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Sample records for high activity comt

  1. COMT genotype, gambling activity, and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Leppink, Eric W; Redden, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    gambling. This study examined adults with varying levels of gambling behavior to determine whether COMT genotype was associated with differences in gambling symptoms and cognitive functioning. 260 non-treatment-seeking adults aged 18-29 years with varying degrees of gambling behavior provided saliva...... significantly different from the Val/Met (13.2%) group (p = 0.001). The Val/Val COMT group was also associated with significantly more gambling disorder diagnostic criteria being met, greater frequency of gambling behavior, and significantly worse cognitive performance on the Cambridge Gamble Task (risk...... adjustment and delay aversion) and the Spatial Working Memory task (total errors). This study adds to the growing literature on the role of COMT in impulsive behaviors by showing that the Val/Val genotype was associated with specific clinical and cognitive elements among young adults who gamble...

  2. The enzymatic activities of brain catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and methionine sulphoxide reductase are correlated in a COMT Val/Met allele-dependent fashion.

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    Moskovitz, Jackob; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Cruz, Dianne A; Thompson, Peter M; Hairston, Jenaqua; Bortolato, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a primary role in the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters and is implicated in the modulation of cognitive and emotional responses. The best characterized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the COMT gene consists of a valine (Val)-to-methionine (Met) substitution at codon 108/158. The Met-containing variant confers a marked reduction in COMT catalytic activity. We recently showed that the activity of recombinant COMT is positively regulated by the enzyme Met sulphoxide reductase (MSR), which counters the oxidation of Met residues of proteins. The current study was designed to assess whether brain COMT activity may be correlated to MSR in an allele-dependent fashion. COMT and MSR activities were measured from post-mortem samples of prefrontal cortices, striata and cerebella of 32 subjects by using catechol and dabsyl-Met sulphoxide as substrates, respectively. Allelic discrimination of COMT Val(108/185) Met SNP was performed using the Taqman 5'nuclease assay. Our studies revealed that, in homozygous carriers of Met, but not Val alleles, the activity of COMT and MSR was significantly correlated throughout all tested brain regions. These results suggest that the reduced enzymatic activity of Met-containing COMT may be secondary to Met sulphoxidation and point to MSR as a key molecular determinant for the modulation of COMT activity. © 2015 British Neuropathological Society.

  3. A Genetic Variant (COMT) Coding Dopaminergic Activity Predicts Personality Traits in Healthy Elderly.

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    Kotyuk, Eszter; Duchek, Janet; Head, Denise; Szekely, Anna; Goate, Alison M; Balota, David A

    2015-08-01

    Association studies between the NEO five factor personality inventory and COMT rs4680 have focused on young adults and the results have been inconsistent. However, personality and cortical changes with age may put older adults in a more sensitive range for detecting a relationship. The present study examined associations of COMT rs4680 and personality in older adults. Genetic association analyses were carried out between the NEO and the targeted COMT rs4680 in a large, well-characterized sample of healthy, cognitively normal older adults (N = 616, mean age = 69.26 years). Three significant associations were found: participants with GG genotype showed lower mean scores on Neuroticism (p = 0.039) and higher scores on Agreeableness (p = 0.020) and Conscientiousness (p = 0.006) than participants with AA or AG genotypes. These results suggest that older adults with higher COMT enzymatic activity (GG), therefore lower dopamine level, have lower Neuroticism scores, and higher Agreeableness and Conscientiousness scores. This is consistent with a recent model of phasic and tonic dopamine release suggesting that even though GG genotype is associated with lower tonic dopamine release, the phasic release of dopamine might be optimal for a more adaptive personality profile.

  4. The COMT Val/Met polymorphism is associated with reading-related skills and consistent patterns of functional neural activation.

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    Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J; Mencl, W Einar; Preston, Jonathan L; Jacobsen, Leslie K; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2013-01-01

    In both children and adults there is large variability in reading skill, with approximately 5-10% of individuals characterized as having reading disability; these individuals struggle to learn to read despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. Although it is well established that a substantial portion of this variability is attributed to the genetic differences between individuals, specifics of the connections between reading and the genome are not understood. This article presents data that suggest that variation in the COMT gene, which has previously been associated with variation in higher-order cognition, is associated with reading and reading-related skills, at the level of both brain and behavior. In particular, we found that the COMT Val/Met polymorphism at rs4680, which results in the substitution of the ancestral Valine (Val) by Methionine (Met), was associated with better performance on a number of critical reading measures and with patterns of functional neural activation that have been linked to better readers. We argue that this polymorphism, known for its broad effects on cognition, may modulate (likely through frontal lobe function) reading skill. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Association of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Polymorphism and Academic Achievement in a Chinese Cohort

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    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chun-Yen; Hu, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lin, Ming-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a methylation enzyme that catalyzes the degradation pathway and inactivation of dopamine. It is accepted widely as being involved in the modulation of dopaminergic physiology and prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with variation in COMT activity. COMT 158Met allele…

  6. Assessment of cellular estrogenic activity based on estrogen receptor-mediated reduction of soluble-form catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) expression in an ELISA-based system.

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    Ho, Philip Wing-Lok; Tse, Zero Ho-Man; Liu, Hui-Fang; Lu, Song; Ho, Jessica Wing-Man; Kung, Michelle Hiu-Wai; Ramsden, David Boyer; Ho, Shu-Leong

    2013-01-01

    Xenoestrogens are either natural or synthetic compounds that mimic the effects of endogenous estrogen. These compounds, such as bisphenol-A (BPA), and phthalates, are commonly found in plastic wares. Exposure to these compounds poses major risk to human health because of the potential to cause endocrine disruption. There is huge demand for a wide range of chemicals to be assessed for such potential for the sake of public health. Classical in vivo assays for endocrine disruption are comprehensive but time-consuming and require sacrifice of experimental animals. Simple preliminary in vitro screening assays can reduce the time and expense involved. We previously demonstrated that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen via estrogen receptor (ER). Therefore, detecting corresponding changes of COMT expression in estrogen-responsive cells may be a useful method to estimate estrogenic effects of various compounds. We developed a novel cell-based ELISA to evaluate cellular response to estrogenicity by reduction of soluble-COMT expression in ER-positive MCF-7 cells exposed to estrogenic compounds. In contrast to various existing methods that only detect bioactivity, this method elucidates direct physiological effect in a living cell in response to a compound. We validated our assay using three well-characterized estrogenic plasticizers - BPA, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Cells were exposed to either these plasticizers or 17β-estradiol (E2) in estrogen-depleted medium with or without an ER-antagonist, ICI 182,780, and COMT expression assayed. Exposure to each of these plasticizers (10(-9)-10(-7)M) dose-dependently reduced COMT expression (pvitro assays of similar sensitivity. To satisfy the demand for in vitro assays targeting different cellular components, a cell-based COMT assay provides useful initial screening to supplement the current assessments of xenoestrogens for potential estrogenic activity.

  7. The relationship between childhood abuse and dissociation. Is it influenced by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity?

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    Savitz, Jonathan B; van der Merwe, Lize; Newman, Timothy K; Solms, Mark; Stein, Dan J; Ramesar, Rajkumar S

    2008-03-01

    Dissociation is a failure of perceptual, memorial and emotional integration that is associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Dissociative processes are usually attributed to the sequelae of childhood trauma although there are data to suggest that genetic influences are also important. Bipolar disorder (BD), a condition with a strong genetic basis, has also been associated with early psychological trauma. Since childhood trauma is a risk factor for both BD and dissociation, we tested for potential gene-childhood abuse interactions on dissociation in a pilot sample of BD probands and their affected and unaffected relatives (n=178). Dissociation was measured with the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES II) and childhood maltreatment with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). The BD and recurrent unipolar depression (MDE-R) groups showed higher levels of self-reported abuse and dissociation than their unaffected relatives. The low-activity Met allele of the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene was associated with lower levels of self-reported dissociation. Further, the functional catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism interacted significantly with total CTQ abuse scores to impact perceived dissociation. The Val/Val genotype was associated with increasing levels of dissociation in participants exposed to higher levels of childhood trauma. The opposite was observed in people with Met/Met genotypes who displayed decreased dissociation with increasing self-reported childhood trauma. The current findings support the involvement of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in mediating the relationship between trauma and psychopathology.

  8. Assessment of cellular estrogenic activity based on estrogen receptor-mediated reduction of soluble-form catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT expression in an ELISA-based system.

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    Philip Wing-Lok Ho

    cellular components, a cell-based COMT assay provides useful initial screening to supplement the current assessments of xenoestrogens for potential estrogenic activity.

  9. Hypnotizability and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphysms in Italians

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    Presciuttini, Silvano; Gialluisi, Alessandro; Barbuti, Serena; Curcio, Michele; Scatena, Fabrizio; Carli, Giancarlo; Santarcangelo, Enrica L.

    2014-01-01

    Higher brain dopamine content depending on lower activity of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) in subjects with high hypnotizability scores (highs) has been considered responsible for their attentional characteristics. However, the results of the previous genetic studies on association between hypnotizability and the COMT single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 (Val158Met) were inconsistent. Here, we used a selective genotyping approach to re-evaluate the association between hypnotizability and COMT in the context of a two-SNP haplotype analysis, considering not only the Val158Met polymorphism, but also the closely located rs4818 SNP. An Italian sample of 53 highs, 49 low hypnotizable subjects (lows), and 57 controls, were genotyped for a segment of 805 bp of the COMT gene, including Val158Met and the closely located rs4818 SNP. Our selective genotyping approach had 97.1% power to detect the previously reported strongest association at the significance level of 5%. We found no evidence of association at the SNP, haplotype, and diplotype levels. Thus, our results challenge the dopamine-based theory of hypnosis and indirectly support recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings reporting the lack of any association between hypnotizability and focused attention abilities. PMID:24431998

  10. Hypnotizability and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT polymorphysms in Italians

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    Silvano ePresciuttini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher brain dopamine content depending on lower activity of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT in subjects with high hypnotisability scores (highs has been considered responsible for their attentional characteristics. However, the results of the previous genetic studies on association between hypnotisability and the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs4680 (Val158Met were inconsistent. Here, we used a selective genotyping approach to re-evaluate the association between hypnotisability and COMT in the context of a two-SNP haplotype analysis, considering not only the Val158Met polymorphism, but also the closely located rs4818 SNP. An Italian sample of 53 highs, 49 low hypnotizable subjects (lows and 57 controls, were genotyped for a segment of 805 bp of the COMT gene, including Val158Met and the closely located rs4818 SNP. Our selective genotyping approach had 97.1% power to detect the previously reported strongest association at the significance level of 5%. We found no evidence of association at the SNP, haplotype and diplotype levels. Thus, our results challenge the dopamine-based theory of hypnosis and indirectly support recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings reporting the lack of any association between hypnotisability and focused attention abilities.

  11. Genetic vs. pharmacological inactivation of COMT influences cannabinoid-induced expression of schizophrenia-related phenotypes.

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    O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Clarke, Gerard; Walsh, Jeremy; Desbonnet, Lieve; Petit, Emilie; O'Leary, Claire; Tighe, Orna; Clarke, Niamh; Karayiorgou, Maria; Gogos, Joseph A; Dinan, Ted G; Cryan, John F; Waddington, John L

    2012-10-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an important enzyme in the metabolism of dopamine and disturbance in dopamine function is proposed to be central to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Clinical epidemiological studies have indicated cannabis use to confer a 2-fold increase in risk for subsequent onset of psychosis, with adolescent-onset use conveying even higher risk. There is evidence that a high activity COMT polymorphism moderates the effects of adolescent exposure to cannabis on risk for adult psychosis. In this paper we compared the effect of chronic adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid WIN 55212 on sensorimotor gating, behaviours related to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, anxiety- and stress-related behaviours, as well as ex-vivo brain dopamine and serotonin levels, in COMT KO vs. wild-type (WT) mice. Additionally, we examined the effect of pretreatment with the COMT inhibitor tolcapone on acute effects of this cannabinoid on sensorimotor gating in C57BL/6 mice. COMT KO mice were shown to be more vulnerable than WT to the disruptive effects of adolescent cannabinoid treatment on prepulse inhibition (PPI). Acute pharmacological inhibition of COMT in C57BL/6 mice also modified acute cannabinoid effects on startle reactivity, as well as PPI, indicating that chronic and acute loss of COMT can produce dissociable effects on the behavioural effects of cannabinoids. COMT KO mice also demonstrated differential effects of adolescent cannabinoid administration on sociability and anxiety-related behaviour, both confirming and extending earlier reports of COMT×cannabinoid effects on the expression of schizophrenia-related endophenotypes.

  12. Modification of COMT-dependent pain sensitivity by psychological stress and sex.

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    Meloto, Carolina B; Bortsov, Andrey V; Bair, Eric; Helgeson, Erika; Ostrom, Cara; Smith, Shad B; Dubner, Ronald; Slade, Gary D; Fillingim, Roger B; Greenspan, Joel D; Ohrbach, Richard; Maixner, William; McLean, Samuel A; Diatchenko, Luda

    2016-04-01

    Catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a polymorphic gene whose variants affect enzymatic activity and pain sensitivity via adrenergic pathways. Although COMT represents one of the most studied genes in human pain genetics, findings regarding its association with pain phenotypes are not always replicated. Here, we investigated if interactions among functional COMT haplotypes, stress, and sex can modify the effect of COMT genetic variants on pain sensitivity. We tested these interactions in a cross-sectional study, including 2 cohorts, one of 2972 subjects tested for thermal pain sensitivity (Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment) and one of 948 subjects with clinical acute pain after motor vehicle collision (post-motor vehicle collision). In both cohorts, the COMT high-pain sensitivity (HPS) haplotype showed robust interaction with stress and number of copies of the HPS haplotype was positively associated with pain sensitivity in nonstressed individuals, but not in stressed individuals. In the post-motor vehicle collision cohort, there was additional modification by sex: the HPS-stress interaction was apparent in males, but not in females. In summary, our findings indicate that stress and sex should be evaluated in association studies aiming to investigate the effect of COMT genetic variants on pain sensitivity.

  13. Biopsychosocial Influence on Exercise-induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness at the Shoulder: Pain Catastrophizing and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Diplotype Predict Pain Ratings

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    George, Steven Z.; Dover, Geoffrey C.; Wallace, Margaret R.; Sack, Brandon K.; Herbstman, Deborah M.; Aydog, Ece; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The experience of pain is believed to be influenced by psychologic and genetic factors. A previous study suggested pain catastrophizing and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype influenced clinical pain ratings for patients seeking operative treatment of shoulder pain. This study investigated whether these same psychologic and genetic factors predicted responses to induced shoulder pain. Methods Participants (n=63) completed self-report questionnaires and had COMT genotype determined before performing a standardized fatigue protocol to induce delayed onset muscle soreness. Then, shoulder pain ratings, self-report of upper-extremity disability ratings, and muscle torque production were reassessed 24, 48, and 72 hours later. Results This cohort consisted of 35 women and 28 men, with a mean age of 20.9 years (SD=1.7). The frequency of COMT diplotypes was 42 with “high COMT enzyme activity” (low pain sensitivity group) and 21 with “low COMT enzyme activity” (average pain sensitivity/high pain sensitivity group). A hierarchical regression model indicated that an interaction between pain catastrophizing and COMT diplotype was the strongest unique predictor of 72-hour pain ratings. The same interaction was not predictive of self-report of disability or muscle torque production at 72 hours. The pain catastrophizing × COMT diplotype interaction indicated that participants with high pain catastrophizing and low COMT enzyme activity (average pain sensitivity/high pain sensitivity group) were more likely (relative risk=3.5, P=0.025) to have elevated pain intensity ratings (40/100 or higher). Discussion These findings from an experimental model converge with those from a surgical cohort and provide additional evidence that the presence of elevated pain catastrophizing and COMT diplotype indicative of low COMT enzyme activity have the potential to increase the risk of developing chronic pain syndromes. PMID:18936597

  14. The val158met polymorphism of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT affects anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to painful laser stimulation

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    Musso Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is a complex experience with sensory, emotional and cognitive aspects. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to pain-related phenotypes such as chronic pain states. Genetic variations in the gene coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT have been suggested to affect clinical and experimental pain-related phenotypes including regional μ-opioid system responses to painful stimulation as measured by ligand-PET (positron emission tomography. The functional val158met single nucleotide polymorphism has been most widely studied. However, apart from its impact on pain-induced opioid release the effect of this genetic variation on cerebral pain processing has not been studied with activation measures such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, PET or electroencephalography. In the present fMRI study we therefore sought to investigate the impact of the COMT val158met polymorphism on the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response to painful laser stimulation. Results 57 subjects were studied. We found that subjects homozygous for the met158 allele exhibit a higher BOLD response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, foremost in the mid-cingulate cortex, than carriers of the val158 allele. Conclusion This result is in line with previous studies that reported higher pain sensitivity in homozygous met carriers. It adds to the current literature in suggesting that this behavioral phenotype may be mediated by, or is at least associated with, increased ACC activity. More generally, apart from one report that focused on pain-induced opioid release, this is the first functional neuroimaging study showing an effect of the COMT val158met polymorphism on cerebral pain processing.

  15. Chromatographic design for the purification of recombinant human membrane COMT

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Fátima Raquel Milhano dos

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that membrane form of catechol-O-methyltransferase OMT (MB-COMT) is the main responsible for O-methylation at physiologically low concentrations of catecholamines. Despite this, until now no studies have been allowed the total isolation of MB-COMT. Then, a sustainable chromatographic step should be developed in order to obtain significant quantities of active and pure enzyme for posterior application on biochemical, kinetic and structural studies. For the first time, w...

  16. COMT Diplotype Amplifies Effect of Stress on Risk of Temporomandibular Pain.

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    Slade, G D; Sanders, A E; Ohrbach, R; Bair, E; Maixner, W; Greenspan, J D; Fillingim, R B; Smith, S; Diatchenko, L

    2015-09-01

    When measured once, psychological stress predicts development of painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD). However, a single measurement fails to characterize the dynamic nature of stress over time. Moreover, effects of stress on pain likely vary according to biological susceptibility. We hypothesized that temporal escalation in stress exacerbates risk for TMD, and the effect is amplified by allelic variants in a gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), regulating catechol neurotransmitter catabolism. We used data from the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment prospective cohort study of 2,707 community-dwelling adults with no lifetime history of TMD on enrollment. At baseline and quarterly periods thereafter, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) measured psychological stress. Genotyped DNA from blood samples determined COMT diplotypes. During follow-up of 0.25 to 5.2 y, 248 adults developed examiner-verified incident TMD. PSS scores at baseline were 20% greater (P developed incident TMD compared with TMD-free controls. Baseline PSS scores increased by 9% (P = 0.003) during follow-up in cases but remained stable in controls. This stress escalation was limited to incident cases with COMT diplotypes coding for low-activity COMT, signifying impaired catabolism of catecholamines. Cox regression models confirmed significant effects on TMD hazard of both baseline PSS (P < 0.001), modeled as a time-constant covariate, and change in PSS (P < 0.001), modeled as a time-varying covariate. Furthermore, a significant (P = 0.04) interaction of COMT diplotype and time-varying stress showed that a postbaseline increase of 1.0 standard deviation in PSS more than doubled risk of TMD incidence in subjects with low-activity COMT diplotypes (hazard ratio = 2.35; 95% confidence limits: 1.66, 3.32), an effect not found in subjects with high-activity COMT diplotypes (hazard ratio = 1.42; 95% confidence limits: 0.96, 2.09). Findings provide novel insights into dynamic

  17. Daytime sleepiness and the COMT val158met polymorphism in patients with Parkinson disease.

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    Rissling, Ida; Frauscher, Birgit; Kronenberg, Florian; Tafti, Mehdi; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Robyr, Anne-Catherine; Körner, Yvonne; Oertel, Wolfgang Hermann; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit; Möller, Jens Carsten

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study by our group suggested an association between daytime sleepiness and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism (rs4680) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). We sought to confirm this association in a large group of patients with PD. Genetic association study in patients with PD. Movement disorder sections at 2 university hospitals. PD patients with and without episodes of suddenly falling asleep matched for antiparkinsonian medication, disease duration, sex, and age, who participated in a previous genetic study on dopamine-receptor polymorphisms. Not applicable. In this study, 240 patients with PD (154 men; age 65.1 +/- 6.1 years; disease duration 9.4 +/- 6.0 years) were included. Seventy had the met-met (LL), 116 the met-val (LH), and 54 the val-val (HH) genotype. In the combined LL+LH group (featuring reduced COMT activity), the mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was 9.0 +/- 5.9 versus 11.0 +/- 6.1 in the HH (high COMT activity) group (P = .047). Forty-seven percent of the LL and LH patients had sudden sleep onset compared with 61% of the HH patients (P = .07). Logistic regression, however, showed that both pathologic ESS scores (i.e., > 10) and sudden sleep onset were predicted by subjective disease severity (P < .001 each) but not by the COMT genotype. Our previous finding that the L-allele may be associated with daytime sleepiness could not be confirmed in the present study. Altogether, our data do not support a clinically relevant effect of the COMT genotype on daytime sleepiness in PD.

  18. Association of COMT gene polymorphisms with cerebral infarction in Han people of Tianjin

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    WANG Jin-huan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT has a key function in thedegradation of catecholamines and inactivating estrogen. A common polymorphism in the COMT gene is guanine-adenine (G-A point mutation on rs4680, which causes a valine (Val substitution to methionine (Met in 108 and (or 158 amino acid by this gene and is responsible for lowered activity of the enzyme. The Val/Met polymorphism has been recognized to be associated with psychiatric disorders, alcohol dependence and drug side effects, but few study has been done to examine the relationship with cerebral infarction (CI. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the polymorphisms of COMT gene and CI. Methods The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was used to detect COMT Val158Met genotype in 181 CI patients and 148 cases of controls. Meanwhile the serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C , high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C , apolipoprotein B (ApoB and ApoA in CI group were detected. Results The frequency of Val allele (78.45% and Val/Valgenotype (61.33% in CI was significantly higher than that in the control group (68.24% and 45.95%, P 0.05 than that in the control group. The serum levels of glucose, TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, ApoB, ApoA and the frequency of hypertension had no difference between Val/Val genotype and Val/Met + Met/Met genotypes ( P > 0.05, for all. Conclusion The frequencies of Val allele and Val/Val genotype can be considered as genetic risk factors of male CI patients. The effect of COMT on CI is not related to blood pressure, serum lipid and glucose.

  19. Brooding rumination and heart rate variability in women at high and low risk for depression: group differences and moderation by COMT genotype.

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    Woody, Mary L; McGeary, John E; Gibb, Brandon E

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that rumination, perhaps specifically brooding rumination, is a core feature of depression and that it contributes to the development and maintenance of the disorder. A separate line of research has highlighted the role played by heart rate variability (HRV). Both brooding rumination and HRV appear to be driven by disruption in the same neural circuit, heightened amygdala reactivity combined with decreased prefrontal control, and both are highlighted in different units of analysis as reflecting the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) construct of Loss. However, little is known about the relation among these variables. In the current study, we predicted that higher levels of brooding rumination would be associated with lower levels of HRV and that women at high risk for future depression (i.e., those with a history of past major depressive disorder [MDD]) would exhibit higher levels of brooding and lower levels of HRV. We also examined genetic influences on the variables in this model. We predicted that COMT Val158Met genotype, which has been linked to heightened amygdala reactivity and deficits in prefrontal functioning, would be associated with brooding rumination and HRV, particularly among women with a history of past MDD. The results largely supported our hypotheses, providing additional support for relations among the different units of analysis for the Loss construct.

  20. The interaction of early life experiences with COMT val158met affects anxiety sensitivity.

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    Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Weber, H; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Pauli, P; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is considered to be multifactorial with a complex interaction of genetic factors and individual environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine gene-by-environment interactions of the genes coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with life events on measures related to anxiety. A sample of healthy subjects (N = 782; thereof 531 women; mean age M = 24.79, SD = 6.02) was genotyped for COMT rs4680 and MAOA-uVNTR (upstream variable number of tandem repeats), and was assessed for childhood adversities [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] and anxious apprehension [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)]. Main and interaction effects of genotype, environment and gender on measures related to anxiety were assessed by means of regression analyses. Association analysis showed no main gene effect on either questionnaire score. A significant interactive effect of childhood adversities and COMT genotype was observed: Homozygosity for the low-active met allele and high CTQ scores was associated with a significant increment of explained ASI variance [R(2) = 0.040, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P = 0.04]. A borderline interactive effect with respect to MAOA-uVNTR was restricted to the male subgroup. Carriers of the low-active MAOA allele who reported more aversive experiences in childhood exhibited a trend for enhanced anxious apprehension (R(2) = 0.077, FDR corrected P = 0.10). Early aversive life experiences therefore might increase the vulnerability to anxiety disorders in the presence of homozygosity for the COMT 158met allele or low-active MAOA-uVNTR alleles.

  1. Pain modality- and sex-specific effects of COMT genetic functional variants.

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    Belfer, Inna; Segall, Samantha K; Lariviere, William R; Smith, Shad B; Dai, Feng; Slade, Gary D; Rashid, Naim U; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Campbell, Claudia M; Edwards, Robert R; Liu, Qian; Bair, Eric; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda

    2013-08-01

    The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catecholamine neurotransmitters involved in a number of physiological functions, including pain perception. Both human and mouse COMT genes possess functional polymorphisms contributing to interindividual variability in pain phenotypes such as sensitivity to noxious stimuli, severity of clinical pain, and response to pain treatment. In this study, we found that the effects of Comt functional variation in mice are modality specific. Spontaneous inflammatory nociception and thermal nociception behaviors were correlated the most with the presence of the B2 SINE transposon insertion residing in the 3'UTR mRNA region. Similarly, in humans, COMT functional haplotypes were associated with thermal pain perception and with capsaicin-induced pain. Furthermore, COMT genetic variations contributed to pain behaviors in mice and pain ratings in humans in a sex-specific manner. The ancestral Comt variant, without a B2 SINE insertion, was more strongly associated with sensitivity to capsaicin in female vs male mice. In humans, the haplotype coding for low COMT activity increased capsaicin-induced pain perception in women, but not men. These findings reemphasize the fundamental contribution of COMT to pain processes, and provide a fine-grained resolution of this contribution at the genetic level that can be used to guide future studies in the area of pain genetics.

  2. The MAOA and COMT Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Schizophrenia Committed Homicide

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    V.A. Soldatkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have indicated that aggression and homicide are more frequent among people with schizophrenia than in the general population. There is considerable evidence that schizophrenia involves a dysbalance between subcortical and cortical dopaminergic systems. The major pathways for catecholamine degradation are oxidative deamination through the action of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA and by methylation through the action of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT. Activity of both enzymes is encoded by the corresponding genes—MAOA and COMT. The aim of our study was to analyze the association between the COMT-Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms and the risk of committing homicide by patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The study included 50 Caucasian male patients with paranoid schizophrenia (PS. All patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of 26 PS patients who have committed homicide; Group 2 consisted of 24 PS patients who did not have a history of socially violent behavior. The control group comprised 23 apparently healthy Caucasian men of the same age. All patients underwent clinical-psychopathological and clinical-anamnestic examinations. Molecular genetic studies were performed in the Shared Research Facility Center "High Technologies" at SFedU. Results: Our study revealed no direct correlation between the COMT-Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms and risk of committing homicide by patients with schizophrenia. At the same time, we detected an association between high-activity gene variants, viz., the MAOA-4R allele and the COMT-158Met/158Met genotype, and the schizoid and unstable premorbid accentuation in patients who had committed murder, whereas the schizoid and unstable accentuation correlated with homicide behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Conclusion: The obtained findings suggest that genetic variation affects the homicidal behavior indirectly, through the various types of premorbid accentuation and

  3. COMT Val108/158 Met Genotype Affects Neural but not Cognitive Processing in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Need, Anna C.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T.; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496–1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output. PMID:19641018

  4. Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilford, Emma J; Dumontheil, Iroise; Wood, Nicholas W; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-06-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val(158)Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 healthy adult participants, who were also assessed on standard working memory (WM) tasks. Relative to Val carriers, Met homozygotes made fewer errors when selecting and manipulating self-generated thoughts. This effect was partly accounted for by an association between COMT genotype and visuospatial WM performance. We also observed a complex interaction between the influence of affective distractors, COMT genotype and sex on task accuracy: male, but not female, participants showed a sensitivity to the affective distractors that was dependent on COMT genotype. This was not accounted for by WM performance. This study provides novel evidence of the role of dopaminergic genetic variation on the ability to select and manipulate self-generated thoughts. The results also suggest sexually dimorphic effects of COMT genotype on the influence of affective distractors on executive function. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterocyclic Catechol Mimics as Inhibitors of Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-4-pyridinones and 5-hydroxy-4-pyrimidinones were identified as inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in a high-throughput screen. These heterocyclic catechol mimics exhibit potent inhibition of the enzyme and an improved toxicity profile versus the marketed nitrocatechol inhibitors tolcapone and entacapone. Optimization of the series was aided by X-ray cocrystal structures of the novel inhibitors in complex with COMT and cofactors SAM and Mg2+. The crystal structures suggest a mechanism of inhibition for these heterocyclic inhibitors distinct from previously disclosed COMT inhibitors. PMID:25815153

  6. Delayed O-methylation of l-DOPA in MB-COMT-deficient mice after oral administration of l-DOPA and carbidopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammimäki, Anne; Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Männistö, Pekka T

    2017-04-21

    1. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in the O-methylation of l-DOPA, dopamine, and other catechols. The enzyme is expressed in two isoforms: soluble (S-COMT), which resides in the cytoplasm, and membrane-bound (MB-COMT), which is anchored to intracellular membranes. 2. To obtain specific information on the functions of COMT isoforms, we studied how a complete MB-COMT deficiency affects the total COMT activity in the body, peripheral l-DOPA levels, and metabolism after l-DOPA (10 mg kg(-1)) plus carbidopa (30 mg kg(-1)) administration by gastric tube in wild-type (WT) and MB-COMT-deficient mice. l-DOPA and 3-O-methyl-l-DOPA (3-OMD) levels were assayed in plasma, duodenum, and liver. 3. We showed that the selective lack of MB-COMT did not alter the total COMT activity, COMT enzyme kinetics, l-DOPA levels, or the total O-methylation of l-DOPA but delayed production of 3-OMD in plasma and peripheral tissues.

  7. Association study between COMT 158Met and creativity scores in bipolar disorder and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) patients have been reported to be associated higher creativity abilities, and recent data tend to support the hypothesis that dopaminergic system that could be associated with creativity. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of the major enzymes involved in the metabolic degradation of dopamine. The COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680 or Val158Met) Met allele is reported to cause decreased activity of this enzyme in prefrontal cortex and improve performance ...

  8. Intrarenal dopamine attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate/high salt-induced blood pressure elevation in part through activation of a medullary cyclooxygenase 2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bing; Harris, Raymond C; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2009-11-01

    Locally produced dopamine in the renal proximal tubule inhibits salt and fluid reabsorption, and a dysfunctional intrarenal dopaminergic system has been reported in essential hypertension and experimental hypertension models. Using catechol-O-methyl-transferase knockout (COMT(-/-)) mice, which have increased renal dopamine because of deletion of the major renal dopamine-metabolizing enzyme, we investigated the effect of intrarenal dopamine on the development of hypertension in the deoxycorticosterone acetate/high-salt (DOCA/HS) model. DOCA/HS led to significant increases in systolic blood pressure in wild-type mice (from 115+/-2 to 153+/-4 mm Hg), which was significantly attenuated in COMT(-/-) mice (from 114+/-2 to 135+/-3 mm Hg). In DOCA/HS COMT(-/-) mice, the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 increased systolic blood pressure (156+/-2 mm Hg). DOCA/HS COMT(-/-) mice also exhibited more urinary sodium excretion (COMT(-/-) versus wild-type: 3038+/-430 versus 659+/-102 micromol/L per 24 hours; Pdopamine stimulates medullary prostaglandin production. Renal medullary COX-2 expression and urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion were significantly higher in COMT(-/-) than in wild-type mice after DOCA/HS treatment. In DOCA/HS-treated COMT(-/-) mice, the COX-2 inhibitor SC-58236 reduced urinary sodium and prostaglandin E(2) excretion and increased systolic blood pressure (153+/-2 mm Hg). These studies indicate that an activated renal dopaminergic system attenuates the development of hypertension, at least in large part through activating medullary COX-2 expression/activity, and also decreases oxidative stress resulting from DOCA/HS.

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type: evidence for an association with COMT but not MAOA in a Chinese sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu-Feng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are three childhood disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, and conduct disorder (CD. The most common comorbid disorder in ADHD is ODD. DSM-IV describes three ADHD subtypes: predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI, and combined type (ADHD-C. Prior work suggests that specific candidate genes are associated with specific subtypes of ADHD in China. Our previous association studies between ADHD and functional polymorphisms of COMT and MAOA, consistently showed the low transcriptional activity alleles were preferentially transmitted to ADHD-IA boys. Thus, the goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that COMT Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR jointly contribute to the ODD phenotype among Chinese ADHD boys. Methods 171 Chinese boys between 6 and 17.5 years old (mean = 10.3, SD = 2.6 with complete COMT val158met and MAOA-uVNTR genotyping information were studied. We used logistic regression with genotypes as independent variables and the binary phenotype as the dependent variable. We used p Results Our results highlight the potential etiologic role of COMT in the ADHD with comorbid ODD and its predominately inattentive type in male Chinese subjects. ADHD with comorbid ODD was associated with homozygosity of the high-activity Val allele, while the predominantly inattentive ADHD subtype was associated with the low-activity Met allele. We found no evidence of association between the MAOA-uVNTR variant and ADHD with comorbid ODD or the ADHD-IA subtype. Conclusion Our study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type highlights the potential etiologic role of COMT for ADHD children in China. But we failed to observe an interaction between COMT and MAOA, which suggests that epistasis between COMT and MAOA genes does not

  10. The quantification of COMT mRNA in post mortem cerebellum tissue: diagnosis, genotype, methylation and expression

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    Craig Ian W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The COMT gene is located on chromosome 22q11, a region strongly implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia. Previous research has suggested that activity and expression of COMT is altered in schizophrenia, and is mediated by one or more polymorphisms within the gene, including the functional Val158Met polymorphism. Method In this study we examined the expression levels of COMT mRNA using quantitative RT-PCR in 60 post mortem cerebellum samples derived from individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and no history of psychopathology. Furthermore, we have examined the methylation status of two CpG sites in the promoter region of the gene. Results We found no evidence of altered COMT expression or methylation in any of the psychiatric diagnoses examined. We did, however, find evidence to suggest that genotype is related to COMT gene expression, replicating the findings of two previous studies. Specifically, val158met (rs165688; Val allele rs737865 (G allele and rs165599 (G allele all showed reduced expression (P COMT expression, with females exhibiting significantly greater levels of COMT mRNA. Conclusion The expression of COMT does not appear to be altered in the cerebellum of individuals suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression, but does appear to be influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene.

  11. Perception of emotion in facial stimuli: The interaction of ADRA2A and COMT genotypes, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Gerly; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Harro, Jaanus

    2016-01-04

    Emotional facial stimuli are important social signals that are essential to be perceived and recognized in order to make appropriate decisions and responses in everyday communication. The ability to voluntarily guide attention to perceive and recognize emotions, and react to them varies largely across individuals, and has a strong genetic component (Friedman et al., 2008). Two key genetic variants of the catecholamine system that have been related to emotion perception and attention are the catechol-O-methyl transferase genetic variant (COMT Val158Met) and the α2A-receptor gene promoter polymorphism (ADRA2A C-1291G) accordingly. So far, the interaction of the two with sex in emotion perception has not been studied. Multilevel modeling method was applied to study how COMT Val158Met, ADRA2A C-1291G and sex are associated with measures of emotion perception in a large sample of young adults. Participants (n=506) completed emotion recognition and behavioral emotion detection tasks. It was found that COMT Val158Met genotype in combination with the ADRA2A C-1291G and sex predicts emotion detection, and perception of valence and arousal. In simple visual detection, the ADRA2A C-1291G G-allele leads to slower detection of a highly arousing face (scheming), which is modulated by each additional COMT Val158Met Met-allele and male sex predicting faster responses. The combination of G-allele, Met-allele and male sex also predicts higher perceived negativity in sad faces. No effects of C-1291G, Val158Met, and sex were found on verbal emotion recognition. Applying the findings to study the interplay between catecholamine-O-methyl transferase activity and α2A-receptors in emotion perception disorders (such as ADHD, autism and schizophrenia) in men and women would be the next step towards understanding individual differences in emotion perception.

  12. Evidence that COMT genotype and proline interact on negative-symptom outcomes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, C L; Drouet, V; Rilett, K C; Smeed, J A; Nadrich, R H; Rajparia, A; Read, L L; Clelland, J D

    2016-09-13

    Elevated peripheral proline is associated with psychiatric disorders, and there is evidence that proline is a neuromodulator. The proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) gene, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes proline catabolism, maps to human chromosome 22q11.2, a region conferring risk of schizophrenia. In the Prodh-null mouse, an interaction between elevated peripheral proline and another 22q11.2 gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), on neurotransmission and behavior has been reported. We explored the relationship between fasting plasma proline levels and COMT Val(158)Met genotype on symptoms (positive, negative and total) in schizophrenia patients. In an exploratory study we also examined symptom change in patients with bipolar disorder. There was a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT on negative symptoms in schizophrenia (P<0.0001, n=95). In COMT Val/Val patients, high proline was associated with low Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptom (SANS) scores. In contrast, high proline was associated with high SANS scores in patients carrying a Met allele. The relationship between proline and COMT also appears to modify negative symptoms across psychiatric illness. In bipolar disorder, a significant interaction was also observed on negative-symptom change (P=0.007, n=43). Negative symptoms are intractable and largely unaddressed by current medications. These data indicate a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT genotype, influencing negative symptoms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. That high proline has converse effects on symptoms by COMT genotype, may have implications for therapeutic decisions.

  13. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and COMT genes with breast cancer susceptibility in Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sharawan; Singhal, Naveen Kumar; Singh, Virendra; Rastogi, Neeraj; Srivastava, Pramod Kumar; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzymes play critical roles in estrogen metabolism. Alterations in the catalytic activity of CYP1B1 and COMT enzymes have been found associated with altered breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women in many populations. The substitution of leucine (Leu) to valine (Val) at codon 432 increases the catalytic activity of CYP1B1, however, substitution of Val to methionine (Met) at codon 158 decreases the catalytic activity of COMT. The present study was performed to evaluate the associations of CYP1B1 Leu(432)Val and/or COMT Val(158)Met polymorphisms with total, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risks in Indian women. COMT and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in controls and breast cancer patients were analyzed employing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) followed by gel electrophoresis. Although CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes did not exhibit statistically significant association with breast cancer risks when analyzed individually, COMT wild type (Val(158)Val) in combination with CYP1B1 heterozygous variant (Leu(432)Val) [OR: 0.21; 95% CI (0.05-0.82), p value; 0.021] and COMT heterozygous variant (Val(158)Met) in combination with CYP1B1 wild type (Leu(432)Leu) [OR: 0.29; 95% CI (0.08-0.96), p value; 0.042] showed significant protective association with premenopausal breast cancer risk. The results demonstrate that CYP1B1 wild type in combination with COMT heterozygous or their inverse combination offer protection against breast cancer in premenopausal Indian women.

  14. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and COMT Genes with Breast Cancer Susceptibility in Indian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharawan Yadav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1 and catechol-$O$-methyltransferase (COMT enzymes play critical roles in estrogen metabolism. Alterations in the catalytic activity of CYP1B1 and COMT enzymes have been found associated with altered breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women in many populations. The substitution of leucine (Leu to valine (Val at codon 432 increases the catalytic activity of CYP1B1, however, substitution of Val to methionine (Met at codon 158 decreases the catalytic activity of COMT. The present study was performed to evaluate the associations of CYP1B1 Leu432Val and/or COMT Val158Met polymorphisms with total, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risks in Indian women. COMT and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in controls and breast cancer patients were analyzed employing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP followed by gel electrophoresis. Although CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes did not exhibit statistically significant association with breast cancer risks when analyzed individually, COMT wild type (Val158Val in combination with CYP1B1 heterozygous variant (Leu432Val [OR: 0.21; 95% CI (0.05–0.82, p value; 0.021] and COMT heterozygous variant (Val158Met in combination with CYP1B1 wild type (Leu432Leu [OR: 0.29; 95% CI (0.08–0.96, p value; 0.042] showed significant protective association with premenopausal breast cancer risk. The results demonstrate that CYP1B1 wild type in combination with COMT heterozygous or their inverse combination offer protection against breast cancer in premenopausal Indian women.

  15. Genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and obesity in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sophia S; Morton, Lindsay M; Bergen, Andrew W; Lan, Elizabeth Z; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kvale, Paul; Hayes, Richard B; Chanock, Stephen J; Caporaso, Neil E

    2007-08-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an important modulator in the catabolism of extraneural dopamine, which plays an important role in drug reward mechanisms. It is hypothesized that genetic variations in the COMT gene, which can result in a three to fourfold difference in COMT enzyme activity, may be associated with several reward-motivated behaviors. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between COMT polymorphisms with smoking, obesity and alcohol. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in COMT were genotyped in 2,371 participants selected randomly from the screening arm of the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial after stratifying by sex, age, and smoking status. Smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption were assessed by questionnaire. SNP and haplotype associations were estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived from conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for race/ethnicity. The COMT Ex4-76C > G (Leu136Leu) polymorphism was statistically significantly associated with individuals who had >30% increases in BMI from ages 20 to 50 years, compared to those with 0-5% increase in BMI (0-5%) over the same age period: (CC is referent; OR(CG )= 1.42, OR(GG )= 1.46, P (trend )= 0.06). By sex, the increased risk was further pronounced among females (OR(CG )= 1.50, OR(GG )= 2.10, P (trend )= 0.03). Consistent with our analyses of single polymorphisms, individuals whose BMI increased >30% from ages 20 to 50 years were more likely than individuals with 0-5% increases in BMI to possess COMT haplotypes [COMT Ex3-104C > T-COMT Ex4-76 C > G-COMT Ex4-12 A > G] that included the variant allele for COMT Ex4-76 C > G: C-G-G (T-C-A is referent: OR(C-G-G )= 1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.77) and C-G-A (OR(C-G-A )= 1.79, 95% CI 0.72-4.49). We observed no association between any of the COMT polymorphisms with smoking behavior or alcohol intake. The COMT Ex4-76C > G (Leu136Leu) polymorphism appears to play a role in large increases in BMI

  16. Association of COMT and COMT-DRD2 interaction with creative potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun eZhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA transmission may contribute to creativity. Among these genes, the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT and the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2 are the most promising candidates. Our previous study has revealed evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in creative potential. The present study extended our previous study by systematically exploring the association of COMT with creative potential as well as the interaction between COMT and DRD2. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs covering COMT were genotyped in 543 healthy Chinese college students whose creative potentials were assessed by divergent thinking tests. Single SNP analysis showed that rs174697 was nominally associated with verbal originality, two SNPs (rs737865 and rs5993883 were nominally associated with figural fluency, and two SNPs (rs737865 and rs4680 were nominally associated with figural originality. Haplotype analysis showed that, the TCT and CCT haplotype (rs737865-rs174675-rs5993882 were nominally associated with figural originality, and the TATGCAG and CGCGGGA haplotype (rs4646312-rs6269-rs4633-rs6267-rs4818-rs4680-rs769224 were nominally associated with figural originality and verbal flexibility, respectively. However, none of these nominal findings survived correction for multiple testing. Gene-gene interaction analysis identified one significant four-way interaction of rs174675 (COMT, rs174697 (COMT, rs1076560 (DRD2 and rs4436578 (DRD2 on verbal fluency, one significant four-way interaction of rs174675 (COMT, rs4818 (COMT, rs1076560 (DRD2 and rs4648317 (DRD2 on verbal flexibility, and one significant three-way interaction of rs5993883 (COMT, rs4648319 (DRD2 and rs4648317 (DRD2 on figural flexibility. In conclusion, the present study provides nominal evidence for the involvement of COMT in creative potential and suggests that DA related genes may act in coordination to contribute to creativity.

  17. Action of Halowax 1051 on Enzymes of Phase I (CYP1A1 and Phase II (SULT1A and COMT Metabolism in the Pig Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Barć

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs are a group of organochlorinated compounds exhibiting dioxin-like properties. Previously published data showed the direct action of PCN-rich Halowax 1051 on ovarian follicular steroidogenesis. Taking into consideration that the observed biological effects of PCNs may be frequently side effects of metabolites generated by their detoxification, the aim of this study was to determine the activity and expression of enzymes involved in phase I (cytochrome P450, family 1 (CYP1A1 and phase II (sulfotransferase (SULT1A and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT detoxification metabolism. Cocultures of granulosa and theca interna cells collected from sexually mature pigs were exposed to 1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL of Halowax 1051 for 1 to 48 hours, after which levels and activities of CYP1A1, SULT1A, and COMT were measured. Dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 activity and expression were observed. High doses of Halowax 1051 were inhibitory to COMT and SULT1A activity and reduced their protein levels. In conclusion, fast activation of phase I enzymes with simultaneous inhibition of phase II enzymes indicates that the previously observed effect of Halowax 1051 on follicular steroidogenesis may partially result from metabolite action occurring locally in ovarian follicles.

  18. Synthesis of [{sup 18}F]Ro41-0960, a potent COMT inhibitor, for use in vivo mapping with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y.S.; Sugano, Y.; Gatley, S.J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMPT; EC 2.1.1.6) is one of the two major enzymes which metabolize the catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is distributed throughout the body and brain and is elevated in breast cancer tissue when it plays a role in estrogen metabolism. It is also an important molecular target in the development of drugs to treat Parkinson`s disease (PD). Because COMT regulates the concentration of important neurotransmitter amines such as dopamine, there is speculation that abnormalities in its activity may be associated with neurological, and psychiatric disorders. Ro41-9060(3,4-dihydroxy-5-nitro-2{prime}-fluorobenzophenone) is a potent, fluorine containing COMT inhibitor which has been reported to cross the blood brain barrier. It is structurally similar to Ro40-7592 which is currently undergoing clinical trials in PD. We report the synthesis of [{sup 18}F]Ro41-0960, for investigation for mapping COMT and for studies of COMT drugs. [{sup 18}F]Ro41-0960 was synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction with NCA [{sup 18}F] fluoride on a protected precursor (prepared via a five-step synthesis) followed by hydrolysis with HBr (synthesis time of 100 min; radiochemical yield of 5-7% (EOB)). Though Ro41-0960 has been reported to cross the blood brain barrier, PET studies in baboon demonstrated that an almost complete absence of the drug from the brain both at tracer doses and with the addition of unlabeled drug (1.5 mg/kg) at all times through a 90 min experimental interval. The plasma to brain ratios of F-18 average about 40:1. However, high uptake was observed in the kidneys and in other organs which are known to have high COMT. Studies in mice showed that at 30 min after injection of tracer, F-18 in kidneys was largely as [{sup 18}F]Ro-41-0960 and that it could be displaced with unlabeled Ro41-0960. These studies provide the first example of a positron emitter labeled COMT radiotracer.

  19. COMT Val158Met and PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphisms and susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) Pro12Ala polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a meta-analysis of the associations between the COMT Val158Met and the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphisms and AD in subjects. Meta-analysis showed no association between AD and the COMT G allele in any of the study subjects [odds ratio (OR) = 0.972, 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) = 0.893-1.059, p = 0.515]. Stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the COMT GG+GA genotype and AD in an Asian group (OR = 0.702, 95 % CI = 0.517-0.953, p = 0.023), but not in Europeans (OR = 1.058, 95 % CI = 0.868-1.289, p = 0.579). Homozygote contrast analysis showed the same pattern for the COMT GG+GA genotype. Meta-analysis showed no association between AD and the PPARγ polymorphism (OR for the C allele = 0.963, 95 % CI = 0.818-1.134, p = 0.649). This meta-analysis identified an association between AD and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in Asians but not in Europeans, but it revealed no association between AD and the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism.

  20. Expression, Purification and Activity Assay of the Recombinant Protein of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase from Chinese White Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis

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    Dian-Xiang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We have previously cloned a gene of Chinese white shrimp Catechol O-Methyltransferase (designated Fc-COMT and characterized the gene expression pattern. In this study, expression and purification as well as activity assay of the recombinant Fc-COMT was further conducted. Approach: Using pET-30a (+ as a prokaryotic expression vector, the recombinant Fc- COMT was expressed in the supernatant of Escherichia coli lysate and easily purified by His-Bind resin chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the molecular mass of recombinant Fc-COMT was approximately 30,000 Da, in good agreement with the software-predicted molecular weight. The enzymatic activity of recombinant Fc-COMT was tested using Dihydroxybenzoic Acid (DHBAc as a substrate. Results: The methyl products of DHBAc, Vanillic Acid (VA and Isovanillic Acid (IVA, were detected in the enzymatic reaction mixture with recombinant Fc-COMT by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS. Conclusion: The recombinant Fc-COMT has catalytic activity of transferring methyl group from S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAM to the 3’ hydroxyl or 4’ hydroxyl group of benzyl ring of DHBAc.

  1. Sex Differences in COMT Polymorphism Effects on Prefrontal Inhibitory Control in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas P; Loth, Eva; Rubia, Katya; Krabbendam, Lydia; Whelan, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun LW; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Paillère, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor; Smolka, Michael N; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Schumann, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    Catecholamine-0-methyl-transferase (COMT) gene variation effects on prefrontal blood oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) activation are robust; however, despite observations that COMT is estrogenically catabolized, sex differences in its prefrontal repercussions remain unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy adolescents stratified by sex and Val158Met genotype (n=1133), we examine BOLD responses during performance of the stop-signal task in right-hemispheric prefrontal regions fundamental to inhibitory control. A significant sex-by-genotype interaction was observed in pre-SMA during successful-inhibition trials and in both pre-SMA and inferior frontal cortex during failed-inhibition trials with Val homozygotes displaying elevated activation compared with other genotypes in males but not in females. BOLD activation in the same regions significantly mediated the relationship between COMT genotype and inhibitory proficiency as indexed by stop-signal reaction time in males alone. These sexually dimorphic effects of COMT on inhibitory brain activation have important implications for our understanding of the contrasting patterns of prefrontally governed psychopathology observed in males and females. PMID:24820538

  2. Functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism, risk of acute coronary events and serum homocysteine: the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study.

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    Sari Voutilainen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of circulating levels of total homocysteine tHcy in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD is still under debate. One reason for conflicting results between previous studies on homocysteine and heart diseases could be consequence of different interactions between homocysteine and genes in different study populations. Many genetic factors play a role in folate-homocysteine metabolism, like functional polymorphism (Val108Met in the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Our aim was to examine the role of COMT Val158Met polymorphism and interaction of this polymorphism with serum tHcy and folate concentration on the risk of acute coronary and events in middle-aged men from eastern Finland. A population-based prospective cohort of 792 men aged 46-64 years was examined as part of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. During an average follow-up of 9.3 years, there were 69 acute coronary events in men with no previous history of CHD. When comparing the COMT low activity genotype with the others, we found an age and examination year adjusted hazard rate ratio (HRR of 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.07-2.79, and an age, examination year, serum LDL and HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentration, systolic blood pressure and smoking adjusted HRR of 1.77 (95% CI, 1.05-2.77. Although serum tHcy concentration was not statistically significantly associated with acute coronary events (HRR for the highest third versus others 1.52, 95% CI, 0.93-2.49, subjects with both high serum tHcy and the COMT low activity genotype had an additionally increased adjusted risk of HRR 2.94 (95% CI 1.50-5.76 as compared with other men. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective cohort study suggests that the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with increased risk of acute coronary events and it may interact with high serum tHcy levels.

  3. Influence of COMT val158met genotype on the depressed brain during emotional processing and working memory.

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    Esther M Opmeer

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD has been associated with abnormal prefrontal-limbic interactions and altered catecholaminergic neurotransmission. The val158met polymorphism on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene has been shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC activation during both emotional processing and working memory (WM. Although COMT-genotype is not directly associated with MDD, it may affect MDD pathology by altering PFC activation, an endophenotype associated with both COMT and MDD. 125 participants, including healthy controls (HC, n=28 and MDD patients were genotyped for the COMT val158met polymorphism and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-neuroimaging during emotion processing (viewing of emotional facial expressions and a WM task (visuospatial planning. Within HC, we observed a positive correlation between the number of met-alleles and right inferior frontal gyrus activation during emotional processing, whereas within patients the number of met-alleles was not correlated with PFC activation. During WM a negative correlation between the number of met-alleles and middle frontal gyrus activation was present in the total sample. In addition, during emotional processing there was an effect of genotype in a cluster including the amygdala and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that COMT genotype is associated with relevant endophenotypes for MDD. In addition, presence of MDD only interacts with genotype during emotional processing and not working memory.

  4. Augusto Comte e o "positivismo" redescobertos

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    Gustavo Biscaia de Lacerda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio abordamos algumas pesquisas que, nos últimos dez anos ou mais, têm recuperado a obra do fundador do Positivismo, Augusto Comte. Essa recuperação consiste em perceber os trabalhos de Comte em sua inteireza e a partir de sua lógica interna, enfatizando em particular a sua segunda grande obra, o Système de politique positive (1851-1854, e as suas contribuições para a reflexão social e política contemporânea. A fim de tornar inteligível a novidade dessas novas pesquisas, apresentamos uma das narrativas-padrão a respeito de Comte e do Positivismo - no caso, a partir dos escritos de Anthony Giddens -; além disso, fazemos uma discussão sobre o significado da palavra "Positivismo" e as várias correntes teóricas subsumidas em tal expressão.

  5. COMT Val(158) met genotype and striatal D(2/3) receptor binding in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boot, Erik

    2011-09-01

    Although catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity evidently affects dopamine function in prefrontal cortex, the contribution is assumed less significant in striatum. We studied whether a functional polymorphism in the COMT gene (Val(158) Met) influences striatal D(2\\/3) R binding ratios (D(2\\/3) R BP(ND) ) in 15 adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome and hemizygous for this gene, using single photon emission computed tomography and the selective D(2\\/3) radioligand [(123) I]IBZM. Met hemizygotes had significantly lower mean D(2\\/3) R BPND than Val hemizygotes. These preliminary data suggest that low COMT activity may affect dopamine levels in striatum in humans and this may have implications for understanding the contribution of COMT activity to psychiatric disorders.

  6. Distribution of the Val108/158Met polymorphism of the COMT gene in healthy Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos; Juárez-Rojop, Isela; Pool García, Sherezada; Genis, Alma; Nicolini, Humberto; López Narváez, Lilia

    2013-09-10

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates the catecholamines adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine. On the other hand, some studies have reported that the enzymatic activity of COMT is partly genetically determined. With regard to the COMT gene, the most studied polymorphism is the functional variant Val108/158Met (rs4680), which results in substantial three- to four-fold variations in enzyme activity. To date, the rs4680 polymorphism of COMT has been associated with a number of disorders. In addition, this polymorphism has been found to have important differences in frequency according to the studied population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Val108/158Met of the COMT gene in the Mexican population. Accordingly, we recruited 431 healthy volunteers. Our sample consisted of 111 healthy individuals from Mexico City and 320 individuals from the state of Tabasco, Mexico. We observed that Met was the most common allele, ranging from 57% (Tabasco) to 85% (Mexico City). In addition, we analyzed the frequency of Val108/158Met polymorphism of Caucasian (54% Met allele), Asian (29% Met allele) and African (34% Met allele) populations separately and also in comparison with Mexican (63% Met allele) population. In conclusion, the distribution of the Val108/158Met polymorphism distinguishes the Mexican population studied from other populations, but it is necessary to increase the size of the sample to get more conclusive results.

  7. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and COMT Genes with Breast Cancer Susceptibility in Indian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sharawan Yadav; Naveen Kumar Singhal; Virendra Singh; Neeraj Rastogi; Pramod Kumar Srivastava; Mahendra Pratap Singh

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and catechol-$O$-methyltransferase (COMT) enzymes play critical roles in estrogen metabolism. Alterations in the catalytic activity of CYP1B1 and COMT enzymes have been found associated with altered breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women in many populations. The substitution of leucine (Leu) to valine (Val) at codon 432 increases the catalytic activity of CYP1B1, however, substitution of Val to methionine (Met) at codon 158 decreases the catalytic activity of ...

  8. [The dentistry of Blainville and the positivism of Comte].

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    Gysel, C

    1989-01-01

    COMTE improved BLAINVILLE's acquaintance when he was the secretary of SAINT-SIMON. They became friends. BLAINVILLE aided COMTE in his illness and financial troubles, taught him biology and was one of the first to support his philosophical ideas, through which he became self-conscious of his own value and scientific methods.

