WorldWideScience

Sample records for high activity comt

  1. COMT genotype, gambling activity, and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Leppink, Eric W; Redden, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    adjustment and delay aversion) and the Spatial Working Memory task (total errors). This study adds to the growing literature on the role of COMT in impulsive behaviors by showing that the Val/Val genotype was associated with specific clinical and cognitive elements among young adults who gamble......Neuropsychological studies of adults with problem gambling indicate impairments across multiple cognitive domains. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a unique role in the regulation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, and has been implicated in the cognitive dysfunction evident in problem...... gambling. This study examined adults with varying levels of gambling behavior to determine whether COMT genotype was associated with differences in gambling symptoms and cognitive functioning. 260 non-treatment-seeking adults aged 18-29 years with varying degrees of gambling behavior provided saliva...

  2. The enzymatic activities of brain catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and methionine sulphoxide reductase are correlated in a COMT Val/Met allele-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Jackob; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Cruz, Dianne A; Thompson, Peter M; Hairston, Jenaqua; Bortolato, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a primary role in the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters and is implicated in the modulation of cognitive and emotional responses. The best characterized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the COMT gene consists of a valine (Val)-to-methionine (Met) substitution at codon 108/158. The Met-containing variant confers a marked reduction in COMT catalytic activity. We recently showed that the activity of recombinant COMT is positively regulated by the enzyme Met sulphoxide reductase (MSR), which counters the oxidation of Met residues of proteins. The current study was designed to assess whether brain COMT activity may be correlated to MSR in an allele-dependent fashion. COMT and MSR activities were measured from post-mortem samples of prefrontal cortices, striata and cerebella of 32 subjects by using catechol and dabsyl-Met sulphoxide as substrates, respectively. Allelic discrimination of COMT Val(108/185) Met SNP was performed using the Taqman 5'nuclease assay. Our studies revealed that, in homozygous carriers of Met, but not Val alleles, the activity of COMT and MSR was significantly correlated throughout all tested brain regions. These results suggest that the reduced enzymatic activity of Met-containing COMT may be secondary to Met sulphoxidation and point to MSR as a key molecular determinant for the modulation of COMT activity. © 2015 British Neuropathological Society.

  3. Why some people discount more than others: Baseline activation in the dorsal PFC mediates the link between COMT genotype and impatient choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena R. R. Gianotti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ widely in how steeply they discount future rewards. The sources of these stable individual differences in delay discounting (DD are largely unknown. One candidate is the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, known to modulate prefrontal dopamine levels and affect DD. To identify possible neural mechanisms by which this polymorphism may contribute to stable individual DD differences, we measured 73 participants’ neural baseline activation using resting electroencephalogram (EEG. Such neural baseline activation measures are highly heritable and stable over time, thus an ideal endophenotype candidate to explain how genes may influence behavior via individual differences in neural function. After EEG-recording, participants made a series of incentive-compatible intertemporal choices to determine the steepness of their DD. We found that COMT significantly affected DD and that this effect was mediated by baseline activation level in the left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC: (i COMT had a significant effect on DD such that the number of Val alleles was positively correlated with steeper DD (higher numbers of Val alleles means greater COMT activity and thus lower dopamine levels. (ii A whole-brain search identified a cluster in left DPFC where baseline activation was correlated with DD; lower activation was associated with steeper DD. (iii COMT had a significant effect on the baseline activation level in this left DPFC cluster such that a higher number of Val alleles was associated with lower baseline activation. (iv The effect of COMT on DD was explained by the mediating effect of neural baseline activation in the left DPFC cluster. Our study thus establishes baseline activation level in left DPFC as salient neural signature in the form of an endophenotype that mediates the link between COMT and DD.

  4. Interaction Effects of BDNF and COMT Genes on Resting-State Brain Activity and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Chunhui; Xia, Mingrui; Wu, Karen; Chen, Chuansheng; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Wang, Wenjing; He, Yong; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes have been found to interactively influence working memory (WM) as well as brain activation during WM tasks. However, whether the two genes have interactive effects on resting-state activities of the brain and whether these spontaneous activations correlate with WM are still unknown. This study included behavioral data from WM tasks and genetic data (COMT rs4680 and BDNF Val66Met) from 417 healthy Chinese adults and resting-state fMRI data from 298 of them. Significant interactive effects of BDNF and COMT were found for WM performance as well as for resting-state regional homogeneity (ReHo) in WM-related brain areas, including the left medial frontal gyrus (lMeFG), left superior frontal gyrus (lSFG), right superior and medial frontal gyrus (rSMFG), right medial orbitofrontal gyrus (rMOFG), right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG), precuneus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left superior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule. Simple effects analyses showed that compared to other genotypes, subjects with COMT-VV/BDNF-VV had higher WM and lower ReHo in all five frontal brain areas. The results supported the hypothesis that COMT and BDNF polymorphisms influence WM performance and spontaneous brain activity (i.e., ReHo). PMID:27853425

  5. A potyvirus-based gene vector allows producing active human S-COMT and animal GFP, but not human sorcin, in vector-infected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloniemi, Jani; Mäkinen, Kristiina; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2006-05-01

    Potato virus A (PVA), a potyvirus with a (+)ssRNA genome translated to a large polyprotein, was engineered and used as a gene vector for expression of heterologous proteins in plants. Foreign genes including jellyfish GFP (Aequorea victoria) encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP, 27 kDa) and the genes of human origin (Homo sapiens) encoding a soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin, 22 kDa) and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT; 25 kDa) were cloned between the cistrons for the viral replicase and coat protein (CP). The inserts caused no adverse effects on viral infectivity and virulence, and the inserted sequences remained intact in progeny viruses in the systemically infected leaves. The heterologous proteins were released from the viral polyprotein following cleavage by the main viral proteinase, NIa, at engineered proteolytic processing sites flanking the insert. Active GFP, as indicated by green fluorescence, and S-COMT with high levels of enzymatic activity were produced. In contrast, no sorcin was detected despite the expected equimolar amounts of the foreign and viral proteins being expressed as a polyprotein. These data reveal inherent differences between heterologous proteins in their suitability for production in plants.

  6. The COMT Val/Met polymorphism is associated with reading related skills and consistent patterns of functional neural activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J.; Mencl, W. Einar; Preston, Jonathan L.; Jacobsen, Leslie K.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    In both children and adults there is large variability in reading skill, with approximately 5–10% of individuals characterized as having reading disability; these individuals struggle to learn to read despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. Although it is well established that a substantial portion of this variability is attributed to the genetic differences between individuals, specifics of the connections between reading and the genome are not understood. This article presents data that suggest that variation in the COMT gene, which has previously been associated with variation in higher-order cognition, is associated with reading and reading-related skills, both at the level of brain and behavior. In particular, we found that the COMT Val/Met polymorphism at rs4680, which results in the substitution of the ancestral Valine (Val) by Methionine (Met), was associated with better performance on a number of critical reading measures and with patterns of functional neural activation that have been linked to better readers. We argue that this polymorphism, known for its broad effects on cognition, may modulate (likely through frontal lobe function) reading skill. PMID:23278923

  7. The COMT Val/Met polymorphism is associated with reading-related skills and consistent patterns of functional neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J; Mencl, W Einar; Preston, Jonathan L; Jacobsen, Leslie K; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2013-01-01

    In both children and adults there is large variability in reading skill, with approximately 5-10% of individuals characterized as having reading disability; these individuals struggle to learn to read despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. Although it is well established that a substantial portion of this variability is attributed to the genetic differences between individuals, specifics of the connections between reading and the genome are not understood. This article presents data that suggest that variation in the COMT gene, which has previously been associated with variation in higher-order cognition, is associated with reading and reading-related skills, at the level of both brain and behavior. In particular, we found that the COMT Val/Met polymorphism at rs4680, which results in the substitution of the ancestral Valine (Val) by Methionine (Met), was associated with better performance on a number of critical reading measures and with patterns of functional neural activation that have been linked to better readers. We argue that this polymorphism, known for its broad effects on cognition, may modulate (likely through frontal lobe function) reading skill. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Remote memories are enhanced by COMT activity through dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheggia, D; Zamberletti, E; Realini, N; Mereu, M; Contarini, G; Ferretti, V; Managò, F; Margiani, G; Brunoro, R; Rubino, T; De Luca, M A; Piomelli, D; Parolaro, D; Papaleo, F

    2018-04-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC. However, despite the established role played by COMT genetic variation in executive functions, its impact on remote memory formation and recall is still poorly explored. Here we report that transgenic mice overexpressing the human COMT-Val gene (COMT-Val-tg) present exaggerated remote memories (>50 days) while having unaltered recent memories (remote memories as silencing COMT Val overexpression starting from 30 days after the initial aversive conditioning normalized remote memories. COMT genetic overactivity produced a selective overdrive of the endocannabinoid system within the PFC, but not in the striatum and hippocampus, which was associated with enhanced remote memories. Indeed, acute pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors was sufficient to rescue the altered remote memory recall in COMT-Val-tg mice and increased PFC dopamine levels. These results demonstrate that COMT genetic variations modulate the retrieval of remote memories through the dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the PFC.

  9. Assessment of cellular estrogenic activity based on estrogen receptor-mediated reduction of soluble-form catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT expression in an ELISA-based system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Wing-Lok Ho

    cellular components, a cell-based COMT assay provides useful initial screening to supplement the current assessments of xenoestrogens for potential estrogenic activity.

  10. Modification of COMT-dependent pain sensitivity by psychological stress and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloto, Carolina B; Bortsov, Andrey V; Bair, Eric; Helgeson, Erika; Ostrom, Cara; Smith, Shad B; Dubner, Ronald; Slade, Gary D; Fillingim, Roger B; Greenspan, Joel D; Ohrbach, Richard; Maixner, William; McLean, Samuel A; Diatchenko, Luda

    2016-04-01

    Catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a polymorphic gene whose variants affect enzymatic activity and pain sensitivity via adrenergic pathways. Although COMT represents one of the most studied genes in human pain genetics, findings regarding its association with pain phenotypes are not always replicated. Here, we investigated if interactions among functional COMT haplotypes, stress, and sex can modify the effect of COMT genetic variants on pain sensitivity. We tested these interactions in a cross-sectional study, including 2 cohorts, one of 2972 subjects tested for thermal pain sensitivity (Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment) and one of 948 subjects with clinical acute pain after motor vehicle collision (post-motor vehicle collision). In both cohorts, the COMT high-pain sensitivity (HPS) haplotype showed robust interaction with stress and number of copies of the HPS haplotype was positively associated with pain sensitivity in nonstressed individuals, but not in stressed individuals. In the post-motor vehicle collision cohort, there was additional modification by sex: the HPS-stress interaction was apparent in males, but not in females. In summary, our findings indicate that stress and sex should be evaluated in association studies aiming to investigate the effect of COMT genetic variants on pain sensitivity.

  11. COMT Val(158)Met genotype determines the direction of cognitive effects produced by catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sarah M; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Braeutigam, Sven; Harrison, Paul J

    2012-03-15

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes dopamine. The COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism influences its activity, and multiple neural correlates of this genotype on dopaminergic phenotypes, especially working memory, have been reported. COMT activity can also be regulated pharmacologically by COMT inhibitors. The inverted-U relationship between cortical dopamine signaling and working memory predicts that the effects of COMT inhibition will differ according to COMT genotype. Thirty-four COMT Met(158)Met (Met-COMT) and 33 COMT Val(158)Val (Val-COMT) men were given a single 200-mg dose of the brain-penetrant COMT inhibitor tolcapone or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, between-subjects design. They completed the N-back task of working memory and a gambling task. In the placebo group, Met-COMT subjects outperformed Val-COMT subjects on the 2- back, and they were more risk averse. Tolcapone had opposite effects in the two genotype groups: it worsened N-back performance in Met-COMT subjects but enhanced it in Val-COMT subjects. Tolcapone made Met-COMT subjects less risk averse but Val-COMT subjects more so. In both tasks, tolcapone reversed the baseline genotype differences. Depending on genotype, COMT inhibition can enhance or impair working memory and increase or decrease risky decision making. To our knowledge, the data are the clearest demonstration to date that the direction of effect of a drug can be influenced by a polymorphism in its target gene. The results support the inverted-U model of dopamine function. The findings are of translational relevance, because COMT inhibitors are used in the adjunctive treatment of Parkinson's disease and are under evaluation in schizophrenia and other disorders. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Imaging oxytocin x dopamine interactions: An epistasis effect of CD38 and COMT gene variants influences the impact of oxytocin on amygdala activation to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eSauer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although oxytocin (OT has become a major target for the investigation of positive social processes, it can be assumed that it exerts its effects in concert with other neurotransmitters. One candidate for such an interaction is dopamine (DA. For both systems, genetic variants have been identified that influence the availability of the particular substance. A variant of the gene coding for the transmembrane protein CD38 (rs3796863, which is engaged in OT secretion, has been associated with OT plasma level. The common catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT val158met polymorphism is known to influence COMT activity and therefore the degradation of DA. The present study aimed to investigate OTxDA interactions in the context of an OT challenge study. Hence, we tested the influence of the above mentioned genetic variants and their interaction on the activation of different brain regions (amygdala, VTA, ventral striatum and fusiform gyrus during the presentation of social stimuli. In a pharmacological cross-over design 55 participants were investigated under OT and placebo (PLA by means of fMRI.Brain imaging results revealed no significant effects for VTA or ventral striatum. Regarding the fusiform gyrus, we could not find any effects apart from those already described in (Sauer et al., 2012. Analyses of amygdala activation resulted in no gene main effect, no gene x substance interaction but a significant gene x gene x substance interaction. While under PLA the effect of CD38 on bilateral amygdala activation to social stimuli was modulated by the COMT genotype, no such epistasis effect was found under OT. Our results provide evidence for an OTxDA interaction during responses to social stimuli. We postulate that the effect of central OT secretion on amygdala response is modulated by the availability of DA. Therefore, for an understanding of the effect of social hormones on social behavior, interactions of OT with other transmitter systems have to be taken

  13. COMT Diplotype Amplifies Effect of Stress on Risk of Temporomandibular Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, G D; Sanders, A E; Ohrbach, R; Bair, E; Maixner, W; Greenspan, J D; Fillingim, R B; Smith, S; Diatchenko, L

    2015-09-01

    When measured once, psychological stress predicts development of painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD). However, a single measurement fails to characterize the dynamic nature of stress over time. Moreover, effects of stress on pain likely vary according to biological susceptibility. We hypothesized that temporal escalation in stress exacerbates risk for TMD, and the effect is amplified by allelic variants in a gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), regulating catechol neurotransmitter catabolism. We used data from the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment prospective cohort study of 2,707 community-dwelling adults with no lifetime history of TMD on enrollment. At baseline and quarterly periods thereafter, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) measured psychological stress. Genotyped DNA from blood samples determined COMT diplotypes. During follow-up of 0.25 to 5.2 y, 248 adults developed examiner-verified incident TMD. PSS scores at baseline were 20% greater (P stress escalation was limited to incident cases with COMT diplotypes coding for low-activity COMT, signifying impaired catabolism of catecholamines. Cox regression models confirmed significant effects on TMD hazard of both baseline PSS (P stress showed that a postbaseline increase of 1.0 standard deviation in PSS more than doubled risk of TMD incidence in subjects with low-activity COMT diplotypes (hazard ratio = 2.35; 95% confidence limits: 1.66, 3.32), an effect not found in subjects with high-activity COMT diplotypes (hazard ratio = 1.42; 95% confidence limits: 0.96, 2.09). Findings provide novel insights into dynamic effects of psychological stress on TMD pain, highlighting that effects are most pronounced in individuals whose genetic susceptibility increases responsiveness to catecholamine neurotransmitters. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  14. Lettres à Auguste Comte

    OpenAIRE

    Mill, John Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Ces lettres sont écrites en français et sont reproduites sans correction.   India Housele 13 juillet 1843Mon cher Monsieur Comte J’espère que cette lettre vous atteindra avant le commencement de votre tournée officielle, qui du reste ne suspendra pas sans doute notre correspondance, et je ne doute pas qu’à quelque temps d’ici je serai plus en état de vous écrire convenablement. Le dérangement passager que je vous ai annoncé dans ma dernière lettre, de ma santé morale et physique, ne s’est pas...

  15. Modulating effect of COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism on interference resolution during a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspar, Mathieu; Dideberg, Vinciane; Bours, Vincent; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2015-04-01

    Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has received increasing attention in the last 15years, in particular as a potential modulator of the neural substrates underlying inhibitory processes and updating in working memory (WM). In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we administered a modified version of the Sternberg probe recency task (Sternberg, 1966) to 43 young healthy volunteers, varying the level of interference across successive items. The task was divided into two parts (high vs. low interference) to induce either proactive or reactive control processes. The participants were separated into three groups according to their COMT Val(158)Met genotype [Val/Val (VV); Val/Met (VM); Met/Met (MM)]. The general aim of the study was to determine whether COMT polymorphism has a modulating effect on the neural substrates of interference resolution during WM processing. Results indicate that interfering trials were associated with greater involvement of frontal cortices (bilateral medial frontal gyrus, left precentral and superior frontal gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus) in VV homozygous subjects (by comparison to Met allele carriers) only in the proactive condition of the task. In addition, analysis of peristimulus haemodynamic responses (PSTH) revealed that the genotype-related difference observed in the left SFG was specifically driven by a larger increase in activity from the storage to the recognition phase of the interfering trials in VV homozygous subjects. These results confirm the impact of COMT genotype on inhibitory processes during a WM task, with an advantage for Met allele carriers. Interestingly, this impact on frontal areas is present only when the level of interference is high, and especially during the transition from storage to recognition in the left superior frontal gyrus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender effects of the COMT Val 158 Met genotype on verbal fluency in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro-De-Souza, Marcio Gerhardt; Bio, Danielle Soares; David, Denise Petresco; Missio, Giovani; Lima, Bruno; Fernandes, Fernando; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive performance in healthy individuals is associated with gender differences in specific tests; a female advantage has been demonstrated in language tests, whereas a male advantage has been demonstrated in spatial relation examinations. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediates important cognitive domains and is influenced by dopamine (DA) activity. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 in the catechol‑O‑methyltransferase (COMT) gene results in an amino acid substitution from valine (Val) to methionine (Met). The Met allele has been demonstrated to decrease COMT enzyme activity and improve PFC cognitive function. COMT regulates DA activity in the PFC and exhibits gender effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the gender‑specific effects of the COMT genotype on cognition in healthy young adults. Seventy‑six healthy subjects were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and submitted to an extensive range of neuropsychological tests assessing aspects of PFC function. The COMT Met allele influenced the performance of executive function. The results revealed gender effects of the COMT rs4680 Met allele on verbal fluency, with positive effects in males and negative effects in females. This suggested that DA activity affects cognitive function in different ways, according to gender.

  17. COMT val108/158 met genotype affects neural but not cognitive processing in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nancy A; Need, Anna C; LaBar, Kevin S; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496-1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output.

  18. Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilford, Emma J; Dumontheil, Iroise; Wood, Nicholas W; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-06-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val(158)Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 healthy adult participants, who were also assessed on standard working memory (WM) tasks. Relative to Val carriers, Met homozygotes made fewer errors when selecting and manipulating self-generated thoughts. This effect was partly accounted for by an association between COMT genotype and visuospatial WM performance. We also observed a complex interaction between the influence of affective distractors, COMT genotype and sex on task accuracy: male, but not female, participants showed a sensitivity to the affective distractors that was dependent on COMT genotype. This was not accounted for by WM performance. This study provides novel evidence of the role of dopaminergic genetic variation on the ability to select and manipulate self-generated thoughts. The results also suggest sexually dimorphic effects of COMT genotype on the influence of affective distractors on executive function. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. [The polymorphism of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and hemochromatosis (HFE) genes in the radiocontaminated regions residents with different chromosome aberration frequency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T I; Kondrashova, T V; Krikunova, L I; Smirnova, I A; Shentereva, N I; Sychenkova, N I; Rykova, E V; Zharikova, I A; Khorokhorina, V A; Riabchenko, N I; Zamulaeva, I A

    2010-01-01

    The association between polymorphisms in genes COMT, HFE that takes part in oxidative stress regulation, and chromosome aberration frequency in lymphocytes was assessed in 278 female residents of radiation polluted regions of Central Russia: Bryansk (322 kBk/m2) and Tula Districts (137Cs - 171 kBk/m2). The C187G, G845A genotyping of HFE and G1947A (H/L) of COMT was done by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Studied population was divided into 3 subgroups by level of chromosome aberrations per cell (0-2, 3-4, >5). There was shown statistically significant difference in distribution of COMTand HFE genotypes between the groups. The high frequency of chromosome aberrations (> or = 5%) was associated with homozygotes of the high activity COMT G/G and HFE CC. Heterozygotes for G1947A COMT and C187G HFE reveal negative association with the high frequency of chromosome aberrations and correspond to "resistance factors".

  20. Delayed O-methylation of l-DOPA in MB-COMT-deficient mice after oral administration of l-DOPA and carbidopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammimäki, Anne; Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Männistö, Pekka T

    2018-04-01

    1. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in the O-methylation of l-DOPA, dopamine, and other catechols. The enzyme is expressed in two isoforms: soluble (S-COMT), which resides in the cytoplasm, and membrane-bound (MB-COMT), which is anchored to intracellular membranes. 2. To obtain specific information on the functions of COMT isoforms, we studied how a complete MB-COMT deficiency affects the total COMT activity in the body, peripheral l-DOPA levels, and metabolism after l-DOPA (10 mg kg -1 ) plus carbidopa (30 mg kg -1 ) administration by gastric tube in wild-type (WT) and MB-COMT-deficient mice. l-DOPA and 3-O-methyl-l-DOPA (3-OMD) levels were assayed in plasma, duodenum, and liver. 3. We showed that the selective lack of MB-COMT did not alter the total COMT activity, COMT enzyme kinetics, l-DOPA levels, or the total O-methylation of l-DOPA but delayed production of 3-OMD in plasma and peripheral tissues.

  1. Association of functional variations in COMT and GCH1 genes with postherniotomy pain and related impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belfer, Inna; Dai, Feng; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Persistent postoperative pain is a well-established clinical problem with potential severe personal and socioeconomic implications. The prevalence of persistent pain varies across surgery types. Severe persistent pain and related impairment occur in 5% to 10% of patients after groin hernia repair....... The substantial interindividual variability in pain-related phenotypes within each surgery type cannot be explained by environmental factors alone, suggesting that genetic variation may play a role. We investigated the contribution of COMT and GCH1 to persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP)-related functional...... moderate-to-severe pain-related activity impairment 6 months postoperatively as measured by Activity Assessment Scale (≥8.3). Patients with the G allele of COMT SNP rs6269 and C allele of COMT SNP rs4633 had less impairment (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively); in addition, the COMT haplotype GCG...

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type: evidence for an association with COMT but not MAOA in a Chinese sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu-Feng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are three childhood disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, and conduct disorder (CD. The most common comorbid disorder in ADHD is ODD. DSM-IV describes three ADHD subtypes: predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI, and combined type (ADHD-C. Prior work suggests that specific candidate genes are associated with specific subtypes of ADHD in China. Our previous association studies between ADHD and functional polymorphisms of COMT and MAOA, consistently showed the low transcriptional activity alleles were preferentially transmitted to ADHD-IA boys. Thus, the goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that COMT Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR jointly contribute to the ODD phenotype among Chinese ADHD boys. Methods 171 Chinese boys between 6 and 17.5 years old (mean = 10.3, SD = 2.6 with complete COMT val158met and MAOA-uVNTR genotyping information were studied. We used logistic regression with genotypes as independent variables and the binary phenotype as the dependent variable. We used p Results Our results highlight the potential etiologic role of COMT in the ADHD with comorbid ODD and its predominately inattentive type in male Chinese subjects. ADHD with comorbid ODD was associated with homozygosity of the high-activity Val allele, while the predominantly inattentive ADHD subtype was associated with the low-activity Met allele. We found no evidence of association between the MAOA-uVNTR variant and ADHD with comorbid ODD or the ADHD-IA subtype. Conclusion Our study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type highlights the potential etiologic role of COMT for ADHD children in China. But we failed to observe an interaction between COMT and MAOA, which suggests that epistasis between COMT and MAOA genes does not

  3. The quantification of COMT mRNA in post mortem cerebellum tissue: diagnosis, genotype, methylation and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Ian W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The COMT gene is located on chromosome 22q11, a region strongly implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia. Previous research has suggested that activity and expression of COMT is altered in schizophrenia, and is mediated by one or more polymorphisms within the gene, including the functional Val158Met polymorphism. Method In this study we examined the expression levels of COMT mRNA using quantitative RT-PCR in 60 post mortem cerebellum samples derived from individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and no history of psychopathology. Furthermore, we have examined the methylation status of two CpG sites in the promoter region of the gene. Results We found no evidence of altered COMT expression or methylation in any of the psychiatric diagnoses examined. We did, however, find evidence to suggest that genotype is related to COMT gene expression, replicating the findings of two previous studies. Specifically, val158met (rs165688; Val allele rs737865 (G allele and rs165599 (G allele all showed reduced expression (P COMT expression, with females exhibiting significantly greater levels of COMT mRNA. Conclusion The expression of COMT does not appear to be altered in the cerebellum of individuals suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression, but does appear to be influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene.

  4. COMT and MTHFR polymorphisms interaction on cognition in schizophrenia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, Dimitrios; Theochari, Eirini; Fryssira, Helen; Kleisas, Spyridon; Sofocleous, Christalena; Andreopoulou, Angeliki; Kalogerakou, Stamatina; Gazi, Anthia; Boniatsi, Lucia; Chaidemenos, Alexandros; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2013-03-14

    The investigation of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT-[rs4680]) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR-[rs1801133]) polymorphisms' interaction might shed light into the pathogenetic mechanisms of the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. In an exploratory study, we hypothesized that the MTHFR 677T allele which has been related to a hypoactive MTHFR enzyme would augment the unfavorable effects of COMT Val158 homozygosity which has been associated with COMT enzyme hyperfunction. 90 schizophrenia patients and 55 healthy volunteers were assessed on psychomotor speed, pattern and spatial recognition memory (SRM), spatial working memory (SWM), attentional flexibility and planning (Stockings of Cambridge-SOC). IQ scores in a random subgroup of patients were also measured. A significant COMT×MTHFR interaction on SWM (p=0.048) and planning (p=0.026) was revealed in both groups. Among COMT-Val/Val participants, MTHFR-C/C made more SWM errors (p=0.033) and solved fewer SOC problems (p=0.025) than MTHFR-T carriers. In patients, there was a significant COMT×MTHFR interaction on full scale IQ (p=0.035): among COMT-Met carriers, MTHFR-T carriers performed significantly worse than MTHFR-C/C (p=0.021), which was driven by a COMT×MTHFR interaction involving performance IQ (p=0.047). In conclusion, COMT and MTHFR polymorphisms interacted on cognition, suggesting that the MTHFR enzyme activity might moderate the effects of the COMT enzyme. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, the MTHFR T-allele attenuated the cognitive effects of COMT Val homozygosity. In this preliminary study, we propose that dopaminergic and intracellular methylation mechanisms could interact on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perception of emotion in facial stimuli: The interaction of ADRA2A and COMT genotypes, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Gerly; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Harro, Jaanus

    2016-01-04

    Emotional facial stimuli are important social signals that are essential to be perceived and recognized in order to make appropriate decisions and responses in everyday communication. The ability to voluntarily guide attention to perceive and recognize emotions, and react to them varies largely across individuals, and has a strong genetic component (Friedman et al., 2008). Two key genetic variants of the catecholamine system that have been related to emotion perception and attention are the catechol-O-methyl transferase genetic variant (COMT Val158Met) and the α2A-receptor gene promoter polymorphism (ADRA2A C-1291G) accordingly. So far, the interaction of the two with sex in emotion perception has not been studied. Multilevel modeling method was applied to study how COMT Val158Met, ADRA2A C-1291G and sex are associated with measures of emotion perception in a large sample of young adults. Participants (n=506) completed emotion recognition and behavioral emotion detection tasks. It was found that COMT Val158Met genotype in combination with the ADRA2A C-1291G and sex predicts emotion detection, and perception of valence and arousal. In simple visual detection, the ADRA2A C-1291G G-allele leads to slower detection of a highly arousing face (scheming), which is modulated by each additional COMT Val158Met Met-allele and male sex predicting faster responses. The combination of G-allele, Met-allele and male sex also predicts higher perceived negativity in sad faces. No effects of C-1291G, Val158Met, and sex were found on verbal emotion recognition. Applying the findings to study the interplay between catecholamine-O-methyl transferase activity and α2A-receptors in emotion perception disorders (such as ADHD, autism and schizophrenia) in men and women would be the next step towards understanding individual differences in emotion perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of the COMT val(158)met polymorphism on neural correlates of semantic verbal fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Axel; Markov, Valentin; Sheldrick, Abigail; Krach, Sören; Jansen, Andreas; Zerres, Klaus; Eggermann, Thomas; Stöcker, Tony; Shah, N Jon; Kircher, Tilo

    2009-12-01

    Variation in the val(158)met polymorphism of the COMT gene has been found to be associated with cognitive performance. In functional neuroimaging studies, this dysfunction has been linked to signal changes in prefrontal areas. Given the complex modulation and functional heterogeneity of frontal lobe systems, further specification of COMT gene-related phenotypes differing in prefrontally mediated cognitive performance are of major interest. Eighty healthy individuals (54 men, 26 women; mean age 23.3 years) performed an overt semantic verbal fluency task while brain activation was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). COMT val(158)met genotype was determined and correlated with brain activation measured with fMRI during the task. Although there were no differences in performance, brain activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus [Brodmann area 10] was positively correlated with the number of val alleles in the COMT gene. COMT val(158)met status modulates brain activation during the language production on a semantic level in an area related to executive functions.

  7. Association of COMT and COMT-DRD2 interaction with creative potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun eZhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA transmission may contribute to creativity. Among these genes, the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT and the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2 are the most promising candidates. Our previous study has revealed evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in creative potential. The present study extended our previous study by systematically exploring the association of COMT with creative potential as well as the interaction between COMT and DRD2. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs covering COMT were genotyped in 543 healthy Chinese college students whose creative potentials were assessed by divergent thinking tests. Single SNP analysis showed that rs174697 was nominally associated with verbal originality, two SNPs (rs737865 and rs5993883 were nominally associated with figural fluency, and two SNPs (rs737865 and rs4680 were nominally associated with figural originality. Haplotype analysis showed that, the TCT and CCT haplotype (rs737865-rs174675-rs5993882 were nominally associated with figural originality, and the TATGCAG and CGCGGGA haplotype (rs4646312-rs6269-rs4633-rs6267-rs4818-rs4680-rs769224 were nominally associated with figural originality and verbal flexibility, respectively. However, none of these nominal findings survived correction for multiple testing. Gene-gene interaction analysis identified one significant four-way interaction of rs174675 (COMT, rs174697 (COMT, rs1076560 (DRD2 and rs4436578 (DRD2 on verbal fluency, one significant four-way interaction of rs174675 (COMT, rs4818 (COMT, rs1076560 (DRD2 and rs4648317 (DRD2 on verbal flexibility, and one significant three-way interaction of rs5993883 (COMT, rs4648319 (DRD2 and rs4648317 (DRD2 on figural flexibility. In conclusion, the present study provides nominal evidence for the involvement of COMT in creative potential and suggests that DA related genes may act in coordination to contribute to creativity.

  8. The effects of gender and COMT Val158Met polymorphism on fearful facial affect recognition: a fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Matthew J; Haldane, Morgan; Jogia, Jigar; Christodoulou, Tessa; Powell, John; Collier, David; Williams, Steven C R; Frangou, Sophia

    2009-04-01

    The functional catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val108/158Met) polymorphism has been shown to have an impact on tasks of executive function, memory and attention and recently, tasks with an affective component. As oestrogen reduces COMT activity, we focused on the interaction between gender and COMT genotype on brain activations during an affective processing task. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to record brain activations from 74 healthy subjects who engaged in a facial affect recognition task; subjects viewed and identified fearful compared to neutral faces. There was no main effect of the COMT polymorphism, gender or genotypexgender interaction on task performance. We found a significant effect of gender on brain activations in the left amygdala and right temporal pole, where females demonstrated increased activations over males. Within these regions, Val/Val carriers showed greater signal magnitude compared to Met/Met carriers, particularly in females. The COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism impacts on gender-related patterns of activation in limbic and paralimbic regions but the functional significance of any oestrogen-related COMT inhibition appears modest.

  9. The COMT val158met polymorphism and brain morphometry in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinkstok, Janneke; Schmitz, Nicole; van Amelsvoort, Therese; de Win, Maartje; van den Brink, Wim; Baas, Frank; Linszen, Don

    2006-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is the most important mechanism for dopamine degradation in the prefrontal cortex and contains a functional polymorphism (val(158)met) influencing enzyme activity. The low-activity met allele has been associated with better performance on cognitive tasks relying

  10. Evidence that COMT genotype and proline interact on negative-symptom outcomes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, C L; Drouet, V; Rilett, K C; Smeed, J A; Nadrich, R H; Rajparia, A; Read, L L; Clelland, J D

    2016-09-13

    Elevated peripheral proline is associated with psychiatric disorders, and there is evidence that proline is a neuromodulator. The proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) gene, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes proline catabolism, maps to human chromosome 22q11.2, a region conferring risk of schizophrenia. In the Prodh-null mouse, an interaction between elevated peripheral proline and another 22q11.2 gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), on neurotransmission and behavior has been reported. We explored the relationship between fasting plasma proline levels and COMT Val(158)Met genotype on symptoms (positive, negative and total) in schizophrenia patients. In an exploratory study we also examined symptom change in patients with bipolar disorder. There was a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT on negative symptoms in schizophrenia (PScale for the Assessment of Negative Symptom (SANS) scores. In contrast, high proline was associated with high SANS scores in patients carrying a Met allele. The relationship between proline and COMT also appears to modify negative symptoms across psychiatric illness. In bipolar disorder, a significant interaction was also observed on negative-symptom change (P=0.007, n=43). Negative symptoms are intractable and largely unaddressed by current medications. These data indicate a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT genotype, influencing negative symptoms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. That high proline has converse effects on symptoms by COMT genotype, may have implications for therapeutic decisions.

  11. Measurements of radon concentrations in a sample representative of housing in Franche-Comte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aury, K.; Clinard, F.; Tillier, C.; Catelinois, O.; Pirard, P.; Aury, K.; Nourry, L.; Hochart, A.

    2008-01-01

    Three departments on four ones in Franche-Comte are classified at risk for radon: measurements are so compulsory in establishments receiving public. For the residential sector, no obligation of measurement are compulsory when french people spend 70% of their time in it. The data concerning homes are fragmentary and deserve to be completed. This campaign of measurements has confirmed the existence of radon in relatively high concentrations in Franche-Comte, including the sedimentary areas, justifying the necessity to realize a precise evaluation of the sanitary impact. The model will allow to study different strategies to reduce radon in houses. (N.C.)

  12. The COMT Val158 Met polymorphism as an associated risk factor for Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment in APOE 4 carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borda Sandra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to examine the influence of the catechol-O-methyltranferase (COMT gene (polymorphism Val158 Met as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment of amnesic type (MCI, and its synergistic effect with the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE. A total of 223 MCI patients, 345 AD and 253 healthy controls were analyzed. Clinical criteria and neuropsychological tests were used to establish diagnostic groups. The DNA Bank of the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU (Spain determined COMT Val158 Met and APOE genotypes using real time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to determine the risk of AD and MCI. Results Neither COMT alleles nor genotypes were independent risk factors for AD or MCI. The high activity genotypes (GG and AG showed a synergistic effect with APOE ε4 allele, increasing the risk of AD (OR = 5.96, 95%CI 2.74-12.94, p In MCI patients such as synergistic effect was only found between AG and APOE ε4 allele (OR = 3.21 95%CI 1.56-6.63, p = 0.02 and was greater in men (OR = 5.88 95%CI 1.69-20.42, p Conclusion COMT (Val158 Met polymorphism is not an independent risk factor for AD or MCI, but shows a synergistic effect with APOE ε4 allele that proves greater in women with AD.

  13. COMT Val(108/158)Met polymorphism effects on emotional brain function and negativity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leanne M; Gatt, Justine M; Grieve, Stuart M; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Paul, Robert H; Gordon, Evian; Schofield, Peter R

    2010-11-15

    Biases toward processing negative versus positive information vary as a function of level of awareness, and are modulated by monoamines. Excessive biases are associated with individual differences in mood and emotional stability, and emotional disorder. Here, we examined the impact of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(108/158)Met polymorphism, involved in dopamine and norepinephrine catabolism, on both emotional brain function and self-reported negativity bias. COMT genotyping and self-reported level of negativity bias were completed for 46 healthy participants taking part in the Brain Resource International Database. Functional MRI was undertaken during perception of facial expressions of fear and happiness presented under unmasked (consciously identified) and masked (to prevent conscious detection) conditions. Structural MR images were also acquired. A greater number of COMT Met alleles predicted increased activation in brainstem, amygdala, basal ganglia and medial prefrontal regions for conscious fear, but decreased activation for conscious happiness. This pattern was also apparent for brainstem activation for the masked condition. Effects were most apparent for females. These differences could not be explained by gray matter variations. The Met-related profile of activation, particularly prefrontally, predicted greater negativity bias associated with risk for emotional disorder. The findings suggest that the COMT Met allele modulates neural substrates of negative versus positive emotion processing. This effect may contribute to negativity biases, which confer susceptibility for emotional disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of COMT val158met genotype on the depressed brain during emotional processing and working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M Opmeer

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD has been associated with abnormal prefrontal-limbic interactions and altered catecholaminergic neurotransmission. The val158met polymorphism on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene has been shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC activation during both emotional processing and working memory (WM. Although COMT-genotype is not directly associated with MDD, it may affect MDD pathology by altering PFC activation, an endophenotype associated with both COMT and MDD. 125 participants, including healthy controls (HC, n=28 and MDD patients were genotyped for the COMT val158met polymorphism and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-neuroimaging during emotion processing (viewing of emotional facial expressions and a WM task (visuospatial planning. Within HC, we observed a positive correlation between the number of met-alleles and right inferior frontal gyrus activation during emotional processing, whereas within patients the number of met-alleles was not correlated with PFC activation. During WM a negative correlation between the number of met-alleles and middle frontal gyrus activation was present in the total sample. In addition, during emotional processing there was an effect of genotype in a cluster including the amygdala and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that COMT genotype is associated with relevant endophenotypes for MDD. In addition, presence of MDD only interacts with genotype during emotional processing and not working memory.

  15. COMT Val(158) met genotype and striatal D(2/3) receptor binding in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boot, Erik

    2011-09-01

    Although catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity evidently affects dopamine function in prefrontal cortex, the contribution is assumed less significant in striatum. We studied whether a functional polymorphism in the COMT gene (Val(158) Met) influences striatal D(2\\/3) R binding ratios (D(2\\/3) R BP(ND) ) in 15 adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome and hemizygous for this gene, using single photon emission computed tomography and the selective D(2\\/3) radioligand [(123) I]IBZM. Met hemizygotes had significantly lower mean D(2\\/3) R BPND than Val hemizygotes. These preliminary data suggest that low COMT activity may affect dopamine levels in striatum in humans and this may have implications for understanding the contribution of COMT activity to psychiatric disorders.

  16. Association study between COMT 158Met and creativity scores in bipolar disorder and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro-de-Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Bipolar disorder (BD patients have been reported to be associated higher creativity abilities, and recent data tend to support the hypothesis that dopaminergic system that could be associated with creativity. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is one of the major enzymes involved in the metabolic degradation of dopamine. The COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680 or Val158Met Met allele is reported to cause decreased activity of this enzyme in prefrontal cortex and improve performance in several cognitive domains. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Val158Met on creativity in BD type I and healthy controls. Methods Ninety-seven healthy volunteers and 120 BD type I were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and tested for creativity (Barrow Welsh Art Scale – BWAS and intelligence Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. Results COMT Met allele positively influenced creativity scores in healthy controls but not in BD subjects during mood episodes and euthymia. The presence of allele Met did not influence IQ scores. No influence of IQ total score on creativity was observed. Limitations control group presented higher IQ scores and euthymic group was under medication use. Discussion Our research suggests positive effect of COMT rs4680 (allele Met on creativity scores in healthy controls. One possible interpretation is that creativity is more likely to be associated with lesser degrees of bipolarity. The fact that the same results were not observed in BD may be associated to dysfunctions in the dopaminergic system that characterizes this disorder. Further studies with larger samples and other types of BD should explore the role of the dopaminergic system in creativity.

  17. Structure related effects of flavonoid aglycones on cell cycle progression of HepG2 cells: Metabolic activation of fisetin and quercetin by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, Miklós; Zrínyi, Zita; Kőszegi, Tamás

    2016-10-01

    Dietary flavonoids are abundant in the Plant Kingdom and they are extensively studied because of their manifold pharmacological activities. Recent studies highlighted that cell cycle arrest plays a key role in their antiproliferative effect in different tumor cells. However, structure-activity relationship of flavonoids is poorly characterized. In our study the influence of 18 flavonoid aglycones (as well as two metabolites) on cell cycle distribution was investigated. Since flavonoids are extensively metabolized by liver cells, HepG2 tumor cell line was applied, considering the potential metabolic activation/inactivation of flavonoids. Our major observations are the followings: (1) Among the tested compounds diosmetin, fisetin, apigenin, lutelin, and quercetin provoked spectacular extent of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. (2) Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase enzyme by entacapone decreased the antiproliferative effects of fisetin and quercetin. (3) Geraldol and isorhamnetin (3'-O-methylated metabolites of fisetin and quercetin, respectively) demonstrated significantly higher antiproliferative effect on HepG2 cells compared to the parent compounds. Based on these results, O-methylated flavonoid metabolites or their chemically modified derivatives may be suitable candidates of tumor therapy in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Different Roles of COMT and HTR2A Genotypes in Working Memory Subprocesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito M Kondo

    Full Text Available Working memory is linked to the functions of the frontal areas, in which neural activity is mediated by dopaminergic and serotonergic tones. However, there is no consensus regarding how the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems influence working memory subprocesses. The present study used an imaging genetics approach to examine the interaction between neurochemical functions and working memory performance. We focused on functional polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val(158Met and serotonin 2A receptor (HTR2A -1438G/A genes, and devised a delayed recognition task to isolate the encoding, retention, and retrieval processes for visual information. The COMT genotypes affected recognition accuracy, whereas the HTR2A genotypes were associated with recognition response times. Activations specifically related to working memory were found in the right frontal and parietal areas, such as the middle frontal gyrus (MFG, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and inferior parietal lobule (IPL. MFG and ACC/IPL activations were sensitive to differences between the COMT genotypes and between the HTR2A genotypes, respectively. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that stronger connectivity in the ACC-MFG and ACC-IFG networks is related to better task performance. The behavioral and fMRI results suggest that the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems play different roles in the working memory subprocesses and modulate closer cooperation between lateral and medial frontal activations.

  19. Executive control in schizophrenia: a preliminary study on the moderating role of COMT Val158Met for comorbid alcohol and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Nicolini, Gabriella; Crocamo, Cristina; Lax, Annamaria; Amidani, Francesca; Bartoli, Francesco; Castellano, Filippo; Chiorazzi, Alessia; Gamba, Giulia; Papagno, Costanza; Clerici, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met) appears to influence cognition in people with alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) and in those with psychosis. To explore the potential moderating effect of these factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted, randomly recruiting subjects with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia. AUD/SUD was rigorously assessed, as well as COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Executive control functioning was measured using the Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED). The effect of a possible interaction between comorbid AUD/SUD and COMT Val158Met polymorphism on IED scores was explored. Subjects with schizophrenia, comorbid AUD/SUD, and MetMet carriers for SNP rs4680 of the COMT gene showed worse performance on IED completed stages scores, as compared with individuals with ValVal genotype. However, among subjects without AUD/SUD, those with the MetMet variant performed better than people carrying ValVal genotype. This study is the first to date examining the impact of COMT on cognition in a highly representative sample of people with schizophrenia and comorbid AUD/SUD. Differential moderating effects of COMT Val/Met genotype variations may similarly influence executive functions in people with schizophrenia and comorbid AUD/SUD.

  20. COMT Val158Met Polymorphism, Executive Dysfunction, and Sexual Risk Behavior in the Context of HIV Infection and Methamphetamine Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Bousman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferease (COMT metabolizes prefrontal cortex dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter involved in executive behavior; the Val158Met genotype has been linked to executive dysfunction, which might increase sexual risk behaviors favoring HIV transmission. Main and interaction effects of COMT genotype and executive functioning on sexual risk behavior were examined. 192 sexually active nonmonogamous men completed a sexual behavior questionnaire, executive functioning tests, and were genotyped using blood-derived DNA. Main effects for executive dysfunction but not COMT on number of sexual partners were observed. A COMT x executive dysfunction interaction was found for number of sexual partners and insertive anal sex, significant for carriers of the Met/Met and to a lesser extent Val/Met genotypes but not Val/Val carriers. In the context of HIV and methamphetamine dependence, dopaminergic overactivity in prefrontal cortex conferred by the Met/Met genotype appears to result in a liability for executive dysfunction and potentially associated risky sexual behavior.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT genes in Greenlandic Inuit and Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2013-01-01

    The Indigenous Arctic population is of Asian descent, and their genetic background is different from the Caucasian populations. Relatively little is known about the specific genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the activation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental contaminants in Inuit and its relation to health risk. The Greenlandic Inuit are highly exposed to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and an elucidation of gene-environment interactions in relation to health risks is needed. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the genotype and allele frequencies of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 Ile462Val (rs1048943), CYP1B1 Leu432Val (rs1056836) and catechol-O-methyltransferase COMT Val158Met (rs4680) in Greenlandic Inuit (n=254) and Europeans (n=262) and explore the possible relation between the genotypes and serum levels of POPs. The genotype and allele frequency distributions of the three genetic polymorphisms differed significantly between the Inuit and Europeans. For Inuit, the genotype distribution was more similar to those reported for Asian populations. We observed a significant difference in serum polychlorinated biphenyl (CB-153) and the pesticide 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) levels between Inuit and Europeans, and for Inuit also associations between the POP levels and genotypes for CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT. Our data provide new information on gene polymorphisms in Greenlandic Inuit that might support evaluation of susceptibility to environmental contaminants and warrant further studies.

  2. Count on dopamine: influences of COMT polymorphisms on numerical cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise eJúlio-Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is an enzyme that is particularly important for the metabolism of dopamine. Functional polymorphisms of COMT have been implicated in working memory and numerical cognition. This is an exploratory study that aims at investigating associations between COMT polymorphisms, working memory and numerical cognition. Elementary school children from 2th to 6th grades were divided into two groups according to their COMT val158met polymorphism (homozygous for valine allele [n= 61] versus heterozygous plus methionine homozygous children or met+ group [n=94]. Both groups were matched for age and intelligence. Working memory was assessed through digit span and Corsi blocks. Symbolic numerical processing was assessed through transcoding and single-digit word problem tasks. Non-symbolic magnitude comparison and estimation tasks were used to assess number sense. Between-group differences were found in symbolic and non-symbolic numerical tasks, but not in working memory tasks. Children in the met+ group showed better performance in all numerical tasks while val homozygous children presented slower development of non-symbolic magnitude representations. These results suggest COMT-related dopaminergic modulation may be related not only to working memory, as found in previous studies, but also to the development of magnitude processing and magnitude representations.

  3. COMT-by-Sex Interaction Effect on Psychosis Proneness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Castro-Catala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypy phenotypes in the general population share etiopathogenic mechanisms and risk factors with schizophrenia, supporting the notion of psychosis as a continuum ranging from nonclinical to clinical deviance. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia that is involved in the regulation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. Several recent studies have reported a sex difference in the impact of COMT genotype on psychiatric and cognitive phenotypes and personality traits. The present study investigated the association of COMT Val158Met (rs4680 with psychometric positive and negative schizotypy and psychotic experiences in a sample of 808 nonclinical young adults. The main finding was that sex moderates the association of COMT genotype with the negative dimension of both schizotypy and psychotic experiences. Male subjects carrying the Val allele tended to score higher on the negative dimension of both trait and symptom-like measures. The results from the present study are consistent with recent work suggesting an association between negative schizotypy and diminished prefrontal dopamine availability. They support the idea that a biological differentiation underlies the positive and negative schizotypy dimensions. Additionally, these findings contribute to the growing literature on sex-specific effects of COMT on the predisposition to psychiatric disorders and personality traits.

  4. The role of COMT and plasma proline in the variable penetrance of autistic spectrum symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, E; Swaab, H; de Sonneville, L M J; van Engeland, H; Vorstman, J A S

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines how COMT 158 genotypes and plasma proline levels are associated with variable penetrance of social behavioural and social cognitive problems in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Severity of autistic spectrum symptoms of 45 participants with 22q11DS was assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised. Face and facial emotion recognition was evaluated using standardized computer-based test-paradigms. Associations with COMT 158 genotypes and proline levels were examined. High proline levels and poor face recognition in individuals with the COMT MET allele, and poor facial emotion recognition, explained almost 50% of the variance in severity of autism symptomatology in individuals with 22q11DS. High proline levels and a decreased capacity to break down dopamine as a result of the COMT MET variant are both relevant in the expression of the social phenotype in patients. This epistatic interaction effect between the COMT 158 genotype and proline on the expression of social deficits in 22q11DS shows how factors other than the direct effects of the deletion itself can modulate the penetrance of associated cognitive and behavioural outcomes. These findings are not only relevant to our insight into 22q11DS, but also provide a model to better understand the phenomenon of variable penetrance in other pathogenic genetic variants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Age-Dependent Effects of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met Polymorphism on Language Function in Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Lisa; Toyota, Tomoko; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Mazuka, Reiko; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    The genetic basis controlling language development remains elusive. Previous studies of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype and cognition have focused on prefrontally guided executive functions involving dopamine. However, COMT may further influence posterior cortical regions implicated in language perception. We investigated whether COMT influences language ability and cortical language processing involving the posterior language regions in 246 children aged 6-10 years. We assessed language ability using a language test and cortical responses recorded during language processing using a word repetition task and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The COMT genotype had significant effects on language performance and processing. Importantly, Met carriers outperformed Val homozygotes in language ability during the early elementary school years (6-8 years), whereas Val homozygotes exhibited significant language development during the later elementary school years. Both genotype groups exhibited equal language performance at approximately 10 years of age. Val homozygotes exhibited significantly less cortical activation compared with Met carriers during word processing, particularly at older ages. These findings regarding dopamine transmission efficacy may be explained by a hypothetical inverted U-shaped curve. Our findings indicate that the effects of the COMT genotype on language ability and cortical language processing may change in a narrow age window of 6-10 years. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Le Comte de Monte Cristo: da literatura ao cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Caravela, Natércia Murta Silva

    2008-01-01

    A presente dissertação discute o diálogo estabelecido entre literatura e cinema no tratamento da personagem principal – um homem traído que se vinga de forma cruel dos seus inimigos – na obra literária Le Comte de Monte-Cristo, de Alexandre Dumas, e nas três adaptações fílmicas escolhidas: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo de Robert Vernay (1943); The count of Monte Cristo de David Greene (1975) e The count of Monte Cristo de Kevin Reynolds (2002). O projecto centra-se na análise da ...

  7. Influence of BDNF and COMT polymorphisms on emotional decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Ha, Ra Yeon; Jhung, Kyungun; Kim, Yang Tae; Kim, Se Joo

    2010-06-01

    Decision making is an important brain function. Although little is known about the genetic basis of decision making, it has been suggested that it is mediated by the modulation of neurotransmitter systems. We investigated how the BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms affect emotional decision making using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). One hundred sixty-eight healthy Korean college students (93 males, 75 females) with a complete dataset were included in the data analysis. The IGT and genotyping for the polymorphisms of BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met were performed. Both Met/Met and Val/Met of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism were significantly associated with a lower mean score of blocks 3-5 of the IGT and with less improvement from block 1 to block 3-5 than the Val/Val. However, the BDNF was not significantly associated with the score of block 1, and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism produced no significant effect on IGT performance. No interaction effect was observed between the BDNF and the COMT for the IGT. These findings suggest the BDNF Val66Met may affect the emotional decision making performance. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radioenzymatic assay of plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline: evidence for a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibiting factor associated with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.J.M.L.; Willemsen, J.J.; Thien, Th.; Benraad, Th.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the evaluation of a modified radioenzymatic determination of plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline, it has been found that there exists a highly significant (p 0 C, but only in plasma from patients with essential hypertension. Plasma from normotensive persons exhibits a complete lack of correlation between these factors. The consequences of the hypertension-associated COMT-inhibiting factor for the assays' specifications are discussed and data are presented for comparison with a recently-described uremia-associated COMT-inhibitor (Demassieux et al, Clin Chim Acta 115, 377-391; 1981). (Auth.)

