effluents industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplace, C.; Leboucher, G.; Coste, M. [Anjou Recherche, Vivendi Water, 78 - Maisons-Laffitte (France)

    2001-07-01

    The electro-coagulation is a water treatment technic in electrolysis cell with double anode. In substitution to the coagulant reagent often used in water de-pollution, it realizes also the coloring decomposition, the DCO abatement and sometimes improving the sludges processing. The technic presents meanwhile some limitations as its poor treatment capacity and the necessity of a high effluent conductivity. An example of application shows that this technic is economically competitive. (A.L.B.)

  13. the effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ymphocyt@ count in a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been found to profoundly and durably inhibit HIV production, extend overall long term effectiveness, help in the preservation of overall- term term effect and provide a salvage ...

  14. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and intensification of industrial activities have increased the deterioration of natural resources. Industrial, hospital and residential wastes are dumped directly into landfills without processing, polluting soils. This action will have consequences later, because the liquid substance resulting from the putrefaction of organic material plows into the soil to reach water bodies. Cities arise without planning, industrial and household wastes are discharged into rivers, lakes and oceans without proper treatment, affecting water resources. It is well known that in the next century there will be fierce competition for fresh water on the planet, probably due to the scarcity of it. Demographic expansion has occurred without proper health planning, degrading oceans, lakes and rivers. Thus, a large percentage of world population suffers from diseases related to water pollution. Accordingly, it can be concluded that sewage treatment is essential to human survival, to preserve rivers, lakes and oceans. An Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP treats wastewater to reduce its pollution to acceptable levels before sending them to the oceans or rivers. To automate the operation of an ETP, motors, sensors and logic blocks, timers and counters are needed. These functions are achieved with programmable logic controllers (PLC and Supervisory Systems. The Ladder language is used to program controllers and is a pillar of the Automation and Control Engineering. The supervisory systems allow process information to be monitored, while the PLC are responsible for control and data acquisition. In the age we live in, process automation is used in an increasing scale in order to provide higher quality, raise productivity and improve the proposed activities. Therefore, an automatic ETP will improve performance and efficiency to handle large volumes of sewage. Considering the growing importance of environmental awareness with special emphasis

  15. Participation in High School Extracurricular Activities: Investigating School Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the influence of school attributes, such as pupil/teacher ratio and emphasis on academic achievement, on student participation in high school extracurricular activities. Reveals that the size, school climate, and social milieu of the school affect student involvement in extracurricular activities. (CMK)

  16. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  17. High School Students' Affective Reaction to English Speaking Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera Torres, Oliver Camilo; Mendoza Zapata, Jhon Eliot; Díaz Larenas, Claudio Heraldo

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to measure fifty-two high school students' affective reactions after doing individual and pair-based speaking activities then completing a semantic differential scale of nine bipolar adjectives. Results do not show significant statistical differences between the two types of activities or the schools involved in this study, but…

  18. 40 CFR 446.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 414.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.52 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  20. 40 CFR 414.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.23 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  1. 40 CFR 414.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  2. 40 CFR 414.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.72 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  3. 40 CFR 463.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing Water Subcategory § 463.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 463.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing Water Subcategory § 463.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 414.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.42 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  6. 40 CFR 414.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  7. 40 CFR 414.73 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.73 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  8. 40 CFR 414.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.53 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  9. 40 CFR 414.21 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.21 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  10. 40 CFR 414.43 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.43 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  11. 40 CFR 463.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 414.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.41 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  13. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  14. 40 CFR 414.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.31 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  15. 40 CFR 463.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 414.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.22 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  17. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  18. 40 CFR 414.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.32 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  19. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  20. 40 CFR 414.51 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.51 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  1. 40 CFR 414.33 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.33 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  2. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  3. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  4. POLLUTION EFFECT OF FOOD AND BEVERAGES EFFLUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    bodies without proper treatment may results to exposure of humans to such .... Pollution effect of food and beverages effluents on the Alaro river in Ibadan city, Nigeria ..... (enlarged liver), and a 100% increase in both cancer and congenital ...

  5. Benthos of Cochin backwaters receiving industrial effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.

    Faunal composition of benthos and its spatial and temporal distribution at 9 stations in the northern limb of the Cochin backwaters are studied. An industrial belt is located about 18 km upstream of barmouth, and the effluents are discharged...

  6. The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States)], E-mail: sbartelt2@unl.edu; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon, Teyona [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0844 (United States); Shockley, Johnette [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States); Hoagland, Kyle [UNL Water Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0995 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a fifth location. Based on differences in estimated concentrations determined from pharmaceuticals recovered from POCIS, WWTP effluent was found to be a significant source of pharmaceutical loading to the receiving waters. Effluents from WWTPs with trickling filters or trickling filters in parallel with activated sludge resulted in the highest observed in-stream pharmaceutical concentrations. Azithromycin, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylzanthine, carbamazepine, cotinine, DEET, diphenhydramine, and sulfamethazine were detected at all locations. Methamphetamine, an illicit pharmaceutical, was detected at all but one of the sampling locations, representing only the second report of methamphetamine detected in WWTP effluent and in streams impacted by WWTP effluent. - Passive samplers were used to develop semi-quantitative estimates of pharmaceutical concentrations in receiving waters influenced by wastewater effluent.

  7. Decolorization of dye-containing textile industry effluents using Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 in still cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Muhammad; Noreen, Sadia; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz

    2010-04-01

    A locally isolated white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 was used for development of a bioremediation process for original textile industry effluents. Dye-containing effluents of different colors were collected from the Arzoo (maroon), Ayesha (yellow), Ittemad (green), Crescent (navy blue) and Magna (yellowish) textile industries of Faisalabad, Pakistan. G. lucidum IBL-05 was screened for its decolorization potential on all the effluents. Maximum decolorization (49.5 %) was observed in the case of the Arzoo textile industry (ART) effluent (lambda(max) = 515 nm) on the 10th day of incubation. Therefore, the ART effluent was selected for optimization of its decolorization process. Process optimization could improve color removal efficiency of the fungus to 95% within only 2 days, catalyzed by manganese peroxidase (1295 U/mL) as the main enzyme activity at pH 3 and 35 degrees C using 1% starch supplemented Kirk's basal medium. Nitrogen addition inhibited enzyme formation and effluent decolorization. The economics and effectiveness of the process can be improved by further process optimization.

  8. Decolorization of Methyl Red by Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 Isolated from Textile Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt was made to isolate methyl red, an azo dye, decolorizing bacteria from textile effluent. Among three isolates with methyl red decolorizing ability, the potential bacterial isolates, Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 was selected for identification and characterization. The organism was found to belong to the genus Staphylococcus and species saprophyticus. The isolate Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 could decolorize 600, 700, 800, and 1000 mg/L of methyl red within 24 h and 48 h, respectively, in presence of 1.0 g/L of glucose. This bacterium showed 94 and 97 % methyl red (600 mg L-1 decolorization within 24 and 48 h, respectively. In case of temperature, the ranging between 30-40 �C was fond to be suitable for the decolorization by S. saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 and a further increase in the temperature drastically affected decolorization activity of bacterial culture. Thus, due to high potential for methyl red decolorization the isolate Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 can be used in the biological treatment plant of industrial effluent containing azo dyes.

  9. Kinetics of direct reactions between ozone and phenolic compounds in kraft cellulose bleaching effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goza, C.; Zaror, C.; Gonzalez, P. [Chemical Eng. Dept., Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mondaca, M.A. [Microbiology Dept., Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mansilla, H. [Organic Chemistry Dept., Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2003-07-01

    Kraft cellulose bleaching effluents contain significant concentrations of phenolic contaminants generated from partial oxidation and chlorination of lignin. These compounds present mutagenic activity and poor biodegradability by conventional biological treatment, presenting a threat to water quality and public health. Those compounds could be effectively destroyed by ozonation, generating smaller, environmentally friendly, molecules. However, the high cost of ozone impairs its application at industrial scale. Ozone is known to act via two alternative complementary reaction mechanisms, one by direct ozone attack to electron rich sites, and other less selective reactions by free radicals generated from ozone self-decomposition. This paper presents experimental results on the effect of pH on the rate of phenols removal by ozonation of kraft cellulose bleaching effluents. As pH increased, so did the rate of phenols removal, showing the importance of free radical mechanism. The direct reaction rate constant for phenols removal was 3.4 M{sup -1}s{sup -1}. Direct reaction mechanism accounted for nearly 40% of total phenols removal rate at pH 2. Such contribution dropped to 11% at pH 9. (orig.)

  10. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  11. Effect of minta effluent on the phenology, growth and yield of Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp var. Ife brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umebese, C E; Onasanya, O M

    2007-01-01

    The composition of minta effluent and its effect on the phenology, growth and yield of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Ife brown, were investigated. The effluent was highly acidic (pH 3.74) and the concentrations of Ca, Mg and SO4 were appreciable (107.07, 351.47 and 221.11 mg L(-1), respectively). Germination of seeds sown in effluent was delayed by a day, reduced by 2% and not synchronous. Phenological investigations showed that plants grown in soil watered with effluent had 4-5 days delay in staking, bud formation, flower initiation, fruiting, pod ripening and plant senescence. These plants showed significant reductions in plant height, leaf area, shoot biomass and pod biomass (p < 0.05). Furthermore, seed yield and 100 corn weight of treated plants were low. Minta effluent has low agropotential.

  12. Concentrations of prioritized pharmaceuticals in effluents from 50 large wastewater treatment plants in the US and implications for risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured the concentrations of 56 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and seven metabolites, including 50 prioritized APIs, in 24-hour composite effluent samples collected from 50 very large municipal wastewater treatment plants across the US. Hydrochlorothiazide was foun...

  13. ALTERED DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION IN MOSQUITOFISH EXPOSED TO PULP AND PAPER MILL EFFLUENT IN THE FENHOLLOW RIVER, FLORIDA USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female mosquitofish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent (PME) in the Fenholloway River, Florida, USA have masculinized secondary sex characteristics and altered aromatase enzyme activity. We and others have shown that the Fenholloway River PME contains androgenic and progesto...

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 3720 Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the Environmental Science Laboratory (3720 Facility) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs'' This FEMP has been prepared for the 3720 Facility primarily because it has a major (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The 3720 Facility provides office and laboratory space for PNNL scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of materials characterization and testing and waste management. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials to conduct these activities. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, and dispersible particulate. The facility is in the process of being vacated for shutdown, but is considered a Major Emission Point as of the date of this document approval.

  15. Recommendations of activity restriction in high-risk pregnancy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Jane; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Bergholt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and the Danish Association of Midwives were asked to complete a tested, structured questionnaire. Results: We sent 1815 invitations; the overall response rate was 54%. A majority of clinicians recommended some form of activity restriction in the nine scenarios. The midwives recommended strict or moderate...... obstetricians and midwives prescribe activity restriction in most high-risk pregnancies. The degree of activity restriction and the presumed effect vary between clinicians. This may reflect different attitudes and lack of guidelines based on clinical studies of a possible benefit of activity restriction....

  16. Administrative instruction D.G.S./S.D. 7 D./D.H.O.S./E. 4 n. 2001-323 of the 9 july 2001 relative to the management of effluents and wastes from treatment activity and contaminated by radioisotopes; Circulaire D.G.S./S.D. 7 D./D.H.O.S./E. 4 n. 2001-323 du 9 juillet 2001 relative a la gestion des effluents et des dechets d'activites de soins contamines par des radionucleides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The three parts for this administrative instruction are general principles of management of effluents and waste at radioactive character, management individualized plan for effluents and wastes, articulation with regulation relative to classified installations for the environmental protection. (N.C.)

  17. Influence of hydraulic retention time in a two-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating textile dyeing effluent using sago effluent as the co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, M; Gnanapragasam, G; Arutchelvan, V; Nagarajan, S

    2011-05-01

    Textile dyeing and sago industries are the most polluting industries in South India, especially in industrial cities like Salem, Tamil Nadu, where textile dyeing and sago industries are clumped together geographically. Conventional physicochemical treatment followed by biological processes for the effluent generated from these industries are ineffective, costlier and produce huge quantities of hazardous sludge and harmful by-products which requires further treatment and safe disposal. Hence, the development of an alternative treatment method will become important. The main objective of this investigation is to establish a sustainable biotreatment technology for the treatment of textile dyeing effluent using sago effluent as co-substrate in a two-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. In this study, influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) in a two-phase UASB reactor treating textile dyeing effluent using sago effluent as co-substrate was investigated with different HRTs (36, 30, 24 and 18 h) with an optimum mixing ratio of 70:30 (sago to textile dye wastewaters). The results revealed that the HRT had a high influence on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal. The maximum COD removal efficiency of 39.4% and 88.5% and colour removal efficiency of 43.7% and 84.4% in the acidogenic and methanogenic reactors, respectively was achieved at 24 h of HRT. The biogas production was 312 L/day. The biphasic UASB reactor could be a very feasible alternative, cost-effective, eco-friendly and sustainable treatment system for textile dyeing effluent with sago effluent as a co-substrate.

  18. Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and

  19. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjala Sreedhar Reddy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents. As an alternative to commercial coal based activated carbon, activated carbon prepared from dried tannery sludge was used as an adsorbent for dyestuff removal from simulated textile dying industry effluent in this study. The color removal performance of tannery sludge derived activated carbon and commercial coal based activated carbon has been investigated using parameters such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. It was found that tannery sludge derived activated carbon exhibits dye removal efficiency that is about 80–90 % of that observed with commercial coal based activated carbon. The amount of dye adsorbed on to tannery sludge derived activated carbon is lower compared with commercial activated carbon at equilibrium and dye adsorption capacity increased with increase of initial dye concentration and temperature, and deceasing pH. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm appears to fit the isotherm data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances.