  9. Association study between COMT 158Met and creativity scores in bipolar disorder and healthy controls

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    Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro-de-Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Bipolar disorder (BD patients have been reported to be associated higher creativity abilities, and recent data tend to support the hypothesis that dopaminergic system that could be associated with creativity. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is one of the major enzymes involved in the metabolic degradation of dopamine. The COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680 or Val158Met Met allele is reported to cause decreased activity of this enzyme in prefrontal cortex and improve performance in several cognitive domains. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Val158Met on creativity in BD type I and healthy controls. Methods Ninety-seven healthy volunteers and 120 BD type I were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and tested for creativity (Barrow Welsh Art Scale – BWAS and intelligence Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. Results COMT Met allele positively influenced creativity scores in healthy controls but not in BD subjects during mood episodes and euthymia. The presence of allele Met did not influence IQ scores. No influence of IQ total score on creativity was observed. Limitations control group presented higher IQ scores and euthymic group was under medication use. Discussion Our research suggests positive effect of COMT rs4680 (allele Met on creativity scores in healthy controls. One possible interpretation is that creativity is more likely to be associated with lesser degrees of bipolarity. The fact that the same results were not observed in BD may be associated to dysfunctions in the dopaminergic system that characterizes this disorder. Further studies with larger samples and other types of BD should explore the role of the dopaminergic system in creativity.

  10. Structure related effects of flavonoid aglycones on cell cycle progression of HepG2 cells: Metabolic activation of fisetin and quercetin by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, Miklós; Zrínyi, Zita; Kőszegi, Tamás

    2016-10-01

    Dietary flavonoids are abundant in the Plant Kingdom and they are extensively studied because of their manifold pharmacological activities. Recent studies highlighted that cell cycle arrest plays a key role in their antiproliferative effect in different tumor cells. However, structure-activity relationship of flavonoids is poorly characterized. In our study the influence of 18 flavonoid aglycones (as well as two metabolites) on cell cycle distribution was investigated. Since flavonoids are extensively metabolized by liver cells, HepG2 tumor cell line was applied, considering the potential metabolic activation/inactivation of flavonoids. Our major observations are the followings: (1) Among the tested compounds diosmetin, fisetin, apigenin, lutelin, and quercetin provoked spectacular extent of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. (2) Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase enzyme by entacapone decreased the antiproliferative effects of fisetin and quercetin. (3) Geraldol and isorhamnetin (3'-O-methylated metabolites of fisetin and quercetin, respectively) demonstrated significantly higher antiproliferative effect on HepG2 cells compared to the parent compounds. Based on these results, O-methylated flavonoid metabolites or their chemically modified derivatives may be suitable candidates of tumor therapy in the future.

  11. Over-expression of a human chromosome 22q11.2 segment including TXNRD2, COMT and ARVCF developmentally affects incentive learning and working memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Go; Harper, Kathryn M; Hiramoto, Takeshi; Funke, Birgit; Lee, MoonSook; Kang, Gina; Buell, Mahalah; Geyer, Mark A; Kucherlapati, Raju; Morrow, Bernice; Männistö, Pekka T; Agatsuma, Soh; Hiroi, Noboru

    2009-10-15

    Duplication of human chromosome 22q11.2 is associated with elevated rates of mental retardation, autism and many other behavioral phenotypes. However, because duplications cover 1.5-6 Mb, the precise manner in which segments of 22q11.2 causally affect behavior is not known in humans. We have now determined the developmental impact of over-expression of an approximately 190 kb segment of human 22q11.2, which includes the genes TXNRD2, COMT and ARVCF, on behaviors in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic (TG) mice. BAC TG mice and wild-type (WT) mice were tested for their cognitive capacities, affect- and stress-related behaviors and motor activity at 1 and 2 months of age. An enzymatic assay determined the impact of BAC over-expression on the activity level of COMT. BAC TG mice approached a rewarded goal faster (i.e. incentive learning), but were impaired in delayed rewarded alternation during development. In contrast, BAC TG and WT mice were indistinguishable in rewarded alternation without delays, spontaneous alternation, prepulse inhibition, social interaction, anxiety-, stress- and fear-related behaviors and motor activity. Compared with WT mice, BAC TG mice had an approximately 2-fold higher level of COMT activity in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. These data suggest that over-expression of this 22q11.2 segment enhances incentive learning and impairs the prolonged maintenance of working memory, but has no apparent effect on working memory per se, affect- and stress-related behaviors or motor capacity. High copy numbers of this 22q11.2 segment might contribute to a highly selective set of phenotypes in learning and cognition during development.

  12. Modulation of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on resting-state EEG power in postmenopausal healthy women

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    Silvia eSolis-Ortiz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism impacts cortical dopamine levels and may influence cortical electrical activity in the human brain. This study investigated whether COMT genotype influences resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG power in the frontal, parietal and midline regions in healthy volunteers. EEG recordings were conducted in the resting-state in 13 postmenopausal healthy woman carriers of the Val/Val genotype and 11 with the Met/Met genotype. The resting EEG spectral absolute power in the frontal (F3, F4, F7, F8, FC3 and FC4, parietal (CP3, CP4, P3 and P4 and midline (Fz, FCz, Cz, CPz, Pz and Oz was analyzed during the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. The frequency bands considered were the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2. EEG data of the Val/Val and Met/Met genotypes, brain regions and conditions were analyzed using a general linear model analysis. In the individuals with the Met/Met genotype, delta activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition, theta activity was increased in the eyes-closed and in the eyes-open conditions, and alpha1 band, alpha2 band and beta1band activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition.A significant interaction between COMT genotypes and spectral bands was observed. Met homozygote individuals exhibited more delta, theta and beta1 activity than individuals with the Val/Val genotype. No significant interaction between COMT genotypes and the resting-state EEG regional power and conditions were observed for the three brain regions studied. Our findings indicate that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism does not directly impact resting-state EEG regional power, but instead suggest that COMT genotype can modulate resting-state EEG spectral power in postmenopausal healthy women.

  13. Epistatic and functional interactions of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT and AKT1 on neuregulin1-ErbB signaling in cell models.

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    Yoshitatsu Sei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuregulin1 (NRG1-ErbB signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer and schizophrenia. We have previously reported that NRG1-stimulated migration of B lymphoblasts is PI3K-AKT1dependent and impaired in patients with schizophrenia and significantly linked to the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT Val108/158Met functional polymorphism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have now examined AKT1 activation in NRG1-stimulated B lymphoblasts and other cell models and explored a functional relationship between COMT and AKT1. NRG1-induced AKT1 phosphorylation was significantly diminished in Val carriers compared to Met carriers in both normal subjects and in patients. Further, there was a significant epistatic interaction between a putatively functional coding SNP in AKT1 (rs1130233 and COMT Val108/158Met genotype on AKT1 phosphorylation. NRG1 induced translocation of AKT1 to the plasma membrane also was impaired in Val carriers, while PIP(3 levels were not decreased. Interestingly, the level of COMT enzyme activity was inversely correlated with the cells' ability to synthesize phosphatidylserine (PS, a factor that attracts the pleckstrin homology domain (PHD of AKT1 to the cell membrane. Transfection of SH-SY5Y cells with a COMT Val construct increased COMT activity and significantly decreased PS levels as well as NRG1-induced AKT1 phosphorylation and migration. Administration of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM rescued all of these deficits. These data suggest that AKT1 function is influenced by COMT enzyme activity through competition with PS synthesis for SAM, which in turn dictates AKT1-dependent cellular responses to NRG1-mediated signaling. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings implicate genetic and functional interactions between COMT and AKT1 and may provide novel insights into pathogenesis of schizophrenia and other ErbB-associated human diseases such as cancer.

  14. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT val158met polymorphism affects brain responses to repeated painful stimuli.

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    Marco L Loggia

    Full Text Available Despite the explosion of interest in the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in pain sensitivity, conflicting findings have emerged for most of the identified "pain genes". Perhaps the prime example of this inconsistency is represented by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, as its substantial association to pain sensitivity has been reported in various studies, but rejected in several others. In line with findings from behavioral studies, we hypothesized that the effect of COMT on pain processing would become apparent only when the pain system was adequately challenged (i.e., after repeated pain stimulation. In the present study, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to investigate the brain response to heat pain stimuli in 54 subjects genotyped for the common COMT val158met polymorphism (val/val = n 22, val/met = n 20, met/met = n 12. Met/met subjects exhibited stronger pain-related fMRI signals than val/val in several brain structures, including the periaqueductal gray matter, lingual gyrus, cerebellum, hippocampal formation and precuneus. These effects were observed only for high intensity pain stimuli after repeated administration. In spite of our relatively small sample size, our results suggest that COMT appears to affect pain processing. Our data demonstrate that the effect of COMT on pain processing can be detected in presence of 1 a sufficiently robust challenge to the pain system to detect a genotype effect, and/or 2 the recruitment of pain-dampening compensatory mechanisms by the putatively more pain sensitive met homozygotes. These findings may help explain the inconsistencies in reported findings of the impact of COMT in pain regulation.

  15. Influence of COMT val158met Genotype on the Depressed Brain during Emotional Processing and Working Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, Esther M.; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with abnormal prefrontal-limbic interactions and altered catecholaminergic neurotransmission. The val158met polymorphism on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation during both emot

  16. Synergistic effects of COMT and TPH2 on social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Tseng, Yu-Lun; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Chang, Yue-Cune; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Whether genetic factors affect social cognition, particularly emotion management, requires elucidation. This study investigates whether social cognition varies with genetic variations of COMT and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), which modulate dopamine and serotonin neurotransmissions respectively, and thereby emotion regulation. NIMH-recommended "managing emotions branch and 2 subtasks" of MSCEIT and six neurocognition domains, and genotypes of COMT Val158Met and TPH2 G703T were measured in 150 Han-Chinese healthy adults. Subjects carrying the M allele (M group) of COMT exceeded Val/Val homozygotes (V group) in managing emotions branch (p = 0.032) and emotional relation subtask (p = 0.037). TPH2 T/T homozygotes (T group) excelled those with the G allele (G group) in emotional management subtask (p = 0.025). Subjects with M+T variation surpassed the other 3 groups (M+G, V+T and V+G) in managing emotion branch (p = 0.002), emotional relation subtask (p = 0.023), and emotional management subtask (p = 0.002). The findings remained after control for gender, age, education, and neurocognitive functions. Synergistically, the effect size of COMT-TPH2 combination surmounted the sum of separate effect sizes of COMT and TPH2. The findings suggest that genetic variations of COMT and TPH2 have synergistic effects on social cognition in the general population.

  17. Cloning and Characterization of a Caffeic Acid O-methyltransferase Gene(COMT) from Hevea brasiliensis%一个橡胶树咖啡酸甲基转移酶基因(COMT)的克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚继艳; 方永军; 龙翔宇; 唐朝荣

    2013-01-01

    咖啡酸甲基转移酶(COMT)是木质素合成途径的关键酶,在植物抗逆反应中发挥重要作用.本研究基于本实验室己建立的橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)胶乳EST数据库,对组装后序列(Contig)检索并设计引物,利用PCR技术克隆到一个橡胶树COMT基因,命名为HbCOMT(GenBank登录号为GI:443908530).该基因全长1926 bp,由4个外显子和3个内含子组成,编码368个氨基酸,预测蛋白的分子量为40.58kD,等电点为5.46,具有植物O-甲基转移酶的典型特征.系统进化分析显示HbCOMT1蛋白与蓖麻(Ricinus communis)和葡萄(Vitis vinifera)的COMT聚为一组,其他11种植物的COMT则另成一组.基因表达分析显示HbCOMT1在胶乳中的表达量最高,其次是叶片和树皮,花、芽中的表达量较低,种子中几乎不表达.同时,HbCOMT1基因在胶乳中的表达量随割次增加明显上升,显著受伤害诱导,受死皮调控,但对乙烯利应答不明显.本研究首次从橡胶树中克隆了一个COMT基因,了解了其基因结构与表达特性,推测该基因可能参与乳管的胁迫应答和排胶调控,为深入揭示该基因功能提供基础资料.%Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the preferential formation of syringyl (S) monolignol subunits,and acts as a key enzyme in lignin synthesis.COMT is implicated in multiple physiological processes in plants,e.g.the functioning of plant vasculature,and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.Up to now,no literature has been available in the cloning and characterization of COMT genes in Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).Previously,we showed that the levels of a COMT protein increased markedly with tapping in the latex of reopened rubber trees.The expressions of this COMT protein correlated well with the patterns of tapping-enhanced latex yields.Here,by searching the assembled latex EST library (20126 high-quality Sanger ESTs,with average length of 575 bp),a contig annotated as COMT was

  18. Soy isoflavones, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and COMT polymorphisms, and breast cancer: a case-control study in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Hui; Tao, Ping; Wang, Yuan-Ping; Yuan, Ping; Yang, Chun-Xia; Li, Jia-Yuan; Yang, Fei; Lee, Hui; Huang, Yuan

    2011-08-01

    CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and COMT are key enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism. Soy isoflavones, phytoestrogens found in soy foods, may modify the activity of these enzymes. A case-control study was conducted to assess the associations between soy isoflavone intake and the CYP1A1 Ile462Val, CYP1B1 Val432Leu, and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms and breast cancer, as well as their combined effects on breast cancer. A total of 400 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases and 400 healthy controls were recruited. Participants' daily intake of soy isoflavones (DISI [mg/day]) was calculated and transformed to energy-adjusted DISI by the residual method. Gene sequencing was used to analyze CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and COMT polymorphisms. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. A strong protective dose-dependent effect of energy-adjusted DISI on breast cancer was found in both pre- and postmenopausal women (P(trend) CYP1B1 Leu/Leu susceptible genotype carriers had higher risk of breast cancer (aORs > 1, OR 95% CIs exclude 1). In premenopausal women, only carrying CYP1B1 Leu/Leu was associated with breast cancer risk (aOR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.11-3.79). Carrying CYP1A1 Val/Val was related to breast cancer risk only among all women. A stratified analysis was performed at two levels of energy-adjusted DISI, with wildtype homozygous genotypes and low energy-adjusted DISI as the reference. In the high energy-adjusted DISI subgroup, carrying the CYP1B1 Leu/Leu genotype did not affect breast cancer risk in either all women or in the menopausal subgroups, compared with the reference. Overall, in Han Chinese women, carrying CYP1A1 Val/Val and COMT Met/Met appears to be associated with breast cancer risk, especially in postmenopausal women. CYP1B1 susceptible genotypes (Val/Leu or Leu/Leu) also contribute to increased breast cancer risk, regardless of menopausal status, but high soy isoflavone intake may reduce this risk.

  19. Does COMT genotype influence the effects of d-amphetamine on executive functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, M C; Hart, A B; Palmer, A A; de Wit, H

    2013-02-01

    In a widely cited study, Mattay et al. reported that amphetamine (0.25 mg/kg oral, or 17 mg for a 68 kg individual) impaired behavioral and brain indices of executive functioning, measured using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and N-Back working memory task, in 6 individuals homozygous for the met allele of the val158met polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, whereas it improved executive functioning in 10 individuals homozygous for the more active val allele. We attempted to replicate their behavioral findings in a larger sample, using similar executive functioning tasks and a broader range of amphetamine doses. Over four sessions, n = 200 healthy normal adults received oral placebo, d-amphetamine 5, 10, and 20 mg (average of 0.07, 0.15 and 0.29 mg/kg), under counterbalanced double-blind conditions and completed WCST and N-back tests of executive functioning. Amphetamine had typical effects on blood pressure and processing speed but did not affect executive functioning. COMT genotype (val158met) was not related to executive functioning under placebo or amphetamine conditions, even when we compared only the homozygous val/val and met/met genotypes at the highest dose of amphetamine (20 mg). Thus, we were not able to replicate the behavioral interaction between COMT and amphetamine seen in Mattay et al. We discuss possible differences between the studies and the implications of our findings for the use of COMT genotyping to predict clinical responses to dopaminergic drugs, and the use of intermediate phenotypes in genetic research.

  20. Low enzymatic activity haplotypes of the human catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: enrichment for marker SNPs.

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    Andrea G Nackley

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is an enzyme that plays a key role in the modulation of catechol-dependent functions such as cognition, cardiovascular function, and pain processing. Three common haplotypes of the human COMT gene, divergent in two synonymous and one nonsynonymous (val(158met position, designated as low (LPS, average (APS, and high pain sensitive (HPS, are associated with experimental pain sensitivity and risk of developing chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. APS and HPS haplotypes produce significant functional effects, coding for 3- and 20-fold reductions in COMT enzymatic activity, respectively. In the present study, we investigated whether additional minor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, accruing in 1 to 5% of the population, situated in the COMT transcript region contribute to haplotype-dependent enzymatic activity. Computer analysis of COMT ESTs showed that one synonymous minor SNP (rs769224 is linked to the APS haplotype and three minor SNPs (two synonymous: rs6267, rs740602 and one nonsynonymous: rs8192488 are linked to the HPS haplotype. Results from in silico and in vitro experiments revealed that inclusion of allelic variants of these minor SNPs in APS or HPS haplotypes did not modify COMT function at the level of mRNA folding, RNA transcription, protein translation, or enzymatic activity. These data suggest that neutral variants are carried with APS and HPS haplotypes, while the high activity LPS haplotype displays less linked variation. Thus, both minor synonymous and nonsynonymous SNPs in the coding region are markers of functional APS and HPS haplotypes rather than independent contributors to COMT activity.

  1. COMT Val158Met Polymorphism Modulates Huntington's Disease Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeix, Isabelle; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Charles, Perrine; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Youssov, Katia; Verny, Christophe; Damotte, Vincent; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Goizet, Cyril; Simonin, Clémence; Tranchant, Christine; Maison, Patrick; Rialland, Amandine; Schmitz, David; Jacquemot, Charlotte; Fontaine, Bertrand; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors modulating the progression of Huntington’s disease (HD). Dopamine levels are affected in HD and modulate executive functions, the main cognitive disorder of HD. We investigated whether the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, which influences dopamine (DA) degradation, affects clinical progression in HD. We carried out a prospective longitudinal multicenter study from 1994 to 2011, on 438 HD gene carriers at different stages of the disease (34 pre-manifest; 172 stage 1; 130 stage 2; 80 stage 3; 17 stage 4; and 5 stage 5), according to Total Functional Capacity (TFC) score. We used the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale to evaluate motor, cognitive, behavioral and functional decline. We genotyped participants for COMT polymorphism (107 Met-homozygous, 114 Val-homozygous and 217 heterozygous). 367 controls of similar ancestry were also genotyped. We compared clinical progression, on each domain, between groups of COMT polymorphisms, using latent-class mixed models accounting for disease duration and number of CAG (cytosine adenine guanine) repeats. We show that HD gene carriers with fewer CAG repeats and with the Val allele in COMT polymorphism displayed slower cognitive decline. The rate of cognitive decline was greater for Met/Met homozygotes, which displayed a better maintenance of cognitive capacity in earlier stages of the disease, but had a worse performance than Val allele carriers later on. COMT polymorphism did not significantly impact functional and behavioral performance. Since COMT polymorphism influences progression in HD, it could be used for stratification in future clinical trials. Moreover, DA treatments based on the specific COMT polymorphism and adapted according to disease duration could potentially slow HD progression. PMID:27657697

  2. COMT Val158Met Polymorphism, Executive Dysfunction, and Sexual Risk Behavior in the Context of HIV Infection and Methamphetamine Dependence

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    C. A. Bousman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferease (COMT metabolizes prefrontal cortex dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter involved in executive behavior; the Val158Met genotype has been linked to executive dysfunction, which might increase sexual risk behaviors favoring HIV transmission. Main and interaction effects of COMT genotype and executive functioning on sexual risk behavior were examined. 192 sexually active nonmonogamous men completed a sexual behavior questionnaire, executive functioning tests, and were genotyped using blood-derived DNA. Main effects for executive dysfunction but not COMT on number of sexual partners were observed. A COMT x executive dysfunction interaction was found for number of sexual partners and insertive anal sex, significant for carriers of the Met/Met and to a lesser extent Val/Met genotypes but not Val/Val carriers. In the context of HIV and methamphetamine dependence, dopaminergic overactivity in prefrontal cortex conferred by the Met/Met genotype appears to result in a liability for executive dysfunction and potentially associated risky sexual behavior.

  3. The association study of polymorphisms in DAT, DRD2, and COMT genes and acute extrapyramidal adverse effects in male schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol.

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    Zivković, Maja; Mihaljević-Peles, Alma; Bozina, Nada; Sagud, Marina; Nikolac-Perkovic, Matea; Vuksan-Cusa, Bjanka; Muck-Seler, Dorotea

    2013-10-01

    Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) are common adverse effects of antipsychotics. The development of acute EPSs could depend on the activity of dopaminergic system and its gene variants. The aim of this study was to determine the association between dopaminergic type 2 receptor (DRD2) dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms and acute EPSs in 240 male schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol (15-mg/d) over a period of 2 weeks. Acute EPSs were assessed with Simpson-Angus Scale. Three dopaminergic gene polymorphisms, the DRD2 Taq1A, the SLC6A3 VNTR, and the COMT Val158Met, were determined. Extrapyramidal symptoms occurred in 116 (48.3%) of patients. Statistically significant associations were found for SLC6A3 VNTR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms and EPS susceptibility. Patients with SLC6A3 9/10 genotype had almost twice the odds to develop EPSs compared with those with all other SLC6A3 genotypes (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.30), and patients with COMT Val/Met genotype had 1.7 times greater odds to develop EPSs than those with all other COMT genotypes (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.88). There was no statistically significant association between genotype and allele frequencies of DRD2, SLC6A3, or COMT polymorphisms and the development of particular EPSs.In conclusion, the results of the present study showed for the first time the association between acute haloperidol-induced EPSs and SLC6A3 VNTR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms. Although the precise biological mechanisms underlying these findings are not yet understood, the results suggest that the dopaminergic gene variations could predict the vulnerability to the development of the acute EPSs in haloperidol-treated schizophrenic patients.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT genes in Greenlandic Inuit and Europeans

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    Mandana Ghisari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Indigenous Arctic population is of Asian descent, and their genetic background is different from the Caucasian populations. Relatively little is known about the specific genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the activation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental contaminants in Inuit and its relation to health risk. The Greenlandic Inuit are highly exposed to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, and an elucidation of gene–environment interactions in relation to health risks is needed. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the genotype and allele frequencies of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 Ile462Val (rs1048943, CYP1B1 Leu432Val (rs1056836 and catechol-O-methyltransferase COMT Val158Met (rs4680 in Greenlandic Inuit (n=254 and Europeans (n=262 and explore the possible relation between the genotypes and serum levels of POPs. Results. The genotype and allele frequency distributions of the three genetic polymorphisms differed significantly between the Inuit and Europeans. For Inuit, the genotype distribution was more similar to those reported for Asian populations. We observed a significant difference in serum polychlorinated biphenyl (CB-153 and the pesticide 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl-ethylene (p,p′-DDE levels between Inuit and Europeans, and for Inuit also associations between the POP levels and genotypes for CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT. Conclusion. Our data provide new information on gene polymorphisms in Greenlandic Inuit that might support evaluation of susceptibility to environmental contaminants and warrant further studies.

  5. Count on dopamine: influences of COMT polymorphisms on numerical cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Antunes, Andressa M.; Lopes-Silva, Júlia B.; Moreira, Bárbara C.; Vianna, Gabrielle S.; Wood, Guilherme; Carvalho, Maria R. S.; Haase, Vitor G.

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that is particularly important for the metabolism of dopamine. Functional polymorphisms of COMT have been implicated in working memory and numerical cognition. This is an exploratory study that aims at investigating associations between COMT polymorphisms, working memory, and numerical cognition. Elementary school children from 2th to 6th grades were divided into two groups according to their COMT val158met polymorphism [homozygous for valine allele (n = 61) vs. heterozygous plus methionine homozygous children or met+ group (n = 94)]. Both groups were matched for age and intelligence. Working memory was assessed through digit span and Corsi blocks. Symbolic numerical processing was assessed through transcoding and single-digit word problem tasks. Non-symbolic magnitude comparison and estimation tasks were used to assess number sense. Between-group differences were found in symbolic and non-symbolic numerical tasks, but not in working memory tasks. Children in the met+ group showed better performance in all numerical tasks while val homozygous children presented slower development of non-symbolic magnitude representations. These results suggest COMT-related dopaminergic modulation may be related not only to working memory, as found in previous studies, but also to the development of magnitude processing and magnitude representations. PMID:23966969

  6. COMT-by-Sex Interaction Effect on Psychosis Proneness

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    Marta de Castro-Catala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypy phenotypes in the general population share etiopathogenic mechanisms and risk factors with schizophrenia, supporting the notion of psychosis as a continuum ranging from nonclinical to clinical deviance. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia that is involved in the regulation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. Several recent studies have reported a sex difference in the impact of COMT genotype on psychiatric and cognitive phenotypes and personality traits. The present study investigated the association of COMT Val158Met (rs4680 with psychometric positive and negative schizotypy and psychotic experiences in a sample of 808 nonclinical young adults. The main finding was that sex moderates the association of COMT genotype with the negative dimension of both schizotypy and psychotic experiences. Male subjects carrying the Val allele tended to score higher on the negative dimension of both trait and symptom-like measures. The results from the present study are consistent with recent work suggesting an association between negative schizotypy and diminished prefrontal dopamine availability. They support the idea that a biological differentiation underlies the positive and negative schizotypy dimensions. Additionally, these findings contribute to the growing literature on sex-specific effects of COMT on the predisposition to psychiatric disorders and personality traits.

  7. Count on dopamine: influences of COMT polymorphisms on numerical cognition

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    Annelise eJúlio-Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is an enzyme that is particularly important for the metabolism of dopamine. Functional polymorphisms of COMT have been implicated in working memory and numerical cognition. This is an exploratory study that aims at investigating associations between COMT polymorphisms, working memory and numerical cognition. Elementary school children from 2th to 6th grades were divided into two groups according to their COMT val158met polymorphism (homozygous for valine allele [n= 61] versus heterozygous plus methionine homozygous children or met+ group [n=94]. Both groups were matched for age and intelligence. Working memory was assessed through digit span and Corsi blocks. Symbolic numerical processing was assessed through transcoding and single-digit word problem tasks. Non-symbolic magnitude comparison and estimation tasks were used to assess number sense. Between-group differences were found in symbolic and non-symbolic numerical tasks, but not in working memory tasks. Children in the met+ group showed better performance in all numerical tasks while val homozygous children presented slower development of non-symbolic magnitude representations. These results suggest COMT-related dopaminergic modulation may be related not only to working memory, as found in previous studies, but also to the development of magnitude processing and magnitude representations.

  8. Are genetic variants of COMT associated with addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammimäki, Anne Emilia; Männistö, Pekka T

    2010-12-01

    The human catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene contains multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms, some of which are postulated to have clinical significance. This article reviews human studies that have explored the association between COMT polymorphisms and addiction to drugs, alcohol or tobacco. Most studies concentrate on the Val108/158Met polymorphism. Although there are reports indicating a positive association with COMT polymorphisms and addiction, the majority of the studies failed to detect such a link between them with one exception, smoking. It is unlikely that there would be any single gene that could be designated as 'the addiction gene'. Rather, there seems to be a great number of genes that are associated with addiction, among which COMT seems to have a minor role. Environmental factors and genetic milieu have a great impact on whether the small effects of COMT polymorphisms on risk of addiction can be detected in a given population. Sex differences complicate the gene-environment interplay even further.

  9. Epistatic interactions involving DRD2, DRD4, and COMT polymorphisms and risk of substance abuse in women with binge-purge eating disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Howard; Thaler, Lea; Gauvin, Lise; Joober, Ridha; Labbe, Aurelie; Israel, Mimi; Kucer, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Substance abuse is common in individuals with bulimia-spectrum (binge-purge) eating disturbances, a co-occurrence that has been attributed to shared neurobiological substrates--notably alterations in dopaminergic activity. We examined the implications of variations of selected, dopamine-relevant polymorphisms (DRD2 Taq1A, DRD4 7R, and COMT) for risk of substance abuse in women with binge-purge eating syndromes. We genotyped 183 women (66.1% showing full-threshold BN and 33.9% showing sub-syndromic variants), and assessed lifetime presence of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and stimulant abuse or dependence using structured interviews. Tests for main and interaction effects of various allele combinations revealed that individuals who carried high function COMT and low-function DRD4 7R alleles (a combination expected to be associated with higher risk) did indeed show more lifetime substance abuse and, specifically, more cannabis abuse. Our findings suggest that a gene combination that, in theory, codes for low levels of dopaminergic neurotransmission coincides with sensitivity to substance abuse in a sample displaying binge-purge eating-disorder variants.

  10. Age-Dependent Effects of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met Polymorphism on Language Function in Developing Children.

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    Sugiura, Lisa; Toyota, Tomoko; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Mazuka, Reiko; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2016-11-30

    The genetic basis controlling language development remains elusive. Previous studies of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met genotype and cognition have focused on prefrontally guided executive functions involving dopamine. However, COMT may further influence posterior cortical regions implicated in language perception. We investigated whether COMT influences language ability and cortical language processing involving the posterior language regions in 246 children aged 6-10 years. We assessed language ability using a language test and cortical responses recorded during language processing using a word repetition task and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The COMT genotype had significant effects on language performance and processing. Importantly, Met carriers outperformed Val homozygotes in language ability during the early elementary school years (6-8 years), whereas Val homozygotes exhibited significant language development during the later elementary school years. Both genotype groups exhibited equal language performance at approximately 10 years of age. Val homozygotes exhibited significantly less cortical activation compared with Met carriers during word processing, particularly at older ages. These findings regarding dopamine transmission efficacy may be explained by a hypothetical inverted U-shaped curve. Our findings indicate that the effects of the COMT genotype on language ability and cortical language processing may change in a narrow age window of 6-10 years.

  11. Dopamine metabolism in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome, with and without schizophrenia--relationship with COMT Val¹⁰⁸/¹⁵⁸Met polymorphism, gender and symptomatology.

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    Boot, Erik; Booij, Jan; Abeling, Nico; Meijer, Julia; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Zinkstok, Janneke; Baas, Frank; Linszen, Don; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2011-07-01

    22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a major risk factor for schizophrenia. In addition, both conditions are associated with alterations of the dopaminergic system. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, located within the deleted region, encodes for the enzyme COMT that is important for degradation of catecholamines, including dopamine (DA). COMT activity is sexually dimorphic and its gene contains a functional polymorphism, Val¹⁰⁸/¹⁵⁸ Met; the Met allele is associated with lower enzyme activity. We report the first controlled catecholamine study in 22q11DS-related schizophrenia. Twelve adults with 22q11DS with schizophrenia (SCZ+) and 22 adults with 22q11DS without schizophrenia (SCZ-) were genotyped for the COMT Val¹⁰⁸/¹⁵⁸ Met genotype. We assessed dopaminergic markers in urine and plasma. We also correlated these markers with scores on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). Contrary to our expectations, we found SCZ+ subjects to be more often Val hemizygous and SCZ- subjects more often Met hemizygous. Significant COMT cross gender interactions were found on dopaminergic markers. In SCZ+ subjects there was a negative correlation between prolactin levels and scores on the general psychopathology subscale of the PANSS scores. These findings suggest intriguing, but complex, interactions of the COMT Val¹⁰⁸/¹⁵⁸ Met polymorphism, gender and additional factors on DA metabolism, and its relationship with schizophrenia.

  12. COMT Val158Met genotype selectively alters prefrontal [18F]fallypride displacement and subjective feelings of stress in response to a psychosocial stress challenge.

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    Dennis Hernaus

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT plays an essential role in degradation of extracellular dopamine in prefrontal regions of the brain. Although a polymorphism in this gene, COMT Val(158Met, affects human behavior in response to stress little is known about its effect on dopaminergic activity associated with the human stress response, which may be of interest for stress-related psychiatric disorders such as psychosis. We aimed to investigate the effect of variations in COMT genotype on in vivo measures of stress-induced prefrontal cortex (PFC dopaminergic processing and subjective stress responses. A combined sample of healthy controls and healthy first-degree relatives of psychosis patients (n = 26 were subjected to an [(18F]fallypride Positron Emission Tomography scan. Psychosocial stress during the scan was induced using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task and subjective stress was assessed every 12 minutes. Parametric t-maps, generated using the linear extension of the simplified reference region model, revealed an effect of COMT genotype on the spatial extent of [(18F]fallypride displacement. Detected effects of exposure to psychosocial stress were unilateral and remained restricted to the left superior and right inferior frontal gyrus, with Met-hetero- and homozygotes showing less [(18F]fallypride displacement than Val-homozygotes. Additionally, Met-hetero- and homozygotes experienced larger subjective stress responses than Val-homozygotes. The direction of the effects remained the same when the data was analyzed separately for controls and first-degree relatives. The human stress response may be mediated in part by COMT-dependent dopaminergic PFC activity, providing speculation for the neurobiology underlying COMT-dependent differences in human behaviour following stress. Implications of these results for stress-related psychopathology and models of dopaminergic functioning are discussed.

  13. Inhibition of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) by tolcapone restores reductions in microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin (SYP) following exposure of neuronal cells to neurotropic HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ting Ting; Chana, Gursharan; Gorry, Paul R; Ellett, Anne; Bousman, Chad A; Churchill, Melissa J; Gray, Lachlan R; Everall, Ian P

    2015-10-01

    This investigation aimed to assess whether inhibition of cathecol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) by tolcapone could provide neuroprotection against HIV-associated neurodegenerative effects. This study was conducted based on a previous work, which showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 158 (val158met) in COMT, resulted in 40 % lower COMT activity. Importantly, this reduction confers a protective effect against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which have been linked to HIV-associated brain changes. SH-SY5Y-differentiated neurons were exposed to macrophage-propagated HIV (neurotropic MACS2-Br strain) in the presence or absence of tolcapone for 6 days. RNA was extracted, and qPCR was performed using Qiagen RT2 custom array consisting of genes for neuronal and synaptic integrity, COMT and pro-inflammatory markers. Immunofluorescence was conducted to validate the gene expression changes at the protein level. Our findings demonstrated that HIV significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of COMT while reducing the expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) (p = 0.0015) and synaptophysin (SYP) (p = 0.012) compared to control. A concomitant exposure of tolcapone ameliorated the perturbed expression of MAP2 (p = 0.009) and COMT (p = 0.024) associated with HIV. Immunofluorescence revealed a trend reduction of SYP and MAP2 with exposure to HIV and that concomitant exposure of tolcapone increased SYP (p = 0.016) compared to HIV alone. Our findings demonstrated in vitro that inhibition of COMT can ameliorate HIV-associated neurodegenerative changes that resulted in the decreased expression of the structural and synaptic components MAP2 and SYP. As HIV-associated dendritic and synaptic damage are contributors to HAND, inhibition of COMT may represent a potential strategy for attenuating or preventing some of the symptoms of HAND.

  14. Inhibition of Catechol-O-methyl Transferase (COMT) by Tolcapone Restores Reductions in Microtubule-associated Protein 2 (MAP2) and Synaptophysin (SYP) Following Exposure of Neuronal Cells to Neurotropic HIV

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    Lee, Ting Ting; Chana, Gursharan; Gorry, Paul R.; Ellett, Anne; Bousman, Chad A.; Churchill, Melissa J.; Gray, Lachlan R.; Everall, Ian P.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess whether inhibition of cathecol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) by Tolcapone could provide neuroprotection against HIV-associated neurodegenerative effects. This study was conducted based on previous work, which showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 158 (val158met) in COMT, resulted in 40% lower COMT activity. Importantly, this reduction confers a protective effect against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which have been linked to HIV-associated brain changes. SH-SY5Y differentiated neurons were exposed to macrophage-propagated HIV (neurotropic MACS2-Br strain) in the presence or absence of Tolcapone for 6 days. RNA was extracted and qPCR was performed using Qiagen RT2-custom-array consisting of genes for neuronal and synaptic integrity, COMT and pro-inflammatory markers. Immunofluorescence was conducted to validate the gene expression changes at the protein level. Our findings demonstrated that HIV significantly increased the mRNA expression of COMT while reduced the expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) (p=0.0015) and synaptophysin (SYP) (p=0.012) compared to control. A concomitant exposure of Tolcapone ameliorated the perturbed expression of MAP2 (p=0.009) and COMT (p=0.024) associated with HIV. Immunofluorescence revealed a trend reduction of SYP and MAP2 with exposure to HIV, and that concomitant exposure of Tolcapone increased SYP (p=0.016) compared to HIV alone. Our findings demonstrated in vitro that inhibition of COMT can ameliorate HIV-associated neurodegenerative changes that resulted in the decreased expression of the structural and synaptic components MAP2 and SYP. As HIV-associated dendritic and synaptic damage are contributors to HAND, inhibition of COMT may represent a potential strategy for attenuating or preventing some of the symptoms of HAND. PMID:26037113

  15. Association of COMT val158met and DRD2 G>T genetic polymorphisms with individual differences in motor learning and performance in female young adults.

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    Noohi, Fatemeh; Boyden, Nate B; Kwak, Youngbin; Humfleet, Jennifer; Burke, David T; Müller, Martijn L T M; Bohnen, Nico I; Seidler, Rachael D

    2014-02-01

    Individuals learn new skills at different rates. Given the involvement of corticostriatal pathways in some types of learning, variations in dopaminergic transmission may contribute to these individual differences. Genetic polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) genes partially determine cortical and striatal dopamine availability, respectively. Individuals who are homozygous for the COMT methionine (met) allele show reduced cortical COMT enzymatic activity, resulting in increased dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex as opposed to individuals who are carriers of the valine (val) allele. DRD2 G-allele homozygotes benefit from a higher striatal dopamine level compared with T-allele carriers. We hypothesized that individuals who are homozygous for COMT met and DRD2 G alleles would show higher rates of motor learning. Seventy-two young healthy females (20 ± 1.9 yr) performed a sensorimotor adaptation task and a motor sequence learning task. A nonparametric mixed model ANOVA revealed that the COMT val-val group demonstrated poorer performance in the sequence learning task compared with the met-met group and showed a learning deficit in the visuomotor adaptation task compared with both met-met and val-met groups. The DRD2 TT group showed poorer performance in the sequence learning task compared with the GT group, but there was no difference between DRD2 genotype groups in adaptation rate. Although these results did not entirely come out as one might predict based on the known contribution of corticostriatal pathways to motor sequence learning, they support the role of genetic polymorphisms of COMT val158met (rs4680) and DRD2 G>T (rs 1076560) in explaining individual differences in motor performance and motor learning, dependent on task type.

  16. Association between catechol-O-methyltransferase activity and the development and progression of endometrial cancer%COMT活性与子宫内膜癌发生和发展相关

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方; 付焱; 李俊玉; 刘雪静; 李利

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨儿茶酚氧位甲基转移酶( catechol-O-methyltransferase,COMT)的活性与子宫内膜癌发生、发展的关系.方法:建立体外反应体系,以3,4-二羟基苯甲酸(3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid,DBA)为底物,采用反相高效液相色谱法检测终反应产物4-羟基-3-甲氧基苯甲酸(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid,4-OH-3-MBA)的浓度,以此反映COMT的活性.应用此方法检测子宫内膜癌组织、正常子宫内膜组织(对照组)及待检者外周血中COMT活性,并比较子宫内膜癌组和对照组患者中COMT的活性差异.结果:可溶性COMT( soluble-COMT,S-COMT)是子宫内膜组织中COMT的主要活性形式,子宫内膜组织中S-COMT活性明显高于外周血中S-COMT的活性(P=0.000);子宫内膜癌组织中S-COMT的活性明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P=0.001).低分化的子宫内膜癌组织中S-COMT的活性明显低于高、中分化的子宫内膜癌组织,差异有统计学意义(P=0.042).结论:人子宫内膜组织中COMT的活性改变可能与子宫内膜癌的发生、发展有关.%Objective: To investigate the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity and the development and progression of endometrial cancer. Methods: The in vitro reaction system was established and the 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DBA) was used as a substrate. The concentration of final product 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (4-OH-3-MBA) which indicated the activity of COMT was detected by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The COMT activity in the endometrial cancer tissues and the normal endometrial tissues (as the control) was examined and compared, and the COMT activity in the peripheral blood was also detected. Results: The essential biologically active form of COMT was soluble-COMT (S-COMT) in the endometrial tissues. The S-COMT activity level was higher in the endometrial tissues than that in the peripheral blood (P = 0.000), but it was highest in

  17. COMT polymorphism modulates the resting-state EEG alpha oscillatory response to acute nicotine in male non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, H; Smith, D; de la Salle, S; Choueiry, J; Impey, D; Philippe, T; Dort, H; Millar, A; Daigle, M; Albert, P R; Beaudoin, A; Knott, V

    2015-07-01

    Performance improvements in cognitive tasks requiring executive functions are evident with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, and activation of the underlying neural circuitry supporting these cognitive effects is thought to involve dopamine neurotransmission. As individual difference in response to nicotine may be related to a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that strongly influences cortical dopamine metabolism, this study examined the modulatory effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on the neural response to acute nicotine as measured with resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations. In a sample of 62 healthy non-smoking adult males, a single dose (6 mg) of nicotine gum administered in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was shown to affect α oscillatory activity, increasing power of upper α oscillations in frontocentral regions of Met/Met homozygotes and in parietal/occipital regions of Val/Met heterozygotes. Peak α frequency was also found to be faster with nicotine (vs. placebo) treatment in Val/Met heterozygotes, who exhibited a slower α frequency compared to Val/Val homozygotes. The data tentatively suggest that interindividual differences in brain α oscillations and their response to nicotinic agonist treatment are influenced by genetic mechanisms involving COMT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. The catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) and cognitive function from childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysina, Darya; Xu, Man K; Barnett, Jennifer H; Croudace, Tim J; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus; Jones, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    Genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) can influence cognitive function, and this effect may depend on developmental stage. Using a large representative British birth cohort, we investigated the effect of COMT on cognitive function (verbal and non-verbal) at ages 8 and 15 years taking into account the possible modifying effect of pubertal stage. Five functional COMT polymorphisms, rs6269, rs4818, rs4680, rs737865 and rs165599 were analysed. Associations between COMT polymorphisms and cognition were tested using regression and latent variable structural equation modelling (SEM). Before correction for multiple testing, COMT rs737865 showed association with reading comprehension, verbal ability and global cognition at age 15 years in pubescent boys only. Although there was some evidence for age- and sex-specific effects of the COMT rs737865 none remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Further studies are necessary in order to make firmer conclusions.

  19. 儿童攻击行为与COMT Val158Met及5-HTTLPR基因多态性关联分析%Association between aggressive behaviors and COMT Val158Met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉萍; 李龙飞; 赵幸福; 张亚林

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨儿茶酚胺氧位甲基转移酶(COMT)第158位密码子从缬氨酸到蛋氨酸的错义突变(Val158Met)多态性及5-羟色胺转运体(5-HTT)基因启动子区缺失/插入多态性(5-HTTLPR)是否为家庭暴力环境下儿童攻击行为的易感因素.方法 以家庭暴力环境下68例儿童作为研究对象,依据Achenbach儿童行为量表(父母卷)评分,其中24例为攻击行为高分组,44例为低分组.采用聚合酶链式反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)技术,检测两组COMT Val158Met和5-HTTLPR多态性,对所得基因型和等位基因频率进行对照和关联分析.结果 攻击行为高分组与低分组COMT Val158Met多态性的各基因型差异(χ2=1.612,P=0.447)和等位基因频率差异(χ2=1.648,P=0.119)均无统计学意义.两组5-HTTLPR多态性的各基因型差异(χ2=1.807,P=0.405)和等位基因频率差异(χ2=0.403,P=0.527)亦无统计学意义.结论 本研究结果不支持COMT Val158Met和5-HTTLPR基因多态性是儿童攻击行为产生的易感因素.提示儿童攻击行为可能是多因素共同作用的结果.%Objective To investigate the association between aggressive behaviors and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) single nucleotide polymorphism at position 158 from a valine to a methionine (Val158Met) as well as serotonin (5-HT) transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in children. Methods A total of 68 children who were exposed to domestic violence were recruited. The frequencies of genotypes and alleles of COMT Val158Met and 5-HTTLPR were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. A comparison was conducted between 24 children with high scores of aggressive problems and 44 control children with low scores of aggressive problems according to Child Behavior Checklist ( for parents). Results There were no significant differences in genotypes of C OMT Vail 58Met (x2 = 1.612,P = 0. 447) and 5-HTTLPR (x2

  20. A meta-analysis of the Val158Met COMT polymorphism and violent behavior in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P Singh

    Full Text Available We conducted a meta-analysis of studies examining the association between the Val158Met COMT polymorphism and violence against others in schizophrenia. A systematic search current to November 1, 2011 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service and identified 15 studies comprising 2,370 individuals with schizophrenia for inclusion. Bivariate analyses of study sensitivities and specificities were conducted. This methodology allowed for the calculation of pooled diagnostic odds ratios (DOR. Evidence of a significant association between the presence of a Met allele and violence was found such that men's violence risk increased by approximately 50% for those with at least one Met allele compared with homozygous Val individuals (DOR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.05-2.00; z = 2.37, p = 0.02. No significant association between the presence of a Met allele and violence was found for women or when outcome was restricted to homicide. We conclude that male schizophrenia patients who carry the low activity Met allele in the COMT gene are at a modestly elevated risk of violence. This finding has potential implications for the pharmacogenetics of violent behavior in schizophrenia.

  1. Janus molecule I: dichotomous effects of COMT in neuropathic vs nociceptive pain modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, S K; Maixner, W; Belfer, I; Wiltshire, T; Seltzer, Z; Diatchenko, L

    2012-05-01

    The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has been shown to play a critical role in pain perception by regulating levels of epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE). Although the key contribution of catecholamines to the perception of pain has been recognized for a long time, there is a clear dichotomy of observations. More than a century of research has demonstrated that increasing adrenergic transmission in the spinal cord decreases pain sensitivity in animals. Equally abundant evidence demonstrates the opposite effect of adrenergic signaling in the peripheral nervous system, where adrenergic signaling increases pain sensitivity. Viewing pain processing within spinal and peripheral compartments and determining the directionality of adrenergic signaling helps clarify the seemingly contradictory findings of the pain modulatory properties of adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists presented in other reviews. Available evidence suggests that adrenergic signaling contributes to pain phenotypes through α(1/2) and β(2/3) receptors. While stimulation of α(2) adrenergic receptors seems to uniformly produce analgesia, stimulation of α(1) or β receptors produces either analgesic or hyperalgesic effects. Establishing the directionality of adrenergic receptor modulation of pain processing, and related COMT activity in different pain models are needed to bring meaning to recent human molecular genetic findings. This will enable the translation of current findings into meaningful clinical applications such as diagnostic markers and novel therapeutic targets for complex human pain conditions.

  2. Modifying effect of COMT gene polymorphism and a predictive role for proteomics analysis in children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Hongliang; Qu, Weidong; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Jiang, Chunyang; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Aiguo

    2015-04-01

    Cumulative fluoride exposure has adverse influences on children's intelligence quotient (IQ). In addition, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with cognitive performance. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of COMT polymorphism and alterations of protein profiles with children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area. We recruited 180 schoolchildren (10-12 years old) from high fluoride exposure (1.40 mg/l) and control areas (0.63 mg/l) in Tianjin City, China. The children's IQ, fluoride contents in drinking water (W-F), serum (S-F), and urine (U-F); serum thyroid hormone levels, COMT Val158Met polymorphism, and plasma proteomic profiling were determined. Significant high levels of W-F, S-F, U-F, along with poor IQ scores were observed in the high fluoride exposure group compared with those in control (all P intelligence, whereas the COMT polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to the deficits in IQ due to fluoride exposure. Moreover, the proteomic analysis can provide certain basis for identifying the early biological markers of fluorosis among children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Cortical Dopamine Transmission as Measured with the [11C]FLB 457 - Amphetamine PET Imaging Paradigm Is Not Influenced by COMT Genotype.

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    Rajesh Narendran

    Full Text Available Basic investigations link a Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680 in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene to not only its enzymatic activity, but also to its dopaminergic tone in the prefrontal cortex. Previous PET studies have documented the relationship between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and D1 and D2/3 receptor binding potential (BP, and interpreted them in terms of dopaminergic tone. The use of baseline dopamine D1 and D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPND as a proxy for dopaminergic tone is problematic because they reflect both endogenous dopamine levels (a change in radiotracer's apparent affinity and receptor density. In this analysis of 31 healthy controls genotyped for the Val158Met polymorphism (Val/Val, Val/Met, and Met/Met, we used amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 as a direct measure of dopamine release. Our analysis failed to show a relationship between COMT genotype status and prefrontal cortical dopamine release. COMT genotype was also not predictive of baseline dopamine D2/3 receptor BPND.

  4. Investigating the genetic basis of theory of mind (ToM: the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene polymorphisms.

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    Haiwei Xia

    Full Text Available The ability to deduce other persons' mental states and emotions which has been termed 'theory of mind (ToM' is highly heritable. First molecular genetic studies focused on some dopamine-related genes, while the genetic basis underlying different components of ToM (affective ToM and cognitive ToM remain unknown. The current study tested 7 candidate polymorphisms (rs4680, rs4633, rs2020917, rs2239393, rs737865, rs174699 and rs59938883 on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. We investigated how these polymorphisms relate to different components of ToM. 101 adults participated in our study; all were genetically unrelated, non-clinical and healthy Chinese subjects. Different ToM tasks were applied to detect their theory of mind ability. The results showed that the COMT gene rs2020917 and rs737865 SNPs were associated with cognitive ToM performance, while the COMT gene rs5993883 SNP was related to affective ToM, in which a significant gender-genotype interaction was found (p = 0.039. Our results highlighted the contribution of DA-related COMT gene on ToM performance. Moreover, we found out that the different SNP at the same gene relates to the discriminative aspect of ToM. Our research provides some preliminary evidence to the genetic basis of theory of mind which still awaits further studies.

  5. Investigating the genetic basis of theory of mind (ToM): the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiwei; Wu, Nan; Su, Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deduce other persons' mental states and emotions which has been termed 'theory of mind (ToM)' is highly heritable. First molecular genetic studies focused on some dopamine-related genes, while the genetic basis underlying different components of ToM (affective ToM and cognitive ToM) remain unknown. The current study tested 7 candidate polymorphisms (rs4680, rs4633, rs2020917, rs2239393, rs737865, rs174699 and rs59938883) on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. We investigated how these polymorphisms relate to different components of ToM. 101 adults participated in our study; all were genetically unrelated, non-clinical and healthy Chinese subjects. Different ToM tasks were applied to detect their theory of mind ability. The results showed that the COMT gene rs2020917 and rs737865 SNPs were associated with cognitive ToM performance, while the COMT gene rs5993883 SNP was related to affective ToM, in which a significant gender-genotype interaction was found (p = 0.039). Our results highlighted the contribution of DA-related COMT gene on ToM performance. Moreover, we found out that the different SNP at the same gene relates to the discriminative aspect of ToM. Our research provides some preliminary evidence to the genetic basis of theory of mind which still awaits further studies.

  6. The effect of COMT gene on the target precision of the athlete movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Mikhailova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find correlation between COMT gene alleles and the target precision of the athlete movement. 68 Russian competing athletes involved in boxing and volleyball, participated in the study. We found interrelation between COMT Met allele and a tall stature in the volleyball players.

  7. Inhibition of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated O-methylation of catechol estrogens by major polyphenolic components present in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao Ting; Wang, Pan; Nagai, Mime; Wen, Yujing; Bai, Hyoung-Woo

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of three catechol-containing coffee polyphenols, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), on the O-methylation of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol (2-OH-E(2) and 4-OH-E(2), respectively) catalyzed by the cytosolic catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) isolated from human liver and placenta. When human liver COMT was used as the enzyme, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid each inhibited the O-methylation of 2-OH-E(2) in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 1.3-1.4 and 6.3-12.5 microM, respectively, and they also inhibited the O-methylation of 4-OH-E(2), with IC(50) values of 0.7-0.8 and 1.3-3.1 microM, respectively. Similar inhibition pattern was seen with human placental COMT preparation. CAPE had a comparable effect as caffeic acid for inhibiting the O-methylation of 2-OH-E(2), but it exerted a weaker inhibition of the O-methylation of 4-OH-E(2). Enzyme kinetic analyses showed that chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid inhibited the human liver and placental COMT-mediated O-methylation of catechol estrogens with a mixed mechanism of inhibition (competitive plus noncompetitive). Computational molecular modeling analysis showed that chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid can bind to human soluble COMT at the active site in a similar manner as the catechol estrogen substrates. Moreover, the binding energy values of these two coffee polyphenols are lower than that of catechol estrogens, which means that coffee polyphenols have higher binding affinity for the enzyme than the natural substrates. This computational finding agreed perfectly with our biochemical data.

  8. Simultaneous MAO-B and COMT inhibition in L-Dopa-treated patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyytinen, J; Kaakkola, S; Ahtila, S; Tuomainen, P; Teräväinen, H

    1997-07-01

    The effect of selegiline (L-deprenyl) on plasma catecholamines, clinical response, and drug tolerability was studied in 13 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with L-Dopa/benserazide and entacapone, a peripheral catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor, in a placebo-controlled double-blind study. An L-Dopa test was performed on 3 study days. The first study day was with L-Dopa/benserazide only (control), the second after 14 days of treatment with 200 mg entacapone taken concomitantly with L-Dopa/benserazide in combination with either selegiline (10 mg daily) or placebo. After a 2-week washout period, selegiline and placebo treatments were switched, and the third study day was after 14 days of treatment. During the study days, clinical response was evaluated at 30-min intervals for 6 h, by using the motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). In addition, repeated blood pressure measurements were made, and plasma samples were taken for analysis of L-Dopa, 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), dopamine, noradrenaline, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG). Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and COMT enzyme activities were measured from platelets and erythrocytes, respectively. Entacapone improved the clinical response to L-Dopa during both selegiline and placebo (p DOPAC levels and decreased plasma 3-OMD and MHPG levels both with selegiline and placebo. Selegiline partially inhibited the entacapone-induced increase of plasma DOPAC. Plasma dopamine and noradrenaline levels did not change. Entacapone decreased erythrocyte COMT activity by > 35% (p patient withdrew because of diarrhea, dizziness, and loss of sleep when receiving selegiline treatment. Otherwise no differences in adverse events, mean daily blood pressures, or other safety parameters were observed between selegiline and placebo treatments. Our results suggest that entacapone can be safely administered together

  9. Interaction between COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism and childhood adversity affects reward processing in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Treutlein, Jens; Rietschel, Marcella; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered dopamine transmission may increase the risk of mental disorders such as ADHD, schizophrenia or depression, possibly mediated by reward system dysfunction. This study aimed to clarify the impact of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism in interaction with environmental variation (G×E) on neuronal activity during reward processing. 168 healthy young adults from a prospective study conducted over 25years participated in a monetary incentive delay task measured with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. DNA was genotyped for COMT, and childhood family adversity (CFA) up to age 11 was assessed by a standardized parent interview. At reward delivery, a G×E revealed that fMRI activation for win vs. no-win trials in reward-related regions increased with the level of CFA in Met homozygotes as compared to Val/Met heterozygotes and Val homozygotes, who showed no significant effect. During the anticipation of monetary vs. verbal rewards, activation decreased with the level of CFA, which was also observed for EEG, in which the CNV declined with the level of CFA. These results identify convergent genetic and environmental effects on reward processing in a prospective study. Moreover, G×E effects during reward delivery suggest that stress during childhood is associated with higher reward sensitivity and reduced efficiency in processing rewarding stimuli in genetically at-risk individuals. Together with previous evidence, these results begin to define a specific system mediating interacting effects of early environmental and genetic risk factors, which may be targeted by early intervention and prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibition by tolcapone counteracts recognition memory deficits in normal and chronic phencyclidine-treated rats and in COMT-Val transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrait, Eric R; Carr, Greg V; Weinberger, Daniel R; Lamberty, Yves

    2016-08-01

    The critical involvement of dopamine in cognitive processes has been well established, suggesting that therapies targeting dopamine metabolism may alleviate cognitive dysfunction. Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is a catecholamine-degrading enzyme, the substrates of which include dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. The present work illustrates the potential therapeutic efficacy of COMT inhibition in alleviating cognitive impairment. A brain-penetrant COMT inhibitor, tolcapone, was tested in normal and phencyclidine-treated rats and COMT-Val transgenic mice. In a novel object recognition procedure, tolcapone counteracted a 24-h-dependent forgetting of a familiar object as well as phencyclidine-induced recognition deficits in the rats at doses ranging from 7.5 to 30 mg/kg. In contrast, entacapone, a COMT inhibitor that does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, failed to show efficacy at doses up to 30 mg/kg. Tolcapone at a dose of 30 mg/kg also improved novel object recognition performance in transgenic mice, which showed clear recognition deficits. Complementing earlier studies, our results indicate that central inhibition of COMT positively impacts recognition memory processes and might constitute an appealing treatment for cognitive dysfunction related to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Hybridization of downregulated-COMT transgenic switchgrass lines with field-selected switchgrass for improved biomass traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Holly L.; Alexander, Lisa W.; Mazarei, Mitra; Haynes, Ellen; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Sykes, Robert W.; Decker, Stephen R.; Davis, Mark F.; Dixon, Richard A.; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Neal Stewart, C.