  9. Allelic variation of the COMT gene in a despotic primate society: A haplotype is related to cortisol excretion in Macaca fuscata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflüger, Lena S; Gutleb, Daria R; Hofer, Martin; Fieder, Martin; Wallner, Bernard; Steinborn, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Sequence variations in genes of the monoamine neurotransmitter system and their common function in human and non-human primate species are an ongoing issue of investigation. However, the COMT gene, coding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase, has not yet attracted much scientific attention regarding its functional role in non-human primates. Considering that a polymorphism of the human COMT gene affects the enzyme activity and cortisol level in response to a social stressor, this study investigated the impact of COMT on endocrine stress and behavioural parameters in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The species exemplifies a despotic hierarchy in which males' social rank positions require an adaptation of behaviour strategies. During the mating period steroid secretion and the frequency of aggressive encounters between males increase. We addressed i) whether this species exhibits potential functional COMT variants, ii) whether these variants are associated with faecal cortisol excretion of males, iii) how they are distributed among different social rank positions and iv) whether they are associated with behavioural strategies during times of mate competition. By genotyping 26 males we identified three COMT haplotypes (HT), including a putative splice mutant (HT3). This variant was associated with increased cortisol excretion. Given the observed inverse correlation between cortisol and physical aggression, we assume that different COMT haplotypes may predispose individuals to pursue more or less aggressive strategies. How these gene-stress effects might favour a specific social role is discussed. Our study of non-invasive genotyping in combination with behavioural and endocrine parameters represents an important step towards the understanding of gene-stress effects in a hierarchically organised primate society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype affects cognitive control during total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Brieann C; Hinson, John M; Whitney, Paul; Schmidt, Michelle A; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive decision making is profoundly impaired by total sleep deprivation (TSD). This suggests that TSD impacts fronto-striatal pathways involved in cognitive control, where dopamine is a key neuromodulator. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), dopamine is catabolized by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). A functional polymorphism (Val158Met) influences COMT's enzymatic activity, resulting in markedly different levels of prefrontal dopamine. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on adaptive decision making during TSD. Sixty-six healthy young adults participated in one of two in-laboratory studies. After a baseline day, subjects were randomized to either a TSD group (n = 32) with 38 h or 62 h of extended wakefulness or a well-rested control group (n = 34) with 10 h nighttime sleep opportunities. Subjects performed a go/no-go reversal learning (GNGr) task at well-rested baseline and again during TSD or equivalent control. During the task, subjects were required to learn stimulus-response relationships from accuracy feedback. The stimulus-response relationships were reversed halfway through the task, which required subjects to learn the new stimulus-response relationships from accuracy feedback. Performance on the GNGr task was quantified by discriminability (d') between go and no-go stimuli before and after the stimulus-response reversal. GNGr performance did not differ between COMT genotypes when subjects were well-rested. However, TSD exposed a significant vulnerability to adaptive decision making impairment in subjects with the Val allele. Our results indicate that sleep deprivation degrades cognitive control through a fronto-striatal, dopaminergic mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype biases neural correlates of empathy and perceived personal distress in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Cavallaro, Roberto; Bosia, Marta; Lorenzi, Cristina; Pirovano, Adele; Smeraldi, Enrico; Benedetti, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(108/158)Met polymorphism (rs4680) influences enzyme activity with valine (Val) allele associated with higher enzymatic activity. Several studies suggest that factors influencing dopaminergic transmission could control response to stressful situations. Empathy is an essential element of human behavior, requires the ability to adopt another person's perspective, and has been found to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Twenty-eight schizophrenic patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging performing an empathy task. Perceived empathy has been evaluated with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. An effect of COMT on perceived distress subscale has been shown, with methionine (Met)/Met subjects reporting lower rates of stress compared with Val/Val. Moreover, imaging results showed an effect of genotype on empathy processing in the anterior cingulate with Val/Val subjects showing the lowest activation. This is the first study of the effect of rs4680 on interpersonal distress and neural correlates of empathy in schizophrenia. We found a decrease in neural responses in areas that ensure a cognitive control of emotion that is paralleled by perceived distress in interpersonal situation; this functional pattern seems to be influenced by rs4680 COMT polymorphism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype and genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia during explicit processing of aversive facial stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bianco, L; Blasi, G; Taurisano, P; Di Giorgio, A; Ferrante, F; Ursini, G; Fazio, L; Gelao, B; Romano, R; Papazacharias, A; Caforio, G; Sinibaldi, L; Popolizio, T; Bellantuono, C; Bertolino, A

    2013-02-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a key feature of schizophrenia, a brain disorder strongly associated with genetic risk and aberrant dopamine signalling. Dopamine is inactivated by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), whose gene contains a functional polymorphism (COMT Val158Met) associated with differential activity of the enzyme and with brain physiology of emotion processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether genetic risk for schizophrenia and COMT Val158Met genotype interact on brain activity during implicit and explicit emotion processing. A total of 25 patients with schizophrenia, 23 healthy siblings of patients and 24 comparison subjects genotyped for COMT Val158Met underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during implicit and explicit processing of facial stimuli with negative emotional valence. We found a main effect of diagnosis in the right amygdala, with decreased activity in patients and siblings compared with control subjects. Furthermore, a genotype × diagnosis interaction was found in the left middle frontal gyrus, such that the effect of genetic risk for schizophrenia was evident in the context of the Val/Val genotype only, i.e. the phenotype of reduced activity was present especially in Val/Val patients and siblings. Finally, a complete inversion of the COMT effect between patients and healthy subjects was found in the left striatum during explicit processing. Overall, these results suggest complex interactions between genetically determined dopamine signalling and risk for schizophrenia on brain activity in the prefrontal cortex during emotion processing. On the other hand, the effects in the striatum may represent state-related epiphenomena of the disorder itself.

  13. Modifying effect of COMT gene polymorphism and a predictive role for proteomics analysis in children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Hongliang; Qu, Weidong; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Jiang, Chunyang; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Aiguo

    2015-04-01

    Cumulative fluoride exposure has adverse influences on children's intelligence quotient (IQ). In addition, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with cognitive performance. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of COMT polymorphism and alterations of protein profiles with children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area. We recruited 180 schoolchildren (10-12 years old) from high fluoride exposure (1.40 mg/l) and control areas (0.63 mg/l) in Tianjin City, China. The children's IQ, fluoride contents in drinking water (W-F), serum (S-F), and urine (U-F); serum thyroid hormone levels, COMT Val158Met polymorphism, and plasma proteomic profiling were determined. Significant high levels of W-F, S-F, U-F, along with poor IQ scores were observed in the high fluoride exposure group compared with those in control (all P intelligence, whereas the COMT polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to the deficits in IQ due to fluoride exposure. Moreover, the proteomic analysis can provide certain basis for identifying the early biological markers of fluorosis among children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Investigating the genetic basis of theory of mind (ToM): the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiwei; Wu, Nan; Su, Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deduce other persons' mental states and emotions which has been termed 'theory of mind (ToM)' is highly heritable. First molecular genetic studies focused on some dopamine-related genes, while the genetic basis underlying different components of ToM (affective ToM and cognitive ToM) remain unknown. The current study tested 7 candidate polymorphisms (rs4680, rs4633, rs2020917, rs2239393, rs737865, rs174699 and rs59938883) on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. We investigated how these polymorphisms relate to different components of ToM. 101 adults participated in our study; all were genetically unrelated, non-clinical and healthy Chinese subjects. Different ToM tasks were applied to detect their theory of mind ability. The results showed that the COMT gene rs2020917 and rs737865 SNPs were associated with cognitive ToM performance, while the COMT gene rs5993883 SNP was related to affective ToM, in which a significant gender-genotype interaction was found (p = 0.039). Our results highlighted the contribution of DA-related COMT gene on ToM performance. Moreover, we found out that the different SNP at the same gene relates to the discriminative aspect of ToM. Our research provides some preliminary evidence to the genetic basis of theory of mind which still awaits further studies.

  15. The divergent impact of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genetic polymorphisms on executive function in adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Li, Jie; Yang, Bei; Ji, Tao; Long, Zhouting; Xing, Qiquan; Shao, Di; Bai, Huayu; Sun, Jiwei; Cao, Fenglin

    2018-02-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val 158 Met functional polymorphisms play a crucial role in the development of executive function (EF), but their effect may be moderated by environmental factors such as childhood adversity. The present study aimed at testing the divergent impact of the COMT Val 158 Met genotype on EF in non-clinical adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity. A total of 341 participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the self-reported version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and self-administered questionnaires on familial function. The participants' COMT Val 158 Met genotype was determined. Associations among the variables were explored using latent class analysis and general linear models. We found that Val/Val homozygotes showed significantly worse performance on behavioral shift, relative to Met allele carriers (F=5.921, p=0.015, Partial η 2 =0.018). Moreover, three typical patterns of childhood adversity, namely, low childhood adversity (23.5%), childhood neglect (59.8%), and high childhood adversity (16.7%), were found. Both childhood neglect and high childhood adversity had a negative impact on each aspect of EF and on global EF performance. Importantly, these results provided evidence for significant interaction effects, as adolescents with the Val/Val genotype showed inferior behavioral shift performance than Met carriers (F=6.647, p=0.010, Partial η 2 =0.020) in the presence of high childhood adversity. Furthermore, there were no differences between the genotypes for childhood neglect and low childhood adversity. Overall, this is the first study to show that an interaction between the COMT genotype and childhood adversity affects EF in non-clinical adolescents. These results suggest that the COMT genotype may operate as a susceptibility gene vulnerable to an adverse environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. COMT Val158Met and 5-HT1A-R -1019 C/G polymorphisms: effects on the negative symptom response to clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, Marta; Lorenzi, Cristina; Pirovano, Adele; Guglielmino, Carmelo; Cocchi, Federica; Spangaro, Marco; Bramanti, Placido; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine is still considered the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients; however, up to 40% of patients do not respond adequately. Identifying potential predictors of clinical response to this last-line antipsychotic could represent an important goal for treatment. Among these, functional polymorphisms involved in dopamine system modulation, known to be disrupted in schizophrenia, may play a role. We examined the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which plays a key role in dopamine regulation at the prefrontal level, and the 5-HT1A-R -1019 C/G polymorphism, a target of clozapine activity involved in the interaction between the serotonin and dopamine systems. 107 neuroleptic-refractory, biologically unrelated Italian patients (70 males and 37 females) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were being treated with clozapine were recruited. Psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) at the beginning of treatment, and at weeks 8 and 12. Genomic DNA was extracted from venous blood samples. COMT rs4680 (Val158Met) and 5-HT1A-R rs6295 (-1019 C/G) polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-based restriction fragment length and direct sequencing, respectively. We found a significant effect of COMT and 5-HT1A-R on the PANSS Negative Subscale variation, with greater improvement among COMT Val/Val and 5-HT1A-R G/G subjects. The findings support the hypothesis that COMT rs4680 and 5-HT1A-R rs6295 polymorphisms could influence the negative symptom response to clozapine, probably through modulation of the dopaminergic system.

  17. The effect of COMT gene on the target precision of the athlete movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Mikhailova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find correlation between COMT gene alleles and the target precision of the athlete movement. 68 Russian competing athletes involved in boxing and volleyball, participated in the study. We found interrelation between COMT Met allele and a tall stature in the volleyball players.

  18. Genetic variation in COMT and PRODH is associated with brain anatomy in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinkstok, J.; Schmitz, N.; van Amelsvoort, T.; Moeton, M.; Baas, F.; Linszen, D.

    2008-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of 22q11 genes including catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) may result in structural and functional brain abnormalities and increased vulnerability to schizophrenia as observed in patients with microdeletions of 22q11. Thus, COMT and PRODH could

  19. estimation of the sanitary impact associated to the domestic exposure to radon in Franche-Comte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catelinois, O.; Pirard, P.; Clinard, F.; Aury, K.; Tillier, C.; Aury, K.; Noury, L.; Hochard, A.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the impact of public health associate to domestic radon exposure in Franche-Comte is clearly formulated. The radon concentrations are higher in the granite areas. However, the impact is essentially concentrated in the Franche-Comte sedimentary areas where the essential of the population lives. (N.C.)

  20. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype modulates working memory-related dorsolateral prefrontal response and performance in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K. W.; Kjærstad, H. L.; Støttrup, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) (P=.016). Exploratory whole-brain analysis revealed a bilateral decrease in working memory-related dlPFC activity in the ValVal group vs the ValMet group which was not associated with differences in working memory performance during fMRI. Outside the MRI scanner, Val carriers...... performed worse in the CANTAB Spatial Working Memory task than Met homozygotes (P≤.006), with deficits being most pronounced in Val homozygotes. CONCLUSIONS: The association between Val allelic load, dlPFC activity and WM impairment points to a putative role of aberrant PFC dopamine tonus in the cognitive......-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working...

  1. High activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Chem-Nuclear Environmental Services (CNES) has developed a container that is capable of containing high activity waste and can be shipped as a regular DOT Type A shipment. By making the container special form the amount of activity that can be transported in a Type A shipment is greatly enhanced. Special form material presents an extra degree of protection to the environment by requiring the package to be destroyed to get access to the radioactive material and must undergo specific testing requirements, whereas normal form material can allow access to the radioactive material. With the special form container up to 10 caries of radium can be transported in a single package. This paper will describe the considerations that were taken to develop these products

  2. Both COMT Val158Met single nucleotide polymorphism and sex-dependent differences influence response inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eMione

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive and proactive control of actions are cognitive abilities that allow to deal with a continuously changing environment by adjusting already programmed actions. They also set forthcoming acts by evaluating the outcome of the previous ones. Earlier studies highlighted sex related differences in the strategies and in the pattern of brain activation during cognitive tasks involving reactive and proactive control. To further identify sex-dependent characteristics in the cognitive control of actions, in this study we have assessed whether/how differences in reactive and proactive control were modulated by the COMT Val158Met single nucleotide polymorphism, a genetic factor known to influence the functionality of the dopaminergic system, in particular at the level of prefrontal cortex. Two groups of male and female participants were further sorted according to their genotype (Val/Met, Val/Val and Met/Met and tested in a stop signal task, a consolidated tool to measure reactive and proactive control in experimental and clinical settings. In each group of participants we estimated both a measure of the capacity to react to unexpected events and the ability of monitoring their performance. The between groups comparison of these measures indicated a poorer ability of male individuals carrying the Val/Val genotype in error-monitoring, suggesting that differences between sexes could be influenced by the efficiency of COMT and that other sex-specific factors have to be considered. The comprehension of inter-groups behavioral and physiological correlates of cognitive control will provide more accurate diagnostic tools for predicting the incidence and the development of pathologies like ADHD or deviant behaviors as drug or alcohol abuse.

  3. Chronic treatment with caffeine and its withdrawal modify the antidepressant-like activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the forced swim and tail suspension tests in mice. Effects on Comt, Slc6a15 and Adora1 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Aleksandra; Doboszewska, Urszula; Herbet, Mariola; Wośko, Sylwia; Wyska, Elżbieta; Świąder, Katarzyna; Serefko, Anna; Korga, Agnieszka; Wlaź, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Andrzej; Ostrowska, Marta; Terlecka, Joanna; Kanadys, Adam; Poleszak, Ewa; Dudka, Jarosław; Wlaź, Piotr

    2017-12-15

    Recent preclinical and clinical data suggest that low dose of caffeine enhances the effects of common antidepressants. Here we investigated the effects of chronic administration of caffeine (5mg/kg, twice daily for 14days) and its withdrawal on day 15th on the activity of per se ineffective doses of fluoxetine (5mg/kg) and escitalopram (2mg/kg) given on day 15th. We found decreased immobility time in the forced swim and tail suspension tests in mice in which caffeine was administered simultaneously with antidepressants on day 15th following a 14-day caffeine treatment and no alterations in the spontaneous locomotor activity. A decrease in the level of escitalopram and an increase in the level of caffeine in serum were observed after concomitant administration of these compounds, while the joint administration of caffeine and fluoxetine was not associated with changes in their levels in serum or brain. Caffeine withdrawal caused a decrease in Adora1 mRNA level in the cerebral cortex (Cx). Administration of escitalopram or fluoxetine followed by caffeine withdrawal caused an increase in this gene expression, whereas administration of escitalopram, but not fluoxetine, on day 15th together with caffeine caused a decrease in Adora1 mRNA level in the Cx. Furthermore, antidepressant-like activity observed after joint administration of the tested drugs with caffeine was associated with decreased Slc6a15 mRNA level in the Cx. The results show that withdrawal of caffeine after its chronic intake may change activity of antidepressants with concomitant alterations within monoamine, adenosine and glutamate systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical and verbal aggressive behavior and COMT genotype: Sensitivity to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Comasco, Erika; Andershed, Henrik; Andershed, Anna-Karin; Colins, Olivier F; Fanti, Kostas A; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-07-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype has been implicated as a vulnerability factor for several psychiatric diseases as well as aggressive behavior, either directly, or in interaction with an adverse environment. The present study aimed at investigating the susceptibility properties of COMT genotype to adverse and favorable environment in relation to physical and verbal aggressive behavior. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism was genotyped in a Swedish population-based cohort including 1,783 individuals, ages 20-24 years (47% males). A significant three-way interaction was found, after correction for multiple testing, between COMT genotype, exposure to violence, and parent-child relationship in association with physical but not verbal aggressive behavior. Homozygous for the Val allele reported lower levels of physical aggressive behavior when they were exposed to violence and at the same time experienced a positive parent-child relationship compared to Met carriers. Thus, susceptibility properties of COMT genotype were observed in relation to physical aggressive behavior supporting the hypothesis that COMT genotypes are modifying the sensitivity to environment that confers either risk or protection for aggressive behavior. As these are novel findings, they warrant further investigation and replication in independent samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genetic and vascular modifiers of age-sensitive cognitive skills: effects of COMT, BDNF, ApoE, and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Naftali; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Land, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been linked to neural and cognitive variation in healthy adults. We examined contribution of three polymorphisms frequently associated with individual differences in cognition (Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase Val158Met, Brain-Derived-Neurotrophic-Factor Val66Met, and Apolipoprotein E epsilon4) and a vascular risk factor (hypertension) in a sample of 189 volunteers (age 18-82). Genotypes were determined from buccal culture samples, and cognitive performance was assessed in 4 age-sensitive domains?fluid intelligence, executive function (inhibition), associative memory, and processing speed. We found that younger age and COMT Met/Met genotype, associated with low COMT activity and higher prefrontal dopamine content, were independently linked to better performance in most of the tested domains. Homozygotes for Val allele of BDNF polymorphism exhibited better associative memory and faster speed of processing than the Met allele carriers, with greater effect for women and persons with hypertension. Carriers of ApoE epsilon4 allele evidenced steeper age-related increase in costs of Stroop color interference, but showed no negative effects on memory. The findings indicate that age-related cognitive performance is differentially affected by distinct genetic factors and their interactions with vascular health status. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. [Study of genetic variants in the BDNF, COMT, DAT1 and SERT genes in Colombian children with attention deficit disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Rojas, Jenny; Arboleda-Bustos, Carlos E; Morales, Luis; Benítez, Bruno A; Beltrán, Diana; Izquierdo, Álvaro; Arboleda, Humberto; Vásquez, Rafael

    Attention deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among children in Bogota City. Both genetic and environmental factors play a very important role in the etiology of ADHD. However, to date few studies have addressed the association of genetic variants and ADHD in the Colombian population. To test the genetic association between polymorphisms in the DAT1, HTTLPR, COMT and BDNF genes and ADHD in a sample from Bogota City. We genotyped the most common polymorphisms in DAT1, SERT, COMT and BDNF genes associated with ADHD using conventional PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in 97 trios recruited in a medical center in Bogota. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used to determine the association between such genetic variants and ADHD. The TDT analysis showed that no individual allele of any variant studied has a preferential transmission. Our results suggest that the etiology of the ADHD may be complex and involves several genetic factors. Further studies in other candidate polymorphisms in a larger sample size will improve our knowledge of the ADHD in Colombian population. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT-deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  8. MB-COMT promoter DNA methylation is associated with working-memory processing in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Walton (Esther); J. Liu (Jingyu); J. Hass (Johanna); T.J.H. White (Tonya); M. Scholz (Markus); V. Rœssner (Veit); R.L. Gollub (Randy); V.D. Calhoun (Vince); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMany genetic studies report mixed results both for the associations between COMT polymorphisms and schizophrenia and for the effects of COMT variants on common intermediate phenotypes of the disorder. Reasons for this may include small genetic effect sizes and the modulation of

  9. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijia; Fu, Chunxiang; Gou, Jiqing; Sun, Liang; Huhman, David; Zhang, Yunwei; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O -methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT -deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  10. Leptospirosis in Franche-Comté (FRANCE): clinical, biological, and therapeutic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estavoyer, J M; Chirouze, C; Faucher, J F; Floret, N; Couetdic, G; Leroy, J; Hoen, B

    2013-09-01

    We report the patient data in 77 cases of leptospirosis confirmed by PCR and/or serology (micro-agglutination), observed between 1994 and 2008 at the Besançon teaching hospital. Our aim was to compare the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and therapeutic characteristics of leptospirosis in the Franche-Comté region, to those reported in other regions. The median age was 42years and 95% were male patients. Leptospirosis acquisition was likely related to aquatic leisure activities (50.6%), professional exposure (28.6%), building maintenance works (11.7%), or unknown (9.1%). Forty-eight cases were uncomplicated and 29 were severe presentations of leptospirosis. Among severe cases, eight patients had to be managed in an intensive care unit, and one patient died. L. grippotyphosa and L. icterohaemorrhagiae were the main serogroups involved. Age above 50years and serogroup L. icterohaemorrhagiae were positively associated with clinical severity. The outcome was favorable for 15 patients treated with ceftriaxone for less than 7days. We recommended conducting clinical trials aiming at validating short courses of ceftriaxone to treat leptospirosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. Structural Characterization of Lignin in Wild-Type versus COMT Down-Regulated Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Reichel [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pu, Yunqiao, E-mail: yunqiao.pu@ipst.gatech.edu [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jiang, Nan [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fu, Chunxiang [Forage Improvement Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States); Wang, Zeng-Yu [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Forage Improvement Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States); Ragauskas, Arthur, E-mail: yunqiao.pu@ipst.gatech.edu [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-20

    This study examined the chemical structural characteristics of cellulolytic enzyme lignin isolated from switchgrass focusing on comparisons between wild-type control and caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) down-regulated transgenic line. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques including {sup 13}C, {sup 31}P, and two-dimensional {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H heteronuclear single quantum coherence as well as gel permeation chromatography were employed. Compared to the wild-type, the COMT down-regulated transgenic switchgrass lignin demonstrated a decrease in syringyl (S):guaiacyl (G) ratio and p-coumarate:ferulate ratio, an increase in relative abundance of phenylcoumaran unit, and a comparable content of total free phenolic OH groups along with formation of benzodioxane unit. In addition, COMT down-regulation had no significant effects on the lignin molecular weights during its biosynthesis process.

  12. Estradiol replacement enhances fear memory formation, impairs extinction and reduces COMT expression levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Carmel M; Liu, Dan; Ade, Catherine; Schrader, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Females experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders at approximately twice the rate of males, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain undefined. The effect of sex hormones on neural substrates presents a possible mechanism. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy at two ages, before puberty and in adulthood, and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement administered chronically in drinking water on anxiety level, fear memory formation, and extinction. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that estradiol replacement would impair fear memory formation and enhance extinction rate. Females, age 4 weeks and 10 weeks, were divided randomly into 4 groups; sham surgery, OVX, OVX+low E2 (200nM), and OVX+high E2 (1000nM). Chronic treatment with high levels of E2 significantly increased anxiety levels measured in the elevated plus maze. In both age groups, high levels of E2 significantly increased contextual fear memory but had no effect on cued fear memory. In addition, high E2 decreased the rate of extinction in both ages. Finally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is important for regulation of catecholamine levels, which play a role in fear memory formation and extinction. COMT expression in the hippocampus was significantly reduced by high E2 replacement, implying increased catecholamine levels in the hippocampus of high E2 mice. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced fear memory formation, and inhibited fear memory extinction, possibly stabilizing the fear memory in female mice. This study has implications for a neurobiological mechanism for PTSD and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive manic symptoms in bipolar disorder associated with polymorphisms in the DAOA and COMT genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzana Sudic Hukic

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is characterized by severe mood symptoms including major depressive and manic episodes. During manic episodes, many patients show cognitive dysfunction. Dopamine and glutamate are important for cognitive processing, thus the COMT and DAOA genes that modulate the expression of these neurotransmitters are of interest for studies of cognitive function. METHODOLOGY: Focusing on the most severe episode of mania, a factor was found with the combined symptoms of talkativeness, distractibility, and thought disorder, considered a cognitive manic symptoms (CMS factor. 488 patients were genotyped, out of which 373 (76% had talkativeness, 269 (55% distractibility, and 372 (76% thought disorder. 215 (44% patients were positive for all three symptoms, thus showing CMS (Table 1. As population controls, 1,044 anonymous blood donors (ABD were used. Case-case and case-control design models were used to investigate genetic associations between cognitive manic symptoms in bipolar 1 disorder and SNPs in the COMT and DAOA genes. [Table: see text]. RESULTS: The finding of this study was that cognitive manic symptoms in patients with bipolar 1 disorder was associated with genetic variants in the DAOA and COMT genes. Nominal association for DAOA SNPs and COMT SNPs to cognitive symptoms factor in bipolar 1 disorder was found in both allelic (Table 2 and haplotypic (Table 3 analyses. Genotypic association analyses also supported our findings. However, only one association, when CMS patients were compared to ABD controls, survived correction for multiple testing by max (T permutation. Data also suggested interaction between SNPs rs2391191 in DAOA and rs5993883 in COMT in the case-control model. [Table: see text] [Table: see text]. CONCLUSION: Identifying genes associated with cognitive functioning has clinical implications for assessment of prognosis and progression. Our finding are consistent with other studies showing genetic associations

  14. Nonlinear modulation of interacting between COMT and depression on brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; He, C; Yin, Y; Ye, Q; Bai, F; Yuan, Y; Zhang, H; Lv, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, Z; Xie, C

    2017-09-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is related to dopamine degradation and has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, how this gene affects brain function properties in MDD is still unclear. Fifty patients with MDD and 35 cognitively normal participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A voxelwise and data-drive global functional connectivity density (gFCD) analysis was used to investigate the main effects and the interactions of disease states and COMT rs4680 gene polymorphism on brain function. We found significant group differences of the gFCD in bilateral fusiform area (FFA), post-central and pre-central cortex, left superior temporal gyrus (STG), rectal and superior temporal gyrus and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC); abnormal gFCDs in left STG were positively correlated with severity of depression in MDD group. Significant disease×COMT interaction effects were found in the bilateral calcarine gyrus, right vlPFC, hippocampus and thalamus, and left SFG and FFA. Further post-hoc tests showed a nonlinear modulation effect of COMT on gFCD in the development of MDD. Interestingly, an inverted U-shaped modulation was found in the prefrontal cortex (control system) but U-shaped modulations were found in the hippocampus, thalamus and occipital cortex (processing system). Our study demonstrated nonlinear modulation of the interaction between COMT and depression on brain function. These findings expand our understanding of the COMT effect underlying the pathophysiology of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Epistatic Interaction of CYP1A1 and COMT Polymorphisms in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Matos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear association between the excessive and cumulative exposure to estrogens and the development of cancer in hormone-sensitive tissues, such as the cervix. We studied the association of CYP1A1 M1 (rs4646903 and COMT (rs4680 polymorphisms in 130 cervical cancer cases (c-cancer and 179 controls. The CYP1A1 TT genotype was associated with a lower risk for c-cancer (OR = 0.39, p=0.002. The allele C of CYP1A1 was a risk for c-cancer (OR = 2.29, p=0.002. Women with COMT LL genotype had a higher risk of developing c-cancer (OR = 4.83, p<0.001. For the interaction of the CYP1A1&COMT, we observed that TC&HL genotypes had a greater risk for c-cancer (OR = 6.07, p=0.006 and TT&HL genotypes had a protection effect (OR = 0.24, p<0.001. The CYP1A1 TT and COMT LL genotypes had higher estradiol levels in c-cancer (p<0.001 and p=0.037, resp.. C-cancer is associated with less production of 2-methoxy-estradiol resultant of functional polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and COMT, separately. CYP1A1 and COMT work in a metabolic sequence and their interaction could lead to an alternative pathway of estrogen metabolism with production of 16-OH-estrone that is more proliferative.

  16. The Role of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT Gene in the Etiopathogenesis of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Acar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors in the risk of developing schizophrenia is of great importance. With the help of the advances in the field of genetics in recent years by using linkage analysis several genes have been identified that may be a risk factor in schizophrenia. Several association studies have been performed in many different populations on the candidate susceptibility genes that were defined in previous studies. However, these studies give controversial results in different countries with different populations, and there are problems in obtaining replicable results. In this review we aimed to focus on the genetic basis of schizophrenia and the relationship between schizophrenia and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. COMT encodes an enzyme molecule which has an important function in dopamine pathways. It has great importance in catecholamine metabolism and pharmacology and genetic mechanism of catechol metabolism variations and their clinical consequences. COMT transfers the methyl group from S-adenosyl-methionine to the hydroxyl group of catechol nucleus (such as dopamine, norepinephrine or catechol estrogen. Genetic variations found in COMT gene are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical phenotype including psychiatric disorders or estrogen related cancers. Several groups have performed studies on the relationship between schizophrenia and COMT. The most commonly studied polymorphism in COMT gene is rs4680 and it causes a valine methionine conversion at codon 158. The association studies on this polymorphism in different populations gave both positive and negative results. Schizoprenia is a complex disease caused by the interaction of environmental and genetic factors, while interpreting the genetic data, this fact and the possibility of the presence of different gene products should be taken into account. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 217-226

  17. Association of the 3′ Region of COMT with Schizophrenia in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ling Chien

    2009-04-01

    Conclusion: The SNP rs165599, which has been mapped to the 3′-UTR region of the COMT gene, was significantly associated with schizophrenia in our family study, and possibly associated with the age of onset, delusion/hallucination symptom dimension, and CPT performance. Therefore, COMT may contribute to the genetic risk for schizophrenia not through the Val108/158 Met polymorphism, but through other variants that are situated 3′ to this region, in the Taiwanese population. Nevertheless, the true associated functional variants in our subjects remain to be elucidated.

  18. Solidification of highly active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.B.

    1986-07-01

    This document contains the annual reports for the contracts: (A) Glass Technology; (B) Calcination of Highly Active Waste Liquors; (C) Formation and Trapping of Volatile Ruthenium; (D) Deposition of Ruthenium; (E) Enhancement of Off-Gas Aerosol Collection; (F) Volatilisation of Cs, Tc and Te in High Level Waste Vitrification. (author)

  19. Western Canada: high prices, high activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savidant, S

    2000-01-01

    The forces responsible for the high drilling and exploration activity in Western Canada (recent high prices, excess pipeline capacity, and the promise of as yet undiscovered natural gas resources) are discussed. Supply and demand signposts, among them weather impacts, political response by governments, the high demand for rigs and services, the intense competition for land, the scarcity of qualified human resources, are reviewed/. The geological potential of Western Canada, the implications of falling average pool sizes, the industry's ability to catch up to increasing declines, are explored. The disappearance of easy large discoveries, rising development costs involved in smaller, more complex hence more expensive pools are assessed and the Canadian equity and capital markets are reviewed. The predicted likely outcome of all the above factors is fewer players, increasing expectation of higher returns, and more discipline among the remaining players

  20. No association between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuga, Chiho; Toyohisa, Daiki; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Nishitani, Shota; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Matsuura, Naomi; Ikeda, Shinobu; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Hamada, Akinobu; Tomoda, Akemi

    2014-08-01

    This study ascertained the association between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Japanese children and a polymorphism of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a dopamine-control gene. The secondary aim of the study was the evaluation of a putative association between methylphenidate (MPH) effect/adverse effects and the COMT genotype. To ascertain the distribution of the Val158Met variant of COMT, 50 children meeting ADHD inclusion criteria were compared with 32 healthy children. Clinical improvement and the occurrence of adverse effects were measured before and 3 months after MPH administration in children with ADHD, and analyzed for genotype association. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), age, MPH dose were included as co-variables. The occurrence of the COMT Val/Val genotype was significantly higher in children with ADHD (χ(2)(1)=7.13, pADHD rating scale scores, after correcting for the interaction between disorder and COMT genotype. Furthermore, no significant difference in MPH effect/adverse effects was observed in association with the COMT genotype in the ADHD group. These results showed a lack of association between the COMT Val/Val genotype and ADHD in Japan. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weili; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    People may experience an "aha" moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving.

  2. COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism is associated with nonverbal cognition following mild traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Winkler (Ethan A.); J.K. Yue (John); T.W. McAllister (Thomas W.); N.R. Temkin (Nancy); S.S. Oh (Sam S.); E.G. Burchard (Esteban); D. Hu (Donglei); A.R. Ferguson (Adam); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); J.F. Burke (John F.); M.D. Sorani (Marco); J. Rosand (Jonathan); E.L. Yuh (Esther); J. Barber (Jason); P.E. Tarapore (Phiroz E.); R.C. Gardner (Raquel C.); S. Sharma (Sourabh); G.G. Satris (Gabriela G.); C. Eng (Celeste); A.M. Puccio (Ava); K.K.W. Wang (Kevin K. W.); P. Mukherjee (Pratik); A.B. Valadka (Alex); D. Okonkwo (David); R. Diaz-Arrastia (Ramon); G. Manley (Geoffrey)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical outcomes, which may be influenced by genetic variation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme which degrades catecholamine neurotransmitters, may influence cognitive deficits

  3. Hybridization of downregulated-COMT transgenic switchgrass lines with field selected switchgrass for improved biomass traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been produced for improved cell walls for biofuels. Downregulated caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) switchgrass produced significantly more biomass and biofuel than the non-transgenic progenitor line. In the present study we sought to further...

  4. COMT Val158Met genotype as a risk factor for problem behaviors in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Albaugh (Matthew); V.S. Harder (Valerie); R.R. Althoff (Robert); D.C. Rettew (David); E.A. Ehli (Erik); T. Lengyel-Nelson (Timea); G.E. Davies (Gareth); L. Ayer (Lynsay); J. Sulman (Julie); C. Stanger (Catherine); J.J. Hudziak (James)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth

  5. COMT Val158Met polymorphism, cognitive stability and cognitive flexibility: an experimental examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Elise C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine in prefrontal cortex (PFC modulates core cognitive processes, notably working memory and executive control. Dopamine regulating genes and polymorphisms affecting PFC - including Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met - are crucial to understanding the molecular genetics of cognitive function and dysfunction. A mechanistic account of the COMT Val158Met effect associates the Met allele with increased tonic dopamine transmission underlying maintenance of relevant information, and the Val allele with increased phasic dopamine transmission underlying the flexibility of updating new information. Thus, consistent with some earlier work, we predicted that Val carriers would display poorer performance when the maintenance component was taxed, while Met carriers would be less efficient when rapid updating was required. Methods Using a Stroop task that manipulated level of required cognitive stability and flexibility, we examined reaction time performance of patients with schizophrenia (n = 67 and healthy controls (n = 186 genotyped for the Val/Met variation. Results In both groups we found a Met advantage for tasks requiring cognitive stability, but no COMT effect when a moderate level of cognitive flexibility was required, or when a conflict cost measure was calculated. Conclusions Our results do not support a simple stability/flexibility model of dopamine COMT Val/Met effects and suggest a somewhat different conceptualization and experimental operationalization of these cognitive components.

  6. Genetic Correlates of Maladaptive Beliefs: COMT VAL(158)MET and Irrational Cognitions Linked Depending on Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podina, Ioana; Popp, Radu; Pop, Ioan; David, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Maladaptive/irrational beliefs are significant cognitive vulnerability mechanisms in psychopathology. They are more likely to be associated with a genetic vulnerability marker under conditions of emotional distress when irrational beliefs are more salient. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the COMT Val(158)Met gene variation in relation to irrational beliefs, assuming this relationship depended on the level of emotional distress. Two hundred and sixty-seven genotyped volunteers were assessed for core/general maladaptive beliefs, as well as trait emotional distress. We focused on context-independent measures of irrational beliefs and emotional distress in the absence of a stressor. As expected, the relationship between COMT Val(158)Met and irrational beliefs depended on the level of emotional distress (f(2)=.314). The COMT Val(158)Met-irrationality association was significant only when individuals fell in the average to above average range of emotional distress. Furthermore, within this range the Met allele seemed to relate to higher irrational beliefs. These results were significant for overall irrational beliefs and its subtypes, but not for rational beliefs, the functional counterpart of irrationality. In light of the study's limitations, the results should be considered as preliminary. If replicable, these findings have potential implications for therapygenetics, changing the view that COMT Val(158)Met might be of greater relevance when treatment modality does not rely on cognitive variables. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The association between COMT rs4680 and 5-HTTLPR genotypes and concussion history in South African rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fie, Sarah; Abrahams, Shameemah; Patricios, Jon; Suter, Jason; Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to investigate the relationship between Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 and serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotypes with concussion history and personality traits. Rugby players ("all levels": n = 303), from high schools ("junior", n = 137), senior amateur, and professional teams ("senior", n = 166), completed a self-reported concussion history questionnaire, Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and donated a DNA sample. Participants were allocated into control (non-concussed, n = 140), case (all) (previous suspected or diagnosed concussions, n = 163), or case (diagnosed only) (previous diagnosed concussion, n = 140) groups. COMT rs4680 Val/Val genotypes were over-represented in controls in all levels (P = 0.013, OR:2.00, 95% CI:1.15-3.57) and in juniors (P = 0.003, OR:3.57, 95% CI:1.45-9.09). Junior Val/Val participants displayed increased "anticipatory worry" (P = 0.023). The 5-HTTLPR low expressing group was under-represented in controls when all levels were considered (P = 0.032; OR:2.02, 95% CI:1.05-3.90) and in juniors (P = 0.021; OR:3.36, 95% CI:1.16-9.72). Junior 5-HTTLPR low and intermediate expressing groups displayed decreased "harm avoidance" (P = 0.009), "anticipatory worry" (P = 0.041), and "fear of uncertainty" (P < 0.001). This study provides preliminary indications that personality associated genetic variants can influence concussion in rugby.

  8. COMT genetic variation confers risk for psychotic and affective disorders: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencz Todd

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in the COMT gene has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic, affective and anxiety disorders. The majority of these studies have focused on the functional Val108/158Met polymorphism and yielded conflicting results, with limited studies examining the relationship between other polymorphisms, or haplotypes, and psychiatric illness. We hypothesized that COMT variation may confer a general risk for psychiatric disorders and have genotyped four COMT variants (Val158Met, rs737865, rs165599, and a SNP in the P2 promoter [-278A/G; rs2097603] in 394 Caucasian cases and 467 controls. Cases included patients with schizophrenia (n = 196, schizoaffective disorder (n = 62, bipolar disorder (n = 82, major depression (n = 30, and patients diagnosed with either psychotic disorder NOS or depressive disorder NOS (n = 24. Results SNP rs2097603, the Val/Met variant and SNP rs165599 were significantly associated (p = 0.004; p = 0.05; p = 0.035 with a broad "all affected" diagnosis. Haplotype analysis revealed a potentially protective G-A-A-A haplotype haplotype (-278A/G; rs737865; Val108/158Met; rs165599, which was significantly underrepresented in this group (p = 0.0033 and contained the opposite alleles of the risk haplotype previously described by Shifman et al. Analysis of diagnostic subgroups within the "all affecteds group" showed an association of COMT in patients with psychotic disorders as well as in cases with affective illness although the associated variants differed. The protective haplotype remained significantly underrepresented in most of these subgroups. Conclusion Our results support the view that COMT variation provides a weak general predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease including psychotic and affective disorders.

  9. Stress-related methylation of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val 158 allele predicts human prefrontal cognition and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursini, Gianluca; Bollati, Valentina; Fazio, Leonardo; Porcelli, Annamaria; Iacovelli, Luisa; Catalani, Assia; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Gelao, Barbara; Romano, Raffaella; Rampino, Antonio; Taurisano, Paolo; Mancini, Marina; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Popolizio, Teresa; Baccarelli, Andrea; De Blasi, Antonio; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2011-05-04

    DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides is associated with gene silencing, stress, and memory. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158) allele in rs4680 is associated with differential enzyme activity, stress responsivity, and prefrontal activity during working memory (WM), and it creates a CpG dinucleotide. We report that methylation of the Val(158) allele measured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Val/Val humans is associated negatively with lifetime stress and positively with WM performance; it interacts with stress to modulate prefrontal activity during WM, such that greater stress and lower methylation are related to reduced cortical efficiency; and it is inversely related to mRNA expression and protein levels, potentially explaining the in vivo effects. Finally, methylation of COMT in prefrontal cortex and that in PBMCs of rats are correlated. The relationship of methylation of the COMT Val(158) allele with stress, gene expression, WM performance, and related brain activity suggests that stress-related methylation is associated with silencing of the gene, which partially compensates the physiological role of the high-activity Val allele in prefrontal cognition and activity. Moreover, these results demonstrate how stress-related DNA methylation of specific functional alleles impacts directly on human brain physiology beyond sequence variation.

  10. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongkanand, Anusorn [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  11. Association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and fibromyalgia susceptibility and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire score: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to fibromyalgia and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) score in fibromyalgia patients. We conducted a meta-analysis of the associations of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism with fibromyalgia risk as well as FIQ score in fibromyalgia patients. A total of 993 fibromyalgia patients and 778 controls from 10 studies on the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and 538 fibromyalgia patients from 5 studies on the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and FIQ score were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed an association between fibromyalgia and the COMT Met/Met + Val/Met genotype in all study subjects (odds ratio (OR) 1.635, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.029-2.597, p = 0.037). However, stratification by ethnicity indicated no association between the Met/Met + Val/Met genotype and fibromyalgia in the European and Turkish populations (OR 1.202, 95 % CI 0.876-1.649, p = 0.255; OR 2.132, 95 % CI 0.764-5.949, p = 0.148, respectively). Analysis using other genetic models showed no association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and fibromyalgia. The meta-analysis also revealed that the FIQ score was significantly higher in individuals with the COMT Met/Met genotype than in those with the Val/Val genotype [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 14.39, 95 % CI 3.316-25.48, p = 0.011] and the Val/Met genotype (WMD = 5.108, 95 % CI 2.212-4.891, p = 0.021). This meta-analysis identified an association between fibromyalgia risk and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism as well as the FIQ score in fibromyalgia patients.

  12. Association analysis of COMT/MTHFR polymorphisms and major depressive disorder in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinhua; Wu, Yanfeng; Guan, Tiefeng; Wang, Xiaoquan; Qian, Mincai; Lin, Min; Shen, Zhongxia; Sun, Jushui; Zhong, Hua; Yang, Jianhong; Li, Liang; Yuan, Yonggui

    2014-06-01

    In several previous biochemical and genetic studies, the Val158Met polymorphism of the gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and the C677T polymorphism of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis as well as the treatment response of major depressive disorder (MDD), but the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we investigate the association of COMT/MTHFR and their interactions with MDD and antidepressant response in Chinese Han population. Three hundred and sixty eight depressed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD were recruited for the study. Two hundred and nineteen normal controls were recruited from the local community. Patients and normal controls were genotyped for the functional COMT val158met and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Patients were characterized for clinical response to antidepressant treatment as measured by intra-individual changes of Hamilton Depression (HAMD-17) scores over 6 weeks. The T allele (OR=1.81; CI95%=1.40-2.34, Pdepressed individuals than among controls (OR=1.52, CI95%=1.04-2.21, P=0.02). There is disequilibrium in age and sex between case and control groups. Though we control the two variables in the statistic analysis, to be more accurate, we need to increase sample size in further study. Individuals with the genotype COMT Met/Val and MTHFR C/T have more probability of suffering from MDD. However, there is no association between gene polymorphism and treatment response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Schooling and variation in the COMT gene: the devil is in the details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Daniel; Bick, Johanna; Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Lee, Maria; Joseph, Antony; Chang, Joseph T; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2013-10-01

    Schooling is considered one of the major contributors to the development of intelligence within societies and individuals. Genetic variation might modulate the impact of schooling and explain, at least partially, the presence of individual differences in classrooms. We studied a sample of 1,502 children (mean age = 11.7 years) from Zambia. Approximately 57% of these children were enrolled in school, and the rest were not. To quantify genetic variation, we investigated a number of common polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene that controls the production of the protein thought to account for >60% of the dopamine degradation in the prefrontal cortex. Haplotype analyses generated results ranging from the presence to absence of significant interactions between a number of COMT haplotypes and indicators of schooling (i.e., in- vs. out-of-school and grade completed) in the prediction of nonverbal intelligence, depending on the parameter specification. However, an investigation of the distribution of corresponding p-values suggested that these positive results were false. Convincing evidence that the variation in the COMT gene is associated with individual differences in nonverbal intelligence either directly or through interactions with schooling was not found. p-values produced by the method of testing for haplotype effects employed here may be sensitive to parameter settings, invalid under default settings, and should be checked for validity through simulation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Methanization in Burgundy-Franche-Comte - Figures and benchmarks. Agricultural methanization in Franche-Comte - Reflection guide for projects. Methanization development in Burgundy - Assessment 2014. Biogas sector in Burgundy. Methanization development in Burgundy - How to develop a project in Burgundy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aucordonnier, Bertrand; SIBUE, Lionel; Granger, Sylvie; Pervenchon, Frank; Forgue, Isabelle; Lirzin, Frank; Aucordonnier, Bertand; Abrahamse, Philippe; Dondaine, Regis; Rousseau, Christophe; Fevre, Jean-Michel; Carbonnier, Arnaud; Gontier, Thomas; Lemaire, Sylvie; Gallois, Vincent; Lachaize, M.

    2015-03-01

    A first document proposes graphs, figures and maps which illustrate various aspects of the situation and development of methanization in France and in the Burgundy-Franche-Comte region (number and location of installations, production evolution, biomass origins, biogas valorisation). A second document presents methanization (basic principles, process types, valorisation), describes agricultural methanization (substrate origin, use of final energy, use of digestates) and proposes elements of thought for methanization development regarding waste origin, project definition, various concerns (energy, environment, agriculture), digestate use and quantities, methane use, and installation sizing. A publication then proposes a synthetic overview of methanization development in Burgundy: number of supported projects, installations (evolution of their number, used materials, production), and support activities. The next publication proposes an assessment and an overview of the biogas sector in Burgundy: presentation and recommendations, assessment in terms of jobs, activities and expertise, professional education and training. The last document recalls some elements related to the methanization technique, outlines some important issues (materials, valorisation type for biogas and for digestate) to be addressed for an agricultural methanization project, and evokes benefits of methanization and some economic aspects. It also briefly describes how to start a project in the region

  15. El comte Arnau, la migració d’un mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de la Pau Janer Mulet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En aquest article es presenta l’estudi de la figura del comte Arnau, heroi llegendari sorgit a les terres de la Catalunya Vella el drama del qual ha travessat els segles i ha estat difós per mitjà d’una balada i uns textos llegendaris de caràcter oral. El senyor poderós i malvat, sacríleg sense escrúpols i amic del diable, apareix a la seva esposa després de mort, sorgit de l’infern, com una ànima en pena que recorre la terra muntat en un cavall de flames. La balada, en forma de diàleg entre la dama i l’espectre del comte, ens reconta la causa de la seva condemna: «per soldades mal pagades», perquè no pagà els jornals que havia promès als seus treballadors. Per mitjà de la història llegendària del comte Arnau, el poble qüestionava la legitimitat d’un senyor incapaç de complir les seves promeses. En migrar a l’illa de Mallorca, el mite es consolida en un personatge històricament identificat que concentra les malvestats del comte llegendari, desapareix qualsevol al·lusió al tema dels jornals mal pagats, però persisteix en la denúncia d’un comte malvat i dèspota. This article presents the study of the figure of Conde Arnau, the legendary hero from the Old Catalunya lands, whose history has passed through the centuries and has spreaded through a ballad and legendary spoken texts. The powerful and bad master, without scruples and friend of the devil, appears to his wife after death. He comes out of hell, like a spirit in pain, wandering the land on a horse of flames. The ballad was composed in form of a dialogue between the lady and the spirit of the Conde. Through the legendary history of the Conde Arnau, the villagers questioned the legitimity of the Master, who was unable tu fulfelt his promises. In inmigrated to the island of Mallorca, the legend is consolidated in one identified historical character, which was concentrated in this legendary conde badness.

  16. Influence of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on emotional decision-making: A sex-dependent relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Danielle de Souza; Bechara, Antoine; de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; Correa, Humberto; Lage, Guilherme Menezes; Miranda, Débora Marques de; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2016-12-30

    The biological underpinnings of sex-related differences in decision-making are still under-explored. The COMT gene is related to sexual dimorphism and with different choices made under uncertainty, albeit no study has specifically investigated a moderation effect of sex on the association between the COMT gene and the performance on decision-making paradigms. In this study, we investigated the influence of the COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism on Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance depending on sex in a healthy adult sample. Participants were 192 healthy adults (84 men and 108 women). The first 40 choices in the IGT were considered decisions under ambiguity and the last 60 choices decisions under risk. To test our moderation hypothesis we used a separate regressions approach. The results revealed a sex-dependent effect of COMT Va l 158 Met polymorphism on decision-making as measured by the IGT. Val/Val women showed the best performance in the last trials of the IGT. Therefore, the COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism may be considered a genetic marker underlying sex differences in decision-making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The modulatory influence of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism on lexical decisions and semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Martin; Montag, Christian; Peters, Kristina; Kocher, Anne; Kiefer, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The role of the prefrontal Cortex (PFC) in higher cognitive functions - including working memory, conflict resolution, set shifting and semantic processing - has been demonstrated unequivocally. Despite the great heterogeneity among tasks measuring these phenotypes, due in part to the different cognitive sub-processes implied and the specificity of the stimulus material used, there is agreement that all of these tasks recruit an executive control system located in the PFC. On a biochemical level it is known that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in executive control functions. Evidence comes from molecular genetics relating the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism to working memory and set shifting. In order determine whether this pattern of findings generalises to linguistic and semantic processing, we investigated the effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in lexical decision making using masked and unmasked versions of the semantic priming paradigm on N = 104 healthy subjects. Although we observed strong priming effects in all conditions (masked priming, unmasked priming with short/long stimulus asynchronies (SOAs), direct and indirect priming), COMT was not significantly related to priming, suggesting no reliable influence on semantic processing. However, COMT Val158Met was strongly associated with lexical decision latencies in all priming conditions if considered separately, explaining between 9 and 14.5% of the variance. Therefore, the findings indicate that COMT mainly influences more general executive control functions in the PFC supporting the speed of lexical decisions.

  18. The modulatory influence of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism on lexical decisions and semantic priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reuter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the prefrontal Cortex (PFC in higher cognitive functions - including working memory, conflict resolution, set shifting and semantic processing - has been demonstrated unequivocally. Despite the great heterogeneity among tasks measuring these phenotypes, due in part to the different cognitive sub-processes implied and the specificity of the stimulus material used, there is agreement that all of these tasks recruit an executive control system located in the PFC. On a biochemical level it is known that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in executive control functions. Evidence comes from molecular genetics relating the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism to working memory and set shifting. In order determine whether this pattern of findings generalises to linguistic and semantic processing, we investigated the effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in lexical decision making using masked and unmasked versions of the semantic priming paradigm on N=104 healthy subjects. Although we observed strong priming effects in all conditions (masked priming, unmasked priming with short/long stimulus asynchronies (SOAs, direct and indirect priming, COMT was not significantly related to masked priming, suggesting no reliable influence on semantic processing. However, COMT Val158Met was strongly associated with lexical decision latencies in all priming conditions if considered separately, explaining between 9 to 14.5 % of the variance. Therefore, the findings indicate that COMT mainly influences more general executive control functions in the PFC supporting the speed of lexical decisions.

  19. Association of COMT (Val158Met) and BDNF (Val66Met) Gene Polymorphisms with Anxiety, ADHD and Tics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; Devincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine rs4680 ("COMT") and rs6265 ("BDNF") as genetic markers of anxiety, ADHD, and tics. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for a total sample of 67 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both "COMT" (p = 0.06) and "BDNF" (p = 0.07) genotypes were marginally significant for teacher…

  20. Solidification of highly active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.B.

    1984-11-01

    Final reports are presented on work on the following topics: glass technology; enhancement of off-gas aerosol collection; formation and trapping of volatile ruthenium; volatilisation of caesium, technetium and tellurium in high-level waste vitrification; deposition of ruthenium; and calcination of high-level waste liquors. (author)

  1. COMT Val158 Met moderates the link between rank and aggression in a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutleb, D R; Roos, C; Noll, A; Ostner, J; Schülke, O

    2018-04-01

    The COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism is one of the most widely studied genetic polymorphisms in humans implicated in aggression and the moderation of stressful life event effects. We screened a wild primate population for polymorphisms at the COMT Val 158 Met site and phenotyped them for aggression to test whether the human polymorphism exists and is associated with variation in aggressive behavior. Subjects were all adults from 4 study groups (37 males, 40 females) of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) in their natural habitat (Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand). We collected focal animal behavioral data (27 males, 36 females, 5964 focal hours) and fecal samples for non-invasive DNA analysis. We identified the human COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism (14 Met/Met, 41 Val/Met and 22 Val/Val). Preliminary results suggest that COMT genotype and dominance rank interact to influence aggression rates. Aggression rates increased with rank in Val/Val, but decreased in Met/Met and Val/Met individuals, with no significant main effect of COMT genotype on aggression. Further support for the interaction effect comes from time series analyses revealing that when changing from lower to higher rank position Val/Val individuals decreased, whereas Met/Met individuals increased their aggression rate. Contradicting the interpretation of earlier studies, we show that the widely studied Val 158 Met polymorphism in COMT is not unique to humans and yields similar behavioral phenotypes in a non-human primate. This study represents an important step towards understanding individual variation in aggression in a wild primate population and may inform human behavioral geneticists about the evolutionary roots of inter-individual variation in aggression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  2. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype.