  20. Bioavailability and characterization of dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus in wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Liu, Haizhou; Liu, Lei; Smith, Scott; Sedlak, David L; Gu, April Z

    2015-04-01

    There is still a great knowledge gap in the understanding of characteristics and bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in wastewater effluents, which surmise implications related to both discharge regulation and treatment practice. In this study, we simultaneously investigated the characteristics and bioavailability of both DON and DOP, with separated hydrophilic versus hydrophobic fractions, in highly-treated wastewater effluents for the first time. The tertiary effluents from two wastewater treatment plants were separated into two fractions by XAD-8 resin coupled with anion exchange resin based on the hydrophobicity. Results showed that the majority of DON was present in hydrophilic forms while more DOP existed in hydrophobic forms. Hydrophilic DON contributed to 64.0%-72.2% of whole DON, while hydrophobic DOP accounted for 61.4%-80.7% of total DOP for the two plants evaluated. The effluents and their fractions were then subject to bioavailability assay based on 14-day algae growth. The results indicated that majority (~73-75%) of the effluent DOP, particularly the hydrophobic fraction with lower C/P ratio was more likely to be bioavailable for algal growth. The bioavailable fraction of DON varied widely (28%-61%) for the two plants studied and the hydrophilic fraction with lower C/N ratio seemed to exhibit higher bioavailability than the hydrophobic portion. The differences in bioavailable DON and DOP distributions of effluents from those two plants could be attributed to different receiving effluent compositions and wastewater treatment processes. In addition, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) were used to characterize the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in wastewater effluent, which provided insights into the nature of organic matter in wastewater samples with different characteristics and originating sources. Copyright © 2014. Published by

  1. Effluent Tenascin-C Levels Reflect Peritoneal Deterioration in Peritoneal Dialysis: MAJOR IN PD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hirahara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal deterioration causing structural changes and functional decline is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD. The aim of this study was to explore effluent biomarkers reflecting peritoneal deterioration. In an animal study, rats were intraperitoneally administered with PD fluids adding 20 mM methylglyoxal (MGO or 20 mM formaldehyde (FA every day for 21 days. In the MGO-treated rats, tenascin-C (TN-C levels in the peritoneal effluents were remarkably high and a cluster of TN-C-positive mesothelial cells with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- (EMT- like change excessively proliferated at the peritoneal surface, but not in the FA-treated rats. Effluent matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 levels increased in both the MGO- and FA-treated rats. In a clinical study at 18 centers between 2006 and 2013, effluent TN-C and MMP-2 levels were quantified in 182 PD patients with end-stage renal disease. Peritoneal function was estimated using the peritoneal equilibration test (PET. From the PET results, the D/P Cr ratio was correlated with effluent levels of TN-C (ρ = 0.57, p<0.001 and MMP-2 (ρ = 0.73, p<0.001. We suggest that TN-C in the effluents may be a diagnostic marker for peritoneal deterioration with EMT-like change in mesothelial cells in PD.

  2. Matrix evaluation for the discoloration of textile effluents using Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Kravetz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The textile industrial wastewaters cause a serious problem of environmental pollution. Given the complexity and diversity of the compounds used in the process and the high quantity to which they are released by the effluents, they produce an important impact on aquatic ecosystems. In order to evaluate the ability of a mycelium biological matrix to bleach textile effluents, a series of static experiments were conducted, in which mycelia of Pleurotus ostreatus grown in oatmeal and incubated in darkness for 25 days at 25°C were used. Results show that the mycelium continued to grow properly when exposed to the effluent even though it had not been sterilized, and that the time required for discoloration ranged from 24 to 72 hours, depending of the intensity of effluent coloration. It was estimated that the best matrix/effluent relationship was 5% mass/volume and that this mycelium matrix can be reused, although its discoloration capability would be lower. Results indicate that this system could be used for bleaching the effluents of textile industries, thus reducing their impact on natural ecosystems. CC BY-NC-SA Gestión y Ambiente (2016.

  3. The uranium recovery from UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaotong, E-mail: chenxiaotong@tsinghua.edu.cn; He, Linfeng; Liu, Bing; Tang, Yaping; Tang, Chunhe

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: In this study, a flow sheet including evaporation, flocculation, filtration, adsorption, and reverse osmosis was established for the UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent of HTR spherical fuel elements. The uranium recovery could reach 99.9% after the treatment, with almost no secondary pollution produced. Based on the above experimental results, the treating flow process in this study would be feasible for laboratory- and engineering-scale treatment of UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent of HTR spherical fuel elements. - Highlights: • A flow sheet including evaporation, flocculation, filtration, adsorption, and reverse osmosis was established for the UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent. • The uranium recovery could reach 99.9% after the treatment, with almost no secondary pollution produced. • The treating flow process would be feasible for laboratory- and engineering-scale treatment of UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent. - Abstract: For the fabrication of coated particle fuel elements of high temperature gas cooled reactors, the ceramic UO{sub 2} kernels are prepared through chemical gelation of uranyl nitrate solution droplets, which produces radioactive effluent with components of ammonia, uranium, organic compounds and ammonium nitrate. In this study, a flow sheet including evaporation, flocculation, filtration, adsorption, and reverse osmosis was established for the effluent treating. The uranium recovery could reach 99.9% after the treatment, with almost no secondary pollution produced.

  4. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2017-09-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp ., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  5. 40 CFR 439.14 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fermentation Products § 439.14 Effluent limitations attainable by the... effluent limitations representing the application of BAT: Effluent Limitations (BAT) Regulated parameter...

  6. Evaluation of Phytodesalination Potential of Vegetated Bioreactors Treating Greenhouse Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Fatehi Pouladi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved salt ions that are not absorbed during irrigation of greenhouse crops are gradually accumulated in the nutrient solution resulting in levels of salinity high enough to damage the crops. This water salinity presents operational and environmental challenges as the nutrient-rich greenhouse effluent should be discharged to the environment when deemed unsuited for irrigation. In this pilot-scale study, the potential of passive salt reduction (phytodesalination in gravel and wood-chip flow-through reactors was evaluated using seven plant species including Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, Andropogon gerardii, Typha angustifolia, Elymus canadensis, Panicum virgatum, Spartina pectinata and Distichlis spicata along with an unplanted control reactor. While the unplanted system outperformed the planted units with gravel media, the wood-chip bioreactors with S. tabernaemontani and S. pectinata improved the greenhouse effluent reducing the solution conductivity (EC by a maximum of 15% (average = 7%. S. tabernaemontani and D. spicata showed higher accumulated contents of Na+ and Cl− in comparison with T. angustifolia and S. pectinata. Overall, S. tabernaemontani was selected as the most capable species in the wood-chip bioreactors for its better salt management via EC reduction and salt accumulation. It was however concluded that further treatment would be required for the greenhouse effluent to meet the stringent irrigation water quality guidelines in order not to pose any adverse effects on sensitive crops. Finally, the present hydraulic residence time (HRT = 3.7 days and the solution salinity concentration were identified as the potential factors that may be limiting the efficiency of plant salt uptake, emphasizing the need for conducting more research on the optimization and enhancement of passive desalination systems for the greenhouse effluent.

  7. Factors associated with physical activity among Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Carly; Irwin, Melinda; Griffith, Jane; Xue, Lin; Fradette, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    Identifying multi-level factors affecting physical activity (PA) levels among adolescents is essential to increasing activity to promote health within this population. This study examines the associations between PA and 11 independent factors among Manitoba high school students. The sample included 31,202 grade 9-12 students who completed the Manitoba Youth Health Survey. Associations between PA and independent factors were examined separately and through multivariate regression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Perception of athletic ability, school location, parental encouragement and number of active friends were strong predictors of activity for moderately active and active males and females. Grade was a significant predictor of PA for females at both levels of activity but only significant for males when comparing active to inactive students. Perception of schoolwork and means of transport were minimally associated with PA. Results highlight the importance of targeting multiple levels of influence to increase PA among youth. Programs should focus on older students, females and those who are inactive or moderately active. In addition, social modeling of PA and increasing self-efficacy around activity should be encouraged.

  8. Removing actinides using a chromatographic resin from High Activity Waste Solutions containing metallic impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pialot, H

    2004-07-01

    At the Plutonium Recycling Facility of CEA Valduc, anion exchange is used for recovering plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers more than 99,9 %, the trace amounts of actinides as americium remaining in the effluent require additional processing to reduce alpha activity under the maximum allowed for surface disposal. A new process has been developed to remove actinides from these effluents with a TRUspec resin. A pilot composed of an electrochemical reactor followed by a TRUSPEC column has been designed into a glove box. Laboratory scale studies and first results on the pilot have confirmed the interesting bibliography concerning this process. The reduction of iron is effective with a yield of 98-99% and no significant retention of metallic impurities has been observed during fixing time. Moreover, Pr and Ce used as surrogates for Pu and Am are totally recovered in the elution phases. Further work will be done to validate the previous results and to qualify the overall process with active solutions.

  9. 40 CFR 471.52 - Effluent limitations representating the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.52 Effluent limitations representating the degree of... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT): (a) Rolling...

  10. An efficient and economical treatment for batik textile wastewater containing high levels of silicate and organic pollutants using a sequential process of acidification, magnesium oxide, and palm shell-based activated carbon application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgani, Payam Moradi; Ranjbar, Navid; Abdullah, Rosniah Che; Wong, Kien Tiek; Lee, Gooyong; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Park, Chulhwan; Yoon, Yeomin; Jang, Min

    2016-12-15

    Considering the chemical properties of batik effluents, an efficient and economical treatment process was established to treat batik wastewater containing not only high levels of Si and chemical oxygen demand (COD), but also toxic heavy metals. After mixing the effluents obtained from the boiling and soaking steps in the batik process, acidification using concentrated hydrochloric acid (conc. HCl) was conducted to polymerize the silicate under acidic conditions. Consequently, sludge was produced and floated. XRD and FT-IR analyses showed that wax molecules were coordinated by hydrogen bonding with silica (SiO2). The acidification process removed ∼78-95% of COD and ∼45-50% of Si, depending on the pH. In the next stage, magnesium oxide (MgO) was applied to remove heavy metals completely and almost 90% of the Si in the liquid phase. During this step, about 70% of COD was removed in the hydrogel that arose as a consequence of the crosslinking characteristics of the formed nano-composite, such as magnesium silicate or montmorillonite. The hydrogel was composed mainly of waxes with polymeric properties. Then, the remaining Si (∼300 mg/L) in the wastewater combined with the effluents from the rinsing steps was further treated using 50 mg/L MgO. As a final step, palm-shell activated carbon (PSAC) was used to remove the remaining COD to < 50 mg/L at pH 3. Overall, the sequential process of acidification and MgO/PSAC application developed could serve as an economical and effective treatment option for treating heavily polluted batik effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic effects of pesticide effluents on Nicotiana tabacum and Vigna radiata plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Some important metabolic parameters were investigated in relation to various doses of pesticide effluents in two economically plants viz. Nicotiana and Vigna plants. Increasing doses of pesticide effluents caused decrease in both sugar and protein concentration almost similarly in both plants. However, activities of enzymes, catalase, peroxidase and MDA content were found to be stimulated by higher doses of pesticide factory effluents in both the plants. Protein and sugar content decreased at all doses in Nicotiana tabacum however there were increase in enzymatic activity like catalase and peroxidase. MDA content was also increased in same plant. On the other hand Vigna radiata showed inducing nature of protein content at lower concentration (25% and thereafter inhibit at all doses while sugar content decreased at all concentrations. Enzymatic activity viz. catalase and peroxidase showed promoting nature at all concentrations. MDA content also increased at all concentrations. Thus it can be concluded that but for small differences in almost all the metabolic parameters towards their response towards pesticide industry effluent both the studied plants i.e. Nicotiana and Vigna were found to be quite susceptible towards pesticide effluents. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12628 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 87-94

  12. Soil aquifer treatment using advanced primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2011-08-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent (PE) is an attractive option for wastewater treatment and reuse in many developing countries with no or minimal wastewater treatment. One of the main limitations of SAT of PE is rapid clogging of the infiltration basin due to high suspended solid concentrations. Some pre-treatment of PE before infiltration is likely to reduce this limitation, improve performance of SAT and help to implement this technology effectively. The effects of three pre-treatment options namely sedimentation (SED), coagulation (COAG) and horizontal roughing filtration (HRF) on SAT were analyzed by conducting laboratory-scale batch and soil column experiments. The sedimentation and coagulation pre-treatments led to less head loss development and reduction of clogging effect. The head loss development in soil column using PE + COAG and PE + SED was reduced by 85 and 72%, respectively, compared to PE alone without any pretreatment. The overall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of pre-treatments and soil column collectively were 34, 44, 51 and 43.5% for PE without any pre-treatment, PE + SED, PE+ COAG and PE + HRF, respectively. Coagulation pre-treatment of PE was found to be the most effective option in terms of suspended solids, DOC and nitrogen removal. Sedimentation pre-treatment of PE could be attractive where land is relatively less expensive for the construction of sedimentation basins. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  13. Physical activity barriers and motivators among high-risk employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paguntalan, John C; Gregoski, Mathew

    2016-11-22

    Worksite wellness programs offer an ideal setting to target high-risk sedentary workers to improve health status. Lack of physical activity is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and mortality. Despite the risks, the number of sedentary workers is increasing. This study examined the perceived barriers and motivators for physical activity among employees at high-risk for coronary heart disease. A purposive sample of 24 high-risk workers participating in a wellness program in rural South Carolina were enrolled in the study. Qualitative data was obtained through semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Grounded theory was used to analyze qualitative data, and identify overarching themes. Physical limitations due to pain and weakness, lack of motivation, and lack of time emerged as the main barriers to physical activity. Family relationships were reported as the strongest motivator along with social support and potential health benefits. Findings highlight the unique experience of high-risk workers with physical activity. The findingsunderscore the need to design and implement effective interventions specifically designed to meet the needs of high-risk employees.

  14. Physio-Chemical Analysis of Industrial Effluents in parts of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water pollution, particularly, surface water results from all activities of man involving indiscriminate waste disposal from industry such as effluents into waterways, waste, agricultural waste, and all forms of man's activities that results in contamination of the surface water. Wastewater samples were collected from two (2) ...

  15. 30 CFR 816.42 - Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and effluent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.42 Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and effluent limitations. Discharges of water from areas disturbed by surface mining activities shall be made in compliance...

  16. 30 CFR 817.42 - Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and effluent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.42 Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and effluent limitations. Discharges of water from areas disturbed by underground mining activities shall be made in...