    2016-01-21

    Transgenic switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been produced for improved cell walls for biofuels. For instance, downregulated caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) switchgrass produced significantly more biomass and biofuel than the non-transgenic progenitor line. In the present study we sought to further improve biomass characteristics by crossing the downregulated COMT T1 lines with high-yielding switchgrass accessions in two genetic backgrounds ('Alamo' and 'Kanlow'). Crosses and T2 progeny analyses were made under greenhouse conditions to assess maternal effects, plant morphology and yield, and cell wall traits. Female parent type influenced morphology, but had no effect on cell wall traits. T2 hybrids produced with T1 COMT-downregulated switchgrass as the female parent were taller, produced more tillers, and produced 63% more biomass compared with those produced using the field selected accession as the female parent. Transgene status (presence or absence of transgene) influenced both growth and cell wall traits. T2 transgenic hybrids were 7% shorter 80 days after sowing and produced 43% less biomass than non-transgenic null-segregant hybrids. Cell wall-related differences included lower lignin content, reduced syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) lignin monomer ratio, and a 12% increase in total sugar release in the T2 transgenic hybrids compared to non-transgenic null segregants. This is the first study to evaluate the feasibility of transferring the low-recalcitrance traits associated with a transgenic switchgrass line into high-yielding field varieties in an attempt to improve growth-related traits. Our results provide insights into the possible improvement of switchgrass productivity via biotechnology paired with plant breeding.

  12. Determination of catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in brain tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line radiochemical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissinen, E.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive assay for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line radiochemical detection was described. The method was based on the measurement of /sup 3/H- labeled 3-O- and 4-O-methylated products of the substrate, 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid, using S-adenosyl-L-(methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine as the methyl donor, or the measurement of /sup 14/C-labeled 3-O- and 4-O-methylated products of the substrate, (7-/sup 14/C)dopamine. The reaction products were determined from the incubation mixture after removal of protein by injecting an aliquot into the liquid chromatograph. The detection limit with counting efficiency of 40% was 0.45 pmol /sup 3/H-labeled product, and 0. 04 pmol /sup 14/C-labeled product with 61% counting efficiency. The method is suitable for assaying membrane-bound and soluble COMT activities in the brain tissue and for calculation of meta/para product ratios.

  13. COMT基因与精神分裂症的相关性及法医学意义%Association and Its Forensic Significance between COMT Gene and Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁春丽; 周雪; 王保捷; 丁梅; 庞灏

    2012-01-01

    儿茶酚氧位甲基转移酶(catechol-O-methyltransferase,COMT)基因编码产生儿茶酚氧位甲基转移酶,该基因的遗传变异可能影响COMT的表达量及代谢活性,致使中枢神经系统的儿茶酚胺神经递质的有效浓度发生变化,导致中枢神经系统功能异常而与精神分裂症相关.本文对COMT基因的遗传多态性、遗传变异进行了综述,包括COMT基因的SNP、单倍型与精神分裂症的关系,与攻击或暴力行为的关系,与精神分裂症患者额叶认知功能的关系等.COMT基因遗传变异与精神分裂症患者攻击或暴力倾向的相关性研究对于司法精神病鉴定具有潜在的应用价值.%Catechol-O-methyltransferase(COMT) gene encodes catechol-O-methyltransferase, the variant of this gene may affect the expression and metabolic activity of COMT. As the result of the changes of the effective concentration of the catecholamine neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, central nervous system dysfunctions associated with schizophrenia. This review summarizes genetic polymorphism and diversity of COMT gene. It also elaborates the relation between SNP and haplotype of COMT gene and three aspects, which including schizophrenia, attacking and violent tendency, and the frontal cognitive function of the schizophreniac. The correlativity study between genetic variation of the COMT gene and schizophrenia in patients with attacking and violent tendency may be helpful for the assessment of forensic psychiatry.

  14. Clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy": the influence of gender and genetics (CYP2D6, COMT, 5-HTT.

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    Ricardo Pardo-Lozano

    Full Text Available The synthetic psychostimulant MDMA (± 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy acts as an indirect serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine agonist and as a mechanism-based inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6. It has been suggested that women are more sensitive to MDMA effects than men but no clinical experimental studies have satisfactorily evaluated the factors contributing to such observations. There are no studies evaluating the influence of genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics (CYP2D6; catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT and pharmacological effects of MDMA (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT; COMT. This clinical study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and physiological and subjective effects of MDMA considering gender and the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, COMT, and 5-HTT. A total of 27 (12 women healthy, recreational users of ecstasy were included (all extensive metabolizers for CYP2D6. A single oral weight-adjusted dose of MDMA was administered (1.4 mg/kg, range 75-100 mg which was similar to recreational doses. None of the women were taking oral contraceptives and the experimental session was performed during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Principal findings show that subjects reached similar MDMA plasma concentrations, and experienced similar positive effects, irrespective of gender or CYP2D6 (not taking into consideration poor or ultra-rapid metabolizers or COMT genotypes. However, HMMA plasma concentrations were linked to CYP2D6 genotype (higher with two functional alleles. Female subjects displayed more intense physiological (heart rate, and oral temperature and negative effects (dizziness, sedation, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Genotypes of COMT val158met or 5-HTTLPR with high functionality (val/val or l/* determined greater cardiovascular effects, and with low functionality (met/* or s/s negative subjective effects (dizziness, anxiety, sedation. In conclusion, the contribution

  15. No evidence of association between Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met genotype and performance on neuropsychological tasks in children with ADHD: A case-control study

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    O'Donovan Michael C

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between the functional Val158Met polymorphism in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene and neurocognitive performance. Two studies showed that subjects with the low activity Met allele performed better on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and another study found an effect on processing speed and attention. Methods We set out to examine the association between the Val158Met polymorphism and performance on neurocognitive tasks including those tapping working memory, attention and speed, impulsiveness and response inhibition in a sample of 124 children with ADHD. Task performance for each genotypic group was compared using analysis of variance. Results There was no evidence of association with performance on any of the neurocognitive tasks. Conclusions We conclude that Val158Met COMT genotype is not associated with neurocognitive performance in our sample.

  16. The Role of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene in Personality and Related Psychopathological Disorders

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    Montag, Christian; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Reuter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a short overview of the most significant biologically oriented theories of human personality. Personality concepts of Eysenck, Gray and McNaughton, Cloninger and Panksepp will be introduced and the focal evidence for the heritability of personality will be summarized. In this context, a synopsis of a large number of COMT genetic association studies (with a focus on the COMT Val158Met polymorphism) in the framework of the introduced biologically oriented personality theori...

  17. An association study of DRD2 and COMT polymorphisms with novelty seeking and harm avoidance scores, in two independent samples of depressed patients

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    Frampton Christopher MA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was recently reported that an interaction of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT influences the behavioural approach system – as measured using Carver and White's Behavioural Inhibition and Behavioural Approach System (BIS/BAS scales – in a sample of healthy German subjects. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, in particular the novelty seeking (NS and harm avoidance (HA scales, correlates moderately with the BIS/BAS measure. This study aimed to examine support for an association of DRD2 and COMT with behavioural activation, using the TCI within two independent samples of depressed outpatients (for both samples n = 146. Methods Two clinical samples of depressed patients were ascertained to assess the efficacy of two different pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyse NS and HA scale and subscale scores with respect to gene loci within each clinical sample. Analysis of covariance were undertaken to examine the association of age and gender with NS and HA scores. An association of age group or gender with gene loci were explored using chi-squared tests, in each sample. Results No significant effect of DRD2 or COMT, either independently or as an interaction, on NS or HA scores was observed, within either sample. Whilst age was significantly negatively associated with NS scores, including age in the two- and three-way interactions did not affect the significance of the association of personality with gene loci. Conclusion This study suggests that the COMT-DRD2 Equilibrium Model of Positive Emotionality recently proposed by Reuter and his colleagues is not applicable amongst currently depressed individuals, whose behavioural approach and inhibition tendencies have been assessed using the TCI.

  18. Cloning and Analysis of Caffeic Acid O-methyltransferase Gene( SmCOMT1 ) from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.%丹参咖啡酸-O-甲基转移酶基因(SmCOMT1)的克隆及其分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋银; 王东浩; 吴锦斌; 周露; 王国栋; 王喆之

    2012-01-01

    According to the sequencing result of caffeic acid 0-methyltransferase from Salvia miltiorrhiza tran-scriptome database analysis, its specific primers were designed. By RT-PCR method, a novel COMT gene was i-solated from 5. miltiorrhiza, and named as SmCOMTl ( Genebank accession number; JF693491). SmCOMTl, with full-length cDNA of 1 158 bp, includes an open reading frame of 1 095 bp which encodes a 364 amino acids polypeptide. Furthermore, a length of 2 275 bp sequence was also cloned by PCR from genomic DNA of S. miltiorrhiza . The genomic DNA of SmCOMTl, aligned with cDNA, contains four exons and three introns in the encoding region. The results of amino acid sequence analysis shows that deduced amino acid polypeptide contains all the conserved element of COMT family and it is highly homologous to COMT proteins from the same family of Ocimum basilicum with 89% identity. Phylogenetic tree analysis also indicates that SmCOMTl is more related to the genetic relationship of COMT in dicotyledonous plants. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that SmCOMTl was expressed in different organs, and was highly expressed in stem, and could be induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and pathogen. These results showed that SmCOMTl might be pathogen-responsive gene in plant defenses.%依据丹参转录组数据库得到的咖啡酸-O-甲基转移酶基因序列设计特异性引物,采用RT-PCR方法从丹参分离得到一个新的COMT基因,命名为SmCOMTI(GenBank注册号为JF693491).该基因cDNA全长1158 bp,包含一个长为1095 bp的开放阅读框,编码364个氨基酸.SmCOMT1 gDNA序列长2275 bp,包含4个外显子和3个内含子.序列分析结果表明,SmCOMT1编码的多肽具有COMT的序列保守元件,与同科植物罗勒COMT编码的多肽高度同源,同源性达到89%.系统进化树分析表明,SmCOMT1与双子叶植物的COMT亲缘关系较近.qRT-PCR 结果表明,SmCOMT1基因在丹参不同组织器官中差异表达,其中茎中的表达量最高,并

  19. How to consistently link extraversion and intelligence to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene: on defining and measuring psychological phenotypes in neurogenetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Jan; Mueller, Erik M; Hennig, Jürgen; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2012-02-01

    The evidence for associations between genetic polymorphisms and complex behavioral/psychological phenotypes (traits) has thus far been weak and inconsistent. Using the well-studied Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene as an example, we demonstrate that using theoretical models to guide phenotype definition and measuring the phenotypes of interest with a high degree of specificity reveals strong gene-behavior associations that are consistent with prior work and that would have otherwise gone unnoticed. Only after statistically controlling for irrelevant portions of phenotype variance did we observe strong (Cohen's d = 0.33-0.70) and significant associations between COMT Val158Met and both cognitive and affective traits in a healthy male sample (N = 201) in Study 1: Carriers of the Met allele scored higher in fluid intelligence (reasoning) but lower in both crystallized intelligence (general knowledge) and the agency facet of extraversion. In Study 2, we conceptually replicated the association of COMT Val158Met with the agency facet of extraversion after partialing irrelevant phenotype variance in a female sample (N = 565). Finally, through reanalysis of a large published data set we showed that Met allele carriers also scored higher in indicators of fluid intelligence after partialing verbal fluency. Because the Met allele codes for a less efficient variant of the enzyme COMT, resulting in higher levels of extrasynaptic prefrontal dopamine, these observations provide further support for a role for dopamine in both intelligence and extraversion. More importantly, the present findings have important implications for the definition of psychological phenotypes in neurogenetic research.

  20. Auguste Comte's blunder: an account of the first century of stellar spectroscopy and how it took one hundred years to prove that Comte was wrong!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2010-07-01

    In 1835 the French philosopher Auguste Comte predicted that we would never know anything about the chemical composition of stars. This paper gives a broad overview of the development of stellar spectroscopy, especially from about 1860. Developments in stellar spectroscopy segregated quite clearly into three main fields of endeavour: spectral classification, radial velocities and spectral analysis. This paper concentrates mainly on spectral analysis, or how stellar spectroscopy one hundred years after Comte showed that quantitative information on the composition of stars was possible. The journey was quite arduous, as it required numerous developments in theoretical physics and in laboratory spectroscopy, which in turn allowed stellar spectral analysis successfully to be undertaken by the mid-twentieth century. The key developments in physics that first had to be understood were in quantum and atomic theory, ionization theory, the concept of the Planck function, local thermodynamic equilibrium, the first stellar model atmospheres, line formation theory, turbulence, collisional broadening of spectral lines and the theory of radiative transfer and of the curve of growth. The close links between stellar spectroscopy and theoretical physics will be emphasized. In addition laboratory physics, to measure line wavelengths and oscillator strengths, was also an essential precursor to quantitative data on the chemical composition of stars. Comte may have been an influential philosopher of science in his time. Perhaps his one small transgression was not to have read the works of Joseph Fraunhofer, which in the early nineteenth century already contained the first small clues that Comte's assertion might be wrong.

  1. Catechol-o-methyltransferase gene polymorphism is associated with skeletal muscle properties in older women alone and together with physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula H A Ronkainen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscle strength declines on average by one percent annually from midlife on. In postmenopausal women this decrement coincides with a rapid decline in estrogen production. The genetics underlying the effects of estrogen on skeletal muscle remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether polymorphisms within COMT and ESR1 are associated with muscle properties and assessed their interaction and their combined effects with physical activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional data analysis was conducted with 434 63-76-year-old women from the population-based Finnish Twin Study on Aging. Body anthropometry, muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA, isometric hand grip and knee extension strengths, and leg extension power were measured. COMT Val158Met and ESR1 PvuII genotypes were determined by the RFLP method. mCSA differed by COMT genotypes (p = 0.014 being significantly larger in LL than HL individuals in unadjusted (p = 0.001 and age- and height-adjusted model (p = 0.004. When physical activity and age were entered into GEE model, COMT genotype had a significant main effect (p = 0.038 on mCSA. Furthermore, sedentary individuals with the HH genotype had lower muscle mass, strength and power, but they also appeared to benefit the most from physical activity. No association of ESR1 PvuII polymorphism with any of the muscle outcomes was observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study suggests that the COMT polymorphism, affecting the activity of the enzyme, is associated with muscle mass. Furthermore, sedentary individuals with potential high enzyme activity were the weakest group, but they may potentially benefit the most from physical activity. This observation elucidates the importance of both environmental and genetic factors in muscle properties.

  2. COMT基因多态性与儿童精神发育迟滞及儿童认知能力的相关性研究%Association Between a Functional COMT Polymorphism, Mental Retardation and Cognition in Qinba Area Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张科进; 高晓彩; 李端林; 陈超; 郑子健; 黄绍平; 张富昌

    2006-01-01

    children. The results of the case-control analysis showed that there was no association between the frequencies of genotypes of COMT and MR (x2=0.776,P>0.05) or between the frequency of COMT alleles and MR (x2=0.335, P>0.05). COMT polymorphism was found in children whose intelligence quotient (IQ) was above 55. In normal children (IQ≥85), the frequencies of high-activity allele COMTH and the homozygote genotype COMTHH were 60.98% and 79.28%,respectively. Both were higher than those of the borderline group(46.67% and 70.67%, 0.10>P>0.05).Therefore, the result of this study suggests that this functional polymorphism is not an important risk factor for MR, but the COMTHH genotype may have a positive effect on cognitive performance in normal children in the Qinba area.

  3. Estimation of the sanitary impact associated to the domestic exposure to radon in Franche-Comte; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire associe a l'exposition domestique au radon en Franche-Comte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O.; Pirard, P. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (France); Clinard, F.; Aury, K.; Tillier, C. [Cire Centre-Est, 21 - Dijon (France); Aury, K. [Registre Dijonnais des AVC, Centre d' Epidemiologie de Population, 21 - Dijon (France); Noury, L. [Direction Regionale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de Franche-Comte, 25 - Besancon (France); Hochard, A. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante de Franche-Comte, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2008-09-15

    The importance of the impact of public health associate to domestic radon exposure in Franche-Comte is clearly formulated. The radon concentrations are higher in the granite areas. However, the impact is essentially concentrated in the Franche-Comte sedimentary areas where the essential of the population lives. (N.C.)

  4. Divergent backward masking performance in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: association with COMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Sponheim, Scott R

    2008-03-05

    Schizophrenia has been reliably associated with impairments in backward masking performance, while bipolar disorder has less consistently been tied to such a deficit. To examine the genetic determinants of visual perception abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, this study evaluated the diagnostic specificity of backward masking performance deficits and whether masking deficits were associated with catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) genotype. A location-based backward masking task, which equated participants on the perceptual intensity of stimuli, was completed by 41 schizophrenia outpatients, 28 bipolar outpatients, and 43 nonpsychiatric controls. COMT genotype data were available for 39 schizophrenia outpatients, 28 bipolar outpatients, and 20 nonpsychiatric controls. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated impaired backward masking performance compared to controls and bipolar patients. A group by COMT genotype interaction was detected with schizophrenia Met homozygotes performing more poorly than control and bipolar Met homozygotes, and worse than Val homozygote and heterozygote schizophrenia patients. This study provides novel evidence for differential effects of the COMT gene on neural systems underlying visual perception in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The COMT Met allele may be associated with deficits in schizophrenia that are unrelated to neural systems supporting sustained attention or working memory.

  5. Child exposure to serious life events, COMT, and aggression: Testing differential susceptibility theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygen, Beate Wold; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Lydersen, Stian; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in aggression. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met (COMT), a common, functional polymorphism, has been implicated in aggression and aggression traits, as have childhood experiences of adversity. It is unknown whether these effects are additive or interactional and, in the case of interaction, whether they conform to a diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility model. We examined Gene × Environment interactions between COMT and serious life events on measures of childhood aggression and contrasted these 2 models. The sample was composed of community children (N = 704); 355 were boys, and the mean age was 54.8 months (SD = 3.0). The children were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and assessed for serious life events and by teacher-rated aggression. Regression analysis showed no main effects of COMT and serious life events on aggression. However, a significant interactive effect of childhood serious life events and COMT genotype was observed: Children who had faced many serious life events and were Val homozygotes exhibited more aggression (p = .02) than did their Met-carrying counterparts. Notably, in the absence of serious life events, Val homozygotes displayed significantly lower aggression scores than did Met carriers (p = .03). When tested, this constellation of findings conformed to the differential susceptibility hypothesis: In this case, Val homozygotes are more malleable to the effect of serious life events on aggression and not simply more vulnerable to the negative effect of having experienced many serious life events.

  6. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene modulates private self-consciousness and self-flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Ru, Wenzhao; Yang, Xing; Yang, Lu; Fang, Pengpeng; Zhu, Xu; Shen, Guomin; Gao, Xiaocai; Gong, Pingyuan

    2016-08-01

    Dopamine levels in the brain influence human consciousness. Inspired by the role of Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in inactivating dopamine in the brain, we investigated to what extent COMT could modulate individual's self-consciousness dispositions and self-consistency by genotyping the COMT Val158Met (rs4680) polymorphism and measuring self-consciousness and self-consistency and congruence in a college student population. The results indicated that COMT Val158Met polymorphism significantly modulated the private self-consciousness. The individuals with Val/Val genotype, corresponding to lower dopamine levels in the brain, were more likely to be aware of their feelings and beliefs. The results also indicated that this polymorphism modulated one's self-flexibility. The individuals with Val/Val genotype showed higher levels of stereotype in self-concept compared with those with Met/Met genotype. These findings suggest that COMT is a predictor of the individual differences in self-consciousness and self-flexibility.

  7. The role of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in personality and related psychopathological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Reuter, Martin

    2012-05-01

    This review provides a short overview of the most significant biologically oriented theories of human personality. Personality concepts of Eysenck, Gray and McNaughton, Cloninger and Panksepp will be introduced and the focal evidence for the heritability of personality will be summarized. In this context, a synopsis of a large number of COMT genetic association studies (with a focus on the COMT Val158Met polymorphism) in the framework of the introduced biologically oriented personality theories will be given. In line with the theory of a continuum model between healthy anxious behavior and related psychopathological behavior, the role of the COMT gene in anxiety disorders will be discussed. A final outlook considers new research strategies such as genetic imaging and epigenetics for a better understanding of human personality.

  8. Estradiol replacement enhances fear memory formation, impairs extinction and reduces COMT expression levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Carmel M; Liu, Dan; Ade, Catherine; Schrader, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Females experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders at approximately twice the rate of males, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain undefined. The effect of sex hormones on neural substrates presents a possible mechanism. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy at two ages, before puberty and in adulthood, and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement administered chronically in drinking water on anxiety level, fear memory formation, and extinction. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that estradiol replacement would impair fear memory formation and enhance extinction rate. Females, age 4 weeks and 10 weeks, were divided randomly into 4 groups; sham surgery, OVX, OVX+low E2 (200nM), and OVX+high E2 (1000nM). Chronic treatment with high levels of E2 significantly increased anxiety levels measured in the elevated plus maze. In both age groups, high levels of E2 significantly increased contextual fear memory but had no effect on cued fear memory. In addition, high E2 decreased the rate of extinction in both ages. Finally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is important for regulation of catecholamine levels, which play a role in fear memory formation and extinction. COMT expression in the hippocampus was significantly reduced by high E2 replacement, implying increased catecholamine levels in the hippocampus of high E2 mice. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced fear memory formation, and inhibited fear memory extinction, possibly stabilizing the fear memory in female mice. This study has implications for a neurobiological mechanism for PTSD and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT Gene in the Etiopathogenesis of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Acar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors in the risk of developing schizophrenia is of great importance. With the help of the advances in the field of genetics in recent years by using linkage analysis several genes have been identified that may be a risk factor in schizophrenia. Several association studies have been performed in many different populations on the candidate susceptibility genes that were defined in previous studies. However, these studies give controversial results in different countries with different populations, and there are problems in obtaining replicable results. In this review we aimed to focus on the genetic basis of schizophrenia and the relationship between schizophrenia and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. COMT encodes an enzyme molecule which has an important function in dopamine pathways. It has great importance in catecholamine metabolism and pharmacology and genetic mechanism of catechol metabolism variations and their clinical consequences. COMT transfers the methyl group from S-adenosyl-methionine to the hydroxyl group of catechol nucleus (such as dopamine, norepinephrine or catechol estrogen. Genetic variations found in COMT gene are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical phenotype including psychiatric disorders or estrogen related cancers. Several groups have performed studies on the relationship between schizophrenia and COMT. The most commonly studied polymorphism in COMT gene is rs4680 and it causes a valine methionine conversion at codon 158. The association studies on this polymorphism in different populations gave both positive and negative results. Schizoprenia is a complex disease caused by the interaction of environmental and genetic factors, while interpreting the genetic data, this fact and the possibility of the presence of different gene products should be taken into account. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 217-226

  10. TPMT, COMT and ACYP2 genetic variants in paediatric cancer patients with cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, Signe; Yin, Peng; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Zhang, Jieying Eunice; Manzo, Valentina; McEvoy, Laurence; Barton, Christopher; Picton, Susan; Bailey, Simon; Brock, Penelope; Vyas, Harish; Walker, David; Makin, Guy; Bandi, Srinivas; Pizer, Barry; Hawcutt, Daniel B; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2017-06-01

    Cisplatin ototoxicity affects 42-88% of treated children. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and AYCP2 genetic variants have been associated with ototoxicity, but the findings have been contradictory. The aims of the study were as follows: (a) to investigate these associations in a carefully phenotyped cohort of UK children and (b) to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis. We recruited 149 children from seven UK centres using a retrospective cohort study design. All participants were clinically phenotyped carefully. Genotyping was performed for one ACYP2 (rs1872328), three TPMT (rs12201199, rs1142345 and rs1800460) and two COMT (rs4646316 and rs9332377) variants. For CTCAE grading, hearing loss was present in 91/120 (75.8%; worst ear) and 79/120 (65.8%; better ear). Using Chang grading, hearing loss was diagnosed in 85/119 (71.4%; worst ear) versus 75/119 (63.0%; better ear). No TPMT or COMT single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with ototoxicity. ACYP2 SNP rs1872328 was associated with ototoxicity (P=0.027; worst ear). Meta-analysis of our data with that reported in previous studies showed the pooled odds ratio (OR) to be statistically significant for both the COMT SNP rs4646316 (OR: 1.50; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-1.95) and the ACYP2 SNP rs1872328 (OR: 5.91; 95% confidence interval: 1.51-23.16). We showed an association between the ACYP2 polymorphism and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, but not with the TPMT and COMT. A meta-analysis was statistically significant for both the COMT rs4646316 and the ACYP2 rs1872328 SNPs. Grading the hearing of children with asymmetric hearing loss requires additional clarification.

  11. Cognitive manic symptoms in bipolar disorder associated with polymorphisms in the DAOA and COMT genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzana Sudic Hukic

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is characterized by severe mood symptoms including major depressive and manic episodes. During manic episodes, many patients show cognitive dysfunction. Dopamine and glutamate are important for cognitive processing, thus the COMT and DAOA genes that modulate the expression of these neurotransmitters are of interest for studies of cognitive function. METHODOLOGY: Focusing on the most severe episode of mania, a factor was found with the combined symptoms of talkativeness, distractibility, and thought disorder, considered a cognitive manic symptoms (CMS factor. 488 patients were genotyped, out of which 373 (76% had talkativeness, 269 (55% distractibility, and 372 (76% thought disorder. 215 (44% patients were positive for all three symptoms, thus showing CMS (Table 1. As population controls, 1,044 anonymous blood donors (ABD were used. Case-case and case-control design models were used to investigate genetic associations between cognitive manic symptoms in bipolar 1 disorder and SNPs in the COMT and DAOA genes. [Table: see text]. RESULTS: The finding of this study was that cognitive manic symptoms in patients with bipolar 1 disorder was associated with genetic variants in the DAOA and COMT genes. Nominal association for DAOA SNPs and COMT SNPs to cognitive symptoms factor in bipolar 1 disorder was found in both allelic (Table 2 and haplotypic (Table 3 analyses. Genotypic association analyses also supported our findings. However, only one association, when CMS patients were compared to ABD controls, survived correction for multiple testing by max (T permutation. Data also suggested interaction between SNPs rs2391191 in DAOA and rs5993883 in COMT in the case-control model. [Table: see text] [Table: see text]. CONCLUSION: Identifying genes associated with cognitive functioning has clinical implications for assessment of prognosis and progression. Our finding are consistent with other studies showing genetic associations

  12. Time Course Field Analysis of COMT-Downregulated Switchgrass: Lignification, Recalcitrance, and Rust Susceptibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Holly L.; Mazarei, Mitra; Fu, Chunxiang; Cheng, Qunkang; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Sykes, Robert W.; Windham, Mark T.; Davis, Mark F.; Dixon, Richard A.; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Stewart, C. Neal

    2016-05-18

    Modifying plant cell walls by manipulating lignin biosynthesis can improve biofuel yields from lignocellulosic crops. For example, transgenic switchgrass lines with downregulated expression of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, a lignin biosynthetic enzyme, produce up to 38% more ethanol than controls. The aim of the present study was to understand cell wall lignification over the second and third growing seasons of COMT-downregulated field-grown switchgrass. COMT gene expression, lignification, and cell wall recalcitrance were assayed for two independent transgenic lines at monthly intervals. Switchgrass rust (Puccinia emaculata) incidence was also tracked across the seasons. Trends in lignification over time differed between the 2 years. In 2012, sampling was initiated in mid-growing season on reproductive-stage plants and there was little variation in the lignin content of all lines (COMT-downregulated and control) over time. COMT-downregulated lines maintained 11-16% less lignin, 33-40% lower S/G (syringyl-to-guaiacyl) ratios, and 15-42% higher sugar release relative to controls for all time points. In 2013, sampling was initiated earlier in the season on elongation-stage plants and the lignin content of all lines steadily increased over time, while sugar release expectedly decreased. S/G ratios increased in non-transgenic control plants as biomass accumulated over the season, while remaining relatively stable across the season in the COMT-downregulated lines. Differences in cell wall chemistry between transgenic and non-transgenic lines were not apparent until plants transitioned to reproductive growth in mid-season, after which the cell walls of COMT-downregulated plants exhibited phenotypes consistent with what was observed in 2012. There were no differences in rust damage between transgenics and controls at any time point. These results provide relevant fundamental insights into the process of lignification in a maturing field-grown biofuel feedstock with

  13. TALEN mediated targeted mutagenesis of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in highly polyploid sugarcane improves cell wall composition for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Je Hyeong; Altpeter, Fredy

    2016-09-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a prime crop for commercial biofuel production. Advanced conversion technology utilizes both, sucrose accumulating in sugarcane stems as well as cell wall bound sugars for commercial ethanol production. Reduction of lignin content significantly improves the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. Conventional mutagenesis is not expected to confer reduction in lignin content in sugarcane due to its high polyploidy (x = 10-13) and functional redundancy among homo(eo)logs. Here we deploy transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to induce mutations in a highly conserved region of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) of sugarcane. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was validated by pyrosequencing as reliable and inexpensive high throughput method for identification and quantitative characterization of TALEN mediated mutations. Targeted COMT mutations were identified by CE in up to 74 % of the lines. In different events 8-99 % of the wild type COMT were converted to mutant COMT as revealed by pyrosequencing. Mutation frequencies among mutant lines were positively correlated to lignin reduction. Events with a mutation frequency of 99 % displayed a 29-32 % reduction of the lignin content compared to non-transgenic controls along with significantly reduced S subunit content and elevated hemicellulose content. CE analysis displayed similar peak patterns between primary COMT mutants and their vegetative progenies suggesting that TALEN mediated mutations were faithfully transmitted to vegetative progenies. This is the first report on genome editing in sugarcane. The findings demonstrate that targeted mutagenesis can improve cell wall characteristics for production of lignocellulosic ethanol in crops with highly complex genomes.

  14. Synthesis and optimization of N-heterocyclic pyridinones as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhijian; Harrison, Scott T; Schubert, Jeffrey W; Sanders, John M; Polsky-Fisher, Stacey; Zhang, Nanyan Rena; McLoughlin, Debra; Gibson, Christopher R; Robinson, Ronald G; Sachs, Nancy A; Kandebo, Monika; Yao, Lihang; Smith, Sean M; Hutson, Pete H; Wolkenberg, Scott E; Barrow, James C

    2016-06-15

    A series of N-heterocyclic pyridinone catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors were synthesized. Physicochemical properties, including ligand lipophilic efficiency (LLE) and clogP, were used to guide compound design and attempt to improve inhibitor pharmacokinetics. Incorporation of heterocyclic central rings provided improvements in physicochemical parameters but did not significantly reduce in vitro or in vivo clearance. Nevertheless, compound 11 was identified as a potent inhibitor with sufficient in vivo exposure to significantly affect the dopamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and indicate central COMT inhibition.

  15. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weili; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    People may experience an "aha" moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving.

  16. COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism is associated with nonverbal cognition following mild traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Winkler (Ethan A.); J.K. Yue (John); T.W. McAllister (Thomas W.); N.R. Temkin (Nancy); S.S. Oh (Sam S.); E.G. Burchard (Esteban); D. Hu (Donglei); A.R. Ferguson (Adam); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); J.F. Burke (John F.); M.D. Sorani (Marco); J. Rosand (Jonathan); E.L. Yuh (Esther); J. Barber (Jason); P.E. Tarapore (Phiroz E.); R.C. Gardner (Raquel C.); S. Sharma (Sourabh); G.G. Satris (Gabriela G.); C. Eng (Celeste); A.M. Puccio (Ava); K.K.W. Wang (Kevin K. W.); P. Mukherjee (Pratik); A.B. Valadka (Alex); D. Okonkwo (David); R. Diaz-Arrastia (Ramon); G. Manley (Geoffrey)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical outcomes, which may be influenced by genetic variation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme which degrades catecholamine neurotransmitters, may influence cognitive deficits foll

  17. COMT Val158Met Genotype as a Risk Factor for Problem Behaviors in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, Matthew D.; Harder, Valerie S.; Althoff, Robert R.; Rettew, David C.; Ehli, Erik A.; Lengyel-Nelson, Timea; Davies, Gareth E.; Ayer, Lynsay; Sulman, Julie; Stanger, Catherine; Hudziak, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth exhibiting Val-homozygosity would have greater average…

  18. COMT val(158)met genotype and smooth pursuit eye movements in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, H Magnus; Ettinger, Ulrich; Magnusdottir, Brynja B;

    2009-01-01

    The association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val(158)met polymorphism (rs4680) and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) was investigated in 110 schizophrenia patients and 96 controls. Patients had lower steady-state pursuit gain and made more frequent saccades than controls...

  19. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: The role of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT gene polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili eJiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available People may experience an aha moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving.

  20. [Five Franche-Comté doctors and surgeons during the Revolution, Empire and the Restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Henri-Michel; Magnin, Pierre; Maurat, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Five doctors played an important part in medicine in Franche-Comté and more generally speaking in France, during the French Revolution, Empire and Restauration: J.F. Desault, E. Tourtelle, P.F. Percy, J.F. Thomassin and P.F. Briot.

  1. SbCOMT (Bmr12) is involved in the biosynthesis of tricin-lignin in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Dutta, Tanmoy; Deng, Kai; Jacquet, Nicolas; Sinha, Anagh; Benites, Veronica T; Baidoo, Edward E K; Richel, Aurore; Sattler, Scott E; Northen, Trent R; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Loqué, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, tricin has been shown to be part of the native lignin polymer in certain monocot species. Because tricin is considered to initiate the polymerization of lignin chains, elucidating its biosynthesis and mechanism of export to the cell wall constitute novel challenges for the engineering of bioenergy crops. Late steps of tricin biosynthesis require two methylation reactions involving the pathway intermediate selgin. It has recently been demonstrated in rice and maize that caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT) involved in the synthesis syringyl (S) lignin units derived from sinapyl alcohol also participates in the synthesis of tricin in planta. In this work, we validate in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) that the O-methyltransferase responsible for the production of S lignin units (SbCOMT / Bmr12) is also involved in the synthesis of lignin-linked tricin. In particular, we show that biomass from the sorghum bmr12 mutant contains lower level of tricin incorporated into lignin, and that SbCOMT can methylate the tricin precursors luteolin and selgin. Our genetic and biochemical data point toward a general mechanism whereby COMT is involved in the synthesis of both tricin and S lignin units.

  2. COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism is associated with nonverbal cognition following mild traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Winkler (Ethan A.); J.K. Yue (John); T.W. McAllister (Thomas W.); N.R. Temkin (Nancy); S.S. Oh (Sam S.); E.G. Burchard (Esteban); D. Hu (Donglei); A.R. Ferguson (Adam); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); J.F. Burke (John F.); M.D. Sorani (Marco); J. Rosand (Jonathan); E.L. Yuh (Esther); J. Barber (Jason); P.E. Tarapore (Phiroz E.); R.C. Gardner (Raquel C.); S. Sharma (Sourabh); G.G. Satris (Gabriela G.); C. Eng (Celeste); A.M. Puccio (Ava); K.K.W. Wang (Kevin K. W.); P. Mukherjee (Pratik); A.B. Valadka (Alex); D. Okonkwo (David); R. Diaz-Arrastia (Ramon); G. Manley (Geoffrey)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical outcomes, which may be influenced by genetic variation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme which degrades catecholamine neurotransmitters, may influence cognitive deficits

  3. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongkanand, Anusorn [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  4. Differential association of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism with clinical phenotypes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Sponheim, Scott R

    2008-08-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, although diagnostically separate, likely share elements of their genetic etiology. This study assessed whether the COMT Val158Met polymorphism has shared or specific associations with clinical phenotypes evident in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia and bipolar patients completed a clinical assessment encompassing premorbid functioning and current and lifetime symptomatology. Multivariate analyses yielded a three-way interaction of diagnosis, COMT genotype for lifetime symptomatology. The COMT Val allele was associated with greater positive symptomatology in schizophrenia, whereas Met homozygosity was associated with greater positive symptomatology in bipolar disorder. Findings support the COMT Val158Met polymorphism conferring vulnerability for different clinical phenotypes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Lifetime symptomatology may be particularly useful in determining the relationship between genes and clinical phenotypes across mental disorders.

  5. Sexually dimorphic effects of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT inhibition on dopamine metabolism in multiple brain regions.

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    Linda M Laatikainen

    Full Text Available The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT enzyme metabolises catecholamines. COMT inhibitors are licensed for the adjunctive treatment of Parkinson's disease and are attractive therapeutic candidates for other neuropsychiatric conditions. COMT regulates dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC but plays a lesser role in the striatum. However, its significance in other brain regions is largely unknown, despite its links with a broad range of behavioural phenotypes hinting at more widespread effects. Here, we investigated the effect of acute systemic administration of the brain-penetrant COMT inhibitor tolcapone on tissue levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC and homovanillic acid (HVA. We examined PFC, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum in the rat. We studied both males and females, given sexual dimorphisms in several aspects of COMT's function. Compared with vehicle, tolcapone significantly increased dopamine levels in the ventral hippocampus, but did not affect dopamine in other regions, nor noradrenaline in any region investigated. Tolcapone increased DOPAC and/or decreased HVA in all brain regions studied. Notably, several of the changes in DOPAC and HVA, particularly those in PFC, were more prominent in females than males. These data demonstrate that COMT alters ventral hippocampal dopamine levels, as well as regulating dopamine metabolism in all brain regions studied. They demonstrate that COMT is of significance beyond the PFC, consistent with its links with a broad range of behavioural phenotypes. Furthermore, they suggest that the impact of tolcapone may be greater in females than males, a finding which may be of clinical significance in terms of the efficacy and dosing of COMT inhibitors.

  6. The roles of COMT val158met status and aviation expertise in flight simulator performance and cognitive ability.

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    Kennedy, Q; Taylor, J L; Noda, A; Adamson, M; Murphy, G M; Zeitzer, J M; Yesavage, J A

    2011-09-01

    The polymorphic variation in the val158met position of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with differences in executive performance, processing speed, and attention. The purpose of this study is: (1) replicate previous COMT val158met findings on cognitive performance; (2) determine whether COMT val158met effects extend to a real-world task, aircraft navigation performance in a flight simulator; and (3) determine if aviation expertise moderates any effect of COMT val158met status on flight simulator performance. One hundred seventy two pilots aged 41-69 years, who varied in level of aviation training and experience, completed flight simulator, cognitive, and genetic assessments. Results indicate that although no COMT effect was found for an overall measure of flight performance, a positive effect of the met allele was detected for two aspects of cognitive ability: executive functioning and working memory performance. Pilots with the met/met genotype benefited more from increased levels of expertise than other participants on a traffic avoidance measure, which is a component of flight simulator performance. These preliminary results indicate that COMT val158met polymorphic variation can affect a real-world task.

  7. Val158Met COMT polymorphism and risk of aggression in alcohol dependence.

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    Soyka, Michael; Zill, Peter; Koller, Gabi; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Preuss, Ulrich W

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, violence and antisocial behavior are common in alcoholism, but their biological basis is poorly understood. Several studies and recent meta-analyses indicate that in schizophrenia the catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype may be associated with aggression, most often in methionine allele carriers. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent in-patients (293 German patients and 499 controls, and additional 190 Polish patients as replication sample). As expected, patients with a history of violent or non-violent crime were more often male, had an earlier onset of alcoholism and more withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens, and were more likely to have a history of suicide attempts. COMT genotype was not associated with a history of violent or non-violent crime. More studies are needed on the neurobiological basis of aggression and violence in alcoholism.

  8. A influência do positivismo de Augusto Comte no Partenon Literário

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    Paulo Gilberto Mossmann Sobrinho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute as influências do positivismo de Auguste Comte entre os membros da Sociedade do Partenon Literário, apresentando uma lacuna encontrada na historiografia gaúcha que sugere a propagação das ideias positivistas no Rio Grande do Sul através da citada agremiação, sem, contudo, apresentar de forma significativa de que modo o positivismo influenciou os intelectuais atuantes nessa sociedade.

  9. Comte, Mach, Planck, and Eddington: a study of influence across generations

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    Batten, Alan H.

    2016-04-01

    Auguste Comte is frequently ridiculed by astronomers for saying that human beings would never be able to know the physical nature and constitution of the stars. His philosophy, however, influenced scientists throughout his lifetime and for over a century after his death. That influence is traced here in the work of three outstanding scientists who spanned, roughly speaking, three successive generations after his own, namely, Ernst Mach, Max Planck and Arthur Stanley Eddington.

  10. Impact of DRD2/ANKK1 and COMT Polymorphisms on Attention and Cognitive Functions in Schizophrenia

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    Breton, Florence; Mallet, Jasmina; Gorwood, Philip; Dubertret, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits such as poor selective attention and executive functions decline have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Many studies have emphasized the role of dopamine in regulating cognitive functions in the general population as well as in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between cognitive processes, schizophrenia and dopaminergic candidate genes is an original approach given interesting results. The purpose of the current exploratory study was to examine the interaction of dopaminergic genes (coding for dopamine receptor D2, DRD2, and for Catecholamine-O-Methyl-Transferase, COMT) with the diagnostic of schizophrenia in (i) the executive control of attention, (ii) selective attention, and (iii) executive functions. Methods and Results We recruited 52 patients with schizophrenia and 53 healthy controls who performed the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Attention Network Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting test. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DRD2 gene (rs6275, rs6277, rs2242592 and rs1800497) and two SNPs in the COMT gene (rs4680 and rs165599) have been genotyped. Patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than controls in all cognitive performance, taking into account demographic variables. A significant gene by disease interaction was found for the Stroop interference (p = 0.002) for rs6275 of the DRD2 gene. The COMT Val/Val genotype and schizophrenia were associated with increased number of perseverative errors (p = 0.01). Conclusions In our study, the DRD2 gene is involved in attention while the COMT gene is implicated in executive functions in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:28085950

  11. Influence of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in pain sensibility of Brazilian fibromialgia patients.

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    Barbosa, Flávia Regina; Matsuda, Josie Budag; Mazucato, Mendelson; de Castro França, Suzelei; Zingaretti, Sônia Marli; da Silva, Lucienir Maria; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce Maria; Júnior, Milton Faria; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2012-02-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) is a rheumatic syndrome affecting to 2-3% of individuals of productive age, mainly women. Neuroendocrine and genetic factors may play a significant role in development of the disease which is characterized by diffuse chronic pain and presence of tender points. Several studies have suggested an association between FS, especially pain sensitivity, and polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. The aim of the present study was to characterize the SNPs rs4680 and rs4818 of the COMT gene and assess its influence in pain sensitivity of patients with fibromyalgia screened by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 112 patients with fibromyalgia and 110 healthy individuals and was used as template in PCR for amplification of a 185-bp fragment of the COMT gene. The amplified fragment was sequenced for analyses of the SNPs rs4680 and rs4818. The frequency of mutant genotype AA of SNP rs6860 was 77.67% in patients with FS and 28.18% for the control group. For the SNP rs4818, the frequency of mutant genotype CC was 73.21 and 39.09% for patients with FS and controls, respectively. Moreover, the FIQ score was higher in patients with the homozygous mutant genotype for SNPs rs4680 (87.92 points) and rs4818 (86.14 points). These results suggest that SNPs rs4680 and rs4818 of the COMT gene may be associated with fibromyalgia and pain sensitivity in FS Brazilian patients.

  12. Magnified effects of the COMT gene on white-matter microstructure in very old age.

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    Papenberg, Goran; Lövdén, Martin; Laukka, Erika J; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Keller, Lina; Graff, Caroline; Köhncke, Ylva; Li, Tie-Qiang; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Genetic factors may partly account for between-person differences in brain integrity in old age. Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that the dopaminergic system is implicated in the modulation of white-matter integrity. We investigated whether a genetic variation in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, which influences dopamine availability in prefrontal cortex, contributes to interindividual differences in white-matter microstructure, as measured with diffusion-tensor imaging. In a sample of older adults from a population-based study (60-87 years; n = 238), we found that the COMT polymorphism affects white-matter microstructure, indexed by fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, of several white-matter tracts in the oldest age group (81-87 years), although there were no reliable associations between COMT and white-matter microstructure in the two younger age groups (60-66 and 72-78 years). These findings extend previous observations of magnified genetic effects on cognition in old age to white-matter integrity.

  13. Factors affecting cognitive remediation response in schizophrenia: the role of COMT gene and antipsychotic treatment.

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    Bosia, Marta; Zanoletti, Andrea; Spangaro, Marco; Buonocore, Mariachiara; Bechi, Margherita; Cocchi, Federica; Pirovano, Adele; Lorenzi, Cristina; Bramanti, Placido; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2014-06-30

    Cognitive remediation is the best available tool to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and has evidence of biological validity; however results are still heterogeneous and significant predictors are lacking. Previous studies showed that cognitive remediation is able to induce changes in PFC function and dopaminergic transmission and thus the study of possible sources of variability at these levels (i.e. antipsychotic treatments and genetic variability) might help to gain a deeper understanding of neurobiological correlates and translate into optimization and personalization of interventions. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction between pharmacological treatment (clozapine vs typical/atypical D2 blockers) and COMT rs4680 polymorphism on cognitive changes after cognitive remediation therapy, in a sample of 98 clinically stabilized patients with schizophrenia. The General Linear Model showed a significant interaction of pharmacological treatment and COMT polymorphism on the improvement in "Symbol Coding" subtest, a global measure of speed of processing. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between COMT genotypes, when treated with D2 blockers, with worse results among Val/Val patients. These preliminary results suggest that genetic variability, influencing prefrontal dopamine, might affect individual capacity to improve with different patterns, depending on antipsychotic treatment.

  14. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Polymorphisms Interact with Maternal Parenting in Association with Adolescent Reactive Aggression but not Proactive Aggression: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility.

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    Zhang, Wenxin; Cao, Cong; Wang, Meiping; Ji, Linqin; Cao, Yanmiao

    2016-04-01

    To date, whether and how gene-environment (G × E) interactions operate differently across distinct subtypes of aggression remains untested. More recently, in contrast with the diathesis-stress hypothesis, an alternative hypothesis of differential susceptibility proposes that individuals could be differentially susceptible to environments depending on their genotypes in a "for better and for worse" manner. The current study examined interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) T941G and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphisms with maternal parenting on two types of aggression: reactive and proactive. Moreover, whether these potential G × E interactions would be consistent with the diathesis-stress versus the differential susceptibility hypothesis was tested. Within the sample of 1399 Chinese Han adolescents (47.2 % girls, M age = 12.32 years, SD = 0.50), MAOA and COMT genes both interacted with positive parenting in their associations with reactive but not proactive aggression. Adolescents with T alleles/TT homozygotes of MAOA gene or Met alleles of COMT gene exhibited more reactive aggression when exposed to low positive parenting, but less reactive aggression when exposed to high positive parenting. These findings provide the first evidence for distinct G × E interaction effects on reactive versus proactive aggression and lend further support for the differential susceptibility hypothesis.

  15. Virus-induced silencing of Comt, pAmt and Kas genes results in a reduction of capsaicinoid accumulation in chili pepper fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario Abraham-Juárez, Ma; del Carmen Rocha-Granados, Ma; López, Mercedes G; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael Francisco; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2008-02-01

    Capsaicinoids are responsible for the pungent taste of chili pepper fruits of Capsicum species. Capsaicinoids are biosynthesized through both the phenylpropanoid and the branched-fatty acids pathways. Fragments of Comt (encoding a caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), pAmt (a putative aminotransferase), and Kas (a beta-keto-acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase) genes, that are differentially expressed in placenta tissue of pungent chili pepper, were individually inserted into a Pepper huasteco yellow veins virus (PHYVV)-derived vector to determine, by virus-induced gene silencing, irrespective of whether these genes are involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids. Reduction of the respective mRNA levels as well as the presence of related siRNAs confirmed the silencing of these three genes. Morphological alterations were evident in plants inoculated with PHYVV::Comt and PHYVV::Kas constructs; however, plants inoculated with PHYVV::pAmt showed no evident alterations. On the other hand, fruit setting was normal in all cases. Biochemical analysis of placenta tissues showed that, indeed, independent silencing of all three genes led to a dramatic reduction in capsaicinoid content in the fruits demonstrating the participation of these genes in capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Using this approach it was possible to generate non-pungent chili peppers at high efficiency.

  16. El comte Arnau, la migració d’un mite

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    Maria de la Pau Janer Mulet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En aquest article es presenta l’estudi de la figura del comte Arnau, heroi llegendari sorgit a les terres de la Catalunya Vella el drama del qual ha travessat els segles i ha estat difós per mitjà d’una balada i uns textos llegendaris de caràcter oral. El senyor poderós i malvat, sacríleg sense escrúpols i amic del diable, apareix a la seva esposa després de mort, sorgit de l’infern, com una ànima en pena que recorre la terra muntat en un cavall de flames. La balada, en forma de diàleg entre la dama i l’espectre del comte, ens reconta la causa de la seva condemna: «per soldades mal pagades», perquè no pagà els jornals que havia promès als seus treballadors. Per mitjà de la història llegendària del comte Arnau, el poble qüestionava la legitimitat d’un senyor incapaç de complir les seves promeses. En migrar a l’illa de Mallorca, el mite es consolida en un personatge històricament identificat que concentra les malvestats del comte llegendari, desapareix qualsevol al·lusió al tema dels jornals mal pagats, però persisteix en la denúncia d’un comte malvat i dèspota. This article presents the study of the figure of Conde Arnau, the legendary hero from the Old Catalunya lands, whose history has passed through the centuries and has spreaded through a ballad and legendary spoken texts. The powerful and bad master, without scruples and friend of the devil, appears to his wife after death. He comes out of hell, like a spirit in pain, wandering the land on a horse of flames. The ballad was composed in form of a dialogue between the lady and the spirit of the Conde. Through the legendary history of the Conde Arnau, the villagers questioned the legitimity of the Master, who was unable tu fulfelt his promises. In inmigrated to the island of Mallorca, the legend is consolidated in one identified historical character, which was concentrated in this legendary conde badness.

  17. Augusto Comte y sus discípulos ortodoxos frente a la cuestión colonial

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    Tonatiuh Useche Sandoval

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la oposición de Augusto Comte y sus discípulos al movimiento colonizador que emanó del Occidente europeo durante el siglo XIX. Aunque considera Europa como el centro de la Humanidad, Comte sostiene que la contribución europea al progreso de los pueblos menos avanzados no reside en la dominación colonial, sino en la difusión pacífica de una doctrina demostrable. En un primer momento se resume la apreciación globalmente negativa de Comte sobre la colonización moderna; luego se evocan sus propuestas para valorar a los colonizados y combatir los argumentos colonialistas; finalmente se toma el caso de la conquista francesa de Argelia para comparar la posición de Comte con la de Tocqueville y la de Enfantin. En un segundo momento se subraya la influencia moral que sus discípulos ejercieron en Inglaterra en contra de la colonización exterior. Se insiste después en el papel significativo que jugaron sus discípulos brasileros en contra de la colonización interior y en pro de la protección de los indígenas. Se concluye que el positivismo de Comte constituye una forma de eurocentrismo anticolonial.

  18. Association of COMT (Val158Met) and BDNF (Val66Met) Gene Polymorphisms with Anxiety, ADHD and Tics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; Devincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine rs4680 ("COMT") and rs6265 ("BDNF") as genetic markers of anxiety, ADHD, and tics. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for a total sample of 67 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both "COMT" (p = 0.06) and "BDNF" (p = 0.07) genotypes were marginally significant for teacher…

  19. [The association of COMT and DRD2 gene polymorphisms with a cognitive ability to understand others in schizophrenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, M V; Golimbet, V E; Korovaĭtseva, G I; Aksenova, E V; Lezheĭko, T V; Abramova, L I; Kolesina, N Iu; Anua, I M; Savel'eva, T M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate a role of dopamine transmission in the theory of mind (ToM) dysfunction in schizophrenia, authors studied the association of ToM with COMT and DRD2 gene polymorphisms in 209 patients with schizophrenia and 172 healthy people. All subjects performed second-order false belief (FB2) and faux pas stories. The association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and performance on FB2 was found. The association was sex-specific. The worse performance was associated with a Met allele in female patients and with the ValVal genotype in male ones. A correlation analysis of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, performance on FB2 task, neurocognitive and clinical symptoms suggests that in female patients the association was modified, in part, by the higher stress sensitivity caused by the severity of clinical symptoms and its consequences for cognitive functioning.

  20. COMT Val158Met polymorphism interacts with stressful life events and parental warmth to influence decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chunhui; Lei, Xuemei; Liu, Yuyun; Li, Jin; Zhu, Bi; Moyzis, Robert K; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to influence decision making, but their relative contributions and interactions are not well understood. The present study aimed to reveal possible gene-environment interactions on decision making in a large healthy sample. Specifically, we examined how the frequently studied COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism interacted with an environmental risk factor (i.e., stressful life events) and a protective factor (i.e., parental warmth) to influence affective decision making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. We found that stressful life events acted as a risk factor for poor IGT performance (i.e., high reward sensitivity) among Met carriers, whereas parental warmth acted as a protective factor for good IGT performance (i.e., higher IGT score) among Val/Val homozygotes. These results shed some new light on gene-environment interactions in decision making, which could potentially help us understand the underlying etiology of several psychiatric disorders associated with decision making impairment.

  1. Impact of aerobic exercise training on cognitive functions and affect associated to the COMT polymorphism in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroth, Sanna; Reinhardt, Ralf K; Thöne, Jan; Hille, Katrin; Schneider, Matthias; Härtel, Sascha; Weidemann, Wolfgang; Bös, Klaus; Spitzer, Manfred

    2010-10-01

    Physical fitness can serve as a means to enhance cognitive functioning by modulating particular aspects of brain functioning. However, mechanisms underlying this modulating effect remain widely unresolved. To examine the impact and to clarify the mechanisms of physical fitness training in a young and healthy population, it was investigated whether an increase in fitness would result in improvements in executive control processes and positive and negative affect. Moreover, genotype of the Val158Met polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) as an index of relative central dopamine bioavailability was determined to elucidate dopamine tuning efficiency and its association with performance in the applied cognitive tasks. Seventy-five individuals participated and underwent an incremental fitness test to assess physical fitness. An exercising group subsequently engaged in a 17 weeks running training consisting of three running sessions at moderate to high, individually adjusted intensities. Associated with increased fitness improved cognitive flexibility and cognitive control were observed, whereas working memory remained unaffected. In runners, Val/Val participants improved cognitive performance to a greater extent compared to individuals carrying a Met allele. From the present results it is concluded that an increase in physical fitness provides a means to improve cognitive functioning via dopaminergic modulation.

  2. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

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    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype.

  3. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1, OPRM1 and COMT with pain perception in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-shi; Song, Hai-bin; Chen, Si; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jia-qi; Huang, Chao; Wang, Hao-ran; Chen, Yuan; Chu, Qian

    2015-10-01

    Pain perception is influenced by multiple factors. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of some genes were found associated with pain perception. This study aimed to examine the association of the genotypes of ABCB1 C3435T, OPRM1 A118G and COMT V108/158M (valine 108/158 methionine) with pain perception in cancer patients. We genotyped 146 cancer pain patients and 139 cancer patients without pain for ABCB1 C3435T (rs1045642), OPRM1 A118G (rs1799971) and COMT V108/158M (rs4680) by the fluorescent dye-terminator cycle sequencing method, and compared the genotype distribution between groups with different pain intensities by chi-square test and pain scores between groups with different genotypes by non-parametric test. The results showed that in these cancer patients, the frequency of variant T allele of ABCB1 C3435T was 40.5%; that of G allele of OPRM1 A118G was 38.5% and that of A allele of COMT V108/158M was 23.3%. No significant difference in the genotype distribution of ABCB1 C3435T (rs1045642) and OPRM1 A118G (rs1799971) was observed between cancer pain group and control group (P=0.364 and 0.578); however, significant difference occurred in the genotype distribution of COMT V108/158M (rs4680) between the two groups (P=0.001). And the difference could not be explained by any other confounding factors. Moreover, we found that the genotypes of COMT V108/158M and ABCB1 C3435T were associated with the intensities of pain in cancer patients. In conclusion, our results indicate that the SNPs of COMT V108/158M and ABCB1 C3435T significantly influence the pain perception in Chinese cancer patients.

  4. COMT and MAO-A polymorphisms and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a family-based association study.

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    Aline Santos Sampaio

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a common and debilitating psychiatric illness. Although a genetic component contributes to its etiology, no single gene or mechanism has been identified to the OCD susceptibility. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A genes have been investigated in previous OCD studies, but the results are still unclear. More recently, Taylor (2013 in a comprehensive meta-analysis of genetic association studies has identified COMT and MAO-A polymorphisms involved with OCD. In an effort to clarify the role of these two genes in OCD vulnerability, a family-based association investigation was performed as an alternative strategy to the classical case-control design.Transmission disequilibrium analyses were performed after genotyping 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eight in COMT and five in MAO-A in 783 OCD trios (probands and their parents. Four different OCD phenotypes (from narrow to broad OCD definitions and a SNP x SNP epistasis were also analyzed.OCD, broad and narrow phenotypes,were not associated with any of the investigated COMT and MAO-A polymorphisms. In addition, the analyses of gene-gene interaction did not show significant epistatic influences on phenotype between COMT and MAO-A.The findings do not support an association between DSM-IV OCD and the variants of COMT or MAO-A. However, results from this study cannot exclude the contribution of these genes in the manifestation of OCD. The evaluation of broader spectrum phenotypes could help to understand the role of these and other genes in the pathophysiology of OCD and its spectrum disorders.