  3. Higher FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 allele burdens are associated with PTSD and interact with trauma exposure: implications for neuropsychiatric research and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscarino JA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph A Boscarino1,2, Porat M Erlich1,3, Stuart N Hoffman4, Xiaopeng Zhang51Center for Health Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 4Department of Neurology, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, USAObjective: The study aim was to assess the cumulative burden of polymorphisms located within four genetic loci previously associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among outpatients at risk for PTSD.Methods: Diagnostic interviews were completed and DNA samples collected among 412 pain patients to determine if FKBP5 (rs9470080, COMT (rs4680, CHRNA5 (rs16969968, and CRHR1 (rs110402 single nucleotide polymorphisms were cumulatively associated with increased risk for PTSD.Results: In bivariate analyses, it was found that a count of specific PTSD risk alleles located within FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genetic loci (allele range = 0–6, mean count = 2.92, standard deviation = 1.36 was associated with lifetime (t [409] = 3.430, P = 0.001 and early onset PTSD (t [409] = 4.239, P = 0.000028. In logistic regression, controlling for demographic factors, personality traits, and trauma exposures, this risk allele count remained associated with both lifetime (odds ratio = 1.49, P = 0.00158 and early onset PTSD (odds ratio = 2.36, P = 0.000093. Interaction effects were also detected, whereby individuals with higher risk allele counts and higher trauma exposures had an increased risk of lifetime PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.026 and early onset PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.016 in these logistic regressions. Those with no or few risk alleles appeared resilient to PTSD, regardless of exposure history.Conclusion: A cumulative risk allele count involving four single nucleotide polymorphisms located within the FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genes are associated with PTSD. Level of trauma exposure

  4. The secrets of highly active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thea; Tong, Catherine; Ashe, Maureen C; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2013-12-01

    Although physical activity is a recognized component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age (Manini & Pahor, 2009; Schutzer & Graves, 2004). In this article we examine the key factors that facilitate physical activity in highly active community-dwelling older adults. Using a strengths based approach, we examined the factors that facilitated physical activity in our sample of highly active older adults. Twenty-seven older adults participated in face-to face interviews. We extracted a sub-sample of 10 highly active older adults to be included in the analyses. Based on a framework analysis of our transcripts we identified three factors that facilitate physical activity in our sample, these include: 1) resourcefulness: engagement in self-help strategies such as self-efficacy, self-control and adaptability; 2) social connections: the presence of relationships (friend, neighborhood, institutions) and social activities that support or facilitate high levels of physical activity; and 3) the role of the built and natural environments: features of places and spaces that support and facilitate high levels of physical activity. Findings provide insight into, and factors that facilitate older adults' physical activity. We discuss implications for programs (e.g., accessible community centers, with appropriate programming throughout the lifecourse) and policies geared towards the promotion of physical activity (e.g., the development of spaces that facilitate both physical and social activities). © 2013.

  5. The association between well-being and the COMT gene: Dispositional gratitude and forgiveness as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinting; Gong, Pingyuan; Gao, Xiaoxue; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the contributions of genetic variants and positive psychological traits (e.g. gratitude and forgiveness) to well-being. However, little is known about how genes interact with positive traits to affect well-being. To investigate to what extent the COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates well-being and to what extent dispositional gratitude and forgiveness mediate the individual differences in well-being, 445 participants were recruited and required to complete a battery of questionnaires. We found that individuals with a smaller number of the Met alleles reported greater well-being, less depressive symptoms, and greater tendencies for gratitude and forgiveness. Moreover, dispositional gratitude and forgiveness mediated the genotype effects on well-being and depressive symptoms. These results remained significant after controlling for non-genetic factors (socioeconomic status, religious beliefs, romantic relationship status, parenting style). The sample size limits the generalizability of results. This study demonstrates the contribution of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism to individual differences in well-being and suggests a potential psychobiological pathway from dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems to happiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Auguste Comte and Consensus Formation in American Religious Thought—Part 1: The Creation of Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Sacks

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available French intellectual Auguste Comte was the most influential sociologist and philosopher of science in the Nineteenth Century. This first of two articles summarizes his complex life’s works and details reactions to them by Transcendentalists and Unitarians, from its American introduction in 1837 until just after the Civil War. Using public speeches and published essays, the article analyzes the ways in which intellectuals supported and criticized Comte’s theories. Because he wrote in such abstract and difficult French, criticisms centered not on the nuances of his work, but more superficially on his alleged atheism. These attacks occur because of a variety of consequences of the Civil War that had little to do directly with Comte’s philosophy. Instead, Comte was a convenient vehicle for expressing anxiety over a modernism that included an accelerated threat against religion posed by technology and science and the emerging dominance of that secular knowledge in universities. The second article will analyze Comte’s influence on later Transcendentalists and other post-Unitarian thinkers.

  7. Psychophysiological traits of men with several genotypes in polymorphic locus Val158Met COMT and different levels of aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Ermakov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The catechol-O-methyl transferase gene influences the reuptake of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline from the synaptic space. The structural peculiarities of this gene are linked with the duration of stay of neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap and the emergence and duration of emotional reactions, which may considerably affect a person’s level of aggressiveness; these peculiarities may manifest as psychophysiological characteristics. Objective and design. This study investigated the amplitude, spatio-temporal traits and sources of evoked brain activity in men with several genotypes in the polymorphic locus Val158Met in the COMT (Catechol-O-methyl transferase gene, levels of aggressiveness using the Buss-Darkee inventory, proneness to various types of deviant and addictive behaviors in accordance with the methods of A.N. Oryol and the preferred strategies of behavior during conflict in accordance with the methods of Kenneth Thomas. Statistical processing of psychodiagnostic data included dispersive (ANOVA and discriminative analyses. Results. This study found significant differences in the parameters of evoked brain activity components in responses to emotionally charged stimuli (“aggression”, “positive”, “tolerance”, “extremism, terrorism” compared with neutral images. Student’s t-test (Holms- corrected for multiple comparisons was used to analyze the EEG-VEP data. Conclusion. This study confirmed the hypothesis of differences in spatio-temporal and amplitude parameters of evoked brain potentials in young men exhibiting differing levels of aggressiveness. The sources of evoked brain activity determined using sLORETA (Standardized Low-resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography were different between carriers of different genotypes.

  8. Putative therapeutic targets for symptom subtypes of adult ADHD: D4 receptor agonism and COMT inhibition improve attention and response inhibition in a novel translational animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Anneka; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Hayward, Andrew; Marshall, Kay M; Neill, Joanna C

    2015-04-01

    Prefrontal cortical dopamine plays an important role in cognitive control, specifically in attention and response inhibition; the core deficits in ADHD. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine differentially improve these deficits dependent on baseline performance. The present study extends this work to investigate the effects of putative therapeutic targets in our model. A selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist (A-412997) and the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) inhibitor; tolcapone, were investigated in the combined subtype of adult ADHD (ADHD-C). Adult female rats were trained to criterion in the 5C-CPT (5-Choice Continuous Performance Task) and then separated into subgroups according to baseline levels of sustained attention, vigilance, and response disinhibition. The subgroups included: high-attentive (HA) and low-attentive with high response disinhibition (ADHD-C). The ADHD-C subgroup was selected to represent the combined subtype of adult ADHD. Effects of tolcapone (3.0, 10.0, 15.0mg/kg) and A-412997 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0µmol/kg) were tested by increasing the variable inter-trial-interval (ITI) duration in the 5C-CPT. Tolcapone (15mg/kg) significantly increased sustained attention, vigilance and response inhibition in ADHD-C animals, and impaired attention in HA animals. A-412997 (1.0µmol/kg) significantly increased vigilance and response inhibition in ADHD-C animals only, with no effect in HA animals. This is the first study to use the translational 5C-CPT to model the adult ADHD-C subtype in rats and to study new targets in this model. Both tolcapone and A-412997 increased vigilance and response inhibition in the ADHD-C subgroup. D4 and COMT are emerging as important potential therapeutic targets in adult ADHD that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) ortholog from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We cloned the full-length of the gene putatively encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. Kenaf is an herbaceous and rapidly growing dicotyledonous plant with great potential ...

  10. COMT Val[superscript 108/158] Met Gene Variant, Birth Weight, and Conduct Disorder in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Grizenko, Natalie; Schmitz, Norbert; Schwartz, George; Amor, Leila Ben; Bellingham, Johanne; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Polotskaia, Anna; Stepanian, Marina Ter; Thakur, Geeta; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In a recent study, Thapar and colleagues reported that COMT "gene variant and birth weight predict early-onset antisocial behavior in children" with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We have attempted to replicate these findings in a group of ADHD children using a similar research design. Method: Children (n = 191)…

  11. Genetic contributions to age-related decline in executive function: a 10-year longitudinal study of COMT and BDNF polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk I Erickson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability in the dopaminergic and neurotrophic systems could contribute to age-related impairments in executive control and memory function. In this study we examined whether genetic polymorphisms for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were related to the trajectory of cognitive decline occurring over a 10-year period in older adults. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the COMT (Val158/108Met gene affects the concentration of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, a Val/Met substitution in the pro-domain for BDNF (Val66Met affects the regulated secretion and trafficking of BDNF with Met carriers showing reduced secretion and poorer cognitive function. We found that impairments over the 10-year span on a task-switching paradigm did not vary as a function of the COMT polymorphism. However, for the BDNF polymorphism the Met carriers performed worse than Val homozygotes at the first testing session but only the Val homozygotes demonstrated a significant reduction in performance over the 10-year span. Our results argue that the COMT polymorphism does not affect the trajectory of age-related executive control decline, whereas the Val/Val polymorphism for BDNF may promote faster rates of cognitive decay in old age. These results are discussed in relation to the role of BDNF in senescence and the transforming impact of the Met allele on cognitive function in old age.

  12. Polymorphisms of serotonin receptor 2A and 2C genes and COMT in relation to obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Werge, Thomas; Holst, Claus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Candidate genes of psychological importance include 5HT2A, 5HT2C, and COMT, implicated in the serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine pathways, which also may be involved in regulation of energy balance. We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these......BACKGROUND: Candidate genes of psychological importance include 5HT2A, 5HT2C, and COMT, implicated in the serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine pathways, which also may be involved in regulation of energy balance. We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs......) of these genes with obesity and metabolic traits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a population of 166 200 young men examined at the draft boards, obese men (n = 726, BMI> or =31.0 kg/m(2)) and a randomly selected group (n = 831) were re-examined at two surveys at mean ages 46 and 49 years (S-46, S-49......). Anthropometric, physiological and biochemical measures were available. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess age-adjusted odds ratios. No significant associations were observed of 5HT2A rs6311, 5HT2C rs3813929 and COMT rs4680 with obesity, except that COMT rs4680 GG-genotype was associated with fat...

  13. Common Variants in LRP2 and COMT Genes Affect the Susceptibility of Gout in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zheng; Zhao, Dongbao; Yang, Chengde; Zhou, Jingru; Qian, Qiaoxia; Ma, Yanyun; He, Hongjun; Ji, Hengdong; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xia; Pang, Yafei; Zou, Hejian; Jin, Li; Wang, Jiucun

    2015-01-01

    Gout is a common inflammation disease resulting from an increase in serum uric acid. Nearly 70% of uric acid is excreted via the kidneys. To date, evidence for an association between genetic loci and gout is absent, equivocal or not replicated. Our study aims to test variants in two genes abundantly expressed in the kidney, LRP2 and COMT, for their association with uric acid and gout. In total, 1318 Chinese individuals were genotyped for rs2544390 in LRP2 and rs4680 in COMT. These LRP2 and COMT gene polymorphisms showed no significant effect on uric acid (P = 0.204 and 0.188, separately); however, rs2544390 in LRP2 did influence uric acid levels in individuals with BMI ≥ 25 (P = 0.009). In addition, the allele frequency distributions of the two loci showed a significant difference between gout patients and healthy controls. A missense variation in rs4680 (G > A) decreased the risk of gout (OR = 0.77, P = 0.015), whereas the T allele of rs2544390 was associated with gout pathogenesis risk (OR = 1.26, P = 0.020). The present study provides the first evidence for an association between COMT and gout. Rs2544390 in LRP2 only influenced uric acid levels in individuals with BMI ≥ 25, which might explain the discrepant results among previous studies. In addition, we are the first to identify the association between LRP2 and gout in a Chinese population and to confirm this association in Asians.

  14. Modification of Depression by COMT val[superscript 158]Met Polymorphism in Children Exposed to Early Severe Psychosocial Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.; Theall, Katherine P.; Smyke, Anna T.; Keats, Bronya J. B.; Egger, Helen L.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Marshall, Peter J.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val[superscript 158]met allele on depressive symptoms in young children exposed to early severe social deprivation as a result of being raised in institutions. Methods: One hundred thirty six children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) were randomized…

  15. COMT Val(158)Met and 5HTTLPR functional loci interact to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, C A; Byrnes, G B; Anney, R J L; Collins, V; Hemphill, S A; Williamson, R; Patton, G C

    2007-10-01

    We investigated whether a composite genetic factor, based on the combined actions of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) (Val(158)Met) and serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) (Long-Short) functional loci, has a greater capacity to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence than either locus in isolation. Analyses were performed on DNA collected from 962 young Australians participating in an eight-wave longitudinal study of mental health and well-being (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study). When the effects of each locus were examined separately, small dose-response reductions in the odds of reporting persisting generalized (free-floating) anxiety across adolescence were observed for the COMT Met(158) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76-0.95, P = 0.004] and 5HTTLPR Short alleles (OR = 0.88, CI = 0.79-0.99, P = 0.033). There was no evidence for a dose-response interaction effect between loci. However, there was a double-recessive interaction effect in which the odds of reporting persisting generalized anxiety were more than twofold reduced (OR = 0.45, CI = 0.29-0.70, P anxiety. Exploratory stratified analyses suggested that genetic protection may be more pronounced under conditions of high stress (insecure attachments and sexual abuse), although strata differences did not reach statistical significance. By describing the interaction between genetic loci, it may be possible to describe composite genetic factors that have a more substantial impact on psychosocial development than individual loci alone, and in doing so, enhance understanding of the contribution of constitutional processes in mental health outcomes.

  16. Polimorfismo en el gen COMT en una muestra de gestantes normales y con restricción del crecimiento intrauterino en un hospital de Lima

    OpenAIRE

    José Pacheco-Romero; Doris Huerta; Oscar Acosta; Santiago Cabrera

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: Los procesos fisiopatológicos que ocurren a nivel celular y molecular en la restricción de crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU) son aún desconocidos. La catecol-O-metiltransferasa (COMT) es una enzima de fase II que inactiva los catecol estrógenos al transferir un grupo metílico. Se conoce un polimorfismo funcional Val158 Met en el gen COMT como un marcador susceptible para diversas enfermedades maternoperinatales, existiendo estudios que sugieren que el alelo que codifica una COMT d...

  17. High activity gamma irradiators developed in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.

    1997-01-01

    The development of high activity Gamma irradiators began in Hungary already in the early years of 60s. The very first designs were serving research in irradiation chemistry, radiation physics, food and agricultural research, radiation sterilization, plastic radiation chemistry, radiobiology, cancer therapy, personal and high dose dosimetry, following the international trends. Domestic and new international demands forced us to design and construct High Activity Gamma Irradiators: Multipurpose Pilot, Portable and Large scale bulk, Multipurpose Industrial scale types

  18. The COMT Val158Met Polymorphism Is Associated With Response to Add-on Dextromethorphan Treatment in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Kao Ching; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band

    2017-02-01

    We previously conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled, 12-week study evaluating the effect of add-on dextromethorphan (DM), a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on patients with bipolar disorder (BD) treated using valproate (VPA), which showed negative clinical differences. The genetic variation between each individual may be responsible for interindividual differences. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been a candidate gene for BD. In the current study, we investigated whether the COMT Val158Met polymorphism predicts treatment response to VPA + add-on DM and to VPA + placebo. Patients with BD (n = 309) undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to groups given either add-on DM (30 mg/d) (n = 102), DM (60 mg/d) (n = 101), or placebo (n = 106) for 12 weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale were used to evaluate clinical response during weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. The genotypes of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism were determined using polymerase chain reaction plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To adjust for within-subject dependence over repeated assessments, multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equation methods was used. When stratified by the COMT Val158Met genotypes, significantly greater decreases in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores were found in the VPA + DM (30 mg/d) group in patients with the Val/Met genotype (P = 0.008). We conclude that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism may influence responses to DM (30 mg/d) by decreasing depressive symptoms in BD patients.

  19. The relation of serotonin-related gene and COMT gene polymorphisms with criminal behavior in schizophrenic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Choi, Eun Hee; Lee, Young-joon; Han, Mooyoung; Choi, Sang-Sup; Kim, So Won; Lee, Min Goo

    2012-02-01

    It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia might be involved in criminal behavior, such as homicidal and violent behavior. However, the relationship between criminal behavior and genes in patients with schizophrenia has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between criminal behavior and serotonin-related gene or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonin-related and COMT polymorphic markers were assessed by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Ninety-nine crime-related inpatients with schizophrenia (57 homicidal and 42 nonhomicidal violent) and 133 healthy subjects were enrolled between October 2005 and May 2008. Diagnoses were made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The genotype frequencies of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) A218C and COMT V158M were compared between groups. The TPH1 CC genotype had 2.7-fold higher odds of crime-related schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.22 - 5.91; P = .01). In addition, the TPH1 CC genotype had 3.4-fold higher odds of homicidal schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.40 - 8.18; P = .007). However, no significant differences were found in the frequencies of genotype of COMT polymorphism between criminal schizophrenics and healthy subjects, nor were any significant differences found between nonhomicidal schizophrenics and healthy subjects. These results indicate that the TPH1 CC recessive genotype is likely to be a genetic risk factor for criminal behavior, especially homicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia. However, COMT gene polymorphisms were not associated with criminal behavior in schizophrenic patients. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. Association between COMT Polymorphism Val158Met and Opioid Consumption in Patients with Postoperative Pain: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several factors influencing postoperative pain and the effect of opioid analgesics have been investigated on an individual level. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene Val158Met on opioid consumption in postoperative patients. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature up to September 30, 2017, were performed by using PubMed, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI database. The meta-analysis examined all studies involving the association between genetic polymorphisms of COMT Val158Met and opioid consumption during the acute postoperative period. Results: Of the 153 identified studies, 23 studies were retrieved for systematic review and 10 studies were retrieved for meta-analysis. However, it was impossible to conduct meta-analysis on the association between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and postoperative pain because of heterogeneity of the data. Overall, meta-analysis showed that COMT Val/Met carriers consumed less opioid for analgesia within the first 24 hours after surgery (SMD = 0.14, 95% CI = [0.03, 0.25], P = 0.01 but not within 48 hours (SMD = 0.14, 95% CI = [0.08, 0.36], P = 0.21. There was no significant difference in opioid consumption between Val/ Val and Met/Met patients. Conclusion: Patients with Val/Met but not Met/Met allele variant consumed less opioid, though larger and better-designed studies are required to obtain an exclusive conclusion about the correlation between postoperative pain and COMT Val158Met polymorphism.

  1. Pre-travel consultation: evaluation of primary care physician practice in the Franche-Comté region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotte, Emeline; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Piton, Gaël; Millon, Laurence; Marguet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Primary care physicians (PCP) are first in line to provide adequate pre-travel medical advice. Little data are available on the content of pre-travel PCP consultations in France. We undertook an observational survey to assess the level of specific knowledge among PCPs on health advice, vaccinations, and malaria prophylaxis. Standardized questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 400 PCPs practicing in the Franche-Comté regions (eastern France) who were asked to complete and return it on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The questionnaire requested sociodemographic details, practice-related characteristics, and proposed three clinical situations with multiple choice questions (MCQ). To identify factors associated with a higher level of specific knowledge in travel medicine, results were studied by uni- and multivariate analyses. An overall score was calculated based on the MCQ answers and a motivation score was calculated based on parameters such as frequency and developments in pre-travel consulting at the practice, PCPs' personal experience as travelers, and the formal agreement of PCPs to administer yellow fever vaccination. The response rate was 37.5%, with 150 questionnaires returned completed and suitable for analysis. After multivariate logistic regression, the three variables associated with a higher score were: proximity of a vaccination center (p = 0.001), motivation score (p = 0.004), and absence of request for expert advice on malaria prophylaxis (p = 0.007). PCPs play an important role in travel medicine. This study showed that their high level of knowledge in travel medicine was mostly linked to their motivation to practice in this specialized discipline. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  2. Dopamine and the Creative Mind: Individual Differences in Creativity Are Predicted by Interactions between Dopamine Genes DAT and COMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelina, Darya L; Colzato, Lorenza; Beeman, Mark; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The dopaminergic (DA) system may be involved in creativity, however results of past studies are mixed. We attempted to clarify this putative relation by considering the mediofrontal and the nigrostriatal DA pathways, uniquely and in combination, and their contribution to two different measures of creativity--an abbreviated version of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, assessing divergent thinking, and a real-world creative achievement index. We found that creativity can be predicted from interactions between genetic polymorphisms related to frontal (COMT) and striatal (DAT) DA pathways. Importantly, the Torrance test and the real-world creative achievement index related to different genetic patterns, suggesting that these two measures tap into different aspects of creativity, and depend on distinct, but interacting, DA sub-systems. Specifically, we report that successful performance on the Torrance test is linked with dopaminergic polymorphisms associated with good cognitive flexibility and medium top-down control, or with weak cognitive flexibility and strong top-down control. The latter is particularly true for the originality factor of divergent thinking. High real-world creative achievement, on the other hand, as assessed by the Creative Achievement Questionnaire, is linked with dopaminergic polymorphisms associated with weak cognitive flexibility and weak top-down control. Taken altogether, our findings support the idea that human creativity relies on dopamine, and on the interaction between frontal and striatal dopaminergic pathways in particular. This interaction may help clarify some apparent inconsistencies in the prior literature, especially if the genes and/or creativity measures were analyzed separately.

  3. COMT Val158Met polymorphism moderates the association between PTSD symptom severity and hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark W; Reagan, Andrew; Salat, David; Wolf, Erika J; Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Sperbeck, Emily; Hayes, Scott M; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Verfaellie, Mieke; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; Miller, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    Memory-based alterations are among the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may be associated with the integrity of the hippocampus. However, neuroimaging studies of hippocampal volume in individuals with PTSD have yielded inconsistent results, raising the possibility that various moderators, such as genetic factors, may influence this association. We examined whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, which has previously been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume in healthy individuals, moderates the association between PTSD and hippocampal volume. Recent war veterans underwent structural MRI on a 3 T scanner. We extracted volumes of the right and left hippocampus using FreeSurfer and adjusted them for individual differences in intracranial volume. We assessed PTSD severity using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Hierarchical linear regression was used to model the genotype (Val158Met polymorphism) × PTSD severity interaction and its association with hippocampal volume. We included 146 white, non-Hispanic recent war veterans (90% male, 53% with diagnosed PTSD) in our analyses. A significant genotype × PTSD symptom severity interaction emerged such that individuals with greater current PTSD symptom severity who were homozygous for the Val allele showed significant reductions in left hippocampal volume. The direction of proposed effects is unknown, thus precluding definitive assessment of whether differences in hippocampal volume reflect a consequence of PTSD, a pre-existing characteristic, or both. Our findings suggest that the COMT polymorphism moderates the association between PTSD and hippocampal volume. These results highlight the role that the dopaminergic system has in brain structure and suggest a possible mechanism for memory disturbance in individuals with PTSD.

  4. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, R H; Exposto, F G; O'Buckley, S C; Westlund, K N; Nackley, A G

    2015-04-02

    Reduced catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity resulting from genetic variation or pharmacological depletion results in enhanced pain perception in humans and nociceptive behaviors in animals. Using phasic mechanical and thermal reflex tests (e.g. von Frey, Hargreaves), recent studies show that acute COMT-dependent pain in rats is mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). In order to more closely mimic the characteristics of human chronic pain conditions associated with prolonged reductions in COMT, the present study sought to determine volitional pain-related and anxiety-like behavioral responses following sustained as well as acute COMT inhibition using an operant 10-45°C thermal place preference task and a light/dark preference test. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effects of sustained COMT inhibition on generalized body pain by measuring tactile sensory thresholds of the abdominal region. Results demonstrated that acute and sustained administration of the COMT inhibitor OR486 increased pain behavior in response to thermal heat. Further, sustained administration of OR486 increased anxiety behavior in response to bright light, as well as abdominal mechanosensation. Finally, all pain-related behaviors were blocked by the non-selective βAR antagonist propranolol. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of βARs following acute or chronic COMT inhibition drives cognitive-affective behaviors associated with heightened pain that affects multiple body sites. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Catechol-O-methlytransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, R. H.; Exposto, F. G.; O’Buckley, S. C.; Westlund, K. N.; Nackley, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity resulting from genetic variation or pharmacological depletion results in enhanced pain perception in humans and nociceptive behaviors in animals. Using phasic mechanical and thermal reflex tests (e.g. von Frey, Hargreaves), recent studies show that acute COMT-dependent pain in rats is mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). In order to more closely mimic the characteristics of human chronic pain conditions associated with prolonged reductions in COMT, the present study sought to determine volitional pain-related and anxiety-like behavioral responses following sustained as well as acute COMT inhibition using an operant 10–45°C thermal place preference task and a light/dark preference test. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effects of sustained COMT inhibition on generalized body pain by measuring tactile sensory thresholds of the abdominal region. Results demonstrated that acute and sustained administration of the COMT inhibitor OR486 increased pain behavior in response to thermal heat. Further, sustained administration of OR486 increased anxiety behavior in response to bright light, as well as abdominal mechanosensation. Finally, all pain-related behaviors were blocked by the non-selective βAR antagonist propranolol. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of ARs following acute or chronic COMT inhibition drives cognitive-affective behaviors associated with heightened pain that affects multiple body sites. PMID:25659347

  6. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other trace elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  7. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.; Bowman, W.W.; Zeh, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  8. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  9. Enclosure for handling high activity materials abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.; Dominguez Rodriguez, G.; Cruz Castillo, F. de la; Rodriguez Esteban, A.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With that purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. A description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (author) [es

  10. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F

    1977-07-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  11. Management of synchronized network activity by highly active neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shein, Mark; Raichman, Nadav; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Volman, Vladislav; Hanein, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the idea that spontaneous brain activity may have an important functional role. Cultured neuronal networks provide a suitable model system to search for the mechanisms by which neuronal spontaneous activity is maintained and regulated. This activity is marked by synchronized bursting events (SBEs)—short time windows (hundreds of milliseconds) of rapid neuronal firing separated by long quiescent periods (seconds). However, there exists a special subset of rapidly firing neurons whose activity also persists between SBEs. It has been proposed that these highly active (HA) neurons play an important role in the management (i.e. establishment, maintenance and regulation) of the synchronized network activity. Here, we studied the dynamical properties and the functional role of HA neurons in homogeneous and engineered networks, during early network development, upon recovery from chemical inhibition and in response to electrical stimulations. We found that their sequences of inter-spike intervals (ISI) exhibit long time correlations and a unimodal distribution. During the network's development and under intense inhibition, the observed activity follows a transition period during which mostly HA neurons are active. Studying networks with engineered geometry, we found that HA neurons are precursors (the first to fire) of the spontaneous SBEs and are more responsive to electrical stimulations

  12. Common Variants in LRP2 and COMT Genes Affect the Susceptibility of Gout in a Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Dong

    Full Text Available Gout is a common inflammation disease resulting from an increase in serum uric acid. Nearly 70% of uric acid is excreted via the kidneys. To date, evidence for an association between genetic loci and gout is absent, equivocal or not replicated. Our study aims to test variants in two genes abundantly expressed in the kidney, LRP2 and COMT, for their association with uric acid and gout. In total, 1318 Chinese individuals were genotyped for rs2544390 in LRP2 and rs4680 in COMT. These LRP2 and COMT gene polymorphisms showed no significant effect on uric acid (P = 0.204 and 0.188, separately; however, rs2544390 in LRP2 did influence uric acid levels in individuals with BMI ≥ 25 (P = 0.009. In addition, the allele frequency distributions of the two loci showed a significant difference between gout patients and healthy controls. A missense variation in rs4680 (G > A decreased the risk of gout (OR = 0.77, P = 0.015, whereas the T allele of rs2544390 was associated with gout pathogenesis risk (OR = 1.26, P = 0.020. The present study provides the first evidence for an association between COMT and gout. Rs2544390 in LRP2 only influenced uric acid levels in individuals with BMI ≥ 25, which might explain the discrepant results among previous studies. In addition, we are the first to identify the association between LRP2 and gout in a Chinese population and to confirm this association in Asians.

  13. COMT Val158Met genotype is associated with reward learning: A replication study and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Frías, Nadia S.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Carré, Justin; Michalski, Lindsay J; Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Perlis, Roy H.; Fagerness, Jesen; Lee, Mary R.; Conley, Emily Drabant; Lancaster, Thomas M.; Haddad, Stephen; Wolf, Aaron; Smoller, Jordan W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Bogdan, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Identifying mechanisms through which individual differences in reward learning emerge offers an opportunity to understand both a fundamental form of adaptive responding as well as etiological pathways through which aberrant reward learning may contribute to maladaptive behaviors and psychopathology. One candidate mechanism through which individual differences in reward learning may emerge is variability in dopaminergic reinforcement signaling. A common functional polymorphism within the catechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT; rs4680, Val158Met) has been linked to reward learning where homozygosity for the Met allele (associated with heightened prefrontal dopamine function and decreased dopamine synthesis in the midbrain) has been associated with relatively increased reward learning. Here, we used a probabilistic reward learning task to asses response bias, a behavioral form of reward learning, across 3 separate samples that were combined for analyses (age: 21.80 ± 3.95; n=392; 268 female; European-American, n=208). We replicate prior reports that COMT rs4680 Met allele homozygosity is associated with increased reward learning in European-American participants (β=0.20, t= 2.75, p< 0.01; ΔR2= 0.04). Moreover, a meta-analysis of 4 studies, including the current one, confirmed the association between COMT rs4680 genotype and reward learning (95% CI −0.11 to −0.03; z=3.2; p<0.01). These results suggest that variability in dopamine signaling associated with COMT rs4680 influences individual differences in reward which may potentially contribute to psychopathology characterized by reward dysfunction. PMID:27138112

  14. La posteridad sociológica de Auguste Comte: Lo normal y lo patológico en Durkheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHEL BOURDEAU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo completa un texto que, bajo el título «Ciencia, religión y sociedad en Auguste Comte», fue publicado en el año 2003 en las páginas de esta revista. Después de un breve repaso de los conceptos sociológicos fundamentales del Cours de philosophie positive, se muestra como el pensamiento de Durkheim se constituyó a través de una discusión crítica con el positivismo. Concretamente, se examinan dos momentos fundamentales de dicha confrontación. En primer lugar, se analiza como la distinción que Durkheim establece en La división du travail social (1893 entre solidaridad mecánica y solidaridad orgánica tenía como objetivo fundamental demostrar que Comte se había equivocado al extraer ciertas consecuencias sobre el progreso de la división del trabajo. En segundo lugar, se muestra como en Les Règles de la méthode sociologique (1895, Durkheim atribuye a Comte la distinción entre lo normal y lo patológico y reinterpreta dicha distinción a partir del concepto de «media» de Quételet. En este contexto, concluimos señalando que Durkheim debe a Comte la idea de que la sociología permite construir una ciencia de la moral.

  15. Assessment of Climate Air Energy Regional Schemes in Burgundy and in Franche-Comte - Intermediate review on June 27, 2017. Burgundy Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme. Project, Scheme, Appendix to the SRCAE - Wind regional scheme of Burgundy, synthesis, opinion of the Burgundy CESER. Territorial Climate Energy Plan - Program of actions, Plenary session of the November 25, 2013. Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme - Franche-Comte SRCAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    A first report proposes an assessment of the various aspects addressed by the Climate Air Energy Regional Schemes (SRCAE) of Burgundy and Franche-Comte: global aspects, and aspects related to adaptation to climate change, to air quality, to land planning, to the building sector, to mobility, to good transports, to agriculture, to forest, to industry and craft, to renewable energies, and to ecological responsibility. A synthetic presentation of the Burgundy scheme is proposed, and then an extended version which contains a description of the situation, an analysis of the regional potential, and a definition of orientations for the same above-mentioned aspects. A document more particularly addresses wind energy: role of wind energy in the energy mix of the region, role of small installations, wind energy potential, challenges and constraints (heritage and landscapes, natural environment, technical constraints), identification of areas of interest for wind energy projects, qualitative objectives. Documents published by the regional economic, social and environmental Council (CESER) of Burgundy are then proposed: a contribution to the Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme, a discussion and a presentation of a program of actions for the Climate Energy Territorial Plan (a large number of sheets of presentation of actions is proposed). The last document presents the Franche-Comte regional scheme: overview of regional knowledge on climate, air quality and environmental issues, challenges and potential per activity sector (transports and development, building, agriculture, industry, renewable energy production), definition of orientations and objectives for axes of action

  16. [Effects of anxiety and the COMT gene on cortical evoked potentials and performance effectiveness of selective attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, M V; Golimbet, V E; Lebedeva, I S; Korovaĭtseva, G I; Lezheĭko, T V

    2014-01-01

    We studied influence of the anxiety-related trait Harm Avoidance and the COMT gene, which is an important modulator of prefrontal functioning, on event-related potentials in oddball paradigm and performance effectiveness of selective attention. For 50 individuals accuracy and time of searching words among letters at any desired rate and then under an instruction to perform the task as quickly and accurate as possible were measured. Scores on the Harm Avoidance scale from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, N100 and P300 parameters, and COMTVa1158Met genotypes were obtained for them as well. Searching accuracy and time were mainly related to N100 amplitude. The COMT genotype and Harm Avoidance did not affect N100 amplitude; however, the N100 amplitude modulated their effects on accuracy and time dynamics. Harm Avoidance was positively correlated with P300 latency. The results suggest that anxiety and the COMT gene effects on performance effectiveness of selective attention depend on cognitive processes reflected in N100 parameters.

  17. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Genotype Affects Age-Related Changes in Plasticity in Working Memory: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Heinzel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent work suggests that a genetic variation associated with increased dopamine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met; COMT amplifies age-related changes in working memory performance. Research on younger adults indicates that the influence of dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms on working memory performance increases when testing the cognitive limits through training. To date, this has not been studied in older adults. Method. Here we investigate the effect of COMT genotype on plasticity in working memory in a sample of 14 younger (aged 24–30 years and 25 older (aged 60–75 years healthy adults. Participants underwent adaptive training in the n-back working memory task over 12 sessions under increasing difficulty conditions. Results. Both younger and older adults exhibited sizeable behavioral plasticity through training (P<.001, which was larger in younger as compared to older adults (P<.001. Age-related differences were qualified by an interaction with COMT genotype (P<.001, and this interaction was due to decreased behavioral plasticity in older adults carrying the Val/Val genotype, while there was no effect of genotype in younger adults. Discussion. Our findings indicate that age-related changes in plasticity in working memory are critically affected by genetic variation in prefrontal dopamine metabolism.

  18. COMT (Val158Met and BDNF (Val66Met Genes Polymorphism in Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ramin saravani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effects of human brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF Val66Met (G>A and the human Catechol-O-methylTransferase (COMT Val158Met (G>A polymorphisms on Schizophrenia (SCZ risk were evaluated.Methods: This case control study included 92 SCZ patients and 92 healthy controls (HCs. Genotyping of both variants were conducted using Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR.Results: The findings showed that BDNF Val66Met (G>A variant increased the risk of SCZ (OR=2.008 95%CI=1.008-4.00, P=0.047, GA vs. GG, OR=3.876 95%CI=1.001-14.925, P=0.049. AA vs. GG, OR=2.272. 95%CI=1.204-4.347, P=0.011, GA+AA vs. GG, OR=2.22 95%CI=1.29-3.82. P=0.005, A vs. G. COMT Val158Met (G>A polymorphism was not associated with the risk/protective of SCZ.Conclusion: The results proposed that BDNF Val66Met (G>A polymorphism may increase the risk of SCZ development and did not support an association between COMT Val158Met (G>A variant and risk/protective of SCZ. Further studies and different ethnicities are recommended to confirm the findings.

  19. Perceived stigma and highly active antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived stigma and highly active antiretroviral treatment adherence among persons living with HIV/AIDS in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. ... Data on socio-demographic characteristics, stigma and adherence to drug regimen were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Data were ...

  20. Disposal of high-activity nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the deep sea ocean disposal for high-activity nuclear wastes. The following topics are covered: effect of ionizing radiation on marine ecosystems; pathways by which radionuclides are transferred to man from the marine environment; information about releases of radioactivity to the sea; radiological protection; storage and disposal of radioactive wastes and information needs. (U.K.)

  1. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions

  2. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavropoulos George G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior.

  3. IAEA high temperature gas cooled reactor activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    IAEA activities on high temperature gas cooled reactors are conducted with the review and support of Member States, primarily through the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors (IWGGCR). This paper summarises the results of the IAEA gas cooled reactor project activities in recent years along with ongoing current activities through a review of Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs), meetings and other international efforts. A series of three recently completed CRPs have addressed the key areas of reactor physics for LEU fuel, retention of fission products, and removal of post shutdown decay heat through passive heat transport mechanisms. These activities along with other completed and ongoing supporting CRPs and meetings are summarised with reference to detailed documentation of the results. (author)

  4. Platelets retain high levels of active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helén Brogren

    Full Text Available The vascular fibrinolytic system is crucial for spontaneous lysis of blood clots. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, the principal inhibitor of the key fibrinolytic enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, is present in platelets at high concentrations. However, the majority of PAI-1 stored in platelets has been considered to be inactive. Our recent finding (Brogren H, et al. Blood 2004 that PAI-1 de novo synthesized in platelets remained active for over 24 h, suggested that PAI-1 stored in the α-granules might be active to a larger extent than previously reported. To re-evaluate this issue, we performed experiments where the fraction of active PAI-1 was estimated by analyzing the tPA-PAI-1 complex formation. In these experiments platelets were lysed with Triton X-100 in the presence of serial dilutions of tPA and subsequently the tPA-PAI-1 complex was evaluated by Western blot. Also, using a non-immunologic assay, tPA was labeled with (125I, and (125I-tPA and (125I-tPA-PAI-1 was quantified by scintigraphy. Interestingly, both methods demonstrated that the majority (>50% of platelet PAI-1 is active. Further analyses suggested that pre-analytical procedures used in previous studies (sonication or freezing/thawing may have substantially reduced the activity of platelet PAI-1, which has lead to an underestimation of the proportion of active PAI-1. Our in vitro results are more compatible with the role of PAI-1 in clot stabilization as demonstrated in physiological and pathophysiological studies.

  5. Early high-Tc commercial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The high temperature superconductors have already begun to generate the first stirrings of commercial activity. Companies that supply instruments and chemicals to researchers have enjoyed increased business. At least one company has begun to supply educational materials. Venture capital firms have invested about $15 million in startups to capitalize on developments in high-field applications, superconducting electronics, and magnetic shielding. Consulting firms are gathering and selling market research information. And the federal government is studying the question of how to cooperate with American companies to commercialize the research taking place in the national laboratories. This article discusses these issues

  6. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide 32 Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of 32 Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of 32 Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms

  7. Active vibration isolation of high precision machines

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.

  8. Polimorfismo en el gen COMT en una muestra de gestantes normales y con restricción del crecimiento intrauterino en un hospital de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pacheco-Romero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Los procesos fisiopatológicos que ocurren a nivel celular y molecular en la restricción de crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU son aún desconocidos. La catecol-O-metiltransferasa (COMT es una enzima de fase II que inactiva los catecol estrógenos al transferir un grupo metílico. Se conoce un polimorfismo funcional Val158 Met en el gen COMT como un marcador susceptible para diversas enfermedades maternoperinatales, existiendo estudios que sugieren que el alelo que codifica una COMT de baja actividad puede ser un marcador susceptible para RCIU. Por lo tanto, el estudio del polimorfismo COMT ofrece una nueva estrategia para la evaluación de marcadores genéticos que pueden ser utilizados para la detección de ciertas alteraciones asociadas al embarazo. Objetivos: Establecer la asociación entre el polimorfismo Val158Met catecol-O-metiltransferasa (COMT y la restricción de crecimiento intrauterino. Institución: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Diseño: Estudio tipo relacional (asociativo, con diseño observacional, tipo caso-control (no experimental. Materiales: Muestra de sangre materna de parturientas. Métodos: Durante el año 2011, se obtuvo 81 muestras para genotipaje del gen COMT. De ellas, 26 (32,1% correspondieron a parturientas con RCIU (casos y 55 (67,9% a muestras de madres de hijos sin RCIU (controles. La distribución de los genotipos fue evaluada usando la prueba de chi cuadrado. Se comprobó la distribución proporcional de los genotipos en los grupos con RCIU y sin RCIU con la hipótesis nula de Hardy-Weinberg. Las madres participantes firmaron un consentimiento informado. Principales medidas de resultados: Asociación entre los genotipos COMT y la RCIU, y entre los alelos COMT Val/Met y la RCIU. Resultados: Las distribuciones de los genotipos en los grupos con RCIU y sin RCIU estuvieron de acuerdo a la hipótesis nula de Hardy-Weinberg. Al relacionar los genotipos COMT Val

  9. Analysis of CYP1A1 and COMT polymorphisms in women with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, J P; Camargo-Kosugi, C M; Carvalho, C V; Silva, F C; Silva, I D C G

    2015-12-29

    The aim of this case-control study was to obtain a comprehensive panel of genetic polymorphisms present only in genes (cytochrome P-450 1A1--CYP1A1 and catechol-O-methyl transferase--COMT) within the metabolic pathway of sex steroids and determine their possible associations with the presence or absence of cervical cancer. Genotypes of 222 women were analyzed: a) 81 with cancer of the cervix treated at the Cancer Hospital Alfredo Abram, between June 2012 and May 2013, with diagnosis confirmed surgically and/or through histomorphological examination; and b) 141 healthy women who assisted at the Endocrine Gynecology and Climacteric Ambulatory, Department of Gynecology, UNIFESP-EPM. These polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and visualized on 3% agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. We found a significant association between the frequency of the CYP1A1 polymorphism and the development of cervical cancer. A statistical difference was observed between patient and control groups for CYP1A1 polymorphism genotype distributions (P 0.05) or between other risk variables analyzed. The CYP1A1 gene involved in the metabolic pathway of sex steroids might influence the emergence of pathological conditions such as cervical cancer in women who carry a mutated allele, and result in 1.80 and 13.46 times increased risk for women with heterozygous or homozygous mutated genotypes, respectively.

  10. Facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia: An exploratory study on the role of comorbid alcohol and substance use disorders and COMT Val158Met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Nicolini, Gabriella; Lax, Annamaria; Bartoli, Francesco; Castellano, Filippo; Chiorazzi, Alessia; Gamba, Giulia; Bava, Mattia; Crocamo, Cristina; Papagno, Costanza

    2017-11-01

    To explore whether facial emotion recognition (FER), impaired in both schizophrenia and alcohol and substance use disorders (AUDs/SUDs), is additionally compromised among comorbid subjects, also considering the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met. We conducted a cross-sectional study, randomly recruiting 67 subjects with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia, and rigorously assessing AUDs/SUDs and COMT Val158Met polymorphism. FER was assessed using the Ekman 60 Faces Test- EK-60F. As a whole, the sample scored significantly lower than normative data on EK-60F. However, subjects with comorbid AUDs/SUDs did not perform worse on EK-60F than those without, who had a better performance on EK-60F if they carried the COMT Val/Met variant. This study is the first to date examining the impact of AUDs/SUDs and COMT variants on FER in an epidemiologically representative sample of subjects with schizophrenia. Our findings do not suggest an additional impairment from comorbid AUDs/SUDs on FER among subjects with schizophrenia, whilst COMT Val158Met, though based on a limited sample, might have a role just among those without AUDs/SUDs. Based on our results, additional research is needed also exploring differential roles of various substances. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Neutron activation analysis of high purity substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.

    1987-01-01

    Peculiarities of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) of high purity substances are considered. Simultaneous determination of a wide series of elements, high sensitivity (the lower bound of determined contents 10 -9 -10 -10 %), high selectivity and accuracy (Sr=0.10-0.15, and may be decreased up to 0.001), possibility of analysis of the samples from several micrograms to hundreds of grams, simplicity of calibration may be thought NAA advantages. Questions of accounting of NAA systematic errors associated with the neutron flux screening by the analysed matrix and with production of radionuclides of determined elements from accompanying elements according to concurrent nuclear reactions, as well as accounting of errors due to self-absorption of recorded radiation by compact samples, are considered

  12. High-surface-area active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, T.M.; Wennerberg, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and properties of a unique active carbon having exceptionally high surface areas, over 2500 m 2 /gm, and extraordinary adsorptive capacities. The carbon is made by a direct chemical activation route in which petroleum coke or other carbonaceous sources are reacted with excess potassium hydroxide at 400 0 to 500 0 C to an intermediate product that is subsequently pyrolyzed at 800 0 to 900 0 C to active carbon containing potassium salts. These are removed by water washing and the carbon is dried to produce a powdered product. A granular carbon can also be made by further processing the powdered carbon by using specialized granulation techniques. Typical properties of the carbon include Iodine Numbers of 3000 to 3600, methylene blue adsorption of 650 to 750 mg/gm, pore volumes of 2.0 to 2.6 cc/gm and less than 3.0% ash. This carbon's high adsorption capacities make it uniquely suited for numerous demanding applications in the medical area, purifications, removal of toxic substances, as catalyst carriers, etc

  13. High-active waste (HAW) data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement trans-ducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the period from July 1st, 1990 to December 31, 1990. (author). 4 refs.; 100 figs.; 8 tabs

  14. COMT ValMet moderation of cannabis-induced psychosis: a momentary assessment study of 'switching on' hallucinations in the flow of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henquet, C; Rosa, A; Delespaul, P; Papiol, S; Fananás, L; van Os, J; Myin-Germeys, I

    2009-02-01

    A functional polymorphism in the catechol-o-methyltransferase gene (COMT Val(158)Met) may moderate the psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis. In order to extend this finding to dynamic effects in the flow of daily life, a momentary assessment study of psychotic symptoms in response to cannabis use was conducted. The experience sampling technique was used to collect data on cannabis use and occurrence of symptoms in daily life in patients with a psychotic disorder (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 25). Carriers of the COMT Val(158)Met Val allele, but not subjects with the Met/Met genotype, showed an increase in hallucinations after cannabis exposure, conditional on prior evidence of psychometric psychosis liability. The findings confirm that in people with psychometric evidence of psychosis liability, COMT Val(158)Met genotype moderates the association between cannabis and psychotic phenomena in the flow of daily life.

  15. The Role of the Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met in Aggressive Behavior, A Review of Genetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Arqam; Zai, Clement C.; Hirata, Yuko; Tiwari, Arun K.; Cheema, Sheraz; Nowrouzi, Behdin; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Kennedy, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors have become a major public health problem, and early-onset aggression can lead to outcomes such as substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder among other issues. In recent years, there has been an increase in research in the molecular and genetic underpinnings of aggressive behavior, and one of the candidate genes codes for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). COMT is involved in catabolizing catecholamines such as dopamine. These neurotransmitters appear to be involved in regulating mood which can contribute to aggression. The most common gene variant studied in the COMT gene is the Valine (Val) to Methionine (Met) substitution at codon 158. We will be reviewing the current literature on this gene variant in aggressive behavior. PMID:26630958

  16. Association of COMT (Val158Met) and BDNF (Val66Met) gene polymorphisms with anxiety, ADHD and tics in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study is to examine rs4680 (COMT) and rs6265 (BDNF) as genetic markers of anxiety, ADHD, and tics. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for a total sample of 67 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both COMT (p = 0.06) and BDNF (p = 0.07) genotypes were marginally significant for teacher ratings of social phobia (etap (2) = 0.06). Analyses also indicated associations of BDNF genotype with parent-rated ADHD (p = 0.01, etap (2) = 0.10) and teacher-rated tics (p = 0.04; etap (2) = 0.07). There was also evidence of a possible interaction (p = 0.02, etap (2) = 0.09) of BDNF genotype with DAT1 3' VNTR with tic severity. BDNF and COMT may be biomarkers for phenotypic variation in ASD, but these preliminary findings remain tentative pending replication with larger, independent samples.

  17. Underground disposal of high active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the engineering aspects relating to the deep burial of high active waste in stable geological formations. The design of a repository depends upon a number of factors not least of which is the type of rock in which it is to be constructed. High level wastes must be isolated from man's environment for such periods that subsequent release will not result in an unacceptable hazard to human population. Design aspects of repositories are reviewed and conceptual design are present in relation to the geological formations under consideration. Over long time periods the most probable mode of release of radionuclides is through groundwater contacting the waste. The proposed concepts therefore include the use of engineered and natural barriers to delay the eventual release of waterborne radionuclides into mans environment. In all cases the ultimate barrier will be the geological formation. Nevertheless, depending upon the type of host rock, use will be made of various additional engineered barriers to delay water contacting the high level waste for several hundreds of years. During this time the level of radiation and associated heat emitted by the waste, will fall by several orders of magnitude and the rock temperatures within a repository will be returning to ambient. Thereafter the residual activity will mainly arise from the actinides. Containment may be enhanced by surrounding the canisters with materials having high sorption capabilities for many of the radionuclides involved. The depth at which a repository is excavated must be sufficient to ensure that the overburden will withstand changes in environmental conditions. The depth of cover required in different rock types may vary. In clay excavating at depth of up to -250 m appears feasible, while in hard rocks and salts working at depth of up to -1000 m is entirely practicable. (orig./RW)

  18. COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and functional outcome following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Ferguson, Adam R; Temkin, Nancy R; Stein, Murray B; Barber, Jason; Yuh, Esther L; Sharma, Sourabh; Satris, Gabriela G; McAllister, Thomas W; Rosand, Jonathan; Sorani, Marco D; Lingsma, Hester F; Tarapore, Phiroz E; Burchard, Esteban G; Hu, Donglei; Eng, Celeste; Wang, Kevin K W; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical trajectories and outcomes. The source of variability remains unclear, but may involve genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A SNP in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is suggested to influence development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its role in TBI remains unclear. Here, we utilize the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study to investigate whether the COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism is associated with PTSD and global functional outcome as measured by the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), respectively. Results in 93 predominately Caucasian subjects with mTBI show that the COMT Met 158 allele is associated with lower incidence of PTSD (univariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.25, 95% CI [0.09-0.69]) and higher GOSE scores (univariate OR 2.87, 95% CI [1.20-6.86]) 6-months following injury. The COMT Val 158 Met genotype and PTSD association persists after controlling for race (multivariable OR of 0.29, 95% CI [0.10-0.83]) and pre-existing psychiatric disorders/substance abuse (multivariable OR of 0.32, 95% CI [0.11-0.97]). PTSD emerged as a strong predictor of poorer outcome on GOSE (multivariable OR 0.09, 95% CI [0.03-0.26]), which persists after controlling for age, GCS, and race. When accounting for PTSD in multivariable analysis, the association of COMT genotype and GOSE did not remain significant (multivariable OR 1.73, 95% CI [0.69-4.35]). Whether COMT genotype indirectly influences global functional outcome through PTSD remains to be determined and larger studies in more diverse populations are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Time-resolved influences of functional DAT1 and COMT variants on visual perception and post-processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bender

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dopamine plays an important role in orienting and the regulation of selective attention to relevant stimulus characteristics. Thus, we examined the influences of functional variants related to dopamine inactivation in the dopamine transporter (DAT1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes (COMT on the time-course of visual processing in a contingent negative variation (CNV task. METHODS: 64-channel EEG recordings were obtained from 195 healthy adolescents of a community-based sample during a continuous performance task (A-X version. Early and late CNV as well as preceding visual evoked potential components were assessed. RESULTS: Significant additive main effects of DAT1 and COMT on the occipito-temporal early CNV were observed. In addition, there was a trend towards an interaction between the two polymorphisms. Source analysis showed early CNV generators in the ventral visual stream and in frontal regions. There was a strong negative correlation between occipito-temporal visual post-processing and the frontal early CNV component. The early CNV time interval 500-1000 ms after the visual cue was specifically affected while the preceding visual perception stages were not influenced. CONCLUSIONS: Late visual potentials allow the genomic imaging of dopamine inactivation effects on visual post-processing. The same specific time-interval has been found to be affected by DAT1 and COMT during motor post-processing but not motor preparation. We propose the hypothesis that similar dopaminergic mechanisms modulate working memory encoding in both the visual and motor and perhaps other systems.

  20. ZNF804a regulates expression of the schizophrenia-associated genes PRSS16, COMT, PDE4B, and DRD2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Girgenti

    Full Text Available ZNF804a was identified by a genome-wide association study (GWAS in which a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1344706 in ZNF804a reached genome-wide statistical significance for association with a combined diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder. Although the molecular function of ZNF804a is unknown, the amino acid sequence is predicted to contain a C2H2-type zinc-finger domain and suggests ZNF804a plays a role in DNA binding and transcription. Here, we confirm that ZNF804a directly contributes to transcriptional control by regulating the expression of several SZ associated genes and directly interacts with chromatin proximal to the promoter regions of PRSS16 and COMT, the two genes we find upregulated by ZNF804a. Using immunochemistry we establish that ZNF804a is localized to the nucleus of rat neural progenitor cells in culture and in vivo. We demonstrate that expression of ZNF804a results in a significant increase in transcript levels of PRSS16 and COMT, relative to GFP transfected controls, and a statistically significant decrease in transcript levels of PDE4B and DRD2. Furthermore, we show using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP that both epitope-tagged and endogenous ZNF804a directly interacts with the promoter regions of PRSS16 and COMT, suggesting a direct upregulation of transcription by ZNF804a on the expression of these genes. These results are the first to confirm that ZNF804a regulates transcription levels of four SZ associated genes, and binds to chromatin proximal to promoters of two SZ genes. These results suggest a model where ZNF804a may modulate a transcriptional network of SZ associated genes.