  17. A high-efficiency denitrification bioreactor for the treatment of acrylonitrile wastewater using waterborne polyurethane immobilized activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Honghong; Wang, Wei; Song, Zhaozheng; Dong, Hao; Wang, Jianfeng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Ke, Ming; Zhang, Zhenjia; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Guangqing; Ma, Jie

    2017-09-01

    The performance of a laboratory-scale, high-efficiency denitrification bioreactor (15L) using activated sludge immobilized by waterborne polyurethane in treating acrylonitrile wastewater with high concentration of nitrate nitrogen (249mg/L) was investigated. The bioreactor was operated at 30°C for 220days. Batch denitrification experiments showed that the optimal operation parameters were C/NO3(-)-N molar ratio of 2.0 using sodium acetate as electron donor and carrier filling rate of 20% (V/V) in the bioreactor. Stable performance of denitrification was observed with a hydraulic retention time of 30 to 38h. A volumetric removal rate up to 2.1kgN/m(3)·d was achieved with a total nitrogen removal efficiency of 95%. Pyrosequencing results showed that Rhodocyclaceae and Pseudomonadaceae were the dominant bacterial families in the immobilized carrier and bioreactor effluent. The overall microbial diversity declined as denitrifiers gradually dominated and the relative abundance of other bacteria decreased along with testing time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Active MMP-2 Activity Discriminates Colonic Mucosa, Adenomas with and without High Grade Dysplasia and Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Mary Jo; Cai, Jinguo; Shuja, Sania; McAneny, David; Willett, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Pathologic assessment of colorectal adenomas, a complex task with significant inter-observer variability, typically defines the scheduling of surveillance colonoscopies following removal of adenomas. We have characterized the activity levels of pro- and active matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, as potential markers of pathologic progression during colorectal tumorigenesis. Endogenous fully activated matrix metalloproteinase-2, in particular, has been studied less frequently in adenomas due to difficulties in detection. For this report, tissues (n=119) from 51 individuals were extracted and assayed on gelatin zymograms with digital standardization to nanogram quantities of purified active controls. Resulting data were assessed by graphical and multinomial logit regression analyses to test whether matrix metalloproteinase-2 or matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities could discriminate among four different types of colorectal tissue (normal mucosa, adenomas with or without high grade dysplasia and invasive carcinomas). Active matrix metalloproteinase-2 successfully discriminated among these tissue categories. Median activity for active matrix metalloproteinase-2 increased in a stepwise fashion with pathologic progression from normal mucosa to adenoma without high grade dysplasia to adenoma with high grade dysplasia to cancer. Although pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 and pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities could discriminate to some extent among tissue categories, those effects did not contribute additional information. Active matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity correlated significantly with histopathologic assessment of colorectal tissues. The ability of active matrix metalloproteinase-2 to distinguish adenomas with high grade dysplasia from adenomas without high grade dysplasia may be particularly useful in predicting future colorectal cancer risk for an individual, thus optimizing scheduling of

  19. Degradation of azo dye methyl red by alkaliphilic, halotolerant Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis EMLA3: application in alkaline and salt-rich dyeing effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amrik; Goyal, Nidhi; Gupta, Anshu

    2017-05-01

    Effluents from textile industries are highly colored due to vast use of various azo dyes and color is the first visual indicator of pollution. Biological treatment of textile effluent is often hampered due to the alkaline pH and high salinity; a common characteristic of many textile industrial wastewaters. Considering this, the present study explores the potential of a newly isolated halotolerant and alkaliphilic bacterium Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis EMLA3 for degradation of methyl red (MR) dye under alkaline condition. Strain EMLA3 showed 97% degradation of 50 mg L-1 MR after 16 h at initial pH of 11.5 in nutrient medium. Dye degradation by the isolate is supported by the formation of low-molecular weight metabolites as divulge through GC-MS & FTIR studies Optimum dye degradation was observed in the pH range of 8.0-11.5 and temperature range of 30-35 °C. Significant MR degrading activity of the strain could be achieved in the presence of very high salt level (100-120 g L-1 NaCl) and in co-presence of different heavy metals. Application of strain to alkaline pH, salt, and heavy metals laden-textile effluent resulted in overall 83% dye removal from the effluent after 120 h of treatment under static condition. Furthermore, the property of microbe to drop-down the pH of wastewater from 11.5 to 8.60 after treatment also lowers the need of additional neutralization treatment. The entire study thus comes out with novel application of N. lacusekhoensis-a less explored extremophilic bacterium-for treatment of alkaline and salt-rich azo dye-containing wastewaters.

  20. Return to work and sporting activities after high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faschingbauer, Martin; Nelitz, Manfred; Urlaub, Stefanie; Reichel, Heiko; Dornacher, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a commonly used treatment to correct varus malalignment of the knee. The purpose of this study was, first, to determine, whether HTO allows return to pre-operative work, depending on the amount of work load. Second, the restoration of sports ability and a difference in sports activities pre- to postoperative should be analyzed. Fifty-one patients were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups dependent on work intensity. Sporting activity was evaluated by an activity score (Naal). Clinical examination includes Tegner-score, Lysholm-score and visual analog pain scale. General health was assessed using the 36-Item Short Form Survey questionnaire. On an average of 16.7 ± 15.6 weeks after surgery patients returned to work, and 93.8 % of the patients returned to pre-operative work load. The Tegner activity score did not show significant changes pre- and postoperatively. At the time of survey Lysholm score reached a value of 68.7 ± 23.9 points on average. Postoperatively, patients remarked on decreased pain by VAS by an average of 2.6 ± 2.3 points. In total, 92.3 % returned to pre-operative sports activities after surgery. A shift away from high impact activities to lower impact activities, a significant decrease of the duration of sports activities and number of sports disciplines was detected. In summary, HTO allows the young, active patient with medial osteoarthritis of the knee to return to work with the same work intensity and to return to sports.

  1. Reduced autonomic activity during stepwise exposure to high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevre, K; Bendz, B; Hanko, E; Nakstad, AR; Hauge, A; Kasin, JI; Lefrandt, JD; Smit, AJ; Eide, [No Value; Rostrup, M

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have shown increased sympathetic activity during acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. In a recent field study we found reduced plasma catecholamines during the first days after a stepwise ascent to high altitude. In the present study 14 subjects were exposed to a simulated ascent in

  2. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Employment Status in Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2003-04-01

    Apr 1, 2003 ... responses and employment history of highly-active antiretroviral .... employment history. It was piloted in focus groups comprised of nurses and clerical workers at Korle-Bu. Teaching Hospital to improve its contextual appropri- ateness. .... ment on HAART, 47 (62.7%) earned less money than before their ...

  3. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven to be the only effective treatment for HIV/AIDS worldwide. Good adherence to HAART might require good family support. Objective: To determine the family dynamics and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its ...

  4. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of porcine oocytes induces parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Pribenszky, Csaba; Molnár, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    An innovative technique called high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has recently been reported to improve the cryosurvival of gametes and embryos in certain mammalian species, including the mouse, pig, and cattle. In the present study the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of pig oocytes caused...

  5. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and employment status in Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study investigated the immunologic responses and employment history of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) patients. Design: We interviewed patients and reviewed medical records to collect demographic, clinical, and employ-ment history while on HAART. Demographic charac-teristics were ...

  6. Effect of high dose thiamine therapy on activity and molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... This study was therefore designed to investigate the effect of high dose thiamine therapy on the activity and molecular aspects of transketolase in Type 2 diabetic patients. Over 100 Type 2 microalbuminuric diabetics were enrolled in a randomized, double blind placebo controlled clinical trial for 6 months.

  7. the effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A case control study of 70 HIV-infected subjects placed on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Thirty. HIV-infected yet to ... on HAART for 12 weeks while controls that were yet to start therapy were monitored as controls. CD4 lymphocyte count ..... conversion to development of full blown AIDS. J. Aquir Immune Defic ...

  8. Psychological distress and adherence to highly active anti-retroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mental health related risk factors for non-adherence to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) have not been investigated in Uganda and yet adherence is critical to the success of the current scale up in the provision of HAART to HIV positive individuals in rural areas of Uganda. Objective: To determine ...

  9. Contact system activation and high thrombin generation in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhee; Gu, Ja-Yoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Han, Se Eun; Kim, Young Il; Nam-Goong, Il Sung; Kim, Eun Sook; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombotic risk. As contact system activation through formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) has emerged as an important trigger of thrombosis, we hypothesized that the contact system is activated along with active NET formation in hyperthyroidism and that their markers correlate with disease severity. In 61 patients with hyperthyroidism and 40 normal controls, the levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen, and factor VII, VIII, IX, XI and XII), D-dimer, thrombin generation assay (TGA) markers, NET formation markers (histone-DNA complex, double-stranded DNA and neutrophil elastase) and contact system markers (activated factor XII (XIIa), high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK), prekallikrein and bradykinin) were measured. Patients with hyperthyroidism showed higher levels of fibrinogen (median (interquartile range), 315 (280-344) vs 262 (223-300), P = 0.001), D-dimer (103.8 (64.8-151.5) vs 50.7 (37.4-76.0), P hyperthyroidism's contribution to coagulation and contact system activation. Free T4 was significantly correlated with factors VIII and IX, D-dimer, double-stranded DNA and bradykinin. This study demonstrated that contact system activation and abundant NET formation occurred in the high thrombin generation state in hyperthyroidism and were correlated with free T4 level. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Variability exists in children’s activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Results The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P school level factors. The greatest differences occurred after-school (MPA = 5.5 minutes, VPA = 3.8 minutes, P active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial. PMID:22672654

  11. Business cycle and innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikowski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines differences in an impact of business cycle phases on innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland. It is assumed that each business cycle phase influences innovation activity in the same fashion, but its impact varies and it depends on the firm’s innovation activity. The higher innovation activity the less impact of business cycle. The scope of the survey relates to innovation in MHT and HT industry in Poland. The data concerns the innovation at the firm level and the diffusion “new for the company”. Innovation activity is defined by the following activities: (1 expenditure on research and development and investments in fixed assets not used so far such as: abuildings, premises and land; b machinery and equipment, c computer software; (2 implementation of new products and technological processes and (3 innovation cooperation. The methodological part of the analysis includes a logit modeling. The survey includes 1355 companies. Business cycle has a great influence on innovation activity in MTH and HT industry in Poland. The influence of recovery phase is positive whereas both stagnation and recession phases decrease the probability of innovation activity. The character of influence depends on the propensity to take innovation activity. The higher level of innovation activity the enterprises present the less influence of business cycle they get.

  12. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT ON GROUND WATER USING REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pathak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India. There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi – a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat −1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer – inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer

  13. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India). There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi - a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer boundaries using specialized

  14. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  15. Mobile unit for high active spent radiation sources immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojovan, M.I.; Sobolev, I.A.; Kachalov, M.B.; Arustamov, A.E.; Shiryaev, V.V.; Semenov, K.N.; Timofeev, E.M.; Stephanovsky, S.V. [Moscow Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, Sergiev Posad (Russian Federation). Dept. of Engineering Supply

    1993-12-31

    A new method of solid high active waste (spent radiation sources) immobilization was developed. It provides the inclusion of the spent radiation sources into the metal matrix directly in the underground repositories. The radiation shielding of the repositories is used for the safety. The method provides the preparation of the metal melt outside of repository. In this way the action of high temperature on the waste is minimal as well as the volatilization of the radio nuclei. A special Mobile Unit for High Active Spent Radiation Sources immobilization was designed. It consists of some modules which are easily assembled on the repositories. The new technology and Mobile Unit are used by Scientific and Industrial Association ``Radon`` beginning 1986 on industrial scale.

  16. Inbred mice strain shows neurobehavioral changes when exposed to tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands as a generating activity of potentially toxic waste. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human and environmental health. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the possible effects of intake of these effluents in experimental mammalian models. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of chronic intake of different tannery effluent concentrations diluted with water (0.1, 1, and 5%) in male C57BL/6J mice. After 120 days of exposure, the animals were subjected to different behavioral tests, predictive of anxiety (elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field (OF), and neophobia test), depression (forced swim), and memory deficits (object recognition test). From the EPM test, it was observed that the mice exposed to 0.1, 1, and 5% of tannery effluents showed higher anxiety scores compared to the animals in the control group. However, the results of this study revealed no differences among the experimental groups in the proportion (percentage) of locomotion in the central quarters/total locomotion calculated (by OF), considered an indirect measure for anxiety. At neophobia test, all the animals exposed to chronic intake of tannery effluents showed higher latency time to start eating, which corresponds to an anxiogenic behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, it was observed that the animals exposed to tannery effluents had longer time in immobility behavior, suggesting a predictive behavior to depression. Finally, the object recognition test showed that the treatments did not cause damage to the animals' memory. The recognition rate of the new object did not differ among the experimental groups. Thus, it is concluded that male C57BL/6J mice (inbred strain) exposed to tannery effluents have predictive neurobehavioral changes of anxiety and depression, without memory deficit.

  17. Radiological effluents released from US continental tests, 1961 through 1992. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoengold, C.R.; DeMarre, M.E.; Kirkwood, E.M.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents all continental tests from September 15, 1961, through September 23, 1992, from which radioactive effluents were released. The report includes both updated information previously published in the publicly available May, 1990 report, DOE/NV-317, ``Radiological Effluents Released from Announced US Continental Tests 1961 through 1988``, and effluent release information on formerly unannounced tests. General information provided for each test includes the date, time, location, type of test, sponsoring laboratory and/or agency or other sponsor, depth of burial, purpose, yield or yield range, extent of release (onsite only or offsite), and category of release (detonation-time versus post-test operations). Where a test with simultaneous detonations is listed, location, depth of burial and yield information are given for each detonation if applicable, as well as the specific source of the release. A summary of each release incident by type of release is included. For a detonation-time release, the effluent curies are expressed at R+12 hours. For a controlled releases from tunnel-tests, the effluent curies are expressed at both time of release and at R+12 hours. All other types are listed at the time of the release. In addition, a qualitative statement of the isotopes in the effluent is included for detonation-time and controlled releases and a quantitative listing is included for all other types. Offsite release information includes the cloud direction, the maximum activity detected in the air offsite, the maximum gamma exposure rate detected offsite, the maximum iodine level detected offsite, and the maximum distance radiation was detected offsite. A release summary incudes whatever other pertinent information is available for each release incident. This document includes effluent release information for 433 tests, some of which have simultaneous detonations. However, only 52 of these are designated as having offsite releases.

  18. Novas tendências no tratamento de efluentes têxteis New tendencies on textile effluent treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Kunz

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents, when not correctly treated, cause a high impact to the environment. The main recalcitrant compounds present in textile effluent are represented by the synthetic dyes, used during the fibber dying process. Among others, the azo dyes are considered the most harmful due to its mutagenic and carcinogenic character. In the present work we reported a revision study on the new tendencies for remediation of textile effluents, mainly to degrade the recalcitrant compounds. For this purpose, chemical, physical, photochemical, biological and combined processes were investigated.