  5. Genetic variation in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene and morphine requirements in cancer patients with pain

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    Kaasa Stein

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variation contributes to differences in pain sensitivity and response to different analgesics. Catecholamines are involved in the modulation of pain and are partly metabolized by the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT enzyme. Genetic variability in the COMT gene may therefore contribute to differences in pain sensitivity and response to analgesics. It is shown that a polymorphism in the COMT gene, Rs4680 (Val158Met, influence pain sensitivity in human experimental pain and the efficacy for morphine in cancer pain treatment. In this study we wanted to investigate if variability in other regions in the COMT gene also contributes to interindividual variability in morphine efficacy. Results We genotyped 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs throughout the COMT gene, and constructed haplotypes from these 11 SNPs, which were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We compared both genotypes and haplotypes against pharmacological, demographical and patient symptoms measurements in a Caucasian cancer patient cohort (n = 197 receiving oral morphine treatment for cancer pain. There were two frequent haplotypes (34.5% and 17.8% in our cohort. Multivariate analyses showed that patients carrying the most frequent haplotype (34.5% needed lower morphine doses than patients not carrying the haplotype, with a reduction factor of 0.71 (p = 0.005. On the allele level, carriers of alleles for six of the SNPs show weak associations in respect to morphine dose and the alleles associated with the lowest morphine doses constitute part of the most frequent haplotype. Conclusion This study suggests that genetic variability in the COMT gene influence the efficacy of morphine in cancer patients with pain, and that increased understanding of this variability is reached by expanding from analyses of single SNPs to haplotype construction and analyses.

  6. Departure from multiplicative interaction for catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and active/passive exposure to tobacco smoke among women with breast cancer

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    Wilk Jemma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with homozygous polymorphic alleles of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT-LL metabolize 2-hydroxylated estradiol, a suspected anticarcinogenic metabolite of estrogen, at a four-fold lower rate than women with no polymorphic alleles (COMT-HH or heterozygous women (COMT-HL. We hypothesized that COMT-LL women exposed actively or passively to tobacco smoke would have higher exposure to 2-hydroxylated estradiol than never-active/never passive exposed women, and should therefore have a lower risk of breast cancer than women exposed to tobacco smoke or with higher COMT activity. Methods We used a case-only design to evaluate departure from multiplicative interaction between COMT genotype and smoking status. We identified 502 cases of invasive incident breast cancer and characterized COMT genotype. Information on tobacco use and other potential breast cancer risk factors were obtained by structured interviews. Results We observed moderate departure from multiplicative interaction for COMT-HL genotype and history of ever-active smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7, 3.8 and more pronounced departure for women who smoked 40 or more years (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI: 0.8, 7.0. We observed considerable departure from multiplicative interaction for COMT-HL genotype and history of ever-passive smoking (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.8, 5.2 or for having lived with a smoker after age 20 (aOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 0.8, 10. Conclusion With greater control over potential misclassification errors and a large case-only population, we found evidence to support an interaction between COMT genotype and tobacco smoke exposure in breast cancer etiology.

  7. Higher FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 allele burdens are associated with PTSD and interact with trauma exposure: implications for neuropsychiatric research and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscarino JA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph A Boscarino1,2, Porat M Erlich1,3, Stuart N Hoffman4, Xiaopeng Zhang51Center for Health Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 4Department of Neurology, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, USAObjective: The study aim was to assess the cumulative burden of polymorphisms located within four genetic loci previously associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among outpatients at risk for PTSD.Methods: Diagnostic interviews were completed and DNA samples collected among 412 pain patients to determine if FKBP5 (rs9470080, COMT (rs4680, CHRNA5 (rs16969968, and CRHR1 (rs110402 single nucleotide polymorphisms were cumulatively associated with increased risk for PTSD.Results: In bivariate analyses, it was found that a count of specific PTSD risk alleles located within FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genetic loci (allele range = 0–6, mean count = 2.92, standard deviation = 1.36 was associated with lifetime (t [409] = 3.430, P = 0.001 and early onset PTSD (t [409] = 4.239, P = 0.000028. In logistic regression, controlling for demographic factors, personality traits, and trauma exposures, this risk allele count remained associated with both lifetime (odds ratio = 1.49, P = 0.00158 and early onset PTSD (odds ratio = 2.36, P = 0.000093. Interaction effects were also detected, whereby individuals with higher risk allele counts and higher trauma exposures had an increased risk of lifetime PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.026 and early onset PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.016 in these logistic regressions. Those with no or few risk alleles appeared resilient to PTSD, regardless of exposure history.Conclusion: A cumulative risk allele count involving four single nucleotide polymorphisms located within the FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genes are associated with PTSD. Level of trauma exposure

  8. Polymorphisms of serotonin receptor 2A and 2C genes and COMT in relation to obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Werge, Thomas; Holst, Claus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Candidate genes of psychological importance include 5HT2A, 5HT2C, and COMT, implicated in the serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine pathways, which also may be involved in regulation of energy balance. We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these......BACKGROUND: Candidate genes of psychological importance include 5HT2A, 5HT2C, and COMT, implicated in the serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine pathways, which also may be involved in regulation of energy balance. We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...

  9. Comte Unplugged: Using a "Technology Fast" to Teach Sociological Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoop, Katrina C.

    2012-01-01

    Sociology majors learn that sociological theory is foundational to our field; it frames the way we look at the world and provides guiding questions for our social inquiry. But sociology instructors know that teaching theory is a challenge. A number of activities have been created to engage students in sociological theory courses. This note…

  10. COMT Val158Met genotypes differentially influence subgenual cingulate functional connectivity in healthy females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eBaeken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain imaging studies have consistently shown subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortical (sgACC involvement in emotion processing. COMT Val158 and Met158 polymorphisms may influence such emotional brain processes in specific ways. Given that resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI may increase our understanding on brain functioning, we integrated genetic and rsfMRI data and focused on sgACC functional connections. No studies have yet investigated the influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680 on sgACC resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC in healthy individuals. A homogeneous group of sixty-one Caucasian right-handed healthy female university students, all within the same age range, underwent rsfMRI. Compared to Met158 homozygotes, Val158 allele carriers displayed significantly stronger rsFC between the sgACC and the left parahippocampal gyrus, ventromedial parts of the inferior frontal gyrus, and the nucleus accumbens (NAc. On the other hand, compared to Val158 homozygotes, we found in Met158 allele carriers stronger sgACC rsFC with the medial frontal gyrus, more in particular the anterior parts of the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Although we did not use emotional or cognitive tasks, our sgACC rsFC results point to possible distinct differences in emotional and cognitive processes between Val158 and Met158 allele carriers. However, the exact nature of these directions remains to be determined.

  11. Planning High-Risk High-Reward Activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casault, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    This body of work addresses a gap in financial and economic theories related to assets that are typically associated with high uncertainty. Specifically, this thesis provides some foundational work towards a new way to quantify and explain how high-risk high-reward activities, such as exploration,

  12. Differential Association of the COMT Val158Met Polymorphism with Clinical Phenotypes in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goghari, Vina M.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, although diagnostically separate, likely share elements of their genetic etiology. This study assessed whether COMT Val158Met polymorphism has shared or specific associations with clinical phenotypes evident in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia and bipolar patients completed a clinical assessment encompassing premorbid functioning and current and lifetime symptomatology. Multivariate analyses yielded a three-way interaction of diagnosis, COM...

  13. Genetic contributions to age-related decline in executive function: a 10-year longitudinal study of COMT and BDNF polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk I Erickson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability in the dopaminergic and neurotrophic systems could contribute to age-related impairments in executive control and memory function. In this study we examined whether genetic polymorphisms for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were related to the trajectory of cognitive decline occurring over a 10-year period in older adults. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the COMT (Val158/108Met gene affects the concentration of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, a Val/Met substitution in the pro-domain for BDNF (Val66Met affects the regulated secretion and trafficking of BDNF with Met carriers showing reduced secretion and poorer cognitive function. We found that impairments over the 10-year span on a task-switching paradigm did not vary as a function of the COMT polymorphism. However, for the BDNF polymorphism the Met carriers performed worse than Val homozygotes at the first testing session but only the Val homozygotes demonstrated a significant reduction in performance over the 10-year span. Our results argue that the COMT polymorphism does not affect the trajectory of age-related executive control decline, whereas the Val/Val polymorphism for BDNF may promote faster rates of cognitive decay in old age. These results are discussed in relation to the role of BDNF in senescence and the transforming impact of the Met allele on cognitive function in old age.

  14. The Role of Inherited TPMT and COMT Genetic Variation in Cisplatin-induced Ototoxicity in Children with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun J.; Lim, Joshua Yew-Suang; Huang, Jie; Bass, Johnnie; Wu, Jianrong; Wang, Chong; Fang, Jie; Stewart, Elizabeth; Harstead, Elaine H.; Shuyu, E; Robinson, Giles W.; Evans, William E.; Pappo, Alberto; Zuo, Jian; Relling, Mary V.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Gajjar, Amar; Stewart, Clinton F.

    2013-01-01

    Ototoxicity is a debilitating side effect of platinating agents with substantial inter-patient variability. We sought to evaluate the association of TPMT and COMT genetic variations with cisplatin-related hearing damage in the context of frontline pediatric cancer treatment protocols. In 213 children from St. Jude Medulloblastoma-96 and -03 protocols, hearing loss was related to younger age (P=0.013) and craniospinal irradiation (P=0.001), but did not differ by TPMT or COMT variants. Results were similar in an independent cohort of 41 children from solid tumor frontline protocols. Functional hearing loss or hair cell damage was not different in TPMT knockout vs. wildtype mice following cisplatin treatment, and neither TPMT nor COMT variant was associated with cisplatin cytotoxicity in lymphoblastoid cell lines. In conclusion, our results indicated that TPMT or COMT genetic variation was not related to cisplatin ototoxicity in children with cancer and did not influence cisplatin-induced hearing damage in laboratory models. PMID:23820299

  15. Effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on personality traits and educational attainment in a longitudinal population representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, K; Akkermann, K; Parik, J; Veidebaum, T; Harro, J

    2013-10-01

    The COMT Val158Met polymorphism has been associated with anxiety and affective disorders, but its effect on anxiety-related personality traits varies between studies. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of COMT Val158Met on personality traits from adolescence to young adulthood in a population representative Caucasian birth cohort. Also its association with educational attainment and anxiety and mood disorders by the age 25 were examined. This analysis is based on the older cohort of the Estonian Children Personality Behavior and Health Study (original number of subjects 593). The personality traits were assessed when the participants were 15, 18 and 25 years old. COMT Val158Met had an effect on Neuroticism in females by age 25 (p=0.001, Bonferroni-corrected for five traits), whereas female Val homozygotes scored the highest. In addition, the Conscientiousness scores of subjects with Val/Val genotype were decreasing in time, being the lowest by the age 25 (p=0.006, Bonferroni-corrected for five traits). By the age 25, males with the Val/Met genotype had mainly secondary or vocational education, whereas female heterozygotes mostly had obtained or were obtaining university education. COMT Val158Met was not associated with anxiety or mood disorders in either gender. These results suggest that genes affecting dopamine system are involved in the development of personality traits and contribute to educational attainment.

  16. The effect of Ecstasy on memory is moderated by a functional polymorphism in the cathechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schilt; M.W.J. Koeter; M.M.L. de Win; J.R. Zinkstok; T.A. van Amelsvoort; B. Schmand; W. van den Brink

    2009-01-01

    There is ample evidence for decreased verbal memory in heavy Ecstasy users. However, findings on the presence of a dose-response relation are inconsistent, possibly due to individual differences in genetic vulnerability. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in the catabolism of Ecstasy. T

  17. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT Val108/158 Met polymorphism does not modulate executive function in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanian Marina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association has been observed between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene, the predominant means of catecholamine catabolism within the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and neuropsychological task performance in healthy and schizophrenic adults. Since several of the cognitive functions typically deficient in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD are mediated by prefrontal dopamine (DA mechanisms, we investigated the relationship between a functional polymorphism of the COMT gene and neuropsychological task performance in these children. Methods The Val108/158 Met polymorphism of the COMT gene was genotyped in 118 children with ADHD (DSM-IV. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Tower of London (TOL, and Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT were employed to evaluate executive functions. Neuropsychological task performance was compared across genotype groups using analysis of variance. Results ADHD children with the Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met genotypes were similar with regard to demographic and clinical characteristics. No genotype effects were observed for WCST standardized perseverative error scores [F2,97 = 0.67; p > 0.05], TOL standardized scores [F2,99 = 0.97; p > 0.05], and SOPT error scores [F2,108 = 0.62; p > 0.05]. Conclusions Contrary to the observed association between WCST performance and the Val108/158 Met polymorphism of the COMT gene in both healthy and schizophrenic adults, this polymorphism does not appear to modulate executive functions in children with ADHD.

  18. Association between the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met Polymorphism and Manual Aiming Control in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Guilherme M.; Miranda, Débora M.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Campos, Simone B.; Albuquerque, Maicon R.; Corrêa, Humberto; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prefrontal dopamine is catabolized by the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme. Current evidence suggests that the val/met single nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene can predict the efficiency of executive cognition in humans. Individuals carrying the val allele perform more poorly because less synaptic dopamine is available. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the influence of the COMT polymorphism on motor performance in a task that requires different executive functions. We administered a manual aiming motor task that was performed under four different conditions of execution by 111 healthy participants. Participants were grouped according to genotype (met/met, met/val, val/val), and the motor performance among groups was compared. Overall, the results indicate that met/met carriers presented lower levels of peak velocity during the movement trajectory than the val carriers, but met/met carriers displayed higher accuracy than the val carriers. Conclusions/Significance This study found a significant association between the COMT polymorphism and manual aiming control. Few studies have investigated the genetics of motor control, and these findings indicate that individual differences in motor control require further investigation using genetic studies. PMID:24956262

  19. COMT Val[superscript 108/158] Met Gene Variant, Birth Weight, and Conduct Disorder in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Grizenko, Natalie; Schmitz, Norbert; Schwartz, George; Amor, Leila Ben; Bellingham, Johanne; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Polotskaia, Anna; Stepanian, Marina Ter; Thakur, Geeta; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In a recent study, Thapar and colleagues reported that COMT "gene variant and birth weight predict early-onset antisocial behavior in children" with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We have attempted to replicate these findings in a group of ADHD children using a similar research design. Method: Children (n = 191)…

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) ortholog from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We cloned the full-length of the gene putatively encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. Kenaf is an herbaceous and rapidly growing dicotyledonous plant with great potential ...

  1. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vladimír Živica

    2004-04-01

    Growing demands on the engineering properties of cement based materials and the urgency to decrease unsuitable ecologic impact of Portland cement manufacturing represent significant motivation for the development of new cement corresponding to these aspects. One category represents prospective alkali activated cements. A significant factor influencing their properties is alkali activator used. In this paper we present a new high effective alkali activator prepared from silica fume and its effectiveness. According to the results obtained this activator seems to be more effective than currently used activators like natrium hydroxide, natrium carbonate, and water glass.

  2. The relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in estrogen-metabolizing genes CYP1A1,CYP17,COMT and estrogen receptor alpha and the risk of endometrial adenocarcinoma among the Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xingsheng; Liu Jie; Zhong Yanhui; Zhang Xian; Wang Yan

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To explore whether polymorphisms of the genes responsible for catechol estrogen(CE) formation via estrogen biosynthesis (CYP17) and hydroxylation (CYP1A1) and CE inactivation (COMT) and ERa are associated with an elevated risk for endometrial adenocarcinoma in Chinese women.Methods:A multigenic case-control study was conducted,eighty-seven endometrial adenocarcinoma patients and ninety controls were recruited.PCR-RFLP assays were used to determine the genotypes of estrogen-metabolizing genes and ERa gene.Results:The endometrial adenocarcinoma risk associated with individual susceptibility genotypes varied among the six polymorphic sites and was the highest for CYP17,followed by CYP1A1 Ile-Val,CYP1A1 MspI,COMT,ERa XbaI and ERa PvuII.Multivariate logistic regression showed the CYP1A1 MspI genotype was the most significant determinant for endometrial adenocarcinoma development and was associated with a 3.61 fold increase in risk (95% confidence interval,1.73~7.55).Furthermore,a trend of increasing risk for developing endometrial adenocarcinoma was found in women harboring higher numbers of high-risk genotypes.Conclusion:The CYP1A1,CYP17 and ERa XbaI genotypes are related to the susceptibility of endometrial adenocarcinoma,they may be useful markers for predicting endometrial adenocarcinoma susceptibility.The allele encoding for low acticity COMT,ERa PvuII may not be a genetic risk factor for endometrial adenocarcinoma.

  3. Study of traits and recalcitrance reduction of field-grown COMT down-regulated switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mi; Pu, Yunqiao; Yoo, Chang Geun; Gjersing, Erica; Decker, Stephen R.; Doeppke, Crissa; Shollenberger, Todd; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Engle, Nancy L.; Sykes, Robert W.; Davis, Mark F.; Baxter, Holly L.; Mazarei, Mitra; Fu, Chunxiang; Dixon, Richard A.; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Neal Stewart, C.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2017-01-03

    The native recalcitrance of plants hinders the biomass conversion process using current biorefinery techniques. Down-regulation of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the lignin biosynthesis pathway of switchgrass reduced the thermochemical and biochemical conversion recalcitrance of biomass. Due to potential environmental influences on lignin biosynthesis and deposition, studying the consequences of physicochemical changes in field-grown plants without pretreatment is essential to evaluate the performance of lignin-altered plants. We determined the chemical composition, cellulose crystallinity and the degree of its polymerization, molecular weight of hemicellulose, and cellulose accessibility of cell walls in order to better understand the fundamental features of why biomass is recalcitrant to conversion without pretreatment. The most important is to investigate whether traits and features are stable in the dynamics of field environmental effects over multiple years.

  4. Disorganization, COMT, and Children’s Social Behavior: The Norwegian Hypothesis of Legacy of Disorganized Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Why is disorganized attachment associated with punitive-controlling behavior in some, but caregiving-controlling in others? Hygen and associates (2014 proposed that variation in the Catechol-O-methyl transferase(COMT Val158Met genotype explains this variation, providing preliminary data to this effect. We offer a conceptual replication, analyzing data on 560 children (males: 275 drawn from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. As predicted, competitive model-fitting indicated that disorganized infants carrying Met alleles engage in more positive behavior and less negative behavior than other children at age 5 and 11, with the reverse true of Val/Val homozygotes, seemingly consistent with caregiving-controlling and punitive-controlling styles, respectively, but only in the case of maternal and not teacher reports, thereby confirmating a relationship-specific hypothesis.

  5. According to reports of Baron de Bois le Comte, women in Ottoman during Mahmud II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Subaşı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Women’s place and manner of lives is designated according to Islamic law in Ottoman society. Besides, the manners such as apparel, social rights, getting married and divorced of Ottoman women takes form within the frame of both Islamic law and Turkish culture.In this article, Ottoman women’s status, rights, place in social life, alteration and evolution that have been formed in a particular framework will be conveyed with the French Diplomat Baron de Bois le Comte’s point of view who occupied in the Ottoman Empire in the reign of II. Mahmud. Providing a different perspective for this reign, Baron de Bois le Comte is a diplomat who has been sent by French Foreign Affairs to Ottoman Empire with a “special mission” in order to observe, mediate and solve problems in Ottoman Empire within the time period where Egyptian Crisis which had started with the Revolt of Mehmet Ali Pasa. Baron de Bois le Comte had entered Ottoman Empire through Egypt’s Alexandria and been in several Ottoman Empire cities afterwards. Examining Ottoman Empire in detail, French diplomat reported his observations to French Minister of Foreign Affairs of the period, Mösyö Broglie, on a regular basis.This article will enables us to take a look at the Ottoman women’s status and social life outside home in XIX. Century’s first half which is prepared based on Baron de Bois le Comte’s observations and reports about Ottoman women while he was in the capital city of Ottoman Empire, Istanbul.

  6. According to reports of Baron de Bois le Comte, women in Ottoman during Mahmud II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Subaşı

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Women’s place and manner of lives is designated according to Islamic law in Ottoman society. Besides, the manners such as apparel, social rights, getting married and divorced of Ottoman women takes form within the frame of both Islamic law and Turkish culture. In this article, Ottoman women’s status, rights, place in social life, alteration and evolution that have been formed in a particular framework will be conveyed with the French Diplomat Baron de Bois le Comte’s point of view who occupied in the Ottoman Empire in the reign of II. Mahmud. Providing a different perspective for this reign, Baron de Bois le Comte is a diplomat who has been sent by French Foreign Affairs to Ottoman Empire with a “special mission” in order to observe, mediate and solve problems in Ottoman Empire within the time period where Egyptian Crisis which had started with the Revolt of Mehmet Ali Pasa. Baron de Bois le Comte had entered Ottoman Empire through Egypt’s Alexandria and been in several Ottoman Empire cities afterwards. Examining Ottoman Empire in detail, French diplomat reported his observations to French Minister of Foreign Affairs of the period, Mösyö Broglie, on a regular basis. This article will enables us to take a look at the Ottoman women’s status and social life outside home in XIX. Century’s first half which is prepared based on Baron de Bois le Comte’s observations and reports about Ottoman women while he was in the capital city of Ottoman Empire, Istanbul.

  7. Epistasis between COMT Val158Met and DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphisms and cognitive function in schizophrenia: genetic influence on dopamine transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre A. Loch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To assess the relationship between cognitive function, a proposed schizophrenia endophenotype, and two genetic polymorphisms related to dopamine function, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT Val158Met and dopamine receptor 3 (DRD3 Ser9Gly.Methods:Fifty-eight outpatients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and 88 healthy controls underwent neurocognitive testing and genotyping. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs using age, sex, and years of education as covariates compared cognitive performance for the proposed genotypes in patients and controls. ANCOVAs also tested for the epistatic effect of COMT and DRD3 genotype combinations on cognitive performance.Results:For executive functioning, COMT Val/Val patients performed in a similar range as controls (30.70-33.26 vs. 35.53-35.67, but as COMT Met allele frequency increased, executive functioning worsened. COMT Met/Met patients carrying the DRD3 Ser/Ser genotype performed poorest (16.184 vs. 27.388-31.824. Scores of carriers of this COMT/DRD3 combination significantly differed from all DRD3 Gly/Gly combinations (p < 0.05, from COMT Val/Met DRD3 Ser/Gly (p = 0.02, and from COMT Val/Val DRD3 Ser/Ser (p = 0.01 in patients. It also differed significantly from all control scores (p < 0.001.Conclusion:Combined genetic polymorphisms related to dopamine neurotransmission might influence executive function in schizophrenia. Looking at the effects of multiple genes on a single disease trait (epistasis provides a comprehensive and more reliable way to determine genetic effects on endophenotypes.

  8. Association study of erythrocytes catechol-O-methyltransferase activity and mood disorders%红细胞COMT活性与情感障碍的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫小华; 吴怀安; 卢建平; 邓小敏; 张宏久; 周凡; 刘仁刚

    2005-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity and affective disorders, and explore the biological mechanism of the etiology of affective disorders.Methods The activities of erythrocytes COMT from 112 affective disorders and 120 normal control were measured with high performance liquid chromatography, all examined data were tested by SPSS 11.0v.Results COMT activity frequency distribution of patients group and control group are at the range of 2~23nmol/ml RBC/hr and 7~28nmol/ml RBC/hr respectively. The average activity of COMT in patients group and control group were (11.0±3.8) nmol/ml RBC/hr and (16.1±4.3) nmol/ml RBC/hr representatively. COMT activity in male and female patient were (11.2±3.7) nmol/ml RBC/hr and (10.6± 4.0) nmol/ml RBC/hr., male and female in control group were (16.5 ±4.6) nmol/ml RBC/hr and (15.4±3.9) nmol/ml RBC/hr, there were significant difference between patients group and control group and also between male and female (P 0.05), 患者组COMT活性频率分布在2~23 nmol/ml RBC/hr范围,对照组为7~28 nmol/ml RBC/hr范围.患者组COMT平均活性为(11.0±3.8)nmol/ml RBC/hr,对照组COMT平均活性为(16.1±4.3)nmol/ml RBC/hr.男性患者COMT为(11.2±3.7)nmol/ml RBC/hr,女性患者(10.6±4.0) nmol/ml RBC/hr,对照组男性(16.5±4.6)nmol/ml RBC/hr,女性(15.4±3.9)nmol/ml RBC/hr,患者组和对照组以及按男女性别区分COMT活性的差异均具非常显著性(P <0.001).结论情感障碍患者红细胞COMT活性低于正常人,提示红细胞COMT活性的降低与情感障碍有关.

  9. Role of novelty seeking personality traits as mediator of the association between COMT and onset age of drug use in Chinese heroin dependent patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Personality traits such as novelty seeking (NS are associated with substance dependence but the mechanism underlying this association remains uncertain. Previous studies have focused on the role of the dopamine pathway. OBJECTIVE: Examine the relationships between allelic variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene, NS personality traits, and age of onset of drug use in heroin-dependent subjects in China. METHODS: The 478 heroin dependent subjects from four drug rehabilitation centers in Shanghai who were genotyped for eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP on the COMT gene completed the NS subscale from the Temperament and Character Inventory. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the potential mediating role of NS personality traits in the association between COMT gene variants and the age of onset of heroin use. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the univariate analysis the COMT rs737866 gene variants were independently associated with both NS and age of onset of drug use: those with the TT genotype had higher NS subscale scores and an earlier onset age of heroin use than individuals with CT or CC genotypes. In the multivariate analysis the inclusion of the NS subscore variable weakened the relationship between the COMT rs737866 TT genotype and an earlier age of onset of drug use. Our findings that COMT is associated with both NS personality traits and with the age of onset of heroin use helps to clarify the complex relationship between genetic and psychological factors in the development of substance abuse.

  10. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.

    1977-07-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  11. No association between Val158Met of the COMT gene and susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Syrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Lajin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The Val158Met single nucleotide polymorphism of the COMT gene has been implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia, although results from different populations have been conflicting. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate possible association between schizophrenia and Val158Met in a novel Arab population from Syria. Methods and Materials: 71 unrelated schizophrenic subjects (45 men and 102 unrelated healthy controls (62 men were recruited to take part in this case- control study. The Val158Met of the COMT gene was genotyped for patients and controls, using a new optimized PCR-RFLP method. Results: the results demonstrated that there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: This study does not support that Val158Met has an influence on susceptibility for schizophrenia in this population.

  12. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  13. La posteridad sociológica de Auguste Comte: Lo normal y lo patológico en Durkheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHEL BOURDEAU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo completa un texto que, bajo el título «Ciencia, religión y sociedad en Auguste Comte», fue publicado en el año 2003 en las páginas de esta revista. Después de un breve repaso de los conceptos sociológicos fundamentales del Cours de philosophie positive, se muestra como el pensamiento de Durkheim se constituyó a través de una discusión crítica con el positivismo. Concretamente, se examinan dos momentos fundamentales de dicha confrontación. En primer lugar, se analiza como la distinción que Durkheim establece en La división du travail social (1893 entre solidaridad mecánica y solidaridad orgánica tenía como objetivo fundamental demostrar que Comte se había equivocado al extraer ciertas consecuencias sobre el progreso de la división del trabajo. En segundo lugar, se muestra como en Les Règles de la méthode sociologique (1895, Durkheim atribuye a Comte la distinción entre lo normal y lo patológico y reinterpreta dicha distinción a partir del concepto de «media» de Quételet. En este contexto, concluimos señalando que Durkheim debe a Comte la idea de que la sociología permite construir una ciencia de la moral.

  14. Evidence that COMT genotype and proline interact on negative-symptom outcomes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Clelland, C L; Drouet, V.; Rilett, K C; Smeed, J A; Nadrich, R H; Rajparia, A; Read, L L; Clelland, J D

    2016-01-01

    Elevated peripheral proline is associated with psychiatric disorders, and there is evidence that proline is a neuromodulator. The proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) gene, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes proline catabolism, maps to human chromosome 22q11.2, a region conferring risk of schizophrenia. In the Prodh-null mouse, an interaction between elevated peripheral proline and another 22q11.2 gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), on neurotransmission and behavior has been reported. We...

  15. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Salatino-Oliveira; Joseph Murray; Christian Kieling; Júlia Pasqualini Genro; Guilherme Polanczyk; Luciana Anselmi; Fernando Wehrmeister; Barros, Fernando C; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Luis Augusto Rohde; Mara Helena Hutz

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val 158 Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire w...

  16. COMT Val158Met polymorphism interacts with stressful life events and parental warmth to influence decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Qinghua He; Gui Xue; Chuansheng Chen; Zhong-Lin Lu; Chunhui Chen; Xuemei Lei; Yuyun Liu; Jin Li; Bi Zhu; Moyzis, Robert K.; Qi Dong; Antoine Bechara

    2012-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to influence decision making, but their relative contributions and interactions are not well understood. The present study aimed to reveal possible gene-environment interactions on decision making in a large healthy sample. Specifically, we examined how the frequently studied COMT Val158Met polymorphism interacted with an environmental risk factor (i.e., stressful life events) and a protective factor (i.e., parental warmth) to influence a...

  17. COMT and 5-HT1A-receptor genotypes potentially affect executive functions improvement after cognitive remediation in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, Marta; Bechi, Margherita; Pirovano, Adele; Buonocore, Mariachiara; Lorenzi, Cristina; Cocchi, Federica; Bramanti, Placido; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been proved to improve cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and to enhance functional outcomes of classical rehabilitation. However, CRT outcomes are heterogeneous and predictors of response are still unknown. Genetic variability, especially in the dopaminergic system, has been hypothesized to affect CRT. We previously reported that rs4680 of the catechol-O-methyltrasferase (COMT) influences improvements in executive functions in patients treated with CRT, but this result was not confirmed by other studies. Such inconsistent findings may depend, other than on clinical variables, also on other genes involved in cognition. Recent studies proved that serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) regulates dopamine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and clinical works suggested a 5-HT1A-R role in cognition. We then analysed possible effects of COMT rs4680 and 5-HT1A-R rs6295 on CRT outcomes, taking into account also clinical and demographic factors. Eighty-six clinically stabilized schizophrenia patients treated with three months CRT were assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, as a measure of executive functions, at enrolment and after CRT treatment, and underwent COMT and 5-HT1A-R genotyping. We found a significant main effect of COMT genotype and an interaction with 5-HT1A-R on executive function improvement after CRT. The results suggest that these two polymorphisms may have an additive effect on individual capacity to recover from cognitive deficit, probably through their role on PFC dopaminergic transmission modulation, known to be critical for modulating cognitive functions. PMID:25750798

  18. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, R H; Exposto, F G; O'Buckley, S C; Westlund, K N; Nackley, A G

    2015-04-02

    Reduced catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity resulting from genetic variation or pharmacological depletion results in enhanced pain perception in humans and nociceptive behaviors in animals. Using phasic mechanical and thermal reflex tests (e.g. von Frey, Hargreaves), recent studies show that acute COMT-dependent pain in rats is mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). In order to more closely mimic the characteristics of human chronic pain conditions associated with prolonged reductions in COMT, the present study sought to determine volitional pain-related and anxiety-like behavioral responses following sustained as well as acute COMT inhibition using an operant 10-45°C thermal place preference task and a light/dark preference test. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effects of sustained COMT inhibition on generalized body pain by measuring tactile sensory thresholds of the abdominal region. Results demonstrated that acute and sustained administration of the COMT inhibitor OR486 increased pain behavior in response to thermal heat. Further, sustained administration of OR486 increased anxiety behavior in response to bright light, as well as abdominal mechanosensation. Finally, all pain-related behaviors were blocked by the non-selective βAR antagonist propranolol. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of βARs following acute or chronic COMT inhibition drives cognitive-affective behaviors associated with heightened pain that affects multiple body sites.

  19. Catechol-O-methlytransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, R. H.; Exposto, F. G.; O’Buckley, S. C.; Westlund, K. N.; Nackley, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity resulting from genetic variation or pharmacological depletion results in enhanced pain perception in humans and nociceptive behaviors in animals. Using phasic mechanical and thermal reflex tests (e.g. von Frey, Hargreaves), recent studies show that acute COMT-dependent pain in rats is mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). In order to more closely mimic the characteristics of human chronic pain conditions associated with prolonged reductions in COMT, the present study sought to determine volitional pain-related and anxiety-like behavioral responses following sustained as well as acute COMT inhibition using an operant 10–45°C thermal place preference task and a light/dark preference test. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effects of sustained COMT inhibition on generalized body pain by measuring tactile sensory thresholds of the abdominal region. Results demonstrated that acute and sustained administration of the COMT inhibitor OR486 increased pain behavior in response to thermal heat. Further, sustained administration of OR486 increased anxiety behavior in response to bright light, as well as abdominal mechanosensation. Finally, all pain-related behaviors were blocked by the non-selective βAR antagonist propranolol. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of ARs following acute or chronic COMT inhibition drives cognitive-affective behaviors associated with heightened pain that affects multiple body sites. PMID:25659347

  20. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George G. Stavropoulos; Irene S. Diamantopoulou; George E. Skodras; George P. Sakellaropoulos [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory

    2006-07-01

    High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N{sub 2} adsorption at 77K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Augusto Comte y sus discípulos ortodoxos frente a la cuestión colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonatiuh Useche Sandoval

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the opposition of Auguste Comte and his disciples to the colonization movement which emanated from Occidental Europe in the 19th century. Even if he considers Europe as the central focus of Humanity, Comte states that European contribution to less advanced populations progress does not reside in colonial domination but in the peaceful spreading of a demonstrable doctrine. In the first part, the overall negative appreciation of Comte on modern colonization will be summarized; then his proposals to value the colonizers and to fight the colonialist statements will be mentioned; finally the case of the French conquest in Algeria will be exposed to compare Comte’s position with that of Tocqueville’s and of Enfantin’s. In the second part, a highlight will be made on the moral influence his disciples exercised in England against external colonisation. The significant role played by his Brazilians disciples against internal colonisation and in favour of the indigenous protection will be then underlined. In conclusion, Comte’s positivism constitutes a form of Eurocentric anti-colonialism.

  2. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Genotype Affects Age-Related Changes in Plasticity in Working Memory: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Heinzel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent work suggests that a genetic variation associated with increased dopamine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met; COMT amplifies age-related changes in working memory performance. Research on younger adults indicates that the influence of dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms on working memory performance increases when testing the cognitive limits through training. To date, this has not been studied in older adults. Method. Here we investigate the effect of COMT genotype on plasticity in working memory in a sample of 14 younger (aged 24–30 years and 25 older (aged 60–75 years healthy adults. Participants underwent adaptive training in the n-back working memory task over 12 sessions under increasing difficulty conditions. Results. Both younger and older adults exhibited sizeable behavioral plasticity through training (P<.001, which was larger in younger as compared to older adults (P<.001. Age-related differences were qualified by an interaction with COMT genotype (P<.001, and this interaction was due to decreased behavioral plasticity in older adults carrying the Val/Val genotype, while there was no effect of genotype in younger adults. Discussion. Our findings indicate that age-related changes in plasticity in working memory are critically affected by genetic variation in prefrontal dopamine metabolism.

  3. Differential influence of 5-HTTLPR - polymorphism and COMT Val158Met - polymorphism on emotion perception and regulation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elisabeth M; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Fink, Andreas; Reiser, Eva M; Niederstätter, Harald; Nagl, Simone; Parson, Walther; Papousek, Ilona

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence indicates that a considerable amount of variance in self-estimated emotional competency can be directly attributed to genetic factors. The current study examined the associations between the polymorphisms of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Met158Val) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual's emotion perception and regulation. Emotional competence was measured in a large sample of 289 healthy women by using the Self-report Emotional Ability Scale (SEAS), which includes two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain and two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the inter-personal domain. Participants' reports of effective emotion regulation in everyday life were associated with the COMT Met-allele, with women homozygous for the Val-allele scoring lowest on this scale. Self-estimated effectiveness of emotion perception of the individual's own emotions was related to the 5-HTTLPR. Both homozygous groups (s/s and l/l) rated their intra-personal emotion perception less effective than participants in the heterozygous s/l group. Taken together, the results indicate that genetic variants of the COMT and 5HTTLPR genes are differentially associated with specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual's emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain.

  4. Association between the Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158met polymorphism and different dimensions of impulsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct which has been associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission. Nonetheless, until this moment, few studies addressed the relationship between different types of impulsivity and the single nucleotide polymorphism caused by a substitution of valine (val with methionine (met in the 158 codon of the Catechol-o-Methyltransferase gene (COMT-val158met. The present study aimed to investigate the association between val158met COMT polymorphism and impulsive behavior measured by two neuropsychological tests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We administered two neuropsychological tests, a Continuous Performance Task and the Iowa Gambling Task were applied to 195 healthy participants to characterize their levels of motor, attentional and non-planning impulsivity. Then, subjects were grouped by genotype, and their scores on impulsivity measures were compared. There were no significant differences between group scores on attentional and motor impulsivity. Those participants who were homozygous for the met allele performed worse in the Iowa Gambling Task than val/val and val/met subjects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that met allele of val158met COMT polymorphism is associated with poor performance in decision-making/cognitive impulsivity task. The results reinforce the hypothesis that val and met alleles of the val158met polymorphism show functional dissociation and are related to different prefrontal processes.

  5. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Genotype Affects Age-Related Changes in Plasticity in Working Memory: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Thomas G.; Schulte, Stefanie; Onken, Johanna; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recent work suggests that a genetic variation associated with increased dopamine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met; COMT) amplifies age-related changes in working memory performance. Research on younger adults indicates that the influence of dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms on working memory performance increases when testing the cognitive limits through training. To date, this has not been studied in older adults. Method. Here we investigate the effect of COMT genotype on plasticity in working memory in a sample of 14 younger (aged 24–30 years) and 25 older (aged 60–75 years) healthy adults. Participants underwent adaptive training in the n-back working memory task over 12 sessions under increasing difficulty conditions. Results. Both younger and older adults exhibited sizeable behavioral plasticity through training (P < .001), which was larger in younger as compared to older adults (P < .001). Age-related differences were qualified by an interaction with COMT genotype (P < .001), and this interaction was due to decreased behavioral plasticity in older adults carrying the Val/Val genotype, while there was no effect of genotype in younger adults. Discussion. Our findings indicate that age-related changes in plasticity in working memory are critically affected by genetic variation in prefrontal dopamine metabolism. PMID:24772423

  6. Differential Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT is Associated with Impaired Fear Inhibition in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Davin Norrholm

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT enzyme is critical for the catabolic regulation of synaptic dopamine, resulting in altered cortical functioning. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism has been implicated in human mental illness, with Met/Met homozygotes associated with increased susceptibility to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Our primary objective was to examine the intermediate phenotype of fear inhibition in PTSD stratified by COMT genotype (Met/Met, Val/Met, and Val/Val and differential gene regulation via methylation status at CpG sites in the COMT promoter region. More specifically, we examined the potential interaction of COMT genotype and PTSD diagnosis on fear-potentiated startle during fear conditioning and extinction and COMT DNA methylation levels (as determined using genomic DNA isolated from whole blood . Participants were recruited from medical and gynecological clinics of an urban hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. We found that individuals with the Met/Met genotype demonstrated higher fear-potentiated startle to the CS- (safety signal and during extinction of the CS+ (danger signal compared to Val/Met and Val/Val genotypes. The PTSD+ Met/Met genotype group had the greatest impairment in fear inhibition to the CS- (p=.006, compared to Val carriers. In addition, the Met/Met genotype was associated with DNA methylation at 4 CpG sites, 2 of which were associated with impaired fear inhibition to the safety signal. These results suggest that multiple differential mechanisms for regulating COMT function – at the level of protein structure via the Val158Met genotype and at the level of gene regulation via differential methylation - are associated with impaired fear inhibition in PTSD.

  7. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, D.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brzezinski, M.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Marine Biotechnology Center

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  8. Active vibration isolation of high precision machines

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.

  9. Polymorphisms of serotonin receptor 2A and 2C genes and COMT in relation to obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia I I Kring

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Candidate genes of psychological importance include 5HT2A, 5HT2C, and COMT, implicated in the serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine pathways, which also may be involved in regulation of energy balance. We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of these genes with obesity and metabolic traits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a population of 166 200 young men examined at the draft boards, obese men (n = 726, BMI> or =31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected group (n = 831 were re-examined at two surveys at mean ages 46 and 49 years (S-46, S-49. Anthropometric, physiological and biochemical measures were available. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess age-adjusted odds ratios. No significant associations were observed of 5HT2A rs6311, 5HT2C rs3813929 and COMT rs4680 with obesity, except that COMT rs4680 GG-genotype was associated with fat-BMI (OR = 1.08, CI = 1.01-1.16. The SNPs were associated with a number of physiological variables; most importantly 5HT2C rs3813929 T-allele was associated with glucose (OR = 4.56, CI = 1.13-18.4 and acute insulin response (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.44-0.94 in S-49. COMT rs4680 GG-genotype was associated with glucose (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.00-1.09. Except for an association between 5HT2A rs6311 and total-cholesterol at both surveys, significant in S-46 (OR = 2.66, CI = 1.11-6.40, no significant associations were observed for the other phenotypes. Significant associations were obtained when combined genotype of 5HT2C rs3813929 and COMT rs4680 were examined in relation to BMI (OR = 1.12, CI = 1.03-1.21, fat-BMI (OR = 1.22, CI = 1.08-1.38, waist (OR = 1.13, CI = 1.04-1.22, and cholesterol (OR = 5.60, CI = 0.99-31.4. Analyses of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type 2 diabetes (T2D revealed, a 12.3% increased frequency of 5HT2C rs3813929 T-allele and an 11.6% increased frequency of COMT rs4680 GG-genotype in individuals with IGT or T2D (chi(2, p = 0.05 and p = 0

  10. Increased sensitivity to thermal pain following a single opiate dose is influenced by the COMT val(158met polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin B Jensen

    Full Text Available Increased pain sensitivity after opioid administration (opioid-induced hyperalgesia and/or repeated painful stimuli is an individually varying and clinically important phenomenon. The functional polymorphism (val(158met of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene regulates the metabolism of dopamine/noradrenaline. Individuals homozygous for the met(158 allele have been reported to have increased pain sensitivity and there are findings of lower micro-opioid system activation during sustained pain. We hypothesized that met/met individuals would exhibit higher pain sensitization and opioid-induced hyperalgesia in response to repeated pain stimuli and an intravenous injection of an opioid drug. Participants were 43 healthy subjects who went through an experiment where five blocks of pain were induced to the hand using a heat probe. After each stimulus subjects rated the pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS from 0 mm (no pain to 100 mm (worst possible pain. Before the second stimulus there was an intravenous injection of a rapid and potent opioid drug. At baseline there was no difference in pain ratings between the COMTval(158met genotypes, F(2, 39<1. However, a repeated measures ANOVA for all five stimuli revealed a main effect for COMTval(158met genotype, F(2, 36 = 4.17, p = 0.024. Met/met individuals reported significantly more pain compared to val/val, p = 0.010. A pairwise comparison of baseline and the opioid intervention demonstrated that analgesia was induced in all groups (p = 0.042 without a separating effect for genotype (n.s. We suggest that the initial response of the descending pain system is not influenced by the COMTval(158met polymorphism but when the system is challenged the difference is revealed. An important clinical implication of this may be that the COMTval(158met related differences may be more expressed in individuals where the inhibitory system is already challenged and sensitive, e.g. chronic pain patients. This has to

  11. High Energy Activation Data Library (HEAD-2009)

    CERN Document Server

    Korovin, Yury A; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu; Stankovskiy, Alexey Yu; Mashnik, Stepan G

    2010-01-01

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1-H to 210-Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed: A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the fin...

  12. The functional COMT polymorphism, Val 158 Met, is associated with logical memory and the personality trait intellect/imagination in a cohort of healthy 79 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sarah E; Wright, Alan F; Hayward, Caroline; Starr, John M; Whalley, Lawrence J; Deary, Ian J

    2005-09-02

    A polymorphism (Val 158 Met) in the gene for catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) was previously associated with differences in cognitive ability and personality. Here we examine associations between this polymorphism and cognitive ability, cognitive aging, personality and mood in 460 relatively healthy people born in 1921. All had cognitive ability measured at age 11 in the Scottish Mental Survey of 1932, and again at age 79. COMT genotype was not associated with childhood IQ. At age 79, COMT genotype was significantly related to differences in verbal declarative memory (scores on the Logical Memory test; p=0.028) and to scores on the personality trait of intellect/imagination (p=0.023), adjusted for sex and childhood IQ. In both cases the Val/Met heterozygotes had higher scores than both homozygous groups. There were trends toward the heterozygotes having higher scores on the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The effect of COMT genotype on Logical Memory scores was independent of the effect of APOE genotype, and similar in effect size. Therefore, COMT genotype may contribute to differences in normal cognitive aging and to differences in some of the major personality traits in old age.

  13. Dopamine metabolism in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome, with and without schizophrenia--relationship with COMT Val¹⁰⁸/¹⁵⁸Met polymorphism, gender and symptomatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Boot; J. Booij; N. Abeling; J. Meijer; F. da Silva Alves; J. Zinkstok; F. Baas; D. Linszen; T. van Amelsvoort

    2011-01-01

    22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a major risk factor for schizophrenia. In addition, both conditions are associated with alterations of the dopaminergic system. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, located within the deleted region, encodes for the enzyme COMT that is important for degr

  14. André Comte-Sponville, L’Amour en quatre leçons de philosophie. Amour et Bonheur (DVD 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Goarzin, Maël

    2013-01-01

    Le DVD 1, qui fait partie d’un coffret de quatre leçons de philosophie sur le thème de l’amour, est une conférence d’André Comte-Sponville, proposée par Robert Maggiori dans le cadre des Master class de Libération. En une heure, Comte-Sponville aborde le thème de l’amour et du bonheur. Plus précisément, il questionne la possibilité de ce lien entre amour et bonheur : un amour heureux est-il possible ? Pour répondre à cette question, Comte-Sponville distingue trois sortes d’amour, correspondan...

  15. The role of maternal stress during pregnancy, maternal discipline, and child COMT Val158Met genotype in the development of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Rianne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Velders, Fleur P; Linting, Mariëlle; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-07-01

    Maternal discipline is an important predictor of child committed compliance. Maternal stress can affect both parenting and child development. In a large population-based cohort study (N = 613) we examined whether maternal discipline mediated the association between maternal stress during pregnancy and child compliance, and whether COMT or DRD4 polymorphisms moderated the association between maternal discipline and child compliance. Family-related and general stress were measured through maternal self-report and genetic material was collected through cord blood sampling at birth. Mother-child dyads were observed at 36 months in disciplinary tasks in which the child was not allowed to touch attractive toys. Maternal discipline and child compliance were observed in two different tasks and independently coded. The association between family stress during pregnancy and child committed compliance was mediated by maternal positive discipline. Children with more COMT Met alleles seemed more susceptible to maternal positive discipline than children with more COMT Val alleles.

  16. The Role of the Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met in Aggressive Behavior, A Review of Genetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Arqam; Zai, Clement C.; Hirata, Yuko; Tiwari, Arun K.; Cheema, Sheraz; Nowrouzi, Behdin; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Kennedy, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors have become a major public health problem, and early-onset aggression can lead to outcomes such as substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder among other issues. In recent years, there has been an increase in research in the molecular and genetic underpinnings of aggressive behavior, and one of the candidate genes codes for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). COMT is involved in catabolizing catecholamines such as dopamine. These neurotransmitters appear to be involved in regulating mood which can contribute to aggression. The most common gene variant studied in the COMT gene is the Valine (Val) to Methionine (Met) substitution at codon 158. We will be reviewing the current literature on this gene variant in aggressive behavior. PMID:26630958

  17. ZNF804a regulates expression of the schizophrenia-associated genes PRSS16, COMT, PDE4B, and DRD2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Girgenti

    Full Text Available ZNF804a was identified by a genome-wide association study (GWAS in which a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1344706 in ZNF804a reached genome-wide statistical significance for association with a combined diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder. Although the molecular function of ZNF804a is unknown, the amino acid sequence is predicted to contain a C2H2-type zinc-finger domain and suggests ZNF804a plays a role in DNA binding and transcription. Here, we confirm that ZNF804a directly contributes to transcriptional control by regulating the expression of several SZ associated genes and directly interacts with chromatin proximal to the promoter regions of PRSS16 and COMT, the two genes we find upregulated by ZNF804a. Using immunochemistry we establish that ZNF804a is localized to the nucleus of rat neural progenitor cells in culture and in vivo. We demonstrate that expression of ZNF804a results in a significant increase in transcript levels of PRSS16 and COMT, relative to GFP transfected controls, and a statistically significant decrease in transcript levels of PDE4B and DRD2. Furthermore, we show using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP that both epitope-tagged and endogenous ZNF804a directly interacts with the promoter regions of PRSS16 and COMT, suggesting a direct upregulation of transcription by ZNF804a on the expression of these genes. These results are the first to confirm that ZNF804a regulates transcription levels of four SZ associated genes, and binds to chromatin proximal to promoters of two SZ genes. These results suggest a model where ZNF804a may modulate a transcriptional network of SZ associated genes.

  18. The COMT Val158 allele is associated with impaired delayed-match-to-sample performance in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Natasha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explored the association between three measures of working memory ability and genetic variation in a range of catecholamine genes in a sample of children with ADHD. Methods One hundred and eighteen children with ADHD performed three working memory measures taken from the CANTAB battery (Spatial Span, Delayed-match-to-sample, and Spatial Working Memory. Associations between performance on working memory measures and allelic variation in catecholamine genes (including those for the noradrenaline transporter [NET1], the dopamine D4 and D2 receptor genes [DRD4; DRD2], the gene encoding dopamine beta hydroxylase [DBH] and catechol-O-methyl transferase [COMT] were investigated using regression models that controlled for age, IQ, gender and medication status on the day of test. Results Significant associations were found between performance on the delayed-match-to-sample task and COMT genotype. More specifically, val/val homozygotes produced significantly more errors than did children who carried a least one met allele. There were no further associations between allelic variants and performance across the other working memory tasks. Conclusions The working memory measures employed in the present study differed in the degree to which accurate task performance depended upon either the dynamic updating and/or manipulation of items in working memory, as in the spatial span and spatial working memory tasks, or upon the stable maintenance of representations, as in the delay-match–to-sample task. The results are interpreted as evidence of a relationship between tonic dopamine levels associated with the met COMT allele and the maintenance of stable working memory representations required to perform the delayed-match-to-sample-task.

  19. Association of copy number polymorphisms at the promoter and translated region of COMT with Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Ryoko; Ohnuma, Tohru; Takebayashi, Yuto; Hanzawa, Ryo; Shibata, Nobuto; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Kushima, Itaru; Aleksic, Branko; Kondo, Kenji; Ikeda, Masashi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio; Arai, Heii

    2016-04-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and genetic variations including single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variation (CNV) in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) situated at 22q11.2 remains controversial. Here, the genetic relationship between COMT and Japanese patients with schizophrenia was investigated by examining whether the SNPs correlated with schizophrenia based on a common disease-common variant hypothesis. Additionally, 22q11.2DS were screened based on a common disease-rare variant hypothesis; low-frequency CNVs situated at two COMT promoters and exons were investigated based on the low-frequency variants with an intermediate effect; and positive findings from the first stage were reconfirmed using a second-stage replication study including a larger sample size. Eight SNPs and 10 CNVs were investigated using Taqman SNP and CNV quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method. For the first-stage analysis, 513 unrelated Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 705 healthy controls were examined. For the second-stage replication study, positive findings from the first stage were further investigated using a larger sample size, namely 1,854 patients with schizophrenia and 2,137 controls. The first-stage analysis showed significant associations among schizophrenia, intronic SNP rs165774, CNV6 situated at promoter 1, CNV8 at exon 6, and CNV9 at exon 7. The second-stage study showed that intronic SNP rs165774 (χ(2)  = 8.327, P = 0.0039), CNV6 (χ(2)  = 19.66, P = 0.00005), and CNV8 (χ(2)  = 16.57, P = 0.00025) were significantly associated with schizophrenia. Large and rare CNVs as well as low-frequency CNVs and relatively small CNVs, namely schizophrenia.

  20. APOE and COMT polymorphisms are complementary biomarkers of status, stability, and transitions in normal aging and early mild cognitive impairment

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    Roger A Dixon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Research has reported associations among selected genetic susceptibility biomarkers and risk of (a normal cognitive aging decrements, (b established mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and (c sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In focusing on the transitional normal-to-early MCI phase, we examine associations among three theoretically relevant polymorphisms (APOE [rs429358, rs7412], BDNF [rs6265], COMT [rs4680] and both baseline cognitive status (MCI versus normal aging and two-wave (four-year longitudinal stability or change profiles. The latter included three profiles: (a stable as normal aging, (b stable or chronic impairment (MCI-to-MCI, and (c emergence of impairment (normal-to-MCI. Method: Genotyped older adults (n = 237 at baseline; age range = 64-91; 62% women from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were examined for (a independent and interactive associations of three genetic polymorphisms with (b two objectively classified cognitive status groups (not-impaired controls (NIC and MCI at (c both baseline and across a two-wave (four-year longitudinal interval. Results: First, logistic regression revealed that the presence of at least one APOE ε4 allele (the risk factor for AD was linked to greater baseline risk of objective MCI. Second, multinomial logistic regression revealed that (a the presence of an APOE ε4 allele was associated with an increased risk of 4-year MCI status stability (chronicity, and (b the COMT homozygous risk genotype (G/G or Val/Val was associated with an increased risk of both MCI-to-MCI stability (chronicity and emerging NIC-to-MCI conversion. Discussion: Both chronicity and emergence of objectively classified early cognitive impairment may be genetically heterogeneous phenomena, with influences from a panel of both normal cognitive aging (COMT and AD-related (APOE polymorphisms.

  1. Relationship between the COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met polymorphisms, childhood trauma and psychotic experiences in an adolescent general population sample.

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    Hugh Ramsay

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Psychotic experiences occur at a much greater prevalence in the population than psychotic disorders. There has been little research to date, however, on genetic risk for this extended psychosis phenotype. We examined whether COMT or BDNF genotypes were associated with psychotic experiences or interacted with childhood trauma in predicting psychotic experiences. METHOD: Psychiatric interviews and genotyping for COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met were carried out on two population-based samples of 237 individuals aged 11-15 years. Logistic regression was used to examine for main effects by genotype and childhood trauma, controlling for important covariates. This was then compared to a model with a term for interaction between genotype and childhood trauma. Where a possible interaction was detected, this was further explored in stratified analyses. RESULTS: While childhood trauma showed a borderline association with psychotic experiences, COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met genotypes were not directly associated with psychotic experiences in the population. Testing for gene x environment interaction was borderline significant in the case of COMT-Val158Met with individuals with the COMT-Val158Met Val-Val genotype, who had been exposed to childhood trauma borderline significantly more likely to report psychotic experiences than those with Val-Met or Met-Met genotypes. There was no similar interaction by BDNF-Val66Met genotype. CONCLUSION: The COMT-Val158Met Val-Val genotype may be a genetic moderator of risk for psychotic experiences in individuals exposed to childhood traumatic experiences.