  1. Modification of depression by COMT val158met polymorphism in children exposed to early severe psychosocial deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Theall, Katherine P; Smyke, Anna T; Keats, Bronya JB; Egger, Helen L; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Marshall, Peter J; Zeanah, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) val158met allele on depressive symptoms in young children exposed to early severe social deprivation as a result of being raised in institutions. Methods 136 children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) were randomized before 31 months of age to either care as usual (CAU) in institutions or placement in newly created foster care (FCG). At 54 months of age, a psychiatric assessment using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) was completed. DNA was collected and genotyped for the COMT val158met polymorphism. Multivariate analysis examined the relationship between COMT alleles and depressive symptoms. Results Mean level of depressive symptoms was lower among participants with the met allele compared to those with two copies of the val allele (p <0.05). Controlling for group and gender, the rate of depressive symptoms was significantly lower among participants with the met/met or the met/val genotype (adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45, 0.99) compared to participants with the val/val genotype, indicating an intermediate impact for heterozygotes consistent with the biological impact of this polymorphism. The impact of genotype within groups differed significantly. There was a significant protective effect of the met allele on depressive symptoms within the CAU group, however there was no relationship seen within the FCG group. Conclusions This is the first study, to our knowledge, to find evidence of a gene × environment interaction in the setting of early social deprivation. These results support the hypothesis that individual genetic differences may explain some of the variability in recovery amongst children exposed to early severe social deprivation. PMID:20403637

  2. The COMT Val158 allele is associated with impaired delayed-match-to-sample performance in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Natasha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explored the association between three measures of working memory ability and genetic variation in a range of catecholamine genes in a sample of children with ADHD. Methods One hundred and eighteen children with ADHD performed three working memory measures taken from the CANTAB battery (Spatial Span, Delayed-match-to-sample, and Spatial Working Memory. Associations between performance on working memory measures and allelic variation in catecholamine genes (including those for the noradrenaline transporter [NET1], the dopamine D4 and D2 receptor genes [DRD4; DRD2], the gene encoding dopamine beta hydroxylase [DBH] and catechol-O-methyl transferase [COMT] were investigated using regression models that controlled for age, IQ, gender and medication status on the day of test. Results Significant associations were found between performance on the delayed-match-to-sample task and COMT genotype. More specifically, val/val homozygotes produced significantly more errors than did children who carried a least one met allele. There were no further associations between allelic variants and performance across the other working memory tasks. Conclusions The working memory measures employed in the present study differed in the degree to which accurate task performance depended upon either the dynamic updating and/or manipulation of items in working memory, as in the spatial span and spatial working memory tasks, or upon the stable maintenance of representations, as in the delay-match–to-sample task. The results are interpreted as evidence of a relationship between tonic dopamine levels associated with the met COMT allele and the maintenance of stable working memory representations required to perform the delayed-match-to-sample-task.

  3. Adipose tissue PCB levels and CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Loft, Steffen; Wellejus, Anja

    2014-01-01

    these enzymes control efficiency. Our objective was to assess whether CYP1B1 and COMT gene polymorphisms modulate the effect of PCBs in breast cancer risk, among postmenopausal Danish women. Neither CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphisms nor adipose tissue PCBs were independently associated with breast cancer risk....... When assessing the independent effect of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, we observed reduced risk for breast cancer amongst hormone replacement therapy using women who were homozygous carriers of the variant allele compared with those carrying the wild-type variant (RR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.29-0.89). We...

  4. Polimorfismo del gen de la catecol-O-metiltransferasa (COMT) en gestantes con restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU)

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, José; Huerta, Doris; Acosta, Oscar; Cabrera, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Establecer la asociación entre el polimorfismo Vall58Met catecol-O-metiltransferasa (COMT) y la RCIU. Diseño: Estudio relacional, observacional, tipo caso-control. Institución: Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Participantes: Gestantes sin y con RCIU. Intervenciones: Se obtuvo 81 muestras de sangre para genotipaje del gen COMT; 55 (67,9%) correspondieron a gestantes sin RCIU (controles) y 26 (32,1%) a madres de hijos con RCIU. Las gestantes firmaron consentimiento informado. Principales...

  5. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene (Val158Met) and Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) (Val66Met) Genes Polymorphism in Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Saravani, Ramin; Galavi, Hamid Reza; Lotfian Sargazi, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have shown that some polymorphisms of genes encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), the key enzyme in degrading dopamine, and norepinephrine and the human brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), a nerve growth factor, are strong candidates for risk of schizophrenia (SCZ). In the present study, we aimed at examining the effects of COMT Val158Met (G>A) and BDNF Val66Met (G>A) polymorphisms on SCZ risk in a sample of Iranian population. Method: This case- contro...

  6. Association of COMT (Val158Met) and BDNF (Val66Met) Gene Polymorphisms with Anxiety, ADHD and Tics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine rs4680 (COMT) and rs6265 (BDNF) as genetic markers of anxiety, ADHD, and tics. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for a total sample of 67 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both COMT (p = 0.06) and BDNF (p = 0.07) genotypes were marginally significant for teacher ratings of social phobia (ηp2 = 0.06). Analyses also indicated associations of BDNF genotype with parent-rated ADHD (p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.10) and teacher-rated ...

  7. Neutron activation analysis of high purity tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.; Verevkin, G.V.; Obrazovskij, E.G.; Shatskaya, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    A scheme of neutron activation analysis of high purity tellurium is developed. Weighed amount of Te (0.5 g) is irradiated for 20-40 hr in the flux of 2x10 13 neutron/(cm 2 xs). After decomposition of the sample impurities of gold and palladium are determined by the extraction with organic sulphides. Tellurium separation from the remaining impurities is carried out by the extraction with monothiobenzoic acid from weakly acidic HCl solutions in the presence of iodide-ions, suppressing silver extraction. Remaining impurity elements in the refined product are determined γ-spectrometrically. The method allows to determine 34 impurities with determination limits 10 -6 -10 -11 g

  8. FY16 ASME High Temperature Code Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, M. J. [Chromtech Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, R. I. [R. I Jetter Consulting, Pebble Beach, CA (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    One of the objectives of the ASME high temperature Code activities is to develop and validate both improvements and the basic features of Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). The overall scope of this task is to develop a computer program to be used to assess whether or not a specific component under specified loading conditions will satisfy the elevated temperature design requirements for Class A components in Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). There are many features and alternative paths of varying complexity in HBB. The initial focus of this task is a basic path through the various options for a single reference material, 316H stainless steel. However, the program will be structured for eventual incorporation all the features and permitted materials of HBB. Since this task has recently been initiated, this report focuses on the description of the initial path forward and an overall description of the approach to computer program development.

  9. Polimorfismos dos genes do receptor de serotonina (5-HT2A e da catecol-O-metiltransferase (COMT: fatores desencadeantes da fibromialgia? Serotonin receptor (5-HT 2A and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene polymorphisms: Triggers of fibromyalgia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Budag Matsuda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome reumática caracterizada por dor difusa e crônica associada a fadiga, insônia, ansiedade, depressão, perda de memória e tontura. Embora os mecanismos fisiológicos que controlam a fibromialgia não tenham sido estabelecidos, fatores neuroendócrinos, genéticos ou moleculares podem estar envolvidos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar os polimorfismos dos genes do receptor de serotonina (5-HT2A e da catecolO-metiltransferase (COMT em pacientes brasileiros com fibromialgia, a fim de avaliar sua participação na etiologia da doença. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O DNA genômico extraído de 102 amostras de sangue (51 pacientes, 51 controles foi usado para a caracterização molecular dos polimorfismos dos genes 5-HT2A e COMT, por meio de PCR-RFLP. RESULTADOS: A análise molecular dos polimorfismos do gene 5-HT2A demonstrou frequências de 25,49% C/C, 49,02% T/C e 25,49% T/T, nos pacientes com fibromialgia, e 17,65% C/C, 62,74% T/C e 19,61% T/T, no grupo controle, não apresentando diferença significativa entre o grupo de pacientes e o grupo controle. Os polimorfismos do gene da COMT em pacientes com fibromialgia apresentaram uma frequência de 17,65% e 45,10% para os genótipos H/H e L/H, respectivamente. No grupo controle, as frequências foram de 29,42%, para H/H, e 60,78%, para L/H, sem diferença significativa entre ambos os grupos. Entretanto, houve diferença significativa na frequência do genótipo L/L em pacientes (37,25% e controles (9,8%, o que permitiu a diferenciação entre os dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência do genótipo L/L foi maior nos pacientes com fibromialgia. Apesar de a fibromialgia envolver uma situação poligênica e fatores ambientais, o estudo molecular do SNP rs4680 do gene da COMT pode auxiliar a identificação de indivíduos suscetíveis.INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia is a rheumatic syndrome characterized by diffuse and chronic pain associated with

  10. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  11. Perceived Stress in Adults Aged 65 to 90: Relations to Facets of Time Perspective and COMT Val158Met Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnlund, Michael; Åström, Elisabeth; Adolfsson, Rolf; Carelli, Maria G

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the relation between perceived stress and time perspective (views of past, present, future) in a population-based sample of older adults (65-90 years, N = 340). The Perceived Questionnaire (PSQ index) was used to measure stress and the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) was used to operationalize time perspective. Unlike the original inventory, S-ZTPI separates positive and negative aspects of a future time perspective and we hypothesized that the Future Negative (FN) scale would be important to account for variations in stress. Additionally, associations with Catechol-O-methyltransferase ( COMT ) Val 158 Met polymorphism were examined, motivated by prior associations of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with stress (or "anxiety") related personality traits. In line with the hypotheses, FN was the strongest predictor of PSQ index scores in multiple regression analyses. In a related vein, the dichotomization of the unitary Future scale increased the association between PSQ scores and a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective, i.e., the difference between a proposed optimal and observed ZTPI profile. Finally, higher levels of stress as well as higher scores on FN were observed in COMT Val/Val carriers, at least among men. This suggests a shared dopaminergic genetic influence on these variables. Collectively, the results demonstrate that perceived stress is closely linked to time perspective and highlight the need to take negative aspects of a future temporal orientation into account to understand this relation.

  12. Perceived Stress in Adults Aged 65 to 90: Relations to Facets of Time Perspective and COMT Val158Met Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rönnlund

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relation between perceived stress and time perspective (views of past, present, future in a population-based sample of older adults (65–90 years, N = 340. The Perceived Questionnaire (PSQ index was used to measure stress and the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI was used to operationalize time perspective. Unlike the original inventory, S-ZTPI separates positive and negative aspects of a future time perspective and we hypothesized that the Future Negative (FN scale would be important to account for variations in stress. Additionally, associations with Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism were examined, motivated by prior associations of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP with stress (or “anxiety” related personality traits. In line with the hypotheses, FN was the strongest predictor of PSQ index scores in multiple regression analyses. In a related vein, the dichotomization of the unitary Future scale increased the association between PSQ scores and a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective, i.e., the difference between a proposed optimal and observed ZTPI profile. Finally, higher levels of stress as well as higher scores on FN were observed in COMT Val/Val carriers, at least among men. This suggests a shared dopaminergic genetic influence on these variables. Collectively, the results demonstrate that perceived stress is closely linked to time perspective and highlight the need to take negative aspects of a future temporal orientation into account to understand this relation.

  13. Comparative evaluation of two radioenzymatic procedures designed to determine noradrenaline in the plasma (COMT assay and PNMT assay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, A.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of two radioenzymatic procedures to determine the concentration of noradrenaline in the plasma - with linearity, sensitivity, specifity and accuracy serving as test criteria - led to the following results: In view of a probability of error in the order of 2% both methods were judged to show a satisfactory sensitivity. The specific of the COMT assay, by contrast with that of the PNMT assay, was found to be wanting, as the noradrenaline measurements in the presence of other biogenic amines were biassed in such a way that the values determined were higher than the actual concentrations. During antihypertensive treatment even minimal changes in the noradrenaline concentration can be ascertained on a quantitative basis. If suitable hardware is available, the COMT assay permits up to 25 single determinations to be carried out per day, while the number of double determinations is restricted to 7 per day. One advantage, however, lies in the fact that several catecholamines in the plasma can be detected simultaneously, if required. In cases where the noradrenaline concentration alone is to be determined for clinical purposes, preference should be given to the PNMT assay, as both tests showed equal linearity and sensitivity. (TRV) [de

  14. [Logic model of the Franche-Comté Regional Health Project: advantages and limitations for the evaluation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Claude; Sannino, Nadine; Duboudin, Cédric; Baudier, François; Guillin, Caroline; Billondeau, Christine; Mansion, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The French "Hospitals, patients, health and territories" law of July 2009 created the Regional Health Project (PRS) to support regional health policy, and requires evaluation of these projects. The construction of these projects, which includes prevention planning, care planning, and medical and social welfare planning, presents an unprecedented complexity in France, where evaluation programmes are still in their infancy. To support future evaluations, the Franche-Comté Regional Health Agency (ARS FC), assisted by the expertise of EFECT Consultants, decided to reconstruct the PRS logic model. This article analyzes the advantages and limitations of this approach. The resulting logic model allows visualization of the strategy adopted to achieve the Franche-Comté PRS ambitions and expected results. The model highlights four main aspects of structural change to the health system, often poorly visible in PRS presentation documents. This model also establishes links with the usual public policy evaluation issues and facilitates their prioritization. This approach also provides a better understanding of the importance of analysis of the programme construction in order to be effective rather than direct analysis of the effects, which constitutes the natural tendency of current practice. The main controversial limit concerns the retrospective design of the PRS framework, both in terms of the reliability of interpretation and adoption by actors not directly involved in this initiative.

  15. Genetic moderation of the effects of cannabis: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) affects the impact of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on working memory performance but not on the occurrence of psychotic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Stumpenhorst, Katharina; Harrison, Paul J; Morrison, Paul D; Freeman, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use can induce cognitive impairments and psychotic experiences. A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val(158)Met) appears to influence the immediate cognitive and psychotic effects of cannabis, or ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its primary psychoactive ingredient. This study investigated the moderation of the impact of experimentally administered THC by COMT. Cognitive performance and psychotic experiences were studied in participants without a psychiatric diagnosis, using a between-subjects design (THC vs. placebo). The effect of COMT Val(158)Met genotype on the cognitive and psychotic effects of THC, administered intravenously in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner to 78 participants who were vulnerable to paranoia, was examined. The results showed interactive effects of genotype and drug group (THC or placebo) on working memory, assayed using the Digit Span Backwards task. Specifically, THC impaired performance in COMT Val/Val, but not Met, carriers. In contrast, the effect of THC on psychotic experiences, measured using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) positive dimension, was unaffected by COMT genotype. This study is the largest to date examining the impact of COMT genotype on response to experimentally administered THC, and the first using a purely non-clinical cohort. The data suggest that COMT genotype moderates the cognitive, but not the psychotic, effects of acutely administered THC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  17. Val158Met polymorphism in the COMT gene is associated with hypersomnia and mental health-related quality of life in a Colombian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Karen M; Pereira-Morales, Angela J; Forero, Diego A

    2017-03-22

    The identification of genes that are risk factors for major depressive disorder remains a main task for global psychiatric research. The Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been an important candidate risk factor for several psychiatric disorders. Previous studies have shown that a functional polymorphism (Val158Met) in this gene has an effect on several brain circuits and endophenotypes of psychiatric relevance. The aim of this study was to explore the association of a functional polymorphism in the COMT gene with psychological distress, sleep problems and health-related quality of life. Two hundred seventy young Colombian subjects (mean age: 21.3 years; range: 18-57 years) completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and were genotyped for the Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) in the COMT gene. A linear regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounding factors, was carried out. Subjects that were Met carriers (Val/Met and Met/Met genotypes) showed higher scores for hypersomnia (p=0.001) and lower scores for mental health-related quality of life (p=0.007), these associations remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. These findings support the hypothesis of a broad effect of the Val158Met polymorphism in the COMT gene on several dimensions of behavior and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of COMT and plasma proline in the variable penetrance of autistic spectrum symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, E.; Swaab, H.; de Sonneville, L. M J; van Engeland, H.; Vorstman, J. A S

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how COMT158 genotypes and plasma proline levels are associated with variable penetrance of social behavioural and social cognitive problems in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Severity of autistic spectrum symptoms of 45 participants with 22q11DS was assessed using the Autism

  19. The effect of COMT Val158 Met genotype on decision-making and preliminary findings on its interaction with the 5-HTTLPR in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud; Homberg, Judith; Gijsbers, Ellen; den Heijer, Esther; Cuppen, Edwin

    2009-02-01

    Poor decision-making is inherent to several psychiatric conditions for which a genetic basis may exist. We previously showed that healthy female volunteers homozygous for the short allele (s/s) of the serotonin transporter length polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) chose more often cards from disadvantageous decks in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which measures decision-making, than long (l) allele carriers. The 5-HTTLPR and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158) Met polymorphism affect the same set of neuronal structures. Therefore, we explored the effect of the (COMT) Val(158) Met polymorphism on IGT performance and its interaction with the 5-HTTLPR in the same subjects in this study. We observed that subjects homozygous for methionine (Met/Met) chose more disadvantageously than subjects homozygous for valine (Val/Val). s/s-Met/Met-subjects appeared to show the poorest IGT performance of all possible combinations of 5-HTTLPR and COMT allelic variants. Using the Expectancy-Valence model, no differences were found for the three different 5-HTTLPR or COMT genotypes regarding (i) attention to wins versus losses, (ii) updating rate, or (iii) response consistency. However, subjects with at least one Met-allele were paying more attention to wins than subjects with no Met-alleles. We discuss whether a common neuronal mechanism relates to s- and Met-allele-related deficits in updating and/or processing of choice outcome to guide subsequent choices in this gamble-based test.

  20. Cognitive control and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism: genetic modulation of videogame training and transfer to task-switching efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hommel, B.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated whether successful transfer of game-based cognitive improvements to untrained tasks might be modulated by preexisting neuro-developmental factors, such as genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)—an enzyme responsible for the degradation of

  1. Genetic Influences of OPRM1, OPRD1 and COMT on Morphine Analgesia in a Multi-Modal, Multi-Tissue Human Experimental Pain Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lecia Møller; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sato, Hiroe

    2017-01-01

    (mechanical, electrical and thermal) and cold pressor test (immersion of the hand into ice water). Sixteen genetic polymorphisms of four candidate genes were explored. Variability in morphine analgesia to contact heat stimulation was associated with COMT rs4680 (P=0.04), and rectal thermal stimulation...

  2. Childhood Abuse Experiences and the COMT and MTHFR Genetic Variants Associated With Male Sexual Orientation in the Han Chinese Populations: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jia-Bi; Zhao, Guang-Lu; Wang, Feng; Cai, Yu-Mao; Lan, Li-Na; Yang, Lin; Feng, Tie-Jian

    2018-01-01

    Although it is widely acknowledged that genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of male homosexuality, the causes are not fully understood. To explore the association and interaction of childhood abuse experiences and genetic variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes with the development of male homosexuality. A case-control study of 537 exclusively homosexual men and 583 exclusively heterosexual men was conducted, with data collected from March 2013 to August 2015. Data were analyzed using χ 2 tests and logistic regression models. Sociodemographic characteristics, childhood abuse experiences, and polymorphisms of COMT at rs4680, rs4818, and rs6267 and MTHFR at rs1801133. More frequent occurrence of physical (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.78), emotional (aOR = 2.07), and sexual (aOR = 2.53) abuse during childhood was significantly associated with the development of male homosexuality. The polymorphisms of MTHFR at rs1801133 and COMT at rs4818 also were significantly associated with the development of male homosexuality in the homozygote comparisons (T/T vs C/C at rs1801133, aOR = 1.68; G/G vs C/C at rs4818, aOR = 1.75). In addition, significant interaction effects between childhood abuse experiences and the COMT and MTHFR genetic variants on the development of male homosexuality were found. This is the first time that an association of childhood abuse, COMT and MTHFR genetic variants, and their interactions with development of male homosexuality was exhaustively explored, which could help provide new insight into the etiology of male homosexuality. Because homosexual men are a relatively obscure population, it was impossible to select the study participants by random sampling, which could lead to selection bias. In addition, because this was a case-control study, recall bias was inevitable, and we could not verify causality. Childhood abuse and the COMT and MTHFR genetic

  3. Pathways to age of onset of heroin use: a structural model approach exploring the relationship of the COMT gene, impulsivity and childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Du, Jiang; Yu, Shunying; Jiang, Haifeng; Fu, Yingmei; Wang, Dongxiang; Sun, Haiming; Chen, Hanhui; Zhao, Min

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of the association of dopamine genes, impulsivity and childhood trauma with substance abuse remains unclear. To clarify the impacts and the interactions of the Catechol -O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, impulsivity and childhood trauma on the age of onset of heroin use among heroin dependent patients in China. 202 male and 248 female inpatients who meet DSM-IV criteria of heroin dependence were enrolled. Impulsivity and childhood trauma were measured using BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) and ETISR-SF (Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form). The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs737866 on the COMT gene-which has previously been associated with heroin abuse, was genotyped using a DNA sequence detection system. Structural equations model was used to assess the interaction paths between these factors and the age of onset of heroin use. Chi-square test indicated the individuals with TT allele have earlier age of onset of heroin use than those with CT or CC allele. In the correlation analysis, the severity of childhood trauma was positively correlated to impulsive score, but both of them were negatively related to the age of onset of heroin use. In structure equation model, both the COMT gene and childhood trauma had impacts on the age of onset of heroin use directly or via impulsive personality. Our findings indicated that the COMT gene, impulsive personality traits and childhood trauma experience were interacted to impact the age of onset of heroin use, which play a critical role in the development of heroin dependence. The impact of environmental factor was greater than the COMT gene in the development of heroin dependence.

  4. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  5. Chitinolytic activity of highly halotolerant Streptomyces tendae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    many plant diseases by degrading the chitin polymer in ... Chitin in soil can be degraded by a wide variety of microorganisms including fungal and bacterial species. .... fraction contained chitinolytic activity was dialyzed using plastic.

  6. Paranormal experience and the COMT dopaminergic gene: a preliminary attempt to associate phenotype with genotype using an underlying brain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir; Hines, Terence; Fossella, John; Castro, Daniella

    2008-01-01

    Paranormal belief and suggestibility seem related. Given our recent findings outlining a putative association between suggestibility and a specific dopaminergic genetic polymorphism, we hypothesized that similar exploratory genetic data may offer supplementary insights into a similar correlation with paranormal belief. With more affordable costs and better technology in the aftermath of the human genome project, genotyping is increasingly ubiquitous. Compelling brain theories guide specific research hypotheses as scientists begin to unravel tentative relationships between phenotype and genotype. In line with a dopaminergic brain theory, we tried to correlate a specific phenotype concerning paranormal belief with a dopaminergic gene (COMT) known for its involvement in prefrontal executive cognition and for a polymorphism that is positively correlated with suggestibility. Although our preliminary findings are inconclusive, the research approach we outline should pave the road to a more scientific account of elucidating paranormal belief.

  7. La posteridad sociológica de Auguste Comte: Lo normal y lo patológico en Durkheim

    OpenAIRE

    MICHEL BOURDEAU

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo completa un texto que, bajo el título «Ciencia, religión y sociedad en Auguste Comte», fue publicado en el año 2003 en las páginas de esta revista. Después de un breve repaso de los conceptos sociológicos fundamentales del Cours de philosophie positive, se muestra como el pensamiento de Durkheim se constituyó a través de una discusión crítica con el positivismo. Concretamente, se examinan dos momentos fundamentales de dicha confrontación. En primer lugar, se analiza como la dist...

  8. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  9. Effects of COMT, DRD2, BDNF, and APOE Genotypic Variation on Treatment Efficacy and Cognitive Side Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, Chad A; Katalinic, Natalie; Martin, Donel M; Smith, Deidre J; Ingram, Anna; Dowling, Nathan; Ng, Chee; Loo, Colleen K

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the main and interaction effects of the COMT Val158Met, DRD2 C957T, BDNF Val66Met, and APOE polymorphisms on treatment efficacy and cognitive side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). A total of 117 adult inpatients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder recruited from 3 hospitals were administered the Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scale and a cognitive battery assessing global cognition, anterograde memory, executive function, speed and concentration, as well as retrograde memory at baseline and after ECT treatment. DRD2 C957T heterozygotes had 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-12.25; P = 0.032) greater odds of remission compared with CC homozygotes. Among the men, COMT Val/Val carriers had greater depressive symptom reduction compared with Met/Met carriers (Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scale percentage of reduction, 76% vs 35%; P = 0.020) but not among the women (P = 0.903) after ECT. For cognitive outcomes, an interaction effect on anterograde memory was observed between the DRD2 and BDNF polymorphisms (P = 0.016), in which carriers of the DRD2 TT and BDNF Val/Val genotypes had significantly less decline in anterograde performance than those that carried the TC and Met-allele (P = 0.001) or CC and Met-allele (P = 0.003) genotypes. However, no results withstood correction for multiple comparisons. These observations provide preliminary evidence supporting an association between common functional genotypic variation and ECT efficacy as well as anterograde memory side effects after ECT. Validation of these findings is required before firm conclusions can be made and clinical utility can be assessed.

  10. Conversion of highly active waste to solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffler, K.

    Borosilicate glasses were selected as matrix material for solidification of highly radioactive wastes. Current laboratory work on the VERA process is described. Goals were met by a five-component glass VG-38 and a glass-ceramic VC-15. The VERA process is described: flowsheet, denitration, calcinator, fusion facility

  11. Activities in nuclear and high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    High energy and nuclear physics research concerning bubble chamber investigations, European hybrid system ACCMOR, WA 18, PETRA, PEP, VA 4, SING, LENA, LEP 3 and DELPHI experiments is summarized. Experiments with electron beams, and in pions and muons physics, and radiochemistry are reported on.

  12. Highly Stable and Active Catalyst for Sabatier Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly active Ru/TiO2 catalysts for Sabatier reaction have been developed. The catalysts have shown to be stable under repeated shutting down/startup conditions. When the Ru/TiO2 catalyst is coated on the engineered substrate Fe-CrAlY felt, activity enhancement is more than doubled when compared with an identically prepared engineered catalyst made from commercial Degussa catalyst. Also, bimetallic Ru-Rh/TiO2 catalysts show high activity at high throughput.

  13. Association of COMT and PRODH gene variants with intelligence quotient (IQ) and executive functions in 22q11.2DS subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Miri; Zarchi, Omer; Michaelovsky, Elena; Frisch, Amos; Patya, Miriam; Green, Tamar; Gothelf, Doron; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) carries the highest genetic risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. We investigated the association of genetic variants in two schizophrenia candidate genes with executive function (EF) and IQ in 22q11.2DS individuals. Ninety two individuals with 22q11.2 deletion were studied for the genetic association between COMT and PRODH variants and EF and IQ. Subjects were divided into children (under 12 years old), adolescents (between 12 and 18 years old) and adults (older than 18 years), and genotyped for the COMT Val158Met (rs4680) and PRODH Arg185Trp (rs4819756) polymorphisms. The participants underwent psychiatric evaluation and EF assessment. Our main finding is a significant influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on both IQ and EF performance. Specifically, 22q11.2DS subjects with Met allele displayed higher IQ scores in all age groups compared to Val carriers, reaching significance in both adolescents and adults. The Met allele carriers performed better than Val carriers in EF tasks, being statistically significant in the adult group. PRODH Arg185Trp variant did not affect IQ or EF in our 22q11.2DS cohort. In conclusion, functional COMT variant, but not PRODH, affects IQ and EF in 22q11.2DS subjects during neurodevelopment with a maximal effect at adulthood. Future studies should monitor the cognitive performance of the same individuals from childhood to old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Predisposition to Poor Opioid Response in Preterm Infants: Impact of KCNJ6 and COMT Polymorphisms on Pain Relief After Endotracheal Intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elens, Laure; Norman, Elisabeth; Matic, Maja; Rane, Anders; Fellman, Vineta; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2016-08-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in pain control might predispose to exaggerated sensitivity or difference in opioid analgesic effect. The relevance of the KCNJ6 -1250G>A (rs6517442, c.-1787G>A) and the catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) c.472G>A (rs4680, ValMet) single-nucleotide polymorphisms were studied in preterm infants needing intubation and randomized to a premedication strategy including remifentanil (n = 17) or morphine (n = 17). Pain was scored with Astrid Lindgren and Lund Children's Hospital Pain Assessment Scale every 30 minutes for 6 hours. The pain relief provided by the opioids was compared between the different KCNJ6 and COMT genotypes. Infants homozygous for the KCNJ6 -1250A allele had an increased duration after intubation to achieve a score indicating no pain compared with infants with the A/G or G/G genotypes (182 ± 30, 109 ± 29, and 60 ± 21 minutes, respectively; Logrank = 7.5, P = 0.006). Similarly, the duration was increased in individuals with the COMT Val/Val alleles compared with Val/Met and Met/Met (285 ± 37, 137 ± 25, and 63 ± 15 minutes, respectively; Logrank = 14.4, P = 0.0021). Cox proportional hazards analysis confirmed that the variation in both genes was independently associated with susceptibility to respond to therapy. We conclude that the KCNJ6 -1250A and COMT Val alleles are predisposing preterm newborns to diminished opioid-induced pain relief.

  15. Family-based association study of the BDNF, COMT and serotonin transporter genes and DSM-IV bipolar-I disorder in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biederman Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade pediatric bipolar disorder has gained recognition as a potentially more severe and heritable form of the disorder. In this report we test for association with genes coding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT. Methods Bipolar-I affected offspring triads (N = 173 were drawn from 522 individuals with 2 parents in 332 nuclear families recruited for genetic studies of pediatric psychopathology at the Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD at Massachusetts General Hospital. Results We failed to identify an association with the val66 allele in BDNF (OR = 1.23, p = 0.36, the COMT-l allele (OR = 1.27, p = 0.1, or the HTTLPR short allele (OR = 0.87, p = 0.38. Conclusion Our study suggests that the markers examined thus far in COMT and SLC6A4 are not associated with pediatric bipolar disorder and that if the val66met marker in BDNF is associated with pediatric bipolar disorder the magnitude of the association is much smaller than first reported.

  16. The role of maternal stress during pregnancy, maternal discipline, and child COMT Val158Met genotype in the development of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Rianne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Velders, Fleur P; Linting, Mariëlle; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-07-01

    Maternal discipline is an important predictor of child committed compliance. Maternal stress can affect both parenting and child development. In a large population-based cohort study (N = 613) we examined whether maternal discipline mediated the association between maternal stress during pregnancy and child compliance, and whether COMT or DRD4 polymorphisms moderated the association between maternal discipline and child compliance. Family-related and general stress were measured through maternal self-report and genetic material was collected through cord blood sampling at birth. Mother-child dyads were observed at 36 months in disciplinary tasks in which the child was not allowed to touch attractive toys. Maternal discipline and child compliance were observed in two different tasks and independently coded. The association between family stress during pregnancy and child committed compliance was mediated by maternal positive discipline. Children with more COMT Met alleles seemed more susceptible to maternal positive discipline than children with more COMT Val alleles. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene (Val158Met) and Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) (Val66Met) Genes Polymorphism in Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravani, Ramin; Galavi, Hamid Reza; Lotfian Sargazi, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    Objective: Several studies have shown that some polymorphisms of genes encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), the key enzyme in degrading dopamine, and norepinephrine and the human brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), a nerve growth factor, are strong candidates for risk of schizophrenia (SCZ). In the present study, we aimed at examining the effects of COMT Val158Met (G>A) and BDNF Val66Met (G>A) polymorphisms on SCZ risk in a sample of Iranian population. Method: This case- control study included 92 SCZ patients and 92 healthy controls (HCs). Genotyping of both variants (COMT Val158Met (G>A) and BDNF Val66Met (G>A)) were conducted using Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR). Results: The findings revealed that the COMT Val158Met (G>A) polymorphism was not associated with the risk/protective of SCZ in all models (OR=0.630, 95%CI=0.299-1.326, P=0.224, GA vs. GG, OR=1.416, 95%CI=0.719-2.793, P=0.314, AA vs. GG, OR=1.00, 95%CI=0.56-1.79, P=1.00 GA+AA vs. GG, OR=1.667, 95%CI=0.885-3.125, P=0.11, AA vs. GG+GA, OR=1.247, 95%CI=0.825-1.885, P=0.343, A vs. G,). However, BDNF Val66Met (G>A) variant increased the risk of SCZ (OR = 2.008 95%CI = 1.008-4.00, P = 0.047, GA vs. GG, OR = 3.876 95%CI = 1.001-14.925, P = 0.049. AA vs. GG, OR = 2.272. 95%CI = 1.204-4.347, P = 0.011, GA+AA vs. GG, OR = 2.22 95%CI = 1.29-3.82. P = 0.005, A vs. G). Conclusion: The results did not support an association between COMT Val158Met (G>A) variant and risk/protective of SCZ. Moreover, it was found that BDNF Val66Met (G>A) polymorphism may increase the risk of SCZ development. Further studies and different ethnicities are recommended to confirm the findings.

  18. Social capital and physical activity among Croatian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, D; Doubova, S V; Kawachi, I

    2016-06-01

    To examine factors associated with regular physical activity in Croatian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey among high school students was carried out in the 2013/14 school year. A survey was conducted among 33 high schools in Zagreb City, Croatia. Participants were students aged 17-18 years. The dependent variables were regular moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall physical activity measured by the short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire and defined as 60 min or more of daily physical activity. The independent variables included family, neighborhood, and high school social capital. Other study covariates included: socio-economic status, self-rated health, psychological distress and nutritional status. The associations between physical activity and social capital variables were assessed separately for boys and girls through multiple logistic regression and inverse probability weighting in order to correct for missing data bias. A total of 1689 boys and 1739 girls responded to the survey. A higher percentage of boys reported performing regular vigorous and moderate physical activity (59.4%) and overall physical activity (83.4%), comparing with the girls (35.4% and 70%, respectively). For boys, high family social capital and high informal social control were associated with increased odds of regular MVPA (1.49, 95%CI: 1.18 - 1.90 and 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.56, respectively), compared to those with low social capital. For girls, high informal social control was associated with regular overall physical activity (OR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.76). High social capital is associated with regular MVPA in boys and regular overall activity in girls. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as an avenue for promotion of physical activity in youth. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Active Gaming Among High School Students--United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, MinKyoung; Carroll, Dianna D; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-08-01

    Our study is the first to describe the prevalence and correlates (demographics, body mass index [BMI], sedentary behaviors, and physical activity) of high school youth who report active videogame playing (active gaming) in a U.S. representative sample. The National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study of 2010 provided data for this study. Active gaming was assessed as the number of days in the 7 days prior to the survey that students in grades 9-12 (14-18 years of age) reported participating in active videogames (e.g., "Wii™ Fit" [Nintendo, Kyoto, Japan], "Dance Dance Revolution" [Konami, Osaka, Japan]). Students reporting ≥1 days were classified as active gamers. Logistic regression was used to examine the association among active gaming and demographic characteristics, BMI, sedentary behaviors, and physical activity. Among 9125 U.S. high school students in grades 9-12 surveyed, 39.9 percent (95 percent confidence interval=37.9 percent, 42.0 percent) reported active gaming. Adjusting for covariates, the following characteristics were positively associated (Pblack, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity; being overweight or obese; watching DVDs >0 hours/day; watching TV >0 hours/day; and meeting guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity. Four out of 10 U.S. high school students report participating in active gaming. Active gamers tend to spend more time watching DVDs or TV, meet guidelines for physical activity, and/or be overweight or obese compared with nonactive gamers. These findings may serve to provide a baseline to track active gaming in U.S. youth and inform interventions that target sedentary behaviors and/or physical activity.

  20. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly active eighth-grade girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W; Pate, Russell R

    2013-06-01

    Although girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Data from 1,866 eighth-grade girls from six field centers across the United States participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed-model analysis of variance examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. High-active girls were taller, had lower body mass indices and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Activities of everyday life with high spinal loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Rohlmann

    Full Text Available Activities with high spinal loads should be avoided by patients with back problems. Awareness about these activities and knowledge of the associated loads are important for the proper design and pre-clinical testing of spinal implants. The loads on an instrumented vertebral body replacement have been telemetrically measured for approximately 1000 combinations of activities and parameters in 5 patients over a period up to 65 months postoperatively. A database containing, among others, extreme values for load components in more than 13,500 datasets was searched for 10 activities that cause the highest resultant force, bending moment, torsional moment, or shear force in an anatomical direction. The following activities caused high resultant forces: lifting a weight from the ground, forward elevation of straight arms with a weight in hands, moving a weight laterally in front of the body with hanging arms, changing the body position, staircase walking, tying shoes, and upper body flexion. All activities have in common that the center of mass of the upper body was moved anteriorly. Forces up to 1650 N were measured for these activities of daily life. However, there was a large intra- and inter-individual variation in the implant loads for the various activities depending on how exercises were performed. Measured shear forces were usually higher in the posterior direction than in the anterior direction. Activities with high resultant forces usually caused high values of other load components.

  2. Revolutionising landscapes: Hydroelectricity and the heavy industrialisation of society and environment in the Comte de Beauharnois, 1927--1948

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Louis-Raphael

    This dissertation analyses the rapid industrialisation of the rural Comte de Beauharnois and the adjacent stretch of the Fleuve Saint-Laurent owing to the construction, between 1929 and 1948, of a gigantic canal for hydroelectricity production and navigation by an electricity corporation called the Beauharnois Light Heat and Power (BLH&P). Using principally the archives of the BLH&P---especially its complaints files and its rich photographic record---this thesis argues that this process exemplifies the finance capitalist reorganisation of the society and ecosystems of the Canadian province of Quebec from the 19th century to the Great Depression. In keeping with recent work in environmental history, the transformation of rural landscapes and a river for heavy industry is described as an important dimension of a revolution in modes of production. More specifically, I argue that, in the case under study, the finance-capitalist reorganisation of Quebec revolved around two central and explicit projects, one social and the other environmental: the grouping of most individuals in an industrial working class without control over the means of production and the reorganisation of rural landscapes into reservoirs of modern energy and industrial natural resources.

  3. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven .... Table 1: Relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and HAART adherence among ... constraints (44%), stigma (15%), travel/migration.

  4. Feasibility of High Energy Lasers for Interdiction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS FEASIBILITY OF HIGH ENERGY LASERS FOR INTERDICTION ACTIVITIES by Carlos Abel Javier Romero... ENERGY LASERS FOR INTERDICTION ACTIVITIES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Carlos Abel Javier Romero Chero 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...the people or cargo. High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons are an effective way to deliver energy precisely from a relative long range. This thesis studies

  5. Human Spaceflight: Activities for the Intermediate and Junior High Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsfield, John W.; Hartsfield, Kendra J.

    Since its beginning, space science has created high interest and continues to prod the imagination of students. This activity packet, which has been designed to enhance the curriculum and challenge gifted students, contains background information on spaceflight as well as 24 interdisciplinary classroom activities, 3 crossword puzzles, and 3 word…

  6. The physical activity climate in Minnesota middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Anne; Lytle, Leslie; Pasch, Keryn; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Sirard, John Ronald

    2010-11-01

    This article describes policies, practices, and facilities that form the physical activity climate in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metro area middle and high schools and examines how the physical activity climate varies by school characteristics, including public/private, school location and grade level. Surveys examining school physical activity practices, policies and environment were administered to principals and physical education department heads from 115 middle and high schools participating in the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer-Identifying Determinants of Eating and Activity (TREC-IDEA) study. While some supportive practices were highly prevalent in the schools studied (such as prohibiting substitution of other classes for physical education); other practices were less common (such as providing opportunity for intramural (noncompetitive) sports). Public schools vs. private schools and schools with a larger school enrollment were more likely to have a school climate supportive of physical activity. Although schools reported elements of positive physical activity climates, discrepancies exist by school characteristics. Of note, public schools were more than twice as likely as private schools to have supportive physical activity environments. Establishing more consistent physical activity expectations and funding at the state and national level is necessary to increase regular school physical activity.

  7. Immunological Response of Hiv-Infected Children to Highly Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children has not been well studied specially in developing countries where the burden of HIV is high. This study was aimed to assess the immunologic response of HIV-infected children to HAART at Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University ...

  8. Magnetic activity effect on equatorial spread-F under high and low solar activity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, K S.V.; Somayajulu, V V; Krishna Murthy, B V

    1986-08-01

    The effect of magnetic activity on spread-F at two equatorial stations, Trivandrum and Huancayo, separated in longitude by about 150 deg, under high and low solar activity conditions has been investigated. Magnetic activity produces strong inhibition effect on spread-F at Huancayo compared to that at Trivandrum especially during high solar activity period. This results in a decrease of spread-F with solar activity at Huancayo in contrast to Trivandrum. These findings are explained in terms of F-region electrodynamics and Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism for spread-F.

  9. Activation analysis of high pure quartz used as packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luknitskij, V.A.; Morozov, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A γ-spectrometric technique of neutron activation determination of microelements in quartz tubes used as a packing material for irradiation in reactors is reported. The analysis of 29 micro-admixtures in quartz tubes of USSR brands ''spectrtosil'' and ''KV'' was carried out. The γ-spectra of ''KV'' quartz irradiated by thermal and epithermal neutrons are presented. The activation by epithermal neutrons provides an activity gain for the nuclei whose resonance integral is high enough as compared to the activation cross-section with regard to thermal neutrons. The activation by epithermal neutrons permits additional determination of W, Cd, V, Th, Mn and Ni and provides for a substantial decrease in the activity of 24 Na, 42 K, 140 La, 46 Sc, 141 Ce, 51 Cr, and 59 Fe, which hinder the determination of the above-mentioned elements. The microelement composition of Soviet-made quartz varieties is compared to that of foreign-made quartz brands

  10. The effect of COMT Val158Met and DRD2 C957T polymorphisms on executive function and the impact of early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Kristel; Butler, Kevin; Durrant, Simon J; Ali, Manir; Inglehearn, Chris F; Hodgson, Timothy L; Gutierrez, Humberto; Pennington, Kyla

    2017-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that variation in genes encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase ( COMT ) and dopamine receptor D2 ( DRD2 ) may influence cognitive function and that this may confer vulnerability to the development of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. However, increasing evidence suggests environmental factors such as early life stress may interact with genetic variants in affecting these cognitive outcomes. This study investigated the effect of COMT Val158Met and DRD2 C957T polymorphisms on executive function and the impact of early life stress in healthy adults. One hundred and twenty-two healthy adult males (mean age 35.2 years, range 21-63) were enrolled in the study. Cognitive function was assessed using Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and early life stress was assessed using the Childhood Traumatic Events Scale (Pennebaker & Susman, 1988). DRD2 C957T was significantly associated with executive function, with CC homozygotes having significantly reduced performance in spatial working memory and spatial planning. A significant genotype-trauma interaction was found in Rapid Visual Information Processing test, a measure of sustained attention, with CC carriers who had experienced early life stress exhibiting impaired performance compared to the CC carriers without early life stressful experiences. There were no significant findings for COMT Val158Met . This study supports previous findings that DRD2 C957T significantly affects performance on executive function related tasks in healthy individuals and shows for the first time that some of these effects may be mediated through the impact of childhood traumatic events. Future work should aim to clarify further the effect of stress on neuronal systems that are known to be vulnerable in mental health disorders and more specifically what the impact of this might be on cognitive function.

  11. 75 FR 81284 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment and... Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Nationwide Use of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High... potential impacts of each alternative on the human and natural environments. DATES: Comments and related...

  12. N-tritioacetoxyphthalimide: A new high specific activity tritioacetylating reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saljoughian, M.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Than, Chit

    1996-01-01

    The authors' aim was to develop a nonvolatile, stable, and facile tritioacetylating reagent and to demonstrate its use on simple peptides. Accordingly, the authors made the synthesis of high specific activity N-(tritioacetoxy) derivatives of succinimide, phthalimide, and naphthalimide a major focus. As the preferred approach, N-(tritioacetoxy)phthalimide was prepared by radical dehalogenation of N-(iodoacetoxy)phthalimide using high specific activity tributyltin tritide. This tritiated acetylation reagent was characterized by 3 H and 1 H NMR spectroscopy and by radio-HPLC. Efficacy of the reagent was investigated by tritioacetylation of several peptides at their N-terminal amino group. 26 refs., 1 fig

  13. Development of cutting machine for disposal of highly activated equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimura, Katumichi; Kitajima, Toshio; Hosokawa, Jinsaku; Abe, Shinichi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Mituhiro; Iwai, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) Project has developed a cutting machine which can cut a highly activated in-pile tube under water and its performance and safety have been confirmed. This machine is for the purpose of cutting a multiplet structure pipe and made possible to cut it under water by adopting under-water discharge method. Furthermore, contamination of canal water and atmosphere is prevented by combining a filter with this machine. This report describes the outline and performance of the developed cutting machine and also results of cutting highly activated in-pile tubes. (author)

  14. Recommendations of activity restriction in high-risk pregnancy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Jane; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Bergholt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    activity restriction more often than obstetricians in five of the nine scenarios, in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labour, cervical ripening, total placenta praevia, and intrauterine growth restriction, whereas no differences were found in the remaining scenarios. Compared...... to the obstetricians, the midwives also reported that they expected the recommendation to be more effective. Most midwives and obstetricians reported that they thought strict activity restriction was associated with severe or moderate adverse effect, and recommended antithrombotic prophylaxis. Conclusions: Danish...... obstetricians and midwives prescribe activity restriction in most high-risk pregnancies. The degree of activity restriction and the presumed effect vary between clinicians. This may reflect different attitudes and lack of guidelines based on clinical studies of a possible benefit of activity restriction....

  15. Physical activity barriers and motivators among high-risk employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paguntalan, John C; Gregoski, Mathew

    2016-11-22

    Worksite wellness programs offer an ideal setting to target high-risk sedentary workers to improve health status. Lack of physical activity is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and mortality. Despite the risks, the number of sedentary workers is increasing. This study examined the perceived barriers and motivators for physical activity among employees at high-risk for coronary heart disease. A purposive sample of 24 high-risk workers participating in a wellness program in rural South Carolina were enrolled in the study. Qualitative data was obtained through semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Grounded theory was used to analyze qualitative data, and identify overarching themes. Physical limitations due to pain and weakness, lack of motivation, and lack of time emerged as the main barriers to physical activity. Family relationships were reported as the strongest motivator along with social support and potential health benefits. Findings highlight the unique experience of high-risk workers with physical activity. The findingsunderscore the need to design and implement effective interventions specifically designed to meet the needs of high-risk employees.

  16. Dyslipidemia in HIV Infected Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Anirban; Mukherjee, Aparna; Lakshmy, R; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to determine the associated risk factors for the same. The present cross-sectional study was conducted at a Pediatric Clinic of a tertiary care teaching center in India, from May 2011 through December 2012. HIV infected children aged 5-15 y were enrolled if they did not have any severe disease or hospital admission within last 3 mo or receive any medications known to affect the lipid profile. Eighty-one children were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for at least 6 mo and 16 were receiving no antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants' sociodemographic, nutritional, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded in addition to anthropometry and evidence of lipodystrophy. Fasting lipid profile, apolipoprotein A1 and B levels were done for all the children. Among the children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 38.3 % had dyslipidemia and 80.2 % had lipodystrophy, while 25 % antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV infected children had dyslipidemia. No clinically significant risk factors could be identified that increased the risk of dyslipidemia or lipodystrophy in children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There is a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children with HIV infection with an imminent need to establish facilities for testing and treatment of these children for metabolic abnormalities.

  17. Aloe vera Derived Activated High-Surface-Area Carbon for Flexible and High-Energy Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnan, M; Subramani, K; Sudhan, N; Ilayaraja, N; Sathish, M

    2016-12-28

    Materials which possess high specific capacitance in device configuration with low cost are essential for viable application in supercapacitors. Herein, a flexible high-energy supercapacitor device was fabricated using porous activated high-surface-area carbon derived from aloe leaf (Aloe vera) as a precursor. The A. vera derived activated carbon showed mesoporous nature with high specific surface area of ∼1890 m 2 /g. A high specific capacitance of 410 and 306 F/g was achieved in three-electrode and symmetric two-electrode system configurations in aqueous electrolyte, respectively. The fabricated all-solid-state device showed a high specific capacitance of 244 F/g with an energy density of 8.6 Wh/kg. In an ionic liquid electrolyte, the fabricated device showed a high specific capacitance of 126 F/g and a wide potential window up to 3 V, which results in a high energy density of 40 Wh/kg. Furthermore, it was observed that the activation temperature has significant role in the electrochemical performance, as the activated sample at 700 °C showed best activity than the samples activated at 600 and 800 °C. The electron microscopic images (FE-SEM and HR-TEM) confirmed the formation of pores by the chemical activation. A fabricated supercapacitor device in ionic liquid with 3 V could power up a red LED for 30 min upon charging for 20s. Also, it is shown that the operation voltage and capacitance of flexible all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitors fabricated using aloe-derived activated carbon could be easily tuned by series and parallel combinations. The performance of fabricated supercapacitor devices using A. vera derived activated carbon in all-solid-state and ionic liquid indicates their viable applications in flexible devices and energy storage.

  18. Synthesis of a tritiated herbicide with high activity: methyl thifensulfuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, J.; Ortega, F.

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the binding on acetolactate synthase, a tritiated herbicide sulfonylurea (thifensulfuron methyl) of high specific activity was synthesized. By use of C 3 H 3 I for esterification of an acid group, a rapid incorporation of tritium into this compound may be achieved. (Author)

  19. Correlates of highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlates of highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence among urban Ethiopian clients. ... clients' self-reported adherence to HAART medication, a descriptive, comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among adults receiving HAART medication at the Zewditu Memorial Hospital ART clinic in Addis Ababa.

  20. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven to be the only effective treatment for HIV/AIDS worldwide. Good adherence to HAART might require good family support. Objective: To determine the family dynamics and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its ...

  1. Influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report is part of the ongoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) trial, 167 patients were enlisted, but current analysis was restricted to 107 patients that were about a year old on the programme. The baseline weight, CD4+ cell count and serum albumin of 59 males and 48 females age 15-60 years, were ...

  2. Contact system activation and high thrombin generation in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhee; Gu, Ja-Yoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Han, Se Eun; Kim, Young Il; Nam-Goong, Il Sung; Kim, Eun Sook; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombotic risk. As contact system activation through formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) has emerged as an important trigger of thrombosis, we hypothesized that the contact system is activated along with active NET formation in hyperthyroidism and that their markers correlate with disease severity. In 61 patients with hyperthyroidism and 40 normal controls, the levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen, and factor VII, VIII, IX, XI and XII), D-dimer, thrombin generation assay (TGA) markers, NET formation markers (histone-DNA complex, double-stranded DNA and neutrophil elastase) and contact system markers (activated factor XII (XIIa), high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK), prekallikrein and bradykinin) were measured. Patients with hyperthyroidism showed higher levels of fibrinogen (median (interquartile range), 315 (280-344) vs 262 (223-300), P  = 0.001), D-dimer (103.8 (64.8-151.5) vs 50.7 (37.4-76.0), P  hyperthyroidism's contribution to coagulation and contact system activation. Free T4 was significantly correlated with factors VIII and IX, D-dimer, double-stranded DNA and bradykinin. This study demonstrated that contact system activation and abundant NET formation occurred in the high thrombin generation state in hyperthyroidism and were correlated with free T4 level. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Highly Crumpled All-Carbon Transistors for Brain Activity Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Wenjing; Shi, Enzheng; Wei, Wenjing; Li, Xinming; Cao, Anyuan; Cao, Yanping; Fang, Ying

    2017-01-11

    Neural probes based on graphene field-effect transistors have been demonstrated. Yet, the minimum detectable signal of graphene transistor-based probes is inversely proportional to the square root of the active graphene area. This fundamentally limits the scaling of graphene transistor-based neural probes for improved spatial resolution in brain activity recording. Here, we address this challenge using highly crumpled all-carbon transistors formed by compressing down to 16% of its initial area. All-carbon transistors, chemically synthesized by seamless integration of graphene channels and hybrid graphene/carbon nanotube electrodes, maintained structural integrity and stable electronic properties under large mechanical deformation, whereas stress-induced cracking and junction failure occurred in conventional graphene/metal transistors. Flexible, highly crumpled all-carbon transistors were further verified for in vivo recording of brain activity in rats. These results highlight the importance of advanced material and device design concepts to make improvements in neuroelectronics.

  4. IAEA high temperature gas-cooled reactor activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA activities on high temperature gas-cooled reactors are conducted with the review and support of the Member states, primarily through the International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWG-GCR). This paper summarises the results of the IAEA gas-cooled reactor project activities in recent years along with ongoing current activities through a review of Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs), meetings and other international efforts. A series of three recently completed CRPs have addressed the key areas of reactor physics for LEU fuel, retention of fission products and removal of post shutdown decay heat through passive heat transport mechanisms. These activities along with other completed and ongoing supporting CRPs and meetings are summarised with reference to detailed documentation of the results. (authors)

  5. Business cycle and innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikowski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines differences in an impact of business cycle phases on innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland. It is assumed that each business cycle phase influences innovation activity in the same fashion, but its impact varies and it depends on the firm’s innovation activity. The higher innovation activity the less impact of business cycle. The scope of the survey relates to innovation in MHT and HT industry in Poland. The data concerns the innovation at the firm level and the diffusion “new for the company”. Innovation activity is defined by the following activities: (1 expenditure on research and development and investments in fixed assets not used so far such as: abuildings, premises and land; b machinery and equipment, c computer software; (2 implementation of new products and technological processes and (3 innovation cooperation. The methodological part of the analysis includes a logit modeling. The survey includes 1355 companies. Business cycle has a great influence on innovation activity in MTH and HT industry in Poland. The influence of recovery phase is positive whereas both stagnation and recession phases decrease the probability of innovation activity. The character of influence depends on the propensity to take innovation activity. The higher level of innovation activity the enterprises present the less influence of business cycle they get.