  19. Albedo hydrolysis modelling and digestion with reused effluents in the enzymatic peeling process of grapefruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Axel; Conde, Josep; Ibarz, Albert; Pagán, Jordi

    2010-11-01

    Until now, the optimisation of enzymatic peeling of grapefruit in the reactor has been obtained as the result of the semi-qualitative effects of enzyme activity. This work is an attempt to obtain quantified data. The reuse of enzymes to reduce costs in this process is unprecedented in the literature and is the aim of the present work. The optimal conditions determined for the maximum albedo degradation were a temperature of 40.6 °C and a time of 13.1 min in an enzymatic concentration of 0.067 mL enzymatic preparation per gram of peel in each litre of citrate buffer solution. The decrease in relative enzymatic activities in reused effluents was determined, as was the increase in activity when the enzymes were purified. These increases were 15.5% for polygalacturonase and 15.4% for cellulase activity. Optimal temperature, time and the ratio between peel mass and the enzymatic preparation volume were the best conditions for obtaining good peeling efficiency. The effluents from the enzymatic peeling process of the grapefruit still contain appreciable enzymatic activity after the digestion process. Thus, reusing these effluents while maintaining peeling efficacy and a subsequent recovery of the active enzymes by ultra-filtration of the effluents is the way to improve the efficiency of the process. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  20. Characterization of active CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Rymaszewski, Piotr; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensors are very attractive as radiation imaging pixel detector because they do not need cost-intensive fine pitch bump bonding. High radiation tolerance and time resolution are required to apply those sensors to upcoming particle physics experiments. To achieve these requirements, the active CMOS pixel sensors were developed on high resistive substrates. Signal charges are collected faster by drift in high resistive substrates than in standard low resistive substrates yielding also a higher radiation tolerance. A prototype of the active CMOS pixel sensor has been fabricated in the LFoundry 150 nm CMOS process on 2 kΩcm substrate. This prototype chip was thinned down to 300 μm and the backside has been processed and can contacted by an aluminum contact. The breakdown voltage is around -115 V, and the depletion width has been measured to be as large as 180 μm at a bias voltage of -110 V. Gain and noise of the readout circuitry agree with the designed values. Performance tests in the lab and test beam have been done before and after irradiation with X-rays and neutrons. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  1. Comparison of physical activities of female football players in junior high school and high school

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Yuri; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare physical activities between junior high school and high school female football players in order to explain the factors that predispose to a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school female football players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine female football players participated. Finger floor distance, the center of pressure during single limb stance with eyes open and closed, the 40-m linear sprint time, hip abduction and extension muscle strengt...

  2. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  3. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical company: a comparison of the sensitivities of different standardized tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Bianca de S; Luna, Luis A V; Palmeira, Joice de O; Tavares, Karla P; Barbosa, Sandro; Beijo, Luiz A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A; Kummrow, Fábio

    2015-05-01

    Pharmaceutical effluents have recently been recognized as an important contamination source to aquatic environments and the toxicity related to the presence of antibiotics in effluents has attracted great attention. Conventionally, these effluents have been treated using physico-chemical and aerobic biological processes, usually with low rates of pharmaceuticals removal. Due to the complexity of effluents, it is impossible to determine all pharmaceuticals and their degradation products using analytical methods. Ecotoxicity tests with different organisms may be used to determine the effect level of effluents and thus their environmental impacts. The objective of this work was to compare the sensitivities of five ecotoxicity tests using aquatic and terrestrial organisms to evaluate the toxicity of effluents from the production of veterinary medicines before and after treatment. Raw and chemically treated effluent samples were highly toxic to aquatic organisms, achieving 100,000 toxic units, but only few of those samples presented phytotoxicity. We observed a reduction in the toxicity in the biologically treated effluent samples, which were previously chemically pre-treated, however the toxicity was not eliminated. The rank of test organisms' reactions levels was: Daphnia similis > Raphidocelis subcapitata > Aliivibrio fischeri > Allium cepa ~ Lactuca sativa. Effluent treatment employed by the evaluated company was only partially efficient at removing the effluent toxicity, suggesting potential risks to biota. The acute toxicity test with D. similis proved to be the most sensitive for both raw and treated effluents and is a suitable option for further characterization and monitoring of pharmaceutical effluents.

  4. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Wang Geun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon, Jeollanam-Do 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Balathanigaimani, M.S., E-mail: msbala@rgipt.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Ratapur Chowk, Rae Bareli, 229316 Uttar Pradesh (India); Moon, Hee, E-mail: hmoon@jnu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Highly porous carbon materials from Mongolian anthracite by chemical activation. • Cheaper and eco-friendly activation process has been employed. • Activated carbons with graphitic structure and energetically heterogeneous surface. • Surface hydrophobicity and porosity of the activated carbons can be controlled. - Abstract: Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816–2063 m{sup 2}/g and of 0.55–1.61 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  5. High lightning activity in maritime clouds near Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kucienska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lightning activity detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN over oceanic regions adjacent to Mexico is often as high as that observed over the continent. In order to explore the possible causes of the observed high flash density over those regions, the relationships between lightning, rainfall, vertical hydrometeor profiles, latent heating, wind variability and aerosol optical depth are analyzed. The characteristics of lightning and precipitation over four oceanic zones adjacent to Mexican coastlines are contrasted against those over the continent. The number of flashes per rainfall over some coastal maritime regions is found to be higher than over the continent. The largest number of flashes per rainfall is observed during the biomass burning season. In addition, we compare two smaller areas of the Tropical Pacific Ocean: one located within the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone and characterized by high rainfall and weak lightning activity and the other one influenced by a continental wind jet and characterized by high rainfall and strong lightning activity. During the rainy season, the monthly distribution of lightning within the region influenced by the continental wind jet is contrary to that of rainfall. Moreover, the monthly variability of lightning is very similar to the variability of the meridional wind component and it is also related to the variability of aerosol optical depth. The analysis suggests that the high lightning activity observed over coastal Pacific region is linked to the continental cloud condensation nuclei advected over the ocean. Analysis of daily observations indicates that the greatest lightning density is observed for moderate values of the aerosol optical depth, between 0.2 and 0.35.

  6. Effective decolorization and adsorption of contaminant from industrial dye effluents using spherical surfaced magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyaprabha, R.; Khan, Samreen Heena; Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H.

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of highly concentrated Industrial dye stuff effluents released in the environment is the major issue faced in the era of waste management as well as in water pollution. Though there is availability of conventional techniques in large numbers, there is a need of efficient and effective advance technologies. In account of that, Nanotechnology plays a prominent role to treat the heavy metals, organic and inorganic contaminants using smart materials in nano regime (1 -100 nm). Among these nanomaterials like Iron Oxide (Fe3O4, magnetic nanoparticle) is one of the most promising candidates to remove the heavy metals from the industrial effluent. Fe3O4 is the widely used smart material with magnetic property having high surface area; high surface to volume ratio provides more surface for the chemical reaction for the surface adsorption. Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sonochemical method using ultra frequency in aqueous solution under optimized conditions. The as-synthesized nanoparticle was analyzed using different characterization tool. The Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) images revealed 10-12 nm spherical shape nanoparticles; crystal phase and surface morphology was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. The functional group were identified by Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR), revealed the bending and stretching vibrations associated with Iron Oxide nanoparticle. In present study, for the efficient removal of contaminants, different concentration (10-50 ppm) of dye stuff effluent has been prepared and subjected to adsorption and decolourization at definite time intervals with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The concentration of Iron oxide and the time (45 mins) was kept fixed for the reaction whereas the concentration of dye stuff effluent was kept varying. It was found that the spherical shaped Fe3O4 proved to be the potential material for the adsorption of corresponding

  7. Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Iltaf, Imran; Javeed, Aqeel

    2012-09-01

    The problem of water pollution acquires greater relevance in the context of a developing agrarian economy like Pakistan. Even though, the leather industry is a leading economic sector in Pakistan, there is an increasing environmental concern regarding tanneries because they produce large amounts of potentially toxic wastewater containing both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, which are equally hazardous for human population, aquaculture and agricultural activities in the area. Therefore, we defined the scope of the present study as to employ different bioassays to determine the eco-toxic potential of tannery effluent wastewater (TW) and its chromium based components, i.e., potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and chromium sulfate Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of TW was carried out to determine the concentration of chromium in TW and then equal concentrations of hexavalent (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and trivalent chromium Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) were obtained for this study. Cytotoxicity assay, artemia bioassay and phytotoxicity assay was utilized to investigate the eco-toxicological potential of different concentrations of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). All the dilutions of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) presented concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in these assays. The data clearly represents that among all three tested materials, different dilutions of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) caused significantly more damage (Pindustry that can obliterate ecosystem surrounding the tanneries. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment.

  9. Analysis of sugar mill effluent and its influence on germination and growth of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithiyanathan, Thanapal; Sundaramoorthy, Perumal

    2017-10-01

    Sugar industry is a very important agro-based industry in India and it discharges large amount of effluent into water bodies to create high pollution in water bodies which affects the plants and other living organisms. In the present investigation, the physico-chemical analyses of N. P. K. R. Ramaswamy co-operative sugar mill effluent was determined and impact of different concentrations (control, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of sugar mill effluent on seed germination behavior of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) was studied. The morphological parameters such as germination percentage, shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings, seed vigour index, tolerance index and percentage of phytotoxicity were calculated. The results recorded for the analyses of sugar mill effluent indicated their some parameters such as PH, EC, acidity, TDS, TS, BOD, COD, sulphate, magnesium, nitrogen, zinc, iron, copper, lead, manganese and oil and grease exceeded the permissible limit compared to Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) and then germination and growth parameters increased in lower (10%) concentration of sugar mill effluent and this morphological parameters gradually decreased with increasing effluent concentration. The lower (10%) concentration of sugar mill effluent may be used for irrigation purposes.

  10. Analysis of sugar mill effluent and its influence on germination and growth of African marigold ( Tagetes erecta L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithiyanathan, Thanapal; Sundaramoorthy, Perumal

    2017-12-01

    Sugar industry is a very important agro-based industry in India and it discharges large amount of effluent into water bodies to create high pollution in water bodies which affects the plants and other living organisms. In the present investigation, the physico-chemical analyses of N. P. K. R. Ramaswamy co-operative sugar mill effluent was determined and impact of different concentrations (control, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of sugar mill effluent on seed germination behavior of African marigold ( Tagetes erecta L.) was studied. The morphological parameters such as germination percentage, shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings, seed vigour index, tolerance index and percentage of phytotoxicity were calculated. The results recorded for the analyses of sugar mill effluent indicated their some parameters such as PH, EC, acidity, TDS, TS, BOD, COD, sulphate, magnesium, nitrogen, zinc, iron, copper, lead, manganese and oil and grease exceeded the permissible limit compared to Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) and then germination and growth parameters increased in lower (10%) concentration of sugar mill effluent and this morphological parameters gradually decreased with increasing effluent concentration. The lower (10%) concentration of sugar mill effluent may be used for irrigation purposes.

  11. Characterization of effluent from food processing industries and stillage treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. and Panicum maximum (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Noukeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd+ concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052–0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2−, high levels of nitrates (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+ and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN. Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.

  12. Experimental design for the optimization of propidium monoazide treatment to quantify viable and non-viable bacteria in piggery effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, Jérémy; Chemaly, Marianne; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-16

    Distinguishing between viable and dead bacteria in animal and urban effluents is a major challenge. Among existing methods, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR is a promising way to quantify viable cells. However, its efficiency depends on the composition of the effluent, particularly on total suspended solids (TSS)) and on methodological parameters. The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of three methodological factors (concentration of PMA, incubation time and photoactivation time) on the efficiency of PMA-qPCR to quantify viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes used as a microorganism model, in two piggery effluents (manure and lagoon effluent containing 20 and 0.4 TSS g.kg(-1), respectively). An experimental design strategy (Doehlert design and desirability function) was used to identify the experimental conditions to achieve optimal PMA-qPCR results. The quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes was mainly influenced by the concentration of PMA in the manure and by the duration of photoactivation in the lagoon effluent. Optimal values differed with the matrix: 55 μM PMA, 5 min incubation and 56 min photoactivation for manure and 20 μM PMA, 20 min incubation and 30 min photoactivation for lagoon effluent. Applied to five manure and four lagoon samples, these conditions resulted in satisfactory quantification of viable and dead cells. PMA-qPCR can be used on undiluted turbid effluent with high levels of TSS, provided preliminary tests are performed to identify the optimal conditions.

  13. 40 CFR 421.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electrolytic Copper Refining Subcategory § 421.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... .063 .030 Nickel .027 .018 (d) Subpart E—Casting Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations...

  14. 40 CFR 440.75 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  15. 40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). ...

  16. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  17. 40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  18. 40 CFR 440.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440... of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  19. 40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  20. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). ...

  1. 40 CFR 440.25 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  2. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BTC). ...

  3. 40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  4. 40 CFR 417.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  5. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti) in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves) from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum ...

  6. Correlating biochemical and chemical oxygen demand of effluents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected for an ...

  7. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Toxicity assessment of treated effluents from a textile industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veejay

    Key words: Textile effluent, toxicity, surface waters, growth inhibition, Celosia argentea. INTRODUCTION. Industrial effluents are undesirable by-products of economic development and technological advancement. When improperly disposed off, they imperil human health and the environment. Effluents from textile industries ...

  9. Analysis of tannery effluents from the Challawa industrial estate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many tanneries are located at Challawa Industrial Estate in Kano. These tanneries discharge their effluents into canals which converge at a point and eventually flow into the Challawa river. Tannery effluent was collected from the effluent confluence point at Challawa Industrial Estate and some physicochemical parameters ...

  10. Toxicity Of Industrial Effluent To Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicity of industrial effluent from Odua Textile Mill, Ado-Ekiti on Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings was investigated. The fingerlings were exposed to increasing concentrations of the effluent in spring and pond water respectively. The mean lethal concentration (LC50) of the effluent in spring and pond water was ...

  11. REUSE OF SALINE AQUACULTURE EFFLUENT FOR ENERGY PLANT PRODUCTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Réka Hegedus; Dénes Gál; Ferenc Pekár; Mária Oncsik Bíróné; Gyula Lakatos

    2011-01-01

    ...). Keywords: effluent, energy plant, irrigation, salt, phytoremediation INTRODUCTION The growth of the aquaculture industry has been associated with negative environmental impacts from the discharge of untreated effluent into the adjacent receiving water bodies. It is well known that discharge of effluents, treated or non-treated, into the envir...