  2. COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and functional outcome following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Ferguson, Adam R; Temkin, Nancy R; Stein, Murray B; Barber, Jason; Yuh, Esther L; Sharma, Sourabh; Satris, Gabriela G; McAllister, Thomas W; Rosand, Jonathan; Sorani, Marco D; Lingsma, Hester F; Tarapore, Phiroz E; Burchard, Esteban G; Hu, Donglei; Eng, Celeste; Wang, Kevin K W; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical trajectories and outcomes. The source of variability remains unclear, but may involve genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A SNP in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is suggested to influence development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its role in TBI remains unclear. Here, we utilize the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study to investigate whether the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with PTSD and global functional outcome as measured by the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), respectively. Results in 93 predominately Caucasian subjects with mTBI show that the COMT Met(158) allele is associated with lower incidence of PTSD (univariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.25, 95% CI [0.09-0.69]) and higher GOSE scores (univariate OR 2.87, 95% CI [1.20-6.86]) 6-months following injury. The COMT Val(158)Met genotype and PTSD association persists after controlling for race (multivariable OR of 0.29, 95% CI [0.10-0.83]) and pre-existing psychiatric disorders/substance abuse (multivariable OR of 0.32, 95% CI [0.11-0.97]). PTSD emerged as a strong predictor of poorer outcome on GOSE (multivariable OR 0.09, 95% CI [0.03-0.26]), which persists after controlling for age, GCS, and race. When accounting for PTSD in multivariable analysis, the association of COMT genotype and GOSE did not remain significant (multivariable OR 1.73, 95% CI [0.69-4.35]). Whether COMT genotype indirectly influences global functional outcome through PTSD remains to be determined and larger studies in more diverse populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  3. Progress on Association between COMT Gene and Violence Behavior in Patients with Schizophrenia%COMT基因与精神分裂症患者暴力攻击行为关联性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钦廷; 赵敏; 谢斌

    2014-01-01

    精神分裂症患者的暴力攻击行为发生率高于一般人群,暴力攻击行为在某些方面具有显著的遗传倾向性,与精神分裂症患者暴力攻击行为研究最多的是儿茶酚氧位甲基转移酶(catechol-O-methyltrans-ferase , COMT )基因。本文从COMT Val158Met 和COMT Ala72Ser 的SNP 多态性、COMT 基因单倍型、COMT基因启动子区DNA甲基化等方面对COMT基因变异与精神分裂症患者暴力攻击行为的相关性研究进行综述,并提出精神分裂症患者暴力攻击行为的遗传学研究方向。%The prevalence of violence behavior in patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in common population. Data suggest that genetic factors may play a substantial role for the etiology of the behavior. Among the particular gene polymorphisms that have been considered to be involved in vio-lence behavior, the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene had been the focus of recent research. This article reviews the association research between COMT gene and violence behavior in patients with schizophrenia in several aspects: SNP polymorphism of COMT Val158Met and COMT Ala72Ser, haplo-type of COMT gene and DNA methylation of promoter region of COMT gene. The genetic research di-rection is presented for patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Polymorphisms of serotonin receptor 2A and 2C genes and COMT in relation to obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Werge, Thomas; Holst, Claus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Candidate genes of psychological importance include 5HT2A, 5HT2C, and COMT, implicated in the serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine pathways, which also may be involved in regulation of energy balance. We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs......) of these genes with obesity and metabolic traits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a population of 166 200 young men examined at the draft boards, obese men (n = 726, BMI> or =31.0 kg/m(2)) and a randomly selected group (n = 831) were re-examined at two surveys at mean ages 46 and 49 years (S-46, S-49...

  5. Concrete with Highly Active Rice Husk Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qing-ge; LIN Qing-yu; YU Qi-jun; ZHAO San-ying; YANG Lu-feng; Shuichi Sugita

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim was to investigate the effect of highly active rice husk ash (RHA) produced by an industrial furnace on some properties of concrete. The strength, pore volume and pore distribution of concrete and the Ca(OH)2 content in concrete were investigated by JIS A 1108 (Method of test for compressive strength of concrete), a mercury instrument porosimeter, and the thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that,with RHA replacement of cement,the compressive strength of concrete is increased evidently;the average pore radius of concrete is greatly decreased, especially the portion of the pores greater than 20nm in radius is decreased while the amount of smaller pores is increased, and the more the RHA replacement, the less the amount of Ca(OH)2 in concrete. The latter two results are the main reasons for the strength enhancement of concrete.

  6. Adipose tissue PCB levels and CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Loft, Steffen; Wellejus, Anja

    2014-01-01

    these enzymes control efficiency. Our objective was to assess whether CYP1B1 and COMT gene polymorphisms modulate the effect of PCBs in breast cancer risk, among postmenopausal Danish women. Neither CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphisms nor adipose tissue PCBs were independently associated with breast cancer risk....... When assessing the independent effect of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, we observed reduced risk for breast cancer amongst hormone replacement therapy using women who were homozygous carriers of the variant allele compared with those carrying the wild-type variant (RR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.29-0.89). We...

  7. Association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and risk of cancer: evidence from 99 case–control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Q

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quan Zhou, Yan Wang, Aihua Chen, Yaling Tao, Huamei Song, Wei Li, Jing Tao, Manzhen ZuoDepartment of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The People’s Hospital of Three Gorges University, The First People’s Hospital of Yichang, Yichang, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT plays a central role in DNA repair and estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Many recent epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and cancer risk, but the results are inconclusive. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between cancer susceptibility and COMT Val158Met in different genetic models. Overall, no significant associations were found between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and cancer risk (homozygote model: odds ratio [OR] =1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.98, 1.13]; heterozygote model: OR =1.01, 95% CI = [0.98, 1.04]; dominant model: OR =1.02, 95% CI [0.97, 1.06], and recessive model: OR =1.03, 95% CI [0.97, 1.09]. In the subgroup ­analysis of cancer type, COMT Val158Met was significantly associated with increased risks of ­bladder cancer in recessive model, and esophageal cancer in homozygote model, heterozygote model, and dominant model. Subgroup analyses based on ethnicities, COMT Val158Met was significantly associated with increased risk of cancer in homozygote and recessive model among Asians. In addition, homozygote, recessive, and dominant models were significantly associated with increased cancer risk in the subgroup of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction genotyping. Significant associations were not observed when data were stratified by the source of the controls. In summary, this meta-analysis suggested that COMT Val158Met polymorphism might not be a risk factor for overall cancer risk, but it might be involved in cancer development at least in some ethnic groups (Asian or some specific cancer types (bladder and esophageal cell

  8. The ABCB1, rs9282564, AG and TT Genotypes and the COMT, rs4680, AA Genotype are Less Frequent in Deceased Patients with Opioid Addiction than in Living Patients with Opioid Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Dorte J; Damkier, Per; Feddersen, Søren; Möller, Sören; Thomsen, Jørgen L; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Brøsen, Kim

    2016-10-01

    Sudden death due to acute intoxication occurs frequently in patients with opioid addiction (OA). To examine whether certain genotypes were associated with this, we examined the frequencies of 29 SNPs located in candidate genes related to opioid pharmacology: ABCB1, OPRM1, UGT2B7, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, COMT, KCNJ6 and SCN9A in 274 deceased patients with OA (DOA), 309 living patients with OA (LOA) and in 394 healthy volunteers (HV). The main hypothesis of the study was that subjects homozygous for the variant 3435T in ABCB1 (rs1045642) occur more frequently in DOA than in LOA and HV because morphine and methadone more readily cross the blood barrier in these subjects due to a lower efflux transporter activity of the ABCB1 (p-glycoprotein) transporter. Our results did not support this hypothesis, because no statistically significant difference (p = 0.506) in the frequency of the TT genotype of rs1045642 was observed between the DOA, LOA and HV cohorts. However, for another ABCB1 variant, rs9282564, we found that the frequencies of the AG and TT genotypes were 13, 21 and 25% in DOA, LOA and HV, respectively, and after correcting for age, sex and multiple testing, the differences between DOA and LOA were statistically significantly different (p = 0.027). The COMT rs4680 AA genotype frequencies were 25%, 35% and 31% in DOA, LOA and HV, respectively, and the difference between DOA and LOA was also statistically significant (p = 0.0028). In conclusion, this study generated two hypotheses suggesting possible associations of a reduced risk of death and carrying, respectively, the ABCB1 rs9282564 AG and TT genotypes and the COMT rs4680 AA genotype among patients with OA. These findings should be confirmed in independent cohorts, and if a causal relationship between these variants and fatal poisoning in OA is confirmed, then it may be possible at least in theory to personalize prevention of sudden death in this patient group.

  9. Polimorfismos dos genes do receptor de serotonina (5-HT2A e da catecol-O-metiltransferase (COMT: fatores desencadeantes da fibromialgia? Serotonin receptor (5-HT 2A and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene polymorphisms: Triggers of fibromyalgia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Budag Matsuda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome reumática caracterizada por dor difusa e crônica associada a fadiga, insônia, ansiedade, depressão, perda de memória e tontura. Embora os mecanismos fisiológicos que controlam a fibromialgia não tenham sido estabelecidos, fatores neuroendócrinos, genéticos ou moleculares podem estar envolvidos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar os polimorfismos dos genes do receptor de serotonina (5-HT2A e da catecolO-metiltransferase (COMT em pacientes brasileiros com fibromialgia, a fim de avaliar sua participação na etiologia da doença. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O DNA genômico extraído de 102 amostras de sangue (51 pacientes, 51 controles foi usado para a caracterização molecular dos polimorfismos dos genes 5-HT2A e COMT, por meio de PCR-RFLP. RESULTADOS: A análise molecular dos polimorfismos do gene 5-HT2A demonstrou frequências de 25,49% C/C, 49,02% T/C e 25,49% T/T, nos pacientes com fibromialgia, e 17,65% C/C, 62,74% T/C e 19,61% T/T, no grupo controle, não apresentando diferença significativa entre o grupo de pacientes e o grupo controle. Os polimorfismos do gene da COMT em pacientes com fibromialgia apresentaram uma frequência de 17,65% e 45,10% para os genótipos H/H e L/H, respectivamente. No grupo controle, as frequências foram de 29,42%, para H/H, e 60,78%, para L/H, sem diferença significativa entre ambos os grupos. Entretanto, houve diferença significativa na frequência do genótipo L/L em pacientes (37,25% e controles (9,8%, o que permitiu a diferenciação entre os dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência do genótipo L/L foi maior nos pacientes com fibromialgia. Apesar de a fibromialgia envolver uma situação poligênica e fatores ambientais, o estudo molecular do SNP rs4680 do gene da COMT pode auxiliar a identificação de indivíduos suscetíveis.INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia is a rheumatic syndrome characterized by diffuse and chronic pain associated with

  10. Effect of 3 Single-Dose Regimens of Opicapone on Levodopa Pharmacokinetics, Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Activity and Motor Response in Patients With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, José-Francisco; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Falcão, Amílcar; Santos, Ana; Pinto, Roberto; Nunes, Teresa; Almeida, Luis; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2016-05-01

    This study determined the effects of single doses of opicapone (OPC), a novel third-generation catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor, on levodopa and 3-O-methyl-levodopa (3-OMD) pharmacokinetics (PK), COMT activity and motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Subjects received, in a double-blind manner, 25, 50, and 100 mg OPC or placebo (PLC) in 4 separate treatment periods. The washout period between doses was at least 10 days. During each period, the OPC/PLC capsules were to be coadministered with the morning dose of 100/25 mg levodopa/carbidopa (LC) or levodopa/benserazide (LB) on day 3. In relation to PLC, levodopa exposure increased 3.7%, 16.4%, and 34.8% following 25, 50, or 100 mg OPC, respectively. Maximum S-COMT inhibition (Emax ) ranged from 67.8% (25 mg OPC) to 100% (100 mg OPC). Peak and extent of S-COMT inhibition were dose-dependent. Maximum decrease in the plasma 3-OMD was observed following administration of 100 mg OPC. Opicapone administered concomitantly with standard-release 100/25 mg LC or LB improved motor performance. Treatments were generally well tolerated and safe. It was concluded that OPC is a new COMT inhibitor that significantly decreased COMT activity and increased systemic exposure to levodopa in PD patients with motor fluctuations.

  11. No association between COMT val158met polymorphism and suicidal behavior: meta-analysis and new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genis Mendoza Alma D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polymorphism COMTval158met has been associated with suicidal behavior in case-control and meta-analysis studies, but results and conclusions remain controversial. The objective of this study was to examine the association between COMT val158met with suicidal behavior in a case-control study and to assess the combined evidence -this case-control study and available data from other related studies- we carried out a meta-analysis. Methods We conducted a case-control study with 105 patients with suicide attempts and 236 controls. Subsequently, we performed a meta-analysis of published genetic association studies by searching through Medline, PubMed and Web of Science databases. Results No significant differences were found in the distribution of alleles (χ2 = 0.33, 1 df, p = 0.56 or genotypes (χ2 = 2.36, 2 df, p = 0.26. The meta-analysis comprising 12 association studies (including the present one showed that the risk COMTmet allele of COMTval158/met is not associated with suicidal behavior (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.97-1.23, even in the absence of heterogeneity (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.97-1.23. Conclusion Our results showed no association between COMTval158/met and suicidal behavior. However, more studies are necessary to determine conclusively an association between COMT and suicidal behavior.

  12. [Logic model of the Franche-Comté Regional Health Project: advantages and limitations for the evaluation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Claude; Sannino, Nadine; Duboudin, Cédric; Baudier, François; Guillin, Caroline; Billondeau, Christine; Mansion, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The French "Hospitals, patients, health and territories" law of July 2009 created the Regional Health Project (PRS) to support regional health policy, and requires evaluation of these projects. The construction of these projects, which includes prevention planning, care planning, and medical and social welfare planning, presents an unprecedented complexity in France, where evaluation programmes are still in their infancy. To support future evaluations, the Franche-Comté Regional Health Agency (ARS FC), assisted by the expertise of EFECT Consultants, decided to reconstruct the PRS logic model. This article analyzes the advantages and limitations of this approach. The resulting logic model allows visualization of the strategy adopted to achieve the Franche-Comté PRS ambitions and expected results. The model highlights four main aspects of structural change to the health system, often poorly visible in PRS presentation documents. This model also establishes links with the usual public policy evaluation issues and facilitates their prioritization. This approach also provides a better understanding of the importance of analysis of the programme construction in order to be effective rather than direct analysis of the effects, which constitutes the natural tendency of current practice. The main controversial limit concerns the retrospective design of the PRS framework, both in terms of the reliability of interpretation and adoption by actors not directly involved in this initiative.

  13. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-07-18

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val(158)Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14-1.34; p gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09-1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings.

  14. Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on reversal learning as a function of COMT and DRD2 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronk, Desirée B; Van der Schaaf, Marieke E; Cools, Roshan; De Bruijn, Ellen R A; Franke, Barbara; van Wel, Janelle H P; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Verkes, Robbert J

    2016-01-01

    Long-term cannabis and cocaine use has been associated with impairments in reversal learning. However, how acute cannabis and cocaine administration affect reversal learning in humans is not known. In this study, we aimed to establish the acute effects of administration of cannabis and cocaine on valence-dependent reversal learning as a function of DRD2 Taq1A (rs1800497) and COMT Val108/158Met (rs4680) genotype. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized 3-way crossover design was used. Sixty-one regular poly-drug users completed a deterministic reversal learning task under the influence of cocaine, cannabis, and placebo that enabled assessment of both reward- and punishment-based reversal learning. Proportion correct on the reversal learning task was increased by cocaine, but decreased by cannabis. Effects of cocaine depended on the DRD2 genotype, as increases in proportion correct were seen only in the A1 carriers, and not in the A2/A2 homozygotes. COMT genotype did not modulate drug-induced effects on reversal learning. These data indicate that acute administration of cannabis and cocaine has opposite effects on reversal learning. The effects of cocaine, but not cannabis, depend on interindividual genetic differences in the dopamine D2 receptor gene.

  15. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  16. Metabolic Activity of Bacteria at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Oger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing evidence for the presence of a large number of microbes in the oceanic subsurface. Such a habitat has a very low energy input because it is deprived of light. A few meters below the sediment surface, conditions are already anoxic in most cases, sulfate reduction and/or methanogenesis becoming thus the primary respiratory reactions of organic matter. Neither the fate of methanogenesis, nor the fate of Dissimilatory Metal-Reduction (DMR) has been investigated so far as a function of pressure. For this reason, we measured experimentally the pressure limits of microbial anaerobic energetic metabolism. In practice, we measured in situ the kinetics of selenite respiration by the bacterial model Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) between 0 and 150 MPa at 30°C. MR-1 stationary-phase cells were used in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium amended with lactate as an additional electron donor and sodium selenite as an electron acceptor. In situ measurements were performed by X- ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy in both a diamond-anvil cell and an autoclave. A red precipitate of amorphous Se(0) was virtually observed at any pressure to 150 MPa. A progressive reduction of selenite Se(IV) into selenium Se(0) was also observed in the evolution of XANES spectra with time. All kinetics between 0.1 and 150 MPa can be adjusted to a first order kinetic law. MR-1 respires all available selenite up to 60 MPa. Above 60 MPa, the respiration yield decreases linearly as a function of pressure and reaches 0 at 155 ±5 MPa. This indicates that selenite respiration by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 stops at about 155 MPa, whereas its growth is arrested at 50 MPa. Hence, the present results show that the respiration of selenium by the strain MR-1 occurs efficiently up to 60 MPa and 30°C, i.e. from the surface of a continental sediment to an equivalent depth of about 2 km, or beneath a 5-km water column and

  17. Genotype status of the dopamine-related catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene corresponds with desirability of “unhealthy” foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallace, D.L.; Aarts, E.; d'Oleire Uquillas, F.; Dang, L.C.; Greer, S.M.; Jagust, W.J.; D'Esposito, M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of dopamine is extensively documented in weight regulation and food intake in both animal models and humans. Yet the role of dopamine has not been well studied in individual differences for food desirability. Genotype status of the dopamine-related catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene h

  18. Lack of influence of COMT and NET genes variants on executive functions in schizophrenic and bipolar patients, their first-degree relatives and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöke, A; Schürhoff, F; Méary, A; Mathieu, F; Chevalier, F; Trandafir, A; Alter, C; Roy, I; Bellivier, F; Leboyer, M

    2006-07-05

    Abnormal dopaminergic function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may be a key factor in the etiopathogeny of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Both schizophrenic and bipolar subjects have executive functions (EF) deficits, thought to reflect abnormal PFC function. The main inactivation pathways for dopamine in the PFC are enzymatic cleavage by the Carboxy-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) and reuptake by the nor-epinephrine transporter (NET). Our aim in this study was to replicate previous studies that investigated influence of the COMT genotype on EF in schizophrenic subjects, their relatives and controls and extend their scope by including bipolar patients, and their relatives and by exploring NET gene polymorphisms influence on executive performances. We investigated one functional polymorphism of the COMT gene and two polymorphisms of the NET gene. EF were assessed by means of the Trail Making Test (TMT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). We assessed the effect of each of the three genotypes on EF for the whole sample (N = 318) and separately in schizophrenic (N = 66), bipolar (N = 94) and healthy subjects (i.e., relatives and controls N = 158). Separate analyses were performed because of the presence, in patients samples, of potentially confounding factors, especially medication. Genotype had no significant effect on the cognitive measures in any of the analyses (for the two EF measures, the three polymorphisms, and the four groups). In our sample we found no evidence in favor of a major effect of COMT or NET polymorphisms on the two tests of EF.

  19. COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with blood pressure and lipid levels in general families of Bama longevous area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lin; Wu, Hua-Yu; Pan, Shang-Ling; Huang, Ling; Sun, Peng; Liang, Qing-Hua; Pang, Guo-Fang; Lv, Ze-Ping; Hu, Cai-You; Liu, Cheng-Wu; Zhou, Xiao-Ling; Huang, Ling-Jin; Yin, Rui-Xing; Peng, Jun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To see the possible relationship between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and blood pressure (BP) and serum lipid levels and its putative role in human longevity, we genotyped COMT Val158Met (rs4680) by PCR-RFLP for members from Bama long-lived families (BLF, n = 1538), Bama non-long-lived families (BNLF, n = 600), Pingguo (a county outside Bama region) long-lived families (PLF, n = 538) and Pingguo non-long-lived families (PNLF, n = 403) after anthropometric measures were collected and serum lipid levels were detected. The distribution of genotypes and alleles among four family groups was significantly different (all P pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of GG genotype carriers were dramatically higher than non-GG carriers in BNLF (P pressure and lipids were observed between genotypes in BLF and PNLF (P > 0.05). Correlation analyses revealed that COMT Val158Met was mainly correlated negatively with SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and LDL-C in BNLF and negatively with TC level in BLF, BNLF and PLF. These data suggest that COMT Val158Met polymorphism may have more impact on the modulation of BP and lipid profiles in the average families than in the long-lived families in Bama region. The association between this SNP and other phenotypes (e.g. cognition) and its roles in the longevity in Bama area thus warrant further investigation.

  20. Adipose tissue PCB levels and CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Loft, Steffen; Wellejus, Anja; Autrup, Herman; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to PCBs may be an etiologic factor for breast cancer. The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzymes are involved in estrogen metabolism and PCB metabolism, both of which may relate to breast cancer susceptibility. Polymorphisms in genes regulating these enzymes control efficiency. Our objective was to assess whether CYP1B1 and COMT gene polymorphisms modulate the effect of PCBs in breast cancer risk, among postmenopausal Danish women. Neither CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphisms nor adipose tissue PCBs were independently associated with breast cancer risk. When assessing the independent effect of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, we observed reduced risk for breast cancer amongst hormone replacement therapy using women who were homozygous carriers of the variant allele compared with those carrying the wild-type variant (RR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.29-0.89). We found no statistically significant interactions between any of the PCB groups and CYP1B1 or COMT polymorphisms on the risk of breast cancer.

  1. Cognitive control and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism: genetic modulation of videogame training and transfer to task-switching efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hommel, B.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated whether successful transfer of game-based cognitive improvements to untrained tasks might be modulated by preexisting neuro-developmental factors, such as genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)—an enzyme responsible for the degradation of dopami

  2. Adipose tissue PCB levels and CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Loft, Steffen; Wellejus, Anja;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to PCBs may be an etiologic factor for breast cancer. The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzymes are involved in estrogen metabolism and PCB metabolism, both of which may relate to breast cancer susceptibility. Polymorphisms in genes regulating...

  3. Predictors of heroin relapse: Personality traits, impulsivity, COMT gene Val158met polymorphism in a 5-year prospective study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Li, Zhibin; Du, Jiang; Jiang, Haifeng; Chen, Zhikang; Sun, Haiming; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Relapse is a typical feature of heroin addiction and rooted in genetic and psychological determinants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of personality traits, impulsivity, and COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680) on relapse to heroin use during 5-year follow up. 564 heroin dependent patients were enrolled in compulsory drug rehabilitation center. 12 months prior to their release, personality traits were measured by BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The COMT gene rs4680 polymorphism was genotyped using a DNA sequence detection system. The heroin use status was evaluated for 5 years after discharged. Among the 564 heroin-dependent patients, 500 were followed for 5 years after discharge and 53.0% (n = 265) were considered as relapsed to heroin use according to a strict monitor system. Univariate analysis showed that age, having ever been in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), the total scores and non-planning scores of BIS-11, and the COMT rs4680 gene variants were different between relapse and abstinent groups. Logistic regression analysis showed higher BIS total score, having ever been in MMT and younger first heroin use age are the predictors of relapse to heroin use during 5 years follow-up, and the COMT rs4680 gene had an interaction with BIS scores. Our findings indicated that the impulsive personality traits, methadone use history, and onset age could predict relapse in heroin-dependent patients during 5 year's follow up. The COMT gene showed a moderational effect in part the relationship of impulsivity with heroin relapse.

  4. Pathways to age of onset of heroin use: a structural model approach exploring the relationship of the COMT gene, impulsivity and childhood trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction of the association of dopamine genes, impulsivity and childhood trauma with substance abuse remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the impacts and the interactions of the Catechol -O-methyltransferase (COMT gene, impulsivity and childhood trauma on the age of onset of heroin use among heroin dependent patients in China. METHODS: 202 male and 248 female inpatients who meet DSM-IV criteria of heroin dependence were enrolled. Impulsivity and childhood trauma were measured using BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and ETISR-SF (Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs737866 on the COMT gene-which has previously been associated with heroin abuse, was genotyped using a DNA sequence detection system. Structural equations model was used to assess the interaction paths between these factors and the age of onset of heroin use. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chi-square test indicated the individuals with TT allele have earlier age of onset of heroin use than those with CT or CC allele. In the correlation analysis, the severity of childhood trauma was positively correlated to impulsive score, but both of them were negatively related to the age of onset of heroin use. In structure equation model, both the COMT gene and childhood trauma had impacts on the age of onset of heroin use directly or via impulsive personality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that the COMT gene, impulsive personality traits and childhood trauma experience were interacted to impact the age of onset of heroin use, which play a critical role in the development of heroin dependence. The impact of environmental factor was greater than the COMT gene in the development of heroin dependence.

  5. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  7. La posteridad sociológica de Auguste Comte: Lo normal y lo patológico en Durkheim

    OpenAIRE

    MICHEL BOURDEAU

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo completa un texto que, bajo el título «Ciencia, religión y sociedad en Auguste Comte», fue publicado en el año 2003 en las páginas de esta revista. Después de un breve repaso de los conceptos sociológicos fundamentales del Cours de philosophie positive, se muestra como el pensamiento de Durkheim se constituyó a través de una discusión crítica con el positivismo. Concretamente, se examinan dos momentos fundamentales de dicha confrontación. En primer lugar, se analiza como la dist...

  8. Paranormal experience and the COMT dopaminergic gene: a preliminary attempt to associate phenotype with genotype using an underlying brain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir; Hines, Terence; Fossella, John; Castro, Daniella

    2008-01-01

    Paranormal belief and suggestibility seem related. Given our recent findings outlining a putative association between suggestibility and a specific dopaminergic genetic polymorphism, we hypothesized that similar exploratory genetic data may offer supplementary insights into a similar correlation with paranormal belief. With more affordable costs and better technology in the aftermath of the human genome project, genotyping is increasingly ubiquitous. Compelling brain theories guide specific research hypotheses as scientists begin to unravel tentative relationships between phenotype and genotype. In line with a dopaminergic brain theory, we tried to correlate a specific phenotype concerning paranormal belief with a dopaminergic gene (COMT) known for its involvement in prefrontal executive cognition and for a polymorphism that is positively correlated with suggestibility. Although our preliminary findings are inconclusive, the research approach we outline should pave the road to a more scientific account of elucidating paranormal belief.

  9. Active control system for high speed windmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  10. Lack of influence of COMT and NET genes variants on executive functions in schizophrenic and bipolar patients, their first-degree relatives and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Szöke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Méary, Alexandre; Mathieu, Flavie; Chevalier, Fabien; Trandafir, Anca; Alter, Caroline; Roy, Isabelle; Bellivier, Franck; Leboyer, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal dopaminergic function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may be a key factor in the etiopathogeny of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Both schizophrenic and bipolar subjects have executive functions (EF) deficits, thought to reflect abnormal PFC function. The main inactivation pathways for dopamine in the PFC are enzymatic cleavage by the Carboxy-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) and reuptake by the nor-epinephrine transporter (NET). Our aim in this study was to replicate previous studies t...

  11. Neonatal pain and COMT Val158Met genotype in relation to serotonin transporter (SLC6A4 promoter methylation in very preterm children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil Ming Yeung Chau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Children born very preterm are exposed to repeated neonatal procedures that induce pain and stress during hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The COMT Val158Met genotype is involved with pain sensitivity, and early life stress is implicated in altered expression of methylation of the serotonin transporter. We examined: (1 whether methylation of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 promoter differs between very preterm children and full-term controls at school age, (2 relationships with child behavior problems, and (3 whether the extent of neonatal pain exposure interacts with the COMT Val158Met genotype to predict SLC6A4 methylation at 7 years in the very preterm children. We examined the associations between the COMT genotypes, neonatal pain exposure (adjusted for neonatal clinical confounders, SLC6A4 methylation and behavior problems. Very preterm children had significantly higher methylation at 7/10 CpG sites in the SLC6A4 promoter compared to full-term controls at 7 years. Neonatal pain (adjusted for clinical confounders was significantly associated with total child behaviour problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL questionnaire (adjusted for concurrent stressors and 5HTTLPR genotype (p = 0.035. CBCL total problems was significantly associated with greater SLC6A4 methylation in very preterm children (p = 0.01. Neonatal pain (adjusted for clinical confounders and COMT Met/Met genotype were associated with SLC6A4 promoter methylation in very preterm children at 7 years (p = 0.001. These findings provide evidence that both genetic predisposition and early environment need to be considered in understanding susceptibility for developing behavioral problems in this vulnerable population.

  12. Association of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met Polymorphism and Anxiety-Related Traits: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lewina O.; Prescott, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The main goals of this study were: (i) to examine genotypic association of the COMT val158met polymorphism with anxiety-related traits via a meta-analysis; (ii) to examine sex and ethnicity as moderators of the association, and (iii) to evaluate whether the association differed by particular anxiety traits. Methods Association studies of the COMT val18met polymorphism and anxiety traits were identified from the PubMed or PsycInfo databases, conference abstracts and listserv postings. Exclusion criteria were: (a) pediatric samples, (b) exclusively clinical samples, and (c) samples selected for a non-anxiety phenotype. Standardized mean differences in anxiety between genotypes were aggregated to produce mean effect sizes across all available samples, and for subgroups stratified by sex and ethnicity (Caucasians vs. Asians). Construct-specific analysis was conducted to evaluate the association of COMT with neuroticism, harm avoidance, and behavioral inhibition. Results Twenty seven eligible studies (N=15,979) with available data were identified. Overall findings indicate sex-specific and ethnic-specific effects: Val homozygotes had higher neuroticism than Met homozygotes in studies of Caucasian males ( ES¯=0.13, 95%CI: 0.02 – 0.25, p = 0.03), and higher harm avoidance in studies of Asian males ( ES¯=0.43, 95%CI: 0.14 – 0.72, p = 0.004). No significant associations were found in women and effect sizes were diminished when studies were aggregated across ethnicity or anxiety traits. Conclusions: This meta-analysis provides evidence for sex and ethnicity differences in the association of the COMT val158met polymorphism with anxiety traits. Our findings contribute to current knowledge on the relation between prefrontal dopaminergic transmission and anxiety. PMID:24300663

  13. Evidence for a common biological basis of the Absorption trait, hallucinogen effects, and positive symptoms: epistasis between 5-HT2a and COMT polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Ulrich; Reuter, Martin; Hennig, Juergen; Vaitl, Dieter

    2005-08-05

    Absorption represents a disposition to experience altered states of consciousness characterized by intensively focused attention. It is correlated with hypnotic susceptibility and includes phenomena ranging from vivid perceptions and imaginations to mystical experiences. Based on the assumption that drug-induced and naturally occurring mystical experiences share common neural mechanisms, we hypothesized that Absorption is influenced by the T102C polymorphism affecting the 5-HT2a receptor, which is known to be an important target site of hallucinogens like LSD. Based on the pivotal role ascribed to the prefrontal executive control network for absorbed attention and positive symptoms in schizophrenia, it was further hypothesized that Absorption is associated with the VAL158MET polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affecting the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. The Tellegen Absorption Scale was administered to 336 subjects (95 male, 241 female). Statistical analysis revealed that the group with the T/T genotype of the T102C polymorphism, implying a stronger binding potential of the 5-HT2a receptor, indeed had significantly higher Absorption scores (F = 10.00, P = 0.002), while no main effect was found for the COMT polymorphism. However, the interaction between T102C and COMT genotypes yielded significance (F = 3.89; P = 0.049), underlining the known functional interaction between the 5-HT and the dopaminergic system. These findings point to biological foundations of the personality trait of Absorption. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Family-based association study of the BDNF, COMT and serotonin transporter genes and DSM-IV bipolar-I disorder in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biederman Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade pediatric bipolar disorder has gained recognition as a potentially more severe and heritable form of the disorder. In this report we test for association with genes coding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT. Methods Bipolar-I affected offspring triads (N = 173 were drawn from 522 individuals with 2 parents in 332 nuclear families recruited for genetic studies of pediatric psychopathology at the Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD at Massachusetts General Hospital. Results We failed to identify an association with the val66 allele in BDNF (OR = 1.23, p = 0.36, the COMT-l allele (OR = 1.27, p = 0.1, or the HTTLPR short allele (OR = 0.87, p = 0.38. Conclusion Our study suggests that the markers examined thus far in COMT and SLC6A4 are not associated with pediatric bipolar disorder and that if the val66met marker in BDNF is associated with pediatric bipolar disorder the magnitude of the association is much smaller than first reported.

  15. Catalytically highly active top gold atom on palladium nanocluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Okumura, Mitsutaka; Haruta, Masatake; Toshima, Naoki

    2011-10-23

    Catalysis using gold is emerging as an important field of research in connection with 'green' chemistry. Several hypotheses have been presented to explain the markedly high activities of Au catalysts. So far, the origin of the catalytic activities of supported Au catalysts can be assigned to the perimeter interfaces between Au nanoclusters and the support. However, the genesis of the catalytic activities of colloidal Au-based bimetallic nanoclusters is unclear. Moreover, it is still a challenge to synthesize Au-based colloidal catalysts with high activity. Here we now present the 'crown-jewel' concept (Supplementary Fig. S1) for preparation of catalytically highly Au-based colloidal catalysts. Au-Pd colloidal catalysts containing an abundance of top (vertex or corner) Au atoms were synthesized according to the strategy on a large scale. Our results indicate that the genesis of the high activity of the catalysts could be ascribed to the presence of negatively charged top Au atoms.

  16. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits α and β) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity.

  17. Social capital and physical activity among Croatian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, D; Doubova, S V; Kawachi, I

    2016-06-01

    To examine factors associated with regular physical activity in Croatian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey among high school students was carried out in the 2013/14 school year. A survey was conducted among 33 high schools in Zagreb City, Croatia. Participants were students aged 17-18 years. The dependent variables were regular moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall physical activity measured by the short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire and defined as 60 min or more of daily physical activity. The independent variables included family, neighborhood, and high school social capital. Other study covariates included: socio-economic status, self-rated health, psychological distress and nutritional status. The associations between physical activity and social capital variables were assessed separately for boys and girls through multiple logistic regression and inverse probability weighting in order to correct for missing data bias. A total of 1689 boys and 1739 girls responded to the survey. A higher percentage of boys reported performing regular vigorous and moderate physical activity (59.4%) and overall physical activity (83.4%), comparing with the girls (35.4% and 70%, respectively). For boys, high family social capital and high informal social control were associated with increased odds of regular MVPA (1.49, 95%CI: 1.18 - 1.90 and 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.56, respectively), compared to those with low social capital. For girls, high informal social control was associated with regular overall physical activity (OR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.76). High social capital is associated with regular MVPA in boys and regular overall activity in girls. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as an avenue for promotion of physical activity in youth. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Commonly-occurring polymorphisms in the COMT, DRD1 and DRD2 genes influence different aspects of motor sequence learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetu, Irina; Burns, Nicholas R; Urry, Kristi; Barbante, Girolamo Giovanni; Pitcher, Julia B

    2015-11-01

    Performing sequences of movements is a ubiquitous skill that involves dopamine transmission. However, it is unclear which components of the dopamine system contribute to which aspects of motor sequence learning. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the relationship between different components of the dopamine system and specific aspects of sequence learning in humans. In particular, we investigated variations in genes that code for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme, the dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (DRD1 and DRD2). COMT and the DAT regulate dopamine availability in the prefrontal cortex and the striatum, respectively, two key regions recruited during learning, whereas dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are thought to be involved in long-term potentiation and depression, respectively. We show that polymorphisms in the COMT, DRD1 and DRD2 genes differentially affect behavioral performance on a sequence learning task in 161 Caucasian participants. The DRD1 polymorphism predicted the ability to learn new sequences, the DRD2 polymorphism predicted the ability to perform a previously learnt sequence after performing interfering random movements, whereas the COMT polymorphism predicted the ability to switch flexibly between two sequences. We used computer simulations to explore potential mechanisms underlying these effects, which revealed that the DRD1 and DRD2 effects are possibly related to neuroplasticity. Our prediction-error algorithm estimated faster rates of connection strengthening in genotype groups with presumably higher D1 receptor densities, and faster rates of connection weakening in genotype groups with presumably higher D2 receptor densities. Consistent with current dopamine theories, these simulations suggest that D1-mediated neuroplasticity contributes to learning to select appropriate actions, whereas D2-mediated neuroplasticity is involved in learning to inhibit incorrect action plans. However, the

  19. High disease activity is related to low levels of physical activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongen, Camilla; Halvorsen, Silje; Dagfinrud, Hanne

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to compare physical activity (PA) level and exercise habits in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who have high disease activity with those who have low disease activity and, further, to compare both groups with population controls. Cross-sectional study design was used. The participants include 149 patients (mean age 49.3 (SD 11.1), 61% men, 54% high disease activity) and 133 controls (mean age 52.7 (SD11.3), 58% men). PA was reported with the International PA Questionnaire-Long and results were presented as weekly energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent, MET) in different intensities, domains, and proportion reaching health enhancing physical activity (HEPA). Types of PA were registered in a structured interview. The AS Disease Activity Score was used to assess patients' disease activity. Patients with high disease activity reported significantly lower total weekly energy expenditure (MET) than patients with low disease activity and controls (p = 0.02, p = 0.01, respectively) and lower amounts of walking (p < 0.01, p = 0.02, respectively) and vigorous activity (p = 0.06, p = 0.06, respectively). Only 41% of the patients with high disease activity reached HEPA compared to 61% of the patients with low disease activity (p = 0.02). Patients in general participated less in leisure PA performed outdoor and with higher intensities (MET ≥ 6) than controls.AS patients with high disease activity had lower weekly energy expenditure in PA than patients with low disease activity and controls, and were less likely to reach HEPA than patients with low disease activity. For optimal management, health professionals should focus on physical activity in their consultations with AS patients, especially those with high disease activity.

  20. High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, J.

    2007-01-01

    High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites Jeroen Kool Biotransformation enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Usually, the detoxication of these compounds by biotransformation enzymes results in harmless metab

  1. Supraphysiological hormonal status, anxiety disorders, and COMT Val/Val genotype are associated with reduced sensorimotor gating in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comasco, Erika; Hellgren, Charlotte; Olivier, Jocelien; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sundström Poromaa, Inger

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy is a period characterized by a supraphysiological hormonal status, and greater anxiety proneness, which can lead to peripartum affective symptoms with dramatic consequences not only for the woman but also for the child. Clinical psychiatry is heavily hampered by the paucity of objective and biology-based intermediate phenotypes. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response, a neurophysiological measure of sensorimotor gating, has been poorly investigated in relation to anxiety and in pregnant women. In the present study, the PPI of healthy non-pregnant women (n = 82) and late pregnant women (n = 217) was investigated. Age, BMI, depression and anxiety symptoms, tobacco use, and antidepressant medication were considered. We investigated and provided evidence of lower PPI: (i) in healthy pregnant women compared to healthy non-pregnant controls, (ii) in pregnant women with anxiety disorders compared to healthy pregnant women, (iii) in pregnant women with anxiety disorders using SSRI compared to un-medicated pregnant women with anxiety disorders, and (iv) in healthy pregnant women carrying the COMT Val158Met Val/Val genotype compared to Met carriers. Altogether, a reduced sensorimotor gating as an effect of supraphysiological hormonal status, anxiety disorders, SSRIs, and catecholaminergic genotype, implicate the putative relevance of lower PPI as an objective biological correlate of anxiety proneness in pregnant women. These findings call for prospective studies to dissect the multifactorial influences on PPI in relation to mental health of pregnant women.

  2. The Association between COMT, BDNF, and NRG1 and Premorbid Social Functioning in Patients with Psychosis, Their Relatives, and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Walshe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influences of putative candidate genes for psychosis on premorbid social adjustment and on premorbid schizoid-schizotypal traits. A family-based sample was used including 177 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder with a history of psychotic symptoms, 86 of their unaffected relatives, and 116 unrelated healthy controls. Association analyses on the combined sample were conducted using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software (SAGE and adjusting for age, sex, clinical group, and the family-based nature of the data. The COMT Val158Met and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms showed no evidence of association with either phenotype. The SNP rs221533 of the NRG1 gene was significantly associated with premorbid adjustment in adolescence with TT homozygous subjects having a poorer performance than C allele carriers. In the context of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and other psychoses, this finding is plausible; however, it is preliminary and requires replication in an independent sample. In a broader sense, the use of intermediate quantitative phenotypes such as the ones presented in this study may be of help to understand the mechanism of action of genetic risk factors.

  3. Revolutionising landscapes: Hydroelectricity and the heavy industrialisation of society and environment in the Comte de Beauharnois, 1927--1948

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Louis-Raphael

    This dissertation analyses the rapid industrialisation of the rural Comte de Beauharnois and the adjacent stretch of the Fleuve Saint-Laurent owing to the construction, between 1929 and 1948, of a gigantic canal for hydroelectricity production and navigation by an electricity corporation called the Beauharnois Light Heat and Power (BLH&P). Using principally the archives of the BLH&P---especially its complaints files and its rich photographic record---this thesis argues that this process exemplifies the finance capitalist reorganisation of the society and ecosystems of the Canadian province of Quebec from the 19th century to the Great Depression. In keeping with recent work in environmental history, the transformation of rural landscapes and a river for heavy industry is described as an important dimension of a revolution in modes of production. More specifically, I argue that, in the case under study, the finance-capitalist reorganisation of Quebec revolved around two central and explicit projects, one social and the other environmental: the grouping of most individuals in an industrial working class without control over the means of production and the reorganisation of rural landscapes into reservoirs of modern energy and industrial natural resources.

  4. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  5. The physical activity climate in Minnesota middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Anne; Lytle, Leslie; Pasch, Keryn; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Sirard, John Ronald

    2010-11-01

    This article describes policies, practices, and facilities that form the physical activity climate in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metro area middle and high schools and examines how the physical activity climate varies by school characteristics, including public/private, school location and grade level. Surveys examining school physical activity practices, policies and environment were administered to principals and physical education department heads from 115 middle and high schools participating in the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer-Identifying Determinants of Eating and Activity (TREC-IDEA) study. While some supportive practices were highly prevalent in the schools studied (such as prohibiting substitution of other classes for physical education); other practices were less common (such as providing opportunity for intramural (noncompetitive) sports). Public schools vs. private schools and schools with a larger school enrollment were more likely to have a school climate supportive of physical activity. Although schools reported elements of positive physical activity climates, discrepancies exist by school characteristics. Of note, public schools were more than twice as likely as private schools to have supportive physical activity environments. Establishing more consistent physical activity expectations and funding at the state and national level is necessary to increase regular school physical activity.

  6. 78 FR 70567 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...] Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final Programmatic... Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Nationwide Use of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) Technology and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI...

  7. Dopamine receptor D2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms associated with anorexia nervosa in Chinese Han population: DRD2 and COMT gene polymorphisms were associated with AN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sufang; Yu, Shunying; Wang, Qian; Kang, Qing; Zhang, Yanxia; Zhang, Ran; Jiang, Wenhui; Qian, Yiping; Zhang, Haiyin; Zhang, Mingdao; Xiao, Zeping; Chen, Jue

    2016-03-11

    Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) are important in dopamine system which is proved to be associated with food-anticipatory behavior, food restriction, reward and motivation. This has made them good candidates for anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this work is to explore the roles of DRD2 (rs1800497) and COMT (rs4680, rs4633, rs4818) gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility of AN within the Chinese Han population. We recruited 260AN patients with DSM-IV diagnosis criteria, and 247 unrelated, normal weight controls. DRD2 (rs1800497) and COMT (rs4680, rs4633, rs4818) were genotyped in all subjects. We found rs1800497 and rs4633 were associated with the susceptibility of AN within the Chinese Han sample, and allele C of rs1800497 was a protective factor. There was a gene-gene interaction between rs1800497 of DRD2 gene and rs4633 of COMT gene. We concluded that rs1800497 and rs4633 play important roles in the AN susceptibility with respect to the Chinese Han population. The gene-gene interaction between DRD2 and COMT contributes to the risk of AN.

  8. Experimental conditions affecting functional comparison of highly active glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedulova, Natalia; Mannervik, Bengt

    2011-06-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) possess multiple functions and have potential applications in biotechnology. Direct evidence of underestimation of activity of human GST A3-3 and porcine GST A2-2 measured at submicromolar enzyme concentrations is reported here for the first time. The combination of time-dependent and enzyme concentration-dependent loss of activity and the choice of the organic solvent for substrates were found to cause irreproducibility of activity measurements of GSTs. These effects contribute to high variability of activity values of porcine GST A2-2 and human Alpha-class GSTs reported in the literature. Adsorption of GSTs to surfaces was found to be the main explanation of the observed phenomena. Several approaches to improved functional comparison of highly active GSTs are proposed.

  9. High Power VCSEL Device with Periodic Gain Active Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers(VCSEKLs) with large aperture have been fabricated through improving passivation, lateral oxidation and heat dissipation techniques. Different from conventional three quantum well structures, a periodic gain active region with nine quantum wells was incorporated into the VCSEL structure, with which high efficiency and high power operation were expected. The nine quantum wells were divided into three groups with each of them located at the antinodes of the ca...

  10. Super-SERS-active and highly effective antimicrobial Ag nanodendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. B.; Liu, P.; Liang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Yang, G. W.

    2012-07-01

    We have developed simple and green electrochemistry to synthesize Ag nanostructures with high purity, good crystallinity and smooth surface for applications as super-SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering), SERS-active substrates and with highly effective antimicrobial activities. This synthesis takes place in a clean and slow reaction environment without any chemical additives, which ensures an ultrahigh active surface of the as-synthesized Ag nanostructures owing to their purity, good crystallinity and smooth morphology. Using this method, we synthesized nearly perfect Ag nanodendrites (NDs), which exhibit super-SERS sensitivity when they are used to detect the SERS spectra of rhodamine 6G at concentrations as low as 5 × 10-16 M, and have an ultrahigh electromagnetic (EM) enhancement factor of the order of 1013, breaking through the theoretical limit of EM enhancement. Meanwhile, the as-synthesized Ag NDs possess highly effective antimicrobial activities for Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, which are over 10 times that of silver nanoparticles. Additionally, the basic physics and chemistry involved in the fabrication of Ag nanostructures are pursued. These investigations show that silver nanostructures with highly active surfaces can make the most of Ag nanostructures functioning as super-SERS-active substrates and multiple antibiotics.

  11. 长寿家系COMT Val158Met基因多态性及其与血压和血脂水平的相关性%Association of COMT Val158Met polymorphism with blood pressure and serum lipid levels in long-lived families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艺苑; 庞国防; 罗桓; 胡才友; 潘尚领; 彭均华; 刘承武

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨长寿家系COMT Val158Met(G>A)基因多态性与血压、血脂水平的相关性,了解其在长寿中的作用.方法 用PCR-RFLP方法对广西红水河流域长寿家系(HL)及非长寿家系(HNL)、外地区(平果)长寿(PL)及非长寿家系(PNL)的COMT Val158Met进行基因分型,分析该多态与血压和血脂水平的相关性.结果 等位基因A及其基因型(GA/AA)频率在HL和HNL间无差异,但高于PL和PNL(P <0.01).HL和PNL的血压、血脂水平在GA/AA和GG基因型携带者之间无差异,但HNL的GA/AA携带者的收缩压、脉压差、TC、TG及LDL-C水平明显高于GG携带者(P<0.05),尤以女性为甚,PL的部分结果与此类似.COMT Val158Met多态与HNL及PL的TC和LDL-C水平呈负相关(P< 0.05).结论 COMT Val158Met虽然在红水河流域人群中高频出现,但其对血压及血脂的影响主要在一般家系,对长寿家系的影响较小.

  12. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Variability exists in children’s activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Results The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P children, playground area per student, and temperature, depending on the segment analysed. The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. Conclusions HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial. PMID:22672654

  13. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stuart J; Beighle, Aaron; Erwin, Heather; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2012-06-06

    Variability exists in children's activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P children, playground area per student, and temperature, depending on the segment analysed.The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial.

  14. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairclough Stuart J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability exists in children’s activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA, vigorous (VPA and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH or low active (LOW depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school. Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Results The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P P  The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. Conclusions HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial.

  15. Effects of Anshendingzhiling on Content of COMT in Rats with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder%安神定志灵对注意缺陷多动障碍模型脑组织儿茶酚-氧位甲基转移酶含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹东奇; 韩新民; 倪新强; 李亚群

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Anshendingzhiling(ADL) on expression of dopamine transporter(DAT) of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats's striatum and the mechanism of this medicine to treat with ADHD.Method Thirty SHR rats were randomly divided into 5 groups including model group,ritalin group,ADL high dose group,ADL medium dose group and ADL low dose group,6 rats each group,meantime,6 Wistar-Kyot rats constitute normal control group.The dosages of the 3 groups of ADL were 34.1,17.1,8.5g · kg-1,ig respectively and the dosage of ritalin group is 2.1mg · kg-1,ig,as for the model group or normal control,rats were given physiological saline as per 10 mL · kg-1,ig.After 2-week,the rats in experiments were killed and separate the brain tissues,then examine the COMT of each group with ELISA.Result Compared with normal group,the significant differences in model group,high dose of ADL group,middle dose of ADL group and low dose of ADL group(P < 0.01).The content of COMT of brain tissue is significant lower in all levels of ADL(P < 0.01).The content of COMT is no difference between high dose and middle dose of ADL group(P > 0.05).The content of COMT is no difference between low dose of ADL group and the normal group(P >0.05).Conclusion The change of COMT content of SHR rats' brain tissue show the COMT plays an important role in ADHD incidence,and the ADL has a moderating effect of it.%目的 观察安神定志灵对注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)动物模型-自发性高血压大鼠(SHR)纹状体多巴胺转运体(DAT)表达的影响,探讨该药治疗ADHD的作用机制.方法 SHR大鼠随机分为模型对照组、安神定志灵高、中、低剂量组,Wistar-Kyoto(WKY)大鼠为正常对照组.安神定志灵高、中、低剂量组分别按生药剂量3.41、1.71、0.85g/mL灌胃;模型对照组和正常对照组以2mL/100g生理盐水灌胃,连续给药2周后处死大鼠,取脑用ELISA检测各组大鼠脑组织中儿茶酚-氧位甲基转移酶(COMT

  16. Recommendations of activity restriction in high-risk pregnancy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Jane; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Bergholt, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    obstetricians and midwives prescribe activity restriction in most high-risk pregnancies. The degree of activity restriction and the presumed effect vary between clinicians. This may reflect different attitudes and lack of guidelines based on clinical studies of a possible benefit of activity restriction....... to the obstetricians, the midwives also reported that they expected the recommendation to be more effective. Most midwives and obstetricians reported that they thought strict activity restriction was associated with severe or moderate adverse effect, and recommended antithrombotic prophylaxis. Conclusions: Danish......Abstract Aims: To describe specific recommendations of activity restriction, place of care, expected beneficial and adverse effects, and recommended antithrombotic prophylaxis in nine clinical scenarios. Methods: A national survey. All members of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology...

  17. High lightning activity in maritime clouds near Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kucienska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning activity detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN over oceanic regions adjacent to Mexico is often as high as that observed over the continent. In order to explore the possible cause of the observed high flash density over those regions, the relationships between lightning, rainfall, vertical hydrometeor profiles, latent heating, wind variability and aerosol optical thickness are analyzed. The characteristics of lightning and precipitation over four oceanic zones adjacent to Mexican coastlines are contrasted against those over the continent. In addition, we compare two smaller regions over the Tropical Pacific Ocean: one located within the Inter-Tropical Converge Zone and characterized by high rainfall and weak lightning activity and the other influenced by a continental jet and presenting high rainfall and strong lightning activity over the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Maritime precipitating clouds that develop within the region influenced by offshore winds exhibit similar properties to continental clouds: large content of precipitation ice and an increased height range of coexistence of precipitation ice and cloud water. During the rainy season, monthly distribution of lightning within the region influenced by the continental jet is contrary to that of rainfall. Moreover, the monthly variability of lightning is very similar to the variability of the meridional wind component and it is also related to the variability of aerosol optical depth. The analysis strongly suggests that the high lightning activity observed over the Gulf of Tehuantepec is caused by continental cloud condensation nuclei advected over the ocean.

  18. Un roman pour la génération dot.com?: Le comte de Monte-Christo dans l'adaptation de Stephen Fry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Marinčič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 2000, le romancier britannique Stephen Fry publie The Starsʹ Tennis Balls, une adaptation modernisante du roman Le Comte de Monte-Cristo dʹAlexandre Dumas. Lʹobjectif de la présente contribution est dʹanalyser les techniques narratives des deux romanciers. Extrêmement fidèle au roman de Dumas au niveau de lʹintrigue, Stephen Fry sʹéloigne de son modèle au niveau stylistique, ce qui produit un effet de modernité qui ne sʹapparente pourtant pas à celui des adaptations cinématographiques.

  19. Identifying High School Physical Education Physical Activity Patterns after High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Pleban, Francis T.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for physical education (PE) encompass five principles for the purpose of defining what high school students should recognize and be able to perform as a result of a quality PE program. The expectation is that youth will develop an active, healthy lifestyle into adulthood from activities and skills taught in PE. Researchers from…

  20. Physical Activity in High School during "Free-Time" Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Sá, Carla; Ribeiro, José; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth physical activity (PA) in free-time periods during high school days and their contribution to total PA. Differences in terms of sex, age, body mass index and school level were assessed in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants totalled 213 (135 girls), aged 14.6 ± 1.7, from two different…

  1. High Frequency State-Variable Biquadratic Active Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dostal

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The state-variable (KHN active RC biquadratic filters with good performance in high frequency range , flexibility of outputs (LP, HP, BP, low sensitivities in novel current and hybrid modes, using current conveyors, transimpedance, trans-admittance and current operational amplifiers, are given in this paper.

  2. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of porcine oocytes induces parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Pribenszky, Csaba; Molnár, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    An innovative technique called high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has recently been reported to improve the cryosurvival of gametes and embryos in certain mammalian species, including the mouse, pig, and cattle. In the present study the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of pig oocytes caused...

  3. Reduced autonomic activity during stepwise exposure to high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevre, K; Bendz, B; Hanko, E; Nakstad, AR; Hauge, A; Kasin, JI; Lefrandt, JD; Smit, AJ; Eide, [No Value; Rostrup, M

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have shown increased sympathetic activity during acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. In a recent field study we found reduced plasma catecholamines during the first days after a stepwise ascent to high altitude. In the present study 14 subjects were exposed to a simulated ascent in

  4. Development activities of the high heat flux scraper element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J., E-mail: jean.boscary@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Lore, J.; Lumsdaine, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maier, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); McGinnis, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peacock, A.; Tretter, J. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The function of the high heat flux scraper element is to reduce the heat loads on the element ends of the actively cooled divertor of Wendelstein 7-X. The scraper element is actively water cooled to remove up to 550 kW steady state power load, with localized heat fluxes as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2}. Its surface area, 0.17 m{sup 2}, is contoured to optimally intercept both upstream and downstream particle fluxes. The plasma facing surface is made of 24 individual scraper fingers based on the monoblock technology. Each scraper finger is 247 mm long and 28 mm wide and has 13 monoblocks made of CFC NB31 bonded by hot isostatic pressing onto a CuCrZr cooling tube equipped with a copper twisted tape. Development activities, described here, include the design and fabrication of prototypes to validate the different technologies selected for the scraper element design to prepare a possible production.

  5. Review of actuators for high speed active flow control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; LUO ZhenBing; XIA ZhiXun; LIU Bing; DENG Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Actuators are one of the key points for the development of active flow control technology.Efficient methods of high speed flow control can provide enhanced propulsive efficiency and at the same time enable safe and maneuverable high speed flight.The development of high speed flight technology promotes the emergence of novel and robust actuators.This review introduces the state of the art in the development of actuators that can be used in high speed active flow control.The classification and different operation criteria of the actuators are discussed.The specifications,mechanisms and applications of various popular actuator types including fluidic,mechanical,and plasma actuators are described.Based on the realistic need of high speed flow control and the existing results of actuators,a new actuator design method is proposed.At last,the merits and drawbacks of the actuators are summarized and some suggestions on the development of active flow control technology are put forward.

  6. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  7. Business cycle and innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikowski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines differences in an impact of business cycle phases on innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland. It is assumed that each business cycle phase influences innovation activity in the same fashion, but its impact varies and it depends on the firm’s innovation activity. The higher innovation activity the less impact of business cycle. The scope of the survey relates to innovation in MHT and HT industry in Poland. The data concerns the innovation at the firm level and the diffusion “new for the company”. Innovation activity is defined by the following activities: (1 expenditure on research and development and investments in fixed assets not used so far such as: abuildings, premises and land; b machinery and equipment, c computer software; (2 implementation of new products and technological processes and (3 innovation cooperation. The methodological part of the analysis includes a logit modeling. The survey includes 1355 companies. Business cycle has a great influence on innovation activity in MTH and HT industry in Poland. The influence of recovery phase is positive whereas both stagnation and recession phases decrease the probability of innovation activity. The character of influence depends on the propensity to take innovation activity. The higher level of innovation activity the enterprises present the less influence of business cycle they get.

  8. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Cheeseright, J. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  9. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Wang Geun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon, Jeollanam-Do 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Balathanigaimani, M.S., E-mail: msbala@rgipt.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Ratapur Chowk, Rae Bareli, 229316 Uttar Pradesh (India); Moon, Hee, E-mail: hmoon@jnu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Highly porous carbon materials from Mongolian anthracite by chemical activation. • Cheaper and eco-friendly activation process has been employed. • Activated carbons with graphitic structure and energetically heterogeneous surface. • Surface hydrophobicity and porosity of the activated carbons can be controlled. - Abstract: Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816–2063 m{sup 2}/g and of 0.55–1.61 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  10. High lightning activity in maritime clouds near Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucienska, B.; Raga, G. B.; Romero-Centeno, R.