  6. Lower baseline performance but greater plasticity of working memory for carriers of the val allele of the COMT Val¹⁵⁸Met polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Bäckman, Lars; Liu, Tian; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M; Bertram, Lars; Schmiedek, Florian; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about genetic contributions to individual differences in cognitive plasticity. Given that the neurotransmitter dopamine is critical for cognition and associated with cognitive plasticity, we investigated the effects of 3 polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes (LMX1A, DRD2, COMT) on baseline performance and plasticity of working memory (WM), perceptual speed, and reasoning. One hundred one younger and 103 older adults underwent approximately 100 days of cognitive training, and extensive testing before and after training. We analyzed the baseline and posttest data using latent change score models. For working memory, carriers of the val allele of the COMT polymorphism had lower baseline performance and larger performance gains from training than carriers of the met allele. There was no significant effect of the other genes or on other cognitive domains. We relate this result to available evidence indicating that met carriers perform better than val carriers in WM tasks taxing maintenance, whereas val carriers perform better at updating tasks. We suggest that val carriers may show larger training gains because updating operations carry greater potential for plasticity than maintenance operations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. [Assessment of 10 years of memory consultations in the Franche-Comté: Description and analysis of the RAPID regional database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereau, M; Sylvestre, G; Mauny, F; Puyraveau, M; Baudier, F; Magnin, E; Berger, E; Vandel, P; Galmiche, J; Chopard, G

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact, on a regional scale (Franche-Comté), of 3 National Alzheimer care plans, particularly concerning the development of the offer of care management by clinicians as well as the panel of diagnoses concerned. Data on sociodemographic, neuropsychological and diagnostic characteristics were retrieved from the RAPID regional database between 1st January 2003 and 31st December 2012. These analyses focused exclusively on patients who had an initial consultation (n=12,017) during the same period. The existence of a previously established health network capable of carrying out governmental health plans has produced an effective interface between regional administrative structures responsible for the implementation of these plans and health professionals responsible for carrying out them out. This network study, the use of a battery of tests and a common software database have enabled the development of patient care management throughout the Franche-Comté region. It also showed the diversification of diagnoses mentioned over the past years as well as changes in clinical practices on how to address the issue of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. COMT Val158Met polymorphism influences the susceptibility to framing in decision-making: OFC-amygdala functional connectivity as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxue; Gong, Pingyuan; Liu, Jinting; Hu, Jie; Li, Yue; Yu, Hongbo; Gong, Xiaoliang; Xiang, Yang; Jiang, Changjun; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2016-05-01

    Individuals tend to avoid risk in a gain frame, in which options are presented in a positive way, but seek risk in a loss frame, in which the same options are presented negatively. Previous studies suggest that emotional responses play a critical role in this "framing effect." Given that the Met allele of COMT Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with the negativity bias during emotional processing, this study investigated whether this polymorphism is associated with individual susceptibility to framing and which brain areas mediate this gene-behavior association. Participants were genotyped, scanned in resting state, and completed a monetary gambling task with options (sure vs risky) presented as potential gains or losses. The Met allele carriers showed a greater framing effect than the Val/Val homozygotes as the former gambled more than the latter in the loss frame. Moreover, the gene-behavior association was mediated by resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral amygdala. Met allele carriers showed decreased RSFC, thereby demonstrating higher susceptibility to framing than Val allele carriers. These findings demonstrate the involvement of COMT Val158Met polymorphism in the framing effect in decision-making and suggest RSFC between OFC and amygdala as a neural mediator underlying this gene-behavior association. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1880-1892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High repetition rate, high energy, actively Q-switched all-in-fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourt, J. B.; Bertrand, A.; Guillemet, S.; Hernandez, Y.; Giannone, D.

    2010-05-01

    We report an actively Q-switched Ytterbium-doped all-in-fibre laser delivering 10ns pulses with high repetition rate (from 100kHz to 1MHz). The laser operation has been validated at three different wavelengths (1040, 1050 and 1064nm). The laser can deliver up to 20Watts average power with an high beam quality (M2 = 1).

  10. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R.; Cheeseright, J.

    2016-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  11. Characterization of active CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Rymaszewski, Piotr; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensors are very attractive as radiation imaging pixel detector because they do not need cost-intensive fine pitch bump bonding. High radiation tolerance and time resolution are required to apply those sensors to upcoming particle physics experiments. To achieve these requirements, the active CMOS pixel sensors were developed on high resistive substrates. Signal charges are collected faster by drift in high resistive substrates than in standard low resistive substrates yielding also a higher radiation tolerance. A prototype of the active CMOS pixel sensor has been fabricated in the LFoundry 150 nm CMOS process on 2 kΩcm substrate. This prototype chip was thinned down to 300 μm and the backside has been processed and can contacted by an aluminum contact. The breakdown voltage is around -115 V, and the depletion width has been measured to be as large as 180 μm at a bias voltage of -110 V. Gain and noise of the readout circuitry agree with the designed values. Performance tests in the lab and test beam have been done before and after irradiation with X-rays and neutrons. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  12. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Cheeseright, J. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  13. Beta activity measurements in high, variable gamma backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanga, D.; Sandu, E.; Craciun, L.

    1997-01-01

    In many cases beta activity measurements must be performed in high and variable gamma backgrounds. In such instances it is necessary to use well-shielded detectors but this technique is limited to laboratory equipment and frequently insufficient. In order to perform in a simple manner beta activity measurements in high and variable backgrounds a software-aided counting technique have been developed and a counting system have been constructed. This technique combines the different counting techniques with traditional method of successive measurement of the sample and background. The counting system is based on a programmable multi-scaler which is endowed with appropriate software and allow all operations to be performed via keyboard in an interactive fashion. Two large - area proportional detectors were selected in order to have the same background and the same gamma response within 5%. A program has been developed for the counting data analysis and beta activity computing. The software-aided counting technique has been implemented for beta activity measurement in high and variable backgrounds. (authors)

  14. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Wang Geun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon, Jeollanam-Do 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Balathanigaimani, M.S., E-mail: msbala@rgipt.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Ratapur Chowk, Rae Bareli, 229316 Uttar Pradesh (India); Moon, Hee, E-mail: hmoon@jnu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Highly porous carbon materials from Mongolian anthracite by chemical activation. • Cheaper and eco-friendly activation process has been employed. • Activated carbons with graphitic structure and energetically heterogeneous surface. • Surface hydrophobicity and porosity of the activated carbons can be controlled. - Abstract: Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816–2063 m{sup 2}/g and of 0.55–1.61 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  15. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of porcine oocytes induces parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Pribenszky, Csaba; Molnár, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    An innovative technique called high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has recently been reported to improve the cryosurvival of gametes and embryos in certain mammalian species, including the mouse, pig, and cattle. In the present study the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of pig oocytes caused...... by HHP treatment was investigated in different holding media with or without Ca(2+). The efficiency of activation was tested at different pressure levels and media including T2 (HEPES-buffered TCM-199 containing 2% cattle serum), and mannitol-PVA fusion medium with (MPVA + Ca(2+)) or without Ca(2...

  16. High-intensity body weight training is comparable to combined training in changes in muscle mass, physical performance, inflammatory markers and metabolic health in postmenopausal women at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fernanda Maria; de Paula Souza, Aletéia; Nunes, Paulo Ricardo Prado; Michelin, Márcia Antoniazi; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Resende, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Orsatti, Fábio Lera

    2018-07-01

    This study compared the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval body weight training (HIBWT) with combined training (COMT; aerobic and resistance exercises on body composition, a 6-minute walk test (6MWT; physical performance), insulin resistance (IR) and inflammatory markers in postmenopausal women (PW) at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (TDM2). In this randomized controlled clinical study, 16 PW at high risk of TDM2 were randomly allocated into two groups: HIBWT (n = 8) and COMT (n = 8). The HIBWT group performed a training protocol (length time ~28 min) consisting of ten sets of 60 s of high intensity exercise interspersed by a recovery period of 60 s of low intensity exercise. The COMT group performed a training protocol (length time ~60 min) consisting of a 30 min walk of moderate intensity following by five resistance exercises. All training sessions were performed in the university gym facility three days a week (no consecutive days) for 12 weeks. All outcomes (body composition, muscle function, and IR and inflammatory markers) were assessed at the baseline and at the end of the study. Both groups increased (P  0.05) from the effects of COMT. There was a significant (P high risk of TDM2. The patients were part of a 12-week training study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03200639). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of endothelial progenitor cells in Parkinson's disease patients treated with levodopa and levodopa/COMT inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Hyu Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD increases in serum homocysteine levels due to its metabolism via catechol O-methyltransferase. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have the capacity to differentiate into mature endothelial cells and are markers for endothelial functions and cardiovascular risks. Along with traditional vascular risk factors, hyperhomocysteinemia is known to decrease the level of EPCs. In the present study, we hypothesized that that levodopa-induced hyperhomocysteinemia leads to a change in EPC levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We prospectively enrolled PD patients who had been prescribed either levodopa/carbidopa (PD-L group, n = 28 or levodopa/carbidopa/COMT inhibitor (PD-LC group, n = 25 for more than 1 year. The number of circulating EPCs was measured by flow cytometry using dual staining of anti-CD34 and anti-KDR antibodies. The EPCs were divided into tertiles based on their distributions and a logistic regression analysis was used to estimate independent predictors of the highest tertile of EPCs. The number of endothelial progenitor cells was significantly decreased in PD-L patients (118±99/mL compared with either PD-LC patients (269±258/mL, p = 0.007 or controls (206±204/mL, p = 0.012. The level of homocysteine was significantly increased in PD-L patients (14.9±5.3 µmol/L compared with either PD-LC patients (11.9±3.0 µmol/L, p = 0.028 or controls (11.1±2.5 µmol/L, p = 0.012. The level of homocysteine was negatively correlated with endothelial progenitor cell levels (r = -0.252, p = 0.028 and was an independent predictor of the highest tertile of endothelial progenitor cell levels (OR; 0.749 [95% CI: 0.584-0.961]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that a higher consumption of EPC for restoration of endothelial damage may be associated with chronic levodopa treatment in PD patients.

  18. Parallel Computing:. Some Activities in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Ian

    This paper examines some activities in High Energy Physics that utilise parallel computing. The topic includes all computing from the proposed SIMD front end detectors, the farming applications, high-powered RISC processors and the large machines in the computer centers. We start by looking at the motivation behind using parallelism for general purpose computing. The developments around farming are then described from its simplest form to the more complex system in Fermilab. Finally, there is a list of some developments that are happening close to the experiments.

  19. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, P.

    1986-01-01

    Tritiated methyl iodide of high specific activity is synthetized by Fischer-Tropsch reaction of tritium with carbon monoxide, tritiated methanol obtained is reacted with hydriodic acid. It is used for the synthesis of S-adenosyl L-methionine 3 H-methyl and of diazepam 3 H-methyl derivatives. Synthesis of 3-PPP 3 H: (hydroxy-3 phenyl)-3N-n propyl [ 3 H-2.3] piperidine [ 3 H-2.3] with a specific activity of 4.25 T Bq/mM (115 Ci/mM) and of baclofene 3 H with a specific activity of 0.925 TBq (25 Ci/mM) are also described [fr

  20. Characterizing electrostatic turbulence in tokamak plasmas with high MHD activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Filho, Z O; Santos Lima, G Z dos; Caldas, I L; Nascimento, I C; Kuznetsov, Yu K [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66316, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R L, E-mail: viana@fisica.ufpr.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-09-01

    One of the challenges in obtaining long lasting magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas in tokamaks is to control electrostatic turbulence near the vessel wall. A necessary step towards achieving this goal is to characterize the turbulence level and so as to quantify its effect on the transport of energy and particles of the plasma. In this paper we present experimental results on the characterization of electrostatic turbulence in Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien (TCABR), operating in the Institute of Physics of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In particular, we investigate the effect of certain magnetic field fluctuations, due to magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) instabilities activity, on the spectral properties of electrostatic turbulence at plasma edge. In some TCABR discharges we observe that this MHD activity may increase spontaneously, following changes in the edge safety factor, or after changes in the radial electric field achieved by electrode biasing. During the high MHD activity, the magnetic oscillations and the plasma edge electrostatic turbulence present several common linear spectral features with a noticeable dominant peak in the same frequency. In this article, dynamical analyses were applied to find other alterations on turbulence characteristics due to the MHD activity and turbulence enhancement. A recurrence quantification analysis shows that the turbulence determinism radial profile is substantially changed, becoming more radially uniform, during the high MHD activity. Moreover, the bicoherence spectra of these two kinds of fluctuations are similar and present high bicoherence levels associated with the MHD frequency. In contrast with the bicoherence spectral changes, that are radially localized at the plasma edge, the turbulence recurrence is broadly altered at the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer.

  1. White matter alterations related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and COMT val158met polymorphism: children with valine homozygote attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have altered white matter connectivity in the right cingulum (cingulate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabukcu Basay B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Burge Kabukcu Basay,1 Ahmet Buber,1 Omer Basay,1 Huseyin Alacam,2 Onder Ozturk,1 Serkan Suren,3 Ozlem Izci Ay,4 Cengizhan Acikel,5 Kadir Agladioglu,6 Mehmet Emin Erdal,4 Eyup Sabri Ercan,7 Hasan Herken21Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, 2Psychiatry Department, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, 3Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, 4Medical Biology and Genetics Department, Mersin University Medical Faculty, Mersin, 5Biostatistics Department, GATA (GMMA, Ankara, 6Radiology Department, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, 7Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir, TurkeyIntroduction: In this article, the COMT gene val158met polymorphism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-related differences in diffusion-tensor-imaging-measured white matter (WM structure in children with ADHD and controls were investigated.Patients and methods: A total of 71 children diagnosed with ADHD and 24 controls aged 8–15 years were recruited. Using diffusion tensor imaging, COMT polymorphism and ADHD-related WM alterations were investigated, and any interaction effect between the COMT polymorphism and ADHD was also examined. The effects of age, sex, and estimated total IQ were controlled by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA.Results: First, an interaction between the COMT val158met polymorphism and ADHD in the right (R cingulum (cingulate gyrus (CGC was found. According to this, valine (val homozygote ADHD-diagnosed children had significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA and higher radial diffusivity (RD in the R-CGC than ADHD-diagnosed methionine (met carriers, and val homozygote controls had higher FA and lower RD in the R-CGC than val homozygote ADHD patients. Second, met carriers had higher FA and axial diffusivity in the left (L-uncinate fasciculus and lower RD in the L-posterior corona radiata and L

  2. Designing a new highly active liquid evaporator - 16075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, Paul; Candy, Emma

    2009-01-01

    The Highly Active Liquid Effluent Storage (HALES) plant stores, concentrates and conditions Highly Active Liquor (HAL) in evaporators for buffer storage in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HAST). Highly Active (HA) evaporators play a pivotal role in the delivery of reprocessing, historic clean up and hazard reduction missions across the Sellafield site. In addition to the engineering projects implemented to extend the life expectation of the current evaporator fleet, the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Agency (NDA) is sponsoring the construction of a new HA evaporator (Evaporator D) on the Sellafield site. The design and operation of the new HA evaporator is based on existing/recent HA evaporator technology but learning from past operational experience. Operational experience has been a key area where the existing plant operators have influenced both the new design itself and the requirements for commissioning and training. Many of the learning experiences require relatively simple engineering design modifications such as a new internal washing provision and transfer line blockage recovery systems, they are never-the-less expected to significantly improve the flexibility and operational capability of the new evaporator. Issues that the project delivery team has addressed as part of the development of the design and construction have included: - Minimising interruptions and/or changes to the normal operations of interfacing plants during construction, commissioning and operation of the new facility. - Modularization of the plant, enabling fabrication of the majority of the plant equipment off-site within a workshop (as opposed to on-site) environment improving Quality Assurance and reducing on-Site testing needs. - Drawing out the balance between operational and corrosion resistance improvements with actual design and delivery needs. - Provision of a new facility reliant on the infrastructure of an existing and ageing facility and the competing demands of the related safety

  3. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  4. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2015-12-14

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  5. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman; Ba Alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz A.; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  6. Cell lysis and superoxide dismutase activities of highly radioresistant bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaka, Taeko; Yano, Keiji; Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The highly radioresistant bacterium, Arthrobacter radiotolerans, has been isolated from the radioactive hot spring of Misasa, and it does not sporulate, it is Gram-positive, and its color is pink to red. This bacterium shows the highest resistance to gamma-ray among Gram-positive resistants, but the lytic enzyme capable of lysing the cells of strong radioresistants and the surface structure of the cells are little known except those about Micrococcus radiodurans. The cells of the M. radiodurans can be lysed by Achramobacter lyticus enzyme, and electron microscopic observation and chemical analysis revealed the mutilayered surface structure of the cells consisting of an inner membrane, a mucopeptide wall layer and a very outer layer. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was studied, and the relatively high SOD activity of the M. radiodurans was found. The SOD function acts against the threat posed by the reactive superoxide radical being generated biologically, photochemically and radiochemically in the presence of molecular oxygen. In this paper, it is reported that the lytic enzyme No.2 obtained from Cytophaga sp., containing N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine amidase, peptidase and endopeptidase, and showing broad lytic spectra, was able to lyse the cells of A. radiotolerans and four radioresistant micrococci, and the radioresistant bacteria showed relatively high SOD activity except M. sp. 248. It is well known that superoxide anions are generated by aerobic irradiation, and are toxic to microbial cells. (Kako, I.)

  7. Cell lysis and superoxide dismutase activities of highly radioresistant bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaka, T; Yano, K; Yamaguchi, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1976-01-01

    The highly radioresistant bacterium, Arthrobacter radiotolerans, has been isolated from the radioactive hot spring of Misasa, and it does not sporulate, it is Gram-positive, and its color is pink to red. This bacterium shows the highest resistance to gamma-ray among Gram-positive resistants, but the lytic enzyme capable of lysing the cells of strong radioresistants and the surface structure of the cells are little known except those about Micrococcus radiodurans. The cells of the M. radiodurans can be lysed by Achramobacter lyticus enzyme, and electron microscopic observation and chemical analysis revealed the mutilayered surface structure of the cells consisting of an inner membrane, a mucopeptide wall layer and a very outer layer. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was studied, and the relatively high SOD activity of the M. radiodurans was found. The SOD function acts against the threat posed by the reactive superoxide radical being generated biologically, photochemically and radiochemically in the presence of molecular oxygen. In this paper, it is reported that the lytic enzyme No.2 obtained from Cytophaga sp., containing N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine amidase, peptidase and endopeptidase, and showing broad lytic spectra, was able to lyse the cells of A. radiotolerans and four radioresistant micrococci, and the radioresistant bacteria showedrelatively high SOD activity except M. sp. 248. It is well known that superoxide anions are generated by aerobic irradiation, and are toxic to microbial cells.

  8. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao; Jiao, Yan; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Lu Hua; Han, Yu; Chen, Ying; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  9. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Jiao, Yan; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Lu Hua; Han, Yu; Chen, Ying; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-12-14

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  10. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao

    2016-11-28

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  11. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  12. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L.; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Glöckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R.; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C.; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H.; Herrmann, Carl; O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K.; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system1. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive2–4. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type1,2,5. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours. PMID:26466568

  13. Effects of tolcapone on working memory and brain activity in abstinent smokers: A proof-of-concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; Goelz, Patricia M.; Hopson, Ryan D.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James; Lerman, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to play an important role in cognitive function and nicotine dependence. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor tolcapone, an FDA-approved treatment for Parkinson’s disease, increases prefrontal dopamine levels, with cognitive benefits that may vary by COMT genotype. We tested whether tolcapone alters working memory-related brain activity and performance in abstinent smokers. Methods In this double-blind crossover study, 20 smokers completed 8 days of treatment with tolcapone and placebo. In both medication periods, smokers completed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI scans while performing a working memory N-back task after 24 h of abstinence. Smokers were genotyped prospectively for the COMT val158met polymorphism for exploratory analysis. Results Compared to placebo, tolcapone modestly improved accuracy (p = 0.017) and enhanced suppression of activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) (p = 0.002). There were no effects of medication in other a priori regions of interest (dorsolateral PFC, dorsal cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex, or posterior cingulate cortex). Exploratory analyses suggested that tolcapone led to a decrease in BOLD signal in several regions among smokers with val/val genotypes, but increased or remained unchanged among met allele carriers. Tolcapone did not attenuate craving, mood, or withdrawal symptoms compared to placebo. Conclusions Data from this proof-of-concept study do not provide strong support for further evaluation of COMT inhibitors as smoking cessation aids. PMID:24095246

  14. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-01-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10 12 ). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data

  15. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-05-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10{sup 12}). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not!) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data.

  16. Tobacco Stem-Based Activated Carbons for High Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Hongbo; Shi, Lei; He, Yuede

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco stem-based activated carbons (TS-ACs) were prepared by simple KOH activation and their application as electrodes in the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) performed successfully. The BET surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of the TS-ACs were evaluated based on N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The surface area of the obtained activated carbons varies over a wide range (1472.8-3326.7 m2/g) and the mesoporosity was enhanced significantly as the ratio of KOH to tobacco stem (TS) increased. The electrochemical behaviors of series TS-ACs were characterized by means of galvanostatic charging/discharging, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. The correlation between electrochemical properties and pore structure was investigated. A high specific capacitance value as 190 F/g at 1 mA/cm2 was obtained in 1 M LiPF6-EC/DMC/DEC electrolyte solution. Furthermore, good performance is also achieved even at high current densities. A development of new use for TS into a valuable energy storage material is explored.

  17. High Performance Activity Practices in Small Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ŢUŢUEANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Activity Practices in Small Firms in Romania Abstract: High performance activity practices (HPAPs are human resource management activities aimed at stimulating employee and organisational performance. The application of HPAPs is not widespread in small organisations. We examine whether the implementation of coherent bundles of HPAPs (aimed at employee ability, employee motivation or at the opportunity to perform depends on the scarcity of resources, as reflected in the size of the company, and on strategic decision-making in small firms related to the owner’s expertise and attitudes. In our research, a total of 224 employees from 50 small organisations were asked to rate the presence of HPAPs in their organisation. These averaged perceptions were linked to information provided by the owner–managers on the size of their firm and their own expertise and attitudes. The findings support that smaller but coherent bundles of HPAPs can be found in small organisations and that the implementation of these bundles depends on available resources, strategic decision-making and the combination of the two. These findings highlight the need to integrate the notions of resource poverty and strategic decision-making to understand the uptake of bundles of HPAPs within small firms.

  18. Sulfurized activated carbon for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Li, Yanwei; Li, Zhimin; Tian, Jianjun; Zhang, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-04-01

    Sulfurized activated carbon (SAC), made by coating the pore surface with thiophenic sulfur functional groups from the pyrolysis of sulfur flakes, were characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the sulfur content in the SAC was found to be 2.7 at%. Electrochemical properties from potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the effect of sulfur on porous carbon electrodes. The SAC electrode exhibits better conductivity, and an obvious increase in specific capacitance that is almost 40% higher than plain activated carbons (ACs) electrode at a high current density of 1.4 A g-1. The proposed mechanism for improved conductivity and capacitive performance due to the sulfur functional groups on ACs will be discussed.

  19. High active waste (HAW) data report January-June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.

    1992-04-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the period from January 1st, 1991 to June 30, 1991. (author). 4 refs.; 43 figs.; 8 tabs

  20. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  1. 78 FR 70567 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and... each alternative on the human and natural environments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have... Programmatic Environmental Assessment The scope of the PEA focuses on potential impacts associated with the...

  2. Acridinium esters as high-specific-activity labels in immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, I.; Beheshti, I.; McCapra, F.; Campbell, A.K.; Woodhead, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A chemiluminescent acridinium ester has been synthesized that reacts spontaneously with proteins to yield stable, immunoreactive derivatives of high specific activity. The compound has been used to prepare chemiluminescent monoclonal antibodies to human alpha 1-fetoprotein having average incorporation ratios as great as 2.8 mol of label per mole of antibody, which corresponds to a detection limit of approximately 8 X 10(-19) mol. These antibodies have been used in the preliminary development of a two-site immunochemiluminometric assay for human alpha 1-fetoprotein, which requires only a 30-min incubation and a quantification time of 5 s per sample

  3. The denitration of simulated fast reactor highly active liquor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, C.J.; Ford, L.H.; Platts, N.

    1981-11-01

    Vitrification of the highly active arisings from PFR fuel reprocessing is proposed as the optimum long-term solution to the disposal problem. During vitrification ruthenium volatilises as the tetroxide. Evidence is presented which indicates that a substantial reduction in volatility can be effected by denitration of the liquid feed by treatment with formic acid. The kinetics and stoichiometry of the reactions involved in denitration are examined and empirical rate equations developed. The predictions of the empirical rate equation have been confirmed using a one-tenth scale continuous denitrator, thus giving confidence for the design of full-scale units. (author)

  4. Production of N-13 labeled compounds with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Sasaki, Motoji; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Haradahira, Terushi; Inoue, Osamu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Nitrogen-13 was produced by irradiating ultra pure water saturated with a pure gas (N2, O2, He, H2) with 18 MeV protons. Ion species generated by irradiation were analyzed with radio ion chromatography systems. An automated equipment was developed to synthesize anhydrous (13N)NH3 as a synthetic precursor and (13N)p-nitrophenyl carbamate ((13N)NPC) as a model compound, using the (13N)NH3. The radiochemical yield and specific activity of (13N)NPC was high enough to carry out the receptor study with PET. (author)

  5. Borosilicate glasses for the high activity waste vetrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantale, C.; Donato, A.; Guidi, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some results concerning the researches carried out on the high-level wastes vitrification at ENEA, Comb-Mepis-Rifiu laboratory are reported. A fission product solution referred to power plant nuclear fuel reprocessing has been selected and simulated with no radioactive chemicals. Some glass composition have been tested for the vitrification of this solution, the best of them being taken into consideration for real active tests at the hot bench scale plant ESTER in Ispra. The final glasses have been characterized from the chemical and physical point of view; moreover some microstructural investigations have been performed in order to identify few microsegregations and to test the degree of amorphousness of the products

  6. Neutron activation analysis of high-purity zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhamberdyeva, A.A.; Usmanova, M.M.; Gil'bert, Eh.N.; Ivanov, I.M.; Yankovskaya, T.A.; Kholyavko, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    The methods of neutron activation analysis of high-purity zinc with preliminary separation of the zinc base using extraction by trialkylbenzylammonium rhodanide in carbon tetrachloride from 0.5-2.0 M nitric acid solutions is developed. Only rhenium is quantitatively extracted together with zinc. Gold, iridium and molybdenum are extracted to 50-60%, and selenium - to 20%. The Na, K, La, Cr, Sc, Co, Cs, Rb, Fe, Zr, Sn, Te, As, Cd, Hf, W, Sb, Sm impurities remain in the aqueous phase. The methods permits to determine the impurities above with detection limits from 1x10 -6 to 4x10 -11 g

  7. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2017-11-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  8. DataHigh: graphical user interface for visualizing and interacting with high-dimensional neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Benjamin R.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Butler, Zachary S.; Churchland, Mark M.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Yu, Byron M.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. Analyzing and interpreting the activity of a heterogeneous population of neurons can be challenging, especially as the number of neurons, experimental trials, and experimental conditions increases. One approach is to extract a set of latent variables that succinctly captures the prominent co-fluctuation patterns across the neural population. A key problem is that the number of latent variables needed to adequately describe the population activity is often greater than 3, thereby preventing direct visualization of the latent space. By visualizing a small number of 2-d projections of the latent space or each latent variable individually, it is easy to miss salient features of the population activity. Approach. To address this limitation, we developed a Matlab graphical user interface (called DataHigh) that allows the user to quickly and smoothly navigate through a continuum of different 2-d projections of the latent space. We also implemented a suite of additional visualization tools (including playing out population activity timecourses as a movie and displaying summary statistics, such as covariance ellipses and average timecourses) and an optional tool for performing dimensionality reduction. Main results. To demonstrate the utility and versatility of DataHigh, we used it to analyze single-trial spike count and single-trial timecourse population activity recorded using a multi-electrode array, as well as trial-averaged population activity recorded using single electrodes. Significance. DataHigh was developed to fulfil a need for visualization in exploratory neural data analysis, which can provide intuition that is critical for building scientific hypotheses and models of population activity.

  9. DataHigh: graphical user interface for visualizing and interacting with high-dimensional neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Benjamin R; Kaufman, Matthew T; Butler, Zachary S; Churchland, Mark M; Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V; Yu, Byron M

    2013-12-01

    Analyzing and interpreting the activity of a heterogeneous population of neurons can be challenging, especially as the number of neurons, experimental trials, and experimental conditions increases. One approach is to extract a set of latent variables that succinctly captures the prominent co-fluctuation patterns across the neural population. A key problem is that the number of latent variables needed to adequately describe the population activity is often greater than 3, thereby preventing direct visualization of the latent space. By visualizing a small number of 2-d projections of the latent space or each latent variable individually, it is easy to miss salient features of the population activity. To address this limitation, we developed a Matlab graphical user interface (called DataHigh) that allows the user to quickly and smoothly navigate through a continuum of different 2-d projections of the latent space. We also implemented a suite of additional visualization tools (including playing out population activity timecourses as a movie and displaying summary statistics, such as covariance ellipses and average timecourses) and an optional tool for performing dimensionality reduction. To demonstrate the utility and versatility of DataHigh, we used it to analyze single-trial spike count and single-trial timecourse population activity recorded using a multi-electrode array, as well as trial-averaged population activity recorded using single electrodes. DataHigh was developed to fulfil a need for visualization in exploratory neural data analysis, which can provide intuition that is critical for building scientific hypotheses and models of population activity.

  10. DataHigh: Graphical user interface for visualizing and interacting with high-dimensional neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Benjamin R.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Butler, Zachary S.; Churchland, Mark M.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Yu, Byron M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Analyzing and interpreting the activity of a heterogeneous population of neurons can be challenging, especially as the number of neurons, experimental trials, and experimental conditions increases. One approach is to extract a set of latent variables that succinctly captures the prominent co-fluctuation patterns across the neural population. A key problem is that the number of latent variables needed to adequately describe the population activity is often greater than three, thereby preventing direct visualization of the latent space. By visualizing a small number of 2-d projections of the latent space or each latent variable individually, it is easy to miss salient features of the population activity. Approach To address this limitation, we developed a Matlab graphical user interface (called DataHigh) that allows the user to quickly and smoothly navigate through a continuum of different 2-d projections of the latent space. We also implemented a suite of additional visualization tools (including playing out population activity timecourses as a movie and displaying summary statistics, such as covariance ellipses and average timecourses) and an optional tool for performing dimensionality reduction. Main results To demonstrate the utility and versatility of DataHigh, we used it to analyze single-trial spike count and single-trial timecourse population activity recorded using a multi-electrode array, as well as trial-averaged population activity recorded using single electrodes. Significance DataHigh was developed to fulfill a need for visualization in exploratory neural data analysis, which can provide intuition that is critical for building scientific hypotheses and models of population activity. PMID:24216250

  11. Active Photonic crystal fibers for high power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    The photonic crystal ber technology provides means to realize bers optimized for high power operation, due to the large single-mode cores and the unique design exibility of the microstructure. The work presented in this thesis focuses on improving the properties of active photonic crystal bers...... contributed to the compounding of new and improved material compositions. The second part is an investigation of pump absorption in photonic crystal bers, demonstrating that the microstructure in photonic crystal bers improves the pump absorption by up to a factor of two compared to step-index bers....... This plays an important role in high power lasers and ampliers with respect to efficiency, packaging, and thermal handling. The third part of the work has involved developing tools for characterizing the mode quality and stability of large core bers. Stable, single-mode bers with larger cores are essential...

  12. CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeys, W., E-mail: walter.snoeys@cern.ch

    2014-11-21

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon are only now starting to make their way into high energy physics. Two major requirements are radiation tolerance and low power consumption. For the most extreme radiation levels, signal charge has to be collected by drift from a depletion layer onto a designated collection electrode without losing the signal charge elsewhere in the in-pixel circuit. Low power consumption requires an optimization of Q/C, the ratio of the collected signal charge over the input capacitance [1]. Some solutions to combine sufficient Q/C and collection by drift require exotic fabrication steps. More conventional solutions up to now require a simple in-pixel readout circuit. Both high voltage CMOS technologies and Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technologies with high resistivity epitaxial layers offer high voltage diodes. The choice between the two is not fundamental but more a question of how much depletion can be reached and also of availability and cost. This paper tries to give an overview.

  13. Étude archéométrique du verre du Ve au XIIe siècle en Bourgogne et Franche-Comté

    OpenAIRE

    Pactat, Inès

    2013-01-01

    National audience; Depuis une quinzaine d'années, les recherches archéologiques sur le haut Moyen Âge se sont multipliées en Bourgogne et en Franche-Comté. Nos connaissances sur cette période ne se limitent plus seulement aux données fournies par les contextes funéraires. Plus d'une trentaine de sites d'habitat sont désormais répertoriés dans les deux régions. Le maillage des établissements religieux s'est également densifié avec la mise au jour de plusieurs églises paléochrétiennes et la mis...

  14. Management of spent high activity radioactive sources (SHARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this report is to provide all people involved in the handling and management of high activity sources with sufficient information about processes that are required for the safe management of spent high activity radioactive sources (SHARS). This includes examples of spent source management that are already taking place and also a description of the range of appropriate options that are available for each stage in the management process. This report also aims to identify the important issues to be addressed in order to develop a waste management strategy as part of the integrated management strategy that takes account of international experience and the guidance and principles that have been learned from that experience. This report relates specifically to SHARS, which are spent sources that have the potential, with short exposures, to produce acute health effects if handled incorrectly. In addition, they may also incur significant economic costs in any retrieval or environmental remediation operation, following loss of or damage to such a source. The report provides guidance on the technical, administrative and economic issues associated with SHARS from the moment they cease to be in use through to disposal, including temporary storage, transport, conditioning and interim storage

  15. Activated polyaniline-based carbon nanoparticles for high performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Tingting; Xing, Wei; Li, Zhaohui; Shen, Honglong; Zhuo, Shuping

    2015-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles have been prepared by disperse polymerization of aniline in the presence of poly(4-styrenesulfonate). The PANI nanoparticles are further subjected to pyrolysis treatment and chemical-activation to prepare the activated nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (APCNs). The porosity, structure and nitrogen-doped surface chemistry are analyzed by a varies of means, such as scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, N 2 sorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The capacitive performance of the APCNs materials are test in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Benefitting from the abundant micropores with short length, large specific surface area, hierarchical porosity and heteroatom-doped polar pore surface, the APCNs materials exhibit v exhibit very high specific capacitance up to 341 F g −1 , remarkable power capability and excellent long-term cyclic stability (96.6% after 10 000 cycles). At 40 A g −1 , APCN-2 carbon shows a capacitance of 164 F g −1 , responding to a high energy and power densities of 5.7 Wh kg −1 and 10 000 W kg −1

  16. Control of high frequency microactuators using active structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreth, P A; Alvi, F S; Reese, B M; Oates, W S

    2015-01-01

    A fluidically driven microactuator that generates supersonic, pulsed microjets has been implemented with smart materials to actively and precisely control the frequency of the microjets in a closed-loop manner. Since this actuator relies on a number of microscale flow and acoustic phenomena to produce the pulsed microjets, its resonant frequency is determined by its geometry and other flow parameters. The design discussed in this paper integrates piezoelectric stacks by connecting them to movable sidewalls within the actuator such that the microactuator's internal geometry can be controlled by varying the voltage across the piezo-stacks. An open-loop control scheme demonstrates the frequency modulation capabilities that are enabled with this design: very large frequency deviations (up to ±500 Hz) around the actuator design frequency are attained at very high rates (up to 1 kHz). Closed-loop control of the microactuator's frequency was also demonstrated, and the results indicate that (combined with appropriate sensors) this actuator could be used effectively for active, feedback control in high-speed, resonance-dominated flowfields. This proof of concept study clearly illustrates the ability of this robust and compact actuator to produce perturbations that can be modulated and controlled based on the desired control objective. (paper)

  17. Development of High Performance CFRP/Metal Active Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Hiroshi; Haga, Osamu; Imori, Masataka

    This paper describes development of high performance CFRP/metal active laminates mainly by investigating the kind and thickness of the metal. Various types of the laminates were made by hot-pressing of an aluminum, aluminum alloys, a stainless steel and a titanium for the metal layer as a high CTE material, a unidirectional CFRP prepreg as a low CTE/electric resistance heating material, a unidirectional KFRP prepreg as a low CTE/insulating material. The aluminum and its alloy type laminates have almost the same and the highest room temperature curvatures and they linearly change with increasing temperature up to their fabrication temperature. The curvature of the stainless steel type jumps from one to another around its fabrication temperature, whereas the titanium type causes a double curvature and its change becomes complicated. The output force of the stainless steel type attains the highest of the three under the same thickness. The aluminum type successfully increased its output force by increasing its thickness and using its alloys. The electric resistance of the CFRP layer can be used to monitor the temperature, that is, the curvature of the active laminate because the curvature is a function of temperature.

  18. High Income Inequality as a Structural Factor in Entrepreneurial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lecuna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Statistical tests on a panel of data from 54 countries over the 2004–2009 period support the proposition that high income inequality and entrepreneurial activity share a positive linear relationship. In a novel approach, the dependent variable is defined from two independent and uncorrelated perspectives: (1 the World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Snapshot, which measures new business entry density based on secondary official sources; and (2 the Total Early Stage Entrepreneurial Activity of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project, which is a survey-based measure of formal and informal entrepreneurial participation rates. The empirical strategy is based on the logic that economies with increasing concentrations of wealth tend to encourage entrepreneurial activity because entrepreneurs accumulate more income than workers. Following the disequalizing model, once this inequality appears, it is reinforced in successive generations. The intuition behind this outcome is that a certain level of initial capital is required to establish a new enterprise, which implies that the probability of becoming an entrepreneur increases if an individual has inherited wealth.

  19. Stressful life events, perceived stress, and 12-month course of geriatric depression: direct effects and moderation by the 5-HTTLPR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannas, Anthony S; McQuoid, Douglas R; Steffens, David C; Chrousos, George P; Taylor, Warren D

    2012-07-01

    Although the relation between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk of major depressive disorder is well established, important questions remain about the effects of stress on the course of geriatric depression. Our objectives were (1) to examine how baseline stress and change in stress is associated with course of geriatric depression and (2) to test whether polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met) genes moderate this relation. Two-hundred and sixteen depressed subjects aged 60 years or older were categorized by remission status (Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale≤6) at 6 and 12 months. At 6 months, greater baseline numbers of self-reported negative and total SLEs and greater baseline perceived stress severity were associated with lower odds of remission. At 12 months, only baseline perceived stress predicted remission. When we examined change in stress, 12-month decrease in negative SLEs and level of perceived stress were associated with improved odds of 12-month remission. When genotype data were included, COMT Val158Met genotype did not influence these relations. However, when compared with 5-HTTLPR L/L homozygotes, S allele carriers with greater baseline numbers of negative SLEs and with greater decrease in negative SLEs were more likely to remit at 12 months. This study demonstrates that baseline SLEs and perceived stress severity may influence the 12-month course of geriatric depression. Moreover, changes in these stress measures over time correlate with depression outcomes. 5-HTTLPR S carriers appear to be more susceptible to both the effects of enduring stress and the benefit of interval stress reduction.

  20. Production of high-specific activity radionuclides using SM high-flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karelin, Ye.A.; Toporov, Yu.G.; Filimonov, V.T.; Vakhetov, F.Z.; Tarasov, V.A.; Kuznetsov, R.A.; Lebedev, V.M.; Andreev, O.I.; Melnik, M.I.; Gavrilov, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    The development of High Specific Activity (HSA) radionuclides production technologies is one of the directions of RIAR activity, and the high flux research reactor SM, having neutron flux density up to 2.10 15 cm -2 s 1 in a wide range of neutron spectra hardness, plays the principal role in this development. The use of a high-flux reactor for radionuclide production provides the following advantages: production of radionuclides with extremely high specific activity, decreasing of impurities content in irradiated targets (both radioactive and non-radioactive), cost-effective use of expensive isotopically enriched target materials. The production technologies of P-33, Gd-153, W-188, Ni-63, Fe-55,59, Sn-113,117m,119m, Sr- 89, applied in industry, nuclear medicine, research, etc, were developed by RIAR during the last 5-10 years. The research work included the development of calculation procedures for radionuclide reactor accumulation forecast, experimental determination of neutron cross-sections, the development of irradiated materials reprocessing procedures, isolation and purification of radionuclides. The principal results are reviewed in the paper. (authors)

  1. High-frequency TRNS reduces BOLD activity during visuomotor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Saiote

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS consist in the application of electrical current of small intensity through the scalp, able to modulate perceptual and motor learning, probably by changing brain excitability. We investigated the effects of these transcranial electrical stimulation techniques in the early and later stages of visuomotor learning, as well as associated brain activity changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We applied anodal and cathodal tDCS, low-frequency and high-frequency tRNS (lf-tRNS, 0.1-100 Hz; hf-tRNS 101-640 Hz, respectively and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex (M1 during the first 10 minutes of a visuomotor learning paradigm and measured performance changes for 20 minutes after stimulation ceased. Functional imaging scans were acquired throughout the whole experiment. Cathodal tDCS and hf-tRNS showed a tendency to improve and lf-tRNS to hinder early learning during stimulation, an effect that remained for 20 minutes after cessation of stimulation in the late learning phase. Motor learning-related activity decreased in several regions as reported previously, however, there was no significant modulation of brain activity by tDCS. In opposition to this, hf-tRNS was associated with reduced motor task-related-activity bilaterally in the frontal cortex and precuneous, probably due to interaction with ongoing neuronal oscillations. This result highlights the potential of lf-tRNS and hf-tRNS to differentially modulate visuomotor learning and advances our knowledge on neuroplasticity induction approaches combined with functional imaging methods.

  2. Comparison of physical activities of female football players in junior high school and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuri; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare physical activities between junior high school and high school female football players in order to explain the factors that predispose to a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school female football players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine female football players participated. Finger floor distance, the center of pressure during single limb stance with eyes open and closed, the 40-m linear sprint time, hip abduction and extension muscle strength and isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque were measured. The modified Star Excursion Balance Test, the three-steps bounding test and three-steps hopping tests, agility test 1 (Step 50), agility test 2 (Forward run), curl-up test for 30 seconds and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test were performed. [Results] The high school group was only significantly faster than the junior high school group in the 40-m linear sprint time and in the agility tests. The distance of the bounding test in the high school group was longer than that in the junior high school group. [Conclusion] Agility and speed increase with growth; however, muscle strength and balance do not develop alongside. This unbalanced development may cause a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school football players.

  3. Designing messages with high sensation value: when activation meets reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Based on two theoretical models--activation model of information exposure and psychological reactance theory--this study examined the individual and combined effects of message sensation value (MSV) and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-drunken driving and anti-smoking public service announcements were conducted that were conceptual replications of one another. The measures included perceived threat to freedom, sensation seeking, perceived ad effectiveness and state reactance (anger). Across the two studies, MSV was found to advance the perceived ad effectiveness, and controlling language contributed to anger. A consistent interaction was revealed, such that participants responded positively to the high sensation value messages when presented with low controlling language. The effect of high sensation value anti-smoking ads to advance persuasiveness particularly under the condition of low controlling language was more influential to low sensation seekers. This study suggests that increasing MSV coupled with high controlling language can backfire, especially when targeting young adults. The implications for persuasion in general are considered, as well as the specific findings for drunken driving and smoking.

  4. VTEC behavior in the American sector during high solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Ezquer, R G; Brunini, C; Conicet; Meza, A; Mosert, M; Radicella, S M

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) obtained from GPS signals received during the high solar activity year 1999 at stations placed in the American sector, is reported. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4 to -64.7 and the longitude ranges from 281.3 to 297.7. Median, lower and upper quartiles are used to specify variability, because they have the advantage of being less affected by large deviations that can occur during magnetic storms. The results show that the VTEC values corresponding to equinox are greater than those of solstice and that, the highest VTEC values are observed at low latitude stations. In general, the variability during daylight hours is about 30% of median or less, and that observed for nighttime hours is greater than the mentioned percentage, particularly at last hours of the night near the northern peak of the equatorial anomaly.

  5. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiki Nagaharu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment.

  6. VTEC behavior in the American sector during high solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezquer, R.G.; Brunini, C.; Meza, A.; Azpilicueta, F.; Mosert, M.; Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) obtained from GPS signals received during the high solar activity year 1999 at stations placed in the American sector, is reported. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4 to -64.7 and the longitude ranges from 281.3 to 297.7. Median, lower and upper quartiles are used to specify variability, because they have the advantage of being less affected by large deviations that can occur during magnetic storms. The results show that the VTEC values corresponding to equinox are greater than those of solstice and that, the highest VTEC values are observed at low latitude stations. In general, the variability during daylight hours is about 30% of median or less, and that observed for nighttime hours is greater than the mentioned percentage, particularly at last hours of the night near the northern peak of the equatorial anomaly. (author)

  7. Active optics: off axis aspherics generation for high contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, E.; Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Vives, S.; Moindrot, S.; El Hadi, K.; Dohlen, K.

    2017-11-01

    Active Optics methods, based on elasticity theory, allow the aspherisation of optical surfaces by stress polishing but also active aspherisation in situ. Researches in this field will impact the final performance and the final cost of any telescope or instrument. The stress polishing method is well suited for the superpolishing of aspheric components for astronomy. Its principle relies on spherical polishing with a full-sized tool of a warped substrate, which becomes aspherical once unwarped. The main advantage of this technique is the very high optical quality obtained either on form or on high spatial frequency errors. Furthermore, the roughness can be decreased down to a few angstroms, thanks the classical polishing with a large pitch tool, providing a substantial gain on the final scientific performance, for instance on the contrast on coronagraphic images, but also on the polishing time and cost. Stress polishing is based on elasticity theory, and requires an optimised deformation system able to provide the right aspherical form on the optical surface during polishing. The optical quality of the deformation is validated using extensive Finite Element Analysis, allowing an estimation of residuals and an optimisation of the warping harness. We describe here the work realised on stress polishing of toric mirrors for VLT-SPHERE and then our actual work on off axis aspherics (OAA) for the ASPIICS-Proba3 mission for solar coronagraphy. The ASPIICS optical design made by Vives et al is a three mirrors anastigmat including a concave off axis hyperboloid and a convex off axis parabola (OAP). We are developing a prototype in order to demonstrate the feasibility of this type of surface, using a multi-mode warping harness (Lemaitre et al). Furthermore, we present our work on variable OAP, meaning the possibility to adjust the shape of a simple OAP in situ with a minimal number of actuators, typically one actuator per optical mode (Focus, Coma and Astigmatism

  8. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  9. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-05-09

    The structure and chemical ordering of PtAu nanoclusters of 79, 135, and 201 atoms are studied via a combination of a basin hopping atom-exchange technique (to locate the lowest energy homotops at fixed composition), a symmetry orbit technique (to find the high symmetry isomers), and density functional theory local reoptimization (for determining the most stable homotop). The interatomic interactions between Pt and Au are derived from the empirical Gupta potential. The lowest energy structures show a marked tendency toward PtcoreAushell chemical ordering by enrichment of the more cohesive Pt in the core region and of Au in the shell region. We observe a preferential segregation of Pt atoms to (111) facets and Au atoms to (100) facets of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. High matrix metalloproteinase activity is a hallmark of periapical granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; D'Silva, Nisha J; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Kapila, Yvonne Lorraine

    2009-09-01

    The inability to distinguish periapical cysts from granulomas before performing root canal treatment leads to uncertainty in treatment outcomes because cysts have lower healing rates. Searching for differential expression of molecules within cysts or granulomas could provide information with regard to the identity of the lesion or suggest mechanistic differences that may form the basis for future therapeutic intervention. Thus, we investigated whether granulomas and cysts exhibit differential expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Human periapical granulomas, periapical cysts, and healthy periodontal ligament tissues were used to investigate the differential expression of ECM molecules by microarray analysis. Because matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) showed the highest differential expression in the microarray analysis, MMPs were further examined by in situ zymography and immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test. We observed that cysts and granulomas differentially expressed several ECM molecules, especially those from the MMP family. Compared with cysts, granulomas exhibited higher MMP enzymatic activity in areas stained for MMP-9. These areas were composed of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in contrast to cysts. Similarly, MMP-13 was expressed by a greater number of cells in granulomas compared with cysts. Our findings indicate that high enzymatic MMP activity in PMNs together with MMP-9 and MMP-13 stained cells could be a molecular signature of granulomas unlike periapical cysts.

  11. The safety of high activity long life nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    The article concerns the deep geological storage for managing high activity long life nuclear waste. He puts forward a context giving a structure to the discussions of those involved concerning an assessment of the safety of a deep geological deposit project. Three main aspects are put forward. The risks for future generations and the time scales to be considered: briefly, the deposit needs to satisfy two functions for protecting man and the environment, namely firstly isolating high activity radionuclides from the biosphere during the time required for their radioactive decay (about ten thousands years), and secondly delay and dilute long life radionuclides without any a priori time limit so as to reduce their effects in the biosphere to extremely low levels. The risks are linked to possible failures of the containment barriers whose causes need to be analysed and be provided against by suitable provisions concerning their design. The definition of these design provisions requires an in depth examination of uncertain elements. The main causes of uncertainty are listed according to the scale of time in question, that is O-10,000 years, 10,000-100,000 years and beyond 100,000 years, stressing the importance of selecting a stable geological site and more generally a solid concept that is not very sensitive in uncertainties. Beyond 100,000 years the extent of uncertainties no longer makes it possible to make realistic predictions. It is thus necessary to consider the alternative scenarios concerning geological and climatic changes and the corresponding increasing risks of radionuclides. The risks in question may be relativized by realizing that on this time scale, the residual activities of soluble and insoluble alpha and beta emitters are comparable to those of a storage centre located on the surface at the end of the monitoring period. Finally, the article considers the approach put forward concerning the safety of a deep geological storage advocated by the French

  12. Doped titanium dioxide nanocrystalline powders with high photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.L.; Nunes, M.R.; Carvalho, M.D.; Ferreira, L.P.; Jumas, J.-C.; Costa, F.M.; Florencio, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO 2 ; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route preceded by a precipitation doping step. Structural and morphological characterizations were performed by powder XRD and TEM. Thermodynamic stability studies allowed to conclude that the anatase structure is highly stable for all doped TiO 2 prepared compounds. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized nanopowders was tested and the results showed an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO 2 and Nb:TiO 2 , whereas no photocatalytic activity was detected for the Fe:TiO 2 and Co:TiO 2 nanopowders. These results were correlated to the doping ions oxidation states, determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization data. - Graphical abstract: Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO 2 ; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with highly stable anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route. The photocatalytic efficiencies of the synthesized nanopowders were tested and the results show an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO 2 and Nb:TiO 2 .