  12. Adsorption and filtration of trace contaminants in aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irizarry, M.M.; Anthony, D.B.

    1971-04-28

    The removal of trace copper contaminants from aqueous effluents by means of adsorption on ion exchange resins was studied. A semicontinuous, axial filtration device was used to obtain mass transfer data as a function of the operating parameters: flow rate, resin volume and size, temperature, rotational speed, and system geometry. Correlation of data based on power dissipation per unit volume is presented. Operation of the unit involved high product fluxes (1000 to 15,000 gpd/ft/sup 2/) and adsorption efficiencies (90 to 99+%) coupled with low pressure drops (0 to 10 psi).

  13. High resolution spectroscopy of solar activity. I - Observing procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, L. E.; Robinson, R. D.; Mauter, H. A.; Mann, G. R.; Phillis, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    The considered project represents an attempt to provide critical spectroscopic data during the current solar maximum period. The program exploits the possibility of obtaining simultaneous observations in widely separated spectral lines. The lines selected span the height range accessible with ground-based observations, and are suitable for diagnosing the physical conditions in active region sources. The present program is similar in concept to the successful HIRKHAD project reported by Beckers et al. (1972), the main difference being a selection of lines more appropriate for work on solar activity. It is proposed to make observational material available to interested astronomers. High quality spectra of a variety of active region phenomena are obtained, giving attention to flares, plages, surges, sunspots, filaments, and Ellerman bombs.

  14. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  15. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  16. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2015-12-14

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  17. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Jiao, Yan; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Lu Hua; Han, Yu; Chen, Ying; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-12-14

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  18. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao

    2016-11-28

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  19. The impact of wastewater treatment effluent on microbial biomasses and diversities in coastal sediment microcosms of Hangzhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yile; Dai, Tianjiao; Huang, Bei; Wen, Donghui

    2017-01-15

    Disposal of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent into sea, a typical anthropogenic disturbance, may influence many environmental factors and change the coastal microbial community structure. In this study, by setting up coastal sediment microcosms perturbed by WWTP effluent, the changes of microbial community structure under different degree of disturbances were investigated. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) were used to analyzed the biomass and biodiversity. High throughput sequencing analysis was used to identify the classification of the microorganisms. Our study suggested that low ratio of WWTP effluent may stimulate dominant species, which increase the biomass but decrease the biodiversity; while high ratio of WWTP effluent may depress all species, which decrease the biomass but increase the biodiversity. In other words, the impact was dose-dependent. The changes of microbial community structure may provide a metric for water environmental assessment and pollution control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations.

  1. Remediation of feedlot effluents using aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Pedro Federico; Arreghini, Silvana; Serafini, Roberto José María; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Elvira; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Feedlots have increased in several regions of Argentina, particularly in the Pampas. The absence of adequate treatments of the effluents produced in these establishments creates serious problems to the society. Phytoremediation can be defined as inexpensive and environmentally sustainable strategy used to remove pollutants by plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remediation potential of two ...

  2. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15

  3. BIOEQUIVALENCE APPROACH FOR WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current...

  4. Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents | Palamthodi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the in situ degradation of textile industrial effluent was carried out. The degradation of two different dyes, blue and green colour has ... The degradation of dye was confirmed via the decolourisation assay and by the measurement of COD and BOD values. A trickling bed reactor was designed and the treatment of ...

  5. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Characterisation of potential aquaculture pond effluents, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding of specific aquaculture systems and the impacts of their management practices leads to sound and cost-effective policies to protect the aquatic environment. Water samples were collected in 2009 from fish ponds, streams that receive effluents directly from ponds and reference streams in Ghana to assess ...

  7. Short communication: Industrial effluent treatments using heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioflocculants produced by Herbaspirillium sp. CH7, Paenibacillus sp. CH11, Bacillus sp. CH15 and a Halomonas sp. were preliminarily evaluated as flocculating agents in the treatment of industrial wastewater effluents. Industrial (1 local chemical-industry and 2 textile-industry: Biavin 109-medium blue dye and Whale dye) ...

  8. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of waters impacted by domestic and industrial effluents of a highly industrialized region of São Paulo State, Brazil, by the comet assay in HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Bárbara Cassu; Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Hoshina, Márcia Miyuki; Menegário, Amauri Antônio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The problems that most affect the quality of the waters of rivers and lakes are associated with the discharges performed in these environments, mainly industrial and domestic effluents inappropriately treated or untreated. The comet assay is a sensitive tool and is recommended for studies of environmental biomonitoring, which aim to determine the genotoxicity potential of water pollutants. This study aimed to assess the genotoxic potential of the Ribeirão Tatu waters, region of Limeira, São Paulo (SP), by the comet assay with mammalian cells (hepatoma tissue culture (HTC)). Water samples were collected along the Ribeirão Tatu at three distinct periods: November 2008, February 2009 and August 2009, and five collection sites were established: P1, source of the stream; P2, site located downstream the urban perimeter of the municipality of Cordeirópolis and after receiving the pollution load of this city; P3, collection site located upstream the urban perimeter of the city of Limeira; P4, urban area of Limeira; and P5, rural area of Limeira, downstream the discharges of the city sewage. The results showed that for the November 2008 collection, there was no water sample-induced genotoxicity; for the February 2009 collection, the sites P1 and P2 were statistically significant in relation to the negative control (NC), and for the August 2009 collection, the site P5 was statistically significant. These results could be explained by the content of different metals during the different seasons that are under the influence of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents and also due to the seasonality, since the water samples collected in the period of heavy rain (February 2009) presented a higher genotoxicity possibly due to the entrainment of contaminants into the bed of the stream promoted by the outflow of rainwaters. The comet assay showed to be a useful and sensitive tool in the evaluation of hydric resources impacted by pollutants of diverse origins, and a

  9. Effluent Free Radicals are Associated with Residual Renal Function and Predict Technique Failure in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Inoue, Tatsuyuki; Takiue, Keiichi; Kikumoto, Yoko; Kitagawa, Masashi; Akagi, Shigeru; Nakao, Kazushi; Maeshima, Yohei; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato; Hiramatsu, Makoto; Makino, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Objective: Residual renal function (RRF) is associated with low oxidative stress in peritoneal dialysis (PD). In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the impact of oxidative stress on RRF and patient outcomes during PD. ♦ Methods: Levels of free radicals (FRs) in effluent from the overnight dwell in 45 outpatients were determined by electron spin resonance spectrometry. The FR levels, clinical parameters, and the level of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine were evaluated at study start. The effects of effluent FR level on technique and patient survival were analyzed in a prospective cohort followed for 24 months. ♦ Results: Levels of effluent FRs showed significant negative correlations with daily urine volume and residual renal Kt/V, and positive correlations with plasma β2-microglobulin and effluent 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine. A highly significant difference in technique survival (p < 0.05), but not patient survival, was observed for patients grouped by effluent FR quartile. The effluent FR level was independently associated with technique failure after adjusting for patient age, history of cardiovascular disease, and presence of diabetes mellitus (p < 0.001). The level of effluent FRs was associated with death-censored technique failure in both univariate (p < 0.001) and multivariate (p < 0.01) hazard models. Compared with patients remaining on PD, those withdrawn from the modality had significantly higher levels of effluent FRs (p < 0.005). ♦ Conclusions: Elevated effluent FRs are associated with RRF and technique failure in stable PD patients. These findings highlight the importance of oxidative stress as an unfavorable prognostic factor in PD and emphasize that steps should be taken to minimize oxidative stress in these patients. PMID:22215657

  10. Control and separation of algae particles from WSP effluent by using floating aquatic plant root mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Kim, W J; Chung, P G; Pipes, W O

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the potential uses of water hyacinth and its root mats for separating algae particles in the effluent from waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) were discussed. Pilot-scale integrated processes consisting of WSPs and multiple WHPs (water hyacinth ponds) were operated in order to extract effects of the root mats on the reduction of algae concentrations. Root mats in the bottom of WHPs separated significant amount of the algae cells through attachment as the effluent from WSPs passed through them. Attachment of the algae particles to the surface of live roots was found to be similar to adsorption phenomena but it lasted even at saturation, probably due to the continuous reproduction of active attachment sites by detachment and growth of the roots. Additionally, this paper discusses attachment mechanisms and other issues concerning design and polishing of the WSPs effluent by WHPs.

  11. Useful Extend-release Chitosan Tablets with High Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taira Yasufuku

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of different low molecular weight (LMW chitosans (CS1; 22 kDa, CS2; 38 kDa, CS3; 52 kDa, CS4; 81 kDa were examined for possible use in extended-release tablets. The criteria used were the ability of the chitosans to reduce Cu2+, and hydroxyl and superoxide radicals and N-centered radicals derived from 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, via the use of ESR spectrometry. CS2 showed the highest scavenging activity. CS1 and CS3, however, were much less effective and CS4 was not a viable antioxidant. The results suggest that CS2 could be useful in combating the development of oxidative stress. A series of chitosan tablets were prepared using a spray drying method and evaluated as an extended-release matrix tablet using theophylline (TPH as a model drug. The release of TPH from the different MW chitosan tablets increased with increasing MW of the chitosan used. CS2, CS3 and CS4 showed a reasonable release activity, but CS1 showed the shortest release activity. Moreover, the CS2-TPH tablet showed the highest scavenging activity of the three chitosan tablets (CS2-CS4 using 2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals. These results suggest that a CS2-TPH tablet could be potentially useful in an extended-release matrix tablet with a high antioxidant activity.

  12. 40 CFR 471.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.22 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT): (a) Rolling spent emulsions...

  13. 40 CFR 471.21 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.21 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... available (BPT): (a) Rolling spent emulsions. Subpart B—BPT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any...

  14. 40 CFR 471.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.12 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT): (a) Rolling...

  15. 40 CFR 407.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.22 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of raw material) BOD5 1...

  16. 40 CFR 407.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.12 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of raw material) BOD5 0...

  17. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  18. 40 CFR 471.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... 60.1 26.7 (k) Tube reducing spent lubricants—Subpart F—BAT. There shall be no discharge of process...

  19. 40 CFR 471.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.32 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... nickel-cobalt rolled with water Chromium 0.028 0.011 Nickel 0.042 0.028 Fluoride 4.49 1.99 (d) Tube...

  20. 40 CFR 471.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... 0.006 Cyanide 0.010 0.004 Nickel 0.066 0.044 Ammonia 4.57 2.01 Fluoride 2.04 0.906 (g) Tube Reducing...

  1. 40 CFR 463.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology...

  2. 40 CFR 463.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable...

  3. 40 CFR 463.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

  4. 40 CFR 436.192 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frasch Sulfur Subcategory § 436.192 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... section for operations mining anhydrite deposits, any existing point source subject to this subpart shall...

  5. 40 CFR 440.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently...

  6. Active beam integrator for high power coherent lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguarta, F.; Armengol, J.; Vega, F.; Lupon, N. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Terrassa (Spain). Dept. d`Optica i Optometria

    1996-12-31

    In laser materials processing applications it is often necessary to work with uniform intensity distributions. This goal is quite difficult to achieve when dealing with high power laser beams, and becomes critical for a successful application involving surface heat treatment of non-metallic materials. The authors have designed and tested a very simple beam shaper for transforming the initial intensity distribution of a CO{sub 2} laser beam mode into a more uniform intensity profile. The beam shaper is a two-faceted mirror for active integration of high power coherent laser beams. After reflection in the faceted mirror, a TEM00 or TEM01 CO{sub 2} laser beam is divided into two beamlets that overlap to give a more uniform intensity distribution. A sharp interference pattern due to the high spatial coherence of the incident beam appears. This interference pattern is actively integrated by a high-frequency longitudinal displacement of one of the facets. This provides a change in the relative phase of the two beamlets, and consequently the interference pattern vibrates and its contribution to the intensity distribution averages out. When sweeping this distribution over a sample, a uniform amount of energy is deposited at every point of its surface. It must be emphasized that unlike multifaceted mirrors, the two-facet integrator may provide uniform intensity profiles over any working distance. Finally, as in other integration devices an imaging system may be used to obtain a spot of the shape and the size desired for a particular application.

  7. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREICE H.S. PEIL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r. Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  8. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peil, Greice H S; Kuss, Anelise V; Rave, Andrés F G; Villarreal, José P V; Hernandes, Yohana M L; Nascente, Patrícia S

    2016-01-01

    The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r)). Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml) however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  9. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  10. Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2011-09-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent.

  11. Effluent quality from 200 on-site sewage systems: design values for guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, K J; Ashbolt, N J; Roser, D J; McGuinness, R; Deere, D A

    2005-01-01

    The quality of effluent from an on-site sewage treatment system is a critical factor in designing the disposal area and, hence, ensuring the sustained performance of the system. Contaminant concentrations in effluent are typically specified in regulatory guidelines or standards; however, the accuracy of these guideline values are brought into question due to the poor performance of septic tanks and the high failure rates of disposal systems reported here and elsewhere. Results from studies of septic tank effluent quality indicated that the effluent is of poorer quality than currently suggested by guidelines. Aerated wastewater treatment systems were found to perform to accreditation guidelines; however, insufficient nutrient data is presently available to assess nutrient loads. It is proposed that the 80th percentile of system performance be adopted as the design value for sizing effluent disposal areas to minimise failure associated with overloading. For septic tanks this equates to 660 mg L(-1) SS, 330 mg L(-1) BOD, 250 mg L(-1) TN and 36 mg L(-1) TP.