    2012-09-01

    Lightning activity detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) over oceanic regions adjacent to Mexico is often as high as that observed over the continent. In order to explore the possible causes of the observed high flash density over those regions, the relationships between lightning, rainfall, vertical hydrometeor profiles, latent heating, wind variability and aerosol optical depth are analyzed. The characteristics of lightning and precipitation over four oceanic zones adjacent to Mexican coastlines are contrasted against those over the continent. The number of flashes per rainfall over some coastal maritime regions is found to be higher than over the continent. The largest number of flashes per rainfall is observed during the biomass burning season. In addition, we compare two smaller areas of the Tropical Pacific Ocean: one located within the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone and characterized by high rainfall and weak lightning activity and the other one influenced by a continental wind jet and characterized by high rainfall and strong lightning activity. During the rainy season, the monthly distribution of lightning within the region influenced by the continental wind jet is contrary to that of rainfall. Moreover, the monthly variability of lightning is very similar to the variability of the meridional wind component and it is also related to the variability of aerosol optical depth. The analysis suggests that the high lightning activity observed over coastal Pacific region is linked to the continental cloud condensation nuclei advected over the ocean. Analysis of daily observations indicates that the greatest lightning density is observed for moderate values of the aerosol optical depth, between 0.2 and 0.35.

  11. COMT Val158Met polymorphism influences the susceptibility to framing in decision-making: OFC-amygdala functional connectivity as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxue; Gong, Pingyuan; Liu, Jinting; Hu, Jie; Li, Yue; Yu, Hongbo; Gong, Xiaoliang; Xiang, Yang; Jiang, Changjun; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2016-05-01

    Individuals tend to avoid risk in a gain frame, in which options are presented in a positive way, but seek risk in a loss frame, in which the same options are presented negatively. Previous studies suggest that emotional responses play a critical role in this "framing effect." Given that the Met allele of COMT Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with the negativity bias during emotional processing, this study investigated whether this polymorphism is associated with individual susceptibility to framing and which brain areas mediate this gene-behavior association. Participants were genotyped, scanned in resting state, and completed a monetary gambling task with options (sure vs risky) presented as potential gains or losses. The Met allele carriers showed a greater framing effect than the Val/Val homozygotes as the former gambled more than the latter in the loss frame. Moreover, the gene-behavior association was mediated by resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral amygdala. Met allele carriers showed decreased RSFC, thereby demonstrating higher susceptibility to framing than Val allele carriers. These findings demonstrate the involvement of COMT Val158Met polymorphism in the framing effect in decision-making and suggest RSFC between OFC and amygdala as a neural mediator underlying this gene-behavior association. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1880-1892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A simple and highly effective process for the preparation of activated carbons with high surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying, E-mail: liyingjlu@163.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding Xuefeng; Guo Yupeng; Wang Lili; Rong Chunguang; Qu Yuning; Ma Xiaoyu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Zichen, E-mail: wangzc@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} High surface area activated carbon can be prepared by rice husk H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} without pretreatment. {yields} The characteristics of the activated carbon were greatly influenced by post-processing method. {yields} The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. {yields} Some silica in rice husk reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} which could be removed by post-process. - Abstract: Activated carbons with high surface area were prepared by phosphoric acid as activation agent and rice husks as precursors. It was found that the characteristics of the activated carbons were influenced not only by the preparation but also by the post-processing method. The high surface area of the activated carbons was prepared under the optimum condition (50% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with impregnation ratio of 5:1, activation temperature of 500 deg. C, activation time of 0.5 h, wash water temperature of 100 deg. C). SiO{sub 2} content could affect the surface area of activated carbons, either. The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. The SiO{sub 2} content was 11.2% when used the optimum condition. The explanation was that silicon element in rice husks reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form silicon phosphate (SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and it could be proved further by X-ray diffraction analysis, SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} could be removed by post-process.

  13. Active Photonic crystal fibers for high power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    . This plays an important role in high power lasers and ampliers with respect to efficiency, packaging, and thermal handling. The third part of the work has involved developing tools for characterizing the mode quality and stability of large core bers. Stable, single-mode bers with larger cores are essential......The photonic crystal ber technology provides means to realize bers optimized for high power operation, due to the large single-mode cores and the unique design exibility of the microstructure. The work presented in this thesis focuses on improving the properties of active photonic crystal bers...... for high power ber lasers and ampliers, and on adding new functionality to the fibers - all with the purpose of pushing the technology towards high powers. The first part of the work has been to investigate photo darkening, the mitigation of which is crucial in the quest for higher powers. The work has...

  14. Preclinical Study for Application of Fabricated High Activity Ir-192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Mi Son; Kang, Seung Hee; Oh, Young Taek; Jeong, Chul; Kim, Mi Hwa; Hwang, Jeong Hye; Kim, Hee Seong; Im, Eun Jeong [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of high activity Ir-192 sources manufactured by KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for application to present equipment such as various applicators inserted to patients and PLATO(Nucletron, Netherland) of treatment planning system and to evaluate safety and accuracy of Ir-192 as practical clinic use through in vitro dosimetry of Ir-192. We confirmed the physical and radiobiological safety of KAERI sources to use practical. KAERI sources are applicable to commercial high dose rate brachytherapy machine safely. Then those can be substituted for the imported sources such as sources made by Nucletron, Gammamed and exported to the foreign country

  15. Activated blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, C.J.; Qian, J.S. [CJS Technology Inc., Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    This study investigated the strength and equilibrium water extraction of blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash and activator CaCl{sub 2}. The addition of CaCl{sub 2} increased the strength of cement very significantly. Equilibrium water extraction indicated that the addition of CaCl{sub 2} decreased the pH of the pore solution, but accelerated the pozzolanic reactions between coal fly ash and lime, which became more obvious when the volume of fly ash in the cement was increased from 50-70%. Results from both strength and water extraction testing could conclude that CaCl{sub 2} is a good activator for the activation of pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash and for the improvement of early properties of fly ash cement and concrete.

  16. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  17. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2015-12-14

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  18. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Soufan

    Full Text Available High-throughput screening (HTS experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  19. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  20. Fibrinolytic changes in pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osime, Odaburhine E; Ese-Onakewhor, Joseph U; Kolade, Samson O

    2015-02-01

    To report on the changes in fibrinolytic activity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected pregnant women who are undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Blood was collected from 50 HIV positive women on HAART (test subjects), and 50 HIV positive women not on HAART (controls). These women were attending the prevention of mother to child clinic (PMTCT) of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Standard manual techniques were used to estimate plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma viscosity (PV). The mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) of PFC was 4.02±0.13 g/l and ELT from the test subjects was 378±15 mins was significantly higher (p0.05). There were differences in the various parameters investigated when the various trimesters were compared. These differences did not, however, follow a particular pattern. Highly active antiretroviral therapy can cause changes in fibrinolytic activity that may predispose pregnant women to hyperfibrinogenemia and anemia.

  1. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao

    2016-11-28

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  2. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  3. Influence of Genetic Variants in TPMT and COMT Associated with Cisplatin Induced Hearing Loss in Patients with Cancer : Two New Cohorts and a Meta-Analysis Reveal Significant Heterogeneity between Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagleitner, Melanie M.; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Patino-Garcia, Ana; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Vos, Hanneke I.; van Leeuwen, Frank N.; Gelderblom, Hans; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; te Loo, Maroeska W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens causes hearing loss in 40-60% of cancer patients. It has been suggested that genetic variants in the genes encoding thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) can predict the development of cisplatin-induced

  4. The Flexible Mind Is Associated with the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val[superscript 158]Met Polymorphism: Evidence for a Role of Dopamine in the Control of Task-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S.; Waszak, Florian; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Posthuma, Danielle; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val[superscript 128]Met polymorphism) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of cognitive control functions. Recent evidence suggests that the Val[superscript 128]Met genotype may differentially affect cognitive stability and flexibility, in such a way…

  5. High Sulfation and a High Molecular Weight Are Important for Anti-hepcidin Activity of Heparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asperti, Michela; Naggi, Annamaria; Esposito, Emiliano; Ruzzenenti, Paola; Di Somma, Margherita; Gryzik, Magdalena; Arosio, Paolo; Poli, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins) or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins), but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH) and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4–16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells and in mice. The two approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with high N-acetylation and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites. PMID:26955355

  6. Active beam integrator for high power coherent lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguarta, F.; Armengol, J.; Vega, F.; Lupon, N. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Terrassa (Spain). Dept. d`Optica i Optometria

    1996-12-31

    In laser materials processing applications it is often necessary to work with uniform intensity distributions. This goal is quite difficult to achieve when dealing with high power laser beams, and becomes critical for a successful application involving surface heat treatment of non-metallic materials. The authors have designed and tested a very simple beam shaper for transforming the initial intensity distribution of a CO{sub 2} laser beam mode into a more uniform intensity profile. The beam shaper is a two-faceted mirror for active integration of high power coherent laser beams. After reflection in the faceted mirror, a TEM00 or TEM01 CO{sub 2} laser beam is divided into two beamlets that overlap to give a more uniform intensity distribution. A sharp interference pattern due to the high spatial coherence of the incident beam appears. This interference pattern is actively integrated by a high-frequency longitudinal displacement of one of the facets. This provides a change in the relative phase of the two beamlets, and consequently the interference pattern vibrates and its contribution to the intensity distribution averages out. When sweeping this distribution over a sample, a uniform amount of energy is deposited at every point of its surface. It must be emphasized that unlike multifaceted mirrors, the two-facet integrator may provide uniform intensity profiles over any working distance. Finally, as in other integration devices an imaging system may be used to obtain a spot of the shape and the size desired for a particular application.

  7. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  8. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  9. Active Change in Psychodynamic Therapy: Moments of High Receptiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gauna, Mariano De Iceta Ibáñez; Roibal, M Angela Soler; Ruiz, José Antonio Méndez; Fernández, Joaquin Ingelmo; Bleichmar, Hugo B

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the concept of "moments of high receptiveness" (MoHR or "Momentos de Alta Receptividad"), which is derived from the concept of "experiential coupling" ("Acoplamiento de Experiencias") proposed by Bleichmar (2001). Experiential coupling recently received empirical support by the work of Schiller and colleagues (2010). We will also show the conceptual placing of moments of high receptiveness with respect to the developments of Stern and colleagues (Stern and et al., 1998; Stern, 2004). In order to achieve both objectives, we focus on various clinical vignettes stressing the differences in repercussions of the technique. We describe use of stimuli for active evocation, explain how to identify moments of high receptiveness, and review ways to take advantage of these moments. Lastly, to minimize the risk of iatrogenic symptoms, we examine the role of therapists and some features of the therapeutic process when using this technique.

  10. Expression of cell wall related genes in basal and ear internodes of silking brown-midrib-3, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT down-regulated, and normal maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinant Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silage maize is a major forage and energy resource for cattle feeding, and several studies have shown that lignin content and structure are the determining factors in forage maize feeding value. In maize, four natural brown-midrib mutants have modified lignin content, lignin structure and cell wall digestibility. The greatest lignin reduction and the highest cell wall digestibility were observed in the brown-midrib-3 (bm3 mutant, which is disrupted in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. Results Expression of cell wall related genes was investigated in basal and ear internodes of normal, COMT antisens (AS225, and bm3 maize plants of the INRA F2 line. A cell wall macro-array was developed with 651 gene specific tags of genes specifically involved in cell wall biogenesis. When comparing basal (older lignifying and ear (younger lignifying internodes of the normal line, all genes known to be involved in constitutive monolignol biosynthesis had a higher expression in younger ear internodes. The expression of the COMT gene was heavily reduced, especially in the younger lignifying tissues of the ear internode. Despite the fact that AS225 transgene expression was driven only in sclerenchyma tissues, COMT expression was also heavily reduced in AS225 ear and basal internodes. COMT disruption or down-regulation led to differential expressions of a few lignin pathway genes, which were all over-expressed, except for a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene. More unexpectedly, several transcription factor genes, cell signaling genes, transport and detoxification genes, genes involved in cell wall carbohydrate metabolism and genes encoding cell wall proteins, were differentially expressed, and mostly over-expressed, in COMT-deficient plants. Conclusion Differential gene expressions in COMT-deficient plants highlighted a probable disturbance in cell wall assembly. In addition, the gene expressions suggested modified chronology of the

  11. White matter alterations related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and COMT val158met polymorphism: children with valine homozygote attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have altered white matter connectivity in the right cingulum (cingulate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabukcu Basay B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Burge Kabukcu Basay,1 Ahmet Buber,1 Omer Basay,1 Huseyin Alacam,2 Onder Ozturk,1 Serkan Suren,3 Ozlem Izci Ay,4 Cengizhan Acikel,5 Kadir Agladioglu,6 Mehmet Emin Erdal,4 Eyup Sabri Ercan,7 Hasan Herken21Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, 2Psychiatry Department, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, 3Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, 4Medical Biology and Genetics Department, Mersin University Medical Faculty, Mersin, 5Biostatistics Department, GATA (GMMA, Ankara, 6Radiology Department, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, 7Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir, TurkeyIntroduction: In this article, the COMT gene val158met polymorphism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-related differences in diffusion-tensor-imaging-measured white matter (WM structure in children with ADHD and controls were investigated.Patients and methods: A total of 71 children diagnosed with ADHD and 24 controls aged 8–15 years were recruited. Using diffusion tensor imaging, COMT polymorphism and ADHD-related WM alterations were investigated, and any interaction effect between the COMT polymorphism and ADHD was also examined. The effects of age, sex, and estimated total IQ were controlled by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA.Results: First, an interaction between the COMT val158met polymorphism and ADHD in the right (R cingulum (cingulate gyrus (CGC was found. According to this, valine (val homozygote ADHD-diagnosed children had significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA and higher radial diffusivity (RD in the R-CGC than ADHD-diagnosed methionine (met carriers, and val homozygote controls had higher FA and lower RD in the R-CGC than val homozygote ADHD patients. Second, met carriers had higher FA and axial diffusivity in the left (L-uncinate fasciculus and lower RD in the L-posterior corona radiata and L

  12. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours.

  13. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-05-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10{sup 12}). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not!) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data.

  14. High Performance Activity Practices in Small Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ŢUŢUEANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Activity Practices in Small Firms in Romania Abstract: High performance activity practices (HPAPs are human resource management activities aimed at stimulating employee and organisational performance. The application of HPAPs is not widespread in small organisations. We examine whether the implementation of coherent bundles of HPAPs (aimed at employee ability, employee motivation or at the opportunity to perform depends on the scarcity of resources, as reflected in the size of the company, and on strategic decision-making in small firms related to the owner’s expertise and attitudes. In our research, a total of 224 employees from 50 small organisations were asked to rate the presence of HPAPs in their organisation. These averaged perceptions were linked to information provided by the owner–managers on the size of their firm and their own expertise and attitudes. The findings support that smaller but coherent bundles of HPAPs can be found in small organisations and that the implementation of these bundles depends on available resources, strategic decision-making and the combination of the two. These findings highlight the need to integrate the notions of resource poverty and strategic decision-making to understand the uptake of bundles of HPAPs within small firms.

  15. Use of dominant harmonic active filters in high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Tai

    The application of power electronics equipment is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that 60% of electrical power will be processed by power electronics equipment by year 2000. These equipments typically require rectifiers for AC-DC power conversion. Due to their nonlinear nature, most rectifiers draw harmonic current from the utility grid. The harmonic current causes higher energy losses, and may excite resonance conditions in the utility grid. Harmonic standards such as IEEE 519 and IEC 1000-3-2 have been proposed to regulate the harmonic current and voltage levels. This work is to develop a dominant harmonic active filter (DHAF) to realize a cost-effective active filtering solution for nonlinear loads in the range of megawatt and above. The DHAF system achieves harmonic isolation at dominant harmonic frequencies, e.g. the 5th and 7th. This approach allows use of low switching frequency and small rating active filter inverters (1%--2% of the load MVA rating) for implementation. Review of conventional passive filters and various active filters based on high bandwidth PWM inverters is provided. The control theory of the DHAF system is presented. Comparison of the DHAF system and other dominant harmonic filtering approach is provided. Simulation results and laboratory prototype test results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed DHAF system.

  16. Significance of High-frequency Electrical Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Agari, Takashi; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Shibata, Takashi; Hanaoka, Yoshiyuki; Akiyama, Mari; Endoh, Fumika; Oka, Makio; Date, Isao

    2017-06-01

     Electroencephalogram (EEG) data include broadband electrical brain activity ranging from infra-slow bands (frequency bands (e.g., the approx. 10 Hz alpha rhythm) to high-frequency bands of up to 500 Hz. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) including ripple and fast ripple oscillations (80-200 Hz and>200 / 250 Hz, respectively) are particularly of note due to their very close relationship to epileptogenicity, with the possibility that they could function as a surrogate biomarker of epileptogenicity. In contrast, physiological high-frequency activity plays an important role in higher brain functions, and the differentiation between pathological / epileptic and physiological HFOs is a critical issue, especially in epilepsy surgery. HFOs were initially recorded with intracranial electrodes in patients with intractable epilepsy as part of a long-term invasive seizure monitoring study. However, fast oscillations (FOs) in the ripple and gamma bands (40-80 Hz) are now noninvasively detected by scalp EEG and magnetoencephalography, and thus the scope of studies on HFOs /FOs is rapidly expanding.

  17. Highly Active Rare-Earth-Metal La-Doped Photocatalysts: Fabrication, Characterization, and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anandan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient La-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel method and extensively characterized by various sophisticated techniques. The photocatalytic activity of La-doped TiO2 was evaluated for the degradation of monocrotophos (MCPs in aqueous solution. It showed higher rate of degradation than pure TiO2 for the light of wavelength of 254 nm and 365 nm. The rate constant of TiO2 increases with increasing La loading and exhibits maximum rate for 1% La loading. The photocatalytic activities of La-doped TiO2 are compared with La-doped ZnO; the reaction rate of the former is ~1.8 and 1.1 orders higher than the latter for the lights of wavelength 254 nm and 365 nm, respectively. The relative photonic efficiency of La-doped TiO2 is relatively higher than La-doped ZnO and commercial photocatalysts. Overall, La-doped TiO2 is the most active photocatalyst and shows high relative photonic efficiencies and high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MCP. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of La-doped TiO2 is mainly due to the electron trapping by lanthanum metal ions, small particle size, large surface area, and high surface roughness of the photocatalysts.

  18. Sulfurized activated carbon for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Li, Yanwei; Li, Zhimin; Tian, Jianjun; Zhang, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-04-01

    Sulfurized activated carbon (SAC), made by coating the pore surface with thiophenic sulfur functional groups from the pyrolysis of sulfur flakes, were characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the sulfur content in the SAC was found to be 2.7 at%. Electrochemical properties from potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the effect of sulfur on porous carbon electrodes. The SAC electrode exhibits better conductivity, and an obvious increase in specific capacitance that is almost 40% higher than plain activated carbons (ACs) electrode at a high current density of 1.4 A g-1. The proposed mechanism for improved conductivity and capacitive performance due to the sulfur functional groups on ACs will be discussed.

  19. Easy and Rapid Purification of Highly Active Nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Abts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced and secreted by several L. lactis strains and is specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria. In previous studies, nisin was purified via cation exchange chromatography at low pH employing a single-step elution using 1 M NaCl. Here, we describe an optimized purification protocol using a five-step NaCl elution to remove contaminants. The obtained nisin is devoid of impurities and shows high bactericidal activity against the nisin-sensitive L. lactis strain NZ9000. Purified nisin exhibits an IC50 of ~3 nM, which is a tenfold improvement as compared to nisin obtained via the one-step elution procedure.

  20. Serotonin-Induced Hypersensitivity via Inhibition of Catechol O-Methyltransferase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsao Douglas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The subcutaneous and systemic injection of serotonin reduces cutaneous and visceral pain thresholds and increases responses to noxious stimuli. Different subtypes of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT receptors are suggested to be associated with different types of pain responses. Here we show that serotonin also inhibits catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT, an enzyme that contributes to modultion the perception of pain, via non-competitive binding to the site bound by catechol substrates with a binding affinity comparable to the binding affinity of catechol itself (Ki = 44 μM. Using computational modeling, biochemical tests and cellular assays we show that serotonin actively competes with the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM within the catalytic site. Binding of serotonin to the catalytic site inhibits the access of SAM, thus preventing methylation of COMT substrates. The results of in vivo animal studies show that serotonin-induced pain hypersensitivity in mice is reduced by either SAM pretreatment or by the combined administration of selective antagonists for β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors, which have been previously shown to mediate COMT-dependent pain signaling. Our results suggest that inhibition of COMT via serotonin binding contributes to pain hypersensitivity, providing additional strategies for the treatment of clinical pain conditions.

  1. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    de Sousa, N; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  2. Highly Active Carbene Ruthenium Catalyst for Metathesis of 1-Hexene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Chen-Xi; ZHANG Zhi-Qiang; L(U) Xiao-Bing; HE Ren; ZHANG Wen-Zhen; LU Shu-Lai

    2006-01-01

    A new carbene ruthenium complex, 1,3-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene)(PPh3)Cl2-Ru=CHPh, was synthesized and used as catalyst for the metathesis of 1-hexene. The resulting complex exhibited very high catalytic activity whose TOF is up to 6680 h-1. However, at the same time significant olefin isomerization was observed and could be surpressed by changing reaction conditions, such as temperature, time, alkene/Ru molar ratio and solvent.

  3. Production of N-13 labeled compounds with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Sasaki, Motoji; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Haradahira, Terushi; Inoue, Osamu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Nitrogen-13 was produced by irradiating ultra pure water saturated with a pure gas (N2, O2, He, H2) with 18 MeV protons. Ion species generated by irradiation were analyzed with radio ion chromatography systems. An automated equipment was developed to synthesize anhydrous (13N)NH3 as a synthetic precursor and (13N)p-nitrophenyl carbamate ((13N)NPC) as a model compound, using the (13N)NH3. The radiochemical yield and specific activity of (13N)NPC was high enough to carry out the receptor study with PET. (author)

  4. High dielectric constant, low loss and high photocatalytic activity in Gd doped ZnO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, N. K.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced photocatalytic activity and high dielectric constant values are achieved by gadolinium (Gd) doping in ZnO. The changes that happened to the wurtzite structure of ZnO on doping are depicted in detail by using x-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The chemical composition is confirmed using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The influence of Gd incorporation in the emission spectra of ZnO is analysed from photoluminescence studies. The photocatalytic activity enhancement occurred in ZnO system on Gd doping was explored by kinetic rate analysis. The optimum incorporation of Gd has enhanced the dielectric constant value and decreased the loss of pristine. The high dielectric constant value and low loss make the system suitable for large scale of applications in microelectronics. The work also proposes large scale synthesis of highly efficient fluorescent Gd doped ZnO photocatalysts.

  5. Highly active ozonides selected against drug resistant malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Lis; de Sousa, Bruno; Cabral, Lília; Cristiano, Maria LS; Nogueira, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Ever increasing multi-drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum is creating new challenges in malaria chemotherapy. In the absence of licensed vaccines, treatment and prevention of malaria is heavily dependent on drugs. Potency, range of activity, safety, low cost and ease of administration are crucial issues in the design and formulation of antimalarials. We have tested three synthetic ozonides NAC89, LC50 and LCD67 in vitro and in vivo against multidrug resistant Plasmodium. In vitro, LC50 was at least 10 times more efficient inhibiting P. falciparum multidrug resistant Dd2 strain than chloroquine and mefloquine and as efficient as artemisinin (ART), artesunate and dihydroartemisinin. All three ozonides showed high efficacy in clearing parasitaemia in mice, caused by multi-drug resistant Plasmodium chabaudi strains, by subcutaneous administration, demonstrating high efficacy in vivo against ART and artesunate resistant parasites. PMID:27276364

  6. Highly active ozonides selected against drug resistant malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Lobo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing multi-drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum is creating new challenges in malaria chemotherapy. In the absence of licensed vaccines, treatment and prevention of malaria is heavily dependent on drugs. Potency, range of activity, safety, low cost and ease of administration are crucial issues in the design and formulation of antimalarials. We have tested three synthetic ozonides NAC89, LC50 and LCD67 in vitro and in vivo against multidrug resistant Plasmodium. In vitro, LC50 was at least 10 times more efficient inhibiting P. falciparum multidrug resistant Dd2 strain than chloroquine and mefloquine and as efficient as artemisinin (ART, artesunate and dihydroartemisinin. All three ozonides showed high efficacy in clearing parasitaemia in mice, caused by multi-drug resistant Plasmodium chabaudi strains, by subcutaneous administration, demonstrating high efficacy in vivo against ART and artesunate resistant parasites.

  7. Great expectations: different high-risk activities satisfy different motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Matthew; Woodman, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2013-09-01

    Research on people's motives for engaging in high-risk activities has typically been viewed through the single-focused lens of sensation seeking. We provide evidence that comprehensively challenges that view. First, we develop and confirm the structure of a 3-factor measure of motives: the Sensation Seeking, Emotion Regulation, and Agency Scale (SEAS; Study 1). We then use the SEAS to provide evidence of differential motives for 2 high-risk activities: skydiving and mountaineering. The motive for skydiving is strongly associated with sensation seeking; the motive for mountaineering is strongly associated with emotion regulation and agency but not with sensation seeking (Study 2). We also show that these conclusions cannot be drawn from existing measures of personality and sensation seeking (Study 3). Finally, individuals who are motivated by emotion regulation and agency needs also have greater expectations regarding their emotion regulation and agency. It is these greater expectations that most successfully discriminate mountaineers from skydivers and control participants (Study 4). It is concluded that researchers should no longer consider risk takers as a homogenous sensation-seeking group and that they should consider risk taking as a potential model of human endeavor. The SEAS can be used as a measure of motives for behavior whenever sensation seeking, agency, or emotion regulation is thought to be at the core of such motives, and the results are discussed in the context of encouraging personality researchers to consider the specific spontaneous behaviors that motivate different people.

  8. Activated carbon fibers with a high heteroatom content by chemical activation of PBO with phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Santos, M B; Suárez-García, F; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2012-04-03

    The preparation of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) by phosphoric acid activation of poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fibers was studied, with particular attention to the effects of impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature on porous texture. Phosphoric acid has a strong effect on PBO degradation, lowering the temperature range at which the decomposition takes place and changing the number of mass loss steps. Chemical analysis results indicated that activation with phosphoric acid increases the concentration of oxygenated surface groups; the resulting materials also exhibiting high nitrogen content. ACFs are obtained with extremely high yields; they have well-developed porosity restricted to the micropore and narrow mesopore range and with a significant concentration of phosphorus incorporated homogeneously in the form of functional groups. An increase in the impregnation ratio leads to increases in both pore volume and pore size, maximum values of surface area (1250 m(2)/g) and total pore volume (0.67 cm(3)/g) being attained at the highest impregnation ratio (210 wt % H(3)PO(4)) and lowest activation temperature (650 °C) used; the corresponding yield was as large as 83 wt %. The obtained surface areas and pore volumes were higher than those achieved in previous works by physical activation with CO(2) of PBO chars.

  9. Latitude migration of solar activity at high latitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Utilized here is the Carte Synoptique solar filament archive,namely the catalogue of solar filaments from March 1919 to December 1989,corresponding to solar rotation numbers 876 to 1823 to study Iatitudinal migration of solar activity at high Iatitudes.Except the well-known poleward migration of solar activity from middle Iatitudes to the poles,an equatorward migration is found from the solar poles toward middle Iatitudes(about 40°)within a normal cycle,which iS neglected before,and the time interval for the former migration(4.4 years)is about 2.2 years shorter than that for the latter(6.6 years),indicating that the change from one migration to the other takes place around the maximum time of a normal cycle.In the future,a dynamo model should represent the migration from the poles toward middle Iatitudes of the Sun,besides the migration in"butterfly diagrams"and the"rush to the poles".The traditional extended activity cycle is actually a part of the period of the successive migration from the poles toward the solar equator.

  10. How metal substitution affects the enzymatic activity of catechol-o-methyltransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sparta

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT degrades catecholamines, such as dopamine and epinephrine, by methylating them in the presence of a divalent metal cation (usually Mg(II, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine. The enzymatic activity of COMT is known to be vitally dependent on the nature of the bound metal: replacement of Mg(II with Ca(II leads to a complete deactivation of COMT; Fe(II is slightly less than potent Mg(II, and Fe(III is again an inhibitor. Considering the fairly modest role that the metal plays in the catalyzed reaction, this dependence is puzzling, and to date remains an enigma. Using a quantum mechanical / molecular mechanical dynamics method for extensive sampling of protein structure, and first principle quantum mechanical calculations for the subsequent mechanistic study, we explicate the effect of metal substitution on the rate determining step in the catalytic cycle of COMT, the methyl transfer. In full accord with experimental data, Mg(II bound to COMT is the most potent of the studied cations and it is closely followed by Fe(II, whereas Fe(III is unable to promote catalysis. In the case of Ca(II, a repacking of the protein binding site is observed, leading to a significant increase in the activation barrier and higher energy of reaction. Importantly, the origin of the effect of metal substitution is different for different metals: for Fe(III it is the electronic effect, whereas in the case of Ca(II it is instead the effect of suboptimal protein structure.

  11. High-frequency TRNS reduces BOLD activity during visuomotor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Saiote

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS consist in the application of electrical current of small intensity through the scalp, able to modulate perceptual and motor learning, probably by changing brain excitability. We investigated the effects of these transcranial electrical stimulation techniques in the early and later stages of visuomotor learning, as well as associated brain activity changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We applied anodal and cathodal tDCS, low-frequency and high-frequency tRNS (lf-tRNS, 0.1-100 Hz; hf-tRNS 101-640 Hz, respectively and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex (M1 during the first 10 minutes of a visuomotor learning paradigm and measured performance changes for 20 minutes after stimulation ceased. Functional imaging scans were acquired throughout the whole experiment. Cathodal tDCS and hf-tRNS showed a tendency to improve and lf-tRNS to hinder early learning during stimulation, an effect that remained for 20 minutes after cessation of stimulation in the late learning phase. Motor learning-related activity decreased in several regions as reported previously, however, there was no significant modulation of brain activity by tDCS. In opposition to this, hf-tRNS was associated with reduced motor task-related-activity bilaterally in the frontal cortex and precuneous, probably due to interaction with ongoing neuronal oscillations. This result highlights the potential of lf-tRNS and hf-tRNS to differentially modulate visuomotor learning and advances our knowledge on neuroplasticity induction approaches combined with functional imaging methods.

  12. Association study of single nucleotide polymorphism rs165599 of COMT gene, with schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in the south-west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisima Behbahani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Linkage studies and epidemiological findings indicate that some possible genes in schizophrenia (SCZ and bipolar mood disorder (BPD are common. Numerous evidences for linkage of two diseases on chromosome 22 have been found. These findings suggest that one or more genes in the 22q11.21 region may be involved in the development of both disorders. In the present case-control study, association between the mentioned disorders and a genetic polymorphism (rs165599 of catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT, OMIM: 116790 was studied. Here 100 BPD patients, 100 SCZ patients, and 100 healthy controls were included in the study. The samples were matched in terms of gender and ethnicity. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant association this polymorphism and risk of SCZ. The AG (OR=7.41, 95% CI: 3.21-17.1, P

  13. Robert LEROUX, Aux fondements de l’industrialisme. Comte, Dunoyer et la pensée libérale en France

    OpenAIRE

    Pranchère, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    L’objectif affiché par l’ouvrage de Robert Leroux est de « combler une importante lacune » de l’histoire des idées (p. 10). Le but est atteint et on ne peut que se féliciter de disposer d’une présentation synthétique – à la fois érudite et accessible aux non-spécialistes – d’un courant trop oublié du libéralisme français : celui de Charles Comte (1782-1837) et de Charles Dunoyer (1786-1862), qui donnèrent au mot de « libéral » son sens classique en récusant les tendances étatistes de la pensé...

  14. 解析COMT基因Met多态与子宫内膜异位症的关系%Analysis of the COMT Gene Met Polymorphism with Endometriosis Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭莉; 彭娟

    2013-01-01

      目的分析 COMT 基因 Met 多态与子宫内膜异位症的关系。方法选取2011年6月至2012年6月期间于我院就诊的100内膜异位症患者为试验组(其中包括45腺肌病患者),以蛋白酶 K 消化-饱和酚氯仿法对其外周血细胞基因组 DNA 进行提取,并采用聚合酶链式反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)方法对以上患者进行基因分型,另选取同时期100例未患有子宫内膜异位症(其中包括50例非腺肌病患者)的患者为对照组,采取与试验组同样的方式进行基因分型。结果对比两组 G/G、G/A、A/A 基因型频率,其中试验组分别为38.0%、37.0%、25.0%,对照组分别为40.0%、41.0%、19.0%,两组对比差异性较小,无统计学意,P >0.05;对比两组 A 等位基因频率,试验组为42.3%,对照组为34.1%,两组对比差异性较小,无统计学意义,P >0.05。结论 COMT 基因 Met 多态与子宫内膜异位症无明显相关性。%Objective Analysis of the COMT gene Met polymorphism with endometriosis relationship. Methods From 2011 June to 2012 June in our hospital during the period 100 endometriosis patients into test group (including 45 patients with adenomyosis), with proteinase K digestion - saturated phenol chloroform method on peripheral blood cell genomic DNA extraction, and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism ( PCR-RFLP method for more patients ) were genotyped, another takes the same period 100 patients did not suffer from endometriosis ( including 50 cases of patients with adenomyosis ) patients as control group and test group, taking the same way of genotyping. Results Comparison of the two groups of G/G, G/A, A/A genotype frequency, wherein the test group were 38%,37%,25%, the control group were 40%, 41%,19%, two groups of contrast difference is small, no statistical significance,P>0.05;in contrast to the two group of A allele frequencies, experiment group

  15. High sulfation and a high molecular weight are important for anti-hepcidin activity of heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela eAsperti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins, but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4-16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells, in mice, and also for the capacity to bind an Heparin Binding Domain peptide. The three approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with an increase of the N-acetylation level and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT genes in Greenlandic Inuit and Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Indigenous Arctic population is of Asian descent, and their genetic background is different from the Caucasian populations. Relatively little is known about the specific genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the activation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental contaminants in Inuit and its relation to health risk. The Greenlandic Inuit are highly exposed to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pes...

  17. Enzymatic activity of Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase: a thermostable and highly active enzyme with a likely mode of interfacial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horchani, Habib; Bussières, Sylvain; Cantin, Line; Lhor, Mustapha; Laliberté-Gemme, Jean-Sébastien; Breton, Rock; Salesse, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) plays a major role in the vertebrate visual cycle. Indeed, it is responsible for the esterification of all-trans retinol into all-trans retinyl esters, which can then be stored in microsomes or further metabolized to produce the chromophore of rhodopsin. In the present study, a detailed characterization of the enzymatic properties of truncated LRAT (tLRAT) has been achieved using in vitro assay conditions. A much larger tLRAT activity has been obtained compared to previous reports and to an enzyme with a similar activity. In addition, tLRAT is able to hydrolyze phospholipids bearing different chain lengths with a preference for micellar aggregated substrates. It therefore presents an interfacial activation property, which is typical of classical phospholipases. Furthermore, given that stability is a very important quality of an enzyme, the influence of different parameters on the activity and stability of tLRAT has thus been studied in detail. For example, storage buffer has a strong effect on tLRAT activity and high enzyme stability has been observed at room temperature. The thermostability of tLRAT has also been investigated using circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy. A decrease in the activity of tLRAT was observed beyond 70°C, accompanied by a modification of its secondary structure, i.e. a decrease of its α-helical content and the appearance of unordered structures and aggregated β-sheets. Nevertheless, residual activity could still be observed after heating tLRAT up to 100°C. The results of this study highly improved our understanding of this enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel antimicrobial peptides with high anticancer activity and selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Lun Chu

    Full Text Available We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics.

  19. VTEC behavior in the American sector during high solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Ezquer, R G; Brunini, C; Conicet; Meza, A; Mosert, M; Radicella, S M

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) obtained from GPS signals received during the high solar activity year 1999 at stations placed in the American sector, is reported. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4 to -64.7 and the longitude ranges from 281.3 to 297.7. Median, lower and upper quartiles are used to specify variability, because they have the advantage of being less affected by large deviations that can occur during magnetic storms. The results show that the VTEC values corresponding to equinox are greater than those of solstice and that, the highest VTEC values are observed at low latitude stations. In general, the variability during daylight hours is about 30% of median or less, and that observed for nighttime hours is greater than the mentioned percentage, particularly at last hours of the night near the northern peak of the equatorial anomaly.

  20. Using Highly Interactive Virtual Environments for Safeguards Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, Bradley S [ORNL; Alcala, Benjamin S [ORNL; Alcala, Scott [ORNL; Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL; Weil, Logan B [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Highly interactive virtual environment (HIVE) is a term that refers to interactive educational simulations, serious games and virtual worlds. Studies indicate that learning with the aid of interactive environments produces better retention and depth of knowledge by promoting improved trainee engagement and understanding. Virtual reality or three dimensional (3D) visualization is often used to promote the understanding of something when personal observation, photographs, drawings, and/or sketches are not possible or available. Subjects and situations, either real or hypothetical, can be developed using a 3D model. Models can be tailored to the audience allowing safeguards and security features to be demonstrated for educational purposes in addition to engineering evaluation and performance analysis. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has begun evaluating the feasibility of HIVEs for improving safeguards activities such as training, mission planning, and evaluating worker task performance. This paper will discuss the development workflow of HIVEs and present some recent examples.

  1. High-resolution infrared observations of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2012-07-01

    Interferometric resolution at IR wavelengths offers for the first time the possibility to zoom into the nuclei of galaxies beyond the circumnuclear stellar structures and spatially resolve gas and dust in the innermost regions (0.05-5pc), dominated by the central black hole. Ultimate goal is to reveal new aspects of AGN feeding, and interaction with its host galaxy. After first successes of resolving AGN with infrared interferometry (VLTI, Keck-IF), the second generation of high-resolution interferometric imagers behind 8m class telescopes is currently being built. I will summarize current aspects and successes of the field, and present our activities to provide extended capabilities for VLTI-Midi and -Matisse, LBT-Linc-Nirvana and Keck-Astra to study a larger sample of AGN in greater detail.

  2. High resolution dynamical mapping of social interactions with active RFID

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain; Colizza, Vittoria; Pinton, Jean-Francois; Broeck, Wouter Van den; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental framework to gather data on face-to-face social interactions between individuals, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. We use active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices that assess contacts with one another by exchanging low-power radio packets. When individuals wear the beacons as a badge, a persistent radio contact between the RFID devices can be used as a proxy for a social interaction between individuals. We present the results of a pilot study %recently performed during a conference, and a subsequent preliminary data analysis, that provides an assessment of our method and highlights its versatility and applicability in many areas concerned with human dynamics.

  3. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiki Nagaharu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment.

  4. Solvothermal syntheses of semiconductor photocatalysts of ultra-high activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kominami, Hiroshi; Kato, Jun-ichi; Murakami, Shin-ya; Ishii, Yoshinori; Kohno, Masaaki; Yabutani, Kei-ichi; Yamamoto, Takuhei; Kera, Yoshiya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Inoue, Masashi; Inui, Tomoyuki [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ohtani, Bunsho [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0811 (Japan)

    2003-09-15

    Thermal treatment of titanium(IV) butoxide dissolved in 2-butanol at 573K under autogenous pressure (alcohothermal treatment) yielded microcrystalline anatase-type titanium(IV) oxide (TiO{sub 2}). Thermal treatment of oxobis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,O')titanium (TiO(acac){sub 2}) in ethylene glycol (EG) in the presence of sodium acetate and a small amount of water at 573K yielded microcrystalline brookite-type TiO{sub 2}. Tungsten(VI) oxide (WO{sub 3}) powders of monoclinic crystal structure with high crystallinity were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment (HTT), at 523 or 573K, of aqueous tungstic acid (H{sub 2}WO{sub 4}) solutions prepared from sodium tungstate by ion-exchange (IE) with a proton-type resin. Anatase and brookite TiO{sub 2} products were calcined at various temperatures and then used for photocatalytic mineralization of acetic acid in aqueous solutions under aerated conditions and dehydrogenation of 2-propanol under deaerated conditions. Almost all the anatase-type TiO{sub 2} samples showed the activities more than twice higher than those of representative active photocatalysts, Degussa P-25 and Ishihara ST-01 in both reactions. A brookite sample with improved crystallinity and sufficient surface area obtained by calcination at 973K exhibited the hydrogen evolution rate almost equal to P-25. HTT WO{sub 3} powders with various physical properties were used as photocatalyst for evolution of oxygen (O{sub 2}) from an aqueous silver sulfate solution. WO{sub 3} powder of high crystallinity, e.g., IE-HTT-WO{sub 3} synthesized at 573K, gave much higher O{sub 2} yield than commercially available WO{sub 3} samples.

  5. Sensor fusion methods for high performance active vibration isolation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, C.; Matichard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Sensor noise often limits the performance of active vibration isolation systems. Inertial sensors used in such systems can be selected through a wide variety of instrument noise and size characteristics. However, the most sensitive instruments are often the biggest and the heaviest. Consequently, high-performance active isolators sometimes embed many tens of kilograms in instrumentation. The weight and size of instrumentation can add unwanted constraint on the design. It tends to lower the structures natural frequencies and reduces the collocation between sensors and actuators. Both effects tend to reduce feedback control performance and stability. This paper discusses sensor fusion techniques that can be used in order to increase the control bandwidth (and/or the stability). For this, the low noise inertial instrument signal dominates the fusion at low frequency to provide vibration isolation. Other types of sensors (relative motion, smaller but noisier inertial, or force sensors) are used at higher frequencies to increase stability. Several sensor fusion configurations are studied. The paper shows the improvement that can be expected for several case studies including a rigid equipment, a flexible equipment, and a flexible equipment mounted on a flexible support structure.

  6. Highly active and efficient catalysts for alkoxycarbonylation of alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kaiwu; Fang, Xianjie; Gülak, Samet; Franke, Robert; Spannenberg, Anke; Neumann, Helfried; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Carbonylation reactions of alkenes constitute the most important industrial processes in homogeneous catalysis. Despite the tremendous progress in this transformation, the development of advanced catalyst systems to improve their activity and widen the range of feedstocks continues to be essential for new practical applications. Herein a palladium catalyst based on 1,2-bis((tert-butyl(pyridin-2-yl)phosphanyl)methyl)benzene L3 (pytbpx) is rationally designed and synthesized. Application of this system allows a general alkoxycarbonylation of sterically hindered and demanding olefins including all kinds of tetra-, tri- and 1,1-disubstituted alkenes as well as natural products and pharmaceuticals to the desired esters in excellent yield. Industrially relevant bulk ethylene is functionalized with high activity (TON: >1,425,000 TOF: 44,000 h-1 for initial 18 h) and selectivity (>99%). Given its generality and efficiency, we expect this catalytic system to immediately impact both the chemical industry and research laboratories by providing a practical synthetic tool for the transformation of nearly any alkene into a versatile ester product.

  7. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-05-09

    The structure and chemical ordering of PtAu nanoclusters of 79, 135, and 201 atoms are studied via a combination of a basin hopping atom-exchange technique (to locate the lowest energy homotops at fixed composition), a symmetry orbit technique (to find the high symmetry isomers), and density functional theory local reoptimization (for determining the most stable homotop). The interatomic interactions between Pt and Au are derived from the empirical Gupta potential. The lowest energy structures show a marked tendency toward PtcoreAushell chemical ordering by enrichment of the more cohesive Pt in the core region and of Au in the shell region. We observe a preferential segregation of Pt atoms to (111) facets and Au atoms to (100) facets of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Error-landscape-based multi-objective calibration of the Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity using high-Reynolds-number decaying turbulence data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles; Geurts, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    A suite of large-eddy simulation(LESs) of decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence at high Reynolds numbers is performed and compared to wind-tunnel experiments in the tradition of Comte-Bellot and Corrsin. The error-landscape approach is used for the evaluation of the Smagorinsky model, and the re

  9. On the Evolution of High-Redshift Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    We build a simple physical model to study the high-redshift active galactic Nucleus (AGN) evolution within the co-evolution framework of central black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies. The correlation between the circular velocity of a dark halo $V_c$ and the velocity dispersion of a galaxy $\\sigma$ is used to link the dark matter halo mass and BH mass. The dark matter halo mass function is converted to the BH mass function for any given redshift. The high-redshift optical AGN luminosity functions (LFs) are constructed. At $z\\sim 4$, the flattening feature is not shown at the faint end of the optical AGN LF. This is consistent with observational results. If the optical AGN LF at $z\\sim 6$ can be reproduced in the case in which central BHs have the Eddington-limited accretion, it is possible for the AGN lifetime to have a small value of $2\\times 10^5$ yrs. The X-ray AGN LFs and X-ray AGN number counts are also calculated at $2.03$, respectively, using the same parameters adopted in the calculation for the o...

  10. Highly active antiretroviral therapy: Does it Sound toxic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katijah Khoza-Shangase

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The main objective of the current study is to monitor the auditory status in a group of adults with AIDS, receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART (3TC -lamivudine, D4T - stavudine, and efavirenz in a hospital outpatient clinic in Gauteng. A total sample of 54 adults (between the ages of 18 and 50 years in the experimental group and 16 in the control group were assessed prospectively following a repeated measures design. All participants were assessed at baseline at three months, and at six months into the treatment. Materials and Methods : The participants underwent case history interviews and medical record reviews, otoscopy, and tympanometry, as well as conventional pure tone audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emission testing. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results : On audiological monitoring, statistically significant changes (P<0.05 were established, only in the experimental group, for pure tone audiometry - with clinically significant changes found at high frequencies. Statistically significant changes with clinically significant changes were obtained for distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs in the experimental group, particularly at high frequencies - implying subclinical hearing function changes; while lack of statistically significant changes with no clinically significant changes were found in the control group. The subclinical hearing changes in the experimental group were also evident in the findings of the subclinical hearing loss group, who, although they had normal pure tone function after six months of follow up, presented with clinical changes on DPOAEs at 6 and 8 kHz. Conclusions : Findings highlight the need for closer monitoring of the effects of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs on hearing, through the use of more sensitive tools of assessment when conducting drug trials.

  11. Preparation of activated carbon with high surface area for high-capacity methane storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingsi Liua; Wenshuo Wanga; Na Wanga; Peter Chak Tong Aub

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was fabricated from corncob, which is cheap and abundant. Experimental parameters such as particle size of corncob, KOH/char weight ratio, and activation temperature and time were optimized to generate AC, which shows high methane sorption capacity. AC has high specific surface area (3227 m2/g), with pore volume and pore size distribution equal to 1.829 cm3/g and ca. 1.7-2.2 nm, respectively. Under the condition of 2◦C and less than 7.8 MPa, methane sorption in the presence of water (Rw=1.4) was as high as 43.7 wt%methane per unit mass of dry AC. The result is significantly higher than those of coconut-derived AC (32 wt%) and ordered mesoporous carbon (41.2 wt%, Rw=4.07) under the same condition. The physical properties and amorphous chaotic structure of AC were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms, XRD, SEM and HRTEM. Hence, the corncob-derived AC can be considered as a competitive methane-storage material for vehicles, which are run by natural gas.

  12. Evidence of solar induced cycles of high seismic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, G.

    2010-12-01

    In the past century, several observational results and corresponding publications indicate a systematic seismic performance with respect to the time of day and seasons as well. Such effects could be caused only by solar or lunar influence. In addition, a possible relation with the solar cycles was discussed in some papers, too. Intensive studies on these topics have also been performed at the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), Vienna, Austria. They strongly confirm the above mentioned effects. In order to verify a solar influence on earthquake activity correlations were performed between the three-hour magnetic index Kp and the energy release of earthquakes in the long term. Kp characterizes the magnetic field disturbances which are mainly caused by the solar particle radiation, the solar wind. Kp is determined on a routine basis from magnetic records of 13 observatories worldwide and is continuously published by ISGI, France. Three regions of continental size were investigated, using the USGS (PDE) earthquake catalogue data, from 1974 on: N-America, S-America and Eurasia. The statistic analyses reveal that from 1974 to 2009 the index Kp varies in cycles with periods between 9 and 12 years, somewhat different to the sunspot number cycles (no. 21, 22, 23) of 11 years. As to the seismic energy release, the sqrt (energy E) of an event is taken as measure, which relates to the ‘strain release’ due to the earthquake (Benioff). For Kp the monthly averages were computed, for the strain release the monthly sums of sqrt(E), hereinafter referred to as STR. From the statistic estimates of the relation Kp-STR for all the three regions N-America, S-America and Eurasia it becomes evident, that the correlation is highly significant: earthquake activity, quantified by the monthly STR, follows the Kp cycles with high coincidence. A quantitative analysis reveals that on an annual basis, the sum of released energy by earthquakes changes by a factor up to

  13. High Efficiency Interleaved Active Clamped Dc-Dc Converter with Fuel Cell for High Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona P

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A high efficiency interleaved ZVS active clamped current fed dc-dc converter is proposed in this paper specially used for fuel cell applications. As the fuel cell output is very low we are in need of a step up dc-dc converter. Here a current fed dc-dc converter is used. Two current fed dc-dc converters are interleaved by connecting their inputs in parallel and outputs in series. With this proposed methodology input current ripples in the fuel cell stacks can be reduced and a regulated output voltage ripples can be obtained. The active clamping circuit used in this model absorbs the turn off voltage spikes hence low voltage devices with low on state resistance can be used.Voltage doubler circuits will give double the output voltage than normal with smaller transformer turns ratio and flexibility. The proposed method is simulated in MATLAB for verifying the accuracy of the proposed design.

  14. On the Evolution of High-redshift Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jirong; Kim, Minsun

    2016-09-01

    We build a simple physical model to study the high-redshift active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution within the co-evolution framework of central black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies. The correlation between the circular velocity of a dark halo V c and the velocity dispersion of a galaxy σ is used to link the dark matter halo mass and BH mass. The dark matter halo mass function is converted to the BH mass function for any given redshift. The high-redshift optical AGN luminosity functions (LFs) are constructed. At z˜ 4, the flattening feature is not shown at the faint end of the optical AGN LF. This is consistent with observational results. If the optical AGN LF at z˜ 6 can be reproduced in the case in which central BHs have the Eddington-limited accretion, it is possible for the AGN lifetime to have a small value of 2× {10}5 {{years}}. The X-ray AGN LFs and X-ray AGN number counts are also calculated at 2.0\\lt z\\lt 5.0 and z\\gt 3, respectively, using the same parameters adopted in the calculation for the optical AGN LF at z˜ 4. It is estimated that about 30 AGNs per {{{\\deg }}}2 at z\\gt 6 can be detected with a flux limit of 3× {10}-17 {erg} {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band. Additionally, the cosmic reionization is also investigated. The ultraviolet photons emitted from the high-redshift AGNs mainly contribute to the cosmic reionization, and the central BHs of the high-redshift AGNs have a mass range of {10}6{--}{10}8{M}⊙ . We also discuss some uncertainties in both the AGN LFs and AGN number counts originating from the {M}{{BH}}{--}σ relation, Eddington ratio, AGN lifetime, and X-ray attenuation in our model.

  15. Highly antioxidant carotene-lipid nanocarriers: synthesis and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta, E-mail: nicoleta.badea@gmail.com; Ovidiu, Oprea [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Bojin, Dionezie [Faculty of Engineering and Materials Science (Romania); Meghea, Aurelia [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania)

    2012-06-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of two natural oils (squalene-Sq and grape seed oil-GSO) to prepare biocompatible antioxidant nanostructured lipid carriers-NLCs as a safety and protective formulation for sensitive {beta}-carotene. For this purpose different oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by a combination of alkylpolyoxy ethylene sorbitans, lecithin and a block copolymer, were prepared using a melt high-shear homogenization process. The physico-chemical characteristics of the carotene-loaded NLCs were firstly investigated in detail. The smaller lipid nanoparticles have been obtained by using Tween 20 as main non-ionic surfactant, with average diameters of about 85 nm for GSO and 89 nm for Sq, with a polydispersity index <0.19. The developed carotene-NLCs presented an excellent physical stability with almost all zeta potential values ranging between -29 Division-Sign -40 mV. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the {beta}-carotene incorporation has led to a perturbation of solid lipid matrix with a less ordered arrangement. By UV-Vis spectroscopy it was evidenced that after encapsulation {beta}-carotene adopts a supramolecular structure demonstrated by appearance of a shoulder at 530 nm related to a {beta}-carotene triplet-triplet absorption. The carotene-NLCs have been also evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant properties. The presence of Sq and GSO produced a significant effect on the antioxidant capacity of developed NLCs. The samples prepared with GSO and Tween 80 as main surfactant showed the highest antioxidant activity (AA %) against free oxygen radicals, exhibiting an enhancement of 35 % for loaded NLCs, as comparing to pure carotene. In addition to these properties, the ability of NLCs to manifest antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichiacoli bacteria. The antibacterial analysis shown that loaded-NLCs develop an effective inhibition zone against bacteria growth and it was dependent in a

  16. Highly active nanocrystalline TiO(2) photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronyan, Tereza M; Kechiantz, A M; Lin, M C

    2008-03-19

    A simple method for the fabrication of highly photoactive nanocrystalline two-layer TiO(2) electrodes for solar cell applications is presented. Diluted titanium acetylacetonate has been used as a precursor for covering SnO(2):F (FTO) films with dense packed TiO(2) nanocrystallites. The nanoporous thick TiO(2) film follows the dense packed thin TiO(2) film as a second layer. For the latter, amorphous TiO(2) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a sol-gel technique in an acidic environment with pHTiO(2) gel of pH 5 was obtained; this pH value is higher than the recently reported value of 3.1 (Park et al 2005 Adv. Mater. 17 2349-53). Highly interconnected, nanoporous, transparent and active TiO(2) films have been fabricated from the pH 5 gel. SEM, AFM and XRD analyses have been carried out for investigation of the crystal structure and the size of nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology of the films. Investigation of the photocurrent-voltage characteristics has shown improvement in cell performance along with the modification of the surface morphology, depending on pH of the TiO(2) gel. Increasing the pH of the gel from 2.1 to 5 enhanced the overall conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by approximately 30%. An energy conversion efficiency of 8.83% has been achieved for the cell (AM1.5, 100  mWcm(-2) simulated sunlight) compared to 6.61% efficiency in the absence of ammonia in the TiO(2) gel.

  17. Highly active nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronyan, Tereza M.; Kechiantz, A. M.; Lin, M. C.

    2008-03-01

    A simple method for the fabrication of highly photoactive nanocrystalline two-layer TiO2 electrodes for solar cell applications is presented. Diluted titanium acetylacetonate has been used as a precursor for covering SnO2:F (FTO) films with dense packed TiO2 nanocrystallites. The nanoporous thick TiO2 film follows the dense packed thin TiO2 film as a second layer. For the latter, amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a sol-gel technique in an acidic environment with pHacidic nanoparticle gel was neutralized by basic ammonia and a TiO2 gel of pH 5 was obtained; this pH value is higher than the recently reported value of 3.1 (Park et al 2005 Adv. Mater. 17 2349-53). Highly interconnected, nanoporous, transparent and active TiO2 films have been fabricated from the pH 5 gel. SEM, AFM and XRD analyses have been carried out for investigation of the crystal structure and the size of nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology of the films. Investigation of the photocurrent-voltage characteristics has shown improvement in cell performance along with the modification of the surface morphology, depending on pH of the TiO2 gel. Increasing the pH of the gel from 2.1 to 5 enhanced the overall conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by approximately 30%. An energy conversion efficiency of 8.83% has been achieved for the cell (AM1.5, 100 mWcm-2 simulated sunlight) compared to 6.61% efficiency in the absence of ammonia in the TiO2 gel.

  18. Active cooling of pulse compression diffraction gratings for high energy, high average power ultrafast lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, David A; Rosso, Paul A; Nguyen, Hoang T; Aasen, Michael D; Britten, Jerald A; Haefner, Constantin

    2016-12-26

    Laser energy absorption and subsequent heat removal from diffraction gratings in chirped pulse compressors poses a significant challenge in high repetition rate, high peak power laser development. In order to understand the average power limitations, we have modeled the time-resolved thermo-mechanical properties of current and advanced diffraction gratings. We have also developed and demonstrated a technique of actively cooling Petawatt scale, gold compressor gratings to operate at 600W of average power - a 15x increase over the highest average power petawatt laser currently in operation. Combining this technique with low absorption multilayer dielectric gratings developed in our group would enable pulse compressors for petawatt peak power lasers operating at average powers well above 40kW.

  19. Removal of trichlorobenzene using 'oxygen-enriched' highly active absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; He, Peng; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Ma, Shuangchen

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash, industry lime and an additive, Ca(ClO2)2 (C) were used to prepare the 'oxygen-enriched' highly active absorbent (HAA). The influencing factors for removal of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) using this absorbent such as reaction temperature, simulating gas flow rate, oxygen content, etc. were studied in a self-designed reactor. The optimum experimental conditions of removing 1,2,4-TCB are that the content of an oxidizing additive in the absorbent is 3% (wt), simulating gas flow rate is 100 mL/min, reaction temperature is 250 degrees C, and the content of oxygen in simulating gas is 6%. The maximum removal efficiency is 81.71% in 10 mins. The absorption capacity of the absorbent is 0.000111 g/g. The reaction products were determined by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/ MS), 2,6-Bis-[1,1-Dimethylethyl]-4-methyl-Phenol is considered to be the major intermediate product. The reaction route was revealed.