  13. High salt intake enhances swim stress-induced PVN vasopressin cell activation and active stress coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N C; Gilman, T L; Daws, L C; Toney, G M

    2018-07-01

    Stress contributes to many psychiatric disorders; however, responsivity to stressors can vary depending on previous or current stress exposure. Relatively innocuous heterotypic (differing in type) stressors can summate to result in exaggerated neuronal and behavioral responses. Here we investigated the ability of prior high dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake, a dehydrating osmotic stressor, to enhance neuronal and behavioral responses of mice to an acute psychogenic swim stress (SS). Further, we evaluated the contribution of the osmo-regulatory stress-related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (VP) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), one of only a few brain regions that synthesize VP. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high dietary salt intake on responsivity to heterotypic stress and the potential contribution of VPergic-mediated neuronal activity on high salt-induced stress modulation, thereby providing insight into how dietary (homeostatic) and environmental (psychogenic) stressors might interact to facilitate psychiatric disorder vulnerability. Salt loading (SL) with 4% saline for 7 days was used to dehydrate and osmotically stress mice prior to exposure to an acute SS. Fluid intake and hematological measurements were taken to quantify osmotic dehydration, and serum corticosterone levels were measured to index stress axis activation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to stain for the immediate early gene product c-Fos to quantify effects of SL on SS-induced activation of neurons in the PVN and extended amygdala - brain regions that are synaptically connected and implicated in responding to osmotic stress and in modulation of SS behavior, respectively. Lastly, the role of VPergic PVN neurons and VP type 1 receptor (V1R) activity in the amygdala in mediating effects of SL on SS behavior was evaluated by quantifying c-Fos activation of VPergic PVN neurons and, in functional experiments, by nano-injecting the V1R selective

  14. Optimization of CMOS active pixels for high resolution digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soo

    2007-02-01

    CMOS image sensors have poorer performance compared to conventional charge coupled devices (CCDs). Since CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) in general have higher temporal noise, higher dark current, smaller full well charge capacitance, and lower spectral response, they cannot provide the same wide dynamic range and superior signal-to-noise ratio as CCDs. In view of electronic noise, the main source for the CMOS APS is the pixel, along with other signal processing blocks such as row and column decoder, analog signal processor (ASP), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and timing and control logic circuitry. Therefore, it is important and necessary to characterize noise of the active pixels in CMOS APSs. We developed our theoretical noise model to account for the temporal noise in active pixels, and then found out the optimum design parameters such as fill actor, each size of the three transistors (source follower, row selection transistor, bias transistor) comprising active pixels, bias current, and load capacitance that can have the maximum signal-to-noise ratio. To develop the theoretical noise model in active pixels, we considered the integration noise of the photodiode and the readout noise of the transistors related to readout. During integration, the shot noise due to the dark current and photocurrent, during readout, the thermal and flicker noise were considered. The developed model can take the input variables such as photocurrent, capacitance of the photodiode, integration time, transconductance of the transistors, channel resistance of the transistors, gate-to-source capacitance of the follower, and load capacitance etc. To validate our noise model, two types of test structures have been realized. Firstly, four types of photodiodes (n_d_i_f_f_u_s_i_o_n/p_s_u_b_s_t_r_a_t_e, n_w_e_l_l/p_s_u_b_s_t_r_a_t_e, n_d_i_f_f_u_s_i_o_n/p_e_p_i_t_a_x_i_a_l/p_s_u_b_s_t_r_a_t_e, n_w_e_l_l/p_e_p_i_t_a_x_i_a_l/p_s_u_b_s_t_r_a_t_e) used in CMOS active pixels were fabricated

  15. Highly sensitive assay for tyrosine hydroxylase activity by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, T; Oka, K; Kato, T

    1979-07-21

    A highly sensitive assay for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with amperometric detection was devised based on the rapid isolation of enzymatically formed DOPA by a double-column procedure, the columns fitted together sequentially (the top column of Amberlite CG-50 and the bottom column of aluminium oxide). DOPA was adsorbed on the second aluminium oxide column, then eluted with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid, and assayed by HPLC with amperometric detection. D-Tyrosine was used for the control. alpha-Methyldopa was added to the incubation mixture as an internal standard after incubation. This assay was more sensitive than radioassays and 5 pmol of DOPA formed enzymatically could be measured in the presence of saturating concentrations of tyrosine and 6-methyltetrahydropterin. The TH activity in 2 mg of human putamen could be easily measured, and this method was found to be particularly suitable for the assay of TH activity in a small number of nuclei from animal and human brain.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of high pure uranium using preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikov, I.I.; Rakhimov, A.V.; Salimov, M.I.; Zinov'ev, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Uranium and its compounds are used as nuclear fuel, and requirements for purity of initial uranium are very high. Therefore highly sensitive and multielemental analysis of uranium is required. One of such methods is neutron activation analysis (NAA). During irradiation of uranium by nuclear reactor neutrons the induced radioactivity of a sample is formed by uranium radionuclide 239 U (T 1/2 = 23,4 min.) and its daughter radionuclide 239 Np (T 1/2 = 2,39 d). Short-lived 239 U almost completely decays in 24 hours after irradiation and the radioactivity of the sample is mainly due to 239 Np and is more than 10 9 Bq for 0.1 g of uranium sample (F = 1*10 14 cm -2 s -1 , t irr . = 5 h). That is why nondestructive determination of the impurities is impossible and they should be separated from 239 Np. When irradiated uranium yields fission products - radionuclides of some elements with mass numbers 91-104 and 131-144. The main problem in NAA of uranium is to take into account correctly the influence of fission products on the analysis results. We have developed a radiochemical separation procedure for RNAA of uranium [1]. Comparing the results of analysis carried out by radiochemical NAA and instrumental NAA with preconcentration of trace elements can be used for evaluating the interference of fission products on uranium analysis results. Preconcentration of trace elements have been carried out by extraction chromatography in 'TBP - 6M HNO 3 ' system [1]. Experiments have shown that if 0.1 g uranium sample is taken for analysis (F = 1*10 14 cm -2 s -1 , t irr . =5 h) the apparent concentration of Y, Zr, Mo, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd exceeds the true concentration by 2500-3000 times and so determination of these elements is not possible by radiochemical NAA. (author)

  17. Ordem e Progresso: Augusto Comte e as influências do Positivismo na educação das mulheres na Primeira República brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loraine Lopes de Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar uma reflexão acerca da influência do Positivismo na educação das mulheres no contexto da Primeira República brasileira (1889-1930, também chamada de República Velha. Faz-se uma breve abordagem inicial a respeito de Augusto Comte e o surgimento da filosofia positivista e posteriormente se discorre sobre a influência do Positivismo na educação das mulheres, a qual era vista como um elemento chave para a concretização da nova sociedade que se projetava, para o progresso e a modernização. A pesquisa tem caráter bibliográfico e fundamenta-se nos pressupostos teóricos do materialismo histórico-dialético, que busca compreender os fenômenos sociais e históricos a partir da existência material dos homens. A discussão prioriza a relação da educação com os fatores econômicos, políticos e sociais, já que se compreende que o objeto de pesquisa não pode ser entendido como uma situação isolada de seu contexto histórico. Palavras-chave: Positivismo. Primeira República Brasileira. Educação das mulheres.   Order and Progress: Augusto Comte and the influences of Positivism in the education of women in the First Brazilian Republic ABSTRACT The present article aims to present a reflection on the influence of positivism in the education of women in the context of the First Brazilian Republic (1889-1930, also called the Old Republic. A brief initial approach is given to Augusto Comte and the emergence of the positivist philosophy and later it talks about the influence of positivism in the education of women, a qualitative perspective as a key element for a concretization of the new society which was projected, for progress and modernization. The research has a bibliographic character and is based on the theoretical assumptions of historical-dialectical materialism, which seeks social and historical phenomena from the material reality of men. The discussion prioritizes the relationship

  18. Highly active vitrification plant remote handling operational experience and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgate, I.

    1996-01-01

    All the main process plant and equipment at the Sellafield Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP) is enclosed in heavily shielded concrete walled cells. There is a large quantity of relatively complex plant and equipment which must be remotely operated, maintained or replaced in-cell in a severe environment. The WVP has five in-cell polar cranes which are of modular construction to aid replacement of failed components. Each can be withdrawn into a shielded cell extension for decontamination and hands-on maintenance. The cells have a total of 80 through wall tube positions to receive Master Slave Manipulators (MSMs). The MSMs are used where possible for ''pick and place'' purposes but are often called upon to position substantial pieces of mechanical equipment and thus are subject to heavy loading and high failure rates. An inward flow of air is maintained in the active cells. The discharged air passes through a filter cell where remote damper operation filter changing and maintenance is carried out by means of a PAR3000 manipulator. A Nuclear Engineered Advanced Teleoperated Robot (Neater) swabs the vitrified product container to ensure cleanliness before storage. There is a significant arising of solid radioactive waste from replaced in-cell items which undergoes sorting and size reduction in a breakdown cell equipped with a large reciprocating saw and a hydraulic shear. Improvements to the remote handling facilities made in the light of operational experience are described. (UK)

  19. Lead corrosion evaluation in high activity nuclear waste container (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, R.; Lanzani, L.; Bruzzoni, P.; Cufre, W.; Semino, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a study of high activity nuclear waste canister corrosion in a deep geological disposal. In this canister design, the vitrified nuclear waste stainless steel container is shielded by a 100 mm thick lead wall. For mechanical resistance, the canister will also have a thin carbon steel external liner. Experimental and mathematical modeling studies are aimed to asses the corrosion kinetics of the carbon steel liner in first instance and then, once this liner has been corroded away, the corrosion kinetics of the main lead barrier. Being that oxygen reduction is the main cathodic reaction that supports the anodic oxidation of iron, a model is described predicting the rate of oxygen consumption in a sealed deep nuclear waste disposal vault as a result of the canister corrosion. Oxidation processes other than container corrosion, and that can account also for oxygen depletion, are not taken into consideration. Corrosion experimental studies on lead and its alloys in groundwater are also reported. These experiments are aimed to improve the corrosion resistance of commercial lead in groundwater. (author)

  20. ''Cold crucible'' vitrification projects for low and high active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.; Jouan, A.

    1998-01-01

    In continuity of the CEA HLW vitrification process experienced for more than 20 years in industrial operations in Cogema reprocessing plants (Marcoule and La Hague), CEA has developed an advanced extended performance cold crucible glass melter to address a wider range of waste like LLW, ILW and in particular waste with very corrosive species or requiring glass with higher elaboration temperature. In the cold crucible melter the bath of molten glass is directly heated by induction while the walls are cooled in order to freeze a protective glass layer. This technology subsequently allows high glass throughput while keeping the flexibility, the maintainability and low secondary waste generation related to a small metallic melter. Its recent use in the glass industry and the thousands of hours of pilot tests performed on inactive surrogates have demonstrated the maturity of this technology and its flexibility of use for processing most of the waste generated at nuclear facilities. SGN has therefore proposed this technology in Italy and Korea and in USA in the frame of the Hanford Privatization phase 1 A feasibility study. Main features of this study but also tests results with Hanford surrogates and active samples are discussed. (author)

  1. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active

  2. Business trends report 2006. High oil prices ensure high activity level; What are the challenges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The first in a series of annual business trends reports which The Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) has decided to publish. The report highlights features in the development of the global economy and the energy markets, and presents an analysis of the level of activity on the Norwegian Shelf through to 2010. It also gives a status report and outlines the challenges that lie within three important areas for the oil industry: the relationship with the external environment, health, safety and working environment, and personnel and competence requirements within the industry. The main message contained in the report is summarised as follows: 'While prospects for the immediate future look good, we foresee a lack of new, important and technically challenging projects in the longer term. Discoveries made on the Norwegian Shelf during recent years have been small. Exploration activity must be intensified and its results must be improved. The most important and effective stimulus in this connection is new prospective exploration acreage. The Comprehensive Management Plan for Lofoten and the Barents Sea will be revised in 2010. By that time the knowledge gaps in the plan have to be filled so that the decision-making basis is as good as possible. Even though the level of activity looks as if it will continue to be high in the medium term, we have no time to lose.' Environmental status and challenges are briefly reviewed, as well as the industry's future recruitment challenges (author) (ml)

  3. Highly Selective Synthesis of Catalytically Active Monodisperse Rhodium Nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Grass, M.E.; Kuhn, J.N.; Tao, F.; Habas, S.E.; Huang, W.; Yang, P.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-02-21

    Synthesis of monodisperse and shape-controlled colloidal inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) is of increasing scientific interest and technological significance. Recently, shape control of Pt, Pd, Ag, Au, and Rh NCs has been obtained by tuning growth kinetics in various solution-phase approaches, including modified polyol methods, seeded growth by polyol reduction, thermolysis of organometallics, and micelle techniques. Control of reduction kinetics of the noble metal precursors and regulation of the relative growth rates of low-index planes (i.e. {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace}) via selective adsorption of selected chemical species are two keys for achieving shape modification of noble metal NCs. One application for noble metal NCs of well-defined shape is in understanding how NC faceting (determines which crystallographic planes are exposed) affects catalytic performance. Rh NCs are used in many catalytic reactions, including hydrogenation, hydroformylation, hydrocarbonylation, and combustion reactions. Shape manipulation of Rh NCs may be important in understanding how faceting on the nanoscale affects catalytic properties, but such control is challenging and there are fewer reports on the shape control of Rh NCs compared to other noble metals. Xia and coworkers obtained Rh multipods exhibiting interesting surface plasmonic properties by a polyol approach. The Somorjai and Tilley groups synthesized crystalline Rh multipods, cubes, horns and cuboctahedra, via polyol seeded growth. Son and colleagues prepared catalytically active monodisperse oleylamine-capped tetrahedral Rh NCs for the hydrogenation of arenes via an organometallic route. More recently, the Somorjai group synthesized sizetunable monodisperse Rh NCs using a one-step polyol technique. In this Communication, we report the highly selective synthesis of catalytically active, monodisperse Rh nanocubes of < 10 nm by a seedless polyol method. In this approach, Br{sup -} ions from trimethyl

  4. High accuracy laboratory spectroscopy to support active greenhouse gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D. A.; Bielska, K.; Cygan, A.; Havey, D. K.; Okumura, M.; Miller, C. E.; Lisak, D.; Hodges, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Recent carbon dioxide (CO2) remote sensing missions have set precision targets as demanding as 0.25% (1 ppm) in order to elucidate carbon sources and sinks [1]. These ambitious measurement targets will require the most precise body of spectroscopic reference data ever assembled. Active sensing missions will be especially susceptible to subtle line shape effects as the narrow bandwidth of these measurements will greatly limit the number of spectral transitions which are employed in retrievals. In order to assist these remote sensing missions we have employed frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FS-CRDS) [2], a high-resolution, ultrasensitive laboratory technique, to measure precise line shape parameters for transitions of O2, CO2, and other atmospherically-relevant species within the near-infrared. These measurements have led to new HITRAN-style line lists for both 16O2 [3] and rare isotopologue [4] transitions in the A-band. In addition, we have performed detailed line shape studies of CO2 transitions near 1.6 μm under a variety of broadening conditions [5]. We will address recent measurements in these bands as well as highlight recent instrumental improvements to the FS-CRDS spectrometer. These improvements include the use of the Pound-Drever-Hall locking scheme, a high bandwidth servo which enables measurements to be made at rates greater than 10 kHz [6]. In addition, an optical frequency comb will be utilized as a frequency reference, which should allow for transition frequencies to be measured with uncertainties below 10 kHz (3×10-7 cm-1). [1] C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, et al., J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007). [2] J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, G. E. Scace, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849-863 (2004). [3] D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021-2036 (2010). [4] D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, S. S. Yu, M. Okumura, et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc

  5. High stability and high activity Pd/ITO-CNTs electrocatalyst for direct formic acid fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Wei-Li; Gu, Da-Ming; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Zhang, Jing-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The addition of ITO in Pd/CNTs catalyst significantly improves the activity and stability of catalyst for formic acid electrooxidation due to excellent stability and high electrical conductivity of ITO, and metal-support interaction between Pd nanoparticles and ITO. - Highlights: • Pd catalyst with ITO and CNTs as a mixture support for DFAFC was first prepared by microwave-assisted polyol process. • The activity and stability of Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst is significantly higher than those of Pd/CNTs. • When ITO content is 50% of ITO/CNTs support mass, Pd/ITO-CNTs exhibits the best performance. - Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) and carbon nanotube hybrid has been explored as a support for Pd catalyst. Pd/ITO-CNTs catalysts with different ITO contents were prepared by the microwave-assisted polyol process. The as-prepared Pd/ITO-CNTs catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and electrochemical measurements in this work. The TEM results show that Pd particle size distribution in the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst is more uniform than that in Pd/CNTs, indicating that the ITO can promote the dispersion of Pd nanoparticles. It is found that there is metal-support interaction between Pd nanoparticles and ITO in the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst through XPS test. The results of electrochemical tests prove that the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalysts exhibit higher electro-catalytic activity and stability than Pd/CNTs toward formic acid electrooxidation. When the ITO content is 50% of ITO-CNTs support mass, the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst has the best catalytic performance for formic acid electrooxidation. The peak current density of formic acid electrooxidation on the Pd/ITO-CNTs50% electrode is 1.53 times as high as that on Pd/CNTs, 2.31 times higher than that on Pd/ITO. The results of aging

  6. Assessing High School Student Learning on Science Outreach Lab Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Courtney L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of hands-on laboratory activities on secondary student learning was examined. Assessment was conducted over a two-year period, with 262 students participating the first year and 264 students the second year. Students took a prequiz, performed a laboratory activity (gas chromatography of alcohols, or photosynthesis and respiration), and…

  7. Variety, Enjoyment, and Physical Activity Participation Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon L; Coffield, Edward; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-02-01

    Federal guidelines state that youth should participate in a variety of physical activity (PA) they find enjoyable. Little is known, however, about how variety and enjoyment are associated with PA participation among adolescents. Data came from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative survey of adolescents. Path analysis was used to examine the association of a variety of self-reported PA, defined as the number of activities and activity types (ie, team sports/weightlifting, individual activities, and other competitive/recreational sports), on self-reported PA enjoyment and participation. The analysis also examined whether enjoyment mediates the association between a variety of PA and participation. Separate models were estimated for boys and girls. Number of activities was associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. For boys and girls, team sports/weightlifting was associated with increased participation, and individual activities were indirectly associated with increased participation through enjoyment. For boys, team sports/weightlifting was indirectly related with participation. These findings suggest that participation in a variety of PA is associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. Providing opportunities for adolescents to engage in a variety of activities might help them identify PA they enjoy and facilitate lifelong PA habits.

  8. High Levels of Phytophenolics and Antioxidant Activities in Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate phenolic levels, phytophenolic profiles and total antioxidant activities of Oryza sativa, unpolished Thai rice. Methods: Unpolished Thai rice strains of Leum Phua, Klam, Hawm Nil and Black Rose were measured for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ...

  9. Preparation of activated carbon from western Canadian high rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, G.; Wong, B.; Furimsky, E. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada). Coal and Hydrocarbon Processing Dept.

    1995-01-01

    Partial steam gasification of Mt. Klappan anthracite and Cascade semianthracite with char conversion greater than 60%, produced activated carbons with surface areas greater than 1000 m{sup 2}/g. The pore structures of the activated carbons were predominantly microporous and mesoporous. The proportions of macropores were of the order of 2%. Fuel gas produced during steam activation of chars contained predominantly combustible gases i.e. 45-55% H{sub 2} and 30-40% CO whereas the amount of CO{sub 2} ranged between 5 and 15%. Correlations of char conversion with operating parameters and surface areas were developed and used to predict the activation process. Selected samples of activated carbons were characterized for the water and wastewater treatment as well as for gold recovery. 7 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Active Control of High-Speed Free Jets Using High-Frequency Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Puja

    Control of aerodynamic noise generated by high-performance jet engines continues to remain a serious problem for the aviation community. Intense low frequency noise produced by large-scale coherent structures is known to dominate acoustic radiation in the aft angles. A tremendous amount of research effort has been dedicated towards the investigation of many passive and active flow control strategies to attenuate jet noise, while keeping performance penalties to a minimum. Unsteady excitation, an active control technique, seeks to modify acoustic sources in the jet by leveraging the naturally-occurring flow instabilities in the shear layer. While excitation at a lower range of frequencies that scale with the dynamics of large-scale structures, has been attempted by a number of studies, effects at higher excitation frequencies remain severely unexplored. One of the major limitations stems from the lack of appropriate flow control devices that have sufficient dynamic response and/or control authority to be useful in turbulent flows, especially at higher speeds. To this end, the current study seeks to fulfill two main objectives. First, the design and characterization of two high-frequency fluidic actuators (25 and 60 kHz) are undertaken, where the target frequencies are guided by the dynamics of high-speed free jets. Second, the influence of high-frequency forcing on the aeroacoustics of high-speed jets is explored in some detail by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuator on a Mach 0.9 (Re D = 5 x 105) free jet flow field. Subsequently, these findings are directly compared to the results of steady microjet injection experiments performed in the same rig and to prior jet noise control studies, where available. Finally, limited acoustic measurements were also performed by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuators on jets at higher Mach numbers, including shock containing jets, and elevated temperatures. Using lumped element modeling as an initial guide, the current

  11. Neutron activation analysis of high purity silver using high resolution gamma-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.N.; Veriovkin, G.V.; Botchkaryov, B.N.; Godovikov, A.A.; Zhavoronkov, V.Ya.; Mikhailov, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of neutron activation determination of microimpurities in high purity silver has been developed. For matrix activity separation the extraction of silver by dibuthylsulfide /DBS/ was employed. The purification coefficient was 10 8 after triple extraction. To study the behaviour of microimpurities in the extraction procedure and to determine their chemical yields some tracer experiments were undertaken with radionuclides of Na, Se, Fe, Co, Cu, As, Sc, Te, Zr, Hf, Mo, W, Cd, In, Sb, La, Ce, Eu, Ta, Re, Ir, Ru. All the elements studied were found to remain in the aqueous phase up to 96-99% after triple extraction with DBS. To estimate the accuracy of the method and to study the mutual influence of the elements in the sample in various relative amounts on the accuracy of the analysis, a number of experiments of ''added-found'' type was performed and the results were treated statistically. In these experiments model mixtures of 30 nuclides were analysed after triple DBS extraction. The t-criterion values for the confidence interval at P=0.95 show the absence of systematic errors. Variation coefficient values do not exceed 15%. Using Ge/Li/ detector it was possible to determine 30 elements simultaneously in silver samples. (T.G.)

  12. Comentario sobre el libro de Enric Saguer Hom, Gabriel Jover Avellà y Helena Benito Mundet (eds.: Comtes de senyor, comtes de pagès. Les comptabilitats agràries en la historia rural. Associació d'Història Rural de les Comarques Gironines. Centre de Recerca Històrica Rural (Institut de Recerca Històrica de la Universitat de Girona i Documenta Universitaria (Biblioteca d'Història Rural, col·lecció Fonts, 7, Girona, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Feliu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Comentario sobre el libro de Enric Saguer Hom, Gabriel Jover Avellà y Helena Benito Mundet (eds.: Comtes de senyor, comtes de pagès. Les comptabilitats agràries en la historia rural. Associació d'Història Rural de les Comarques Gironines. Centre de Recerca Històrica Rural (Institut de Recerca Històrica de la Universitat de Girona i Documenta Universitaria (Biblioteca d'Història Rural, col·lecció Fonts, 7, Girona, 2013

  13. Trunk muscle activation during moderate- and high-intensity running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G; Cappa, Dario; Power, Geoffrey A

    2009-12-01

    Time constraints are cited as a barrier to regular exercise. If particular exercises can achieve multiple training functions, the number of exercises and the time needed to achieve a training goal may be decreased. It was the objective of this study to compare the extent of trunk muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during running and callisthenic activities. EMG activity of the external obliques, lower abdominals (LA), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), and lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES) was monitored while triathletes and active nonrunners ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 60% and 80% of their maximum heart rate (HR) reserve, as well as during 30 repetitions of a partial curl-up and 3 min of a modified Biering-Sørensen back extension exercise. The mean root mean square (RMS) amplitude of the EMG signal was monitored over 10-s periods with measures normalized to a maximum voluntary contraction rotating curl-up (external obliques), hollowing exercise (LA), or back extension (ULES and LSES). A main effect for group was that triathletes had greater overall activation of the external obliques (p runs, respectively, than with the curl-ups (p = 0.001). The back extension exercise provided less ULES (p = 0.009) and LSES (p = 0.0001) EMG activity than the 60% and 80% runs, respectively. In conclusion, triathletes had greater trunk activation than nonrunners did while running, which could have contributed to their better performance. Back-stabilizing muscles can be activated more effectively with running than with a prolonged back extension activity. Running can be considered as an efficient, multifunctional exercise combining cardiovascular and trunk endurance benefits.

  14. Design of Low Cost, Highly Adsorbent Activated Carbon Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mangun, Christian

    2003-01-01

    .... EKOS has developed a novel activated carbon fiber - (ACF) that combines the low cost and durability of GAC with tailored pore size and pore surface chemistry for improved defense against chemical agents...

  15. [Evaluation of the management of soft tissue sarcomas in Franche-Comté since the establishment of a multidisciplinary meeting at University Hospital. About 47 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, J; Kalbacher, E; Piccard, M; Aubry, S; Chaigneau, L; Pauchot, J

    2017-02-01

    A multidisciplinary meeting (RCP) dedicated to the treatment of sarcoma was established in Franche-Comte in 2010. The goals of the study are: (a) To evaluate the treatment of sarcomas by confrontation with the existing literature; (b) To evaluate the influence of the multidisciplinary meeting on the management of sarcomas by hospitals at the regional level. This is a retrospective single center study from 2010 to 2015 on patients with sarcoma and peripheral soft tissue drawn from a Netsarc database (National Network of sarcomas) and communicating cancer record. A database Cleanweb especially dedicated is created. Forty-seven patients were included: ten sarcomas at the upper member 26 to the lower limbs, 11 on the trunk. Forty patients were operated on: ten out of the university hospital, 28 at the university hospital and two in a coordinating center. Ninety percent of patients treated at the university hospital were in accordance with the recommandations. None of the patients operated out of the university hospital benefited from medical care in accordance to the recommendations. There is an increase in the number of files sent by the hospitals out of the university hospital discussed in multidisciplinary meeting, before treatment. The creation of a dedicated multidisciplinary meeting sarcoma improves the medical management of these tumors and decreases inappropriate medical managements thanks to a better education of the regional physicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Llenguatge jurídic i llenguatge poètic: les gosadies del comte-bisbe Miró Bonfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetglas, Pere J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the poetic originality of Miró Bonfill, count of Besalú and bishop of Girona (tenth century, in one of the documents attributed to him: the provision certificate of the church of Sant Pere de Besalú. The analysis of the 27 verses contained in this document shows an evident dependence on poets like Paulinus of Aquileia and Venantius Fortunatus, but it also allows to trace connections with other contemporary and later works. This fact poses new questions on the literary links between Catalonia and Europe in the tenth century.[ct] En aquest treball s’estudia l’originalitat poètica del comte de Besalú i Bisbe de Girona, Miró Bonfill (segle X, en un dels documents que hom li atribueix: l’acta de confirmació de la dotació de l’església de Sant Pere de Besalú. L’anàlisi dels 27 versos identificats en aquest document posen en relleu una clara dependència de Miró Bonfill d’altres poetes com Paulí d’Aquileia o Venanci Fortunat, però també l’existència de relacions amb altres obres, anteriors, contemporànies i posteriors, circumstància que obre nous interrogants sobre les relacions literàries de Catalunya amb Europa al segle X.

  17. No Association of BDNF, COMT, MAOA, SLC6A3, and SLC6A4 Genes and Depressive Symptoms in a Sample of Healthy Colombian Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; Camargo, Andrés; López-León, Sandra; Forero, Diego A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second cause of years lived with disability around the world. A large number of studies have been carried out to identify genetic risk factors for MDD and related endophenotypes, mainly in populations of European and Asian descent, with conflicting results. The main aim of the current study was to analyze the possible association of five candidate genes and depressive symptoms in a Colombian sample of healthy subjects. Methods and Materials. The Spanish adaptation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to one hundred eighty-eight healthy Colombian subjects. Five functional polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-based assays: BDNF-Val66Met (rs6265), COMT-Val158Met (rs4680), SLC6A4-HTTLPR (rs4795541), MAOA-uVNTR, and SLC6A3-VNTR (rs28363170). Result. We did not find significant associations with scores of depressive symptoms, derived from the HADS, for any of the five candidate genes (nominal p values >0.05). In addition, we did not find evidence of significant gene-gene interactions. Conclusion. This work is one of the first studies of candidate genes for depressive symptoms in a Latin American sample. Study of additional genetic and epigenetic variants, taking into account other pathophysiological theories, will help to identify novel candidates for MDD in populations around the world.

  18. Proposed activity - Budget for research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, V.; Camerini, U.; Carlsmith, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper contains task reports on the following topics: Hadron physics at Fermilab; Lepton hadron scattering; Electroweak and weak interactions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Hyperon beam program/hadroproduction of heavy flavors at Fermilab; High energy physics colliding beam detector facility at Fermilab; Data analysis facility; Institute for Elementary Particle Physics research; Study of weak and electromagnetic interactions at Desy and Cern; Theoretical high energy physics; Dumand; and Ultra high energy gamma rays

  19. Professional Identities of Vocational High School Students and Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Bilge Aslan; Altintas, Havva Ozge

    2017-01-01

    Vocational high schools are one of the controversial topics, and also the hardly touched fields in educational field. Students' profiles of vocational schools, their visions, and professional identity developments are not frequently reflected in the literature. Therefore, the main aim of the study is to research whether vocational high school…

  20. Active Snubber Circuit for High Power Inverter Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Johansen, Morten Holst

    2009-01-01

    Abstract— High power converters in the conventional 6 pulse configuration with 6 switching elements IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) are pushed to the limit of power. Especially the switching loss is high. This reduces the switching frequency due to cooling problems. Passive snubber circ...

  1. Research activities on dosimetry for high energy neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The external dosimetry research group of JAERI has been calculating dose conversion coefficients for high-energy radiations using particle transport simulation codes. The group has also been developing radiation dose measurement techniques for high-energy neutrons in collaboration with some university groups. (author)

  2. Preparation of [35S]sulfobromophthalein of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurisu, H.; Nilprabhassorn, P.; Wolkoff, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Study of the hepatocyte transport mechanism of organic anions such as bilirubin and sulfobromophthalein has been limited by the relatively low specific activities of these ligands. [ 3 H]Bilirubin and [ 35 S]sulfobromophthalein have been available with specific activities of only approximately 100 mCi/mmol. We now report a relatively simple procedure to prepare [ 35 S]sulfobromophthalein at a specific activity of approximately 3000 mCi/mmol. This compound is radiochemically pure and serves as a tracer for authentic sulfobromophthalein as judged by chromatography, hepatocyte uptake, metabolism, and biliary excretion. Use of this material as a photoaffinity probe and as a transported ligand may permit dissection and understanding of its transport mechanism

  3. Preparation of tritiated thymidine of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan'kova, E.K.; Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Optimum conditions for the reaction are determined; and conditions for reaction component separation on resins of Dowex-1x8 and APA-8p (HCOO - , elution with ammonium formate) are optimized. It is established that the transition from thymine preparations with the specific activity of 0.15 and 1.5 TBq/mmol to the preparation with the specific activity of 3.25 TBq/mmol brings about the reduction in the desoxyribosylation reaction rate and the decrease in the thymidine yield from 85-90 to 65% [ru

  4. High intensity proton linac activities at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.; Chan, K.C.; Campbell, B.

    1998-01-01

    High-current proton linear accelerators offer an attractive alternative for generating the intense neutron fluxes needed for transmutations technologies, tritium production and neutron science. To achieve the fluxes required for tritium production, a 100-mA, 1700-MeV cw proton accelerator is being designed that uses superconducting cavities for the high-energy portion of the linac, from 211 to 1,700 MeV. The development work supporting the linac design effort is focused on three areas: superconducting cavity performance for medium-beta cavities at 700 MHz, high power rf coupler development, and cryomodule design. An overview of the progress in these three areas is presented

  5. Biodiversity assessment of high rain forest under human activities: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of these species are under protection of International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources [Vulnerable, Endangered, Threatened species]. It is however concluded that all form of developmental operation activity at the Erinle forest have affected these conservation important species, and also transformed the ...

  6. High Tide, Low Tide. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snively, Gloria

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  7. HAART (Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy : An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praful Pande

    2014-01-01

    activation, restoration of lymph node architecture, clinical improvement, prolonged survival, fewer opportunistic infections and HIV - associated malignancies. Problem with therapy are pill burden, non-availability of drugs, food and storage restrictions, drug-drug interactions, severe side-effects, reduction in quality of life measures, emergence of multiple drug resistance mutations.

  8. Physical activity in physiotherapy and physical education high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A term of health-related physical fitness became topical with four its components: aerobic and/or cardiovascular fitness, body composition, abdominal muscle strength and endurance, and lower back and hamstring flexibility. Complex evaluation of health-related physical fitness and physical activity (PA may show a wider insight in health promotion and disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical activity relation to health-related physical fitness in Physiotherapy (PT and Physical Education (PE students. Final study sample consisted of 67 students (46 women and 21 men (aged 21.61 ± 0.71. All participants filled in International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Health-related physical testing included: 1 body composition evaluation, 2 abdominal muscles strength tests, 3 dynamometry, 4 hamstring muscles and m. quadratus lumborum elasticity evaluation tests, 5 bicycle ergometer test (anaerobic threshold, maximal oxygen consumption. Results showed that most students had normal body composition parameters (BMI, body fat, muscle mass, body water in both genders and study programs. Women were less physically active that men, and PA duration was higher in PE students. PT students had higher body composition values, lower cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and lower handgrip strength in both hands than PE students. Greater PA generally implies a higher level of health-related physical fitness. PA significantly positively affects body composition, upper m. rectus abdominisstrength, grip strength and aerobic capacity.

  9. Easy and Rapid Purification of Highly Active Nisin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abts, André; Mavaro, Antonino; Stindt, Jan; Bakkes, Patrick J.; Metzger, Sabine; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Smits, Sander H.J.; Schmitt, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced and secreted by several L. lactis strains and is specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria. In previous studies, nisin was purified via cation exchange chromatography at low pH employing a single-step elution using 1M NaCl. Here, we describe an

  10. High-resolution molecular line observations of active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Graciá-Carpio, J.

    2008-10-01

    The study of the content, distribution and kinematics of interstellar gas is a key to understand the origin and maintenance of both starburst and nuclear (AGN) activity in galaxies. The processes involved in AGN fueling encompass a wide range of scales, both spatial and temporal, which have to be studied. Probing the gas flow from the outer disk down to the central engine of an AGN host, requires the use of specific tracers of the interstellar medium adapted to follow the change of phase of the gas as a function of radius. Current mm-interferometers can provide a sharp view of the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in the circumnuclear disks of galaxies through extensive CO line mapping. As such, CO maps are an essential tool to study AGN feeding mechanisms in the local universe. This is the scientific driver of the NUclei of GAlaxies (NUGA) survey, whose latest results are here reviewed. On the other hand, the use of specific molecular tracers of the dense gas phase can probe the feedback influence of activity on the chemistry and energy balance/redistribution in the interstellar medium of nearby galaxies. Millimeter interferometers are able to unveil the strong chemical differentiation present in the molecular gas disks of nearby starbursts and AGNs. Nearby active galaxies can be used as local templates to address the study of more distant galaxies where both star formation and AGN activity are deeply embedded.

  11. Novel, high-activity hydroprocessing catalysts: Iron group phosphides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianqin

    A series of iron, cobalt and nickel transition metal phosphides was synthesized by means of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) of the corresponding phosphates. The same materials, Fe2P, CoP and NO, were also prepared on a silica (SiO2) support. The phase purity of these catalysts was established by x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the surface properties were determined by N2 BET specific surface area (Sg) measurements and CO chemisorption. The activities of the silica-supported catalysts were tested in a three-phase trickle bed reactor for the simultaneous hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of quinoline and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene using a model liquid feed at realistic conditions (30 atm, 370°C). The reactivity studies showed that the nickel phosphide (Ni2P/SiO2) was the most active of the catalysts. Compared with a commercial Ni-Mo-S/gamma-Al 2O3 catalyst at the same conditions, Ni2P/silica had a substantially higher HDS activity (100% vs. 76%) and HDN activity (82% vs. 38%). Because of their good hydrotreating activity, an extensive study of the preparation of silica supported nickel phosphides, Ni2P/SiO 2, was carried out. The parameters investigated were the phosphorus content and the weight loading of the active phase. The most active composition was found to have a starting synthesis Ni/P ratio close to 1/2, and the best loading of this sample on silica was observed to be 18 wt.%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements were employed to determine the structures of the supported samples. The main phase before and after reaction was found to be Ni2P, but some sulfur was found to be retained after reaction. A comprehensive scrutiny of the HDN reaction mechanism was also made over the Ni2P/SiO2 sample (Ni/P = 1/2) by comparing the HDN activity of a series of piperidine derivatives of different structure. It was found that piperidine adsorption involved an alpha-H activation

  12. High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Andrew C.

    This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter

  13. Activities promoting the achievement of high nuclear fuel performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naev, I.; Tomov, A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation begins with brief general information about Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant and organization activities about fresh fuel delivery assurance. The TVSA implementation, fuel cycle, fresh fuel standard entrance inspection and additional fresh fuel inspection are briefly described. Activities concerning core refueling, radiochemistry analysis, control rods drop time, measurement of the distance between the reactor flange and PTU flange, specific items for core unloading and a comparison between the two variants for operations scope with full and without full core unloading are presented. The core unloading - results and next steps, final core design (Unit 6, 2010), preparing for core loading (Unit 6, 2010) , core loading (Unit 6, 2010), after loading core inspection (Unit 6, 2010), core inspection, reactor assembling (Unit 6, 2010), fuel control during reactor startup, fuel control during operation period and fuel assembly data base are also discussed

  14. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed

  15. An active radon sampling device for high humidity places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Alegria, N.; Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    An active radon measurement device has been developed to be used in workplaces with a relative humidity of 100% for spot measurements of radon concentration. A mathematical model based on the convective-diffusive transport equation is used in the design of this system, which has been used to measure the radon concentration in the Pozalagua cave (Biscay, at Northern of Spain). From the obtained radon values the public and workers doses have been obtained.

  16. Activity-based Sustainability Assessment of Highly Automated Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rödger, Jan-Markus; Bey, Niki; Alting, Leo

    Sustainability of technology is a multifaceted endeavor and a main requirement from industry is to make it a profitable business case with clearly defined targets. To achieve that, a new assessment framework and applicable method [1] is presented which has been developed closely with industry. It.......g. “transportation”) down to smallest production units by using activity-based target setting in a consistent way to lowers risks in the planning phase of products and production....

  17. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, E.P.

    1990-05-01

    This program, which has been supported for twenty-four years by the Us Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, has produced significant advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of chemical activation by nuclear processes; the stereochemistry of radioactivity for solution of specific problems. This program was contributed to the training of approximately seventy scientists at various levels. This final report includes a review of the areas of research and chronological tabulation of the publications

  18. Lipolytic activity in high temperature germinating Almond seedlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bahri

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... Felipe A (1981). Germination accelérée d'amandes au moyen de l'acide gibbérellique. Cahier Options Méditerranéennes I:139-140. Hirayama O, Matsuda H (1972). An improved method for determining lipolytic acylhydrolases activity. Agric. Biol. Chem. 36(10):1831-. 1833. Garcia-Olmedo R, Marca-Garcia ...

  19. IAEA Activities in Nuclear High Temperature Heat for Industrial Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    IAEA activities to support Member States: Information Exchange; Modelling and Simulations; Development of Methodologies; Safety; Technology Support; Education and Training; Knowledge Preservation. Assist MSs with national nuclear programmes; Support innovations in nuclear power deployment; Facilitate and assist international R&D collaborations. Interest in HTGR technology • The IAEA activities in the area of HTGR are guided by the recommendations of the TWG-GCRs – Currently 14 members: China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (Rep. of), Netherlands, Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America – 3 International Organizations: OECD/NEA, European Commission, Gen-IV Forum. – 2 new members in 2017: Poland and Singapore. Meetings • Meet every 24 months • Next meeting: 30 October – 1 November 2017 • Other Member states with some activities on HTGRs – Kazakhstan – history of close cooperation with Japan – Saudi Arabia – feasibility study for HTGRs to provide heat for the petro-chemical industry – Canada – three HTR designs under consideration in the nuclear regulator pre-licensing vendor design reviews

  20. Active neutral particle diagnostics for high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Kenji

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies related to active neutral particle diagnostics in the JT-60 tokamak. Detection efficiencies of a micro-channel plate (MCP), which has widely used in plasma diagnostics, were determined for ions and neutrals. Multi-step processes for a neutral beam is predicted to enhance the beam stopping cross section in a plasma. In order to confirm the predictions, shine-through for a hydrogen and for a helium beam was measured in the JT-60 ohmic plasmas. The measurements for a hydrogen beam resulted in the cross sectional enhancement in the beam stopping. The same experiment using a helium beam indicated that the cross sectional enhancement for helium was much smaller than that for hydrogen at almost same plasma parameters. Ion temperature diagnostic using active beam scattering was developed in data processing technique, in consideration of the device function of a neutral particle analyzer and in estimation of the effect of beam ion component. Fundamental experiments for detecting helium ions in a plasma were performed using two-electron transfer reaction between a helium atomic beam and helium ions, and the energy distribution and the density of the helium ions were determined. These experiments demonstrated promise of the two-electron transfer reaction as an alpha ash detection in a burning plasma. A parasitic neutral efflux accompanied by active beam injection was investigated. (J.P.N.)

  1. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1996 - December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into the following areas: (1) experimental research program; (2) theoretical research program; (3) accelerator research and development; (4) divisional computing activities; (5) publications; (6) colloquia and conference talks; (7) high energy physics community activities; and (7) High Energy Physics Division research personnel. Summaries are given for individual research programs for activities (1), (2) and (3)

  2. Development and Application of Plasma Actuators for Active Control of High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammy, Mo

    2010-01-01

    Active flow control is often used to manipulate flow instabilities to achieve a desired goal (e.g. prevent separation, enhance mixing, reduce noise, etc.). Instability frequencies normally scale with flow velocity scale and inversely with flow length scale (U/l). In a laboratory setting for such flow experiments, U is high, but l is low, resulting in high instability frequency. In addition, high momentum and high background noise & turbulence in the flow necessitate high amplitude actuation. Developing a high amplitude and high frequency actuator is a major challenge. Ironically, these requirements ease up in application (but other issues arise).

  3. Application of the IEAF-2001 activation data library to activation analyses of the IFMIF high flux test module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Wilson, P.P.H.; Leichtle, D.; Simakov, S.P.; Moellendorff, U. von; Konobeev, A.; Korovin, Yu.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Schmuck, I.

    2002-01-01

    A complete activation data library IEAF-2001 (intermediate energy activation file) has been developed in standard ENDF-6 format with neutron-induced activation cross sections for 679 target nuclides from Z=1 (hydrogen) to Z=84 (polonium) and incident neutron energies up to 150 MeV. Using the NJOY processing code, an IEAF-2001 working library has been prepared in a 256 energy group structure for enabling activation analyses of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) D-Li neutron source. This library was applied to the activation analysis of the IFMIF high flux test module using the recent Analytical and Laplacian Adaptive Radioactivity Analysis activation code which is capable of handling the variety of reaction channels open in the energy domain above 20 MeV. The IEAF-2001 activation library was thus shown to be suitable for activation analyses in fusion technology and intermediate energy applications such as the IFMIF D-Li neutron source

  4. Antioxidant activity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HDL is a potent antioxidant in terms of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, ROS production and LDL oxidation. These may to some extent add to the antiatherogenic beyond reverse-cholesterol transport properties of HDL. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein; reverse cholesterol transport; apolipoprotein A1; antioxidant; in vitro.

  5. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included

  6. High quality actively cooled plasma-facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs) for future fusion devices, with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL). This actively cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long-pulse operation, has been operated under essentially thermally steady state conditions. Testing to identify braze flaws, analysis of the impact of joining flaws on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the OPL, and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed. This experience suggests that, for PFCs in future fusion devices, flaw-tolerant designs are possible; analyses of the impacts of flaws on performance can provide criteria for quality assurance; and validating appropriate methods of inspection for such flaws early in the design development of PFCs is prudent. The need for in-service monitoring is also discussed. (orig.)

  7. Alternatives evaluation of high activity radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciallella, N.R.; Petraitis, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Different alternatives considered in the world to be used as barriers to isolate the high level radioactive from the environment wastes produced during the electric energy generation of nuclear origin are presented. Engineering and geologic barriers, are analyzed, considering nuclear fuel cycles with or without plutonium recycling; to that purpose the consideration of elements such as durability and resistance of the various engineering, availability of the fabrication processes, associated radiological impact, geological media apt to be used as geological barrier. Finally, the scopes of the Feasibility Study and Engineering draft are presented for the construction of a repository for high-level radioactive wastes, for the Argentine Nuclear Program needs, which contemplates the construction of six nuclear power plants with a potential installed towards the year 2000 GW( e ), with natural and/or lowly enriched uranium power plants and recycling of plutonium generated in the cycle. (Author) [es

  8. DataHigh: Graphical user interface for visualizing and interacting with high-dimensional neural activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cowley, Benjamin R.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Churchland, Mark M.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Yu, Byron M.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of tens to hundreds of neurons can be succinctly summarized by a smaller number of latent variables extracted using dimensionality reduction methods. These latent variables define a reduced-dimensional space in which we can study how population activity varies over time, across trials, and across experimental conditions. Ideally, we would like to visualize the population activity directly in the reduced-dimensional space, whose optimal dimensionality (as determined from the data)...

  9. High-pressure stainless steel active membrane microvalves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G; Svensson, S; Ogden, S; Klintberg, L; Hjort, K

    2011-01-01

    In this work, high-pressure membrane microvalves have been designed, manufactured and evaluated. The valves were able to withstand back-pressures of 200 bar with a response time of less than 0.6 s. These stainless steel valves, manufactured with back-end batch production, utilize the large volume expansion coupled to the solid–liquid phase transition in paraffin wax. When membrane materials were evaluated, parylene coated stainless steel was found to be the best choice as compared to polydimethylsiloxane and polyimide. Also, the influence of the orifice placement and diameter is included in this work. If the orifice is placed too close to the rim of the membrane, the valve can stay sealed even after turning the power off, and the valve will not open until the pressure in the system is released. The developed steel valves, evaluated for both water and air, provide excellent properties in terms of mechanical stability, ease of fabrication, and low cost. Possible applications include sampling at high pressures, chemical microreactors, high performance liquid chromatography, pneumatics, and hydraulics

  10. High-throughput design of low-activation, high-strength creep-resistant steels for nuclear-reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Qi; Zwaag, Sybrand van der [Novel Aerospace Materials Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Xu, Wei, E-mail: xuwei@ral.neu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, 110819, Shenyang (China); Novel Aerospace Materials Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels are prime candidate materials for structural applications in nuclear power reactors. However, their creep strength is much lower than that of creep-resistant steel developed for conventional fossil-fired power plants as alloying elements with a high neutron activation cannot be used. To improve the creep strength and to maintain a low activation, a high-throughput computational alloy design model coupling thermodynamics, precipitate-coarsening kinetics and an optimization genetic algorithm, is developed. Twelve relevant alloying elements with either low or high activation are considered simultaneously. The activity levels at 0–10 year after the end of irradiation are taken as optimization parameter. The creep-strength values (after exposure for 10 years at 650 °C) are estimated on the basis of the solid-solution strengthening and the precipitation hardening (taking into account precipitate coarsening). Potential alloy compositions leading to a high austenite fraction or a high percentage of undesirable second phase particles are rejected automatically in the optimization cycle. The newly identified alloys have a much higher precipitation hardening and solid-solution strengthening at the same activity level as existing reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels.

  11. Performance of alkaline activated slag at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía de Gutiérrez, R.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the performance of alkali-activated slag (AAS mortar exposed to elevated temperatures. Sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide and a mix (waterglass with a modulus (SiO2/Na20 of 1.5 were used as activators. The specimens were heated in an electric furnace up to 1000 ºC in steps of 200 ºC for a constant period of 2 hours. The weight loss, residual compressive strength, resistance to chloride ion penetration, porosity and capillary sorption were evaluated and the results were compared with those of ordinary and blended Portland cement mortar

    En el presente traba jo se estudió el comportamiento frente a ¡a temperatura de morteros producidos a partir de escorias siderúrgicas activadas alcalinamente (EAA, utilizando diferentes activantes tales como silicato sódico, hidróxido de sodio y sus correspondientes mezclas. Cada espécimen se expuso por dos horas a temperaturas hasta de 1.000 ºC, en intervalos de 200 °C y en cada caso se determinaron los cambios de color peso, resistencia mecánica y durabilidad. Esta última propiedad se evaluó determinando las modificaciones de porosidad y permeabilidad a cloruros. Los resultados se comparan con los obtenidos en morteros de cemento Portland con y sin adición, específicamente con aquéllos que incorporan humo de sílice.

  12. Low activity of superoxide dismutase and high activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes from centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Jeune, B; Nybo, H

    1998-01-01

    aged between 60 and 79 years. MEASUREMENTS: enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase (GR) in erythrocytes. Functional capacity among the centenarians was evaluated by Katz' index of activities of daily living, the Physical...

  13. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U.; Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K.; Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O_2) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H_2O_2 dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H_2O_2 addition with O_2 injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH"•, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O_2 injected and H_2O_2 added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  14. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U. [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K. [Jeju National University, Faculty of Biotechnology (Korea, Republic of); Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J., E-mail: hjlee@jejunu.ac.kr [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O{sub 2}) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition with O{sub 2} injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH{sup •}, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O{sub 2} injected and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  15. Innovative activity of high-technology companies as assessment and forecasting object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sklyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation activities, as well as innovations, are closely related meanings, and like many others economical definitions, have a broad range of meanings. Main characteristics and attributes of innovation involves new or significantly improved product, that’s being used, or in other words, found its application, and innovative activitiesactivities focused on realization of innovations. In this article, innovations are mainly considered in terms of high-technology production, evidence from Russian space industry. There are 5 basic stages of lifecycle of innovative project in considered industry: initiation, development, realization, expansion, consumption. Practically, third or fourth, or even both of these stages, often missing because there is no need of them. R&D activities, or even further serial production, based on previous developments, is an innovation activity, because these activities are stages of innovative projects lifecycle itself. Then it seems legit, to draw a conclusion, that in terms of high-technology production, company’s primary activity equals innovative activity. Basic characteristics of innovative activity of high-technology companies as assessment and forecasting object involves high level of uncertainty at every stage of projects lifecycle, high dependency on funding level of this activity, and high level and erratic structure of risk. All the above mentioned, means that assessment and forecasting of innovative activity of high-technology companies, needs development of its own methodological tools for each industry.

  16. Steroidogenic activity of high molecular weight forms of ACTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasson, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The relative steroidogenic potencies of high molecular weight forms of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were investigated using in vitro bioassays. In order to prepare pools of separated pro-ACTH/endorphin, ACTH biosynthetic intermediate and glycosylated ACTH (1-39), the protein present in serum-free tissue culture medium obtained from cultured AtT-20/D-16v mouse pituitary tumor cells was concentrated and fractionated by gel filtration. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, over 97% of the immunoactive ACTH in each pool had the appropriate molecular weight. Suspensions of isolated rat and guinea pig adrenal cortical cells were prepared by enzymatic dissociation and mechanical dispersion. Cells were incubated in complete tissue culture medium overnight then used in a 2 hour steroid production assay. Synthetic hACTH(1-39) was used as a bioassay and immunoassay standard. The amounts of pro-ACTH/endorphin, ACTH biosynthetic intermediate and glycosylated ACTH(1-39) bioassayed were estimated by ACTH(17-24) radioimmunoassay. All three high molecular weight forms of ACTH were capable of stimulating the same maximal level of steroidogenesis, by both isolated rat and guinea pig adrenal cells, as hACTH(1-39). Glycosylated ACTH(1-39) was equipotent with hACTH(1-39); pro-ACTH/endorphin and ACTH biosynthetic intermediate were two orders of magnitude less potent than hACTH(1-39) in both bioassay systems

  17. The role of clinical variables, neuropsychological performance and SLC6A4 and COMT gene polymorphisms on the prediction of early response to fluoxetine in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve; Herrera-Guzmán, Ixchel; Camarena, Beatriz; Cortés-Penagos, Carlos; Herrera-Abarca, Jorge E; Martínez-Medina, Patricia; Cruz, David; Hernández, Sandra; Genis, Alma; Carrillo-Guerrero, Mariana Y; Avilés Reyes, Rubén; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2010-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is treated with antidepressants, but only between 50% and 70% of the patients respond to the initial treatment. Several authors suggested different factors that could predict antidepressant response, including clinical, psychophysiological, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic variables. However, these different predictors present poor prognostic sensitivity and specificity by themselves. The aim of our work is to study the possible role of clinical variables, neuropsychological performance, and the 5HTTLPR, rs25531, and val108/58Met COMT polymorphisms in the prediction of the response to fluoxetine after 4weeks of treatment in a sample of patient with MDD. 64 patients with MDD were genotyped according to the above-mentioned polymorphisms, and were clinically and neuropsychologically assessed before a 4-week fluoxetine treatment. Fluoxetine response was assessed by using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. We carried out a binary logistic regression model for the potential predictive variables. Out of the clinical variables studied, only the number of anxiety disorders comorbid with MDD have predicted a poor response to the treatment. A combination of a good performance in variables of attention and low performance in planning could predict a good response to fluoxetine in patients with MDD. None of the genetic variables studied had predictive value in our model. The possible placebo effect has not been controlled. Our study is focused on response prediction but not in remission prediction. Our work suggests that the combination of the number of comorbid anxiety disorders, an attentional variable, and two planning variables makes it possible to correctly classify 82% of the depressed patients who responded to the treatment with fluoxetine, and 74% of the patients who did not respond to that treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  19. Highly bacterial resistant silver nanoparticles: synthesis and antibacterial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra; Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Mehta, R. V.; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe a simple one-pot rapid synthesis route to produce uniform silver nanoparticles by thermal reduction of AgNO 3 using oleylamine as reducing and capping agent. To enhance the dispersal ability of as-synthesized hydrophobic silver nanoparticles in water, while maintaining their unique properties, a facile phase transfer mechanism has been developed using biocompatible block co-polymer pluronic F-127. Formation of silver nanoparticles is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Hydrodynamic size and its distribution are obtained from dynamic light scattering (DLS). Hydrodynamic size and size distribution of as-synthesized and phase transferred silver nanoparticles are 8.2 ± 1.5 nm (σ = 18.3%) and 31.1 ± 4.5 nm (σ = 14.5%), respectively. Antimicrobial activities of hydrophilic silver nanoparticles is tested against two Gram positive (Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus), and three Gram negative (Escherichiacoli, Proteusvulgaris and Shigellasonnei) bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values obtained in the present study for the tested microorganisms are found much better than those reported for commercially available antibacterial agents.

  20. Highly bacterial resistant silver nanoparticles: synthesis and antibacterial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra, E-mail: bnchudasama@gmail.co [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science (India); Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Mehta, R. V. [Bhavnagar University, Department of Physics (India); Upadhyay, R. V. [Charotar University of Science and Technology, P.D. Patel Institute of Applied Sciences (India)

    2010-06-15

    In this article, we describe a simple one-pot rapid synthesis route to produce uniform silver nanoparticles by thermal reduction of AgNO{sub 3} using oleylamine as reducing and capping agent. To enhance the dispersal ability of as-synthesized hydrophobic silver nanoparticles in water, while maintaining their unique properties, a facile phase transfer mechanism has been developed using biocompatible block co-polymer pluronic F-127. Formation of silver nanoparticles is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Hydrodynamic size and its distribution are obtained from dynamic light scattering (DLS). Hydrodynamic size and size distribution of as-synthesized and phase transferred silver nanoparticles are 8.2 {+-} 1.5 nm ({sigma} = 18.3%) and 31.1 {+-} 4.5 nm ({sigma} = 14.5%), respectively. Antimicrobial activities of hydrophilic silver nanoparticles is tested against two Gram positive (Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus), and three Gram negative (Escherichiacoli, Proteusvulgaris and Shigellasonnei) bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values obtained in the present study for the tested microorganisms are found much better than those reported for commercially available antibacterial agents.