  12. Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing Basidiomycetes strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Neto, S L; Mussatto, S I; Machado, K M G; Milagres, A M F

    2013-04-01

    The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Cibacron Red FN-2BL, both in solid and liquid media. Among the evaluated fungi, seven showed great ability to decolorize the synthetic textile effluent, both in vivo (74-77%) or in vitro (60-74%), and laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme involved on dyes decolorization. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes villosa and Peniophora cinerea reduced near to 60% of the effluent colour after only 1 h of treatment. The decolorization results were still improved by establishing the nitrogen source and amount to be used during the fungal strains cultivation in synthetic medium previous their action on the textile effluent, with yeast extract being a better nitrogen source than ammonium tartarate. These results contribute for the development of an effective microbiological process for decolorization of dye effluents with reduced time of treatment. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Identification of critical contaminants in wastewater effluent for managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Van Dyke, Michele I; Huck, Peter M

    2017-04-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) using highly treated effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants has been recognized as a promising strategy for indirect potable water reuse. Treated wastewater effluent can contain a number of residual contaminants that could have adverse effects on human health, and some jurisdictions have regulations in place to govern these. For those that do not, but where reuse may be under consideration, it is of crucial importance to develop a strategy for identifying priority contaminants, which can then be used to understand the water treatment technologies that might be required. In this study, a multi-criteria approach to identify critical contaminants in wastewater effluent for MAR was developed and applied using a case study site located in southern Ontario, Canada. An important aspect of this approach was the selection of representative compounds for each group of contaminants, based on potential for occurrence in wastewater and expected health or environmental impacts. Due to a lack of MAR regulations in Canada, the study first proposed potential recharge water quality targets. Predominant contaminants, potential additional contaminants, and potential emerging contaminants, which together comprise critical contaminants for MAR with reclaimed water, were then selected based on the case study wastewater effluent monitoring data and literature data. This paper proposes an approach for critical contaminant selection, which will be helpful to guide future implementation of MAR projects using wastewater treatment plant effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours.

  15. Bioconversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows the performance of Trichoderma virens as an activator for conversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) into compost. EFB and POME are two abundant wastes produced by oil palm industries which keep accumulating. Since there is no proper way to dispose these wastes, ...

  16. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-05-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10{sup 12}). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not!) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data.

  17. Use of diatom assemblages as biomonitor of the impact of treated uranium mining effluent discharge on a stream: case study of the Ritord watershed (Center-West France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Frelon, Sandrine; Fayolle, Stéphanie; Delmas, François; Coste, Michel

    2013-10-01

    The rehabilitation of French former uranium mining sites has not prevented the contamination of the surrounding aquatic ecosystems with metal elements. This study assesses the impact of the discharge of treated uranium mining effluents on periphytic diatom communities to evaluate their potential of bioindication. A 7-month survey was conducted on the Ritord watercourse to measure the environmental conditions of microalgae, the non-taxonomic attributes of periphyton (photosynthesis and biomass) and to determine the specific composition of diatom assemblages grown on artificial substrates. The environmental conditions were altered by the mine waters, that contaminate the watercourse with uranium and with chemicals used in the pit-water treatment plants (BaCl2 and Al2(SO4)3). The biomass and photosynthetic activity of periphyton seemed not to respond to the stress induced by the treated mining effluents whereas the altered environmental conditions clearly impacted the composition of diatom communities. Downstream the discharges, the communities tended to be characterized by indicator species belonging to the genera Fragilaria, Eunotia and Brachysira and were highly similar to assemblages at acid mine drainage sites. The species Eunotia pectinalis var. undulata, Psammothidium rechtensis, Gomphonema lagenula and Pinnularia major were found to be sensitive to uranium effluents whereas Neidium alpinum and several species of Gomphonema tolerated this contamination. The relevance of diatoms as ecological indicator was illustrated through the changes in structure of communities induced by the discharge of uranium mining effluents and creates prospects for development of a bioindicator tool for this kind of impairment of water quality.

  18. LEISURE TIME - PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CONSTRAINTS AT HIGH SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÜMÜŞ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the constraints that prevented the young people who studied at high schools from participating in leisure time physical activities. The population of the study was composed of the students who studied at high schools in Afyonkarahisar Province. Method of population selection and sample recruitment was purposive sampling. 783 volunteers participated in the study. It was seen that some of the answers were invalid and therefore, sample was made up by 750 participants [14 - 18 age (x=15.77, sd=1.05, 64.9% (487 of them female students]. As the data collection tool; Leisure Time - Physical Activity Constraints (LTPA - C developed by Öcal (2012 was used. The scale is composed of 8 subscales: body perception, facilities, income, family, skill perception, time, willpower and society. It is a 6 - point Likert type scale and measures participants‟ physical activity participation status in their leisure times. For the analyses of the data; descriptive statistics, univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA and Independent Samples T - Test were used. According to the study findings; it was found out that there were significant differences among the participants in terms of the scores of LTPA - C as far as participants‟ genders, parental educatio nal status, maternal professional status, school types and grades (p<0.05.

  19. Active resonant subwavelength grating devices for high speed spectroscopic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, A. V.; Kemme, S. A.; Boye, R. R.; Peters, D. W.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Briggs, R. D.; Wendt, J. R.; Marshall, L. H.; Carter, T. R.; Samora, S.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we describe progress towards a multi-color spectrometer and radiometer based upon an active resonant subwavelength grating (RSG). This active RSG component acts as a tunable high-speed optical filter that allows device miniaturization and ruggedization not realizable using current sensors with conventional bulk optics. Furthermore, the geometrical characteristics of the device allow for inherently high speed operation. Because of the small critical dimensions of the RSG devices, the fabrication of these sensors can prove challenging. However, we utilize the state-of-the-art capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to realize these subwavelength grating devices. This work also leverages previous work on passive RSG devices with greater than 98% efficiency and ~1nm FWHM. Rigorous coupled wave analysis has been utilized to design RSG devices with PLZT, PMN-PT and BaTiO3 electrooptic thin films on sapphire substrates. The simulated interdigitated electrode configuration achieves field strengths around 3×107 V/m. This translates to an increase in the refractive index of 0.05 with a 40V bias potential resulting in a 90% contrast of the modulated optical signal. We have fabricated several active RSG devices on selected electro-optic materials and we discuss the latest experimental results on these devices with variable electrostatic bias and a tunable wavelength source around 1.5μm. Finally, we present the proposed data acquisition hardware and system integration plans.

  20. High Performance Activity Practices in Small Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ŢUŢUEANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Activity Practices in Small Firms in Romania Abstract: High performance activity practices (HPAPs are human resource management activities aimed at stimulating employee and organisational performance. The application of HPAPs is not widespread in small organisations. We examine whether the implementation of coherent bundles of HPAPs (aimed at employee ability, employee motivation or at the opportunity to perform depends on the scarcity of resources, as reflected in the size of the company, and on strategic decision-making in small firms related to the owner’s expertise and attitudes. In our research, a total of 224 employees from 50 small organisations were asked to rate the presence of HPAPs in their organisation. These averaged perceptions were linked to information provided by the owner–managers on the size of their firm and their own expertise and attitudes. The findings support that smaller but coherent bundles of HPAPs can be found in small organisations and that the implementation of these bundles depends on available resources, strategic decision-making and the combination of the two. These findings highlight the need to integrate the notions of resource poverty and strategic decision-making to understand the uptake of bundles of HPAPs within small firms.

  1. Impact of industrial activities on heavy metal loading and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sources of water pollution include effluents from a brewery (high pH) and areas associated with tanning activities, sewage treatment plant and ... industry (Pb), operations involving Zn scrap (Cd), former Cu smelter (Cu, Pb, Ni and Co), tannery and pharmaceutical industry (Cr), and soap and cosmetics industry (Hg).

  2. High speed optical filtering using active resonant subwavelength gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, A. V.; Kemme, S. A.; Boye, R. R.; Peters, D. W.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Briggs, R. D.; Wendt, J. R.; Ellis, A. R.; Marshall, L. H.; Carter, T. R.; Hunker, J. D.; Samora, S.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we describe the most recent progress towards the device modeling, fabrication, testing and system integration of active resonant subwavelength grating (RSG) devices. Passive RSG devices have been a subject of interest in subwavelength-structured surfaces (SWS) in recent years due to their narrow spectral response and high quality filtering performance. Modulating the bias voltage of interdigitated metal electrodes over an electrooptic thin film material enables the RSG components to act as actively tunable high-speed optical filters. The filter characteristics of the device can be engineered using the geometry of the device grating and underlying materials. Using electron beam lithography and specialized etch techniques, we have fabricated interdigitated metal electrodes on an insulating layer and BaTiO3 thin film on sapphire substrate. With bias voltages of up to 100V, spectral red shifts of several nanometers are measured, as well as significant changes in the reflected and transmitted signal intensities around the 1.55um wavelength. Due to their small size and lack of moving parts, these devices are attractive for high speed spectral sensing applications. We will discuss the most recent device testing results as well as comment on the system integration aspects of this project.

  3. High Field Side MHD Activity During Local Helicity Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachicano, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Richner, N. J.

    2017-10-01

    MHD is an essential part of understanding the mechanism for local helicity injection (LHI) current drive. The new high field side (HFS) LHI system on the Pegasus ST permits new tests of recent NIMROD simulations. In that model, LHI current streams in the plasma edge undergo large-scale reconnection events, leading to current drive. This produces bursty n = 1 activity around 30 kHz on low field side (LFS) Mirnov coils, consistent with experiment. The simulations also feature coherent injector streams winding down the center column. Improvements to the core high-resolution poloidal Mirnov array with Cat7A Ethernet cabling and differentially driven signal processing eliminated EMI-driven switching noise, enabling detailed spectral analysis. Preliminary results from the recovered HFS poloidal Mirnov coils suggest n = 1 activity is present at the top of the vessel core, but does not persist down the centerstack. HFS LHI experiments can exhibit an operating regime where the high amplitude MHD is abruptly reduced by more than an order of magnitude on LFS Mirnov coils, leading to higher plasma current and improved particle confinement. This reduction is not observed on the HFS midplane magnetics. Instead, they show broadband turbulence-like magnetic features with near consistent amplitude in a frequency range of 90-200 kHz. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  4. Easy and Rapid Purification of Highly Active Nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Abts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced and secreted by several L. lactis strains and is specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria. In previous studies, nisin was purified via cation exchange chromatography at low pH employing a single-step elution using 1 M NaCl. Here, we describe an optimized purification protocol using a five-step NaCl elution to remove contaminants. The obtained nisin is devoid of impurities and shows high bactericidal activity against the nisin-sensitive L. lactis strain NZ9000. Purified nisin exhibits an IC50 of ~3 nM, which is a tenfold improvement as compared to nisin obtained via the one-step elution procedure.

  5. Desalination of brackish water and concentration of industrial effluents by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Schoeman

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodialysis (ED is, at present, used mainly for the desalination of brackish drinking-water. Brackish water with a high scaling potential can be successfully treated, using the electrodialysis reversal (EDR process without the addition of chemicals. The reliability of the ED process makes it very attractive for water treatment. Although used mainly for brackish water desalination, ED also has certain industrial applications. Plating wash waters, cooling tower recirculation water and glass etching effluents have been treated successfully with ED for water recovery and effluent volume reduction, while ED treatment of nickel plating wash waters is an established industrial process.

  6. DataHigh: Graphical user interface for visualizing and interacting with high-dimensional neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Benjamin R.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Butler, Zachary S.; Churchland, Mark M.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Yu, Byron M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Analyzing and interpreting the activity of a heterogeneous population of neurons can be challenging, especially as the number of neurons, experimental trials, and experimental conditions increases. One approach is to extract a set of latent variables that succinctly captures the prominent co-fluctuation patterns across the neural population. A key problem is that the number of latent variables needed to adequately describe the population activity is often greater than three, thereby preventing direct visualization of the latent space. By visualizing a small number of 2-d projections of the latent space or each latent variable individually, it is easy to miss salient features of the population activity. Approach To address this limitation, we developed a Matlab graphical user interface (called DataHigh) that allows the user to quickly and smoothly navigate through a continuum of different 2-d projections of the latent space. We also implemented a suite of additional visualization tools (including playing out population activity timecourses as a movie and displaying summary statistics, such as covariance ellipses and average timecourses) and an optional tool for performing dimensionality reduction. Main results To demonstrate the utility and versatility of DataHigh, we used it to analyze single-trial spike count and single-trial timecourse population activity recorded using a multi-electrode array, as well as trial-averaged population activity recorded using single electrodes. Significance DataHigh was developed to fulfill a need for visualization in exploratory neural data analysis, which can provide intuition that is critical for building scientific hypotheses and models of population activity. PMID:24216250

  7. High throughput discovery of families of high activity WGS catalysts: part I--history and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaccato, Karin; Carhart, Ray; Hagemeyer, Alfred; Herrmann, Michael; Lesik, Andreas; Strasser, Peter; Volpe, Anthony; Turner, Howard; Weinberg, Henry; Grasselli, Robert K; Brooks, Christopher J; Pigos, John M

    2010-05-01

    State-of-art water gas shift catalysts (FeCr for high temperature shift and CuZn for low temperature shift) are not active enough to be used in fuel processors for the production of hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells. The need for drastically lower catalyst volumes has triggered a search for novel WGS catalysts that are an order of magnitude more active than current systems. Novel catalytic materials for the high, medium and low temperature water gas shift reactions have been discovered by application of combinatorial methodologies. Catalyst libraries were synthesized on 4 inch wafers in 16 x 16 arrays and screened in a high throughput scanning mass spectrometer in the temperature range 200 degrees C to 400 degrees C. More than 200 wafers were screened under various conditions and more than 250,000 experiments were conducted to comprehensively examine catalyst performance for various binary, ternary and higher-order compositions.