  20. Towards high-throughput microfluidic Raman-activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Peiran; Gou, Honglei; Mou, Chunbo; Huang, Wei E; Yang, Menglong; Xu, Jian; Ma, Bo

    2015-09-21

    Raman-activated cell sorting (RACS) is a promising single-cell analysis technology that is able to identify and isolate individual cells of targeted type, state or environment from an isogenic population or complex consortium of cells, in a label-free and non-invasive manner. However, compared with those widely used yet labeling-required or staining-dependent cell sorting technologies such as FACS and MACS, the weak Raman signal greatly limits the further development of the existing RACS systems to achieve higher throughput. Strategies that can tackle this bottleneck include, first, improvement of Raman-acquisition efficiency and quality based on advanced Raman spectrometers and enhanced Raman techniques; second, development of novel microfluidic devices for cell sorting followed by integration into a complete RACS system. Exploiting these strategies, prototypes for a new generation of RACS have been demonstrated, such as flow-based OT-RACS, DEP-RACS, and SERS/CARS flow cytometry. Such high-throughput microfluidic RACS can provide biologists with a powerful single-cell analysis tool to explore the scientific questions or applications that have been beyond the reach of FACS and MACS.

  1. Sclerosing cholangitis by cytomegalovirus in highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing colangitis (SC due to cytomegalovirus (CMV is very rare. It has been described mainly in immunocompromised patients. Currently, in HIV infected patients it is exceptional. The most of cases belong to pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART and those cases were in stage AIDS with less than 100 CD4/μl. The most frequently involved pathogen in pre-HAART period was Cryptosporidium parvum (30-57% and CMV (10-30%; in late HAART period this information are unaware. CMV has been implicated as a possible etiological agent in primary SC partly because of the ability to cause liver damage and its relationship with smooth muscle antibodies. The most effective treatment for SC was the combination of antiretroviral therapy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with sphincterotomy and stent placement. Following, we present the first case of late HAART period which describes a SC extrahepatic without papillary stenosis with CMV as the only cause and clinical presentation of HIV infection in a woman with 177 CD4/μl.

  2. Activation of fly ashes by the high temperature and high alkalinity in ASR tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    High temperature and high alkalinity are typical testing conditions to accelerate the appraisal process of the suppressing effect of fly ashes on alkali silica reaction(ASR),but the reaction mechanism of fly ashes would be quite different under such conditions compared to the normal condition of temperature and alkalinity.To make a reasonable analysis of the suppressing effect of fly ashes,13 types of fly ashes were tested in this paper by both the accelerated mortar bar test method and the 60°C accelerated concrete prism test method.The results showed that the effect of fly ashes would be magnified under the condition of high temperature and high alkalinity.The XRD analysis showed that all the phases of fly ash could react with the hot alkaline solution except for mullite and a small amount of quartz.Fly ash could be significantly activated by the 80°C 1 mol/L NaOH solution,and form mainly C-S-H phase and P type zeolite,but its effect on inhibiting ASR was exaggerated then.According to the mortar strength test and the ASR suppressing test results,C-S-H phase contributed to mortar strength,but its amount did not decide the ASR suppressing effect of fly ash.

  3. The Role of a Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met Genetic Polymorphism in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Updated Meta-analysis on 32,816 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Hernández-Díaz, Yazmin; Juárez-Rojop, Isela Esther; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Fresan, Ana

    2016-06-01

    An association between a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val156Met (rs4680) polymorphism and schizophrenia has been reported in the literature, although no conclusive outcomes have been attained. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism with schizophrenia in a systematic review and meta-analysis. We performed a keyword search on PubMed and EBSCO databases. All English language case-control studies published up to April 2015 were selected. A total of 67 studies were selected for inclusion. The genotype distribution of subjects with schizophrenia was compared with healthy control subjects, using allelic, additive, dominant and recessive models. The pooled results from the meta-analysis (15,565 cases and 17,251 healthy subjects) after the elimination of heterogeneity showed an association between COMT Val108/158Met and schizophrenia [recessive model: OR 1.08 CI 95 % (1.01-1.15)]. We conducted subgroup analyses according to ethnicity. An association was observed in our Caucasian population in the additive model [OR 1.21 CI 95 % (1.06-1.37)] and in the recessive model [OR 1.21 CI 95 % (1.11-1.32)], but not in the allelic or dominant models. However, when we analysed our Asian population after the elimination of heterogeneity, no evidence of a significant association was found in any of the genetic models. Our analyses indicate that there is an association between COMT Val108/158Met and schizophrenia in the general population. Furthermore, in Caucasian populations, this risk could be increased.

  4. Análise de polimorfismos nos genes CYP1A1, CYP17, COMT, GSTM1, receptor de estrogênios e progesterona em mulheres com carcinoma de ovário

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Daniela Batista

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the association between polymorphisms of cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17), progesterone receptor (PROGINS), gluthatione S-transferase (GSTM1), Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and cytochrome P450c1A1 CYP1A1) genes in patients with and without ovarian cancer and to analyze the eventual association of these polymorphisms with clinical and pathological variables. Methods: A total of 103 ovarian cancer patients were seen at the Oncological Surgery Outpatients Clinic, Depart...

  5. Differences in 4-hydroxyestradiol levels in leukocytes are related to CYP1A1(∗)2C, CYP1B1(∗)3 and COMT Val158Met allelic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, O C; Pérez-Morales, R; Petrosyan, P; Castro-Hernández, C; Gonsebatt, M E; Rubio, J

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to estrogen and its metabolites, including catechol estrogens (CEs) and catechol estrogen quinones (CE-Qs) is closely related to breast cancer. Polymorphisms of the genes involved in the catechol estrogens metabolism pathway (CEMP) have been shown to affect the production of CEs and CE-Qs. In this study, we measured the induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, COMT, and GSTP1 by 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) in leukocytes with CYP1A1(∗)2C, CYP1B1(∗)3, COMT Val158Met and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms by semi quantitative RT-PCR and compared the values to those of leukocytes with wild type alleles; we also compared the differences in formation of 4- hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) and DNA-adducts. The data show that in the leukocytes with mutant alleles treatment with 17β-E2 up-regulates CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and down-regulates COMT mRNA levels, resulting in major increments in 4-OHE2 levels compared to leukocytes with wild-type alleles. Therefore, we propose induction levels of gene expression and intracellular 4-OHE2 concentrations associated with allelic variants in response to exposure of 17β-E2 as a noninvasive biomarker that can help determine the risk of developing non-hereditary breast cancer in women.

  6. Influence of genetic variants in TPMT and COMT associated with cisplatin induced hearing loss in patients with cancer: two new cohorts and a meta-analysis reveal significant heterogeneity between cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie M Hagleitner

    Full Text Available Treatment with cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens causes hearing loss in 40-60% of cancer patients. It has been suggested that genetic variants in the genes encoding thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT can predict the development of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and may explain interindividual variability in sensitivity to cisplatin-induced hearing loss. Two recently published studies however, sought to validate these findings and showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of polymorphisms in the TPMT and COMT genes in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Therefore we investigated two independent cohorts of 110 Dutch and 38 Spanish patients with osteosarcoma and performed a meta-analysis including all previously published studies resulting in a total population of 664 patients with cancer. With this largest meta-analysis performed to date, we show that the influence of TPMT and COMT on the development of cisplatin-induced hearing loss may be less important than previously suggested.

  7. Objectively measured habitual physical activity in a highly obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, S A; Summerbell, C D; Reilly, J J

    2009-05-01

    While the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children continues to grow nationally, prevalence in the North-East of England is among the highest in the UK. The objective of this study was to investigate the habitual physical activity levels in a particularly obesogenic environment in the North-East of England. Eight primary schools were selected using a stratified random sampling frame ranking average deprivation levels. Participating children (n = 246, mean age 10 years) wore an accelerometer (Actigraph, GT-256) over five consecutive days (weekend plus three weekdays). Total daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was calculated using thresholds by Puyau and colleagues. Only 7% (17/246) of children were sufficiently active. Boys were more physically active than girls (766 +/- 268 vs. 641 +/- 202 counts/min, 95% CI for the difference 63-186 cpm.). Total physical activity was not influenced significantly by deprivation levels or weight status, and there were no significant differences in physical activity between school or weekend days. The North-East of England is a recognized 'hot spot' for paediatric obesity and the present study shows that low levels of habitual physical activity are typical. Choice of accelerometry threshold affects both the apparent amount of physical activity and the ability to detect groups with particularly low levels of physical activity.

  8. L’évaluation de la durabilité des fruitières à comté : vers un nouvel outil de management ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jeanneaux

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Le massif jurassien est marqué par un système de production fromager basé sur la relation entre des petites coopératives de production de comté et des affineurs qui en assurent la finition et la commercialisation. Les fruitières sont fragilisées par la restructuration du secteur et s’interrogent sur leur devenir. Pour y répondre, nous avons développé une méthode d’évaluation de la durabilité des fruitières construite  à partir de 60 indicateurs. Elle a été testée sur un échantillon de 15 fruitières. Nous montrons que leur situation ne s’explique pas par la seule prise en compte des performances économiques, mais également par la mesure de leurs caractéristiques socio-territoriales et environnementales. Nous posons l’idée que la pérennité des fruitières passera de plus en plus par la prise en compte dans leur démarche de management des principes du développement durable.Sustainability assessment at the PDO comté cooperatives level: towards a new tool for management? The Jura region is based on a local organization between farming sector and industry. Numerous small cooperatives (the fruitières, which produce young cheese are now threatened by the merger movement of the sector and they wonder about their future. We develop a method to assess the sustainability of these firms constructed around 60 indicators. We put to the test 15 cooperatives. We show their position depends not only on economical performances, but also on social, territorial and environmental features. We assume that the stake for the perenniality of the cooperatives is to take the sustainable principles into account in their management.

  9. Variety, Enjoyment, and Physical Activity Participation Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon L; Coffield, Edward; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-02-01

    Federal guidelines state that youth should participate in a variety of physical activity (PA) they find enjoyable. Little is known, however, about how variety and enjoyment are associated with PA participation among adolescents. Data came from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative survey of adolescents. Path analysis was used to examine the association of a variety of self-reported PA, defined as the number of activities and activity types (ie, team sports/weightlifting, individual activities, and other competitive/recreational sports), on self-reported PA enjoyment and participation. The analysis also examined whether enjoyment mediates the association between a variety of PA and participation. Separate models were estimated for boys and girls. Number of activities was associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. For boys and girls, team sports/weightlifting was associated with increased participation, and individual activities were indirectly associated with increased participation through enjoyment. For boys, team sports/weightlifting was indirectly related with participation. These findings suggest that participation in a variety of PA is associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. Providing opportunities for adolescents to engage in a variety of activities might help them identify PA they enjoy and facilitate lifelong PA habits.

  10. Self-assembly of a thin highly reduced graphene oxide film and its high electrocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Zhou, An-Wei; Li, Hai-Wai; Zhang, Yu; Luong, John H. T.; Cui, Hui-Fang

    2014-10-01

    A thin highly reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film was self-assembled at the dimethyl formamide (DMF)-air interface through evaporation-induced water-assisted thin film formation at the pentane-DMF interface, followed by complete evaporation of pentane. The thin film was transferred onto various solid substrates for film characterization and electrochemical sensing. UV-visible spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemistry techniques were used to characterize the film. An rGO film showing 82.8% of the transmittance at 550 nm corresponds to a few layers of rGO nanosheets. The rGO nanosheets cross-stack with each other, lying approximately in the plane of the film. An rGO film collected on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode exhibited improved electrical conductivity compared to GC, with the electrode charge-transfer resistance (Rct) reduced from 31 Ω to 22 Ω. The as-formed rGO/GC electrode was mechanically very stable, exhibiting significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity to H2O2 and dopamine. Multiple layers of the rGO films on the GC electrode showed even stronger electrocatalytic activity to dopamine than that of the single rGO film layer. The controllable formation of a stable rGO film on various solid substrates has potential applications for nanoelectronics and sensors/biosensors.

  11. Identification of Tumor Endothelial Cells with High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity and a Highly Angiogenic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maishi, Nako; Ohga, Noritaka; Hida, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Iida, Junichiro; Shindoh, Masanobu; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hida, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. It has been reported that tumor endothelial cells (TECs) exhibit highly angiogenic phenotypes compared with those of normal endothelial cells (NECs). TECs show higher proliferative and migratory abilities than those NECs, together with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Furthermore, compared with NECs, stem cell markers such as Sca-1, CD90, and multidrug resistance 1 are upregulated in TECs, suggesting that stem-like cells exist in tumor blood vessels. In this study, to reveal the biological role of stem-like TECs, we analyzed expression of the stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in TECs and characterized ALDHhigh TECs. TECs and NECs were isolated from melanoma-xenografted nude mice and normal dermis, respectively. ALDH mRNA expression and activity were higher in TECs than those in NECs. Next, ALDHhigh/low TECs were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting to compare their characteristics. Compared with ALDHlow TECs, ALDHhigh TECs formed more tubes on Matrigel-coated plates and sustained the tubular networks longer. Furthermore, VEGFR2 expression was higher in ALDHhigh TECs than that in ALDHlow TECs. In addition, ALDH was expressed in the tumor blood vessels of in vivo mouse models of melanoma and oral carcinoma, but not in normal blood vessels. These findings indicate that ALDHhigh TECs exhibit an angiogenic phenotype. Stem-like TECs may have an essential role in tumor angiogenesis. PMID:25437864

  12. Identification of tumor endothelial cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and a highly angiogenic phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Ohmura-Kakutani

    Full Text Available Tumor blood vessels play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. It has been reported that tumor endothelial cells (TECs exhibit highly angiogenic phenotypes compared with those of normal endothelial cells (NECs. TECs show higher proliferative and migratory abilities than those NECs, together with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2. Furthermore, compared with NECs, stem cell markers such as Sca-1, CD90, and multidrug resistance 1 are upregulated in TECs, suggesting that stem-like cells exist in tumor blood vessels. In this study, to reveal the biological role of stem-like TECs, we analyzed expression of the stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in TECs and characterized ALDHhigh TECs. TECs and NECs were isolated from melanoma-xenografted nude mice and normal dermis, respectively. ALDH mRNA expression and activity were higher in TECs than those in NECs. Next, ALDHhigh/low TECs were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting to compare their characteristics. Compared with ALDHlow TECs, ALDHhigh TECs formed more tubes on Matrigel-coated plates and sustained the tubular networks longer. Furthermore, VEGFR2 expression was higher in ALDHhigh TECs than that in ALDHlow TECs. In addition, ALDH was expressed in the tumor blood vessels of in vivo mouse models of melanoma and oral carcinoma, but not in normal blood vessels. These findings indicate that ALDHhigh TECs exhibit an angiogenic phenotype. Stem-like TECs may have an essential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  13. JOSHUA: Symmetric Active/Active Replication for Highly Available HPC Job and Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlemann, Kai [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Scott, Steven L [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Most of today's HPC systems employ a single head node for control, which represents a single point of failure as it interrupts an entire HPC system upon failure. Furthermore, it is also a single point of control as it disables an entire HPC system until repair. One of the most important HPC system service running on the head node is the job and resource management. If it goes down, all currently running jobs loose the service they report back to. They have to be restarted once the head node is up and running again. With this paper, we present a generic approach for providing symmetric active/active replication for highly available HPC job and resource management. The JOSHUA solution provides a virtually synchronous environment for continuous availability without any interruption of service and without any loss of state. Replication is performed externally via the PBS service interface without the need to modify any service code. Test results as well as a reliability analysis of our proof-of-concept prototype implementation show that continuous availability can be provided by JOSHUA with an acceptable performance trade-off.

  14. Novel Logarithmic Active Pixel Sensor with High Dynamic Range and High Output Swing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xian-song; YAO Su-ying; YUAN Yi-dong; XU Jiang-tao; DING Ke; YAN Kun-shan

    2008-01-01

    The logarithmic response complementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS) image sensor provides a wide dynamic range, but its drawback is the lack of simple fixed pattern noise(FPN) cancellation scheme. Designed is a novel logarithmic active pixel sensor(APS) with high dynamic range and high output swing. Firstly, the operation principle of mixed-model APS is introduced. The pixel can work in three operation modes by choosing the proper control signals. Then, FPN sources of logarithmic APS are analyzed, and double-sampled technique is implemented to reduce FPN. Finally, according to the simulation results, layout is designed and has passed design rule check(DRC), electronic rule check(ERC) and layout versus schematic(LVS) verifications, and the post-simulation results are basically in agreement with the simulation results. Dynamic range of the new logarithmic APS can reach about 140 dB; and the output swing is about 750 mV. Results show that by using double sampled technique, most FPN is eliminated and the dynamic range is enhanced.

  15. Recovery of inspiratory intercostal muscle activity following high cervical hemisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, B J; Lee, K Z; Gonzalez-Rothi, E J; Lane, M A; Reier, P J; Fuller, D D

    2012-09-30

    Anatomical and neurophysiological evidence indicates that thoracic interneurons can serve a commissural function and activate contralateral motoneurons. Accordingly, we hypothesized that respiratory-related intercostal (IC) muscle electromyogram (EMG) activity would be only modestly impaired by a unilateral cervical spinal cord injury. Inspiratory tidal volume (VT) was recorded using pneumotachography and EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from the 1st to 2nd intercostal space in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. Studies were conducted at 1-3 days, 2 wks or 8 wks following C2 spinal cord hemisection (C2HS). Data were collected during baseline breathing and a brief respiratory challenge (7% CO(2)). A substantial reduction in inspiratory intercostal EMG bursting ipsilateral to the lesion was observed at 1-3 days post-C2HS. However, a time-dependent return of activity occurred such that by 2 wks post-injury inspiratory intercostal EMG bursts ipsilateral to the lesion were similar to age-matched, uninjured controls. The increases in ipsilateral intercostal EMG activity occurred in parallel with increases in VT following the injury (R=0.55; Pintercostal" circuitry enables a robust, spontaneous recovery of ipsilateral intercostal activity following C2HS in rats. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Llenguatge jurídic i llenguatge poètic: les gosadies del comte-bisbe Miró Bonfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetglas, Pere J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the poetic originality of Miró Bonfill, count of Besalú and bishop of Girona (tenth century, in one of the documents attributed to him: the provision certificate of the church of Sant Pere de Besalú. The analysis of the 27 verses contained in this document shows an evident dependence on poets like Paulinus of Aquileia and Venantius Fortunatus, but it also allows to trace connections with other contemporary and later works. This fact poses new questions on the literary links between Catalonia and Europe in the tenth century.[ct] En aquest treball s’estudia l’originalitat poètica del comte de Besalú i Bisbe de Girona, Miró Bonfill (segle X, en un dels documents que hom li atribueix: l’acta de confirmació de la dotació de l’església de Sant Pere de Besalú. L’anàlisi dels 27 versos identificats en aquest document posen en relleu una clara dependència de Miró Bonfill d’altres poetes com Paulí d’Aquileia o Venanci Fortunat, però també l’existència de relacions amb altres obres, anteriors, contemporànies i posteriors, circumstància que obre nous interrogants sobre les relacions literàries de Catalunya amb Europa al segle X.

  17. Elementos Estáticos da teoria política de Augusto Comte: as pátrias e o Poder Temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Biscaia de Lacerda

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta alguns dos elementos da teoria política de Augusto Comte, dentro da sua Sociologia Estática, como componentes do que se poderia denominar sua teoria do Estado. Assim, após apresentar alguns dos pressupostos teóricos e metodológicos do fundador do Positivismo, o artigo concentra-se na exposição de suas teorias das pátrias e do Poder Temporal. Enquanto as pátrias constituem a base física da organização política, como resultante da união das famílias, nelas dando-se as relações de classe, o Poder Temporal é a própria função governativa, cujo âmbito de atuação é a ordem material da sociedade. Complementarmente ao Poder Temporal há o Poder Espiritual, responsável pela ordem intelectual e moral da sociedade, o que inclui a fiscalização e a legitimação do outro poder.

  18. No Association of BDNF, COMT, MAOA, SLC6A3, and SLC6A4 Genes and Depressive Symptoms in a Sample of Healthy Colombian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy González-Giraldo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD is the second cause of years lived with disability around the world. A large number of studies have been carried out to identify genetic risk factors for MDD and related endophenotypes, mainly in populations of European and Asian descent, with conflicting results. The main aim of the current study was to analyze the possible association of five candidate genes and depressive symptoms in a Colombian sample of healthy subjects. Methods and Materials. The Spanish adaptation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was applied to one hundred eighty-eight healthy Colombian subjects. Five functional polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-based assays: BDNF-Val66Met (rs6265, COMT-Val158Met (rs4680, SLC6A4-HTTLPR (rs4795541, MAOA-uVNTR, and SLC6A3-VNTR (rs28363170. Result. We did not find significant associations with scores of depressive symptoms, derived from the HADS, for any of the five candidate genes (nominal p values >0.05. In addition, we did not find evidence of significant gene-gene interactions. Conclusion. This work is one of the first studies of candidate genes for depressive symptoms in a Latin American sample. Study of additional genetic and epigenetic variants, taking into account other pathophysiological theories, will help to identify novel candidates for MDD in populations around the world.

  19. Professional Identities of Vocational High School Students and Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Bilge Aslan; Altintas, Havva Ozge

    2017-01-01

    Vocational high schools are one of the controversial topics, and also the hardly touched fields in educational field. Students' profiles of vocational schools, their visions, and professional identity developments are not frequently reflected in the literature. Therefore, the main aim of the study is to research whether vocational high school…

  20. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimoto, Takeshi E-mail: iimoto@rcnst.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2004-09-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1}(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 deg. C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  1. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2005-01-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m(-3))(-1)(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 degrees C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  2. Application of Mathematical Modeling Activities in Costarican High School Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Porras-Lizano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experience gained in implementing mathematical modeling activities as a methodological strategy in teaching issues such as proportions, with a group of eighth year of an academic-day-school, located in the province of San Jose, Costa Rica in 2012. Different techniques for gathering information were applied, such as participant observation and questionnaires. Among the relevant results are the cyclical development of mathematical thinking of students in the stages of mathematical modeling (description, manipulation, prediction and validation for solving the problem; developing of teamwork skills; and appreciation of mathematics as a useful and effective discipline. To resolve the activities proposed in this study, social interactions such as sharing information, thoughts and ideas, were generated, stimulating the zone of proximal development of the participating students. Likewise, the mathematical modeling activities allowed students to have a positive role in mathematics classes, stimulating, in turn, a different attitude compared to regular classes.

  3. Raman active high energy excitations in URu2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhot, Jonathan; Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain; Piekarz, Przemysław; Lapertot, Gérard; Aoki, Dai; Méasson, Marie-Aude

    2017-02-01

    We have performed Raman scattering measurements on URu2Si2 single crystals on a large energy range up to ∼1300 cm-1 and in all the Raman active symmetries as a function of temperature down to 15 K. A large excitation, active only in the Eg symmetry, is reported. It has been assigned to a crystal electric field excitation on the Uranium site. We discuss how this constrains the crystal electric field scheme of the Uranium ions. Furthermore, three excitations in the A1g symmetry are observed. They have been associated to double Raman phonon processes consistently with ab initio calculations of the phonons dispersion.

  4. High Resolution Processing with an Active Phased Array SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenboer, F.J.; Otten, M.P.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch PHARUS system is a polarimetric active phased array SAR capable of performing advanced SAR modes. Advanced SAR modes that are being investigated are: spotlight SAR, sliding spotlight SAR, stepped frequency SAR and interferometric SAR. The flight experiments and automatic beam steering

  5. Active Snubber Circuit for High Power Inverter Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Johansen, Morten Holst

    2009-01-01

    circuits have been introduced to reduce the loss even though some of the loss is removed from the IGBT to the snubber resistance. This paper takes also the next step to introduce the active Undeland snubber which in principle is lossless. The paper describes this solution together with some simulations...

  6. Active Snubber Circuit for High Power Inverter Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Johansen, Morten Holst

    2009-01-01

    circuits have been introduced to reduce the loss even though some of the loss is removed from the IGBT to the snubber resistance. This paper takes also the next step to introduce the active Undeland snubber which in principle is lossless. The paper describes this solution together with some simulations...

  7. Easy and Rapid Purification of Highly Active Nisin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abts, André; Mavaro, Antonino; Stindt, Jan; Bakkes, Patrick J.; Metzger, Sabine; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Smits, Sander H.J.; Schmitt, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced and secreted by several L. lactis strains and is specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria. In previous studies, nisin was purified via cation exchange chromatography at low pH employing a single-step elution using 1M NaCl. Here, we describe an opt

  8. Physical activity in physiotherapy and physical education high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A term of health-related physical fitness became topical with four its components: aerobic and/or cardiovascular fitness, body composition, abdominal muscle strength and endurance, and lower back and hamstring flexibility. Complex evaluation of health-related physical fitness and physical activity (PA may show a wider insight in health promotion and disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical activity relation to health-related physical fitness in Physiotherapy (PT and Physical Education (PE students. Final study sample consisted of 67 students (46 women and 21 men (aged 21.61 ± 0.71. All participants filled in International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Health-related physical testing included: 1 body composition evaluation, 2 abdominal muscles strength tests, 3 dynamometry, 4 hamstring muscles and m. quadratus lumborum elasticity evaluation tests, 5 bicycle ergometer test (anaerobic threshold, maximal oxygen consumption. Results showed that most students had normal body composition parameters (BMI, body fat, muscle mass, body water in both genders and study programs. Women were less physically active that men, and PA duration was higher in PE students. PT students had higher body composition values, lower cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and lower handgrip strength in both hands than PE students. Greater PA generally implies a higher level of health-related physical fitness. PA significantly positively affects body composition, upper m. rectus abdominisstrength, grip strength and aerobic capacity.

  9. Easy and Rapid Purification of Highly Active Nisin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abts, André; Mavaro, Antonino; Stindt, Jan; Bakkes, Patrick J.; Metzger, Sabine; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Smits, Sander H.J.; Schmitt, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced and secreted by several L. lactis strains and is specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria. In previous studies, nisin was purified via cation exchange chromatography at low pH employing a single-step elution using 1M NaCl. Here, we describe an

  10. Novel, high-activity hydroprocessing catalysts: Iron group phosphides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianqin

    A series of iron, cobalt and nickel transition metal phosphides was synthesized by means of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) of the corresponding phosphates. The same materials, Fe2P, CoP and NO, were also prepared on a silica (SiO2) support. The phase purity of these catalysts was established by x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the surface properties were determined by N2 BET specific surface area (Sg) measurements and CO chemisorption. The activities of the silica-supported catalysts were tested in a three-phase trickle bed reactor for the simultaneous hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of quinoline and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene using a model liquid feed at realistic conditions (30 atm, 370°C). The reactivity studies showed that the nickel phosphide (Ni2P/SiO2) was the most active of the catalysts. Compared with a commercial Ni-Mo-S/gamma-Al 2O3 catalyst at the same conditions, Ni2P/silica had a substantially higher HDS activity (100% vs. 76%) and HDN activity (82% vs. 38%). Because of their good hydrotreating activity, an extensive study of the preparation of silica supported nickel phosphides, Ni2P/SiO 2, was carried out. The parameters investigated were the phosphorus content and the weight loading of the active phase. The most active composition was found to have a starting synthesis Ni/P ratio close to 1/2, and the best loading of this sample on silica was observed to be 18 wt.%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements were employed to determine the structures of the supported samples. The main phase before and after reaction was found to be Ni2P, but some sulfur was found to be retained after reaction. A comprehensive scrutiny of the HDN reaction mechanism was also made over the Ni2P/SiO2 sample (Ni/P = 1/2) by comparing the HDN activity of a series of piperidine derivatives of different structure. It was found that piperidine adsorption involved an alpha-H activation

  11. Synthesis of a high specific activity methyl sulfone tritium isotopologue of fevipiprant (NVP-QAW039).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Van T; Goujon, Jean-Yves; Meisterhans, Christian; Frommherz, Matthias; Bauer, Carsten

    2015-05-15

    The synthesis of a triple tritiated isotopologue of the CRTh2 antagonist NVP-QAW039 (fevipiprant) with a specific activity >3 TBq/mmol is described. Key to the high specific activity is the methylation of a bench-stable dimeric disulfide precursor that is in situ reduced to the corresponding thiol monomer and methylated with [(3)H3]MeONos having per se a high specific activity. The high specific activity of the tritiated active pharmaceutical ingredient obtained by a build-up approach is discussed in the light of the specific activity usually to be expected if hydrogen tritium exchange methods were applied.

  12. Development and Application of Plasma Actuators for Active Control of High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammy, Mo

    2010-01-01

    Active flow control is often used to manipulate flow instabilities to achieve a desired goal (e.g. prevent separation, enhance mixing, reduce noise, etc.). Instability frequencies normally scale with flow velocity scale and inversely with flow length scale (U/l). In a laboratory setting for such flow experiments, U is high, but l is low, resulting in high instability frequency. In addition, high momentum and high background noise & turbulence in the flow necessitate high amplitude actuation. Developing a high amplitude and high frequency actuator is a major challenge. Ironically, these requirements ease up in application (but other issues arise).

  13. Shyness, Physical Activity, and Sports Team Participation among Philippine High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationship between shyness and physical activity among Philippine high schoolers. Found that Philippine students reported less physical activity than U.S. students on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Highly shy Filipino students participated in vigorous physical activity significantly less often than those with average or low shyness and…

  14. Trabectedin has promising antineoplastic activity in high-grade meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusser, Matthias; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Lötsch, Daniela; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Schmook, Maria; Dieckmann, Karin; Saringer, Walter; Marosi, Christine; Berger, Walter

    2012-10-15

    Meningiomas are common intracranial tumors arising from the meninges and usually are benign. However, a few meningiomas have aggressive behavior and, for such patients, effective treatment options are needed. Trabectedin is a novel, marine-derived, antineoplastic agent that has been approved and is used routinely as therapy for advanced soft tissue sarcoma and ovarian cancer. The authors investigated the in vitro effects of trabectedin alone and in combination with hydroxyurea, cisplatin, and doxorubicin in primary cell cultures of benign (n = 9), atypical (n = 6), and anaplastic (n = 4) meningiomas using chemosensitivity assays (3-[4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide [MTT]), Western blot analysis, cell cycle analysis, and immunofluorescent staining. Strong antimeningioma activity of trabectedin was observed and was characterized by distinct cell cycle arrest, down-regulation of multiple cyclins, deregulated expression of cell death-regulatory genes, and massive apoptosis induction. Cytotoxic activity was especially intense in higher grade meningiomas with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration <10 nM. Combination with trabectedin synergistically enhanced the antimeningioma activity of hydroxyurea but also enhanced the activity of doxorubicin and cisplatin. On the basis of these findings, trabectedin was given to 1 patient who had heavily pretreated, anaplastic meningioma, and a favorable response was observed with radiologic disease stabilization, marked reductions in brain edema and requirement for corticosteroids, and improvement of clinical symptoms. However, treatment had to be discontinued after 5 cycles because of adverse drug effects. The current results indicated that trabectedin may represent a promising new therapeutic option for patients with aggressive meningioma and should be evaluated in prospective clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  15. A High-Speed Active Switch Routing Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, combining with active networks, we design a new kind of programmable routing switch architecture to provide a common intelligent switch platform for multi-protocol switching and multi-service accessing. We elaborate how programmable switch and network intelligence are achieved, and how packets are classified, queued and scheduled. We point out that edge intelligence and network software are the tendency for the development of future networks.

  16. Unique Gold Nanoparticle Aggregates as a Highly Active SERS Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzberg, A M; Grant, C D; Wolcott, A; Talley, C E; Huser, T R; Bogomolni, R; Zhang, J Z

    2004-04-06

    A unique gold nanoparticle aggregate (GNA) system has been shown to be an excellent substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Rhodamine 6G (R6G), a common molecule used for testing SERS activity on silver, but generally difficult to detect on gold substrates, has been found to readily bind to the GNA and exhibit strong SERS activity due to the unique surface chemistry afforded by sulfur species on the surface. This GNA system has yielded a large SERS enhancement of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} in bulk solution for R6G, on par with or greater than any previously reported gold SERS substrate. SERS activity has also been successfully demonstrated for several biological molecules including adenine, L-cysteine, L-lysine, and L-histidine for the first time on a gold SERS substrate, showing the potential of this GNA as a convenient and powerful SERS substrate for biomolecular detection. In addition, SERS spectrum of R6G on single aggregates has been measured. We have shown that the special surface properties of the GNA, in conjunction with strong near IR absorption, make it useful for SERS analysis of a wide variety of molecules.

  17. Selective disruption of high sensitivity heat activation but not capsaicin activation of TRPV1 channels by pore turret mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Cao, Xu; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Wang, KeWei; Zheng, Jie

    2012-04-01

    The capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 is a highly heat-sensitive ion channel. Although chemical activation and heat activation of TRPV1 elicit similar pungent, painful sensation, the molecular mechanism underlying synergistic activation remains mysterious. In particular, where the temperature sensor is located and whether heat and capsaicin share a common activation pathway are debated. To address these fundamental issues, we searched for channel mutations that selectively affected one form of activation. We found that deletion of the first 10 amino acids of the pore turret significantly reduced the heat response amplitude and shifted the heat activation threshold, whereas capsaicin activation remained unchanged. Removing larger portions of the turret disrupted channel function. Introducing an artificial sequence to replace the deleted region restored sensitive capsaicin activation in these nonfunctional channels. The heat activation, however, remained significantly impaired, with the current exhibiting diminishing heat sensitivity to a level indistinguishable from that of a voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv7.4. Our results demonstrate that heat and capsaicin activation of TRPV1 are structurally and mechanistically distinct processes, and the pore turret is an indispensible channel structure involved in the heat activation process but is not part of the capsaicin activation pathway. Synergistic effect of heat and capsaicin on TRPV1 activation may originate from convergence of the two pathways on a common activation gate.

  18. Application of the IEAF-2001 activation data library to activation analyses of the IFMIF high flux test module

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, U; Leichtle, D; Simakov, S P; Moellendorff, U V; Konobeev, A; Korovin, Y; Pereslavtsev, P; Schmuck, I

    2002-01-01

    A complete activation data library IEAF-2001 (intermediate energy activation file) has been developed in standard ENDF-6 format with neutron-induced activation cross sections for 679 target nuclides from Z=1 (hydrogen) to Z=84 (polonium) and incident neutron energies up to 150 MeV. Using the NJOY processing code, an IEAF-2001 working library has been prepared in a 256 energy group structure for enabling activation analyses of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) D-Li neutron source. This library was applied to the activation analysis of the IFMIF high flux test module using the recent Analytical and Laplacian Adaptive Radioactivity Analysis activation code which is capable of handling the variety of reaction channels open in the energy domain above 20 MeV. The IEAF-2001 activation library was thus shown to be suitable for activation analyses in fusion technology and intermediate energy applications such as the IFMIF D-Li neutron source.

  19. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R. (eds.) (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  20. Student Activism in the High Schools of New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, Bernard F.; Langworthy, Philip B.

    The purpose of nine regional meetings between New York State Education Department personnel, educators and students from selected secondary school districts was to obtain information about unrest and the changing expectations of high school students. The following conclusions were made: (1) rising expectations of students are part of the "times,"…

  1. High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device recordings of spontaneous brain activity: Towards high-Tc magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öisjöen, F.; Schneiderman, J. F.; Figueras, G. A.; Chukharkin, M. L.; Kalabukhov, A.; Hedström, A.; Elam, M.; Winkler, D.

    2012-03-01

    We have performed single- and two-channel high transition temperature (high-Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of spontaneous brain activity in two healthy human subjects. We demonstrate modulation of two well-known brain rhythms: the occipital alpha rhythm and the mu rhythm found in the motor cortex. We further show that despite higher noise-levels compared to their low-Tc counterparts, high-Tc SQUIDs can be used to detect and record physiologically relevant brain rhythms with comparable signal-to-noise ratios. These results indicate the utility of high-Tc technology in MEG recordings of a broader range of brain activity.

  2. Highly sensitive index of sympathetic activity based on time-frequency spectral analysis of electrodermal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Florian, John P; Orjuela-Cañón, Álvaro D; Chon, Ki H

    2016-09-01

    Time-domain indices of electrodermal activity (EDA) have been used as a marker of sympathetic tone. However, they often show high variation between subjects and low consistency, which has precluded their general use as a marker of sympathetic tone. To examine whether power spectral density analysis of EDA can provide more consistent results, we recently performed a variety of sympathetic tone-evoking experiments (43). We found significant increase in the spectral power in the frequency range of 0.045 to 0.25 Hz when sympathetic tone-evoking stimuli were induced. The sympathetic tone assessed by the power spectral density of EDA was found to have lower variation and more sensitivity for certain, but not all, stimuli compared with the time-domain analysis of EDA. We surmise that this lack of sensitivity in certain sympathetic tone-inducing conditions with time-invariant spectral analysis of EDA may lie in its inability to characterize time-varying dynamics of the sympathetic tone. To overcome the disadvantages of time-domain and time-invariant power spectral indices of EDA, we developed a highly sensitive index of sympathetic tone, based on time-frequency analysis of EDA signals. Its efficacy was tested using experiments designed to elicit sympathetic dynamics. Twelve subjects underwent four tests known to elicit sympathetic tone arousal: cold pressor, tilt table, stand test, and the Stroop task. We hypothesize that a more sensitive measure of sympathetic control can be developed using time-varying spectral analysis. Variable frequency complex demodulation, a recently developed technique for time-frequency analysis, was used to obtain spectral amplitudes associated with EDA. We found that the time-varying spectral frequency band 0.08-0.24 Hz was most responsive to stimulation. Spectral power for frequencies higher than 0.24 Hz were determined to be not related to the sympathetic dynamics because they comprised less than 5% of the total power. The mean value of time

  3. Acetylcholine-releasing effect of primycin, a highly active antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám-Vizi, V; Horváth, I; Vizi, E S

    1980-01-01

    The effect of primycin, an antibiotic known to inhibit potassium conductance, was studied on acetylcholine (ACh) release from the nerve terminals of the Auerbach plexus and cortical slice of the rat. Primycin enhanced the resting release of ACh; however, it failed to affect the amount of ACh released by a single shock. It has no effect on Na+K+-activated ATPase. Its effect on Ach release was prevented by tetrodotoxin and by Ca removal. It is concluded that its effect on potassium conductance might account for its ACh-releasing effect: it produces depolarization and spontaneous firing.

  4. Efficacy of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis patients with high disease activity: a Danish nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, A.B.; Koch-Henriksen, N.; Petersen, T.;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of natalizumab (Tysabri) in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have included patients with moderate disease activity. We studied a patient population with high disease activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 234 consecutive, natalizumab-treated...

  5. Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.

    1992-11-30

    Efforts to synthesize bimetallic cluster-derived Rh-Mo catalysts for CO and CO[sub 2] hydrogenation to preferentially produce oxygenates. The rhodium-molybdenum cluster, (PPh[sub 3])[sub 2]RhMO(CO)([mu]-CO)[sub 2]Cp, was employed as a precursor to alumina- and silica-supported catalysts which were in CO hydrogenation. When compared to catalysts made from the distinct organometallic complexes, RhH(CO)(PPh[sub 3])[sub 3] and [MO(CO)[sub 3]Cp][sub 2], the catalysts derived from a binuclear precursor show higher activities for CO hydrogenation and superior selectivities towards oxygenates, namely, methanol, dimethyl ether and ethanol. Their product distributions depend on the support. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate that CO chemisorbs on cluster-derived catalysts as gem-dicarbonyls while it is chemisorbed only in the linear-carbonyl configuration on catalysts made from separate rhodium and molybdenum complexes. The particular oxygenate selectivity of the cluster-derived catalysts may be correlated to the strong electronic interaction between Rh and Mo. Carbon dioxide hydrogenation has also been carried out on the catalysts mentioned above. Again, the cluster-derived catalysts show higher oxygenate selectivities. Finally, the catalysts were studied with regard to both CO and CO[sub 2] hydrogenation kinetics, apparent activation energies inferred.

  6. High-throughput design of low-activation, high-strength creep-resistant steels for nuclear-reactor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Xu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels are prime candidate materials for structural applications in nuclear power reactors. However, their creep strength is much lower than that of creep-resistant steel developed for conventional fossil-fired power plants as alloying elements with a high neutron activation cannot be used. To improve the creep strength and to maintain a low activation, a high-throughput computational alloy design model coupling thermodynamics, precipitate-coarsening kinetics and an optimization genetic algorithm, is developed. Twelve relevant alloying elements with either low or high activation are considered simultaneously. The activity levels at 0-10 year after the end of irradiation are taken as optimization parameter. The creep-strength values (after exposure for 10 years at 650 °C) are estimated on the basis of the solid-solution strengthening and the precipitation hardening (taking into account precipitate coarsening). Potential alloy compositions leading to a high austenite fraction or a high percentage of undesirable second phase particles are rejected automatically in the optimization cycle. The newly identified alloys have a much higher precipitation hardening and solid-solution strengthening at the same activity level as existing reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels.

  7. High-throughput design of low-activation, high-strength creep-resistant steels for nuclear-reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Qi; Zwaag, Sybrand van der [Novel Aerospace Materials Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Xu, Wei, E-mail: xuwei@ral.neu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, 110819, Shenyang (China); Novel Aerospace Materials Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels are prime candidate materials for structural applications in nuclear power reactors. However, their creep strength is much lower than that of creep-resistant steel developed for conventional fossil-fired power plants as alloying elements with a high neutron activation cannot be used. To improve the creep strength and to maintain a low activation, a high-throughput computational alloy design model coupling thermodynamics, precipitate-coarsening kinetics and an optimization genetic algorithm, is developed. Twelve relevant alloying elements with either low or high activation are considered simultaneously. The activity levels at 0–10 year after the end of irradiation are taken as optimization parameter. The creep-strength values (after exposure for 10 years at 650 °C) are estimated on the basis of the solid-solution strengthening and the precipitation hardening (taking into account precipitate coarsening). Potential alloy compositions leading to a high austenite fraction or a high percentage of undesirable second phase particles are rejected automatically in the optimization cycle. The newly identified alloys have a much higher precipitation hardening and solid-solution strengthening at the same activity level as existing reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels.

  8. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of some very Active Southern Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, David R.; King, Jeremy R.; Henry, Todd J.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution echelle spectra of 18 solar-type stars that an earlier survey showed to have very high levels of Ca II H and K emission. Most of these stars belong to close binary systems, but five remain as probable single stars or well-separated binaries that are younger than the Pleiades on the basis of their lithium abundances and H.alpha emission. Three of these probable single stars also lie more than 1 mag above the main sequence in a color-magnitude diagram, and appear to have ages of 10 to 15 Myr. Two of them, HD 202917 and HD 222259, also appear to have a kinematic association with the pre-main-sequence multiple system HD 98800.

  9. High-resolution eye tracking using V1 neuron activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, James M.; Bondy, Adrian G.; Cumming, Bruce G.; Butts, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of high-acuity visual cortical processing have been limited by the inability to track eye position with sufficient accuracy to precisely reconstruct the visual stimulus on the retina. As a result, studies on primary visual cortex (V1) have been performed almost entirely on neurons outside the high-resolution central portion of the visual field (the fovea). Here we describe a procedure for inferring eye position using multi-electrode array recordings from V1 coupled with nonlinear stimulus processing models. We show that this method can be used to infer eye position with one arc-minute accuracy – significantly better than conventional techniques. This allows for analysis of foveal stimulus processing, and provides a means to correct for eye-movement induced biases present even outside the fovea. This method could thus reveal critical insights into the role of eye movements in cortical coding, as well as their contribution to measures of cortical variability. PMID:25197783

  10. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is a marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kofoed, Kristian;

    2008-01-01

    Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflects the immune and pro-inflammatory status of the HIV-infected patient. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses suPAR. Independent of the immune response to HAART, suPAR remains elevated in some HIV-infected...

  11. Effect of low temperature on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Su; Ding, Li-Li; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jin-Ju; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature is a limiting factor for the microbial activity of activated sludge for sewage treatment plant in winter. Highly unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) constituents and microbial structure in activated sludge at low temperature were investigated. Over 12 gigabases of metagenomic sequence data were generated with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The result showed 43.11% of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in the activated sludge participated in UFA biosynthesis, and γ-Linolenic could be converted to Arachidonic acid at low temperature. The highly UFA biosynthesis in activated sludge was n-6 highly UFA biosynthesis, rather than n-3 highly UFA biosynthesis. The microbial community structures of activated sludge were analyzed by PLFA and high-throughput sequencing (HiSeq) simultaneously. Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Polaromonas occupied higher percentage at 5°C, and genetic changes of highly UFA biosynthesis derived from microbial community structures change.

  12. High Accuracy Human Activity Monitoring using Neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Annapurna; Chung, Wan-Young

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the designing of a neural network for the classification of Human activity. A Triaxial accelerometer sensor, housed in a chest worn sensor unit, has been used for capturing the acceleration of the movements associated. All the three axis acceleration data were collected at a base station PC via a CC2420 2.4GHz ISM band radio (zigbee wireless compliant), processed and classified using MATLAB. A neural network approach for classification was used with an eye on theoretical and empirical facts. The work shows a detailed description of the designing steps for the classification of human body acceleration data. A 4-layer back propagation neural network, with Levenberg-marquardt algorithm for training, showed best performance among the other neural network training algorithms.

  13. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

  14. High antimicrobial activity of VLC isolated fractions from Bifurcaria bifurcata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Horta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases continue to be a major public health problem and consequently there is perpetual need for new drugs. In this current study, the antimicrobial potential of isolated fractions from Bifurcaria bifurcata collected in Peniche coast was evaluated. Nine fractions of Bifurcaria bifurcata dichloromethane extracts were produced by Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC using cyclohexane with increasing amounts of 10% of ethyl acetate. All of the VLC fractions were tested against four microorganisms, namely Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 12600, Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633. Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Amphotericin B was used as positive control. In antimicrobial assays, the F4 fraction showed the best result with IC50 38.28 µg/ml (20.18-72.60 against B. subtilis growth. In same microorganism, the fractions F2 (IC50:183.1 µg/ml (110.5-305.6, F3 (IC50: 71.56 µg/ml (48.10-106.4 and F5 ((IC50: 95.23 µg/ml (60.02-151.1 also inhibited the B. subtilis growth. The fractions F3 (IC50: 184.3 µg/ml (94.82-358.1, F4 (IC50: 113.5 µg/ml (67.76-190.0 and F5 (IC50: 439.6 µg/ml (249.4-774.8 exhibited the highest activity against S. aureus. The fractions F3 and F4 inhibited the C. albicans growth with IC50 of 285.2 µg/ml (146.1-557.1 and 133.6 µg/ml (66.73-267.5, respectively. By contrast, all fractions need more than 1mg/ml to inhibit 50% of E. coli growth. In conclusion, the Bifurcaria bifurcata fractions, collected in Peniche, can be used as source of molecules with a great antimicrobial activity.

  15. Performance of alkaline activated slag at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía de Gutiérrez, R.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the performance of alkali-activated slag (AAS mortar exposed to elevated temperatures. Sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide and a mix (waterglass with a modulus (SiO2/Na20 of 1.5 were used as activators. The specimens were heated in an electric furnace up to 1000 ºC in steps of 200 ºC for a constant period of 2 hours. The weight loss, residual compressive strength, resistance to chloride ion penetration, porosity and capillary sorption were evaluated and the results were compared with those of ordinary and blended Portland cement mortar

    En el presente traba jo se estudió el comportamiento frente a ¡a temperatura de morteros producidos a partir de escorias siderúrgicas activadas alcalinamente (EAA, utilizando diferentes activantes tales como silicato sódico, hidróxido de sodio y sus correspondientes mezclas. Cada espécimen se expuso por dos horas a temperaturas hasta de 1.000 ºC, en intervalos de 200 °C y en cada caso se determinaron los cambios de color peso, resistencia mecánica y durabilidad. Esta última propiedad se evaluó determinando las modificaciones de porosidad y permeabilidad a cloruros. Los resultados se comparan con los obtenidos en morteros de cemento Portland con y sin adición, específicamente con aquéllos que incorporan humo de sílice.

  16. Innovative activity of high-technology companies as assessment and forecasting object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sklyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation activities, as well as innovations, are closely related meanings, and like many others economical definitions, have a broad range of meanings. Main characteristics and attributes of innovation involves new or significantly improved product, that’s being used, or in other words, found its application, and innovative activitiesactivities focused on realization of innovations. In this article, innovations are mainly considered in terms of high-technology production, evidence from Russian space industry. There are 5 basic stages of lifecycle of innovative project in considered industry: initiation, development, realization, expansion, consumption. Practically, third or fourth, or even both of these stages, often missing because there is no need of them. R&D activities, or even further serial production, based on previous developments, is an innovation activity, because these activities are stages of innovative projects lifecycle itself. Then it seems legit, to draw a conclusion, that in terms of high-technology production, company’s primary activity equals innovative activity. Basic characteristics of innovative activity of high-technology companies as assessment and forecasting object involves high level of uncertainty at every stage of projects lifecycle, high dependency on funding level of this activity, and high level and erratic structure of risk. All the above mentioned, means that assessment and forecasting of innovative activity of high-technology companies, needs development of its own methodological tools for each industry.

  17. High temperature sensor/microphone development for active noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrout, Thomas R.

    1993-01-01

    The industrial and scientific communities have shown genuine interest in electronic systems which can operate at high temperatures, among which are sensors to monitor noise, vibration, and acoustic emissions. Acoustic sensing can be accomplished by a wide variety of commercially available devices, including: simple piezoelectric sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges, proximity sensors, and fiber optics. Of the several sensing mechanisms investigated, piezoelectrics were found to be the most prevalent, because of their simplicity of design and application and, because of their high sensitivity over broad ranges of frequencies and temperature. Numerous piezoelectric materials are used in acoustic sensors today; but maximum use temperatures are imposed by their transition temperatures (T(sub c)) and by their resistivity. Lithium niobate, in single crystal form, has the highest operating temperature of any commercially available material, 650 C; but that is not high enough for future requirements. Only two piezoelectric materials show potential for use at 1000 C; AlN thin film reported to be piezoactive at 1150 C, and perovskite layer structure (PLS) materials, which possess among the highest T(sub c) (greater than 1500 C) reported for ferroelectrics. A ceramic PLS composition was chosen. The solid solution composition, 80% strontium niobate (SN) and 20% strontium tantalate (STa), with a T(sub c) approximately 1160 C, was hot forged, a process which concurrently sinters and renders the plate-like grains into a highly oriented configuration to enhance piezo properties. Poled samples of this composition showed coupling (k33) approximately 6 and piezoelectric strain constant (d33) approximately 3. Piezoactivity was seen at 1125 C, the highest temperature measurement reported for a ferroelectric ceramic. The high temperature piezoelectric responses of this, and similar PLS materials, opens the possibility of their use in electronic devices operating at temperatures up to

  18. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U.; Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K.; Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli ( E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O2) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H2O2 dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H2O2 addition with O2 injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH•, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O2 injected and H2O2 added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  19. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U.; Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K.; Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O2) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H2O2 dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H2O2 addition with O2 injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH•, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O2 injected and H2O2 added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  20. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U. [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K. [Jeju National University, Faculty of Biotechnology (Korea, Republic of); Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J., E-mail: hjlee@jejunu.ac.kr [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O{sub 2}) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition with O{sub 2} injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH{sup •}, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O{sub 2} injected and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  1. Low activity of superoxide dismutase and high activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes from centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Jeune, B; Nybo, H

    1998-01-01

    aged between 60 and 79 years. MEASUREMENTS: enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase (GR) in erythrocytes. Functional capacity among the centenarians was evaluated by Katz' index of activities of daily living, the Physical...

  2. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  3. The sequence of learning cycle activities in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michael R.; Renner, John W.

    The sequence of the three phases of two high school learning cycles in chemistry was altered in order to: (I ) give insights into the factors which account for the success of the learning cycle, (2) serve as an indirect test of the association between Piaget's theory and the learning cycle, and (3) to compare the learning cycle with traditional instruction. Each of the six sequences (one n o d and five altered) was studied with content and atritudc measures. The outcomes of the study supported the contention that the normal learning cycle sequence is the optimum sequence for achievement of content knowledge.

  4. High Telomerase Activity Correlates with the Stabilities of Genome and DNA Ploidy in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Izumi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors have telomerase activity, which is thought to play a critical role in tumor growth. However, the relation between telomerase activity and genomic DNA status in tumor cells is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined telomerase activity in 13 clear cell type renal cell carcinomas (CRCCs with similar clinicopathologic features by telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay (TRAP. Based on TRAP assay results, we divided the CRCCs into two groups: a high telomerase activity group and a low/no telomerase activity group. We then analyzed genomic aberration, DNA ploidy, and telomere status in these two groups by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, laser scanning cytometry (LSC, and telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (T-FISH, respectively. CGH showed the high telomerase activity group to have fewer genomic changes than the low/no telomerase activity group, which had many genomic aberrations. Moreover, with LSC, DNA diploid cells were found more frequently in the high telomerase activity group than in the low/no telomerase activity group. In addition, T-FISH revealed strong telomere signal intensity in the high telomerase activity group compared with that of the low/no telomerase activity group. These results suggest that telomerase activity is linked to genomic DNA status and that high telomerase activity is associated with genomic stability, DNA ploidy, and telomere length in CRCC.

  5. Highly active catalyst for vinyl acetate synthesis by modified activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Yan Hou; Liang Rong Feng; Fa Li Qiu

    2009-01-01

    A new zinc acetate catalyst which was prepared from modified activated carbon exhibited extreme activity towards the synthesis of vinyl acetate. The activated carbon was modified by nitric acid, vitriol and peroxyacetic acid (PAA). The effect on specific area, structure, pH and surface acidity groups of carriers by modification was discussed. Amount of carbonyl and carboxyl groups in activated carbon was increased by peroxyacetic acid treatment. The productivity of the new catalyst was 14.58% higher than that of catalyst prepared using untreated activated carbon. The relationship between amount of carbonyl and carboxyl groups (m) and catalyst productivity (P) was P = 1.83 + 2.26 x 10-3e3.17m. Reaction mechanism was proposed.

  6. Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides on immune and antioxidant activities in high-fat mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Kai; Wu, Hua-Tao; Ma, Tao; Liu, Wei-Juan; He, Xue-Jun

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immune and antioxidant activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides (GGP) in rats fed high-fat diet. The experiment was performed on four groups of growing Kunming mice. The results of the experiment showed a statistically significant decrease in serum antioxidant enzyme activities in high-fat group. Administration of GGP dose-dependently significantly enhanced immune and antioxidant enzyme activities in the GGP-treated mice compared to the high-fat model mice. It is concluded that GGP treatment can enhance immune activities, and reduce oxidative stress in high-fat mice.

  7. Early High Tc Activity in Japan: The Franco Rasetti Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2007-03-01

    From 1960 to 1980, R&D of superconductivity in Japan was carried out mainly to improve A15 superconducting wires and magnets. Improvement of wires were made mainly in the National Institute for Metals, and improvements of superconducting magnets were made in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for future nuclear fusion reactors, the National Railway Laboratory for future maglev trains and also in the Electo-Technical Laboratory for MHD generators. I began the research of BPBO in 1975 and at that time the research of oxide superconductors was limited only to my laboratory in the University of Tokyo. During the study of this new superconductor, we learned quite a lot on how to make ceramic samples, how to measure electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures. In 1982, Prof. S. Nakajima organized a rather small group for investigating ``New Superconducting Phenomena,'' and I became a member of the group. In 1985, Nakajima expanded the research group to include more than 5 experimentalists and 5 theoreticians. The title of the research was ``New Superconducting Materials'' and the funds came from the Ministry of Education of Japan. In late October, 1986, we followed the first paper of Bednorz and Muller, and immediately found the material includes high temperature superconductor and reported it to the group meeting held in early November. In early December, we confirmed La2-xBaxCuO4 is the real high temperature superconductor, the critical temperature is 28K. I sent a copy of our paper to Prof. Beasley of California and asked to inform this fact to his colleagues. Asahi Shimbun, the biggest newspaper in Japan announced this in its science section, and then many people knew the high temperature superconductor had been discovered. Then many physicists and chemists rushed to this field very quickly and many kinds of materials were synthesized. In the Government, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry

  8. Réformer la médecine par la littérature : l’éducation des médecins dans la politique positive d’Auguste Comte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Dupin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En définissant la santé humaine à partir de l’idée « d’hygiène cérébrale », Comte cherche à penser l’unité profonde de la littérature et de la médecine comme l’expression d’une même vie, celle de l’humanité. Le positivisme propose ainsi une synthèse « politique » de la médecine qui, en s’opposant au scientisme naissant, associe dans une même pratique le soin et la pédagogie, la connaissance biologique et la critique littéraire. Par là se dessine une conception nouvelle de la place du médecin dans l’ordre social : médiateur entre l’âme et le corps, il lui revient également, suivant Comte, de concilier les forces historiques antagonistes de l’ordre et du progrès.When Comte defines human health as “cerebral hygiene”, he tries to think the profound unity of medicine and litterature as the expression of the same and superior life : that of humanity itself. Positivism draws therefore a “political” synthesis of medicine, which, as it opposes to a rising scientism, bounds together care and pedagogy, biogical knowledge and critic’s skills. Thus appears a new conception of the the social place reserved to medicine : arbitrators of the conflict between body and mind, doctors have as well, in Comte’s system, to reconcile order and progress as antagonist historical forces.