  1. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Peter L.; Becker, Julia K.; Caramete, Laurentiu; Curutiu, Alex; Engel, Ralph; Falcke, Heino; Gergely, Laszlo A.; Isar, P. Gina; Maris, Ioana C.; Meli, Athina; Kampert, Karl-Heinz; Stanev, Todor; Tascau, Oana; Zier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  2. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astron., Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astr., Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville, AL (United States); Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Becker, Julia K. [Institution foer Fysik, Goeteborgs Univ. (Sweden); Dept. of Phys., Univ. Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Caramete, Laurentiu [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Curutiu, Alex [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Engel, Ralph [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Falcke, Heino [Dept. of Astrophys., IMAP, Radboud Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands); ASTRON, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Gergely, Laszlo A. [Dept. Appl. Sci., London South Bank University (United Kingdom); Dept. of Theoret. and Exp. Phys., Univ. of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Isar, P. Gina [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Maris, Ioana C. [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Meli, Athina [Physik. Inst. Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Kampert, Karl-Heinz [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Inst., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Tascau, Oana [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Zier, Christian [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Raman Res. Inst., Bangalore (India)

    2009-05-15

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  3. Measurement of highly enriched uranium metal buttons with the high-level neutron coincidence counter operating in the active mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, J.E.

    1980-10-01

    The portable High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter is used in the active mode with the addition of AmLi neutron sources to assay the 235 U content of highly enriched metal pieces or buttons. It is concluded that the portable instrument is a practical instrument for assaying uranium metal buttons with masses in the range 1.5 to 4 kg

  4. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  5. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybeck, N.; Pham, B.; Tawfik, M.; Coble, J.B.; Meyer, R.M.; Ramuhalli, P.; Bond, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  6. Feeding habits of athletes with high physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Mazurenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of construction of specialized foods for sportsmen, members of Amateur and professional teams to play Rugby. The relevance of the study lies in the fact that so far not established a unified recommendations on diets and nutrition regimes of the Rugby players. We are committed to the solution of the time-consuming assessment of individual needs athletes Rugby players in nutrients. For the Rugby player is especially important qualitative composition of protein intake. Sports doctors and coaches recommend rational diet of the Rugby players with the prevalence of essential amino acids involved in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters. The highest loads on the body of a Rugby player due to the fact that in the training sessions of Rugby players includes power elements used in elite military units and police units in order to develop collective interactions in hard conditions. They include elements of weightlifting, intense agility and martial arts and martial arts. The special task of organizing the diet of Rugby players is the use of high carbohydrate diets to prevent chronic lack of energy during training and during competitions. The diet should be an optimal content of products from cereal crops, with relatively little protein and fat. You need to replenish energy stores by eating balanced chemical with the rod, avoiding long breaks and including protein and carbohydrate foods. For quality control using modern gas and spectrophotometric devices Institute of Food and Processing Industry of the Kuban State University of Technology. Key findings include the development of the diets of athletes in team rugby Kuban State University and some of the specialized vegetable and meat products, "rugby" and "Sport".

  7. Convergent genetic modulation of the endocrine stress response involves polymorphic variations of 5-HTT, COMT and MAOA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, M.; Korf, J.; Kema, I. P.; Hartman, C.; van der Pompe, G.; Minderaa, R. B.; Ormel, J.; den Boer, J. A.

    Highly prevalent stress-related disorders such as major depression ( MD) are characterised by a dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system. Although heritability for these disorders is high, the role of genes in the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we show that polymorphic

  8. Placebo analgesia and reward processing: integrating genetics, personality, and intrinsic brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjun; Gollub, Randy L; Vangel, Mark; Kaptchuk, Ted; Smoller, Jordan W; Kong, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Our expectations about an event can strongly shape our subjective evaluation and actual experience of events. This ability, applied to the modulation of pain, has the potential to affect therapeutic analgesia substantially and constitutes a foundation for non-pharmacological pain relief. A typical example of such modulation is the placebo effect. Studies indicate that placebo may be regarded as a reward, and brain activity in the reward system is involved in this modulation process. In the present study, we combined resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures, genotype at a functional COMT polymorphism (Val158Met), and personality measures in a model to predict the magnitude of placebo conditioning effect indicated by subjective pain rating reduction to calibrated noxious stimuli. We found that the regional homogeneity (ReHo), an index of local neural coherence, in the ventral striatum, was significantly associated with conditioning effects on pain rating changes. We also found that the number of Met alleles at the COMT polymorphism was linearly correlated to the suppression of pain. In a fitted regression model, we found the ReHo in the ventral striatum, COMT genotype, and Openness scores accounted for 59% of the variance in the change in pain ratings. The model was further tested using a separate data set from the same study. Our findings demonstrate the potential of combining resting-state connectivity, genetic information, and personality to predict placebo effect. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High-fat diet enhanced retinal dehydrogenase activity, but suppressed retinol dehydrogenase activity in liver of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has shown that hyperlipidemia is associated with retinoid dyshomeostasis. In liver, retinol is mainly oxidized to retinal by retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs, further converted to retinoic acid by retinal dehydrogenases (RALDHs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia affected activity and expression of hepatic ADHs/RDHs and RALDHs in rats. Results showed that retinol levels in liver, kidney and adipose tissue of HFD rats were significantly increased, while plasma retinol and hepatic retinal levels were markedly decreased. HFD rats exhibited significantly downregulated hepatic ADHs/RDHs activity and Adh1, Rdh10 and Dhrs9 expression. Oppositely, hepatic RALDHs activity and Raldh1 expression were upregulated in HFD rats. In HepG2 cells, treatment of HFD rat serum inhibited ADHs/RDHs activity and induced RALDHs activity. Among the tested abnormally altered components in HFD rat serum, cholesterol reduced ADHs/RDHs activity and RDH10 expression, while induced RALDHs activity and RALDH1 expression in HepG2 cells. Contrary to the effect of cholesterol, cholesterol-lowering agent pravastatin upregulated ADHs/RDHs activity and RDH10 expression, while suppressed RALDHs activity and RALDH1 expression. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia oppositely altered activity and expression of hepatic ADHs/RDHs and RALDHs, which is partially due to the elevated cholesterol levels.

  10. Comparison of Physical Activity Among New United States Army Recruits and High School Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sarah B; Knapik, Joseph J; Darakjy, Salima; Morrison, Stephanie; Piskator, Gene; Jones, Bruce H

    2006-01-01

    ... 1.9 days/wk of activity, respectively, while high school men and women reported 3.8 plus or minus 2.2 and 2.9 plus or minus 2.2 days/wk of activity, respectively (p=0.02 for men, p<0.01 for women). The data suggests that new recruits tend to report more frequent physical activity than high school students.

  11. High occupational physical activity and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: the interplay with physical activity during leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Aadahl, Mette; Thomsen, Jane F; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Søgaard, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that physically demanding work is a risk factor for heart disease among men, especially those with low or moderate physical activity during leisure time. Among women, present evidence is inconclusive. The design was a prospective cohort study. This investigation in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study included 12,093 female nurses aged 45-64 years, who answered a self-report questionnaire on physical activity at work and during leisure time, known risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and occupational factors at baseline in 1993. Information on the 15-year incidence of IHD was obtained by individual linkage in the National Register of Hospital Discharges to 2008. During follow-up 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. A significant interaction between occupational and leisure time physical activity was found with the lowest risk of IHD among nurses with the combination of moderate physical activity at work and vigorous physical activity during leisure time. Compared to this group high physical activity at work was associated with a higher risk of IHD at all levels of physical activity during leisure time increasing from hazard ratio 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.80) among nurses with vigorous physical activity during leisure time to 2.65 (95% CI 1.44-4.88) among nurses being sedentary during leisure time. This study among Danish nurses suggests that high physical activity at work is a risk factor for IHD among women. Vigorous physical activity during leisure time lowered but did not completely counteract the adverse effect of occupational physical activity on risk of IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  12. Oxidative stress plays a role in high glucose-induced activation of pancreatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Lee, Esder; Chun, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho, E-mail: kihos@catholic.ac.kr

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •High glucose increased production of reactive oxygen species in cultured pancreatic stellate cells. •High glucose facilitated the activation of these cells. •Antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced activation of these cells. -- Abstract: The activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is thought to be a potential mechanism underlying islet fibrosis, which may contribute to progressive β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that antioxidants reduced islet fibrosis in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no in vitro study demonstrating that high glucose itself can induce oxidative stress in PSCs. Thus, PSCs were isolated and cultured from Sprague Dawley rats, and treated with high glucose for 72 h. High glucose increased the production of reactive oxygen species. When treated with high glucose, freshly isolated PSCs exhibited myofibroblastic transformation. During early culture (passage 1), PSCs treated with high glucose contained an increased number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. During late culture (passages 2–5), PSCs treated with high glucose exhibited increases in cell proliferation, the expression of fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor, release of interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β and collagen, and cell migration. Finally, the treatment of PSCs with high glucose and antioxidants attenuated these changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high glucose increased oxidative stress in primary rat PSCs, thereby facilitating the activation of these cells, while antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced PSC activation.

  13. Oxidative stress plays a role in high glucose-induced activation of pancreatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Lee, Esder; Chun, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •High glucose increased production of reactive oxygen species in cultured pancreatic stellate cells. •High glucose facilitated the activation of these cells. •Antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced activation of these cells. -- Abstract: The activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is thought to be a potential mechanism underlying islet fibrosis, which may contribute to progressive β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that antioxidants reduced islet fibrosis in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no in vitro study demonstrating that high glucose itself can induce oxidative stress in PSCs. Thus, PSCs were isolated and cultured from Sprague Dawley rats, and treated with high glucose for 72 h. High glucose increased the production of reactive oxygen species. When treated with high glucose, freshly isolated PSCs exhibited myofibroblastic transformation. During early culture (passage 1), PSCs treated with high glucose contained an increased number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. During late culture (passages 2–5), PSCs treated with high glucose exhibited increases in cell proliferation, the expression of fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor, release of interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β and collagen, and cell migration. Finally, the treatment of PSCs with high glucose and antioxidants attenuated these changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high glucose increased oxidative stress in primary rat PSCs, thereby facilitating the activation of these cells, while antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced PSC activation

  14. Objectively assessed recess physical activity in girls and boys from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Georges; Ridgers, Nicola D; Blaes, Aurélie; Aucouturier, Julien; Van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2014-02-21

    The school environment influences children's opportunities for physical activity participation. The aim of the present study was to assess objectively measured school recess physical activity in children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. Four hundred and seven children (6-11 years old) from 4 primary schools located in high socioeconomic status (high-SES) and low socioeconomic status (low-SES) areas participated in the study. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometry during morning and afternoon recess during a 4-day school week. The percentage of time spent in light, moderate, vigorous, very high and in moderate- to very high-intensity physical activity were calculated using age-dependent cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as 100 counts per minute. Boys were significantly (p active than girls. No difference in sedentary time between socioeconomic backgrounds was observed. The low-SES group spent significantly more time in light (p physical activity compared to the high-SES group. High-SES boys and girls spent significantly more time in moderate (p physical activity than low-SES boys. Differences were observed in recess physical activity levels according to socioeconomic background and sex. These results indicate that recess interventions should target children in low-SES schools.

  15. Radioprotection and physical surveillance during activities of liquid wastes of high and low activity in italian ITREC plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petagna, Edoardo; Tortorelli, Pietro

    1997-03-01

    Many studies were made in ITREC Plant, located in ENEA - Trisaia Research Center, in the field of the nuclear fuel reprocessing, in the past years. During these activities liquid wastes of high and low activity were yielded and stored in the special area of tanks named Waste-1. In order to condition the low activity liquid wastes, essentially fission products, beta and gamma emitters, was built the SIRTE Plant (Integrate System for the Raise and Effluents Treatment) based on cementation process. In the present work, the radiological monitoring performed within the plant during the first campaign of cementation, is showed

  16. Patterns for election of active computing nodes in high availability distributed data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Preetha; Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Gohel, Nilesh

    2013-01-01

    Computer based systems for power plant and research reactors are expected to have high availability. Redundancy is a common approach to improve the availability of a system. In redundant configuration the challenge is to select one node as active, and in case of failure of current active node provide automatic fast switchover by electing another node to function as active and restore normal operation. Additional constraints include: exactly one node should be elected as active in an n-way redundant architecture. This paper discusses various high availability configurations developed by Electronics Division and deployed in power and research reactors and patterns followed to elect active nodes of distributed data acquisition systems. The systems are categorized into two: Active/Passive where changeover takes effect only on the failure of Active node, and Active/Active, where changeover is effective in alternate cycles. A novel concept of priority driven state based Active (Master) node election pattern is described for Active/Passive systems which allows multiple redundancy and dynamic election of single master. The paper also discusses the Active/Active pattern, which uncovers failure early by activating all the nodes alternatively in a redundant system. This pattern can be extended to multiple redundant nodes. (author)

  17. An Active Queue Management for QoS Guarantee of the High Priority Service Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jong; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Hwa-Suk; Cho, Kee Seong; Choi, Seong Gon

    In this paper, we propose the active queue management mechanism (Active-WRED) for guaranteeing the quality of the high priority service class (VoIP or IPTV) in the multi-class traffic service environment. In the congestion situation, this mechanism increases the drop probability of the low priority traffic and reduces the drop probability of the high priority traffic; therefore it can guarantee the quality of the high priority service class from the poor quality by the packet loss.

  18. Measurement of highly active samples of ultrashort-lived radionuclides and its problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Baan, J.G.; Panek, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of highly active eluates obtained from the generators for ultrashort-lived radionuclides poses several problems which are briefly discussed by using the example of the /sup 195m/Hg→/sup 195m/Au generator. For overcoming some of the problems, the construction of a multiple single-channel analyzer that allows high count rates, is described, as well as the counting technique applicable for highly active eluates

  19. Development of highly microporous activated carbon from the alcoholic beverage industry organic by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto-Delgado, C.; Terrones, M.; Rangel-Mendez, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This work has the aim to employ the agave bagasse, a waste from Tequila and Mescal industries, to obtain a product of high commercial value such as activated carbon. The activated carbon production methodology was based on a chemical activation, by using ZnCl 2 and H 3 PO 4 as activating agent and agave bagasse as a natural source of carbon. The activation temperature (150-450 o C), activation time (0-60 min) and weight ratio of activating agent to precursor (0.2-4) were studied. The produced carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen physisorption at -196 o C. In addition, the activating agent recovery was evaluated. We were able to obtain highly microporous activated carbons with micropore volumes between 0.24 and 1.20 cm 3 /g and a surface area within 300 and 2139 m 2 /g. These results demonstrated the feasibility to treat the industrial wastes of the Tequila and Mescal industries, being this wastes an excellent precursor to produce highly microporous activated carbons that can be processed at low activation temperatures in short times, with the possibility of recycling the activating agent.

  20. Purification of charybdotoxine, a specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.; Phillips, M.; Miller, C.

    1986-01-01

    Charybdotoxim is a high-affinity specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channel found in the plasma membranes of many vertebrate cell types. Using Ca 2+ -activated K + channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer membranes as an assay, the authors have purified the toxin from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus by a two-step procedure involving chromatofocusing on SP-Sephadex, followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Charybdotoxin is shown to be a highly basic protein with a mass of 10 kDa. Under the standard assay conditions, the purified toxin inhibits the Ca 2+ -activated K + channel with an apparent dissociation constant of 3.5 nM. The protein is unusually stable, with inhibitory potency being insensitive to boiling or exposure to organic solvents. The toxin's activity is sensitive to chymotrypsin treatment and to acylation of lysine groups. The protein may be radioiodinated without loss of activity

  1. Active Learning of Geometrical Optics in High School: The ALOP Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborch, Alejandra; Pandiella, Susana; Benegas, Julio

    2017-01-01

    A group comparison experiment of two high school classes with pre and post instruction testing has been carried out to study the suitability and advantages of using the active learning of optics and photonics (ALOP) curricula in high schools of developing countries. Two parallel, mixed gender, 12th grade classes of a high school run by the local…

  2. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities in Electrochemistry: High School Students' Achievements and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental (N =…

  3. A Clinical Drug Library Screen Identifies Tosufloxacin as Being Highly Active against Staphylococcus aureus Persisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Niu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify effective compounds that are active against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus persisters, we screened a clinical drug library consisting of 1524 compounds and identified six drug candidates that had anti-persister activity: tosufloxacin, clinafloxacin, sarafloxacin, doxycycline, thiostrepton, and chlorosalicylanilide. Among them, tosufloxacin had the highest anti-persister activity, which could completely eradicate S. aureus persisters within 2 days in vitro. Clinafloxacin ranked the second with very few persisters surviving the drug exposure. Interestingly, we found that both tosufloxacin and trovafloxacin that had high activity against persisters contained at the N-1 position the 2,4-difluorophenyl group, which is absent in other less active quinolones and may be associated with the high anti-persister activity. Further studies are needed to evaluate tosufloxacin in animal models and to explain its unique activity against bacterial persisters. Our findings may have implications for improved treatment of persistent bacterial infections.

  4. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbons have been prepared from Fox nutshell with chemical activation using ZnCl 2 . • The thermal behavior of the raw material and impregnated raw material has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. • The characterizations of the prepared activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, FTIR, XRD, and FESEM. • The BET surface area and total pore volume of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, and 1.96 cm 3 /g, respectively. • The microporous surface area, micropore volume, and microporosity percentage of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2124 m 2 /g, 1.68 cm 3 /g, and 85.71%, respectively. - Abstract: High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl 2 as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl 2 /Fox nutshell) ratios (1–2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500–700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at −196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, 1.96 cm 3 /g, and 1.68 cm 3 /g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  5. The decommissioning and demolition of four suites of high active chemical analysis cells at DNPDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, R.M.; Spence, B.W.; Stewart, C.W.

    1987-11-01

    The decommissioning and demolition of four laboratory suites of high active cells at DNPDE is described. All four suites had suffered drain leaks of high active liquor into underfloor ducts; the options available at the time and current policy for dealing with the resultant activity deposits are given. The decommissioning procedures are detailed to provide information for future similar exercises. Features to ease demolition of such facilities and to eliminate the possibility of long term activity deposition from drain leaks are highlighted for incorporation in future designs. The waste arisings and radiation doses received during the work are tabulated. (author)

  6. Active Control of Flow Separation on a High-Lift System with Slotted Flap at High Reynolds Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, Abdollah; Washburn, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) airfoil was tested at NASA Langley's Low- Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) to assess the effectiveness of distributed Active Flow Control (AFC) concepts on a high-lift system at flight scale Reynolds numbers for a medium-sized transport. The test results indicate presence of strong Reynolds number effects on the high-lift system with the AFC operational, implying the importance of flight-scale testing for implementation of such systems during design of future flight vehicles with AFC. This paper describes the wind tunnel test results obtained at the LTPT for the EET high-lift system for various AFC concepts examined on this airfoil.

  7. High NOTCH activity induces radiation resistance in non small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theys, Jan; Yahyanejad, Sanaz; Habets, Roger; Span, Paul; Dubois, Ludwig; Paesmans, Kim; Kattenbeld, Bo; Cleutjens, Jack; Groot, Arjan J.; Schuurbiers, Olga C.J.; Lambin, Philippe; Bussink, Jan; Vooijs, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with advanced NSCLC have survival rates <15%. The NOTCH pathway plays an important role during lung development and physiology but is often deregulated in lung cancer, making it a potential therapeutic target. We investigated NOTCH signaling in NSCLC and hypothesized that high NOTCH activity contributes to radiation resistance. Materials and methods: NOTCH signaling in NSCLC patient samples was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. H460 NSCLC cells with either high or blocked NOTCH activity were generated and their radiation sensitivity monitored using clonogenic assays. In vivo, xenograft tumors were irradiated and response assessed using growth delay. Microenvironmental parameters were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Patients with high NOTCH activity in tumors showed significantly worse disease-free survival. In vitro, NOTCH activity did not affect the proliferation or intrinsic radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells. In contrast, xenografts with blocked NOTCH activity grew slower than wild type tumors. Tumors with high NOTCH activity grew significantly faster, were more hypoxic and showed a radioresistant phenotype. Conclusions: We demonstrate an important role for NOTCH in tumor growth and correlate high NOTCH activity with poor prognosis and radioresistance. Blocking NOTCH activity in NSCLC might be a promising intervention to improve outcome after radiotherapy

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP has a neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration in rat and snail parkinsonian models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Maasz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP rescues dopaminergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improves motor changes induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA in rat parkinsonian models. Recently, we investigated the molecular background of the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in dopamine (DA-based neurodegeneration using rotenone-induced snail and 6-OHDA-induced rat models of Parkinson's disease. Behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin, metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B and PARK7 protein concentrations were measured before and after PACAP treatment in both models. Locomotion and feeding activity were decreased in rotenone-treated snails, which corresponded well to findings obtained in 6-OHDA-induced rat experiments. PACAP was able to prevent the behavioural malfunctions caused by the toxins. Monoamine levels decreased in both models and the decreased DA level induced by toxins was attenuated by ∼50% in the PACAP-treated animals. In contrast, PACAP had no effect on the decreased serotonin (5HT levels. S-COMT metabolic enzyme was also reduced but a protective effect of PACAP was not observed in either of the models. Following toxin treatment, a significant increase in MB-COMT was observed in both models and was restored to normal levels by PACAP. A decrease in PARK7 was also observed in both toxin-induced models; however, PACAP had a beneficial effect only on 6-OHDA-treated animals. The neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different animal models of Parkinson's disease is thus well correlated with neurotransmitter, enzyme and protein levels. The models successfully mimic several, but not all etiological properties of the disease, allowing us to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration as well as testing new drugs. The rotenone and 6-OHDA rat and snail in vivo parkinsonian models offer an alternative method for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective agents, including PACAP.

  9. Self-controlled feedback facilitates motor learning in both high and low activity individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Laughlin, David D; Nguyen, Timothy V

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA) and low activity (LA) participants were assigned to self-control (SC) and yoked (YK) feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control-High Activity; Self-Control-Low Activity; Yoked-High Activity; and Yoked-Low Activity. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be "good" trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after "good" trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.

  10. Self-controlled feedback facilitates motor learning in both high and low activity individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Fairbrother

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA and low activity (LA participants were assigned to self-control (SC and yoked (YK feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control High Activity (SC-HA; Self-Control Low Activity (SC-LA; Yoked High Activity (YK-HA; and Yoked Low Activity (YK-LA. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be good trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after good trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.

  11. Effect of high surface area activated carbon on thermal degradation of jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gergova, K.; Eser, S.; Arumugam, R.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Different solid carbons added to jet fuel during thermal stressing cause substantial changes in pyrolytic degradation reactions. Activated carbons, especially high surface area activated carbons were found to be very effective in suppressing solid deposition on metal reactor walls during stressing at high temperatures (425 and 450{degrees}C). The high surface area activated carbon PX-21 prevented solid deposition on reactor walls even after 5h at 450{degrees}C. The differences seen in the liquid product composition when activated carbon is added indicated that the carbon surfaces affect the degradation reactions. Thermal stressing experiments were carried out on commercial petroleum-derived JPTS jet fuel. We also used n-octane and n-dodecane as model compounds in order to simplify the study of the chemical changes which take place upon activated carbon addition. In separate experiments, the presence of a hydrogen donor, decalin, together with PX-21 was also studied.

  12. A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Liwen; Zhang, Chengning

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge cir...

  13. Physical activity patterns of college students with and without high school physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Brett; Kernodle, Michael; Ballard, Kesley; McKey, Cathy; Eason, Billy; Weeks, Megan

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in physical activity patterns of high school graduates in Texas who completed physical education class credit during high school and those who did not but who were varsity athletes. A questionnaire was designed and tested for reliability prior to being administered to 201 college students. Analysis indicated that participants who completed high school physical education class credit do not currently participate in regular physical activity as much as those who were not required to complete such credit. Conversely, athletes who did not participate in physical education reported currently engaging in more cardiovascular exercise and team sports than the physical education students during high school.

  14. Highly Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Activated Mesoporous Biocarbons with Extremely High Surface Area for High-Pressure CO2 Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurwinder; Lakhi, Kripal S; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sungho; Srivastava, Prashant; Naidu, Ravi; Vinu, Ajayan

    2017-09-06

    A simple and efficient way to synthesize activated mesoporous biocarbons (AMBs) with extremely high BET surface area and large pore volume has been achieved for the first time through a simple solid state activation of freely available biomass, Arundo donax, with zinc chloride. The textural parameters of the AMB can easily be controlled by varying the activation temperature. It is demonstrated that the mesoporosity of AMB can be finely tuned with a simple adjustment of the amount of activating agent. AMB with almost 100% mesoporosity can be achieved using the activating agent and the biomass ratio of 5 and carbonization at 500 °C. Under the optimized conditions, AMB with a BET surface area of 3298 m 2 g -1 and a pore volume of 1.9 cm 3 g -1 can be prepared. While being used as an adsorbent for CO 2 capture, AMB registers an impressively high pressure CO 2 adsorption capacity of 30.2 mmol g -1 at 30 bar which is much higher than that of activated carbon (AC), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and mesoporous carbon nitrides. AMB also shows high stability with excellent regeneration properties under vacuum and temperatures of up to 250 °C. These impressive textural parameters and high CO 2 adsorption capacity of AMB clearly reveal its potential as a promising adsorbent for high-pressure CO 2 capture and storage application. Also, the simple one-step synthesis strategy outlined in this work would provide a pathway to generate a series of novel mesoporous activated biocarbons from different biomasses.

  15. Synthesis of glycolic acid-1-14C of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, T.V.; Viswanathan, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    A simple procedure is described which efficiently converts traces of 14 C labelled cyanide present as a dilute solution into glycolic acid-1- 14 C with more than 85% radiochemical recovery and of high specific activity. (author)

  16. Naringin ameliorates metabolic syndrome by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Peng; Gao, Dong-Mei; Mohamed, Salim; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Xiao-Ya; Zhou, Nai-Jing; Xie, Jing; Jiang, Hong

    2012-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a low-grade inflammatory state in which oxidative stress is involved. Naringin, isolated from the Citrussinensis, is a phenolic compound with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of naringin on metabolic syndrome in mice. The animal models, induced by high-fat diet in C57BL/6 mice, developed obesity, dyslipidemia, fatty liver, liver dysfunction and insulin resistance. These changes were attenuated by naringin. Further investigations revealed that the inhibitory effect on inflammation and insulin resistance was mediated by blocking activation of the MAPKs pathways and by activating IRS1; the lipid-lowering effect was attributed to inhibiting the synthesis way and increasing fatty acid oxidation; the hypoglycemic effect was due to the regulation of PEPCK and G6pase. The anti-oxidative stress of naringin also participated in the improvement of insulin resistance and lipogenesis. All of these depended on the AMPK activation. To confirm the results of the animal experiment, we tested primary hepatocytes exposed to high glucose system. Naringin was protective by phosphorylating AMPKα and IRS1. Taken together, these results suggested that naringin protected mice exposed to a high-fat diet from metabolic syndrome through an AMPK-dependent mechanism involving multiple types of intracellular signaling and reduction of oxidative damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation, Surface and Pore Structure of High Surface Area Activated Carbon Fibers from Bamboo by Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers (ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. The results showed that ACF from bamboo at 850 °C have the maximum iodine and methylene blue adsorption values. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo. The prepared ACF from bamboo were found to be mainly type I of isotherm, but the mesoporosity presented an increasing trend after 700 °C. The surface area and micropore volume of samples, which were determined by application of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and t-plot methods, were as high as 2024 m2/g and 0.569 cm3/g, respectively. It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo.

  18. Development of alkali activated cements and concrete mixture design with high volumes of red mud

    OpenAIRE

    Krivenko, Pavel; Kovalchuk, Oleksandr; Pasko, Anton; Croymans, Tom; Hutt, Mikael; Lutter, Guillaume; Vandevenne, Niels; Schreurs, Sonja; Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated cement compositions were formulated to enable the incorporation of large volume fractions of red mud in alkali activated cements, taking into account the role of the aluminosilicate phase in the processes of hydration and hardening. High volume red mud alkali activated cements were synthesized using a proper combination of red mud, low basic aluminosilicate compounds with a glass phase (blast-furnace slag) and additives selected from high-basic Ca-containing cements with a crystalli...

  19. Parasympathetic neural activity accounts for the lowering of exercise heart rate at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Calbet, J A; Rådegran, G

    2001-01-01

    In chronic hypoxia, both heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Q) are reduced during exercise. The role of parasympathetic neural activity in lowering HR is unresolved, and its influence on Q and oxygen transport at high altitude has never been studied.......In chronic hypoxia, both heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Q) are reduced during exercise. The role of parasympathetic neural activity in lowering HR is unresolved, and its influence on Q and oxygen transport at high altitude has never been studied....

  20. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.

    2009-07-01

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  1. Synthesis of [diene-"1"4C] curcumin at high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filer, Crist N.; Lacy, James M.; Wright, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An efficient method is described to label curcumin with "1"4C at high specific activity. - Highlights: • This paper describes the synthesis of ["1"4C] Curcumin at the highest specific activity and total activity amount yet reported. • The "1"4C label was installed in the diene framework of Curcumin. • This paper also describes the characterization of ["1"4C] Curcumin by HPLC and mass spectrometry.

  2. On the radiochemical purity of elementary 35S with high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovsky, D.S.; Kostadinov, K.N.; Efremova, Yu.N.

    1979-01-01

    Radiochemical composition and chemical changes with increasing storage time of benzene solutions and of solid species of elementary 35 S with high specific activity are studied. The dependence of the stability on the specific activity and the radioactive concentration is shown and some tentative limits are given for permissible storage periods. (author)

  3. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  4. 49 CFR 350.319 - What are permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Activity Funds? 350.319 Section 350.319 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds? (a) The FMCSA may generally use these funds to support, enrich, or evaluate State CMV safety programs and to accomplish the five objectives listed below: (1...

  5. A High Step-Down Interleaved Buck Converter with Active-Clamp Circuits for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a high step-down interleaved buck coupled-inductor converter (IBCC with active-clamp circuits for wind energy conversion has been studied. In high step-down voltage applications, an IBCC can extend duty ratio and reduce voltage stresses on active switches. In order to reduce switching losses of active switches to improve conversion efficiency, a IBCC with soft-switching techniques is usually required. Compared with passive-clamp circuits, the IBCC with active-clamp circuits have lower switching losses and minimum ringing voltage of the active switches. Thus, the proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits for wind energy conversion can significantly increase conversion efficiency. Finally, a 240 W prototype of the proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits was built and implemented. Experimental results have shown that efficiency can reach as high as 91%. The proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits is presented in high step-down voltage applications to verify the performance and the feasibility for energy conversion of wind turbines.

  6. New approach for high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gego, A.; Silvie, O.; Franetich, J.F.; Farhati, K.; Hannoun, L.; Luty, A.J.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Boucheix, C.; Rubinstein, E.; Mazier, D.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium liver stages represent potential targets for antimalarial prophylactic drugs. Nevertheless, there is a lack of molecules active on these stages. We have now developed a new approach for the high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages in vitro, based on an

  7. High serum ACE activity predicts severe hypoglycaemia over time in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Louise; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2011-01-01

    High serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is associated with increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia (SH) within 1 year in type 1 diabetes. We wanted to find out whether ACE activity is stable over time and predicts SH beyond 1 year, and if gender differences exist in the association...

  8. Social Cognitive Theory and Physical Activity Among Korean Male High-School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung Gun; Park, Seiyeong; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Ji-Won

    2018-02-01

    The most critical step in developing and implementing effective physical activity interventions is to understand the determinants and correlates of physical activity, and it is strongly suggested that such effort should be based on theories. The purpose of this study is to test the direct, indirect, and total effect of social cognitive theory constructs on physical activity among Korean male high-school students. Three-hundred and forty-one 10th-grade male students were recruited from a private single-sex high school located in Seoul, South Korea. Structural equation modeling was used to test the expected relationships among the latent variables. The proposed model accounted for 42% of the variance in physical activity. Self-efficacy had the strongest total effect on physical activity. Self-efficacy for being physically active was positively associated with physical activity ( p social cognitive theory is a useful framework to understand physical activity among Korean male adolescents. Physical activity interventions targeting Korean male high-school students should focus on the major sources of efficacy.

  9. Hierarchical Pd-Sn alloy nanosheet dendrites: an economical and highly active catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures.

  10. Active commuting of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Rubín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Active commuting in terms of everyday transport to school or work can have a significant effect on physical activity. Active commuting can be influenced by the environment, and examples from abroad show that current environmental changes tend mostly to promote passive forms of commuting. A similar situation of decreasing active commuting might be expected in the Czech Republic. However, little information has been published to date about the issue of active commuting among the inhabitants of our country. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to describe the active commuting patterns of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas. Methods: A total of 23,621 economically active inhabitants or students of Liberec city aged 6-87 years (34.77 ± 14.39 participated in the study. The data about commuting were retrieved from the national Population and Housing Census of 2011. Geographic information systems were used to objectively analyze the built environment and to calculate the walkability index. Results: Active commuting to/from school or work is used by 17.41% of inhabitants. Active commuting is dominated by walking (16.60% as opposed to cycling (0.81%. Inhabitants who lived in high walkability areas were more likely to actively commute than those living in low walkability areas (OR = 1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.68]. Conclusions: This study confirmed the findings of international studies about the effect of the built environment on active commuting among Liberec inhabitants. Active commuters are often those living near or in the city center, which is characterized by high walkability. In Liberec city, walking as a means of active commuting significantly prevails over cycling. One of the reasons might be the diverse topography of the city and the insufficiently developed cycling network.

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Ecklonia cava Extract on High Glucose-Induced Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kojima-Yuasa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a disease closely associated with obesity and diabetes. A prevalence of type 2 diabetes and a high body mass index in cryptogenic cirrhosis may imply that obesity leads to cirrhosis. Here, we examined the effects of an extract of Ecklonia cava, a brown algae, on the activation of high glucose-induced hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, key players in hepatic fibrosis. Isolated HSCs were incubated with or without a high glucose concentration. Ecklonia cava extract (ECE was added to the culture simultaneously with the high glucose. Treatment with high glucose stimulated expression of type I collagen and α-smooth muscle actin, which are markers of activation in HSCs, in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of high glucose-treated HSCs was suppressed by the ECE. An increase in the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and a decrease in intracellular glutathione levels were observed soon after treatment with high glucose, and these changes were suppressed by the simultaneous addition of ECE. High glucose levels stimulated the secretion of bioactive transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β from the cells, and the stimulation was also suppressed by treating the HSCs with ECE. These results suggest that the suppression of high glucose-induced HSC activation by ECE is mediated through the inhibition of ROS and/or GSH and the downregulation of TGF-β secretion. ECE is useful for preventing the development of diabetic liver fibrosis.

  12. Influence of DAT1 and COMT variants on neural activation during response inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, D.; Hoekstra, P. J.; Bralten, J.; Hakobjan, M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Franke, B.; Rommelse, N.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Hartman, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Impairment of response inhibition has been implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopamine neurotransmission has been linked to the behavioural and neural correlates of response inhibition. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship of polymorphisms

  13. PEEK: An excellent precursor for activated carbon production for high temperature application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansado, I.P.P.; Goncalves, F.A.M.M.; Nabais, J.M.V.; Ribeiro Carrott, M.M.L.; Carrott, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    A series of activated carbons (AC) with high apparent surface area and very high micropore volumes were prepared from granulated PEEK (poly[oxy-1,4-phenylene-oxy-1,4-phenylene-carbonyl-1,4-phenylene]) by physical activation with CO 2 at different temperatures and different activation times. The carbonisation yields at 873, 1073 and 1173 K were 57, 52 and 51%. As the activation temperature increased, between 873 and 1173 K, the burn-off, the micropore volume and mean pore size increased too. Those prepared at 1173 K, with 74% burn-off, present an extremely high apparent surface area (2874 m 2 g - 1 ) and a very high micropore volume (1.27 cm 3 g - 1 ). The presence of pyrone groups, identified by FTIR, on the AC surface corroborates the prevalence of a basic point of zero charge, always higher than 9.2. The thermal stability was checked by thermogravimetric analysis and as the carbonisation temperature increased the thermal stability of the char increased too. All AC obtained from PEEK by physical activation at 1173 K are thermally resistant, as at 1073 K the loss of the initial mass was less than 15%. The collective results confirm that PEEK is an excellent precursor for preparing AC with a high carbonisation yield, a high micropore volume and apparent surface area and a very high resistance at elevated temperature. (author)

  14. COMT Val158Met, but not BDNF Val66Met, is associated with white matter abnormalities of the temporal lobe in patients with first-episode, treatment-naïve major depressive disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Hayashi,1 Reiji Yoshimura,1 Shingo Kakeda,2 Taro Kishi,3 Osamu Abe,4 Wakako Umene-Nakano,1 Asuka Katsuki,1 Hikaru Hori,1 Atsuko Ikenouchi-Sugita,1 Keita Watanabe,2 Satoru Ide,2 Issei Ueda,2 Junji Moriya,2 Nakao Iwata,3 Yukunori Korogi,2 Marek Kubicki,5 Jun Nakamura1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 4Department of Radiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 5Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: We investigated the association between the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene, the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, and white matter changes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy subjects using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We studied 30 patients with MDD (17 males and 13 females, with mean age ± standard deviation [SD] =44±12 years and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (17 males and 13 females, aged 44±13 years. Using DTI analysis with a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS approach, we investigated the differences in fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity distribution among the three groups (patients with the COMT gene Val158Met, those with the BDNF gene Val66Met, and the healthy subjects. In a voxel-wise-based group comparison, we found significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity within the temporal lobe white matter in the Met-carriers with MDD compared with the controls (P<0.05. No correlations in fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, or radial diffusivity were observed between the MDD patients and the controls, either among those with the BDNF Val/Val genotype or among the BDNF Met-carriers. These results suggest an association

  15. Developmental activities of the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting ECR ion source, PKDELIS, for the high current injector at IUAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.; Lakshmy, P.S.; Mathur, Y.; Ahuja, R.; Dutt, R.N.; Rao, U.K.; Mandal, A.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2011-01-01

    Various developmental activities of the 18 GHz High Temperature Superconducting ECR Ion Source, PKDELIS have been carried out as a part of the High Current Injector programme. Emittance measurements using a simple technique has given important inputs for the design of downstream accelerators like RFQ, DTL and low beta cavities. The techniques allows for emittance matching by varying the emittance parameters to match with the acceptance of the accelerators. X-ray Beamstrahlung measurements from ECR plasma has shown that it is a diagnostic tool to optimize the production of highly charged ions. The ion optics through the low energy beam transport section has been benchmarked with various codes and given a handle to optimize the transmission. New techniques to improve the extraction efficiency of highly charged ions has been developed. (author)

  16. Compound Structure-Independent Activity Prediction in High-Dimensional Target Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfer, Jenny; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Profiling of compound libraries against arrays of targets has become an important approach in pharmaceutical research. The prediction of multi-target compound activities also represents an attractive task for machine learning with potential for drug discovery applications. Herein, we have explored activity prediction in high-dimensional target space. Different types of models were derived to predict multi-target activities. The models included naïve Bayesian (NB) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers based upon compound structure information and NB models derived on the basis of activity profiles, without considering compound structure. Because the latter approach can be applied to incomplete training data and principally depends on the feature independence assumption, SVM modeling was not applicable in this case. Furthermore, iterative hybrid NB models making use of both activity profiles and compound structure information were built. In high-dimensional target space, NB models utilizing activity profile data were found to yield more accurate activity predictions than structure-based NB and SVM models or hybrid models. An in-depth analysis of activity profile-based models revealed the presence of correlation effects across different targets and rationalized prediction accuracy. Taken together, the results indicate that activity profile information can be effectively used to predict the activity of test compounds against novel targets. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: Annual activity report (January 2010 - December 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a description of the operation of the French 'High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety' (HCTISN), of its missions, its organisation and its means, the progress report presents the High Committee activity for 2010 with summaries of its report on the transparency of nuclear material and waste management, its meetings, its work groups, its visits and participations to other events

  18. Calculation of radiation production of high specific activity isotopes 192Ir and 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Quan; Zhong Wenfa; Xu Xiaolin

    1997-01-01

    The high specific activity isotopes: 192 Ir and 60 Co in the high neutron flux reactor are calculated with the method of reactor physics. The results of calculation are analyzed in two aspects: the production of isotopes and the influence to parameters of the reactor, and hence a better case is proposed as a reference to the production

  19. Fashion Design: Designing a Learner-Active, Multi-Level High School Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A high school fashion design teacher has much in common with the ringmaster of a three-ring circus. The challenges of teaching a hands-on course are to facilitate the entire class and to meet the needs of individual students. When teaching family and consumer sciences, the goal is to have a learner-active classroom. Revamping the high school's…

  20. Effects of Music on Physical Activity Rates of Junior High School Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Lindsey; Barney, David C.; Prusak, Keven A.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Music is an everyday occurrence in a person's life. Music is heard in the workplace, in homes, and in the mall. Music can also be heard as a person exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music on junior high students (n = 305) step counts and time in activity in junior high school physical education classes.…

  1. Effects of Implementing STEM-I Project-Based Learning Activities for Female High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…

  2. How Do Junior High School Students Utilize Interactional Strategies in Speaking Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayatul Avia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interactional strategies are very important especially for English as a foreign language learners which can help the learners negotiate of the meaning during the interaction in speaking activity. The aim of this research is to analyze the interactional strategies (ISs utilized by three students at different levels (Low, Average, High in speaking activity at the eighth grade students of SMP Islam As-Sakinah Sidoarjo. This research uses qualitative descriptive as a research design, which all of the data are obtained through observation and interview for three students at different level such as low level learner (LLL, average level learner (ALL and high level learner (HLL. In brief, the results of this research show that LLL uses all aspects of interactional strategies in her speaking activity, average level learner (ALL uses some aspects of interactional strategies and high level learner (HLL almost never use the aspects of interactional strategies in his speaking activities.

  3. The effect of high pressure on the intracellular trehalose synthase activity of Thermus aquaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yongsheng; Ma, Lei; Duan, Yuanliang

    2016-01-01

    To understand the effect of high pressure on the intracellular trehalose synthase activity, Thermus aquaticus (T. aquaticus) in the logarithmic growth phase was treated with high-pressure air, and its intracellular trehalose synthase (TSase) activity was determined. Our results indicated that pressure is a factor strongly affecting the cell growth. High pressure significantly attenuated the growth rate of T. aquaticus and shortened the duration of stationary phase. However, after 2 h of culture under 1.0 MPa pressure, the activity of intracellular TSase in T. aquaticus reached its maximum value, indicating that pressure can significantly increase the activity of intracellular TSase in T. aquaticus. Thus the present study provides an important guide for the enzymatic production of trehalose.

  4. Preparation of high specific activity labelled triiodothyronine (T3) for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Nagvekar, U.H.; Desai, C.N.; Mani, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    A method standardized for the preparation of high specific activity labelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) is discussed. Iodine-125 labelled T 3 with a specific activity of 3 mCi μg was prepared by iodinating 3,5-diiodothyronine (T 2 ) and purifying it over Sephadex G-25 gel. Radochemical purity and stability evaluations were done by paper chromatography. Specific activity of the labelled T 3 prepared was estimated by the self-displacement method. The use of this high specific activity labelled T 3 in radioimmunoassay increased the sensitivity considerably. The advantage of this procedure is that the specific activity of labelled T 3 formed is independent of reaction yield and labelled T 3 yield. (author)

  5. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  6. Tumorigenesis induced by the HHV8-encoded chemokine receptor requires ligand modulation of high constitutive activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, P J; Rosenkilde, M M; Manfra, D

    2001-01-01

    sarcoma (KS). Here we demonstrate that several lines of mice carrying mutated receptors deficient in either constitutive activity or chemokine regulation fail to develop KS-like disease. In addition, animals expressing a receptor that preserves chemokine binding and constitutive activity but that does...... not respond to agonist stimulation have a much lower incidence of angiogenic lesions and tumors. These results indicate that induction of the KS-like disease in transgenic mice by ORF74 requires not only high constitutive signaling activity but also modulation of this activity by endogenous chemokines....

  7. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara, E-mail: hmjena@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbons have been prepared from Fox nutshell with chemical activation using ZnCl{sub 2}. • The thermal behavior of the raw material and impregnated raw material has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. • The characterizations of the prepared activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, FTIR, XRD, and FESEM. • The BET surface area and total pore volume of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2869 m{sup 2}/g, 2124 m{sup 2}/g, and 1.96 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. • The microporous surface area, micropore volume, and microporosity percentage of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2124 m{sup 2}/g, 1.68 cm{sup 3}/g, and 85.71%, respectively. - Abstract: High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl{sub 2}/Fox nutshell) ratios (1–2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500–700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at −196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m{sup 2}/g, 2124 m{sup 2}/g, 1.96 cm{sup 3}/g, and 1.68 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  8. Influence of mature men way of life on highly intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Pryshva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly intensive physical activity is the most effective for men’s health protection. In modern life conditions its level is insufficient. It requires organism’s appropriate physical activity, which is determined by way of life. Especially important it is before trainings. Purpose: to study special aspects of different intensity’s physical activity; of eating special food and sleeping regime of mature men before their highly intensive physical trainings. Material: in experiment men (n=26, age - 35-53years, who practice healthy life style and independent physical activity of high intensity, participated. We used bio-register Basis B1. Every day we registered: Peak - physical activity of different intensity; duration and quality of sleep; relative weight of consumed food. Besides, we calculated body mass index and physical condition. The study was conducted during 30 days in winter period. The following results were compared: indicators before not planned physical activity and average-monthly indicators. Results: Before arbitrary physical functioning we found in men: confident weakening of average intensity (by 9-11% and low intensity (by 10% physical activity; confident increase of consumed food’s relative weight (by 6.82%, vegetarian food (by 10.64% and raw food (by 7.61%; confident reduction of animal origin food (by 8.7%. No changes were found in duration and quality of sleep before highly intensive physical functioning. Conclusions: specific features of mature men’s way of life before their not planned highly intensive physical functioning are as follows: reduction of general physical activity; increase of consumed food. These factors facilitate energy accumulation in organism for its realization in highly intensive physical functioning the next day.

  9. Spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in northwestern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabet Lilia Estallo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. METHODOLOGY: Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005-2007. Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran's Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC=0.77, obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist

  10. Research Activity in Computational Physics utilizing High Performance Computing: Co-authorship Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sul-Ah; Jung, Youngim

    2016-10-01

    The research activities of the computational physicists utilizing high performance computing are analyzed by bibliometirc approaches. This study aims at providing the computational physicists utilizing high-performance computing and policy planners with useful bibliometric results for an assessment of research activities. In order to achieve this purpose, we carried out a co-authorship network analysis of journal articles to assess the research activities of researchers for high-performance computational physics as a case study. For this study, we used journal articles of the Scopus database from Elsevier covering the time period of 2004-2013. We extracted the author rank in the physics field utilizing high-performance computing by the number of papers published during ten years from 2004. Finally, we drew the co-authorship network for 45 top-authors and their coauthors, and described some features of the co-authorship network in relation to the author rank. Suggestions for further studies are discussed.

  11. Preparation of High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Spent Phenolic Resin by Microwave Heating and KOH Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Song; Zhang, Libo; Zhang, Shengzhou; Xia, Hongying; Peng, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    The spent phenolic resin is as raw material for preparing high surface area activated carbon (HSAAC) by microwave-assisted KOH activation. The effects of microwave power, activation duration and impregnation ratio (IR) on the iodine adsorption capability and yield of HSAAC were investigated. The surface characteristics of HSAAC were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The operating variables were optimized utilizing the response surface methodology (RSM) and were identified to be microwave power of 700 W, activation duration of 15 min and IR of 4, corresponding to a yield of 51.25 % and an iodine number of 2,384 mg/g. The pore structure parameters of the HSAAC, i. e., Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter were estimated to be 4,269 m2/g, 2.396 ml/g and 2.25 nm, respectively, under optimum conditions. The findings strongly support the feasibility of microwave-assisted KOH activation for preparation of HSAAC from spent phenolic resin.

  12. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry Analysis of High Antioxidant Australian Fruits with Antiproliferative Activity Against Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdaarta, Joseph; Maen, Anton; Rayan, Paran; Matthews, Ben; Cock, Ian Edwin

    2016-05-01

    High antioxidant capacities have been linked to the treatment and prevention of several cancers. Recent reports have identified several native Australian fruits with high antioxidant capacities. Despite this, several of these species are yet to be tested for anticancer activity. Solvent extracts prepared from high antioxidant native Australian fruits were analyzed for antioxidant capacity by the di (phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium free radical scavenging assay. Antiproliferative activities against CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cells were determined by a multicellular tumor spheroid-based cell proliferation assay. Toxicity was determined by Artemia franciscana bioassay. Methanolic extracts of all plant species displayed high antioxidant contents (equivalent to approximately 7-16 mg of vitamin C per gram of fruit extracted). Most aqueous extracts also contained relatively high antioxidant capacities. In contrast, the ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extracts of most species (except lemon aspen and bush tomato) had lower antioxidant contents (below 1.5 mg of vitamin C equivalents per gram of plant material extracted). The antioxidant contents correlated with the ability of the extracts to inhibit proliferation of CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The high antioxidant methanolic extracts of all species were potent inhibitors of cell proliferation. The methanolic lemon aspen extract was particularly effective, with IC50 values of 480 and 769 μg/mL against HeLa and CaCo2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the lower antioxidant ethyl acetate and hexane extracts (except the lemon aspen ethyl acetate extract) generally did not inhibit cancer cell proliferation or inhibited to only a minor degree. Indeed, most of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts induced potent cell proliferation. The native tamarind ethyl acetate extract displayed low-moderate toxicity in the A. franciscana bioassay (LC50 values below 1000 μg/mL). All other extracts were nontoxic. A total of

  13. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry Analysis of High Antioxidant Australian Fruits with Antiproliferative Activity Against Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdaarta, Joseph; Maen, Anton; Rayan, Paran; Matthews, Ben; Cock, Ian Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Background: High antioxidant capacities have been linked to the treatment and prevention of several cancers. Recent reports have identified several native Australian fruits with high antioxidant capacities. Despite this, several of these species are yet to be tested for anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: Solvent extracts prepared from high antioxidant native Australian fruits were analyzed for antioxidant capacity by the di (phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium free radical scavenging assay. Antiproliferative activities against CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cells were determined by a multicellular tumor spheroid-based cell proliferation assay. Toxicity was determined by Artemia franciscana bioassay. Results: Methanolic extracts of all plant species displayed high antioxidant contents (equivalent to approximately 7–16 mg of vitamin C per gram of fruit extracted). Most aqueous extracts also contained relatively high antioxidant capacities. In contrast, the ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extracts of most species (except lemon aspen and bush tomato) had lower antioxidant contents (below 1.5 mg of vitamin C equivalents per gram of plant material extracted). The antioxidant contents correlated with the ability of the extracts to inhibit proliferation of CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The high antioxidant methanolic extracts of all species were potent inhibitors of cell proliferation. The methanolic lemon aspen extract was particularly effective, with IC50 values of 480 and 769 μg/mL against HeLa and CaCo2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the lower antioxidant ethyl acetate and hexane extracts (except the lemon aspen ethyl acetate extract) generally did not inhibit cancer cell proliferation or inhibited to only a minor degree. Indeed, most of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts induced potent cell proliferation. The native tamarind ethyl acetate extract displayed low-moderate toxicity in the A. franciscana bioassay (LC50 values below 1000

  14. Simultaneous pore enlargement and introduction of highly dispersed Fe active sites in MSNs for enhanced catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jinlou; Dong Xu; Elangovan, S.P.; Li Yongsheng; Zhao Wenru; Iijima, Toshio; Yamazaki, Yasuo; Shi Jianlin

    2012-01-01

    An effective post-hydrothermal treatment strategy has been developed to dope highly dispersed iron catalytical centers into the framework of mesoporous silica, to keep the particle size in nanometric scale, and in the meanwhile, to expand the pore size of the synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). Characterization techniques such as XRD, BET, SEM and TEM support that the synthesized samples are long period ordered with particles size about 100 nm and a relatively large pore size of ca. 3.5 nm. UV–vis, XPS and EPR measurements demonstrate that the introduced iron active centers are highly dispersed in a coordinatively unsaturated status. NH 3 -TPD verifies that the acid amount of iron-doped MSNs is quite high. The synthesized nanocatalysts show an excellent catalytic performance for benzylation of benzene by benzyl chloride, and they present relatively higher yield and selectivity to diphenylmethane with a lower iron content and much shorter reaction time. - Graphical abstract: Uniform MSNs with iron active centers and large pore size have been prepared by a newly developed strategy, which demonstrates enhanced catalytic performance for benzylation of benzene by benzyl chloride. Highlights: ► Iron species were introduced into the framework of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with uniform dispersion. ► The pore sizes of the synthesized nanocatalysts were expanded. ► The acidic site quantities were quite high and the acidic centers were accessible. ► The nanocatalysts presented higher yield and selectivity to diphenylmethane with significantly lower Fe content.

  15. Inquiry-based Laboratory Activities on Drugs Analysis for High School Chemistry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, I.; Sholichin, H.; Arifin, M.