  8. Production of N-13 labeled compounds with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Sasaki, Motoji; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Haradahira, Terushi; Inoue, Osamu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Nitrogen-13 was produced by irradiating ultra pure water saturated with a pure gas (N2, O2, He, H2) with 18 MeV protons. Ion species generated by irradiation were analyzed with radio ion chromatography systems. An automated equipment was developed to synthesize anhydrous (13N)NH3 as a synthetic precursor and (13N)p-nitrophenyl carbamate ((13N)NPC) as a model compound, using the (13N)NH3. The radiochemical yield and specific activity of (13N)NPC was high enough to carry out the receptor study with PET. (author)

  9. Environmental risk assessment of effluents as a whole emerging contaminant: Efficiency of alternative tertiary treatments for wastewater depuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garduño, B; Pintado-Herrera, M G; Biel-Maeso, M; Rueda-Márquez, J J; Lara-Martín, P A; Perales, J A; Manzano, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2017-08-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) and regulated compounds (RCs) from three different WWTP effluents were measured in the current study. The efficiency of two tertiary treatments, Photobiotreatment (PhtBio) and Multi-Barrier Treatment (MBT), for removing contaminants was determined. Results indicated different percentages of removal depending on the treatment and the origin of the effluent. Risk Quotients (RQs) were determined for different species of algae, Daphnia, and fish. RQ results revealed diverse risk values depending on the bioindicator species. Tonalide, galaxolide (fragrances), and ofloxacin (antibiotic) were the most persistent and harmful substances in tested effluents. "Negligible risk" category was reached since a wide diversity of ECs were removed by MBT with high removal percentages. Contrarily, PhtBio was effective only in the depuration of certain chemical compounds, and its efficiency depended on the composition of the raw effluent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polishing of municipal secondary effluent using native microalgae consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Rocha, Julio César; Barceló-Quintal, Icela Dagmar; García-Martínez, Magdalena; Osornio-Berthet, Luis; Saavedra-Villarreal, Nidia; Villarreal-Chiu, Juan; López-Chuken, Ulrico Javier

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the use of native microalgae consortia for a dual role: polishing treatment of municipal wastewater effluents and microalgae biomass feedstock potential for biodiesel or biofertilizer production. An initial screening was undertaken to test N and P removal from secondary effluents and biomass production by 12 consortia. A subsequent treatment was performed by selected consortia (01 and 12) under three operational conditions: stirring (S), S + 12 h of daily aeration (S + A) and S + A enriched with CO 2 (S + AC). All treatments resulted in compliance with environmental regulations (e.g. Directive 91/271/EEC) and high removal efficiency of nutrients: 64-79% and 80-94% of total N and PO 4 3- -P respectively. During the experiments it was shown that pH alkalinization due to microalgae growth benefits the chemical removal of ammonia and phosphorus. Moreover, advantages of pH increase could be accomplished by intermittent CO 2 addition which in this research (treatment S + AC) promoted higher yield and lipid concentration. The resulting dry biomass analysis showed a low lipid content (0.5-4.3%) not ideal for biodiesel production. Moreover, the high rate of ash (29.3-53.0%) suggests that biomass could be readily recycled as a biofertilizer due to mineral supply and organic constituents formed by C, N and P (e.g. carbohydrate, protein, and lipids).

  11. High solar activity predictions through an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Del-Castillo, M. G.; Ortiz-Alemán, J. C.; Couder-Castañeda, C.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.; Solís-Santomé, A.

    The effects of high-energy particles coming from the Sun on human health as well as in the integrity of outer space electronics make the prediction of periods of high solar activity (HSA) a task of significant importance. Since periodicities in solar indexes have been identified, long-term predictions can be achieved. In this paper, we present a method based on an artificial neural network to find a pattern in some harmonics which represent such periodicities. We used data from 1973 to 2010 to train the neural network, and different historical data for its validation. We also used the neural network along with a statistical analysis of its performance with known data to predict periods of HSA with different confidence intervals according to the three-sigma rule associated with solar cycles 24-26, which we found to occur before 2040.

  12. Dyslipidemia in AIDS patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Weyler Nery

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART reduces AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, however it has been associated with metabolic abnormalities. This study estimated the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and related factors among patients on HAART. A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult patients, in central Brazil. Patients were interviewed, and blood obtained for lipids measurement. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol (TC > 240 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL > 160 mg/dL, triglycerides (TG > 200 and/or high-density lipoprotein (HDL < 40 mg/dL. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed (SPSS 13.0. One hundred and thirteen patients were recruited. Mean age was 39.3 years; 68.1% were males; 50.4% were on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI in combination with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI, while 42.5% were on NRTI in combination with protease inhibitors (PIs. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 66.7%. Low HDL was the most frequent abnormality (53.5%, followed by high TG (36.1%. Patients on a PI regimen had a 5.2-fold higher risk (95% CI: 1.8-14.8 of dyslipidemia, even after adjusting for sex, age, and duration of HIV infection/AIDS. The study discloses a high prevalence rate of dyslipidemia and points out a need for intervention programs to reduce future cardiovascular events in patients, on HAART.

  13. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Lee, Kathy E.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P.; Nelson, Krysta R.; Milsk, Rebecca Y.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Berninger, Jason P.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Blanskma, Chad; Jicha, Terri M.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Johnson, Rodney C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  14. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  15. Potential of biohydrogen production from effluents of citrus processing industry using anaerobic bacteria from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Lilian D M; Pachiega, Renan; Crespi, Marisa S; Nespeca, Maurílio Gustavo; de Oliveira, José Eduardo; Maintinguer, Sandra I

    2017-01-01

    Citrus crops are among the most abundant crops in the world, which processing is mainly based on juice extraction, generating large amounts of effluents with properties that turn them into potential pollution sources if they are improperly discarded. This study evaluated the potential for bioconversion of effluents from citrus-processing industry (wastewater and vinasse) into hydrogen through the dark fermentation process, by applying anaerobic sewage sludge as inoculum. The inoculum was previously heat treated to eliminate H2-consumers microorganisms and improve its activity. Anaerobic batch reactors were operated in triplicate with increasing proportions (50, 80 and 100%) of each effluent as substrate at 37°C, pH 5.5. Citrus effluents had different effects on inoculum growth and H2 yields, demonstrated by profiles of acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid and ethanol, the main by-products generated. It was verified that there was an increase in the production of biogas with the additions of either wastewater (7.3, 33.4 and 85.3mmolL-1) or vinasse (8.8, 12.7 and 13.4mmolL-1) in substrate. These effluents demonstrated remarkable energetic reuse perspectives: 24.0MJm-3 and 4.0MJm-3, respectively. Besides promoting the integrated management and mitigation of anaerobic sludge and effluents from citrus industry, the biohydrogen production may be an alternative for the local energy supply, reducing the operational costs in their own facilities, while enabling a better utilization of the biological potential contained in sewage sludges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. LIQUID EFFLUENT RETENTION FACILITY (LERF) BASIN 42 STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB

    2004-10-29

    This report documents laboratory results obtained under test plan RPP-21533 for samples submitted by the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) from the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Basin 42 (Reference 1). The LERF Basin 42 contains process condensate (PC) from the 242-A Evaporator and landfill leachate. The ETF processes one PC campaign approximately every 12 to 18 months. A typical PC campaign volume can range from 1.5 to 2.5 million gallons. During the September 2003 ETF Basin 42 processing campaign, a recurring problem with 'gelatinous buildup' on the outlet filters from 60A-TK-I (surge tank) was observed (Figure 1). This buildup appeared on the filters after the contents of the surge tank were adjusted to a pH of between 5 and 6 using sulfuric acid. Biological activity in the PC feed was suspected to be the cause of the gelatinous material. Due to this buildup, the filters (10 {micro}m CUNO) required daily change out to maintain process throughput.

  17. AMERICIUM SEPARATIONS FROM NITRIC ACID PROCESS EFFLUENT STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. BARR; G. JARVINEN; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    The aging of the US nuclear stockpile presents a number of challenges, including the ever-increasing radioactivity of plutonium residues from {sup 241}Am. Minimization of this weak gamma-emitter in process and waste solutions is desirable to reduce both worker exposure and the effects of radiolysis on the final waste product. Removal of americium from plutonium nitric acid processing effluents, however, is complicated by the presence of large.quantities of competing metals, particularly Fe and Al, and-strongly oxidizing acidic solutions. The reprocessing operation offers several points at which americium removal maybe attempted, and we are evaluating two classes of materials targeted at different steps in the process. Extraction chromatography resin materials loaded with three different alkylcarbamoyl phosphinates and phosphine oxides were accessed for Am removal efficiency and Am/Fe selectivity from 1-7 molar nitric acid solutions. Commercial and experimental mono- and bifunctional anion-exchange resins were evaluated for total alpha-activity removal from post-evaporator solutions whose composition, relative to the original nitric acid effluent, is reduced in acid and greatly increased in total salt content. With both classes of materials, americium/total alpha emission removal is sufficient to meet regulatory requirements even under sub-optimal conditions. Batch distribution coefficients, column performance data, and the effects of Fe-masking agents will be presented.

  18. Intractable and highly active relapsing multiple sclerosis - role of alemtuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Cano, Christopher A; Stuve, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Alemtuzumab is a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody that was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the management of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). It has been utilized for the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, bone marrow and renal transplantation, or graft versus host disease. Because of its immunomodulatory properties, it was brought into clinical development in MS. One Phase II (CAMMS223) and two Phase III clinical trials (CARE-MSI and -II) have evaluated the safety and efficacy of alemtuzumab in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Even though its efficacy profile and long-lasting effect have attracted much interest among physicians and patients, it has significant potential adverse effects that may limit its use to patients with active disease. Here, we review the history of drug development of alemtuzumab. Furthermore, we outline the postulated mechanisms of action, clinical evidence, and safety of alemtuzumab for its use as a disease-modifying agent in active and highly active MS.

  19. Text production activities in high school textbooks: a discursive practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelino Pereira dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From a heterogeneous theoretical device, the research work presented in this article comes from our doctoral thesis, aimed to  analyze textbook editions of Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History, Geography and Portuguese, distributed by the National Book Program for Secondary Education (PNLEM in 2009 and adopted by three schools in the region of Reconcavo in the state of Bahia, Brazil, to: 1 - describe the written conditions that are provided to high school students; 2 - analyze whether the production activities of written texts contribute to the formation of producers of authentic texts; 3 - provide a list of suggested genres for the production of written texts; and 4 - to identify which concepts and / or theoretical assumptions about language and about text can be inferred from the discursive analysis of written texts production activities. In this article, we present a summary of the analysis of only two of the teaching collections, one of Portuguese and one of Mathematics. The discursive analysis revealed the predominance of the Traditional Educational Discourse on the Portuguese language content (DPT in the origin and constitution of most production activities of written texts in the textbooks investigated.

  20. Active and Passive RF Components for High-Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nantista, Christopher D.

    2002-09-06

    In recent years, R&D for pulse compression and power distribution systems for the Next Linear Collider has led to the invention of many novel rf components, some of which must handle up to 600 MW of pulsed power at X-band. These include passive waveguide components, active switch designs, and non-reciprocal devices. Among the former is a class of multi-moded, highly efficient rf components based on planar geometries with overmoded rectangular ports. Multi-moding allows us, by means of input phasing, to direct power to different locations through the same waveguide. Planar symmetry allows the height to be increased to improve power handling capacity. Features that invite breakdown, such as coupling slots, irises and H-plane septa, are avoided. This class includes hybrids, directional couplers, an eight-port superhybrid/dual-mode launcher, a mode-selective extractor, mode-preserving bends, a rectangular mode converter, and mode-mixers. We are able to utilize such rectangular waveguide components in systems incorporating low-loss, circular waveguide delay lines by means of specially designed tapers that efficiently transform multiple rectangular waveguide modes into their corresponding circular waveguide modes, specifically TE10 and TE20 into circular TE11 and TE01. These extremely compact tapers can replace well-known mode converters such as the Marie type. Another component, a reflective TE01-TE02 mode converter in circular waveguide, allows us to double the delay in reflective or resonant delay lines. Ideas for multi-megawatt active components, such as switches, have also been pursued. Power-handling capacity for these is increased by making them also highly overmoded. We present a design methodology for active rf magnetic components which are suitable for pulse compression systems of future X-band linear colliders. We also present an active switch based on a PIN diode array. This component comprises an array of active elements arranged so that the electric fields

  1. Treatment using reverse osmosis of an effluent from stainless steel manufacture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoeman, JJ

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Reverse osmosis (RO) and physical/chemical technology were evaluated for treatment of neutralized spent acid effluent (seepage) containing high concentration levels of TDS (7500mg/l), Ca (400 mg/l), Cr-V1 (42 mg/l), nitrate-nitrogen (827 mg...

  2. Analysis of dispersion of heated effluent from power plant: a case ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikram Shah

    Abstract. Thermal dispersion of heated effluent in a lake near nuclear power plant is analysed. Lake. Bathymetry is established by data collection at a pre-planned matrix of sample points in the lake. Three- dimensional geometric model of the lake is developed based on the geometric data collected, using a high accuracy ...

  3. The Impact of Effluent Produced from Ntak Inyang and Iba Oku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characteristics of effluent produced in Uyo Capital city slaughterhouses located at Ntak Inyang and Iba Oku were monitored by water and wastewater parameters. The wastewater from the slaughterhouses generally shows a high pollutant strength. The BOD value of 7.25mg/l, DO value of 0.21mg/l, nutrient values of ...

  4. An Assessment of the quality of liquid effluents from opaque beer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both plants generate effluents that could negatively impact on the municipal treatment system if no efforts are made to significantly reduce their pollution load in terms of both quality and quantity. The results from both plants for the main pollution indicators showed high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (in excess of ...

  5. Activated carbon fibers with a high heteroatom content by chemical activation of PBO with phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Santos, M B; Suárez-García, F; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2012-04-03

    The preparation of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) by phosphoric acid activation of poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fibers was studied, with particular attention to the effects of impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature on porous texture. Phosphoric acid has a strong effect on PBO degradation, lowering the temperature range at which the decomposition takes place and changing the number of mass loss steps. Chemical analysis results indicated that activation with phosphoric acid increases the concentration of oxygenated surface groups; the resulting materials also exhibiting high nitrogen content. ACFs are obtained with extremely high yields; they have well-developed porosity restricted to the micropore and narrow mesopore range and with a significant concentration of phosphorus incorporated homogeneously in the form of functional groups. An increase in the impregnation ratio leads to increases in both pore volume and pore size, maximum values of surface area (1250 m(2)/g) and total pore volume (0.67 cm(3)/g) being attained at the highest impregnation ratio (210 wt % H(3)PO(4)) and lowest activation temperature (650 °C) used; the corresponding yield was as large as 83 wt %. The obtained surface areas and pore volumes were higher than those achieved in previous works by physical activation with CO(2) of PBO chars.

  6. Comparison of physical activities of female football players in junior high school and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuri; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare physical activities between junior high school and high school female football players in order to explain the factors that predispose to a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school female football players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine female football players participated. Finger floor distance, the center of pressure during single limb stance with eyes open and closed, the 40-m linear sprint time, hip abduction and extension muscle strength and isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque were measured. The modified Star Excursion Balance Test, the three-steps bounding test and three-steps hopping tests, agility test 1 (Step 50), agility test 2 (Forward run), curl-up test for 30 seconds and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test were performed. [Results] The high school group was only significantly faster than the junior high school group in the 40-m linear sprint time and in the agility tests. The distance of the bounding test in the high school group was longer than that in the junior high school group. [Conclusion] Agility and speed increase with growth; however, muscle strength and balance do not develop alongside. This unbalanced development may cause a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school football players.