  9. Highly bacterial resistant silver nanoparticles: synthesis and antibacterial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra, E-mail: bnchudasama@gmail.co [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science (India); Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Mehta, R. V. [Bhavnagar University, Department of Physics (India); Upadhyay, R. V. [Charotar University of Science and Technology, P.D. Patel Institute of Applied Sciences (India)

    2010-06-15

    In this article, we describe a simple one-pot rapid synthesis route to produce uniform silver nanoparticles by thermal reduction of AgNO{sub 3} using oleylamine as reducing and capping agent. To enhance the dispersal ability of as-synthesized hydrophobic silver nanoparticles in water, while maintaining their unique properties, a facile phase transfer mechanism has been developed using biocompatible block co-polymer pluronic F-127. Formation of silver nanoparticles is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Hydrodynamic size and its distribution are obtained from dynamic light scattering (DLS). Hydrodynamic size and size distribution of as-synthesized and phase transferred silver nanoparticles are 8.2 {+-} 1.5 nm ({sigma} = 18.3%) and 31.1 {+-} 4.5 nm ({sigma} = 14.5%), respectively. Antimicrobial activities of hydrophilic silver nanoparticles is tested against two Gram positive (Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus), and three Gram negative (Escherichiacoli, Proteusvulgaris and Shigellasonnei) bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values obtained in the present study for the tested microorganisms are found much better than those reported for commercially available antibacterial agents.

  10. High-resolution molecular line observations of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Burillo, S; Usero, A; Gracia-Carpio, J

    2008-01-01

    The study of the content, distribution and kinematics of interstellar gas is a key to understand the origin and maintenance of both starburst and nuclear (AGN) activity in galaxies. The processes involved in AGN fueling encompass a wide range of scales, both spatial and temporal, which have to be studied. Probing the gas flow from the outer disk down to the central engine of an AGN host, requires the use of specific tracers of the interstellar medium adapted to follow the change of phase of the gas as a function of radius. Current mm-interferometers can provide a sharp view of the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in the circumnuclear disks of galaxies through extensive CO line mapping. As such, CO maps are an essential tool to study AGN feeding mechanisms in the local universe. This is the scientific driver of the NUclei of GAlaxies (NUGA) survey, whose latest results are here reviewed. On the other hand, the use of specific molecular tracers of the dense gas phase can probe the feedback influence...

  11. Toward high-dynamic active mirrors for LGS refocusing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Madec, Fabrice; Vives, Sébastien; Ferrari, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Cuby, Jean Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    In the frame of the E-ELT-EAGLE instrument phase A studies, we designed a convex VCM able to compensate for the focus variation on the Laser Guide Star (LGS) wavefront sensor, due to the elevation of the telescope and the fixed sodium layer altitude. We present an original optical design including this active convex mirror, providing a large sag variation on a spherical surface with a 120mm clear aperture, with an optical quality better than lambda/5 RMS up to 820μm of sag and better than lambda/4 RMS up to 1000μm of sag. Finite element analysis (FEA) allowed an optimisation of the mirror's variable thickness distribution to compensate for geometrical and material non linearity. Preliminary study of the pre-stressing has also been performed by FEA, showing that a permanent deformation remains after removal of the loads. Results and comparison with the FEA are presented in the article of F.Madec et al (AS10-7736-119, this conference), with an emphasis on the system approach.

  12. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Guo, Q. L., E-mail: kdf@ynao.ac.cn [College of Mathematics Physics and Information Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  13. 78 FR 56222 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance AGENCY... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance OMB... disadvantaged students) are taught by teachers participating in an alternative route to certification...

  14. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astron., Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astr., Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville, AL (United States); Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Becker, Julia K. [Institution foer Fysik, Goeteborgs Univ. (Sweden); Dept. of Phys., Univ. Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Caramete, Laurentiu [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Curutiu, Alex [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Engel, Ralph [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Falcke, Heino [Dept. of Astrophys., IMAP, Radboud Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands); ASTRON, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Gergely, Laszlo A. [Dept. Appl. Sci., London South Bank University (United Kingdom); Dept. of Theoret. and Exp. Phys., Univ. of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Isar, P. Gina [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Maris, Ioana C. [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Meli, Athina [Physik. Inst. Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Kampert, Karl-Heinz [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Inst., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Tascau, Oana [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Zier, Christian [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Raman Res. Inst., Bangalore (India)

    2009-05-15

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  15. High power density aqueous hybrid supercapacitor combining activated carbon and highly conductive spinel cobalt oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godillot, G.; Taberna, P.-L.; Daffos, B.; Simon, P.; Delmas, C.; Guerlou-Demourgues, L.

    2016-11-01

    The remarkable electrochemical behavior of complete activated carbon/cobalt oxide cells is reported in the present work. Among the various weight ratios between the positive and negative electrodes evaluated, the best features are obtained with an overcapacitive cobalt oxide electrode. The energy densities obtained by this system (20 Wh kg-1 for a power density of 209 W kg-1) are twice higher than those measured for a activated carbon/activated carbon symmetric cell, in the same operating conditions. With discharge capacities around 62 F g-1, this system is among the best ones reported in the literature for this category.

  16. Highly Active Ice Nuclei from Tree Leaf Litters Retain Activity for Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, R. C.; Hill, T. C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Biogenic ice nuclei (IN) studied since the 1960s were first observed in tree leaf litters, in a few bacteria species and later in fungi and lichens. Recently, viable IN bacteria in precipitation have been used as a metric of their possible role in precipitation formation. Although bacterial IN activity is deactivated by a variety of common environmental stresses, we present data showing that IN found in a potpourri of decayed plant leaves, bacteria, molds and fungi etc. in plant litters are exceptionally stable and active over decades while in storage. As such, their atmospheric IN potential is worthy of further study due to their environmental persistence. In August 1970 litter collected in a grove of deciduous trees near Red Deer, AB, Canada was tested for IN (drop freezing technique). The sample initiated ice at -4C with 109 IN per gram of litter active at -10C. A few kilograms were stored in a plastic bag and tested every few years for IN content; the IN activity remained essentially unchanged over 40 years. In 2011, litter collected in the same grove had the same IN activity as the sample tested over the intervening 40 years. Boiling a gram sample of this litter in 100 grams of water deactivated 99 % of the IN activity down to -13C. None of 88 different bacteria cultures several of which appeared to Pseudomonads (common IN producing bacteria) from the fresh litter produced any active IN. A sample of the litter was placed on the top of a 15 cm column of laboratory grade kaolin and water dripped onto the litter. Ten days later the water reached the bottom of the column. The kaolin was dried and tested for IN. The prior essentially IN free kaolin now exhibited IN activity at -4C with 105 IN active at -10C. The litter exposed kaolin retained the IN activity for 25 years. Baking the kaolin removed the active IN. This suggests that IN activity attributed to kaolin particles sometimes seen at the nucleus of snow crystals could be of biological origin.

  17. 儿茶酚-O-甲基转移酶在重度子痫前期患者胎盘组织中的表达及意义%Expression and Clinical Value of COMT in the Placenta of Patients with Severe Pre-Eclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭淑卓; 王文莉; 张新查; 陈铎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of Catechol - 0 - Methyl Transferase ( COMT ) in the pathogenesis of severe pre - eclampsia by detecting its expression in the placenta of severe pre - eclampsia patients. Methods Expression of COMT in the placenta of 15 pregnant patients with severe pre - eclampsia in treatment group and 15 normal pregnant women in control group was detected by western - blotting. Results The expression level of COMT in the placental tissue of the treatment group was significantly different from that of the control group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion The expression level of COMT in the placental tissue of severe pre - eclamptic patients is lower than that of the normal pregnant women, indicating that COMT may take part in the pathogenesis of severe pre - eclampsia.%目的 检测重度子痫前期孕妇胎盘组织中儿茶酚-O-甲基转移酶(COMT)的表达量,探讨其在重度子痫前期发病机制中的作用.方法 选择重度子痫前期孕妇15例(病例组),正常孕妇15例(对照组),采用蛋白印迹方法(western blotting)检测两组胎盘组织中COMT蛋白的表达量.结果 病例组和对照组胎盘组织中COMT蛋白表达量比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 重度子痫前期孕妇胎盘组织中COMT蛋白的表达量低于正常孕妇,提示COMT蛋白可能参与了重度子痫前期的发病.

  18. [Effects of activator and activator + anterior high-pull headgear on the growth direction of Class 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, O; Akkaya, S; Buyruk, F

    1989-04-01

    In this study which the effects of activator and activator + anterior high-pull headgear on the growth direction of skeletal class 2 cases for a period of approximately 9 months; 33 cases having a mean age of 10.59 years; ANB angles 4.5 degrees and over were studied. Activator treatment has been applied to the 11 of the 22 treatment cases, the others have had the activator + anterior high-pull headgear treatment. The control group, 11 patients, has only been observed in terms of the growth and development without having any treatment. At the end of the study; it was found that the decrease in ANB angle and the increase in SL dimension in the treatment groups; the increase in anterior lower face height in the activator group and the increase in the ratio of posterior to anterior face height were statistically significant.

  19. Servir la Couronne: Les faux-pas du comte de Baños, vice-roi de la Nouvelle-Espagne (1660-1664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragon, Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    A los pocos días de su llegada, el conde de Baños se enfrentó con los habitantes de su Virreinato: le culparon de ser arrogante, despectivo y de llevarse el dinero del rey. Tal concierto de quejas y denuncias en contra de un personaje tan eminente era algo bastante excepcional aunque, sí, no lo era su conducta ¿Cómo explicarlo? Entre la necesaria mano dura que exigiría un contexto difícil y el temperamento peculiar del mismo virrey, aquí se explora una tercera hipótesis, haciendo hincapié en el estatuto peculiar de la familia aristocrática a la que pertenecía y su trayectoria propia. [fr] Peu de temps après son arrivée, le comte de Baños vit se dégrader ses relations avec les habitants de la vice-royauté qu’il administrait: on l’accusa d’être arrogant, méprisant et de voler l’argent du roi. Une telle série d’attaques contre un personnage aussi haut placé était assez exceptionnelle même si ses écarts de conduite n’avaient rien d’inhabituel. Comment expliquer ce paradoxe? On a jusque-là évoqué les difficultés du moment qui exigeaient que le gouvernant se montrât ferme ainsi que le tempérament du vice-roi. Ici, une troisième hypothèse est explorée à partir de la prise en compte du caractère particulier de son statut au sein de l’aristocratie espagnole et de la trajectoire de sa famille.

  20. Antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and polymorphic variations in COMT, DRD2, CYP1A2 and MnSOD genes: a meta-analysis of pharmacogenetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, P R; van Harten, P N; van Os, J

    2008-05-01

    Despite accumulating evidence pointing to a genetic basis for tardive dyskinesia, results to date have been inconsistent owing to limited statistical power and limitations in molecular genetic methodology. A Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO search for literature published between 1976 and June 2007 was performed, yielding 20 studies from which data were extracted for calculation of pooled estimates using meta-analytic techniques. Evidence from pooled data for genetic association with tardive dyskinesia (TD) showed (1) in COMT(val158met), using Val-Val homozygotes as reference category, a protective effect for Val-Met heterozygotes (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.46-0.86, P=0.004) and Met carriers (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.49-0.88, P=0.005); (2) in Taq1A in DRD2, using the A1 variant as reference category, a risk-increasing effect for the A2 variant (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.03-1.65, P=0.026), and A2-A2 homozygotes using A1-A1 as reference category (OR=1.80, 95% CI: 1.03-3.15, P=0.037); (3) in MnSOD Ala-9Val, using Ala-Ala homozygotes as reference category, a protective effect for Ala-Val (OR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.17-0.79, P=0.009) and for Val carriers (OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.24-1.00, P=0.047). These analyses suggest multiple genetic influences on TD, indicative of pharmacogenetic interactions. Although associations are small, the effects underlying them may be subject to interactions with other loci that, when identified, may have acceptable predictive power. Future genetic research will take advantage of new genomic knowledge. Molecular Psychiatry (2008) 13, 544-556; doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4002142; published online 8 January 2008.

  1. Synthesis of trapezohedral indium oxide nanoparticles with high-index {211} facets and high gas sensing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiguang; Han, Xiao; Sun, Linqiang; Gao, Shengguang; Li, Liang; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wang, Chao

    2015-06-14

    Nanocrystals with high-index facets usually exhibit higher catalytic activities than those with only low-index facets. Trapezohedron-shaped (TS) In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets were successfully synthesized in an oleic acid (OA) and trioctylamine (TOA) system. It has been demonstrated that the gas sensing activity of TS In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets is higher than that of octahedron-shaped In2O3 particles with exposed low-index {111} facets.

  2. A new shunt DC active filter of power supply in a steady high magnetic field facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; LIU Xiao-Ning; WANG Can

    2011-01-01

    A DC active power filter is an indispensable part in a high power and high stability power supply system, especially in the power supply system of the Steady High Magnetic Field Facility, which requires that the current ripple should be limited to 50 parts per million. In view of the disadvantages of the series DC active power filter and shunt Pulse Width Modulation DC active filter, this paper puts forward a novel DC active filter by combining the advantages of the transistor regulator and the shunt type. The structure and principle of the new shunt linear active filter are introduced. Meanwhile, the design of several key components that construct the new shunt linear active filter is also analyzed. The simulation model and an experimental prototype of the shunt linear active filter are developed, and the results verify that the parameter design is reasonable and the shunt active filter has a good filter effect.

  3. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  4. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Monomucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1997-08-01

    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2+ in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MeImpU and 2-MeImpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-linked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of internucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MeImpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  5. Highly antioxidant carotene-lipid nanocarriers: synthesis and antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta; Ovidiu, Oprea; Bojin, Dionezie; Meghea, Aurelia

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of two natural oils (squalene—Sq and grape seed oil—GSO) to prepare biocompatible antioxidant nanostructured lipid carriers—NLCs as a safety and protective formulation for sensitive β-carotene. For this purpose different oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by a combination of alkylpolyoxy ethylene sorbitans, lecithin and a block copolymer, were prepared using a melt high-shear homogenization process. The physico-chemical characteristics of the carotene-loaded NLCs were firstly investigated in detail. The smaller lipid nanoparticles have been obtained by using Tween 20 as main non-ionic surfactant, with average diameters of about 85 nm for GSO and 89 nm for Sq, with a polydispersity index Escherichia coli bacteria. The antibacterial analysis shown that loaded-NLCs develop an effective inhibition zone against bacteria growth and it was dependent in a higher extent on the liquid lipid and carotene concentrations than on their particle size.

  6. Feeding habits of athletes with high physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Mazurenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of construction of specialized foods for sportsmen, members of Amateur and professional teams to play Rugby. The relevance of the study lies in the fact that so far not established a unified recommendations on diets and nutrition regimes of the Rugby players. We are committed to the solution of the time-consuming assessment of individual needs athletes Rugby players in nutrients. For the Rugby player is especially important qualitative composition of protein intake. Sports doctors and coaches recommend rational diet of the Rugby players with the prevalence of essential amino acids involved in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters. The highest loads on the body of a Rugby player due to the fact that in the training sessions of Rugby players includes power elements used in elite military units and police units in order to develop collective interactions in hard conditions. They include elements of weightlifting, intense agility and martial arts and martial arts. The special task of organizing the diet of Rugby players is the use of high carbohydrate diets to prevent chronic lack of energy during training and during competitions. The diet should be an optimal content of products from cereal crops, with relatively little protein and fat. You need to replenish energy stores by eating balanced chemical with the rod, avoiding long breaks and including protein and carbohydrate foods. For quality control using modern gas and spectrophotometric devices Institute of Food and Processing Industry of the Kuban State University of Technology. Key findings include the development of the diets of athletes in team rugby Kuban State University and some of the specialized vegetable and meat products, "rugby" and "Sport".

  7. Convergent genetic modulation of the endocrine stress response involves polymorphic variations of 5-HTT, COMT and MAOA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, M.; Korf, J.; Kema, I. P.; Hartman, C.; van der Pompe, G.; Minderaa, R. B.; Ormel, J.; den Boer, J. A.

    Highly prevalent stress-related disorders such as major depression ( MD) are characterised by a dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system. Although heritability for these disorders is high, the role of genes in the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we show that polymorphic

  8. Convergent genetic modulation of the endocrine stress response involves polymorphic variations of 5-HTT, COMT and MAOA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, M.; Korf, J.; Kema, I. P.; Hartman, C.; van der Pompe, G.; Minderaa, R. B.; Ormel, J.; den Boer, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Highly prevalent stress-related disorders such as major depression ( MD) are characterised by a dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system. Although heritability for these disorders is high, the role of genes in the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we show that polymorphic vari

  9. Successful Geoscience Pipeline Activities for High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, T.; Fail, C. F.; Adewumi, M.; Bralower, T.; Guertin, L.

    2004-12-01

    The proportion of African-American students in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences (EMS) at Penn State is 3.3 percent, only slightly lower than the overall University Park campus proportion of 4 percent. Retention rates within EMS are excellent; a recent survey found that EMS ranks highest in student satisfaction overall at the University Park campus. Our goal to increase diversity in EMS disciplines requires us to attract new students to Penn State rather than recruiting from other areas within the institution. We have implemented three programs that appear successful in this regard, and are thus likely to form a viable pipeline from high school through graduate school. These programs operate at a college-wide level and are co-sponsored by AESEDA (Alliance for Earth Science, Engineering and Development in Africa). SEEMS (Summer Experience in EMS) is a partnership with Upward Bound Math and Science, adding 30 hours of directed research to their existing enrichment program. Students identified in 9th grade spend 6 weeks each summer in residence at PSU, where they receive classroom instruction in core academic areas in addition to a group research project led by faculty and graduate students. SEEMS students are likely PSU recruits: all are accepted to college, 85 percent plan to attend college within PA, and all have strong family support for education as well as for careers in EMS. Pre- and post-experience surveys indicate strong positive changes in perception of EMS careers, particularly with regard to levels of intellectual challenge and starting salary. We maintain personal contact with these students and encourage them to attend PSU when they graduate. SROP (Summer Research Opportunity Program) is administered by the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, the academic arm of the Big 10, and provides residential research internships for students from HBCU and MSI campuses. EMS participates in SROP by funding research interns and providing strong individual

  10. Highly porous activated carbons from resource-recovered Leucaena leucocephala wood as capacitive deionization electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chia-Hung; Liu, Nei-Ling; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Highly porous activated carbons were resource-recovered from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. wood through combined chemical and physical activation (i.e., KOH etching followed by CO2 activation). This invasive species, which has severely damaged the ecological economics of Taiwan, was used as the precursor for producing high-quality carbonaceous electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI). Carbonization and activation conditions strongly influenced the structure of chars and activated carbons. The total surface area and pore volume of activated carbons increased with increasing KOH/char ratio and activation time. Overgasification induced a substantial amount of mesopores in the activated carbons. In addition, the electrochemical properties and CDI electrosorptive performance of the activated carbons were evaluated; cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements revealed a typical capacitive behavior and electrical double layer formation, confirming ion electrosorption in the porous structure. The activated-carbon electrode, which possessed high surface area and both mesopores and micropores, exhibited improved capacitor characteristics and high electrosorptive performance. Highly porous activated carbons derived from waste L. leucocephala were demonstrated to be suitable CDI electrode materials.

  11. Application of an active attachment model as a high-throughput demineralization biofilm model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, T.C.; Pereira, A.F.F.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Bagnato, V.S.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.; de A.M. Machado, M.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.; Deng, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the potential of an active attachment biofilm model as a high-throughput demineralization biofilm model for the evaluation of caries-preventive agents. Methods Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms were grown on bovine dentine discs in a high-throughput active attachment mode

  12. High surface area activated carbon prepared from cassava peel by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Y; Hartono, S B; Irawaty, W; Hindarso, H; Ismadji, S

    2006-03-01

    Cassava is one of the most important commodities in Indonesia, an agricultural country. Cassava is one of the primary foods in our country and usually used for traditional food, cake, etc. Cassava peel is an agricultural waste from the food and starch processing industries. In this study, this solid waste was used as the precursor for activated carbon preparation. The preparation process consisted of potassium hydroxide impregnation at different impregnation ratio followed by carbonization at 450-750 degrees C for 1-3 h. The results revealed that activation time gives no significant effect on the pore structure of activated carbon produced, however, the pore characteristic of carbon changes significantly with impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature. The maximum surface area and pore volume were obtained at impregnation ratio 5:2 and carbonization temperature 750 degrees C.

  13. A two-layered approach to recognize high-level human activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hu; G. Englebienne; B. Kröse

    2014-01-01

    Automated human activity recognition is an essential task for Human Robot Interaction (HRI). A successful activity recognition system enables an assistant robot to provide precise services. In this paper, we present a two-layered approach that can recognize sub-level activities and high-level activi

  14. A High-affinity Activator of G551D-CFTR Chloride Channel Identified By High Throughput Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lu; HE Cheng-yan; LIU Yan-li; ZHOU Hong-lan; ZHOU Jin-song; SHANG De-jing; YANG Hong

    2004-01-01

    A stably transfected CHO cell line coexpressing G551D-CFTR and iodide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein mutant EYFP-H148Q-I152L was successfully established and used as assay model to identify small-molecule activators of G551D-CFTR chloride channel from 100000 diverse combinatorial compounds by high throughput screening on a customized Beckman robotic system. A bicyclooctane compound was identified to activate G551D-CFTR chloride channel with high-affinity(Kd=1.8 μmol/L). The activity of the bicyclooctane compound is G551D-CFTR-specific, reversible and non-toxic. The G551D-CFTR activator may be useful as a tool to study the mutant G551D-CFTR chloride channel structure and transport properties and as a candidate drug to cure cystic fibrosis caused by G551D-CFTR mutation.

  15. Oxidative stress plays a role in high glucose-induced activation of pancreatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Lee, Esder; Chun, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho, E-mail: kihos@catholic.ac.kr

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •High glucose increased production of reactive oxygen species in cultured pancreatic stellate cells. •High glucose facilitated the activation of these cells. •Antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced activation of these cells. -- Abstract: The activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is thought to be a potential mechanism underlying islet fibrosis, which may contribute to progressive β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that antioxidants reduced islet fibrosis in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no in vitro study demonstrating that high glucose itself can induce oxidative stress in PSCs. Thus, PSCs were isolated and cultured from Sprague Dawley rats, and treated with high glucose for 72 h. High glucose increased the production of reactive oxygen species. When treated with high glucose, freshly isolated PSCs exhibited myofibroblastic transformation. During early culture (passage 1), PSCs treated with high glucose contained an increased number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. During late culture (passages 2–5), PSCs treated with high glucose exhibited increases in cell proliferation, the expression of fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor, release of interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β and collagen, and cell migration. Finally, the treatment of PSCs with high glucose and antioxidants attenuated these changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high glucose increased oxidative stress in primary rat PSCs, thereby facilitating the activation of these cells, while antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced PSC activation.

  16. Highly Efficient, Simplified, Solution-Processed Thermally Activated Delayed-Fluorescence Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Cho, Himchan; Jeong, Su-Hun; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-27

    Highly efficient, simplified, solution-processed thermally activated delayed-fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes can be realized by using pure-organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters and a multifunctional buffer hole-injection layer, in which high EQE (≈24%) and current efficiency (≈73 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated. High-efficiency fluorescence red-emitting and blue-emitting devices can also be fabricated in this manner.

  17. Effect of Activating Agent on the Preparation of Bamboo-Based High Surface Area Activated Carbon by Microwave Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongying; Wu, Jian; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-06-01

    The present work attempts to convert bamboo into a high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. Different chemical activating agents such as KOH, NaOH, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 were utilized to identify a most suitable activating agent. Among the activating agents tested KOH was found to generate carbon with the highest porosity and surface area. The effect of KOH/C ratio on the porous nature of the activated carbon has been assessed. An optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified, beyond which the surface area as well as the pore volume were found to decrease. At the optimized KOH/C ratio the surface area and the pore volume were estimated to be 3,441 m2/g and 2.093 ml/g, respectively, with the significant proportion of which being microporous (62.3%). Activated carbon prepared under the optimum conditions was further characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Activated carbons with so high surface area and pore volume are very rarely reported, which could be owed to the nature of the precursor and the optimal conditions of mixture ratio adopted in the present work.

  18. High salt reduces the activation of IL-4- and IL-13-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binger, Katrina J; Gebhardt, Matthias; Heinig, Matthias; Rintisch, Carola; Schroeder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl; Manzel, Arndt; Schwartz, Christian; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Voelkl, Jakob; Schatz, Valentin; Linker, Ralf A; Lang, Florian; Voehringer, David; Wright, Mark D; Hubner, Norbert; Dechend, Ralf; Jantsch, Jonathan; Titze, Jens; Müller, Dominik N

    2015-11-01

    A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative (M2) macrophages is affected by salt. In stark contrast to Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, high salt blunted the alternative activation of BM-derived mouse macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13, M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages. Salt-induced reduction of M(IL-4+IL-13) activation was not associated with increased polarization toward a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. In vitro, high salt decreased the ability of M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages to suppress effector T cell proliferation. Moreover, mice fed a high salt diet exhibited reduced M2 activation following chitin injection and delayed wound healing compared with control animals. We further identified a high salt-induced reduction in glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolic output, coupled with blunted AKT and mTOR signaling, which indicates a mechanism by which NaCl inhibits full M2 macrophage activation. Collectively, this study provides evidence that high salt reduces noninflammatory innate immune cell activation and may thus lead to an overall imbalance in immune homeostasis.

  19. 76 FR 30391 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; High Growth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; High Growth and Community-Based Job Training Grants... Administration (ETA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``High Growth and Community-Based Job... INFORMATION: This information collection request implements reporting requirements for High Growth Job...

  20. Factors Influencing Middle and High Schools' Active Parental Consent Return Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peter Y.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined factors influencing the return rates for attempting to collect active parental consent forms from 21,123 students in the 7th through 10th grades in 41 middle and high schools. Overall return rates from middle schools were higher than from high schools. Schools that offered high levels of staff support for collecting consent…

  1. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities in Electrochemistry: High School Students' Achievements and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental (N =…

  2. Highly reliable high-power superluminescent diodes with three single-mode active channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, E. V.; Il'chenko, S. N.; Kurnyavko, Yu V.; Luk'yanov, V. N.; Shidlovskii, V. R.; Yakubovich, S. D.

    2016-07-01

    We report superluminescent diodes (SLDs) with three ridged active channels, each having a width of 3.5 μm, based on one 'bulk' and two quantum-well heterostructures. At a cw output power greater than 100 mW, the emission spectra of these SLDs possess a quasi-Gaussian shape with centre wavelengths near 840, 860 and 1060 nm and widths about 15, 25 and 40 nm, respectively. In the above operating conditions, the median service life of the SLDs amounted to approximately 50000, 25000 and more than 60000 h, respectively.

  3. New Activated Carbon with High Thermal Conductivity and Its Microwave Regeneration Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xuexian; SU Zhanjun; XI Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Using a walnut shell as a carbon source and ZnCl2 as an activating agent, we resolved the temperature gradient problems of activated carbon in the microwave desorption process. An appropriate amount of silicon carbide was added to prepare the composite activated carbon with high thermal conductivity while developing VOC adsorption-microwave regeneration technology. The experimental results show that the coefficient of thermal conductivity of SiC-AC is three times as much as those of AC and SY-6. When microwave power was 480 W in its microwave desorption , the temperature of the bed thermal desorption was 10℃ to 30℃below that of normal activated carbon prepared in our laboratory. The toluene desorption activation energy was 16.05 kJ∙mol-1, which was 15% less than the desorption activation energy of commercial activated carbon. This study testified that the process could maintain its high adsorption and regeneration desorption performances.

  4. A Clinical Drug Library Screen Identifies Tosufloxacin as Being Highly Active against Staphylococcus aureus Persisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Niu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify effective compounds that are active against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus persisters, we screened a clinical drug library consisting of 1524 compounds and identified six drug candidates that had anti-persister activity: tosufloxacin, clinafloxacin, sarafloxacin, doxycycline, thiostrepton, and chlorosalicylanilide. Among them, tosufloxacin had the highest anti-persister activity, which could completely eradicate S. aureus persisters within 2 days in vitro. Clinafloxacin ranked the second with very few persisters surviving the drug exposure. Interestingly, we found that both tosufloxacin and trovafloxacin that had high activity against persisters contained at the N-1 position the 2,4-difluorophenyl group, which is absent in other less active quinolones and may be associated with the high anti-persister activity. Further studies are needed to evaluate tosufloxacin in animal models and to explain its unique activity against bacterial persisters. Our findings may have implications for improved treatment of persistent bacterial infections.

  5. A facile reflux procedure to increase active surface sites form highly active and durable supported palladium@platinum bimetallic nanodendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Li, Yingjun; Liu, Baocang; Xu, Guangran; Zhang, Geng; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    A series of well-dispersed bimetallic Pd@Pt nanodendrites uniformly supported on XC-72 carbon black are fabricated by using different capping agents. These capping agents are essential for the branched morphology control. However, the surfactant adsorbed on the nanodendrites surface blocks the access of reactant molecules to the active surface sites, and the catalytic activities of these bimetallic nanodendrites are significantly restricted. Herein, a facile reflux procedure to effectively remove the capping agent molecules without significantly affecting their sizes is reported for activating supported nanocatalysts. More significantly, the structure and morphology of the nanodendrites can also be retained, enhancing the numbers of active surface sites, catalytic activity and stability toward methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions. The as-obtained hot water reflux-treated Pd@Pt/C catalyst manifests superior catalytic activity and stability both in terms of surface and mass specific activities, as compared to the untreated catalysts and the commercial Pt/C and Pd/C catalysts. We anticipate that this effective and facile removal method has more general applicability to highly active nanocatalysts prepared with various surfactants, and should lead to improvements in environmental protection and energy production.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT genes in Greenlandic Inuit and Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    contaminants in Inuit and its relation to health risk. The Greenlandic Inuit are highly exposed to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and an elucidation of gene–environment interactions in relation to health risks is needed....... Our data provide new information on gene polymorphisms in Greenlandic Inuit that might support evaluation of susceptibility to environmental contaminants and warrant further studies....

  7. Command and Control: Does Current U.S. Army Tactical Command and Control Doctrine Meet the Requirement for Today’s High Intensity Battlefield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-02

    Pentaon2 objective. PLRS and Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS), along with a handful of new tactical radios and satellite navigation...make this system work, the Army must continue to develop, field, and incorporate the advances in new technology Into our tactical C2 doctrine and...Philosophies C2 OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES* CONTROL ORIENTED COMtW1D ORIENTED (HIGH TECMNOLOGY-LOW RISK) <AUSTgRE TECNOLOGY -HIGH RISK) STRATEGY: Non-relational

  8. A Class of High-affinity Bicyclooctane G551D-CFTR Activators Identified by High Throughput Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cheng-yan; ZHAO Lu; LIU Yan-li; XU Li-na; SHANG De-jing; YANG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The glycine-to-aspartic acid missense mutation at the codon 551(G551D) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR) is one of the five most frequent cystic fibrosis(CF) mutations associated with a severe CF phenotype. To explore the feasibility of pharmacological correction of disrupted activation of CFTR chloride channel caused by G551D mutation, we developed a halide-sensitive fluorescence miniassay for G551D-CFTR in Fisher rat thyroid(FRT) epithelial cells for the discovery of novel activators of G551D-CFTR. A class of bicyclooctane small molecule compounds that efficiently stimulate G551D-CFTR chloride channel activity was identified by high throughput screening via the FRT cell-based assay. This class of compounds selectively activates G551D-CFTR with a high affinity, whereas little effect of the compounds on wildtype CFTR can be seen. The discovery of a class of bicyclooctane G551D-CFTR activators will permit the analysis of structure-activity relationship of the compounds to identify ideal leads for in vivo therapeutic studies.

  9. Active Control of Flow Separation on a High-Lift System with Slotted Flap at High Reynolds Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, Abdollah; Washburn, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) airfoil was tested at NASA Langley's Low- Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) to assess the effectiveness of distributed Active Flow Control (AFC) concepts on a high-lift system at flight scale Reynolds numbers for a medium-sized transport. The test results indicate presence of strong Reynolds number effects on the high-lift system with the AFC operational, implying the importance of flight-scale testing for implementation of such systems during design of future flight vehicles with AFC. This paper describes the wind tunnel test results obtained at the LTPT for the EET high-lift system for various AFC concepts examined on this airfoil.

  10. Self-controlled feedback facilitates motor learning in both high and low activity individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Fairbrother

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA and low activity (LA participants were assigned to self-control (SC and yoked (YK feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control High Activity (SC-HA; Self-Control Low Activity (SC-LA; Yoked High Activity (YK-HA; and Yoked Low Activity (YK-LA. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be good trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after good trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.

  11. High salt primes a specific activation state of macrophages, M(Na)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wu-Chang; Zheng, Xiao-Jun; Du, Lin-Juan; Sun, Jian-Yong; Shen, Zhu-Xia; Shi, Chaoji; Sun, Shuyang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xiao-qing; Qin, Mu; Liu, Xu; Tao, Jun; Jia, Lijun; Fan, Heng-yu; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Ying; Ying, Hao; Hui, Lijian; Liu, Xiaolong; Yi, Xianghua; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Lanjing; Duan, Sheng-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    High salt is positively associated with the risk of many diseases. However, little is known about the mechanisms. Here we showed that high salt increased proinflammatory molecules, while decreased anti-inflammatory and proendocytic molecules in both human and mouse macrophages. High salt also potentiated lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation and suppressed interleukin 4-induced macrophage activation. High salt induced the proinflammatory aspects by activating p38/cFos and/or Erk1/2/cFos pathways, while inhibited the anti-inflammatory and proendocytic aspects by Erk1/2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 pathway. Consistent with the in vitro results, high-salt diet increased proinflammatory gene expression of mouse alveolar macrophages. In mouse models of acute lung injury, high-salt diet aggravated lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary macrophage activation and inflammation in lungs. These results identify a novel macrophage activation state, M(Na), and high salt as a potential environmental risk factor for lung inflammation through the induction of M(Na). PMID:26206316

  12. Wide Frequency Band Active Damping Strategy for DFIG System High Frequency Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    As a popular renewable power generation solution, the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power system may suffer from High Frequency Resonance (HFR) caused by the impedance interaction between the DFIG system and the parallel compensated weak network. A wide frequency band active...... damping strategy for DFIG system HFR, including a high-pass filter and a virtual resistance, is proposed in this paper. The advantages of this active damping strategy are, 1) no resonance frequency detection unit is required, thus the control complexity can be decreased; 2) no active damping parameters...... adjustment is needed within certain wide frequency band, thus the robustness of the proposed active damping strategy can be improved. The parameter design of the high-pass filter cutoff frequency and the virtual resistance are theoretically analyzed with the purpose of satisfactory active damping. A 7.5 k...

  13. Recurrence or rebound of clinical relapses after discontinuation of natalizumab therapy in highly active MS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Petersen, Thor;

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have reported flare-up of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity after cessation of natalizumab, increasing to a level beyond the pre-natalizumab treatment level. Our aim was to describe the development in clinical disease activity following cessation of natalizumab therapy...... in a large unselected cohort of highly active patients. We studied 375 highly active patients who had suffered at least two significant relapses within 1 year or three relapses within 2 years, or had been treated with mitoxantrone for highly active disease. All patients had discontinued therapy...... with natalizumab after at least 24 weeks on therapy, and had been followed 3-12 months (mean 8.9 months) after cessation of natalizumab therapy. The annualised relapse rate before start of natalizumab therapy was 0.94 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.88-1.00), 0.47 (95 % CI 0.43-0.52) during natalizumab therapy, 0...

  14. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C

    2000-01-01

    Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.

  15. Burst activity of the Crab Nebula and its pulsar at high and ultra-high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidvansky, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Characteristics of the flares of gamma rays detected from the Crab Nebula by the AGILE and Fermi-LAT satellite instruments are compared with those of a gamma ray burst recorded by several air shower arrays on February 23, 1989 and with one recent observation made by ARGO-YBJ array. It is demonstrated that though pulsar-periodicity and energy spectra of emissions at 100 MeV (satellite gamma ray telescopes) and 100 TeV (EAS arrays) are different, their time structures seem to be similar. Moreover, may be the difference between "flares" and "waves" recently found in the Crab Nebula emission by AGILE team also exists at ultra-high energies.

  16. Preparation, Surface and Pore Structure of High Surface Area Activated Carbon Fibers from Bamboo by Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers (ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. The results showed that ACF from bamboo at 850 °C have the maximum iodine and methylene blue adsorption values. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo. The prepared ACF from bamboo were found to be mainly type I of isotherm, but the mesoporosity presented an increasing trend after 700 °C. The surface area and micropore volume of samples, which were determined by application of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and t-plot methods, were as high as 2024 m2/g and 0.569 cm3/g, respectively. It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo.

  17. Parasympathetic neural activity accounts for the lowering of exercise heart rate at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Calbet, J A; Rådegran, G

    2001-01-01

    In chronic hypoxia, both heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Q) are reduced during exercise. The role of parasympathetic neural activity in lowering HR is unresolved, and its influence on Q and oxygen transport at high altitude has never been studied.......In chronic hypoxia, both heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Q) are reduced during exercise. The role of parasympathetic neural activity in lowering HR is unresolved, and its influence on Q and oxygen transport at high altitude has never been studied....

  18. Examination of the Effect of High School Students Physical Activity Levels on Their Problem Solving Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Nimet Korkmaz; Serkan Pancar; Tuncay Alparslan; Ayça Ayan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to be knowledgeable with demographic characteristics, Body mass index, physical activity levels, problem solving skills and sub-dimensions of the students receiving education at Anatolia High Schools and examine the effect of the physical activity levels of these students on their problem solving skills. The population of the study was included a total of 451 students (female=264; male=187) receiving education at the Anatolia High Schools in the Osmangazi district...

  19. Development of alkali activated cements and concrete mixture design with high volumes of red mud

    OpenAIRE

    KRIVENKO PAVEL; O. Kovalchuk; PASKO ANTON; CROYMANS TOM; HULT MIKAEL; LUTTER GUILLAUME; VANDEVENNE N.; SCHREURS S.; Schroeyers, W.

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated cement compositions were formulated to enable the incorporation of large volume fractions of red mud in alkali activated cements, taking into account the role of the aluminosilicate phase in the processes of hydration and hardening. High volume red mud alkali activated cements were synthesized using a proper combination of red mud, low basic aluminosilicate compounds with a glass phase (blast-furnace slag) and additives selected from high-basic Ca-containing cements with a crystalli...

  20. A high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor VII in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A K; Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M;

    2001-01-01

    , 3.5, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first fat load. Triglycerides, activated FVII (FVIIa), FVII coagulant activity (FVIIc), FVII amidolytic activity (FVIIam) and prothrombin fragment I + 2 (F1 + 2) were analysed in plasma samples. Median plasma triglycerides were significantly raised from 0.67 mmol....../l (baseline) to 2.56 mmol/l 5 h postprandially (P high-fat meal does not seem...

  1. Promoting social skills of mexican high school students through virtual activities in the Moodle platform

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Yolanda RODRÍGUEZ MATAMOROS; Cacheiro González, María Luz; Gil Pascual, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    With the intention of promoting social skills of Mexican high school students based on the graduate profile of this level, virtual activities were implemented in the Moodle platform to 169 students of second year, adopting the proposed Goldstein social skills. In order to establish the impact of these activities to a pretest-postest a one group design was used. The results show that the activities had a positive and significant impact in beginning social skills, advanced social skills, skills...

  2. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.

    2009-07-01

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  3. Effect of high-pressure helium on latex-induced activated chemiluminescence of human blood leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurin-Kuz'min, A Yu; Vdovin, A V

    2003-09-01

    High-pressure helium reduces the latex-induced activated chemiluminescence of diluted human blood. This effect is more noticeable, when lucigenin rather than luminol is used as the activator of chemiluminescence. The effect lessens in the presence of Mg2+ but not Ca2+. The data suggest the association of this effect with actin polymerization in leucocytes phagocytosing the latex particles.

  4. A Belief-Behavior Gap? Exploring Religiosity and Sexual Activity among High School Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Kathleen Cobb; Scott-Jones, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity, sexual activity, and contraception were examined via questionnaires and interviews in a diverse sample of 118 high school seniors. The majority reported religion to be important; importance and frequency ratings declined from private (e.g., prayer) to public (e.g., group activities) components of religion. Most were sexually active…

  5. Educational Activities and the Role of the Parent in Homeschool Families with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dan; Gann, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Using a qualitative case study approach, this study looked at the educational activities that constitute a typical day in a homeschool family and the role that the parent has within those activities. Three homeschooling families with high school students in a single community in a southern state in the United States participated in the case study.…

  6. New approach for high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gego, A.; Silvie, O.; Franetich, J.F.; Farhati, K.; Hannoun, L.; Luty, A.J.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Boucheix, C.; Rubinstein, E.; Mazier, D.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium liver stages represent potential targets for antimalarial prophylactic drugs. Nevertheless, there is a lack of molecules active on these stages. We have now developed a new approach for the high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages in vitro, based on an

  7. Contradictions between the Virtual and Physical High School Classroom: A Third-Generation Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Manzanares, Maria A. Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a third-generation Activity Theory perspective to gain insight into the contradictions between the activity systems of the physical and virtual high school classroom from the perspective of teachers who had transitioned from one system to the other. Data collection relied on semi-structured interviews conducted with e-teachers as…

  8. A High Step-Down Interleaved Buck Converter with Active-Clamp Circuits for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a high step-down interleaved buck coupled-inductor converter (IBCC with active-clamp circuits for wind energy conversion has been studied. In high step-down voltage applications, an IBCC can extend duty ratio and reduce voltage stresses on active switches. In order to reduce switching losses of active switches to improve conversion efficiency, a IBCC with soft-switching techniques is usually required. Compared with passive-clamp circuits, the IBCC with active-clamp circuits have lower switching losses and minimum ringing voltage of the active switches. Thus, the proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits for wind energy conversion can significantly increase conversion efficiency. Finally, a 240 W prototype of the proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits was built and implemented. Experimental results have shown that efficiency can reach as high as 91%. The proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits is presented in high step-down voltage applications to verify the performance and the feasibility for energy conversion of wind turbines.

  9. Enhanced antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of longan fruit pericarp by ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Shi, John; Yu, Chunyan; Zhao, Mouming; Xue, Sophia; Jiang, Yueming

    2010-01-20

    The health benefits of fruits acting against chronic diseases are ascribed to their antioxidant activities which are mainly responsible due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The use of ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction (UHPE) has shown great advantages for the extraction of these phenolic compounds from longan fruit pericarp (LFP). Studies were carried out to investigate the effects of UHPE at pressures of 200, 300, 400 and 500 MPa on total phenolic contents, extraction yield, antioxidant and antityrosinase activities from LFP. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were analyzed, using various antioxidant models like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. Extract from ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction at 500MPa (UHPE-500) showed the highest antioxidant activities of all the tested models. In addition, it also showed moderate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Three phenolic acids, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, and corilagin were identified and quantified by HPLC. Corilagin content was the highest compared to other phenolic acids identified. UHPE-500 obtained the higher phenolic acid contents compared to other high pressure processing and conventional extractions (CE). Compared with CE, UHPE-500 exhibited good extraction effectiveness in terms of higher extraction yields with high phenolic contents and also with higher antioxidant and antityrosinase activities.

  10. New approach for high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gego, A.; Silvie, O.; Franetich, J.F.; Farhati, K.; Hannoun, L.; Luty, A.J.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Boucheix, C.; Rubinstein, E.; Mazier, D.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium liver stages represent potential targets for antimalarial prophylactic drugs. Nevertheless, there is a lack of molecules active on these stages. We have now developed a new approach for the high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages in vitro, based on an infrare

  11. The effects of high-voltage pulse electric discharges on ion adsorption on activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, M. M.; Sveshnikova, D. A.; Larin, S. V.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Shabanova, Z. E.; Yusupova, A. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.

    2008-07-01

    The effects of high-voltage pulse electric discharges (HPED) on sorption of boron and sulfate ions on activated carbons of different kinds (KM-2, BAU, DAK) were investigated. The effect of HPED activation on the sorption characteristics of the systems was found to be similar to the temperature effect.

  12. Is Childhood Obesity Associated with High-Fat Foods and Low Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, Lee; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Study investigated whether high-fat food consumption and low physical activity were risk factors for obesity in third graders. Tests revealed a greater prevalence of childhood obesity in 1985 than in 1976-80. Neither intake nor activity level were independent risk factors, but there may be synergistic effects with both present. (SM)

  13. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  14. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

  15. Facilitation of epileptic activity during sleep is mediated by high amplitude slow waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauscher, Birgit; von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Avoli, Massimo; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2015-06-01

    Epileptic discharges in focal epilepsy are frequently activated during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Sleep slow waves are present during this stage and have been shown to include a deactivated ('down', hyperpolarized) and an activated state ('up', depolarized). The 'up' state enhances physiological rhythms, and we hypothesize that sleep slow waves and particularly the 'up' state are the specific components of non-rapid eye movement sleep that mediate the activation of epileptic activity. We investigated eight patients with pharmaco-resistant focal epilepsies who underwent combined scalp-intracerebral electroencephalography for diagnostic evaluation. We analysed 259 frontal electroencephalographic channels, and manually marked 442 epileptic spikes and 8487 high frequency oscillations during high amplitude widespread slow waves, and during matched control segments with low amplitude widespread slow waves, non-widespread slow waves or no slow waves selected during the same sleep stages (total duration of slow wave and control segments: 49 min each). During the slow waves, spikes and high frequency oscillations were more frequent than during control segments (79% of spikes during slow waves and 65% of high frequency oscillations, both P ∼ 0). The spike and high frequency oscillation density also increased for higher amplitude slow waves. We compared the density of spikes and high frequency oscillations between the 'up' and 'down' states. Spike and high frequency oscillation density was highest during the transition from the 'up' to the 'down' state. Interestingly, high frequency oscillations in channels with normal activity expressed a different peak at the transition from the 'down' to the 'up' state. These results show that the apparent activation of epileptic discharges by non-rapid eye movement sleep is not a state-dependent phenomenon but is predominantly associated with specific events, the high amplitude widespread slow waves that are frequent, but not

  16. Hierarchical Pd-Sn alloy nanosheet dendrites: an economical and highly active catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures.

  17. Visualization of Active Glucocerebrosidase in Rodent Brain with High Spatial Resolution following In Situ Labeling with Fluorescent Activity Based Probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Herrera Moro Chao

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease is characterized by lysosomal accumulation of glucosylceramide due to deficient activity of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA. In cells, glucosylceramide is also degraded outside lysosomes by the enzyme glucosylceramidase 2 (GBA2 of which inherited deficiency is associated with ataxias. The interest in GBA and glucosylceramide metabolism in the brain has grown following the notion that mutations in the GBA gene impose a risk factor for motor disorders such as α-synucleinopathies. We earlier developed a β-glucopyranosyl-configured cyclophellitol-epoxide type activity based probe (ABP allowing in vivo and in vitro visualization of active molecules of GBA with high spatial resolution. Labeling occurs through covalent linkage of the ABP to the catalytic nucleophile residue in the enzyme pocket. Here, we describe a method to visualize active GBA molecules in rat brain slices using in vivo labeling. Brain areas related to motor control, like the basal ganglia and motor related structures in the brainstem, show a high content of active GBA. We also developed a β-glucopyranosyl cyclophellitol-aziridine ABP allowing in situ labeling of GBA2. Labeled GBA2 in brain areas can be identified and quantified upon gel electrophoresis. The distribution of active GBA2 markedly differs from that of GBA, being highest in the cerebellar cortex. The histological findings with ABP labeling were confirmed by biochemical analysis of isolated brain areas. In conclusion, ABPs offer sensitive tools to visualize active GBA and to study the distribution of GBA2 in the brain and thus may find application to establish the role of these enzymes in neurodegenerative disease conditions such as α-synucleinopathies and cerebellar ataxia.

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Ecklonia cava Extract on High Glucose-Induced Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kojima-Yuasa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a disease closely associated with obesity and diabetes. A prevalence of type 2 diabetes and a high body mass index in cryptogenic cirrhosis may imply that obesity leads to cirrhosis. Here, we examined the effects of an extract of Ecklonia cava, a brown algae, on the activation of high glucose-induced hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, key players in hepatic fibrosis. Isolated HSCs were incubated with or without a high glucose concentration. Ecklonia cava extract (ECE was added to the culture simultaneously with the high glucose. Treatment with high glucose stimulated expression of type I collagen and α-smooth muscle actin, which are markers of activation in HSCs, in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of high glucose-treated HSCs was suppressed by the ECE. An increase in the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and a decrease in intracellular glutathione levels were observed soon after treatment with high glucose, and these changes were suppressed by the simultaneous addition of ECE. High glucose levels stimulated the secretion of bioactive transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β from the cells, and the stimulation was also suppressed by treating the HSCs with ECE. These results suggest that the suppression of high glucose-induced HSC activation by ECE is mediated through the inhibition of ROS and/or GSH and the downregulation of TGF-β secretion. ECE is useful for preventing the development of diabetic liver fibrosis.

  19. Active commuting of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Rubín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Active commuting in terms of everyday transport to school or work can have a significant effect on physical activity. Active commuting can be influenced by the environment, and examples from abroad show that current environmental changes tend mostly to promote passive forms of commuting. A similar situation of decreasing active commuting might be expected in the Czech Republic. However, little information has been published to date about the issue of active commuting among the inhabitants of our country. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to describe the active commuting patterns of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas. Methods: A total of 23,621 economically active inhabitants or students of Liberec city aged 6-87 years (34.77 ± 14.39 participated in the study. The data about commuting were retrieved from the national Population and Housing Census of 2011. Geographic information systems were used to objectively analyze the built environment and to calculate the walkability index. Results: Active commuting to/from school or work is used by 17.41% of inhabitants. Active commuting is dominated by walking (16.60% as opposed to cycling (0.81%. Inhabitants who lived in high walkability areas were more likely to actively commute than those living in low walkability areas (OR = 1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.68]. Conclusions: This study confirmed the findings of international studies about the effect of the built environment on active commuting among Liberec inhabitants. Active commuters are often those living near or in the city center, which is characterized by high walkability. In Liberec city, walking as a means of active commuting significantly prevails over cycling. One of the reasons might be the diverse topography of the city and the insufficiently developed cycling network.

  20. PEEK: An excellent precursor for activated carbon production for high temperature application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, I.P.P.; Goncalves, F.A.M.M.; Nabais, J.M.V.; Ribeiro Carrott, M.M.L.; Carrott, P.J.M. [Centro de Quimica de Evora and Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Evora, Colegio Luis Antonio Verney, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal)

    2009-02-15

    A series of activated carbons (AC) with high apparent surface area and very high micropore volumes were prepared from granulated PEEK (poly[oxy-1,4-phenylene-oxy-1,4-phenylene-carbonyl-1,4-phenylene]) by physical activation with CO{sub 2} at different temperatures and different activation times. The carbonisation yields at 873, 1073 and 1173 K were 57, 52 and 51%. As the activation temperature increased, between 873 and 1173 K, the burn-off, the micropore volume and mean pore size increased too. Those prepared at 1173 K, with 74% burn-off, present an extremely high apparent surface area (2874 m{sup 2} g{sup -} {sup 1}) and a very high micropore volume (1.27 cm{sup 3} g{sup -} {sup 1}). The presence of pyrone groups, identified by FTIR, on the AC surface corroborates the prevalence of a basic point of zero charge, always higher than 9.2. The thermal stability was checked by thermogravimetric analysis and as the carbonisation temperature increased the thermal stability of the char increased too. All AC obtained from PEEK by physical activation at 1173 K are thermally resistant, as at 1073 K the loss of the initial mass was less than 15%. The collective results confirm that PEEK is an excellent precursor for preparing AC with a high carbonisation yield, a high micropore volume and apparent surface area and a very high resistance at elevated temperature. (author)

  1. High dopant activation of phosphorus in Ge crystal with high-temperature implantation and two-step microwave annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tzu-Lang; Su, Yin-Hsien; Lee, Wen-Hsi

    2016-09-01

    In this letter, high-temperature ion implantation and low-temperature microwave annealing were employed to achieve high n-type active concentrations, approaching the solid solubility limit, in germanium. To use the characteristics of microwave annealing more effectively, a two-step microwave annealing process was employed. In the first annealing step, a high-power (1200 W; 425 °C) microwave was used to achieve solid-state epitaxial regrowth and to enhance microwave absorption. In the second annealing step, contrary to the usual process of thermal annealing with higher temperature, a lower-power (900 W; 375 °C) microwave process was used to achieve a low sheet resistance, 78Ω/◻, and a high carrier concentration, 1.025 × 1020 P/cm3, which is close to the solid solubility limit of 2 × 1020 P/cm3.

  2. Influence of DAT1 and COMT variants on neural activation during response inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, D.; Hoekstra, P. J.; Bralten, J.; Hakobjan, M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Franke, B.; Rommelse, N.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Hartman, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Impairment of response inhibition has been implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopamine neurotransmission has been linked to the behavioural and neural correlates of response inhibition. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship of polymorphisms i

  3. Wide Frequency Band Active Damping Strategy for DFIG System High Frequency Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    As a popular renewable power generation solution, the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power system may suffer from High Frequency Resonance (HFR) caused by the impedance interaction between the DFIG system and the parallel compensated weak network. A wide frequency band active...... damping strategy for DFIG system HFR, including a high-pass filter and a virtual resistance, is proposed in this paper. The advantages of this active damping strategy are, 1) no resonance frequency detection unit is required, thus the control complexity can be decreased; 2) no active damping parameters...

  4. High order single step time delay compensation algorithm for structural active control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕定; 耿淑伟; 王伟

    2002-01-01

    The optimal instantaneous high order single step algorithm for active control is first discussed andthen, the n + 1 time step controlling force vector of the instantaneous optimal algorithm is derived from way of ntime state vector. An estimating algorithm, is developed from this to solve the problem of active control withtime delay compensation. The estimating algorithm based on this high order single step β method (HSM) foun-dation, is proven by simulation and experiment analysis, to be a valid solution to problem of active control withtime delay compensation.

  5. High Source Levels and Small Active Space of High-Pitched Song in Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervo, Outi M.; Christoffersen, Mads F.; Simon, Malene

    2012-01-01

    The low frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally loud, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher...... attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high-pitched song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead...... whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185 ± 2 dB rms re 1µPa and a high mean centroid frequency of 444 ± 48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song...

  6. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP has a neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration in rat and snail parkinsonian models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Maasz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP rescues dopaminergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improves motor changes induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA in rat parkinsonian models. Recently, we investigated the molecular background of the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in dopamine (DA-based neurodegeneration using rotenone-induced snail and 6-OHDA-induced rat models of Parkinson's disease. Behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin, metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B and PARK7 protein concentrations were measured before and after PACAP treatment in both models. Locomotion and feeding activity were decreased in rotenone-treated snails, which corresponded well to findings obtained in 6-OHDA-induced rat experiments. PACAP was able to prevent the behavioural malfunctions caused by the toxins. Monoamine levels decreased in both models and the decreased DA level induced by toxins was attenuated by ∼50% in the PACAP-treated animals. In contrast, PACAP had no effect on the decreased serotonin (5HT levels. S-COMT metabolic enzyme was also reduced but a protective effect of PACAP was not observed in either of the models. Following toxin treatment, a significant increase in MB-COMT was observed in both models and was restored to normal levels by PACAP. A decrease in PARK7 was also observed in both toxin-induced models; however, PACAP had a beneficial effect only on 6-OHDA-treated animals. The neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different animal models of Parkinson's disease is thus well correlated with neurotransmitter, enzyme and protein levels. The models successfully mimic several, but not all etiological properties of the disease, allowing us to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration as well as testing new drugs. The rotenone and 6-OHDA rat and snail in vivo parkinsonian models offer an alternative method for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective agents, including PACAP.

  7. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration in rat and snail parkinsonian models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tibor; Jungling, Adel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) rescues dopaminergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improves motor changes induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in rat parkinsonian models. Recently, we investigated the molecular background of the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in dopamine (DA)-based neurodegeneration using rotenone-induced snail and 6-OHDA-induced rat models of Parkinson's disease. Behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin), metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B) and PARK7 protein