    2017-09-01

    Laboratory activity is an important part of chemistry learning, but cookbook instructions is still commonly used. However, the activity with that way do not improve students thinking skill, especially students creativity. This study aims to improve high school students creativity through inquiry-based laboratory on drugs analysis activity. Acid-base titration is used to be method for drugs analysis involving a color changing indicator. The following tools were used to assess the activity achievement: creative thinking test on acid base titration, creative attitude and action observation sheets, questionnaire of inquiry-based lab activities, and interviews. The results showed that the inquiry-based laboratory activity improving students creative thinking, creative attitude and creative action. The students reacted positively to this teaching strategy as demonstrated by results from questionnaire responses and interviews. This result is expected to help teachers to overcome the shortcomings in other laboratory learning.

  16. High-performance super capacitors based on activated anthracite with controlled porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang-Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2015-02-01

    Mongolian anthracite is chemically activated using potassium hydroxide as an activation agent to make activated carbon materials. Prior to the chemical activation, the chemical agent is introduced by two different methods as follows, (1) simple physical mixing, (2) impregnation. The physical properties such as specific surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and adsorption energy distribution are measured to assess them as carbon electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC). The surface functional groups and morphology are also characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses respectively. The electrochemical results for the activated carbon electrodes in 3 M sulfuric acid electrolyte solution indicate that the activated Mongolian anthracite has relatively large specific capacitances in the range of 120-238 F g-1 and very high electrochemical stability, as they keep more than 98% of initial capacitances until 1000 charge/discharge cycles.

  17. The role of high-frequency oscillatory activity in reward processing and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Münte, Thomas F; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-02-01

    Oscillatory activity has been proposed as a key mechanism in the integration of brain activity of distant structures. Particularly, high frequency brain oscillatory activity in the beta and gamma range has received increasing interest in the domains of attention and memory. In addition, a number of recent studies have revealed an increase of beta-gamma activity (20-35 Hz) after unexpected or relevant positive reward outcomes. In the present manuscript we review the literature on this phenomenon and we propose that this activity is a brain signature elicited by unexpected positive outcomes in order to transmit a fast motivational value signal to the reward network. In addition, we hypothesize that beta-gamma oscillatory activity indexes the interaction between attentional and emotional systems, and that it directly reflects the appearance of unexpected positive rewards in learning-related contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High efficiency of CO2-activated graphite felt as electrode for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chung; Chen, Jian-Yu; Kabtamu, Daniel Manaye; Lin, Guan-Yi; Hsu, Ning-Yih; Chou, Yi-Sin; Wei, Hwa-Jou; Wang, Chen-Hao

    2017-10-01

    A simple method for preparing CO2-activated graphite felt as an electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was employed by the direct treatment in a CO2 atmosphere at a high temperature for a short period. The CO2-activated graphite felt demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity and reversibility. The VRFB using the CO2-activated graphite felts in the electrodes has coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies of 94.52%, 88.97%, and 84.15%, respectively, which is much higher than VRFBs using the electrodes of untreated graphite felt and N2-activated graphite felt. The efficiency enhancement was attributed to the higher number of oxygen-containing functional groups on the graphite felt that are formed during the CO2-activation, leading to improving the electrochemical behaviour of the resultant VRFB.

  19. Polimorfismo Val108/158Met en el gen dopaminérgico catecol-o-metil transferasa (COMT en una población mixta peruana y su importancia para los estudios neuropsiquiátricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Huerta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El gen dopaminérgico catecol-o-metil transferasa (COMT, tiene un polimorfismo funcional Val108/158Met que da lugar a variantes de la enzima que cataliza la o-metilación de las catecolaminas activas, participando en el metabolismo de las drogas y neurotransmisores, como la L-dopa, norepinefrina, epinefrina y dopamina y, por consiguiente, puede asociarse a condiciones neuropsiquiátricas. Objetivos: Determinar las frecuencias genotípicas y alélicas del polimorfismo Val108/158Met del gen COMT en sujetos saludables de una población mixta peruana y establecer las implicancias para el estudio genético de enfermedades y otras condiciones neuropsiquiátricas. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal. Lugar: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición ‘Alberto Guzmán Barrón’. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes: Ciento seis personas, hombres y mujeres, clínicamente saludables, sin enfermedades neurológicas ni mentales u otra patología similar, voluntarios con consentimiento informado, sin relación de parentesco, todos residentes en Lima, cuyas edades fluctuaban entre los 18 y 50 años. Intervenciones: Extracción del ADN genómico a partir de células de epitelio bucal, según metodología estándar. Amplificación mediante la PCR con primers específicos y digestión con la enzima de restricción NlaIII. Detección de fragmentos de restricción de longitud polimórfica (RFLP por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida al 6%, teñido con nitrato de plata. Principales medidas de resultados: Frecuencias genotípicas y alélicas del gen COMT en población mixta peruana. Resultados: Se encontró las frecuencias genotípicas Met/Met=0,0661, Val/Met=0,5094 y Val/Val=0,4245, siendo la distribución consistente con el equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (X² =3,0317, g.l.=1, p >0,05. Las frecuencias alélicas encontradas fueron alelo Val=0,68 y el alelo Met=0

  20. A Studi on High Plant Systems Course with Active Learning in Higher Education Through Outdoor Learning to Increase Student Learning Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Rokhimah Hanik, Anwari Adi Nugroho

    2015-01-01

    Biology learning especially high plant system courses needs to be applied to active learning centered on the student (Active Learning In Higher Education) to enhance the students' learning activities so that the quality of learning for the better. Outdoor Learning is one of the active learning invites students to learn outside of the classroom by exploring the surrounding environment. This research aims to improve the students' learning activities in the course of high plant systems through t...

  1. Outdoor Activity and High Altitude Exposure During Pregnancy: A Survey of 459 Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Linda E; Hackett, Peter H; Luks, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate whether women engage in outdoor activities and high altitude travel during pregnancy; the health care advice received regarding high altitude during pregnancy; and the association between high altitude exposure and self-reported pregnancy complications. An online survey of women with at least 1 pregnancy distributed on websites and e-mail lists targeting mothers and/or mountain activities. Outcome measures were outdoor activities during pregnancy, high altitude (>2440 m) exposure during pregnancy, and pregnancy and perinatal complications. Hiking, running, and swimming were the most common activities performed during pregnancy. Women traveled to high altitude in over half of the pregnancies (244/459), and most did not receive counseling regarding altitude (355, 77%), although a small proportion (14, 3%) were told not to go above 2440 m. Rates of miscarriage and most other complications were similar between pregnancies with and without travel above 2440 m. Pregnancies with high altitude exposure were more likely to have preterm labor (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% CI 0.97-5.4; P = .05). Babies born to women who went to high altitude during pregnancy were more likely to need oxygen at birth (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.04-5.26; P sports and travel to high altitude have a low rate of complications. Given the limitations of our data, further research is necessary on the risks associated with high altitude travel and physical activity and how these apply to the general population. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High-intensity erotic visual stimuli de-activate the primary visual cortex in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hieu K; Beers, Caroline; Willemsen, Antoon; Lont, Erna; Laan, Ellen; Dierckx, Rudi; Jansen, Monique; Sand, Michael; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord; Holstege, Gert

    2012-06-01

    The primary visual cortex, Brodmann's area (BA 17), plays a vital role in basic survival mechanisms in humans. In most neuro-imaging studies in which the volunteers have to watch pictures or movies, the primary visual cortex is similarly activated independent of the content of the pictures or movies. However, in case the volunteers perform demanding non-visual tasks, the primary visual cortex becomes de-activated, although the amount of incoming visual sensory information is the same. Do low- and high-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies, produce similar de-activation of the primary visual cortex? Brain activation/de-activation was studied by Positron Emission Tomography scanning of the brains of 12 healthy heterosexual premenopausal women, aged 18-47, who watched neutral, low- and high-intensity erotic film segments. We measured differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the primary visual cortex during watching neutral, low-intensity erotic, and high-intensity erotic film segments. Watching high-intensity erotic, but not low-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies resulted in strong de-activation of the primary (BA 17) and adjoining parts of the secondary visual cortex. The strong de-activation during watching high-intensity erotic film might represent compensation for the increased blood supply in the brain regions involved in sexual arousal, also because high-intensity erotic movies do not require precise scanning of the visual field, because the impact is clear to the observer. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Polyfurfuryl alcohol derived activated carbons for high power electrical double layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, V. [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia); Pandolfo, A.G., E-mail: tony.pandolfo@csiro.a [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)

    2010-10-30

    Polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) derived activated carbons were prepared by the acid catalysed polymerization of furfuryl alcohol, followed by potassium hydroxide activation. Activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas ranging from 1070 to 2600 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and corresponding average micropore sizes between 0.6 and 1.6 nm were obtained. The porosity of these carbons can be carefully controlled during activation and their performance as electrode materials in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1 M Et{sub 4}NBF{sub 4}/ACN) is investigated. Carbon materials with a low average pore size (<{approx}0.6 nm) exhibited electrolyte accessibility issues and an associated decrease in capacitance at high charging rates. PFA carbons with larger average pore sizes exhibited greatly improved performance, with specific electrode capacitances of 150 F g{sup -1} at an operating voltage window of 0-2.5 V; which corresponds to 32 Wh kg{sup -1} and 38 kW kg{sup -1} on an active material basis. These carbons also displayed an outstanding performance at high current densities delivering up to 100 F g{sup -1} at current densities as high as 250 A g{sup -1}. The exceptionally high capacitance and power of this electrode material is attributed to its good electronic conductivity and a highly effective combination of micro- and fine mesoporosity.

  4. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  5. Activated Protein C Attenuates Severe Inflammation by Targeting VLA-3high Neutrophil Subpopulation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Pranita P; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lerman, Yelena V; Trzeciak, Alissa; Harrower, Eric J; Rezaie, Alireza R; Kim, Minsoo

    2017-10-15

    The host injury involved in multiorgan system failure during severe inflammation is mediated, in part, by massive infiltration and sequestration of hyperactive neutrophils in the visceral organ. A recombinant form of human activated protein C (rhAPC) has shown cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory functions in some clinical and animal studies, but the direct mechanism is not fully understood. Recently, we reported that, during endotoxemia and severe polymicrobial peritonitis, integrin VLA-3 (CD49c/CD29) is specifically upregulated on hyperinflammatory neutrophils and that targeting the VLA-3 high neutrophil subpopulation improved survival in mice. In this article, we report that rhAPC binds to human neutrophils via integrin VLA-3 (CD49c/CD29) with a higher affinity compared with other Arg-Gly-Asp binding integrins. Similarly, there is preferential binding of activated protein C (PC) to Gr1 high CD11b high VLA-3 high cells isolated from the bone marrow of septic mice. Furthermore, specific binding of rhAPC to human neutrophils via VLA-3 was inhibited by an antagonistic peptide (LXY2). In addition, genetically modified mutant activated PC, with a high affinity for VLA-3, shows significantly improved binding to neutrophils compared with wild-type activated PC and significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration into the lungs of septic mice. These data indicate that variants of activated PC have a stronger affinity for integrin VLA-3, which reveals novel therapeutic possibilities. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Shielding design of highly activated sample storage at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Julia Abdul Karim; Mohamad Hairie Rabir; Muhd Husamuddin Abdul Khalil; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh

    2010-01-01

    Radiation protection has always been one of the most important things considered in Reaktor Triga PUSPATI (RTP) management. Currently, demands on sample activation were increased from variety of applicant in different research field area. Radiological hazard may occur if the samples evaluation done were misjudge or miscalculated. At present, there is no appropriate storage for highly activated samples. For that purpose, special irradiated samples storage box should be provided in order to segregate highly activated samples that produce high dose level and typical activated samples that produce lower dose level (1 - 2 mR/ hr). In this study, thickness required by common shielding material such as lead and concrete to reduce highly activated radiotracer sample (potassium bromide) with initial exposure dose of 5 R/ hr to background level (0.05 mR/ hr) were determined. Analyses were done using several methods including conventional shielding equation, half value layer calculation and Micro shield computer code. Design of new irradiated samples storage box for RTP that capable to contain high level gamma radioactivity were then proposed. (author)

  7. Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn REYES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between urease and arginine deiminase system (ADS activities and dental caries through a cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: Urease and ADS activities were measured in saliva and plaque samples from 10 caries-free subjects and 13 caries-active. Urease activity was obtained from the ammonia produced by incubation of plaque and saliva samples in urea. ADS activity was obtained from the ammonia generated by the arginine-HCl and Tris-maleate buffer. Specific activity was defined as micromoles of ammonia per minute per milligram of protein. Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to analyze the distribution of the data, and Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the significance of the data. Results: The specific urease activity in saliva and plaque was significantly higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. ADS activity in saliva (6.050 vs 1.350, p=0.0154 and plaque (8.830 vs 1.210, p=0.025 was also higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. Conclusions: Caries-free subjects had a higher ammonia generation activity by urease and arginine deiminase system for both saliva and plaque samples than low caries-active subjects. High levels of alkali production in oral environment were related to caries-free subjects.

  8. Peak activation of lower limb musculature during high flexion kneeling and transitional movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, David C; Tennant, Liana M; Chong, Helen C; Acker, Stacey M

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have measured lower limb muscle activation during high knee flexion or investigated the effects of occupational safety footwear. Therefore, our understanding of injury and disease mechanisms, such as knee osteoarthritis, is limited for these high-risk postures. Peak activation was assessed in eight bilateral lower limb muscles for twelve male participants, while shod or barefoot. Transitions between standing and kneeling had peak quadriceps and tibialis anterior (TA) activations above 50% MVC. Static kneeling and simulated tasks performed when kneeling had peak TA activity above 15% MVC but below 10% MVC for remaining muscles. In three cases, peak muscle activity was significantly higher (mean 8.9% MVC) when shod. However, net compressive knee joint forces may not be significantly increased when shod. EMG should be used as a modelling input when estimating joint contact forces for these postures, considering the activation levels in the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles during transitions. Practitioner Summary: Kneeling transitional movements are used in activities of daily living and work but are linked to increased knee osteoarthritis risk. We found peak EMG activity of some lower limb muscles to be over 70% MVC during transitions and minimal influence of wearing safety footwear.

  9. ADAR2 editing activity in newly diagnosed versus relapsed pediatric high-grade astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaselli, Sara; Galeano, Federica; Massimi, Luca; Di Rocco, Concezio; Lauriola, Libero; Mastronuzzi, Angela; Locatelli, Franco; Gallo, Angela

    2013-01-01

    High-grade (WHO grade III and IV) astrocytomas are aggressive malignant brain tumors affecting humans with a high risk of recurrence in both children and adults. To date, limited information is available on the genetic and molecular alterations important in the onset and progression of pediatric high-grade astrocytomas and, even less, on the prognostic factors that influence long-term outcome in children with recurrence. A-to-I RNA editing is an essential post-transcriptional mechanism that can alter the nucleotide sequence of several RNAs and is mediated by the ADAR enzymes. ADAR2 editing activity is particularly important in mammalian brain and is impaired in both adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas. Moreover, we have recently shown that the recovered ADAR2 activity in high-grade astrocytomas inhibits in vivo tumor growth. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether changes may occur in ADAR2-mediated RNA editing profiles of relapsed high-grade astrocytomas compared to their respective specimens collected at diagnosis, in four pediatric patients. Total RNAs extracted from all tumor samples and controls were tested for RNA editing levels (by direct sequencing on cDNA pools) and for ADAR2 mRNA expression (by qRT-PCR). A significant loss of ADAR2-editing activity was observed in the newly diagnosed and recurrent astrocytomas in comparison to normal brain. Surprisingly, we found a substantial rescue of ADAR2 editing activity in the relapsed tumor of the only patient showing prolonged survival. High-grade astrocytomas display a generalized loss of ADAR2-mediated RNA editing at both diagnosis and relapse. However, a peculiar Case, in complete remission of disease, displayed a total rescue of RNA editing at relapse, intriguingly suggesting ADAR2 activity/expression as a possible marker for long-term survival of patients with high-grade astrocytomas

  10. Direct electrical stimulation of human cortex evokes high gamma activity that predicts conscious somatosensory perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Leah; Rolston, John D.; Fox, Neal P.; Knowlton, Robert; Rao, Vikram R.; Chang, Edward F.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a clinical gold standard for human brain mapping and readily evokes conscious percepts, yet the neurophysiological changes underlying these percepts are not well understood. Approach. To determine the neural correlates of DES, we stimulated the somatosensory cortex of ten human participants at frequency-amplitude combinations that both elicited and failed to elicit conscious percepts, meanwhile recording neural activity directly surrounding the stimulation site. We then compared the neural activity of perceived trials to that of non-perceived trials. Main results. We found that stimulation evokes distributed high gamma activity, which correlates with conscious perception better than stimulation parameters themselves. Significance. Our findings suggest that high gamma activity is a reliable biomarker for perception evoked by both natural and electrical stimuli.

  11. Active Boundary Layer Control on a Highly Loaded Turbine Exit Case Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kurz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A highly loaded turbine exit guide vane with active boundary layer control was investigated experimentally in the High Speed Cascade Wind Tunnel at the University of the German Federal Armed Forces, Munich. The experiments include profile Mach number distributions, wake traverse measurements as well as boundary layer investigations with a flattened Pitot probe. Active boundary layer control by fluidic oscillators was applied to achieve improved performance in the low Reynolds number regime. Low solidity, which can be applied to reduce the number of blades, increases the risk of flow separation resulting in increased total pressure losses. Active boundary layer control is supposed to overcome these negative effects. The experiments show that active boundary layer control by fluidic oscillators is an appropriate way to suppress massive open separation bubbles in the low Reynolds number regime.

  12. Inactive experiments for advanced separation processes prior to high activity trials in ATALANTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamet, Jean; Lanoe, Jean-Yves; Rivalier, Patrick; Borda, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    Many trials have been performed in ATALANTE's shielded cells to demonstrate the technical feasibility of processes involving minor actinide separation. They required developments of new extractors as well as a step by step procedure have been used to lower the risks of malfunction during high active operation. The design of the extractors developed by Cea has included shielded cells restrictions, miniaturization to lower the quantity of high active material and wastes and the care for being representative of industrial equipment. After individual shake down inactive tests, with actual phases, each process experiment scheduled in ATALANTE has been tested at G1 Facility in Marcoule. The objective was to reproduce as much as possible all the equipment chosen for active tests. This procedure has demonstrated its efficiency to detect many problems that would have heavy impact if they have been discovered during active trials. It was also used for operators'training. (authors)

  13. High content analysis of phagocytic activity and cell morphology with PuntoMorph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Ali, Hassan; Gao, Han; Dalby-Hansen, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    methods for quantifying phagocytic activity in multiple dimensions including speed, accuracy, and resolution. Conclusions We provide a framework to facilitate the development of high content assays suitable for drug screening. For convenience, we implemented our algorithm in a standalone software package...... with image-based quantification of phagocytic activity. New method We present a robust algorithm and cell-based assay system for high content analysis of phagocytic activity. The method utilizes fluorescently labeled beads as a phagocytic substrate with defined physical properties. The algorithm employs...... content screening. Results We tested our assay system using microglial cultures. Our results recapitulated previous findings on the effects of microglial stimulation on cell morphology and phagocytic activity. Moreover, our cell-level analysis revealed that the two phenotypes associated with microglial...

  14. High inorganic triphosphatase activities in bacteria and mammalian cells: identification of the enzymes involved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Kohn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently characterized a specific inorganic triphosphatase (PPPase from Nitrosomonas europaea. This enzyme belongs to the CYTH superfamily of proteins. Many bacterial members of this family are annotated as predicted adenylate cyclases, because one of the founding members is CyaB adenylate cyclase from A. hydrophila. The aim of the present study is to determine whether other members of the CYTH protein family also have a PPPase activity, if there are PPPase activities in animal tissues and what enzymes are responsible for these activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recombinant enzymes were expressed and purified as GST- or His-tagged fusion proteins and the enzyme activities were determined by measuring the release of inorganic phosphate. We show that the hitherto uncharacterized E. coli CYTH protein ygiF is a specific PPPase, but it contributes only marginally to the total PPPase activity in this organism, where the main enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of inorganic triphosphate (PPP(i is inorganic pyrophosphatase. We further show that CyaB hydrolyzes PPP(i but this activity is low compared to its adenylate cyclase activity. Finally we demonstrate a high PPPase activity in mammalian and quail tissue, particularly in the brain. We show that this activity is mainly due to Prune, an exopolyphosphatase overexpressed in metastatic tumors where it promotes cell motility. CONCLUSIONS AND GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time that PPPase activities are widespread in bacteria and animals. We identified the enzymes responsible for these activities but we were unable to detect significant amounts of PPP(i in E. coli or brain extracts using ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The role of these enzymes may be to hydrolyze PPP(i, which could be cytotoxic because of its high affinity for Ca(2+, thereby interfering with Ca(2+ signaling.

  15. The role of reaction pathways and support interactions in the development of high activity hydrotreating catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Henrik; Hinnemann, Berit; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    structures may be present as single sulfide sheets. Thus, stacking is not an essential feature of Type II catalysts. The article illustrates how the new scientific insight has aided the introduction of the new high activity BRIM (TM) type catalysts for FCC pre-treatment and production of ultra low sulfur...... exhibiting a metallic character are observed to be involved in adsorption, hydrogenation and C-S bond cleavage. The insight is seen to provide a new framework for understanding the DDS and HYD pathways and the role of steric hindrance and poisons. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have illustrated...... how support interactions may influence the activity of sulfided catalysts. The brim sites and the tendency to form vacancies are seen to differ in types I and II Co-Mo-S. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) studies show that the high activity Type II...

  16. New and highly sensitive assay for L-5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase activity by high-performance liquid chromatography-voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M K; Nagatsu, T; Kato, T

    1980-12-12

    This paper describes a new, inexpensive and highly sensitive assay for aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, using L-5-hydroxytryptophan (L-5-HTP) as substrate, in rat and human brains and serum by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with voltammetric detection. L-5-HTP was used as substrate and D-5-HTP for the blank. After isolating serotonin (5-HT) formed enzymatically from L-5-HTP on a small Amberlite CG-50 column, the 5-HT was eluted with hydrochloric acid and assayed by HPLC with a voltammetric detector. N-Methyldopamine was added to each incubation mixture as an internal standard. This method is sensitive enough to measure 5-HT, formed by the enzyme, 100 fmol to 140 pmol or more. An advantage of this method is that one can incubate the enzyme for longer time (up to 150 min), as compared with AADC assay using L-DOPA as substrate, resulting in a very high sensitivity. By using this new method, AADC activity was discovered in rat serum.

  17. Polyfurfuryl alcohol derived activated carbons for high power electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, V.; Pandolfo, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) derived activated carbons were prepared by the acid catalysed polymerization of furfuryl alcohol, followed by potassium hydroxide activation. Activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas ranging from 1070 to 2600 m 2 g -1 , and corresponding average micropore sizes between 0.6 and 1.6 nm were obtained. The porosity of these carbons can be carefully controlled during activation and their performance as electrode materials in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1 M Et 4 NBF 4 /ACN) is investigated. Carbon materials with a low average pore size ( -1 at an operating voltage window of 0-2.5 V; which corresponds to 32 Wh kg -1 and 38 kW kg -1 on an active material basis. These carbons also displayed an outstanding performance at high current densities delivering up to 100 F g -1 at current densities as high as 250 A g -1 . The exceptionally high capacitance and power of this electrode material is attributed to its good electronic conductivity and a highly effective combination of micro- and fine mesoporosity.

  18. Active Learning Strategies for Phenotypic Profiling of High-Content Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin; Horvath, Peter

    2014-06-01

    High-content screening is a powerful method to discover new drugs and carry out basic biological research. Increasingly, high-content screens have come to rely on supervised machine learning (SML) to perform automatic phenotypic classification as an essential step of the analysis. However, this comes at a cost, namely, the labeled examples required to train the predictive model. Classification performance increases with the number of labeled examples, and because labeling examples demands time from an expert, the training process represents a significant time investment. Active learning strategies attempt to overcome this bottleneck by presenting the most relevant examples to the annotator, thereby achieving high accuracy while minimizing the cost of obtaining labeled data. In this article, we investigate the impact of active learning on single-cell-based phenotype recognition, using data from three large-scale RNA interference high-content screens representing diverse phenotypic profiling problems. We consider several combinations of active learning strategies and popular SML methods. Our results show that active learning significantly reduces the time cost and can be used to reveal the same phenotypic targets identified using SML. We also identify combinations of active learning strategies and SML methods which perform better than others on the phenotypic profiling problems we studied. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  19. The role of catechol-O-methyl transferase Val(108/158Met polymorphism (rs4680 in the effect of green tea on resting energy expenditure and fat oxidation: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Hursel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Green tea(GT is able to increase energy expenditure(EE and fat oxidation(FATox via inhibition of catechol-O-methyl transferase(COMT by catechins. However, this does not always appear unanimously because of large inter-individual variability. This may be explained by different alleles of the functional COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism that are associated with COMT enzyme activity; high-activity enzyme, COMT(H(Val/Val genotype, and low-activity COMT(L(Met/Met genotype. METHODS: Fourteen Caucasian subjects (BMI: 22.2±2.3 kg/m2, age: 21.4±2.2 years of whom 7 with the COMT(H-genotype and 7 with the COMT(L-genotype were included in a randomized, cross-over study in which EE and substrate oxidation were measured with a ventilated-hood system after decaffeinated GT and placebo(PL consumption. RESULTS: At baseline, EE, RQ, FATox and carbohydrate oxidation(CHOox did not differ between groups. Significant interactions were observed between COMT genotypes and treatment for RQ, FATox and CHOox (p<0.05. After GT vs. PL, EE(GT: 62.2 vs. PL: 35.4 kJ.3.5 hrs; p<0.01, RQ(GT: 0.80 vs. PL: 0.83; p<0.01, FATox(GT: 18.3 vs. PL: 15.3 g/d; p<0.001 and CHOox(GT: 18.5 vs. PL: 24.3 g/d; p<0.001 were significantly different for subjects carrying the COMT(H genotype, but not for subjects carrying the COMT(L genotype (EE, GT: 60.3 vs. PL: 51.7 kJ.3.5 hrs; NS, (RQ, GT: 0.81 vs. PL: 0.81; NS, (FATox, GT: 17.3 vs. PL: 17.0 g/d; NS, (CHOox, GT: 22.1 vs. PL: 21.4 g/d; NS. CONCLUSION: Subjects carrying the COMT(H genotype increased energy expenditure and fat-oxidation upon ingestion of green tea catechins vs, placebo, whereas COMT(L genotype carriers reacted similarly to GT and PL ingestion. The differences in responses were due to the different responses on PL ingestion, but similar responses to GT ingestion, pointing to different mechanisms. The different alleles of the functional COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism appear to play a role in the inter

  20. Increased premotor cortex activation in high functioning autism during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Tom J; Bittar, Richard G; McGillivray, Jane A; Cox, Ivanna I; Stokes, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    The mirror neuron (MN) hypothesis of autism has received considerable attention, but to date has produced inconsistent findings. Using functional MRI, participants with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome were compared to typically developing individuals (n=12 in each group). Participants passively observed hand gestures that included waving, pointing, and grasping. Concerning the MN network, both groups activated similar regions including prefrontal, inferior parietal and superior temporal regions, with the autism group demonstrating significantly greater activation in the dorsal premotor cortex. Concerning other regions, participants with autism demonstrated increased activity in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, and reduced activation in calcarine, cuneus, and middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that during observation of hand gestures, frontal cortex activation is affected in autism, which we suggest may be linked to abnormal functioning of the MN system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermally activated flux creep in strongly layered high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, S.; Ivlev, B.I.; Ovchinnikov, Y.N.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal activation energies for single vortices and vortex bundles in the presence of a magnetic field parallel to the layers are calculated. The pinning considered is intrinsic and is due to the strongly layered structure of high-temperature superconductors. The magnetic field and the current dependence of the activation energy are studied in detail. The calculation of the activation energy is used to determine the current-voltage characteristic. It may be possible to observe the effects discussed in this paper in a pure enough sample

  2. Chemical stability of a cold-active cellulase with high tolerance toward surfactants and chaotropic agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís V. Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CelE1 is a cold-active endo-acting glucanase with high activity at a broad temperature range and under alkaline conditions. Here, we examined the effects of pH on the secondary and tertiary structures, net charge, and activity of CelE1. Although variation in pH showed a small effect in the enzyme structure, the activity was highly influenced at acidic conditions, while reached the optimum activity at pH 8. Furthermore, to estimate whether CelE1 could be used as detergent additives, CelE1 activity was evaluated in the presence of surfactants. Ionic and nonionic surfactants were not able to reduce CelE1 activity significantly. Therefore, CelE1 was found to be promising candidate for use as detergent additives. Finally, we reported a thermodynamic analysis based on the structural stability and the chemical unfolding/refolding process of CelE1. The results indicated that the chemical unfolding proceeds as a reversible two-state process. These data can be useful for biotechnological applications.

  3. High inorganic phosphate causes DNMT1 phosphorylation and subsequent fibrotic fibroblast activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiaoying [Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Georg August University, Göttingen (Germany); Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Georg August University, Göttingen (Germany); Xu, Xingbo [Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Georg August University, Göttingen (Germany); Zeisberg, Elisabeth M. [Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Georg August University, Göttingen (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Göttingen (Germany); Zeisberg, Michael, E-mail: mzeisberg@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Georg August University, Göttingen (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-04-08

    Phosphate is an essential constituent of critical cellular functions including energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis and phosphorylation-dependent cell signaling. Increased plasma phosphate levels are an independent risk factor for lowered life-expectancy as well as for heart and kidney failure. Nevertheless, direct cellular effects of elevated phosphate concentrations within the microenvironment are poorly understood and have been largely neglected in favor of phosphor-regulatory hormones. Because interstitial fibrosis is the common determinant of chronic progressive kidney disease, and because fibroblasts are major mediators of fibrogenesis, we here explored the effect of high extracellular phosphate levels on renal fibroblasts. We demonstrate that high inorganic phosphate directly induces fibrotic fibroblast activation associated with increased proliferative activity, increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and increased synthesis of type I collagen. We further demonstrate that such fibroblast activation is dependent on phosphate influx, aberrant phosphorylation of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 and aberrant CpG island promoter methylation. In summary, our studies demonstrate that elevated phosphate concentrations induce pro-fibrotic fibroblast activation independent of phospho-regulatory hormones. - Highlights: • We exposed human kidney fibroblasts to media containing 1 mM or 3 mM phosphate. • Increased phosphate influx causes phosphorylation of DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1. • Phosphorylated Dnmt1 causes promoter methylation and transcriptional silencing of RASAL1. • Depletion of RASAL1 causes increased intrinsic Ras-GTP activity and fibroblast activation. • Inorganic phosphate causes fibroblast activation independent of phospho-regulatory hormones.

  4. Changes in Physical Activity Domains During the Transition Out of High School: Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Queralt, Ana; Castillo, Isabel; Sallis, James F

    2015-10-01

    This study examined changes in multiple physical activity domains during the transition out of high school and psychosocial and environmental determinants of these changes. A 1-year prospective study was designed. The baseline sample was composed of 244 last-year high school students (58.6% female) from Valencia, Spain. Follow-up rate was 46%. Physical activity and potential determinants were measured by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and other evaluated scales in 2 waves. Total physical activity and active commuting (AC) decreased, respectively, by 21% and 36%, only in males. At time 1, access to car/motorbike (inverse), planning/psychosocial barriers (inverse), street connectivity (positive) and parental education (inverse) were significantly associated with AC (P genders, there was a decrease in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA; -35% in males, -43% in females). At time 1, self-efficacy and social support were positive correlates of LTPA (P physical activity change were identified, and these are promising targets for interventions.

  5. Bonding of Si wafers by surface activation method for the development of high efficiency high counting rate radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Yamashita, Makoto; Onabe, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    Si wafers with two different resistivities ranging over two orders of magnitude were bonded by the surface activation method. The resistivities of bonded Si wafers were measured as a function of annealing temperature. Using calculations based on a model, the interface resistivities of bonded Si wafers were estimated as a function of the measured resistivities of bonded Si wafers. With thermal treatment from 500degC to 900degC, all interfaces showed high resistivity, with behavior that was close to that of an insulator. Annealing at 1000degC decreased the interface resistivity and showed close to ideal bonding after thermal treatment at 1100degC. (author)

  6. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  7. COMPARISON OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING HIGH-SPEED RUNNING AND VARIOUS HAMSTRING STRENGTHENING EXERCISES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Jens Asmund Brevik; Bencke, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Background Several studies have examined the effect of hamstring strength exercises upon hamstring strains in team sports that involve many sprints. However, there has been no cross comparison among muscle activation of these hamstring training exercises with actual sprinting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine different hamstring exercises and compare the muscle activity in the hamstring muscle group during various exercises with the muscular activity produced during maximal sprints. Methods Twelve male sports students (age 25 ± 6.2 years, 1.80 ± 7.1 m, body mass 81.1 ± 15.6 kg) participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris to measure muscle activity during seven hamstrings exercises and sprinting together with 3D motion capture to establish at what hip and knee angles maximal muscle activation (EMG) occurs. Maximal EMG activity during sprints for each muscle was used in order to express each exercise as a percentage of max activation during sprinting. Results The main findings were that maximal EMG activity of the different hamstring exercises were on average between 40-65% (Semitendinosus), 18-40% (biceps femoris) and 40-75% (Semimembranosus) compared with the max EMG activity in sprints, which were considered as 100%. The laying kick together with the Nordic hamstring exercises and its variations had the highest muscle activations, while the cranes showed the lowest muscle activation (in all muscles) together with the standing kick for the semimembranosus. In addition, angles at which the peak EMG activity of the hamstring muscle occurs were similar for the Nordic hamstring exercises and different for the two crane exercises (hip angle), standing kick (hip angle) and the laying kick (knee angle) compared with the sprint. Conclusions Nordic hamstring exercises with its variation together with the laying kick activates the hamstrings at high levels and

  8. New educational tools to encourage high-school students' activity in stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorova, Vera; Grishko, Dmitriy; Leonov, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Many students have to choose their future profession during their last years in the high school and therefore to choose a university where they will get proper education. That choice may define their professional life for many years ahead or probably for the rest of their lives. Bauman Moscow State Technical University conducts various events to introduce future professions to high-school students. Such activity helps them to pick specialization in line with their interests and motivates them to study key scientific subjects. The paper focuses on newly developed educational tools to encourage high school students' interest in STEM disciplines. These tools include laboratory courses developed in the fields of physics, information technologies and mathematics. More than 2000 high school students already participated in these experimental courses. These activities are aimed at increasing the quality of STEM disciplines learning which will result in higher quality of training of future engineers.

  9. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium labelled [2-3H]-adenosine-5'-triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, D.K.; Morimoto, H.; Trump, E.L.; Williams, P.G.; Wemmer, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure for high level tritium labelling at the C2-H position of adenosine 5'-triphosphate ([2- 3 H]-ATP, 1), based on the tritiodehalogenation reaction of 2-bromoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (2) has been elaborated. This precursor was prepared in a six-step synthesis from guanosine. The tritiodehalogenation of (2) for three hours over palladium oxide in phosphate buffer yielded tritium labelled ATP with high specific activity, in good chemical yield. (author)

  10. Research and development activities of High Pressure Physics Division (October 1993 - March 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyanchandani, Jyoti; Gangrade, B K [eds.; High Pressure Physics Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1996-07-01

    The research and development activities of the High Pressure Physics Division during the period October 1993-March 1996 are reported in the form of collection of papers presented in journals, conference proceedings and abstracts in conferences and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) technical reports. The report is organised in two sections: (A) High Pressure Physics Division, and (B) Seismology Section. A list of staff members is enclosed at the end.

  11. Research and development activities of High Pressure Physics Division (October 1993 - March 1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyanchandani, Jyoti; Gangrade, B.K.

    1996-07-01

    The research and development activities of the High Pressure Physics Division during the period October 1993-March 1996 are reported in the form of collection of papers presented in journals, conference proceedings and abstracts in conferences and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) technical reports. The report is organised in two sections: (A) High Pressure Physics Division, and (B) Seismology Section. A list of staff members is enclosed at the end

  12. High LET radiation enhances apoptosis in mutated p53 cancer cells through Caspase-9 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Akihisa; Mori, Eiichiro; Imai, Yuichiro; Ohnishi, Ken; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohnishi, Takeo; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2008-01-01

    Although mutations in the p53 gene can lead to resistance to radiotherapy, chemotherapy and thermotherapy, high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation induces apoptosis regardless of p53 gene status in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms involved in high LET radiation-induced apoptosis. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) containing a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with X-rays, C-ion (13-100 KeV/μm), or Fe-ion beams (200 KeV/μm). Cellular sensitivities were determined using colony forming assays. Apoptosis was detected and quantified with Hoechst 33342 staining. The activity of Caspase-3 was analyzed with Western blotting and flow cytometry. Cells irradiated with high LET radiation showed a high sensitivity with a high frequency of apoptosis induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for the surviving fraction and apoptosis induction increased in a LET-dependent manner. Both RBE curves reached a peak at 100 KeV/μm, and then decreased at values over 100 KeV/μm. When cells were irradiated with high LET radiation, Caspase-3 was cleaved and activated, leading to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. In addition, Caspase-9 inhibitor suppressed Caspase-3 activation and apoptosis induction resulting from high LET radiation to a greater extent than Caspase-8 inhibitor. These results suggest that high LET radiation enhances apoptosis by activation of Caspase-3 through Caspase-9, even in the presence of mp53. (author)

  13. Erectile Dysfunction Among HIV Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Dyslipidemia as a Main Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Romero‐Velez, MD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: ED is highly prevalent in HIV patients. Dyslipidemia should be considered as a risk factor for ED in HIV patients. Romero‐Velez G, Lisker‐Cervantes A, Villeda‐Sandoval CI, Sotomayor de Zavaleta M, Olvera‐Posada D, Sierra‐Madero JG, Arreguin‐Camacho LO, and Castillejos‐Molina RA. Erectile dysfunction among HIV patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy: Dyslipidemia as a main risk factor. Sex Med 2014;2:24–30.

  14. Attenuating the mortality risk of high serum uric acid: the role of physical activity underused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Wen, Chi Pang; Wu, Shiuan Bei; Lan, Joung-Liang; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tai, Ya-Ping; Lee, June Han; Hsu, Chih Cheng; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wai, Jackson Pui Man; Chiang, Po Huang; Pan, Wen Han; Hsiung, Chao Agnes

    2015-11-01

    High serum uric acid (sUA) has been associated with increased mortality risks, but its clinical treatment varied with potential side effects. The role of physical activity has received limited attention. A cohort, consisting of 467 976 adults, who went through a standard health screening programme, with questionnaire and fasting blood samples, was successively recruited between 1996 and 2008. High sUA is defined as uric acid above 7.0 mg/dL. Leisure time physical activity level was self-reported, with fully active defined as those with 30 min per day for at least 5 days a week. National death file identified 12 228 deaths with a median follow-up of 8.5 years. Cox proportional model was used to analyse HRs, and 12 variables were controlled, including medical history, life style and risk factors. High sUA constituted one quarter of the cohort (25.6%). Their all-cause mortality was significantly increased [HR: 1.22 (1.15-1.29)], with much of the increase contributed to by the inactive (HR: 1.27 (1.17-1.37)), relative to the reference group with sUA level of 5-6 mg/dL. When they were fully active, mortality risks did not increase, but decreased by 11% (HR: 0.89 (0.82-0.97)), reflecting the benefits of being active was able to overcome the adverse effects of high sUA. Given the same high sUA, a 4-6 years difference in life expectancy was found between the active and the inactive. Physical activity is a valuable alternative to pharmacotherapy in its ability to reduce the increases in mortality risks from high sUA. By being fully active, exercise can extend life span by 4-6 years, a level greater than the 1-4 years of life-shortening effect from high sUA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Highly Selective TiN-Supported Highly Dispersed Pt Catalyst: Ultra Active toward Hydrogen Oxidation and Inactive toward Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junming; Tang, Haibo; Tian, Xinlong; Hou, Sanying; Li, Xiuhua; Du, Li; Liao, Shijun

    2018-01-31

    The severe dissolution of the cathode catalyst, caused by an undesired oxygen reduction reaction at the anode during startup and shutdown, is a fatal challenge to practical applications of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. To address this important issue, according to the distinct structure-sensitivity between the σ-type bond in H 2 and the π-type bond in O 2 , we design a HD-Pt/TiN material by highly dispersing Pt on the TiN surface to inhibit the unwanted oxygen reduction reaction. The highly dispersed Pt/TiN catalyst exhibits excellent selectivity toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. With a Pt loading of 0.88 wt %, our catalyst shows excellent hydrogen oxidation reaction activity, close to that of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst, and much lower oxygen reduction reaction activity than the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. The lack of well-ordered Pt facets is responsible for the excellent selectivity of the HD-Pt/TiN materials toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. Our work provides a new and cost-effective solution to design selective catalysts toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions, making the strategy of using oxygen-tolerant anode catalyst to improve the stability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells during startup and shutdown more affordable and practical.

  16. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly Active Electrocatalysts for High-Energy Density, Aqueous Zinc-Polyiodide Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jian; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Reed, David; Liu, Jun; McGrail, Pete; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2016-07-13

    The new aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow battery (RFB) system with highly soluble active materials as well as ambipolar and bifunctional designs demonstrated significantly enhanced energy density, which shows great potential to reduce RFB cost. However, the poor kinetic reversibility and electrochemical activity of the redox reaction of I3(-)/I(-) couples on graphite felts (GFs) electrode can result in low energy efficiency. Two nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, that have high surface areas when introduced to GF surfaces accelerated the I3(-)/I(-) redox reaction. The flow cell with MOF-modified GFs serving as a positive electrode showed higher energy efficiency than the pristine GFs; increases of about 6.4% and 2.7% occurred at the current density of 30 mA/cm(2) for MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, respectively. Moreover, UiO-66-CH3 is more promising due to its excellent chemical stability in the weakly acidic electrolyte. This letter highlights a way for MOFs to be used in the field of RFBs.

  17. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats selectively bred for low and high voluntary running behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacob D; Green, Caroline L; Arthur, Ian M; Booth, Frank W; Miller, Dennis K

    2015-02-01

    The rewarding effects of physical activity and abused drugs are caused by stimulation of similar brain pathways. Low (LVR) and high (HVR) voluntary running lines were developed by selectively breeding Wistar rats on running distance performance on postnatal days 28-34. We hypothesized that LVR rats would be more sensitive to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than HVR rats due to their lower motivation for wheel running. We investigated how selection for LVR or HVR behavior affects inherited activity responses: (a) open field activity levels, (b) habituation to an open field environment, and (c) the locomotor response to cocaine. Open field activity was measured for 80 min on three successive days (days 1-3). Data from the first 20 min were analyzed to determine novelty-induced locomotor activity (day 1) and the habituation to the environment (days 1-3). On day 3, rats were acclimated to the chamber for 20 min and then received saline or cocaine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg) injection. Dopamine transporter (DAT) protein in the nucleus accumbens was measured via Western blot. Selecting for low and high voluntary running behavior co-selects for differences in inherent (HVR > LVR) and cocaine-induced (LVR > HVR) locomotor activity levels. The differences in the selected behavioral measures do not appear to correlate with DAT protein levels. LVR and HVR rats are an intriguing physical activity model for studying the interactions between genes related to the motivation to run, to use drugs of abuse, and to exhibit locomotor activity.

  18. Biopolymer-stabilized Pt nanoparticles colloid: a highly active and recyclable catalyst for biphasic catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujia; Shen, Yueyue; Qiu, Yunfei; Zhang, Ting; Liao, Yang; Zhao, Shilin; Ma, Jun; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles are promising candidates to replace conventional bulk counterparts owing to their high activity and selectivity. To enable catalyst recovery, noble metal nanoparticles are often supported onto solid matrices to prepare heterogeneous catalyst. Although recycle of noble metal nanoparticles is realized by heterogenization, a loss of activity is usually encountered. In the present investigation, Pt nanoparticles with tunable particle size (1.85–2.80 nm) were facilely prepared by using polyphenols as amphiphilic stabilizers. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles colloid solution could be used as highly active catalyst in aqueous–organic biphasic catalysis. The phenolic hydroxyls of polyphenols could constrain Pt nanoparticles in aqueous phase, and simultaneously, the aromatic scaffold of polyphenols ensured effective interactions between substrates and Pt nanoparticles. As a consequence, the obtained polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles exhibited high activity and cycling stability in biphasic hydrogenation of a series of unsaturated compounds. Compared with conventional heterogeneous Pt-C and Pt-Al 2 O 3 catalysts, polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles showed obvious advantage both in activity and cycling stability.

  19. Preparation of Highly Porous Binderless Active Carbon Monoliths from Waste Aspen Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste aspen sawdust was used as a precursor to prepare binderless active carbon monoliths (ACMs with high porosities. The ACMs were prepared by activation with H3PO4 at different activation temperatures (500 to 700 °C and retention times (1 to 3 h. Their morphologies, yields, textural properties, and microcrystalline structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, an analytical balance, N2 adsorption/desorption techniques, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results indicated that waste aspen sawdust could be successfully converted into highly porous binderless ACMs. The apparent specific surface area (SSA and yield of ACMs were in the range of 688 to 951 m2/g and 26.6 to 36.2%, respectively. Highly microporous ACMs with a micropore percentage of 91.1%, apparent specific surface area of 951 m2/g, pore volume of 0.481 mL/g, and bulk density of 0.56 g/mL could be produced by activation at 700 °C for 1 h. Increasing the activation temperature or retention time increased the specific surface area, pore volume, and turbostratic degree, but decreased the yield.

  20. Biopolymer-stabilized Pt nanoparticles colloid: a highly active and recyclable catalyst for biphasic catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yujia; Shen, Yueyue; Qiu, Yunfei; Zhang, Ting; Liao, Yang; Zhao, Shilin; Ma, Jun, E-mail: 1044208419@qq.com; Mao, Hui, E-mail: rejoice222@163.com [Sichuan Normal University, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China)

    2016-10-15

    Noble metal nanoparticles are promising candidates to replace conventional bulk counterparts owing to their high activity and selectivity. To enable catalyst recovery, noble metal nanoparticles are often supported onto solid matrices to prepare heterogeneous catalyst. Although recycle of noble metal nanoparticles is realized by heterogenization, a loss of activity is usually encountered. In the present investigation, Pt nanoparticles with tunable particle size (1.85–2.80 nm) were facilely prepared by using polyphenols as amphiphilic stabilizers. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles colloid solution could be used as highly active catalyst in aqueous–organic biphasic catalysis. The phenolic hydroxyls of polyphenols could constrain Pt nanoparticles in aqueous phase, and simultaneously, the aromatic scaffold of polyphenols ensured effective interactions between substrates and Pt nanoparticles. As a consequence, the obtained polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles exhibited high activity and cycling stability in biphasic hydrogenation of a series of unsaturated compounds. Compared with conventional heterogeneous Pt-C and Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles showed obvious advantage both in activity and cycling stability.

  1. Transforming Principles into Practice: Using Cognitive Active Learning Strategies in the High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    High school teachers who engage students through active learning in their classrooms can more fully understand this instructional practice by examining the theories and strategies underlying the cognitive perspective of educational psychology, which addresses the development of knowledge in the individual mind. Two theoretical explanations,…

  2. DoD Science and Engineering Apprenticeship Program for High School Students, 1995-󈨤 Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    University of Florida Sports Medicine Honor Roll Weightlifting , Swimming NAME: RACE: SEX: HIGH SCHOOL: ANTICIPATED COLLEGE: ANTICIPATED MAJOR...program. Three of the students took a Psychology course, one took a Nutritional Science class, one a Math course and two of them took a Meteorology...Awards and Scholarships: Honor Roll 13. Activities/Hobbies: Weightlifting , Swimming (Suggested Form) INFORMATION FOR EACH APPRENTICE

  3. Year impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on quality of life of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a number of achievements as well as challenges. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 48 weeks HAART of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine on the quality of life of HIVinfected Nigerians. Materials and Method: ...

  4. Phosphine Plasma Activation of α-Fe 2 O 3 for High Energy Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng; Xia, Chuan; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Miao, Xiaohe; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2018-01-01

    , the asymmetric supercapacitor devices based on plasma-activated Fe2O3 anodes and electrodeposited MnO2 cathodes can achieve a high stack energy density of 0.42 mWh cm-3 at a stack power density of 10.3 mW cm-3 along with good stability (88% capacitance retention

  5. Alkali activated slag mortars provide high resistance to chloride-induced corrosion of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Maria; Provis, John L.

    2018-06-01

    The pore solutions of alkali-activated slag cements and Portland-based cements are very different in terms of their chemical and redox characteristics, particularly due to the high alkalinity and high sulfide content of alkali-activated slag cement. Therefore, differences in corrosion mechanisms of steel elements embedded in these cements could be expected, with important implications for the durability of reinforced concrete elements. This study assesses the corrosion behaviour of steel embedded in alkali-activated blast furnace slag (BFS) mortars exposed to alkaline solution, alkaline chloride-rich solution, water, and standard laboratory conditions, using electrochemical techniques. White Portland cement (WPC) mortars and blended cement mortars (white Portland cement and blast furnace slag) were also tested for comparative purposes. The steel elements embedded in immersed alkali-activated slag mortars presented very negative redox potentials and high apparent corrosion current values; the presence of sulfide reduced the redox potential, and the oxidation of the reduced sulfur-containing species within the cement itself gave an electrochemical signal that classical electrochemical tests for reinforced concrete durability would interpret as being due to steel corrosion processes. However, the actual observed resistance to chloride-induced corrosion was very high, as measured by extraction and characterisation of the steel at the end of a 9-month exposure period, whereas the steel embedded in white Portland cement mortars was significantly damaged under the same conditions.

  6. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active ... the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was used to measure quality of life among patients on ... instrument for use in Ethiopia to assess the quality of life of people living with ...

  7. Let's Resolve Conflicts Together: High School Classroom Activities. Conflict Management Week, May 1-7, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, Columbus.

    The week of May 1-7, 2000 has been designated by the Governor of Ohio to be Conflict Management Week With heightened awareness to issues of school safety, it is important for high schools to take an active role in promoting constructive responses to conflict. Conflict is a natural and inevitable part of living, but managing conflict is difficult…

  8. [High-Performance Active Pixel X-Ray Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautz, Mark; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    The subject grants support development of High-Performance Active Pixel Sensors for X-ray Astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Space Research and at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. This memo reports our progress in the second year of the project, from April, 2004 through the present.

  9. Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy administered by general practitioners in rural South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R. E.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Schrooders, P. A.; van de Vijver, D. A.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Tempelman, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the one-year efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) administered by general practitioners in a primary care community clinic in rural South Africa. We performed an observational cohort study of 675 treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus

  10. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the WHO European Region 2003-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerup, Annemarie R; Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    To assess changes in access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between the end of 2002 and the end of 2005, and to review the capacity for further HAART scale-up in the then 52 Member States of the WHO European Region....

  11. Immunological Analysis of Treatment Interruption After Early Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellens, Ingrid M. M.; Pogany, Katalin; Westerlaken, Geertje H. A.; Borghans, José A. M.; Miedema, Frank; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Kroon, Frank P.; Lange, Joep M. A.; Brinkman, Kees; Prins, Jan M.; van Baarle, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    We longitudinally evaluated HIV-specific T-cell immunity after discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). After treatment interruption (TI), some individuals could maintain a low plasma viral load ( <15,000 copies/mL), whereas others could not (>50,000 copies/mL). Before HAART

  12. Critical currents and thermally activated flux motion in high-temperature superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, T.T.M.; Batlogg, B.; Dover, R.B. van; Schneemeyer, L.F.; Waszczak, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    We have measured the resistance below Tc of single crystals of the high-temperature superconductors Ba2YCu3O7 and Bi2.2Sr2Ca0.8Cu2O8+δ in magnetic fields up to 12 T. The resistive transition of both compounds is dominated by intrinsic dissipation which is thermally activated, resulting in an

  13. Detection of lipoatrophy in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, K.; Verweel, G.; Groot, R. de; Hartwig, N.G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has been associated with lipodystrophy in adults. Much is unknown about its characteristics, especially in children. OBJECTIVE: To obtain an objective case definition of the lipodystrophy syndrome. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. One

  14. High School Size, Participation in Activities, and Young Adult Social Participation: Some Enduring Effects of Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Paul

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluates a model predicting that school size affects student participation in extracurricular activities and that these leisure interests will continue in young adult life. High school social participation, it is hypothesized, also is influenced by curriculum track placement and academic performance, which are affected by student…

  15. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Hideyuki; Yoshimune, Kazuaki; Matsuyma, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2012-01-01

    A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purified homogeneously by only two purification steps, anion exchange and hydrophobic chromatographies. The purified catalase exhibited higher catalytic efficiency and higher sensitivity of activity at high temperatures than M. luteus catalase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest homology with catalase of Psycrobacter cryohalolentis, a psychrotolelant bacterium obtained from Siberian permafrost. These findings suggest that the characteristics of the PktA molecule reflected the taxonomic relationship of the isolate as well as the environmental conditions (low temperatures and high concentrations of H2O2) under which the bacterium survives. Strain T-3 efficiently produces a catalase (PktA) at a higher rate than Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, which produces a very strong activity of catalase (EktA) at a moderate rate, in order to adapt to high concentration of H2O2. PMID:22408420

  16. Obscured flat spectrum radio active galactic nuclei as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, G.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; de Vries, K. D.; Gentile, G.; Tavares, J. León; Scholten, O.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vereecken, M.; Winchen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no</