  7. High-frequency TRNS reduces BOLD activity during visuomotor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Saiote

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS consist in the application of electrical current of small intensity through the scalp, able to modulate perceptual and motor learning, probably by changing brain excitability. We investigated the effects of these transcranial electrical stimulation techniques in the early and later stages of visuomotor learning, as well as associated brain activity changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We applied anodal and cathodal tDCS, low-frequency and high-frequency tRNS (lf-tRNS, 0.1-100 Hz; hf-tRNS 101-640 Hz, respectively and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex (M1 during the first 10 minutes of a visuomotor learning paradigm and measured performance changes for 20 minutes after stimulation ceased. Functional imaging scans were acquired throughout the whole experiment. Cathodal tDCS and hf-tRNS showed a tendency to improve and lf-tRNS to hinder early learning during stimulation, an effect that remained for 20 minutes after cessation of stimulation in the late learning phase. Motor learning-related activity decreased in several regions as reported previously, however, there was no significant modulation of brain activity by tDCS. In opposition to this, hf-tRNS was associated with reduced motor task-related-activity bilaterally in the frontal cortex and precuneous, probably due to interaction with ongoing neuronal oscillations. This result highlights the potential of lf-tRNS and hf-tRNS to differentially modulate visuomotor learning and advances our knowledge on neuroplasticity induction approaches combined with functional imaging methods.

  8. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein modulates activation of human leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Spirig

    Full Text Available An anti-inflammatory effect of reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis and in sepsis models. An increase of adhesion molecules as well as tissue factor expression on endothelial cells in response to inflammatory or danger signals are attenuated by the treatment with rHDL. Here we show the inhibitory effect of rHDL on the activation of human leukocytes in a whole blood assay as well as on monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC. Multiplex analysis of human whole blood showed that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-induced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12(p40, IL-15 and IFN-α was inhibited. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect on the production of the chemokines CCL-2, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 was observed. Activation of granulocytes and CD14+ monocytes by PHA is inhibited dose-dependently by rHDL shown as decreased up-regulation of ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, we found a strong inhibitory effect of rHDL on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2- and TLR4-mediated maturation of DC. Treatment of DC with rHDL prevented the up-regulation of cell surface molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 and it inhibited the TLR-driven activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These findings suggest that rHDL prevents activation of crucial cellular players of cellular immunity and could therefore be a useful reagent to impede inflammation as well as the link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  9. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein modulates activation of human leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Rolf; Schaub, Alexander; Kropf, Alain; Miescher, Sylvia; Spycher, Martin O; Rieben, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory effect of reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL) has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis and in sepsis models. An increase of adhesion molecules as well as tissue factor expression on endothelial cells in response to inflammatory or danger signals are attenuated by the treatment with rHDL. Here we show the inhibitory effect of rHDL on the activation of human leukocytes in a whole blood assay as well as on monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC). Multiplex analysis of human whole blood showed that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12(p40), IL-15 and IFN-α was inhibited. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect on the production of the chemokines CCL-2, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 was observed. Activation of granulocytes and CD14+ monocytes by PHA is inhibited dose-dependently by rHDL shown as decreased up-regulation of ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, we found a strong inhibitory effect of rHDL on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and TLR4-mediated maturation of DC. Treatment of DC with rHDL prevented the up-regulation of cell surface molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 and it inhibited the TLR-driven activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These findings suggest that rHDL prevents activation of crucial cellular players of cellular immunity and could therefore be a useful reagent to impede inflammation as well as the link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  10. Highly Active Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts Exhibiting Unprecedented Activity and Z-Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrugh, Lauren E.; Herbert, Myles B.; Marx, Vanessa M.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel chelated ruthenium-based metathesis catalyst bearing an N-2,6-diisopropylphenyl group is reported and displays near-perfect selectivity for the Z-olefin (>95%), as well as unparalleled TONs of up to 7400, in a variety of homodimerization and industrially relevant metathesis reactions. This derivative and other new catalytically-active species were synthesized using an improved method employing sodium carboxylates to induce the salt metathesis and C-H activation of these chelated complexes. All of these new ruthenium-based catalysts are highly Z-selective in the homodimerization of terminal olefins. PMID:23317178

  11. Perceived barriers to physical activity practice in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christine Maccarini Pandolfo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n5p567   In an attempt to understand the problem of declining physical activity (PA among adolescents, there has been an increasing interest in identifying perceived barriers (PB that can reduce the involvement of adolescents in PA. The aim of this study was to identify PB to PA practice among public high school students. The samples was composed of 348 students aged 14-19 years, 46.8% females and 53.2% males. To investigate BP, an instrument consisting of 12 statements and validated for the study population was used. The analysis of results was carried out by descriptive statistics, Kruskal Wallis test to check the possible differences in PB throughout high school years and chi-square for the difference in proportions of barriers. Having many tasks to do, lack of time and adverse weather conditions were the most cited PB. There was no difference in the perception of barriers among high school years (males: p = 0.44; females: p = 0.23. PB “not having how to go or return” (p = 0.04, “adverse weather conditions” and “laziness” (p = 0.02, “lack of time” (p = 0.01 and “at home nobody performs PA” (p = 0.04 showed statistically significant differences between sexes. Both sexes reported similar barriers; however, girls reported higher number of PB and with greater frequency. Identifying which PB prevent the adoption of a physically active lifestyle may be the beginning of solutions to minimize the negative effects.

  12. Exploring the potential of fungal-bacterial consortium for low-cost biodegradation and detoxification of textile effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lade Harshad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the enrichment and isolation of textile effluent decolorizing bacteria were carried out in wheat bran (WB medium. The isolated bacterium Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 was then tested for decolorization of textile effluent in consortium with a dyestuff degrading fungus Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM 1146. Decolorization study suggests that A. ochraceus NCIM 1146 and P. rettgeri strain HSL1 alone re moves only 6 and 32% of textile effluent American Dye Manufacturing Institute respectively in 30 h at 30 ±0.2°C of microaerophilic incubation, while the fungal-bacterial consortium does 92% ADMI removal within the same time period. The fungal-bacterial consortium exhibited enhanced decolorization rate due to the induction in activities of catalytic enzymes laccase (196%, lignin peroxidase (77%, azoreductase (80% and NADH-DCIP reductase (84%. The HPLC analysis confirmed the biodegradation of textile effluent into various metabolites. Detoxification studies of textile effluent before and after treatment with fungal-bacterial consortium revealed reduced toxicity of degradation metabolites. The efficient degradation and detoxification by fungal-bacterial consortium pre-grown in agricultural based medium thus suggest a promising approach in designing low-cost treatment technologies for textile effluent.

  13. Advanced treatment by chemical oxidation of pulp and paper effluent from a plant manufacturing hardboard from waste paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünay, O; Erdeml, E; Kabdaşli, I; Olmez, T

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the applicability of chemical oxidation processes to polish biologically treated effluent of a plant manufacturing hardboard from waste paper to comply with the discharge limit of 120 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the first step, a chemically assisted settling was applied. The optimum results were obtained with alum plus lime with the alum dose of 200 mg l(-1). In the second step, chemically assisted settling effluent was fed into an activated sludge system and over 80% COD removal was achieved. In the last step of the experimental study, a series of ozone oxidation and Fenton oxidation methods were tested to remove residual COD. Ozone oxidation provided 80% COD removal. An ozone dose of 40 mg min(-1) with a reaction time of two hours was found to be optimum. Catalytic ozonation by using ferric iron, as well as high pH ozonation, Fenton process and H2O2/O3 oxidation did not prove to be more efficient than plain ozonation under these study conditions.

  14. Treatment of effluent textiles with ultraviolet light

    OpenAIRE

    Tinoco Gómez, Oscar Rafael; UNMSM; Medina Escudero, Ana María; UNMSM; Zapata Gamarra, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    The use of clean technologies for the treatment of textile effluents is essential to achieve a significant contribution by the textile industry, environmental treatment of them. According to the literature, the dyes used in textile industry are hardly degradable and have strong opposition to biological treatments are subjected to appropriate wastewater. At lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (oxygenated water) leads to better dye fading. It also shows that lower concentrations of titani...

  15. High biodegradation levels of 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol by Bacillus sp. isolated from cellulose pulp mill effluent Altos níveis de biodegradação do 4,5,6-tricloroguaiacol por Bacillus sp. isolado de efluente de indústria de polpa de celulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Tondo

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available An aerobic Gram positive spore-forming bacterium was isolated from cellulose pulp mill effluent. This microorganism, identified as Bacillus sp. and named IS13, was able to rapidly degrade the organic chlorinated compound 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol (4,5,6-TCG from a culture containing 50 mg/l, which corresponds to about 3x104 times the concentration found in the original effluent. The biodegradation of this compound, usually found in cellulose pulp mill effluents, was evaluated by spectrophotometry and gas chromatography analysis. During 4,5,6-TCG decreasing, the lack of by-products had shown by such analysis lead to verify the possibility of either adsorption or absorption of 4,5,6-TCG by the cells, instead of real biodegradation. There were no traces of 4,5,6-TCG after lysozyme and SDS cell disruption. Vigorous extraction was applied before spectrophotometry analysis and there was no release of residual 4,5,6-TCG. Plasmid isolation was attempted by using different protocols. The best results were reached by CTAB method, but no plasmid DNA was found in Bacillus sp. IS13. The results suggest that genes located at the bacterial chromosome might mediate the high decrease of 4,5,6-TCG. The importance of this work is that, in being a natural ocurring microorganism, Bacillus sp. IS13, can be used as inoculum in plant effluents to best organochlorinated compounds biodegradation.Isolou-se uma bactéria gram positiva, esporulada a partir de efluente de fábrica de polpa de celulose. Esse microrganismo, identificado como Bacillus sp. e nomeado IS13, foi capaz de degradar rapidamente o composto orgânico clorado 4,5,6-tricloroguaiacol (4,5,6-TCG presente em meio de cultura a uma concentração de 50mg/L. Essa concentração equivale a 3x104 vezes mais 4,5,6-TCG que a concentração encontrada no efluente original. A biodegradação desse composto foi analisada por espectrofotometria de varredura e cromatografia gasosa. A falta de sub-produtos de degrada

  16. Biotreatment of effluent from 'Adire' textile factories in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okareh, Oladapo T; Ademodi, Tuntunlade F; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2017-11-10

    In this present study, bacteria were isolated from wastewater and polluted soil collected from two cottage textile factories in Ibadan. These bacteria isolates were used for the biotreatment of textile mill effluent. The physicochemical parameters of the textile mill effluent before treatment were carried out and percentage decolourisation of the effluent was analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis technique). The degradation products of the textile mill effluent characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The pH values of the effluent were within the permissible limit of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), while temperature and electric conductivity of the effluents were below the permissible limit of FEPA and NESREA. The BOD, COD, TSS, TDS and chloride of the textile mill effluent from the two cottage textile factories were above the permissible limits of FEPA and NESREA. Twelve bacteria isolates were screened, effective in decolourising commercial dyes and used to decolourise the textile mill effluent. The bacteria isolates were characterised and identified as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Erwinia sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Nocardia sp. The decolourisation of textile effluent was observed through the changes of spectra of UV-visible spectrophotometer. The following bacteria revealed different percentage proportion of decolouration profile:- Bacillus sp., had the highest percentage decolourisation of 57.7%, whereas Micrococcus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. had percentage decolourisation of 32.8 and 26.3%, respectively. The degradation profile of textile effluent was revealed through FTIR spectral analysis. The changes in the position of major peaks revealed from the textile effluent through FTIR spectral analysis, appearances of new peaks and the disappearances of existing peaks signify the degradation of the wastewater. Thus, some native

  17. Impact of biodegradation on the potential bioaccumulation and toxicity of refinery effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonards, Pim E G; Postma, Jaap F; Comber, Mike; Whale, Graham; Stalter, George

    2011-10-01

    Whole effluent assessments (WEA) are being investigated as potential tools for controlling aqueous industrial discharges and minimizing environmental impact. The present study investigated how toxicity and the presence of potentially bioaccumulative substances altered when refinery effluents were subjected to biodegradation tests. Three petrochemical effluents were assessed, two freshwater and one saline, and subjected to two different types of biodegradation tests, resembling either a ready style (dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-die away) or an inherent style (Zahn-Wellens) test and the toxicity and potential to bioaccumulate parameters were re-analysed during and after biodegradation. A high proportion of the potentially bioaccumulative substances (PBS) in these effluents was easily biodegradable. Biodegradation not only lowered the PBS concentration but also toxicity. Appropriate controls are required however, as some increases in toxicity were observed after 4 h. In the present study, six other petrochemical effluents were also assessed for their PBS content and toxicity to increase the understanding of the relationship between PBS and toxicity. The results showed that the PBS concentrations in these samples were lower than the estimated benchmarks of acute toxicity for algae, fish and crustacean, although two samples were above the critical PBS values for chronic narcotic toxicity for Daphnia magna, which support the assumption that narcotic effects are mainly responsible for the observed toxicity in refinery effluents. It can be concluded that for facilities processing petroleum products that the measurement of PBS is a suitable surrogate for toxicity tests at the screening stage. Finally, the combination of persistency, bioaccumulation, and toxicity tests was shown to have additional value compared to an approach using only toxicity tests. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  18. VTEC behavior in the American sector during high solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Ezquer, R G; Brunini, C; Conicet; Meza, A; Mosert, M; Radicella, S M

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) obtained from GPS signals received during the high solar activity year 1999 at stations placed in the American sector, is reported. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4 to -64.7 and the longitude ranges from 281.3 to 297.7. Median, lower and upper quartiles are used to specify variability, because they have the advantage of being less affected by large deviations that can occur during magnetic storms. The results show that the VTEC values corresponding to equinox are greater than those of solstice and that, the highest VTEC values are observed at low latitude stations. In general, the variability during daylight hours is about 30% of median or less, and that observed for nighttime hours is greater than the mentioned percentage, particularly at last hours of the night near the northern peak of the equatorial anomaly.

  19. Novel antimicrobial peptides with high anticancer activity and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hung-Lun; Yip, Bak-Sau; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Yu, Hui-Yuan; Chih, Ya-Han; Cheng, Hsi-Tsung; Chou, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Jya-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics.

  20. Novel antimicrobial peptides with high anticancer activity and selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Lun Chu

    Full Text Available We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics.